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Sample records for punta del iceberg

  1. The Punta del Cobre Formation, Punta del Cobre Candelaria area, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschik, Robert; Fontboté, Lluís.

    2001-09-01

    The Punta del Cobre Formation hosts the iron oxide-rich Cu-Au(-Zn-Ag) deposits of the Punta del Cobre belt, Chile. Hydrothermal alteration associated with mineralization and/or contact metamorphism caused by the Coastal Batholith exposed in the west resulted in new mineral assemblages and significant changes in the geochemical composition of its rocks. This paper presents a redefinition of the Punta del Cobre Formation and discusses its geologic context. The Punta del Cobre Formation is subdivided, from bottom to top, into: (1) the 'Geraldo-Negro Member', composed mainly of massive andesitic volcanic rocks (>300 m) and locally dacitic rocks (up to 200 m) that overlie the latter, and (2) the 'Algarrobos Member' (up to >800 m) comprising mainly volcaniclastic rocks, basalt andesitic and basaltic flows, and volcanic breccias. The Punta del Cobre Formation is overlain by the Chañarcillo Group, the lowest part of which is represented by alternating carbonate and volcaniclastic beds of the Abundancia Formation, which pass vertically and laterally into limestones of the Nantoco Formation. The contact between the Punta del Cobre Formation and the overlying Abundancia Formation is transitional and defined by the first continuous bed of massive limestone or its metamorphosed equivalent. A pre-upper Valanginian age for the Punta del Cobre Formation is suggested by ammonites of Berriasian age found in the upper part of the Algarrobos Member and Late Valanginian-Early Hauterivian fauna in the overlying Abundancia Formation. Despite the intense alteration, immobile element compositions of the volcanic rocks of the Punta del Cobre Formation enable the recognition of a calc-alkaline suite with a trend to more primitive, less differentiated magmas towards the top of the stratigraphic sequence, reflecting initial stages of basin development. The transgressive nature of the sedimentary part of the Punta del Cobre Formation marks the onset of increased subsidence that eventually

  2. Modelo digital del relieve original del yacimiento Punta Gorda

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    Luis F. Mena-Matos

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Se obtiene un MDT del relieve original del yacimiento de níquel Punta Gorda, transformado por veinte años de explotación minera. Se parte de tres fuentes de información: la red de exploración espaciada a 33,33 m, precisa pero poco densa; la red de explotación espaciada a 16,67 m, densa pero imprecisa, y la tercera es la carta topográfica a escala 1: 5 000, digitalizada con vectorización semiautomática sobre las imágenes rectificadas con polinomios de 2do y 3do órdenes; ésta es poco precisa, pero representativa de la variabilidad espacial del terreno. Se compararon las fuentes de información tomando como referencia la carta topográfica y en función de estas diferencias se planificó un levantamiento de campo para el control de errores. Se compararon los puntos de control con las fuentes de información y algunas de sus combinaciones, convertidas en grids espaciados a 2 m de distancia, estos grids fueron estimados mediante interpolación lineal con triangulación de Delaunay, Kriging Ordinario (KO y Kriging con Drift Externo (KDE. Se empleó también la técnica de Jackknife, y se tomaron como destino los puntos de comprobación. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con KDE tomando como variable la cota de la red de explotación y como drift la carta topográfica 1: 5 000, a ésta se agregó la red de explotación para densificar la información del drift. Se eliminaron los datos no robustos y se obtuvo un MDT usando la precisión de la red de exploración y la información del comportamiento espacial del relieve brindados por la red de explotación y la carta topográfica 1: 5 000.

  3. HUMEDAL URBANO EN PUNTA ARENAS: SUSTENTABILIDAD DEL PROYECTO PARQUE ECOLÓGICO HUMEDAL TRES PUENTES

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Inostroza Pino

    2009-01-01

    El Humedal Tres Puentes, ubicado en la entrada norte de Punta Arenas, es un espacio relevante desde el punto de vista ecológico y hábitat de una numerosa avifauna, uno de los más importantes de la ciudad. Sin embargo el Humedal está seriamente amenazado, dado su ubicación sobre uno de los principales vectores de crecimiento de la ciudad de Punta Arenas, en terrenos que han adquirido plusvalía paulatinamente, bien por efecto de la obra pública del Estado o por el simple crecimiento vegetativo ...

  4. Humedal urbano en Punta Arenas: Sustentabilidad del Proyecto Parque Ecológico Humedal Tres Puentes

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    Luis Inostroza Pino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El Humedal Tres Puentes, ubicado en la entrada norte de Punta Arenas, es un espacio relevante desde el punto de vista ecológico y hábitat de una numerosa avifauna, uno de los más importantes de la ciudad. Sin embargo el Humedal está seriamente amenazado, dado su ubicación sobre uno de los principales vectores de crecimiento de la ciudad de Punta Arenas, en terrenos que han adquirido plusvalía paulatinamente, bien por efecto de la obra pública del Estado o por el simple crecimiento vegetativo de la ciudad que incrementa los valores del suelo con su proximidad. Este trabajo, muestra parte del proyecto de conservación "Parque Ecológico y Humedal Tres Puentes", cuyo objetivo principal es el de salvaguardar esta importante área ecológica.

  5. Versatilidad del colgajo en hacha para reconstrucción de lesiones en punta de dedo

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    A. Fernández García

    Full Text Available El colgajo en hacha descrito por Emmet, ha sido recientemente aplicado por Tuncali et al. en amputaciones de punta de dedo. Este sencillo colgajo triangular puede ser utilizado tanto en amputaciones transversas como oblicuas. El objetivo del estudio es presentar nuestra experiencia con este versátil colgajo en la reconstrucción de punta de dedo. Incluimos en el estudio 5 pacientes que completaron un periodo de seguimiento de un año. El nivel de amputación fue considerado de acuerdo con la clasificación de Ishikawa. Los pacientes fueron preguntados por la existencia de intolerancia al frío, hipersensibilidad y dolor. Empleamos diferentes diseños del colgajo en hacha que se aplicaron en pacientes pediátricos y adultos con amputaciones múltiples, lesiones del primer dedo del pie o de la mano, de dedos largos y en reconstrucciones con doble colgajo. La media de tamaño del defecto fue 2,2 x 1,4 cm. En todos los pacientes el colgajo aportó almohadillado protector y resultados estéticos. Se observó rigidez articular en un paciente debido a la combinación con un colgajo de dedo cruzado. El objetivo de toda reconstrucción de punta de dedo es proveer cobertura pulpar suficiente al hueso para evitar inestabilidad y pérdida de sensibilidad como consecuencia de la reconstrucción. El colgajo en hacha es una opción versátil y segura para la reconstrucción de punta de dedo. Los diferentes diseños pueden ser usados conforme a nuestras necesidades.

  6. Seismic stratigraphic analysis of the Punta del Este basin, offshore Uruguay, South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoakes, F.A.; Campbell, C.V. (Stoakes Campbell Geoconsulting Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Cass, R. (Arvec Consulting Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Ucha, N. (ANCAP, Montivideo (Uruguay))

    1991-02-01

    The Punta del Este part of the greater Salado basin is relatively unexplored with only two wells having been drilled, both in the updip part of the basin. These two wells have contributed some understanding of the stratigraphic succession but have failed to adequately assess the basin's true hydrocarbon potential. This paper constitutes one of the first detailed, comprehensive published accounts of this basin and is a prerequisite for future exploration in the area. In this paper, the authors give the results and major conclusions of a regional seismic stratigraphic analysis of the Punta del Este basin, offshore Uruguay. This paper is one of the first detailed, comprehensive published accounts of the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of this basin. The study area covers approximately 15,000 km{sup 2} (5,790 mi{sup 2}) of the continental shelf, from the shoreline to the 200-m (655-ft) shelf isobath.

  7. AVIFAUNA DEL ESTERO DE PUNTA BANDA, BAJA CALIFORNIA, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Luis C. JIMÉNEZ PÉREZ; Horacio de la CUEVA; Fernando MOLINA-PERALTA; Arnulfo ESTRADA-RAMÍREZ

    2009-01-01

    Entre marzo de 2004 y marzo de 2005 se realizaron veinticuatro salidas de campo quincenales de avistamiento y registro de aves costeras en 6 unidades ambientales del Estero de Punta Banda, Baja California, México. Se registraron 35 familias y 104 especies; 64 estuvieron asociadas al ambiente acuático. La estructura de las comunidades de aves acuáticas y terrestres presentó una secuencia temporal que se caracterizó por la formación de dos grupos asociados con las condiciones de invierno o vera...

  8. Un primitivo Notonychopidae (Litopterna del Paleoceno inferior de Punta Peligro, Chubut, Argentina

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    Morales, J.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of a new ungulate species, Requisia vidmari gen. nov., nov. sp. in the lower Paleocene of Punta Peligro, Chubut (Argentine represents the earliest known record of Litopterna. The dental morphology of this new genus is very similar to that known for Notonychops powelli Soria, 1989, differing mainly by its more primitive M3, which is less elongated and less selenodont. Requisia vidmari, together with Wainka tshotshe Simpson, 1948, can be included in the family Notonychopidae, which appear to represent an ancestral grade in the evolution of Litopterna. Because cladogenesis of South American ungulates clearly took place prior to the Punta Peligro fauna and was apparently rapid, phylogenetic interpretation is difficult.Se comunica un nuevo ungulado con dentición pre-selenodonta del Paleoceno inferior, Peligrense, de Patagonia, Argentina. Su morfología dentaria es muy similar a la de Notonychops powelli Soria, 1989, pero con caracteres más primitivos. La morfología de las cúspides, el tipo de desgaste y los caracteres crescentiformes del M3 indican que Requisia vidmari gen. nov., sp. nov. presenta fuertes evidencias del desarrollo de caracteres selenodontos, por lo que se lo considera como el más primitivo representante del orden Litopterna. Requisia vidmari y probablemente Wainka tshotshe Simpson, 1948, son primitivos en relación a Notonychops, pero su similitud morfológica justificaría su inclusión en la misma familia Notonychopidae. Se considera que la radiación adaptativa de los ungulados paleocenos de América del Sur fue precoz, eventualmente rápida, lo que dificulta encontrar un modelo filogenético suficientemente explicativo.

  9. El feminicidio es sólo la punta del iceberg

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    Margarita Bejarano Celaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En un contexto de violencia generalizada, en este artículo se propone reconocer la violencia feminicida como una situación progresiva, que puede terminar con la muerte violenta de mujeres; y se aborda como un continuum de violencias que ellas enfrentan para mantenerse en el orden social. En este sentido, los tipos de violencia representan mecanismos para conservar y reproducir la situación de subordinación de las mujeres ante el ejercicio de poder masculino en diferentes ámbitos. Se enfatiza la necesidad de estudiar el fenómeno desde quienes lo afrontan, para ubicar sus manifestaciones y efectos en aras de evitar el feminicidio.

  10. El comportamiento del viento en la morfología urbana y su incidencia en el uso estancial del espacio público, Punta Arenas, Chile = The behavior of wind in urban morphology and its incidence in the resting use of public space, Punta Arenas, Chile

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    Higueras García, Esther; Bustamante, Carlos; Jans, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    El comportamiento del viento en la morfología urbana y su incidencia en el uso estancial del espacio público, Punta Arenas, Chile = The behavior of wind in urban morphology and its incidence in the resting use of public space, Punta Arenas, Chile

  11. Plastics and microplastics on recreational beaches in Punta del Este (Uruguay): Unseen critical residents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoya, J P; Teixeira de Mello, F; Carrizo, D; Weinstein, F; Olivera, Y; Cedrés, F; Pereira, M; Fossati, M

    2016-11-01

    Beaches are social-ecological systems that provide several services improving human well-being. However, as one of the major coastal interfaces they are subject to plastic pollution, one of the most significant global environmental threats at present. For the first time for Uruguayan beaches, this study assessed and quantified the accumulation of plastic and microplastic debris on sandy beaches of the major touristic destination Punta del Este during the austral spring of 2013. Aiming to provide valuable information for decision-making, we performed a detailed analysis of plastic debris, their eventual transport pathways to the coast (from land and sea), and the associated persistent pollutants. The results indicated that the smallest size fractions (plastic debris, and their levels did not differ from baseline values reported for similar locations. The abundance of plastic debris was significantly and positively correlated with both the presence of possible land-based sources (e.g. storm-water drains, beach bars, beach access, car parking, and roads), and dissipative beach conditions. The analysis of coastal currents suggested some potential deposition areas along Punta del Este, and particularly for resin pellets, although modeling was not conclusive. From a local management point of view, the development and use of indices that allow predicting trends in the accumulation of plastic debris would be critically useful. The time dimension (e.g. seasonal) should also be considered for this threat, being crucial for locations such as Uruguay, where the use of beaches increases significantly during the summer. This first diagnosis aims to generate scientific baseline, necessary for improved management of plastic litter on beaches and their watersheds.

  12. Conjunto metálico con puntas de jabalina procedentes del yacimiento de La Pestaña (Badajoz

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    Enríquez Navascués, Juan Javier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an unpublished photograph whith metal pieces from La Pestaña (Badajoz, where two Pastora-type javelins stand out. The photo comes from the archive of Aurelio Cabrera (1870-1936, sculptor and archaeologist. Six of the pieces have been located in the Badajoz Provincial Archaeological Museum, three of which have elemental anaylises. The other six pieces are missing, including the Pastora-type javelins among them. The photograph attests to their existence and origin strengthens the southwestern distribution of this type of javelin point.Se amplía la corta serie de puntas tipo Pastora hasta ahora conocidas en la Península Ibérica, gracias a la localización de una fotografía inédita del archivo del escultor y arqueólogo Aurelio Cabrera Gallardo (1870-1936. La fotografía muestra 12 piezas metálicas procedentes de la Dehesa de la Pestaña, en la finca Los Fresnos (Badajoz. Seis de ellas han sido localizadas en el Museo Arqueológico Provincial de Badajoz y tres cuentan con análisis elemental. Otras seis, entre las que están las puntas, están desaparecidas. La fotografía testimonia su existencia y una procedencia que refuerza la distribución suroccidental de este tipo de puntas de jabalina.

  13. El impacto de la fusión de los icebergs en el nivel del mar

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    José Domingo Villarroel Villamor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrariamente a la creencia, muy extendida, de que la fusion de las grandes masas de hielo a la deriva en el oceano no repercute en un aumento del nivel del mar, lo cierto es que el deshielo de icebergs, barreras de hielo e incluso de la banquisa tiene, en el actual contexto de calentamiento global, un impacto nada despreciable en el nivel de los oceanos. Se presenta a continuacion una revision de este fenomeno y se propone un experimento ilustrativo que puede resultar util para ofrecer una experiencia directa relativa al impacto que sobre el nivel del mar tiene la fusion del hielo flotante en el oceano.

  14. Versatilidad del colgajo en hacha para reconstrucción de lesiones en punta de dedo Versatility of the hatchet flap for reconstruction of fingertip injuries

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    Fernández García,A.; T. Soria Cogollos; R.A. Moreno Villalba; C. Fernández Pascual; S. Alonso Rosa

    2008-01-01

    El colgajo en hacha descrito por Emmet, ha sido recientemente aplicado por Tuncali et al. en amputaciones de punta de dedo. Este sencillo colgajo triangular puede ser utilizado tanto en amputaciones transversas como oblicuas. El objetivo del estudio es presentar nuestra experiencia con este versátil colgajo en la reconstrucción de punta de dedo. Incluimos en el estudio 5 pacientes que completaron un periodo de seguimiento de un año. El nivel de amputación fue considerado de acuerdo con la cla...

  15. LA PUNTA DE ALETAS Y PEDÚNCULO DEL SOLUTRENSE EXTRACANTÁBRICO: DE LOS “DIMONIS” AL ARCO

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    Francisco Javier Muñoz Ibáñez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available La punta de aletas y pedúnculo (PAP es uno de los elementos característicos del Solutrense Extracantábrico. Este tipo de proyectiles se analizan a partir de parámetros morfológicos y tipométricos. Se propone un modelo sobre los procesos de fabricación y su repercusión en el registro arqueológico. A partir del análisis de las PAP se establecen las características balísticas de este tipo de utillaje. Su morfología contribuye a plantear la hipótesis de que se hayan utilizado como punta de flecha para arco. Los resultados muestran que las PAP son morfológicamente y métricamente adecuadas para ser lanzadas por un arco. Las réplicas tuvieron un comportamiento balístico perfecto, así que podemos considerar que el origen del arco podría situarse antes de lo pensado tradicionalmente.Barbed and tanged points (BTP are one of the specific elements which characterize Extracantabrian Solutrean. This type of projectile points are characterized from morphological and typometrical parameters. A model is proposed to explain the manufacturing processes and their effect on the archaeological record. From analysis of the BTP are established the ballistics characteristic of this type of tool kit. Its morphology contributes to fix the hypothesis that its possible function can be arrowheads propelled by a bow. The results show that BTP are morphologically and metric well suited to be thrown by a bow. The replicas had a perfect ballistic behaviour, so we can think that the origin of bow can be earlier than traditionally thought.

  16. A Política Externa Independente em ação: a Conferência de Punta del Este de 1962 Independent Foreign Politics in action: an Overview of the Punta del Este Convention in 1962

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    Hélio Franchini Neto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerada por San Tiago Dantas como "uma reunião que marcou época na formação do americanismo", a Conferência de Punta del Este, de janeiro de 1962, dedicou-se a tratar dos efeitos da Revolução Cubana no hemisfério. Declarou-se a incompatibilidade do comunismo com os princípios americanos e suspendeu-se Cuba da Junta Interamericana de Defesa (JID e da OEA. A participação brasileira teve grande destaque e repercussão tanto interna quanto internacionalmente. Procura-se analisar as razões que levaram o Brasil a adotar a posição de condenar o comunismo cubano e aprovar a suspensão de Cuba da JID, sem, porém, concordar com sua suspensão da OEA.Considered by San Tiago Dantas as "a landmark meeting for the formation of Americanism", the Conference of Punta del Este of January 1962 dealt with the effects of the Cuban Revolution on the Hemisphere. A resolution was approved declaring the incompatibility of communism with American principles, suspended Cuba from the Inter-American Defense Board (IDB and from the Organization of American States (OAS. The Brazilian participation gained high distinction and had repercussions not only domestically but also internationally. The present work seeks to analyse the reasons that led Brazil to condemn communism in Cuba and approve the suspension of this country from the IDB, without, however, agreeing to the suspension of Cuba from the OAS.

  17. RIESGOS PARA LA SALUD DE LOS NACIDOS POR LAS TÉCNICAS DE FECUNDACIÓN ASISTIDA. LA PUNTA DE UN ICEBERG

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    Natalia López Moratalla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las Técnicas de Reproducción Asistida (TRA -Estimulación ovárica, Inseminación Intrauterina (IUI, o Fecundación in vitro (FIV/Inyección Intra-Citoplasmática de un Espermio (ICSI- han hecho posible el nacimiento de cientos de miles niños, muchos de los cuales están entrando en la edad adulta. Al inicio de los años 90 comienza una alerta pediátrica por los defectos y anomalías que presentaban estos niños, en proporción más alta que los nacidos de forma natural. Su peor salud se hace incuestionable a partir del 2002. Las técnicas son en sí sumamente agresivas; las pérdidas de embriones antes de la implantación, los abortos espontáneos y la mortalidad perinatal es muy elevada. No se ha hecho la imprescindible experimentación previa con animales: y las pruebas con animales fértiles han mostrado que las crías generadas in vitro presentan alteraciones graves. Sin embargo, los daños se atribuían, casi exclusivamente y de forma gratuita, a la edad avanzada de las mujeres usuarias de las técnicas, y a la esterilidad por las alteraciones genéticas de los espermatozoides, en aumento por los contaminantes del ambiente. Se ha llevado a cabo una extensa experimentación humana directa, sin cumplir los requisitos mínimos de la experimentación humana, e ignorando qué papel desempeñan las técnicas en sí mismas y cómo se causan los defectos que padecen una parte de los así generados, ni exactamente que podrán transmitir a las siguientes generaciones. No estamos ante una cuestión de riesgo/ beneficio sino ante un problema de salud. Las TRA no son intervenciones encaminadas a solucionar un problema físico o fisiológico vital. La proporcionalidad entre la satisfacción del deseo de maternidad/paternidad y los riesgos para la salud del hijo debe ser un criterio primario, aunque no el único.

  18. Un aporte al conocimiento de cianobacterias en Punta Fort William, Isla Greenwich, Shetland del sur. Nostoc sp. Ficobionte de Stereocaulon alpinum Laur.

    OpenAIRE

    Treiber de Espinoza, B.

    1993-01-01

    En estudios realizados en líquenes de la especie Stereocaulon alpinum Laur., muestreados en Punta Fort William, Isla Greenwich, Shetland del Sur, se han encontrado clorofíceas del género Trebouxia y cianobacterias del género Nostoc como ficobiontes. Nostoc sp. se localiza en los cefalodios del líquen. El aislamiento del especímen y su cultivo se realizó bajo condiciones fotoautógrafas y en ausencia de nitrógeno combinado. Las características morfológicas y el ciclo de vida de Nostoc sp. en cu...

  19. Evaluación de la susceptibilidad del terreno a la rotura por desarrollo de deslizamientos en el yacimiento Punta Gorda

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    Yuri Almaguer-Carmenate

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo titulado “Evaluación de la susceptibilidad del terreno a la rotura por desarrollo de deslizamientos en el yacimiento Punta Gorda” tiene como objetivo general evaluar los niveles de susceptibilidad del terreno a la rotura por desarrollo de deslizamientos en el yacimiento Punta Gorda que permita establecer criterios de estabilidad de taludes y laderas y sirva de base para futuras evaluaciones de riesgos para prevenir o mitigar los daños derivados de estos fenómenos. La metodología empleada parte de la confección del mapa inventario de deslizamientos. La influencia de los factores condicionantes como lito-estructura, tectónica, condiciones hidrogeológicas y geotécnicas, pendiente del terreno y el uso de suelo sobre las inestabilidades, se determina mediante el método estadístico de análisis condicional. Como resultados se presenta una caracterización de los mecanismos y tipologías dedeslizamientos desarrollados en el área. Se realiza una valoración de los factores que influyen en las inestabilidades, haciendo énfasis en las características geotécnicas de la cortezalaterítica y se obtiene el mapa de susceptibilidad del terreno para el yacimiento Punta Gorda.

  20. Distribución fraccional de metales y minerales en la laterita de balance del yacimiento Punta Gorda, Moa, Cuba

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    Alberto Hernández-Flores

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Laterita de balance es la denominación tecnológica de la mena procesada para la obtención de níquel en Moa mediante proceso Caron, para la cual se ha establecido un contenido de Fe superior a 35 % y no menor del 1% de Ni. El propósito de la investigación fue determinar en la laterita de balance del yacimiento Punta Gorda, la composición química y mineralógica de las clases granulométricas comprendidas en el rango entre 8 y 0,045 mm. Se emplearon técnicas de separación granulométrica por vía húmeda según la serie de Taylor, métodos de difracción y de fluorescencia de rayos X y el análisis térmico diferencial. Se llega a establecer que la laterita de balance es esencialmente ferrosa, y que la mayoría de los minerales en ella contenidos presentan una granulometría específica de concentración, de manera que en los granos minerales mayores de 2 mm se concentran los silicatos de magnesio (olivino y serpentina y el hidróxido de aluminio (gibbsita, en cambio los óxidos de hierro (goethita se concentran en los granos menores de 0,071 mm.

  1. Modelos geoestadísticos de la concentración del Ni en el dominio 7 del yacimiento Punta Gorda

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    Israel Cruz-Orosa

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la eficiencia de 64 modelos geoestadísticos de la concentración del Ni en el dominio 7 del yacimiento laterítico Punta Gorda, considerando como criterio de evaluación el Método de Validación Cruzada. Los resultados de la validación cruzada fueron evaluados atendiendo a la Media Aritmética, a la Desviación Estándar con respecto a ésta y a la Desviación Estándar con respecto a 0, de las diferencias entre los valores reales y los estimados. Se analizaron otros criterios relacionados con la validación cruzada y se hizo un estudio porcentual de la distribución de estas diferencias por intervalos numéricos simétricos respecto al origen.

  2. Aspectos biometricos del bagre Arius Furthii Steindachner (Pisces Ariidae, colectado en punta Morales, Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica

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    Maurizio Protti Quesada

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan estadísticamente algunos parámetros biométricos de 257 ejemplares de Arius furthii (Ariidae, colectados en una zona de playa y otra de manglar en Punta Morales, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. Las colectas se realizaron por medio de “arrastres” con una red tipo “chinchorro”. La talla de los especímenes capturados osciló entre 55 y 276 mm de longitud total y 1,3 a 176 g en peso fresco. El análisis estadístico mostró que la longitud total es la mejor variable para la estimación del peso fresco a través de una ecuación de regresión logarítmica.  Además, se mostró que no existen diferencias significativas en el peso de los Arius furthii colectados en la playa y los colectados en el manglar.

  3. Punta Mita en la dinámica del desarrollo turístico regional

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    María Alicia Fonseca Morales

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La implantación del turismo como actividad económica motora en la porción costera del Pacífico medio mexicano, ha ejercido por más de treinta años el proceso de configuración de un espacio turístico fundamentado en la transversalidad de políticas públicas del desarrollo regional y las propias de fomento al turismo. Si bien en su origen con la promoción del turismo se pretendía impulsar capacidades y bienestar social, en su trayectoria de planeación ha ido alineando su derrotero hacia intereses económicos de carácter competitivo aunque sesgado a exigencias del mercado globalizado, derivando sinergias de dependencia y exclusión, obstáculos para la sustentabilidad del propio sistema turístico regional-local, lo que hace emergente una reconversión del proceso por parte de los actores de interés.

  4. Punta Mita en la dinámica del desarrollo turístico regional

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    La implantación del turismo como actividad económica motora en la porción costera del Pacífico medio mexicano, ha ejercido por más de treinta años el proceso de configuración de un espacio turístico fundamentado en la transversalidad de políticas públicas del desarrollo regional y las propias de fomento al turismo. Si bien en su origen con la promoción del turismo se pretendía impulsar capacidades y bienestar social, en su trayectoria de planeación ha ido alineando su derrotero hacia interese...

  5. Evolución de la arquitectura fluvial en sucesiones del Plioceno-Pleistoceno del centro-este de Argentina (aloformación Punta San Andres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Beilinson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los depósitos de la Aloformación Punta San Andrés (Plio-Pleistoceno, registran la evolución de diferentes estilos de sistemas fluviales. Durante la primera etapa de la misma evolución, se desarrollaron sistemas de carga mixta, con canales de baja sinuosidad y alta participación de depósitos de planicie de inundación. Durante la segunda etapa, se verificó el cambio hacia un sistema de canales de mayor sinuosidad, entrelazados, donde los depósitos de planicie de inundación no tuvieron tanto protagonismo. Finalmente, la tercera etapa se caracterizó por el desarrollo de un sistema fluvial entrelazado clásico, sin preservación de depósitos de planicie de inundación. Durante la acumulación de la Aloformación Punta San Andrés, la glacioeustacia en asociación con el clima condicionó directamente el balance entre la tasa de generación de acomodación y el aporte sedimentario. Sin embargo, el análisis comparativo de los diversos índices e indicadores (arquitectura fluvial, paleosuelos, etc. ha mostrado una variabilidad para los sistemas bajo estudio la cual puede asignarse a diferentes jerarquías de procesos. De esta manera, se identificaron ciclos de agradación fluvial representados por una alternancia de alta frecuencia entre paleosuelos vérticos y cálcicos. En este caso las fluctuaciones en el nivel de base fueron las responsables de los cambios cíclicos en la tasa de generación de espacio de acomodación y de aporte sedimentario. La evolución de los sistemas depositacionales identificados puede asignarse a ciclos de mayor jerarquía, los cuales controlaron el diseño del drenaje mediante cambios en el espacio de acomodación y representan cambios en la tasa de generación de espacio de acomodación relacionados a cambios glacieustáticos de escala global.The deposits of the Punta San Andrés Alloformation (Plio-Pleistocene register the evolution of different styles of fluvial systems. During the first stage of this

  6. Evolución de la arquitectura fluvial en sucesiones del Plioceno-Pleistoceno del centro-este de Argentina (aloformación Punta San Andres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Beilinson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los depósitos de la Aloformación Punta San Andrés (Plio-Pleistoceno, registran la evolución de diferentes estilos de sistemas fluviales. Durante la primera etapa de la misma evolución, se desarrollaron sistemas de carga mixta, con canales de baja sinuosidad y alta participación de depósitos de planicie de inundación. Durante la segunda etapa, se verificó el cambio hacia un sistema de canales de mayor sinuosidad, entrelazados, donde los depósitos de planicie de inundación no tuvieron tanto protagonismo. Finalmente, la tercera etapa se caracterizó por el desarrollo de un sistema fluvial entrelazado clásico, sin preservación de depósitos de planicie de inundación. Durante la acumulación de la Aloformación Punta San Andrés, la glacioeustacia en asociación con el clima condicionó directamente el balance entre la tasa de generación de acomodación y el aporte sedimentario. Sin embargo, el análisis comparativo de los diversos índices e indicadores (arquitectura fluvial, paleosuelos, etc. ha mostrado una variabilidad para los sistemas bajo estudio la cual puede asignarse a diferentes jerarquías de procesos. De esta manera, se identificaron ciclos de agradación fluvial representados por una alternancia de alta frecuencia entre paleosuelos vérticos y cálcicos. En este caso las fluctuaciones en el nivel de base fueron las responsables de los cambios cíclicos en la tasa de generación de espacio de acomodación y de aporte sedimentario. La evolución de los sistemas depositacionales identificados puede asignarse a ciclos de mayor jerarquía, los cuales controlaron el diseño del drenaje mediante cambios en el espacio de acomodación y representan cambios en la tasa de generación de espacio de acomodación relacionados a cambios glacieustáticos de escala global.

  7. Identificación mineralógica de los óxidos de manganeso del yacimiento laterítico Punta Gorda, Moa, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo L. Rojas-Purón

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudios recientes revelaron contenidos atípicos de manganeso en los depósitos lateríticos ferroniquelíferos de Moa. Muestras enriquecidas de dos perfiles del yacimiento Punta Gorda se investigaron con el propósito de determinar las formas mineralógicas en que aparecen los óxidos de manganeso en este depósito. Mediante la aplicación de técnicas de Difracción de Rayos–X, Análisis Térmico Diferencial, Fluorescencia de Rayos–X, Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido y Espectroscopía Infrarroja se pudo establecer que la forma mineralógica principal de los óxidos de manganeso en Punta Gorda es la litioforita; el mineral fue revelado por sus reflejos difractométricos y por sus características macroscópicas (grano de color negro, brillo semimetálico, no magnético y su aspecto botroidal o masivo. Las bandas de absorción de los espectros infrarrojos a los 467 y 1019 cm-1 corroboran este resultado y la presencia de picos endotérmicos inferiores a los 500 oC evidencian la baja cristalinidad de la litioforita en este depósito.

  8. Versatilidad del colgajo en hacha para reconstrucción de lesiones en punta de dedo Versatility of the hatchet flap for reconstruction of fingertip injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernández García

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El colgajo en hacha descrito por Emmet, ha sido recientemente aplicado por Tuncali et al. en amputaciones de punta de dedo. Este sencillo colgajo triangular puede ser utilizado tanto en amputaciones transversas como oblicuas. El objetivo del estudio es presentar nuestra experiencia con este versátil colgajo en la reconstrucción de punta de dedo. Incluimos en el estudio 5 pacientes que completaron un periodo de seguimiento de un año. El nivel de amputación fue considerado de acuerdo con la clasificación de Ishikawa. Los pacientes fueron preguntados por la existencia de intolerancia al frío, hipersensibilidad y dolor. Empleamos diferentes diseños del colgajo en hacha que se aplicaron en pacientes pediátricos y adultos con amputaciones múltiples, lesiones del primer dedo del pie o de la mano, de dedos largos y en reconstrucciones con doble colgajo. La media de tamaño del defecto fue 2,2 x 1,4 cm. En todos los pacientes el colgajo aportó almohadillado protector y resultados estéticos. Se observó rigidez articular en un paciente debido a la combinación con un colgajo de dedo cruzado. El objetivo de toda reconstrucción de punta de dedo es proveer cobertura pulpar suficiente al hueso para evitar inestabilidad y pérdida de sensibilidad como consecuencia de la reconstrucción. El colgajo en hacha es una opción versátil y segura para la reconstrucción de punta de dedo. Los diferentes diseños pueden ser usados conforme a nuestras necesidades.The hatchet flap described by Emmet, has been recently applied by Tuncali et al. in fingertip amputations. This single triangular flap can be used in different types of injuries, as transverse and lateral oblique amputations. The aim of our study was to present the authors´ experience with this versatile flap in fingertip reconstruction. Five patients who have completed their 1-year follow-up period were included in the study. The level of amputation was categorized according Ishikawa

  9. Propuesta de zonificación para los ecosistemas marinos costeros del área protegida “Punta Francés”.

    OpenAIRE

    Borrego Hernández., Reinaldo

    2011-01-01

    El estudio se realizó en el Área Bajo Régimen Especial De Uso y Protección “Punta Francés”, con el objetivo de proponer la zonificación para los ecosistemas marinos costeros. Se realizaron entrevistas y encuestas a los interesados, se empleó el método de yuxtaposición de mapas según Kenton Miller, aplicando el Sistema de Información Geográfica con el empleo del Software Mapinfo en su versión 8.5 con una declaración de prioridades de diseños tal y como es percibida por los difer...

  10. Procedencia de las puntas de jabalina del “Dolmen de la Pastora” (Valencina de la Concepción, Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt Ortiz, Mark A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, along with an updated bibliographical revision, a new archaeometric approach to La Pastora javelin tip type is presented. New results of XRF and Lead Isotopes analyses of metal objects of this type from the “Dolmen de la Pastora” (Valencina de la Concepción, Sevilla, Spain and the site of La Pijotilla (Badajoz, Spain are included, incorporating data from Outeiro de São Bernardo (Moura, Portugal. The evidence related with the interpretation of the archaeological context of these three sites allow to propose a date for these javelins that would stand in the centuries of transition between the 3rd and 2nd millennium BC. The confrontation of compositional and isotopic data from the javelin tips with other metallic elements of the region and with the isotopically characterized mineralization in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, in addition to mineralizations and metals of the eastern Mediterranean, support their ‘local’ production in the peninsular southwest, although with regional typological variations and from diversified mineral sources.

    Este artículo combina una revisión bibliográfica actualizada y una nueva aproximación arqueométrica a las puntas de jabalina tipo La Pastora. Se incluyen recientes resultados del análisis por FRX e isótopos de plomo de ejemplares de este tipo metálico procedentes del “Dolmen de La Pastora” (Valencina de la Concepción, Sevilla y del yacimiento de La Pijotilla (Badajoz, incorporando los datos de Outeiro de São Bernardo (Moura, Portugal. Las evidencias relacionadas con la interpretación arqueológica contextual de estos tres yacimientos permiten sugerir una fecha para las jabalinas tipo La Pastora en los siglos de transición entre el III y el II milenio a.C. Se confrontan los datos compositivos e isotópicos de las puntas de jabalina con otros elementos metálicos del ámbito regional y con las mineralizaciones caracterizadas isotópicamente en el suroeste de

  11. Las zeolitas de los basaltos del Grupo Volcánico Isla James Ross, en las proximidades de Punta Santa Rita, isla James Ross, Antártida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita Montenegro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En la isla James Ross, al noreste de la península Antártica, afloran sedimentitas cretácicas y las suprayacen los basaltos del Grupo Volcánico Isla James Ross. Éstos se caracterizan por diferentes coladas emplazadas en ambientes marino subácueo, subglacial, y subaéreo. Las coladas emplazadas en ambiente subácueo originan hialoclastitas. En Punta Santa Rita (64°13'52''LS y 57°16'10''LO, situada al sureste de Punta Ekelöf, algunos niveles de basaltos subaéreos poseen estructura amigdaloide, con cavidades de tamaño variable entre 0,3 mm y 1 cm, rellenas con zeolitas y calcita. Los minerales que componen el relleno de las cavidades han sido estudiados con técnicas petrográficas convencionales, microscopía electrónica de barrido, EDS y difracción de rayos x. Todas las zeolitas están enriquecidas en Na. Un intercrecimiento de chabazita-gmelinita, tapiza las paredes de las cavidades, acompañadas por analcima, thomsonita, phillipsita, y calcita hacia el centro, mineral que también se presenta en venillas. El vidrio palagonítico se localiza en las superficies libres y químicamente también está enriquecido en Na, además de Al, K y Ca. Las asociaciones de zeolitas se habrían originado por reacción con aguas superficiales durante el enfriamiento inicial de los flujos de lavas y por recristalización de vidrio. Los basaltos habrían estado expuestos a la acción de fluidos de origen marino, evidenciado por la abundancia de Na hallada en todas las zeolitas y en la palagonita.

  12. Dominios geológicos del yacimiento laterítico de Punta Gorda, Moa: delimitación y caracterización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístides A. Legrá-Lobaina

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available El yacimiento Punta Gorda es un depósito residual de Ni, Co y Fe, asociado a una corteza de meteorización laterítica desarrollada sobre rocas ultrabásicas. No obstante a su aparente homogeneidad, se ha podido comprobar que las características de esta corteza varían espacialmente de modo significativo; se hace necesario entonces delimitar sectores o dominios con rasgos distintivos dentro del depósito. Mediante el empleo de una metodología basada en la modelación digital del terreno (Martínez y Pérez, 2000, se logró subdividir el depósito en siete dominios, atendiendo a determinadas características geomorfólogicas, geológicas y geoquímicas propias. Se ofrece el mapa de dominios del yacimiento y se describen las características de cada uno de ellos

  13. COLONIZACIÓN DE MOLUSCOS Y CRUSTÁCEOS EN RAÍCES DE MANGLE ROJO EN UNA LAGUNA COSTERA DE LA PUNTA NORTE DEL GOLFO DE MORROSQUILLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRÜSMANN JOHANNA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron la colonización y sucesión de moluscos y crustáceos en un sustrato de raíces de mangle en tres estaciones en la ciénaga La Boquilla, Punta San Bernardo en la parte norte del Golfo de Morrosquillo. Para el seguimiento del proceso de colonización se ubicaron tres sitios en las márgenes occidental, norte y oriental, y se fijaron en cada estación seis raíces aéreas deshojadas de Rhizophora mangle. Luego de 76 y 200 días de exposición, se retiraron tres raíces de cada sitio y se identificaron los organismos por morfoespecie. Después de 200 días de exposición, se determinaron 19 especies de moluscos y cinco de crustáceos. El anfípodo Corophium sp. y el bivalvo Brachidontes exustus fueron las especies mas numerosas y agruparon una fracción muy importante de la totalidad de los individuos recolectados. La mayoría de las especies encontradas son típicas de la fauna acompañante de las raíces de mangle en el Caribe colombiano.

  14. Comentarios al artículo Modelos geoestadísticos de la concentración del Ni en el dominio 7 del yacimiento Punta Gorda, publicado en Minería y Geología, Volumen 20 (1-2):42-53, 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Q. Cuador-Gil

    2008-01-01

    .... Este artículo expone algunos comentarios al artículo de referencia: Modelos geoestadísticos de la concentración del Ni en el dominio 7 del yacimiento Punta Gorda, relacionados con la simulación geoestadística.

  15. Cambios epigenéticos asociados a tecnología reproductiva asistida ¿Hemos visto tan solo la punta del iceberg?

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    La tecnología de reproducción asistida (ART) es el conjunto de tratamientos de fertilidad en que el ovocito o el espermatozoide se manipulan en el laboratorio, incluye a la fertilización in Vitro (IVF) y a la inyección intracitoplasmática de espermatozoides. En los países desarrollados los nacimientos producto de ART son entre 1-3% de los totales. Cuando la ART comenzó a utilizarse hace 3 décadas aún no se conocían los aspectos fundamentales de la epigenética. Por lo tanto, no se tuvieron en ...

  16. Influencia sobre el extractable de níquel de los minerales oxidados del yacimiento Punta Gorda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio R. Chang-Cardona

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito fue validar, a escala industrial, una metodología para períodos largos en una loza de 8 hornos en la empresa productora de níquel Comandante Ernesto Che Guevara, con el fin de crear una base de datos de producción confiable para su procesamiento estadístico y demostrar la influencia del contenido de los principales minerales oxidados sobre el extractable de níquel y la tendencia en el comportamiento del extractable de cobalto. Se demostró, mediante experimentos, durante tres meses de monitoreo, la efectividad del software COMPRAC para obtener la composición racional de 100 kg de varios tipos de mena laterítica que entran a los hornos de reducción. A partir de la base de datos creada se obtuvo, por primera vez, las gráficas que reflejan la influencia del contenido de los principales minerales sobre los extractables de níquel y de cobalto; en el caso del níquel con suficiente sensibilidad y confiabilidad para la toma de decisiones operacionales eficaces en el circuito tecnológico Mina-Preparación de Mineral-Hornos de Reducción

  17. Estudio actualizado de las puntas de jabalina (del dolmen de La Pastora (Valenciana de la Concepción, Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montero Ruiz, Ignacio

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    [es] El descubrimiento en el año de 1860 de un conjunto de 30 jabalinas sin un contexto arqueológico preciso constituye un hallazgo excepcional, siendo hasta la fecha el conjunto más numeroso de este tipo de arma encontrado en toda el área del Mediterráneo y regiones circundantes. El correcto encuadramiento histórico de estas piezas exige un estudio tipológico comparativo y la utilización, por primera vez, del análisis de la composición del metal. Los análisis químicos señalan una producción local, mientras que los paralelos establecidos con piezas similares del Mediterráneo Oriental y Próximo Oriente se revelan como poco consistentes para defender posibles relaciones coloniales o comerciales. Como consecuencia de esto y ante la ausencia de piezas similares en la propia Península Ibérica se presenta este hallazgo como un ejemplo de invención socialmente rechazada. [fr] L´étude actualisé des javelots du dolmen de La Pastora (Valencina de la Concepción, Sevilla. La découverte en 1860 d'un ensemble de 30 javelots hors du registre archéologique precis presente une trouvaille excepcionnelle, restant jusqu'au moment l'ensemble le plus nombreux de ce type d'arme trouvé dans toute la zone de la Méditerranée y les régions environnantes. L'encadrement historique correct de ces pièces exige une étude en typologie comparée et pour la première fois, l'emploi de l'analyse de la composition du métal Les analyses chimiques indiquent la production locale de ces dernières, alors que les parallèles, établis avec des objets similaires dans la Méditerranée Orientale et le Proche Orient se révèlent peu consistantes pour défendre des possibles relations coloniales et commerciales. En conséquence et en l'absence de pièces semblables dans la Péninsule Ibérique, elle-même, cette trouvaille se présente comme un exemple d'invention refusée par la société.

  18. Fabricación reproducible de puntas de barrido para microscopios de efecto túnel

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    La fabricación reproducible de puntas de barrido para microscopios de efecto túnel es demostrada usando un método electroquímico. Las puntas son hechas a partir de alambre de tungsteno de 0.5 mm de diámetro. Controlando las condiciones de fabricación: la inmersión en la solución electrolítica, rangos de voltaje-corriente y duración del proceso se logra realizar puntas con relaciones de aspecto de 0.68 y radios de punta de 330 nm en el mejor caso./ Reproducible fabrication of Scanning Tunnelin...

  19. Volcanismo calcoalcalino neopaleozoico en la Precordillera de La Rioja. Petrología y caracterización litoestratigráfica de la Formación Punta del Agua (Carbonífero Superior-Pérmico Inferior Late Palaeozoic calc-alkaline volcanism in the Precordillera of La Rioja: petrology and lithostratigraphical characterization of the Punta del Agua Formation (Late Carboniferous - Early Permian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Remesal

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available La Formación Punta del Agua en el extremo noroccidental de la cuenca Paganzo, representa las primeras manifestaciones de actividad volcánica neopaleozoica en la Precordillera y en las Sierras Pampeanas. La variedad litológica de esta unidad comprende interestratificación de flujos lávicos, flujos piroclásticos y acumulaciones sedimentarias. Los flujos lávicos fueron divididos según su composición y textura; se incluyó en esta agrupación un filón capa de composición dacítica. Los flujos piroclásticos fueron subdivididos para su caracterización en depósitos gruesos de flujos de bloques y cenizas y reoignimbritas. Durante los períodos intereruptivos tuvo lugar la sedimentación de conglomerados volcánicos, arenitas líticas volcánicas y escasos niveles pelíticos; todas estas rocas conforman litosomas fuertemente lenticulares que reflejan la irregularidad morfológica del campo volcánico. Las características geoquímicas de las volcanitas fueron analizadas sobre la base de doce muestras provenientes de ambos flancos del sinclinal de Punta del Agua. Los valores obtenidos corresponden al espectro de rocas mesosilíceas y ácidas, desde andesitas basálticas hasta riolitas, aunque claramente dominan las composiciones andesíticas. El carácter calcoalcalino de estas rocas, y la abundancia relativa en K de las andesitas, sugieren líquidos padres originados en zonas de subducción con efectos de procesos de cristalización fraccionada y contaminación sobreimpuestos. En lo que corresponde a la antigüedad de la unidad ha sido establecida a partir de sus relaciones estratigráficas y dataciones radimétricas; ambas líneas de investigación sugieren una edad carbonífera superior para el conjunto, aunque sin descartar que sus términos cuspidales alcancen el Pérmico más temprano.The Punta del Agua Formation (north-west Paganzo Basin represents the earliest manifestation of Neopalaeozoic volcanism in the Precordillera and Sierras

  20. Estudio anatómico y clínico del músculo depresor de la punta nasal Anatomic and clinical study of the depressor septi nasi muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Soria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigamos la relación entre el síndrome rino-gingivo-labial y el músculo depresor de la punta nasal. Realizamos identificación y disección del músculo a través de una incisión intersepto-columelar ampliada sobre el piso nasal en un grupo de 62 pacientes a los cuales se les practicó rinoplastia, divididos en 3 grupos, teniendo en cuenta la presencia o ausencia, durante la gesticulación facial, de: 1-curvatura del dorso nasal. 2-descenso de la punta nasal. 3-acortamiento de la columela. 4-movilidad notoria de la punta nasal al hablar. 5-labio superior corto. 6-aparición de un surco horizontal en el labio superior. 7-sobrexposición gingival. Observamos que en el 20 % de los casos, el músculo tenía un mayor desarrollo con una inserción distal más próxima a la punta nasal. La conducta quirúrgica indicada es su miotomía o miectomía o bien el tratamiento con toxina botulínica, logrando resultados estéticos buenos o muy buenos, con una gran aceptación de parte de los pacientes.The relationship between the rhino-gingivolabial syndrome and the hypertrophy of the depressor septi nasi muscle was investigated. We identified and dissected this muscle through a transfixion interseptum-collumelar incision extended laterally along the vestibular floor in 62 patients submitted to rhynoplasty and divided in 3 groups according to the appearance or absence during facial mimic of: 1-curvature of nasal dorsum; 2-descending nasal tip; 3-shortened columella; 4-inferior displacement of the nasal tip when speech; 5-shortened upper lip; 6-transverse crease in the mid-philtral area. 7-increased maxillary gingival show during the facial animation. We found a 20 % of hypertrophic muscle, with a more anterior distal insertion. Furthermore of muscle division or resection as surgical indication, botulism toxin, can be used to treat this condition with patient´s satisfaction.

  1. Size of the iceberg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Okura, Hisako

    2012-01-01

    .e. a significant shift in the size of the iceberg. Although the ‘iceberg’ concept is well-known among paratuberculosis researchers, the size of the iceberg has not previously been characterized. Results can be used for inclusion of the distribution of cows in different infection stages at different ages...

  2. Volcanismo calcoalcalino neopaleozoico en la Precordillera de La Rioja. Petrología y caracterización litoestratigráfica de la Formación Punta del Agua (Carbonífero Superior-Pérmico Inferior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Remesal

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available La Formación Punta del Agua en el extremo noroccidental de la cuenca Paganzo, representa las primeras manifestaciones de actividad volcánica neopaleozoica en la Precordillera y en las Sierras Pampeanas. La variedad litológica de esta unidad comprende interestratificación de flujos lávicos, flujos piroclásticos y acumulaciones sedimentarias. Los flujos lávicos fueron divididos según su composición y textura; se incluyó en esta agrupación un filón capa de composición dacítica. Los flujos piroclásticos fueron subdivididos para su caracterización en depósitos gruesos de flujos de bloques y cenizas y reoignimbritas. Durante los períodos intereruptivos tuvo lugar la sedimentación de conglomerados volcánicos, arenitas líticas volcánicas y escasos niveles pelíticos; todas estas rocas conforman litosomas fuertemente lenticulares que reflejan la irregularidad morfológica del campo volcánico. Las características geoquímicas de las volcanitas fueron analizadas sobre la base de doce muestras provenientes de ambos flancos del sinclinal de Punta del Agua. Los valores obtenidos corresponden al espectro de rocas mesosilíceas y ácidas, desde andesitas basálticas hasta riolitas, aunque claramente dominan las composiciones andesíticas. El carácter calcoalcalino de estas rocas, y la abundancia relativa en K de las andesitas, sugieren líquidos padres originados en zonas de subducción con efectos de procesos de cristalización fraccionada y contaminación sobreimpuestos. En lo que corresponde a la antigüedad de la unidad ha sido establecida a partir de sus relaciones estratigráficas y dataciones radimétricas; ambas líneas de investigación sugieren una edad carbonífera superior para el conjunto, aunque sin descartar que sus términos cuspidales alcancen el Pérmico más temprano.

  3. Variaciones del sistema de surgencia de Punta Angamos (23 S y la Zona de Mínimo Oxígeno durante el pasado reciente: Una aproximación desde el registro sedimentario de la Bahía Mejillones del Sur Variations of Punta Angamos upwelling system (23 S and the Oxygen Minimum Zone during the recent past: An approximation from sedimentary record of Mejillones del Sur Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE VALDÉS

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Parámetros geoquímicos (carbono orgánico, sílice biogénica y cadmio y petrográficos (materia orgánica estudiados en un testigo de sedimento de la Bahía Mejillones del Sur fueron utilizados para inferir variaciones en la productividad biológica superficial y la oxigenación subsuperficial durante los últimos 2.000 años. Este estudio demuestra que al interior de la bahía la productividad ha disminuido hacia el presente mientras que la Zona de Mínimo Oxígeno se ha intensificado. Se plantea que las variaciones de la productividad se deben a un desplazamiento del centro de surgencia de Punta Angamos, más cerca o más lejos de la bahía y/o a cambios en su intensidad asociados al régimen de vientos locales. Por su parte, la oxigenación estaría influenciada por el ascenso o descenso de la Zona de Mínimo Oxígeno presente en el área. Una correlación de estos resultados con estudios de bioindicadores realizados en otros testigos de la Bahía Mejillones permiten reforzar la hipótesis de que eventos como la Pequeña Edad del Hielo y el Episodio Cálido de la Edad Media han quedado registrados en esta bahía del norte de Chile. Según el presente estudio, el primer periodo estaría caracterizado por un aumento de la productividad superficial y un descenso en la oxigenación subsuperficial de la bahía, mientras que el segundo periodo presentaría características opuestas.Geochemical (organic carbon, biogenic silica and cadmium and petrographic (organic matter parameters analyzed in a sediment core of Mejillones del Sur Bay, have been used to reconstruct past variations in superficial biological productivity and subsuperficial oxygenation, during the last 2,000 years. This study tends to demonstrate that into the bay, the productivity has diminished up to the present, while the Oxygen Minimum Zone has intensified. Productivity variations can be attributed to changes in the upwelling intensity associated to changes in local wind system

  4. Modelling Greenland icebergs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Juliana M.; Myers, Paul G.; Hu, Xianmin

    2017-04-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is well known for carrying heat from low to high latitudes, moderating local temperatures. Numerical studies have examined the AMOC's variability under the influence of freshwater input to subduction and deep convections sites. However, an important source of freshwater has often been overlooked or misrepresented: icebergs. While liquid runoff decreases the ocean salinity near the coast, icebergs are a gradual and remote source of freshwater - a difference that affects sea ice cover, temperature, and salinity distribution in ocean models. Icebergs originated from the Greenland ice sheet, in particular, can affect the subduction process in Labrador Sea by decreasing surface water density. Our study aims to evaluate the distribution of icebergs originated from Greenland and their contribution to freshwater input in the North Atlantic. To do that, we use an interactive iceberg module coupled with the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO v3.4), which will calve icebergs from Greenland according to rates established by Bamber et al. (2012). Details on the distribution and trajectory of icebergs within the model may also be of use for understanding potential navigation threats, as shipping increases in northern waters.

  5. Detección de cambios en la morfología litoral de Punta Zacatal y parte occidental de Isla del Carmen, Campeche, mediante el análisis multitemporal de imágenes de satélite

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Gerardo Palacio Aponte

    2001-01-01

    During the last 25 years. significant geomorphological changes have been detected in the coastiline of Punta Zacatal and the western region of isla del Carmen, Campeche, as consequence of the current littoral dynamics and the influence of urban and industrial development. In order to detect such changes, a color overlay and composition image analysis was carried out using three Landsat MSS satellite images dated 1974, 1986 and 1992. A near-infrared band (0.8-I.l!~m) was applied to...

  6. Procesos tafonómicos, subsistencia y uso del espacio: análisis de la arqueofauna de un sitio agropastoril de la Puna Meridional Argentina (Punta de la Peña 9, Antofagasta de la Sierra, Catamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. L. López Campeny

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del análisis de un conjunto de restos óseos faunísticos recuperados en una estructura arquitectónica (E2 excavada en el sitio Punta de la Peña 9. Dicho sitio se localiza en los Sectores Intermedios (3600 m snm, en la microregión de Antofagasta de la Sierra (Catamarca, Puna Meridional Argentina. El análisis incluyó una evaluación de los efectos de los procesos de formación del registro, un abordaje del conjunto óseo desde una perspectiva económica y un análisis de la distribución espacial de los restos óseos en los niveles ocupacionales del recinto. El abordaje de estas tres dimensiones amplias del conjunto arqueofaunístico nos permitió aproximarnos al estudio de múltiples aspectos entre los que destacamos: la evaluación del efecto de los factores de formación del registro en la integridad del conjunto óseo; las modalidades de uso del espacio en la estructura analizada; ciertas características de las secuencias de ocupación de la misma; los sistemas de descarte o actividades de mantenimiento de los espacios de uso intensivo; el conjunto de actividades llevadas a cabo y los patrones vinculados con la explotación, selección de partes y consumo de fauna.The results of the analysis of an assemblage of faunal bone remains recovered from an architectural structure (E2 excavated in the site Punta de la Peña 9 are presented. The site is located in the Intermediate Sectors (3600 m. above-sea-level in the micro-region of Antofagasta de la Sierra (Catamarca, Southern Puna, Argentina. The analysis included an evaluation of the effects of the formation processes of the archaeological record, a study of the bones from an economic perspective, and an analysis of the spatial distribution of bones in the occupation levels of the enclosure. Examination of these three broad dimensions of this archaeofaunal assemblage enabled us to study multiple aspects of this site. Among such aspects the following are

  7. Tip of the iceberg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deriabyn, M. V.; Hjorth, Poul G.

    2009-01-01

    We study the stability and dynamics of melting icebergs. Specifically, we address the 'toppling' or 'rollover' observed for floating icebergs. The rollover is thought to occur because the ocean melts the iceberg from below, causing its overall mass and mass distribution to change with time. We...... model the evolution of equilibrium positions for a general homogeneous body afloat in an ideal fluid, as this homogeneous body is subjected to 'melting', i.e. a slow removal of material from the submerged part. If this process is the dominating melting mechanism, can the likelihood of a toppling...... be inferred from observing only the above-surface part? We show here that some information about the evolution of stability due to melting call be inferred from the surface geometry of the iceberg....

  8. Detección de puntas epilépticas en señales electroencefalográficas para pacientes con epilepsia del lóbulo temporal utilizando wavelets Detection of epileptic spikes in electroencephalographic signals for patients with temporal lobe epilepsy using wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Eduardo Castaño

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe un método para la detección de puntas epilépticasen un registro electroencefalográfico(EEG de superficie tomando un solocanal. Se identificó un patrón al utilizar el análisis multirresolución con unawavelet biortogonal después de procesar y analizar con el Toolbox Waveletde Matlab, 207 registros de puntas y 132 registros de artificios previamenteclasificadas por el neurofisiólogo. Este patrón permitió diseñar un algoritmopara la detección de puntas en pacientes con epilepsia refractaria del lóbulotemporal, a partir de los máximos voltajes en cada uno de los seis niveles de reconstrucción usando la wavelet biortogonal 3.7. El algoritmo se aplicó sobreregistros de pacientes con epilepsia, obteniéndose una sensibilidad del 92% yuna especificidad del 80% en el diagnóstico de las puntas epilépticas.This paper describes a method for detecting epileptic spikes in a record electroencephalographic (EEG surface by taking a single channel. We identified a pattern using multiresolution analysis with a biorthogonal wavelet after processing and analyzing the Wavelet Toolbox of Matlab, 207 records and 132 records of tips tricks previously classified by Neurophysiologist. This pattern enabled an algorithm for detecting spikes in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, based on the maximum voltage in each of the six levels of reconstruction using biorthogonal 3.7 wavelet. The algorithm was applied on records of patients with epilepsy, getting a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 80% in the diagnosis of epileptic spikes.

  9. Gestión del combustible leñoso e impacto medioambiental asociados a la metalurgia protohistórica de Punta de los Gavilanes (Mazarrón, Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Martínez, María Soledad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Not Available

    Las estructuras de combustión de carácter metalúrgico documentadas en las fases de la ocupación de los siglos VII-I a.C. de Punta de los Gavilanes han permitido abordar el estudio antracológico del combustible leñoso asociado a siete de ellas facilitando información relativa a las pautas de gestión de los recursos forestales del entorno para el abastecimiento de los hornos, así como a la intensidad del impacto medioambiental generado por las labores de recolecta. Los resultados obtenidos documentan una amplia variabilidad taxonómica que se distribuye siguiendo tendencias similares en los hornos analizados. Las conclusiones apuntan a que el combustible leñoso fue recolectado en puntos del entorno inmediato al promontorio, sin constatarse patrones de selección sobre los taxones, ni atendiendo a sus propiedades ni a la funcionalidad de las estructuras. La degradación ecológica producida por estas actividades tuvo un alcance muy limitado, ya que no se aprecian alteraciones destacables en la señal antracológica. [fr] Les structures de combustion à caractère métallurgique découvertes aux phases d’occupation des VIIème-Ière siècles av. J.C. de Punta de los Gavilanes ont permis d’aborder l’étude anthracologique du combustible ligneux associé à sept de ces structures. Les objectifs ont été, en premier lieu, obtenir une information relative aux règles de gestion des ressources forestières de l’environnement pour l’approvisionnement des fours et, en second lieu, évaluer l’intensité de l’impact environnemental produit par les activités de récolte. Les résultats ont permis l’identification d’une grande variabilité taxonomique qui est distribuée avec des tendances semblables dans les différents fours analysés. Les conclusions indiquent que le combustible ligneux a été récolté aux zones proches au site. On n’a pas constaté des règles de s

  10. Evolution of Antarctic Tabular Icebergs

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and quantify the role of the various processes affecting a large tabular iceberg during a typical lifecycle from calving to final decay. The thesis comprises three publications, each addressing a different aspect of the evolution of the tabular iceberg A-38B, which calved from the Ronne Ice Shelf in October 1998.The first publication is focussed on inherent ice dynamics. To investigate the relevance of strain thinning to iceberg evolution, a numerical ...

  11. Size of the iceberg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Okura, Hisako

    2012-01-01

    of detectable infections among all infected is often referred to as ‘the tip of the iceberg’. For MAP infections, infected cattle may be divided into those with cell-mediated immune reactions (CMI) during latent infection, and those with humoral immune reactions (HI) characterized by IgG1 antibodies.......e. a significant shift in the size of the iceberg. Although the ‘iceberg’ concept is well-known among paratuberculosis researchers, the size of the iceberg has not previously been characterized. Results can be used for inclusion of the distribution of cows in different infection stages at different ages...... in mathematical modeling of infection dynamics. In practice, positive and negative predictive values can be calculated for cows at different ages and in populations with different prevalences....

  12. Morphologic description of the Punta Cola rock avalanche and associated minor rockslides caused by the 21 April 2007 Aysén earthquake (Patagonia, southern Chile Descripción morfológica de la avalancha de rocas de Punta Cola y deslizamientos de rocas asociados causados por el terremoto de Aysén del 21 de abril de 2007 (Patagonia, sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Oppikofer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The 21 April 2007 Aysén earthquake triggered hundreds of landslides in the epicentral area, including several large-volume rock avalanches that caused tsunamis in the Aysén fjord. This study is part of a larger project aiming to better understand the conditioning factors controlling size and distribution of earthquake-triggered landslides. The focus is set on the largest rockslide that occurred at Punta Cola. Using a high-resolution digital surface model created from terrestrial laser scanning, a detailed geomorphologic map of the rockslide scars and the rock avalanche deposits on land was made. This map permitted to establish the sequence of events: the failure of the rockslide main compartment led to a rock avalanche that crossed the valley and ran up on the opposite valley flank before turning downstream and impacting the fjord and creating a tsunami. Afterwards, another rockslide compartment failed and piled up 80 m thick deposits in the valley. Seven minor rockslides occurred in the Punta Cola valley after the main rock avalanche. The volumes of rockslides and associated deposits were estimated using the sloping local base level technique that allows computing the possible pre-rockslide topography and the bedrock-deposits interface. These volume computations give 22.4 Mm³ for the Punta Cola rockslide, which is significantly more than previous estimates (12 Mm³. The on-shore deposits of the main rock avalanche have a volume of 13.7 Mm³ and approximately 14.4 Mm³ are deposited in the fjord. This study highlights the additional information on rockslides and rock avalanches that can be obtained from high-resolution 3D data and mapping.El terremoto de Aysén del 21 de abril de 2007 generó cientos de remociones en masa en la zona epicentral, incluyendo varias avalanchas de roca de gran volumen que causaron tsunamis en el fiordo Aysén. Este estudio es parte de un proyecto orientado a una mejor comprensión de los factores que controlan el

  13. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  14. Icebergs on early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uceda, E.; Fairen, A.; Woodworth-Lynas, C.; Palmero Rodriguez, A.

    2015-12-01

    The smooth topography of the Martian northern lowlands has been classically equated to an ancient ocean basin. The High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is providing unprecedented images of the Martian surface at scales of 25 to 32 cm per pixel. The analysis of this high-resolution imaging reveals the presence of three differentiated geomorphologies throughout the northern lowlands of Mars and the Hellas basin, which are informative of the presence of icebergs floating in ancient oceans and/or seas. These morphologies are: (i) scattered scour marks, including curvilinear furrows several km long and some meters deep; (ii) boulders ranging in size from 0.5 m to ~2 m in diameter, distributed forming clusters with sizes from several hundred meters to 1-2 km; and (iii) flat-topped and conical circular fractured mounds. The association of plough marks, clusters of boulders and mounds on the northern plains of Mars can be related to the dual processes of ice keel scouring and ice rafting of both glacial and non-glacial detritus by a floating ice canopy and icebergs. These processes are well documented on Earth and result in distinct morphologies on the ocean floor, which are analogous to features observed in the Martian basins. Importantly, the features are located in elevated areas of the northern plains and Hellas, near the dichotomy boundary and on local topographic highs. Such distribution is expected, as these relatively shoal areas are where the iceberg-related features should occur on Mars: these areas had shallow water depths, less than the iceberg's keel depth, and therefore keels reached through the full depth of the water column to impinge on the sediments below. The presence of icebergs floating in cold oceans early in Mars' history imply the occurrence of continental glaciers forming in the highlands and streaming northward towards the lowlands, and towards the Hellas and Argyre Basins. Glacier

  15. Nuevas aportaciones metodológicas al estudio de los concheros cástreños del noroeste de la Península Ibérica: el castro de Punta dos Prados (Ortigueira, La Coruña, Galicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel VÁZQUEZ VARELA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se presenta el estudio de la fauna marina del conchero del castro costero de Punta dos Prados (Ortigueira, La Coruña, situado en el noroeste de la Península Ibérica. La aplicación de nuevos índices, permite una comparación más rigurosa entre los diferentes yacimientos de este momento, así como profundizar en las formas de explotación de los mariscos. La mayor parte de las especies analizadas proceden de la zona intermareal, representando desigualmente diferentes comunidades.ABSTRACT: We would like to present our recent studies related to the marine fauna of shell midden which is situated on a coastal hillfort of Punta dos Prados (Ortigueira, La Coruña in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula. We ha ve used new indexes that providing a better comparison between the different sites of those times and also making possible to offer a deeper study about shellfish exploitation means. An high proportion of species studied in this analysis come from the intertidal zone and represent unequaly different communities.

  16. Comentarios al artículo Modelos geoestadísticos de la concentración del Ni en el dominio 7 del yacimiento Punta Gorda, publicado en Minería y Geología, Volumen 20 (1-2:42-53, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Q. Cuador-Gil

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En la última década se han logrado resultados importantes en el empleo de los métodos geoestadísticos en la solución de problemas geológico–mineros, particularmente en la estimación de recursos en yacimientos lateríticos cubanos. Su uso implica por una parte dominar conceptos fundamentales como: el cálculo y ajuste de semivariogramas, la estimación  por krigeaje y la simulación geoestadística y por otra es necesario realizar una adecuada interpretación del procesamiento en cada momento que depende de la experiencia de los especialistas  en el tema. Este artículo expone algunos comentarios al artículo de referencia: Modelos geoestadísticos de la concentración del Ni en el dominio 7 del yacimiento Punta Gorda, relacionados con la simulación geoestadística.

  17. The iceberg principles

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer-Devlin, Marni

    2013-01-01

    The Iceberg Principles connect spirituality and science in a way that proves that the energy, which is the substance of the Universe, really is Love - not sweet, syrupy, candy-and-roses kind of love but the most powerful force in the Universe. Love without expression is meaningless. This is why the Big Bang was the only logical outcome. Love had to become reflected in dimensionality. With the Big Bang a 4:96 ratio was created between the dimensional and non-dimensional realms. This ratio between visibility and invisibility the ratio of an iceberg also applies to human beings. Only four percent of who we are is visible. Our physical DNA describes us but it does not define us. What defines us are our characteristics, our gifts, and talents - the spiritual DNA. This is invisible but makes up ninety-six percent of who we are. Our talents are not accidental; our life purpose is to express them. Just as the Universe emerges into dimensionality, constantly creating galaxies at millions of miles a minute, we are al...

  18. Optimal Display of Iceberg Orders

    OpenAIRE

    Cebiroğlu, Gökhan; Horst, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    We develop a sequential trade model of Iceberg order execution in a limit order book. The Iceberg-trader has the freedom to expose his trading intentions or (partially) shield the true order size against other market participants. Order exposure can cause drastic market reactions (“market impact†) in the end leading to higher transaction costs. On the other hand the Iceberg trader faces a loss-in-priority when he hides his intentions, as most electronic limit order books penalize the usag...

  19. An analytical model of iceberg drift

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Till J W; Eisenman, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Iceberg drift and decay and the associated freshwater release are increasingly seen as important processes in Earth's climate system, yet a detailed understanding of their dynamics has remained elusive. Here, an idealized model of iceberg drift is presented. The model is designed to include the most salient physical processes that determine iceberg motion while remaining sufficiently simple to facilitate physical insight into iceberg drift dynamics. We derive an analytical solution of the model, which helps build understanding and also enables the rapid computation of large numbers of iceberg trajectories. The long-standing empirical rule of thumb that icebergs drift at 2% of the wind velocity, relative to the ocean current, is derived here from physical first principles, and it is shown that this relation only holds in the limit of strong winds or small icebergs, which approximately applies for typical icebergs in the Arctic. It is demonstrated that the opposite limit of weak winds or large icebergs approxim...

  20. Antarctic icebergs distributions 1992-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournadre, J.; Bouhier, N.; Girard-Ardhuin, F.; Rémy, F.

    2016-01-01

    Basal melting of floating ice shelves and iceberg calving constitute the two almost equal paths of freshwater flux between the Antarctic ice cap and the Southern Ocean. The largest icebergs (>100 km2) transport most of the ice volume but their basal melting is small compared to their breaking into smaller icebergs that constitute thus the major vector of freshwater. The archives of nine altimeters have been processed to create a database of small icebergs (iceberg size distribution, covering the 0.1-10,000 km2 range, estimated by combining small and large icebergs size measurements follows well a power law of slope -1.52 ± 0.32 close to the -3/2 laws observed and modeled for brittle fragmentation. The global volume of ice and its distribution between the ocean basins present a very strong interannual variability only partially explained by the number of large icebergs. Indeed, vast zones of the Southern Ocean free of large icebergs are largely populated by small iceberg drifting over thousands of kilometers. The correlation between the global small and large icebergs volumes shows that small icebergs are mainly generated by large ones breaking. Drifting and trapping by sea ice can transport small icebergs for long period and distances. Small icebergs act as an ice diffuse process along large icebergs trajectories while sea ice trapping acts as a buffer delaying melting.

  1. Detección de cambios en la morfología litoral de Punta Zacatal y parte occidental de lsla del Carmen, Campeche, mediante el análisis multitemporal de imágenes de satélite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gerardo Palacio Aponte

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last 25 years, significant geomorphological changes have been detected in the coastline of Punta Zacatal and the western region of Isla del Carmen, Campeche, as consequence of the current littoral dynamics and the influence of urban and industrial development. In order to detect such changes, a color overlay and composition image analysis was carried out using three Lancisat MSS satellite images dated 1974, 1986 and 1992. A near-infrared band (0.8-1.1,?m was applied to each primary color: assigning color to high-reflectance values showing changes in land distribution, and absence of color to water bodies and land that remained unchanged. The color presence/absence relationship for each image allowed to detect coastal accretion, erosion and stable areas in a false-color composite. Afterwards a supervised classification was conducted to obtain areas and percentages, which were verified by means of multi-temporal photointerpretation and GPS fieldwork validation.

  2. Detección de cambios en la morfología litoral de Punta Zacatal y parte occidental de Isla del Carmen, Campeche, mediante el análisis multitemporal de imágenes de satélite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Gerardo Palacio Aponte

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last 25 years. significant geomorphological changes have been detected in the coastiline of Punta Zacatal and the western region of isla del Carmen, Campeche, as consequence of the current littoral dynamics and the influence of urban and industrial development. In order to detect such changes, a color overlay and composition image analysis was carried out using three Landsat MSS satellite images dated 1974, 1986 and 1992. A near-infrared band (0.8-I.l!~m was applied to each primary color; assigning color ta high-reflectance values showing changes in land distribution. And absence of color to water bodies and land that remained unchanged. The color presence/absence relationship for each mage allowed to detect coastal accretion, erosion and stable areas in a false-color composite. Aflerwards a supervised classification was canducted to obtain areas and percentages, which were verified by means of multi-temporal photointerpretation and GPS fielidwork validation.

  3. Punta Querandí: disputas por el espacio entre las urbanizaciones cerradas y los movimientos sociales

    OpenAIRE

    Trivi, Nicolás Alberto; Agostinelli, Facundo; Alonso, Pablo; Aramburú, Bruno; Armut, Azul; Castro,Luciano; Chiacchio, Iván; De Santis, Julia; Elcunovich, Santiago; Estela, Agustín; Ferrer, Agustina; García Souza, David; Gargiulo, Enzo; Gómez Ramos, Julia; Guevara, Celeste

    2013-01-01

    El presente informe es el resultado del trabajo llevado a cabo por los alumnos del sexto año de la Escuela Secundaria del Colegio San Simón, de la ciudad de La Plata, en el marco de la asignatura de la Orientación en Ciencias Sociales denominada Proyectos de Investigación en Ciencias Sociales, durante el ciclo lectivo 2012. Se estudió el conflicto alrededor del paraje denominado Punta Querandí, ubicado entre los partidos de Tigre y Escobar, para abordar la problemática de las disputas por el ...

  4. Fabricación reproducible de puntas de barrido para microscopios de efecto túnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bernal

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La fabricación reproducible de puntas de barrido para microscopios de efecto túnel es demostrada usando un método electroquímico. Las puntas son hechas a partir de alambre de tungsteno de 0.5 mm de diámetro. Controlando las condiciones de fabricación: la inmersión en la solución electrolítica, rangos de voltaje-corriente y duración del proceso se logra realizar puntas con relaciones de aspecto de 0.68 y radios de punta de 330 nm en el mejor caso./ Reproducible fabrication of Scanning Tunneling Microscope tips is carried out following an electrochemical procedure widely reported. Tips are made from 0.5 diameter tungsten wire. Controlling fabrication parameters (immersion in the electrochemical solution, current-voltage ranges, duration of the process, among others we achieve aspect ratios of 0.68 and tip radii of 330 nm in the best case.

  5. Neuropatía sensitiva trigeminal secundaria a granuloma de colesterol de la punta del peñasco del temporal Trigeminal neuralgia secondary to cholesterol granuloma of the petrous bone apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Pons García

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La neuropatía aislada de la rama sensitiva del trigémino es una entidad poco habitual. Los pacientes suelen referir hipoestesia y /o disestesia generalmente a nivel de la segunda y tercera rama del trigémino, mientras que la neuralgia es muy infrecuente.¹ Su asociación con enfermedades sistémicas del tejido conectivo es bien conocida.² Se ha descrito asociada a distintas lesiones del SNC sobre todo tumores de fosa posterior o base de cráneo, así como neoplasias mandibulares.3,4 Presentamos una paciente con hipoestesia en el territorio V2-V3 asociada a dolor hemifacial paroxístico secundario a una lesión del peñasco del temporal.Trigeminal Neuralgia is an uncommon entity. The patients report hypoesthesia and/or dysesthesia of the second and third ramus of trigeminal nerve, while neuralgia is very rare.¹ Its association with systemic diseases of connective tissue is well know.² It has been described as being associated with different lesions of the central nervous system, especially with the posterior cavity or cranial base tumors, as well as jaw neoplasias.3,4 We presented a patient with hypoesthesia V2-V3 and hemi facial paroxysmal pain secondary to lesion of petrous apex of temporal bone.

  6. Simulating Heinrich event 1 with interactive icebergs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongma, J.I.; Renssen, H.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.

    2012-01-01

    During the last glacial, major abrupt climate events known as Heinrich events left distinct fingerprints of ice rafted detritus, and are thus associated with iceberg armadas; the release of many icebergs into the North Atlantic Ocean. We simulated the impact of a large armada of icebergs on glacial

  7. Una punta de lanza decorada de la necrópolis de El Puntal (Salinas, Alicante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Alcaraz, Laura

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Not Available

    Este trabajo pretende dar a conocer la decoración damasquinada presente en una punta de lanza de la necrópolis ibérica de El Puntal (Salinas, Alicante, datada en el s. IV a.C. Se señala asimismo la importancia que adquiere la sepultura en la que aparece, que sobresale del conjunto para convertirse en el lugar de enterramiento de un personaje destacado.

  8. On Ernest Hemingway's "Iceberg Style"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兰凤

    2009-01-01

    Hemingway is a great stylist and one of the most important writers of the 20th-century America. His influence is world-wide and his distinctive writing style---the "Iceberg Style" even caused a stylistic revolution in the field of literature all over the world.Hemingway always tries his best to avoid using kinds of ways to depict things or piling big words and gorgeous adjectives.On the contrary, he always adopts direct description and short sentences which are precise, laconic, bright and vivid.Therefore, his "Iceberg Principle" is also called "Telegraphic Style". His writing style only serves his particular characters and theme. The uniqueness of Hemingway's "Iceberg Style" will be emphasized in this paper.

  9. Neurofibroma plexiforme de punta nasal

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez B,Sergio; Varela U,Cecilia; Del Villar U,Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    La neurofibromatosis es una enfermedad genética autosómica dominante y de alta penetrancia que pertenece al grupo de los síndromes neurocutáneos. Se sabe de diversas variedades de neurofibromatosis; sin embargo, las más conocidas son la neurofibromatosis tipo 1 (enfermedad de von Recklinghausen) y neurofibromatosis tipo 2 (neurofibromatosis del nervio acústico bilateral). Se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente de 43 años, sexo femenino, sin antecedentes familiares de importancia, quien pr...

  10. An Implementation of Icebergs in CICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comeau, Darin S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-25

    There is an estimated global iceberg calving flux of {approx} 2300 Gt yr{sup -1}, about 90% of which occurs in the Antarctic. Icebergs provide an important vehicle for freshwater injection into the polar oceans, an estimated 60-80% of net freshwater flux from land ice to oceans in the Antarctic. Icebergs interact dynamically with surrounding sea ice, potentially affecting marine eco systems. Icebergs lose mass primarily through three mechanisms, described by empirical relations: (1) Basal melting - turbulence due to differences in oceanic and iceberg motion (also function of difference in temperature between ocean and iceberg); (2) Lateral melting - buoyant convection along sidewalls of iceberg (function of ocean temperature); and (3) Erosion due to waves (function of sea state and ocean temperature). We have incorporated an iceberg parameterization into the CICE model where sea ice responds to the icebergs, rather than being a static forcing term. Icebergs produce highly localized anomalies in sea ice concentration, thickness, and strength. Summer sea ice meltback limits these effects. Icebergs shed freshwater as they move, transporting freshwater away from the coast.

  11. LAS PUNTAS SOLUTRENSES: DE LA TIPOLOGÍA A LOS ESTUDIOS FUNCIONALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Gibaja Bao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende ofrecer una imagen global de los estudios que se han realizado sobre un soporte tan particular y definitorio cronológica y territorialmente del Paleolítico superior como son las puntas solutrenses. Iniciaremos nuestro trabajo explicando los distintos tipos de puntas solutrenses que se han definido hasta el momento para posteriormente mostrar la información obtenida desde los estudios funcionales de las puntas arqueológicos y la surgida desde las réplicas experimentales. Ambas perspectivas complementarias serán el medio con el que hablar del grado de efectividad de las distintas puntas, los modos de enmangue, las fracturas que se producen como consecuencia de factores tanto funcionales y tecnológicos, así como aquellos generados como resultado de alteraciones mecánicas diversas. En todo caso, pretendemos aportar en qué punto estamos en esta temática más allá de la simple descripción morfológica.This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the research on a particular category of tools that covers an important role as geographical and chronological marker: the Upper Paleolithic Solutrean points. Through a techno-functional approach we discuss the different typologies of Solutrean points in terms of degree of effectiveness, hafting modes, types of fractures produced by technological and functional factors, as well the use-wears traces caused by mechanical alterations. Our observations are based both on archaeological and experimental data. The objective of this article is to revise the state of art on this topic, presenting new technological and functional data that allow us to overcome a purely morphological approach.

  12. On the representation of capsizing in iceberg models

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Till J. W.; Stern, Alon A.; Dell, Rebecca W.; Eisenman, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Although iceberg models have been used for decades, they have received far more widespread attention in recent years, in part due to efforts to explicitly represent icebergs in climate models. This calls for increased scrutiny of all aspects of typical iceberg models. An important component of iceberg models is the representation of iceberg capsizing, or rolling. Rolling occurs spontaneously when the ratio of iceberg width to height falls below a critical threshold. Here we examine previously...

  13. Computing iceberg concept lattices with Titanic

    OpenAIRE

    Stumme, Gerd; Taouil, Rafik; Bastide, Yves; Pasquier, Nicolas; Lakhal, Lotfi

    2002-01-01

    International audience; We introduce the notion of iceberg concept lattices and show their use in knowledge discovery in databases. Iceberg lattices are a conceptual clustering method, which is well suited for analyzing very large databases. They also serve as a condensed representation of frequent itemsets, as starting point for computing bases of association rules, and as a visualization method for association rules. Iceberg concept lattices are based on the theory of Formal Concept Analysi...

  14. Manejo inicial de las lesiones de punta de dedo: guía de tratamiento basado en la experiencia en el Hospital San José

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Torres-Fuentes; Julián Andrés Hernández-Beltrán; Diego Alejandro Castañeda-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes. Las lesiones de punta de dedo son las más frecuentes del miembro superior y constituyen una causa importante de atención en urgencias en los hospitales de Colombia, pues generan incapacidad laboral y funcional por amputaciones de la falange distal. El tratamiento de este tipo de lesiones tiene como objetivo restablecer la función de la punta de dedo, mejorando la calidad de vida del paciente. Objetivo. Plantear un protocolo de manejo aplicable en este tipo de lesiones. Materiale...

  15. A social iceberg at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Association

    2007-01-01

    One hundred days into 2007 and with the new executive committee in place, we would like to present you with a report of the work carried out so far. First, the visible part: the subjects and actions regularly covered in Echo. Then, like an iceberg, we will review the hidden part, which is the most important in terms of effort and often the most fearsome because it is invisible, thus unpredictable.

  16. 智利Punta Caleta港概况介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾在明

    2010-01-01

    PuntaCaleta港概况地理位置:Punta Caleta港位于Lat:27°03′15″S,LONG:070°49′58″W,在CalderaBay的南岸,在一个西北面向太平洋的天然海湾内。湾口在Punta Caldera和Punta Francisco之间,宽度1.75nmile,港湾两岸地势比较平坦,但是岸线比较清晰,在10nmile外可用雷达测量定位。湾口比较清爽,注意东北和西南靠近岸边的几个浅点,进出港保持在中线上航行即可。

  17. The tip of the iceberg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørst, Lill Rastad

    2010-01-01

      Abstract: The tip of the iceberg: Ice as a nonhuman actor of the climate change debate   The global climate change debate has the Arctic as a core region of concern and ice has become a central aspect of discourses. This article discusses ice representations from six different contexts linked...... are represented. Ice becomes a nonhuman actor, framing the discussions, acting in specific ways, and linking hybrid networks. Indeed it is used in diverse platforms by scientists, politicians, governments, NGOs, as well as Inuit hunters and fishermen...

  18. Una punta de lanza decorada de la necrópolis de El Puntal (Salinas, Alicante)

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Este trabajo pretende dar a conocer la decoración damasquinada presente en una punta de lanza de la necrópolis ibérica de El Puntal (Salinas, Alicante), datada en el s. IV a.C. Se señala asimismo la importancia que adquiere la sepultura en la que aparece, que sobresale del conjunto para convertirse en el lugar de enterramiento de un personaje destacado. Ce travail veut presenter la décoration damasquinée trouvée sur une lance de la nécropole ibérique du Puntal (Salinas, Alicant...

  19. Historia social de la música en Punta Arenas, Chile, desde 1894 hasta 1945

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca Almonte, Nelia

    2015-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene como objeto conocer fragmentos de la historia social de la música en la ciudad de Punta Arenas, Chile, desde el año 1894 hasta 1945. El propósito del trabajo es rescatar la memoria de un pueblo y aportar a rasgos de identidad en las generaciones venideras. La investigación se ha guiado desde la perspectiva cualitativa con enfoque fenomenológico donde se ha utilizado la técnica de entrevista semiestructurada con respuesta abierta a personas de más de 70 ...

  20. El arrecife coralino de Punta Cocles, costa Caribe de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Fernández

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe al arrecife de Punta Cocles (Limón, Costa Rica. Los datos se obtienen por medio de un muestreo con nueve transectos, paralelos a la costa y por observaciones directas durante buceos a pulmón entre los meses de setiembre y noviembre del 2002. Este arrecife consta aproximadamente de 10.5 hectáreas, en las que se identifican 13 especies de corales, 39 de macroalgas, dos de pastos marinos, dos de zoántidos, una anémona, un coralimorfario y una esponja. Se observa un incremento en la cobertura de corales vivos (16% con respecto a otros años (5% en 1985, y 13.2% en 1995, y una baja cobertura de coral muerto (0.2%. Las macroalgas presentan la cobertura más alta (59%, particularmente las algas pardas con una distribución en parches de Sargassum y Padina. Laurencia brongniartii (Rhodophyta constituye una nueva adición para la flora ficológica de Costa Rica. El arrecife de Punta Cocles, funciona como un refugio para los organismos, debido a la ausencia de centros de población y desembocaduras de los ríos, además, del tipo de formación costera, lo que se ve favorecido por la conciencia ambiental que viven cerca del arrecifeThis paper describes the Punta Cocles reef (Limón, Costa Rica. Data were obtained by sampling nine transects along the coast and observations done by skin diving between September and November of 2002. This reef consist of 10.5 hectares, where 13 species of corals, 39 of macroalgae, two of seagrasses, two of zoantids, one anemone, one corallimorpharian, and one sponge were identified. Life coral coverage (16%, was higher than in other years (5% for 1985, and 13.2% for 1995, and death coral coverage was very low (0.2%. Macroalgae have the highest coverage (59%, particularly brown algae with a patchy distribution of Sargassum and Padina. Laurencia brongniartii (Rhodophyta is added to the list of marine flora of Costa Rica. The Punta Cocles reef works as a refuge for organisms, because there are no towns

  1. International Ice Patrol Iceberg Drift Tracks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The International Ice Patrol (IIP) tracks, plots and predicts iceberg positions in the North Atlantic Ocean. The IIP area of responsibility is 40 to 52 degrees...

  2. International Ice Patrol (IIP) Iceberg Sightings Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The International Ice Patrol (IIP) has been collecting information on iceberg activity in the North Atlantic since 1911. This database contains the data from these...

  3. Capsizing icebergs release earthquake-sized energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-03-01

    A large iceberg can carry a tremendous amount of gravitational potential energy. While all icebergs float with the bulk of their mass submerged beneath the water's surface, some drift around in precarious orientations—they are temporarily stable, but an outside push would send them tumbling over. Large icebergs, like those that split from the Jakobshavn Isbræ glacier in Greenland, can release the energy equivalent to a magnitude 6 or 7 earthquake when they capsize. A 1995 event demonstrated the potential for destruction, as a tsunami spawned from a capsizing iceberg devastated a coastal Greenland community. Measuring how energy is dispersed during capsizing is crucial to understanding the risk associated with these events but is also key to determining their larger role in surface ocean dynamics

  4. Análisis espacial mediante herramientas SIG de la vulnerabilidad ante tsunamis del casco urbano de Punta Umbría (Huelva, SO de España

    OpenAIRE

    Feria, M. C.; Aguilar, M.E.; Prada, C. de la; Izquierdo, Tatiana; Abad de los Santos, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    La vulnerabilidad es la expectativa de daño o pérdida infligida a un elemento expuesto al peligro. Su cartografía ha demostrado ser una herramienta útil para paliar y prevenir las consecuencias de los procesos naturales catastróficos. La región costera del Golfo de Cádiz y, en general, toda la costa atlántica ibérica posee cierta peligrosidad por tsunami debido a su proximidad a la Falla Azores- Gibraltar. El registro histórico y geológico muestra que esta zona de fractura present...

  5. Localização inicial da ponta de cateter central de inserção periférica (PICC em recém-nascidos Localización inicial de la punta del catéter central de inserción periférica (PICC en recién nacidos Initial placement of the peripherally inserted central catheter's tip in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ponce de Camargo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo transversal com coleta prospectiva de dados, que objetivouidentificar o posicionamento inicial da ponta do cateter central de inserção periférica (PICC e verificar a prevalência de sucesso de sua inserção em neonatos. Os dados foram coletados no berçário anexo à maternidade do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, entre março e setembro de 2006. Dos 37 neonatos submetidos à inserção do cateter PICC, a taxa de sucesso no procedimento foi de 72,3% (27 neonatos; destes, quatro (14,8% estavam com as pontas dos cateteres alojadas nas veias axilar ou inominada; outros três (11,1%, alojadas em veia jugular. Estes cateteres foram removidos por desvio de trajeto. 13 (48,2% estavam com as pontas alojadas em átrio direito, cujos cateteres foram tracionados para reposicionamento da ponta para a veia cava superior.Estudio transversal con recolección prospectiva de datos. La finalidad fue identificar la posición inicial de la punta del catéter central de inserción periférica (PICC y verificar la prevalencia de éxitos durante su introducción en neonatos. Los datos fueron recolectados en un servicio de neonatología anexo a la maternidad del Hospital de las Clínicas de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de São Paulo, entre marzo y setiembre del 2006. De los 37 neonatos sometidos a introducción del catéter PICC, la tasa de éxito fue de 72.3% (27 neonatos, de ellos, cuatro (14.8% estaban con las puntas de los catéteres alojadas en las venas axilar o no determinada, tres (11.1% localizadas en la vena yugular. Siendo estos últimos retirados por desviación en su trayecto. El 48.2% (13 se encontraba con las puntas en el atrio derecho, siendo estos catéteres nuevamente posicionados en la vena cava superior.This is a cross-sectional study aiming to identify the initial tip position of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC and to verify the prevalence of success in inserting

  6. Evaluación de la susceptibilidad por deslizamientos en el yacimiento Punta Gorda, Moa, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Almaguer-Carmenates

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available En los yacimientos lateríticos de cortezas de intemperismo de Moa ocurren deslizamientos que afectan las labores de minado. Por ello se evaluó, en el yacimiento Punta Gorda, la susceptibilidad a deslizamientos para el análisis de riesgos debido a inestabilidades de laderas. Mediante criterios geomorfológicos de fotointerpretación se inventariaron 21 deslizamientos con sus características morfológicas, direcciones preferenciales y litologías donde se produjeron, resultando el movimiento rotacional la tipología predominante. La susceptibilidad del terreno a la rotura se clasificó en cuatro clases: baja, media, alta y muy alta; el 25 % del área total estudiada clasifica como de susceptibilidad muy alta, lo que significa un elevado grado de propensión de los suelos lateríticos a los deslizamientos

  7. Nonlinear response of iceberg side melting to ocean currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzMaurice, A.; Cenedese, C.; Straneo, F.

    2017-06-01

    Icebergs calving into Greenlandic Fjords frequently experience strongly sheared flows over their draft, but the impact of this flow past the iceberg is not fully captured by existing parameterizations. We present a series of novel laboratory experiments to determine the dependence of submarine melting along iceberg sides on a background flow. We show, for the first time, that two distinct regimes of melting exist depending on the flow magnitude and consequent behavior of melt plumes (side-attached or side-detached), with correspondingly different meltwater spreading characteristics. When this velocity dependence is included in melt parameterizations, melt rates estimated for observed icebergs in the attached regime increase, consistent with observed iceberg submarine melt rates. We show that both attached and detached plume regimes are relevant to icebergs observed in a Greenland fjord. Further, depending on the regime, iceberg meltwater may either be confined to a surface layer or distributed over the iceberg draft.

  8. 智利Punta Caleta港概况介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾在明

    2010-01-01

    @@ Punta Caleta港概况 地理位置:Punta Caleta港位于Lat:27°03'15"S,LONG:070°49'58"W,在Caldera Bay的南岸,在一个西北面向太平洋的天然海湾内.湾口在Punta Caldera和Punta Francisco之间,宽度1.75nmile,港湾两岸地势比较平坦,但是岸线比较清晰,在10nmile外可用雷达测量定位.湾口比较清爽,注意东北和西南靠近岸边的几个浅点,进出港保持在中线上航行即可.湾内水深比较平坦,约在20-25米左右.湾口距码头约1.5nmile.港图是3078,也可参照当地海图S.H.O.A.No.3111.

  9. PENDEKATAN ICEBERG DALAM PEMBELAJARAN PEMBAGIAN PECAHAN DI SEKOLAH DASAR

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh Haji

    2013-01-01

    Makalah ini membahas pengaruh pendekatan iceberg pada pembelajaran pembagian pecahan di Sekolah Dasar.Tahapan pendekatan iceberg tersebut sebagai berikut: 1. Orientasi lingkungan secara matematis, 2. Model material, 3. Pembuatan pondasi, dan 4. Matematika formal. Sedangkan topik pembagian pecahan yang dibahas terdiri atas: pembagian bilangan bulat oleh pecahan, pembagian pecahan oleh bilangan bulat, dan pembagian pecahan dengan pecahan. Penggunakan pendekatan iceberg dalam pembelajaran matema...

  10. Sensitivity Analysis for Iceberg Geometry Shape in Ship-Iceberg Collision in View of Different Material Models

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Gao; Zhiqiang Hu; Jin Wang

    2014-01-01

    The increasing marine activities in Arctic area have brought growing interest in ship-iceberg collision study. The purpose of this paper is to study the iceberg geometry shape effect on the collision process. In order to estimate the sensitivity parameter, five different geometry iceberg models and two iceberg material models are adopted in the analysis. The FEM numerical simulation is used to predict the scenario and the related responses. The simulation results including energy dissipation ...

  11. Don't Ignore the Iceberg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Hovorka, Dirk S.

    2013-01-01

    Design theory is often an outcome of Design Science Research (DSR) and kernel theories provide explanatory justification of design principles. But like an iceberg, many of the design principles lie hidden under the surface or inadequately specified. Ascertaining the completeness of the design...... development, and the subsequent secondary design that took place in a financial company. Analysis reveals an “iceberg phenomenon”; only a partial design justification was initially apparent, and underlying design assumptions are only revealed through deeper reflection and analysis. We conclude by providing...

  12. Quad-Polarimetric SAR for Detection and Characterization of Icebergs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, V.; Brekke, C.; Doulgeris, A. P.; Storvold, R.; Silvertsen, A.

    2016-08-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of fully polarimetric SAR data in iceberg detection and characterization. The study aims to explore the potential of RADARSAT- 2 SAR data to detect icebergs and growlers in Svalbard that have broken off from the glaciers nearby. To be able to detect iceberg/growlers in a SAR image, a significant contrast between iceberg and background clutter is required. The sublook cross-correlation magnitude (SCM) is extracted from the complex cross-correlation between subapeture images and contrast between iceberg and sea clutter is measured. The results of target-to-clutter ratio from the SCM indicate that the sublook analysis has an impact on detection performance.

  13. Tracking B-31 iceberg with two aircraft deployed sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Jones

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Icebergs are a natural hazard to maritime operations in polar regions. Iceberg populations are increasing, as is the demand for access to both Arctic and Antarctic seas. Soon the ability to reliably track icebergs may become a necessity for continued operational safety. The temporal and spatial coverage of remote sensing instruments is limited, and must be supplemented with in situ measurements. In this paper we describe the design of a tracking sensor that can be deployed from a fixed-wing aircraft during iceberg surveys, and detail the results of its first deployment operation on iceberg B-31.

  14. Effect of a sheared flow on iceberg motion and melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzMaurice, A.; Straneo, F.; Cenedese, C.; Andres, M.

    2016-12-01

    Icebergs account for approximately half the freshwater flux into the ocean from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets and play a major role in the distribution of meltwater into the ocean. Global climate models distribute this freshwater by parameterizing iceberg motion and melt, but these parameterizations are presently informed by limited observations. Here we present a record of speed and draft for 90 icebergs from Sermilik Fjord, southeastern Greenland, collected in conjunction with wind and ocean velocity data over an 8 month period. It is shown that icebergs subject to strongly sheared flows predominantly move with the vertical average of the ocean currents. If, as typical in iceberg parameterizations, only the surface ocean velocity is taken into account, iceberg speed and basal melt may have errors in excess of 60%. These results emphasize the need for parameterizations to consider ocean properties over the entire iceberg draft.

  15. Oribátidos (Acari: Oribatida de la Selva Marginal de Punta Lara, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia ACCATTOLI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se relevaron diversos biotopos de la Selva Marginal de Punta Lara, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, para conocer el elenco de ácaros oribátidos que allí habitan. Se hallaron 28 especies, de las que siete resultaron nuevas para Argentina: Epilohmannia sculpturata Balogh & Mahunka, Nothrus willmanni Mahunka, Xenillus (Xenillus fecundus P. Balogh, Xenillus (Xenillus superbus (Perez-Íñigo & Baggio, Zetomimus (Protozetomimus polpaicoensis (Hammer, Pseudotocepheus (Pseudotocepheus pauliensis Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio y Lohmannia (Lohmannia juliae Mahunka. El biotopo más diverso resultó la hojarasca de la selva con 20 especies. Se discuten cuestiones zoogeográficas del sistema estudiado.

  16. Don't Ignore the Iceberg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Hovorka, Dirk S.

    2013-01-01

    Design theory is often an outcome of Design Science Research (DSR) and kernel theories provide explanatory justification of design principles. But like an iceberg, many of the design principles lie hidden under the surface or inadequately specified. Ascertaining the completeness of the design pri...

  17. Sensitivity Analysis for Iceberg Geometry Shape in Ship-Iceberg Collision in View of Different Material Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing marine activities in Arctic area have brought growing interest in ship-iceberg collision study. The purpose of this paper is to study the iceberg geometry shape effect on the collision process. In order to estimate the sensitivity parameter, five different geometry iceberg models and two iceberg material models are adopted in the analysis. The FEM numerical simulation is used to predict the scenario and the related responses. The simulation results including energy dissipation and impact force are investigated and compared. It is shown that the collision process and energy dissipation are more sensitive to iceberg local shape than other factors when the elastic-plastic iceberg material model is applied. The blunt iceberg models act rigidly while the sharp ones crush easily during the simulation process. With respect to the crushable foam iceberg material model, the iceberg geometry has relatively small influence on the collision process. The spherical iceberg model shows the most rigidity for both iceberg material models and should be paid the most attention for ice-resist design for ships.

  18. Algunos aspectos de la reproducción en Anadara tuberculosa (Pelecypoda: Arcidae) de Punta Morales, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael A Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Algunos aspectos del ciclo reproductivo de 1094 ejemplares de la piangua Anadara tuberculosa fueron estudiados en Punta Morales desde mayo de 1980 hasta abril de 1981, utilizando los métodos de observación macroscópica y frotis gonadal. El porcentaje de machos (43,48%) Y el de hembras (42,67%) fue aproximadamente de 1 : 1. El porcentaje promedio de los ejemplares indeterminados fue de 13,84% con un valor máximo de 42% en junio de 1980 y uno mínimo en diciembre de 1980 de 0,0%.Durante todo el ...

  19. Gobernanza de la infraestructura y sustentabilidad ecosistémica en Punta Colonet, Baja California, México Governance of infrastructure and ecosystem sustainability in Punta Colonet, Baja California state, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo V. Santes Álvarez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia la problemática sociopolítica y ambiental de la probable construcción del puerto de Punta Colonet, en Baja California. Anunciado como el principal proyecto de infraestructura del gobierno federal, su concepción olvida objetivos de conservación de recursos e intereses locales. El surgimiento de la dualidad entre "desarrollistas" y "conservacionistas" solamente enmascara una preocupación mayor: la fortaleza institucional. Consecuentemente, el análisis se sustenta en términos de normativas, actuación gubernamental y participación social. Asimismo, se presenta una propuesta de equilibrio entre infraestructura y sustentabilidad mediante un esquema alternativo de gobernación, el cual sugiere acordar la creación de un área esencial para la conservación.This article studies the sociopolitical and environmental problems associated with the likely construction of a port at Punta Colonet in Baja California State. Announced as the federal government's main infrastructure project, it overlooks earlier commitments to conserving local resources and interests. The confrontation that has emerged between "developmentalists" and "conservationists" glosses over a major concern: institutional strength. As a result, the analysis is mainly based on regulations, government action and social participation. Moreover, a balance is proposed between infrastructure and sustainability through an alternative governance framework, whereby an area would be created especially for conservation.

  20. On the Iceberg Style of Ernest Hemingway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洪宁

    2007-01-01

    Comments on Hemingway's style have seemed to agree on the simplicity and apparent naturalness of his prose, and its effect of profoundity. The principle of iceberg, which Hemingway adopts in his literary creation, was the main reason attracting readers and critics. The whole art of the principle is concision and profoundity, or saying what you mean in the fewest and clearest words. This essay mainly clarifies the connotation of the two parts of "iceberg"-the one eighth and the seven eighths ; and the relations between them. It emphatically expounds how the writer uses the symbolism technique and how his language reaches a unique impact. In the last part of it, the author of the essay traces back to the key elements forming the principle and gives a pertinent conclusion on the style.

  1. La Modernidad más austral de Chile: el edificio de la U.T.E. en Punta Arenas (1964-1968, un ilustre desconocido./Modernity of southernmost Chile: the building of the UTE Punta Arenas (1964-1968, an illustrious unknown.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre González, Max

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El edificio de la Universidad Técnica del Estado (1964-1968 en Punta Arenas (latitud 53°8´53,3” sur, longitud 70°55´41,72” oeste jalona una etapa de la modernidad local y pone en evidencia la ambigüedad del término moderno, que obliga a la precisión de la categoría cada vez que circunscribimos el estudio a un caso específico como éste. /The building of the State Technical University (1964-1968 in Punta Arenas (latitude 53 ° 8'53, 3 "south, longitude 70 ° 55'41, 72" W marks out a stage in the local currency and highlights the ambiguity of the modern term, which requires the precision of each time category limits the study to a specific case like this.

  2. Aspects of Iceberg Deterioration and Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, S. B.

    During her maiden voyage from Southampton to New York, the ocean liner RMS Titanic struck an iceberg off the Newfoundland Banks and sank on April 15, 1912. Of the 2228 passengers and crew on board, only 705 survived. This tragedy generated a public outcry that subsequently provoked government action. Representatives of the world's various maritime powers signed a convention in 1914 to inaugurate an international derelict-destruction, ice observation, and ice patrol service. Today, the International Ice Patrol (IIP) is comprised of 17 member national organizations (including Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Panama, Poland, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America). Its mission is "to monitor the extent of the iceberg danger near the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and provide limits of all known ice to the maritime community". In addition to participation in the IIP, several countries have the ir own independent organizations that keep track of individual iceberg positions, trajectories, size and melt decay in Northern waters. Typically, this is accomplished through the use of satellites (RADARSAT), aerial reconnaissance making use of Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) and Forward-Looking Airborne Radar (FLAR), as well as observations from commercial shipping.

  3. La cuestión de la sexualidad dentro del psicoanálisis (Controversia y perspectivas históricas

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    Carlos Frigola Serra

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la teoría de la seducción, los orígenes clínicos de la histeria y el papel de la represión de la sexualidad en el psicoanálisis, a partir de las experiencias tempranas de FREUD en París y su posterior relación epistolar con W FUESS. La aparición de material histórico inédito ha permitido conocer una faceta de FREUD que estaba oculta a la opinión científica. La aparición de la segunda generación de psicoanalistas no hizo más que revivir los viejos conflictos teóricos y prácticos, en particular la relación entre FENICHEL y RE/CH. Ello nos da un mayor sentido de perspectiva de la historia temprana del psicoanálisis, además de acercarnos hacia un tema que se sitúa dentro de la sociología, la psiquiatría y la jurisprudencia: la aparición pública del incesto, la punta del iceberg de una realidad social que no puede ser ignorada por más tiempo.

  4. PENDEKATAN ICEBERG DALAM PEMBELAJARAN PEMBAGIAN PECAHAN DI SEKOLAH DASAR

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    Saleh Haji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini membahas pengaruh pendekatan iceberg pada pembelajaran pembagian pecahan di Sekolah Dasar.Tahapan pendekatan iceberg tersebut sebagai berikut: 1. Orientasi lingkungan secara matematis, 2. Model material, 3. Pembuatan pondasi, dan 4. Matematika formal. Sedangkan topik pembagian pecahan yang dibahas terdiri atas: pembagian bilangan bulat oleh pecahan, pembagian pecahan oleh bilangan bulat, dan pembagian pecahan dengan pecahan. Penggunakan pendekatan iceberg dalam pembelajaran matematika diharapkan dapat mengatasi kesulitan siswa SD dalam memahami materi pecahan khususnya pembagian pecahan. Kata Kunci    : Pendekatan Iceberg, Pembagian Pecahan     This paper discusses the influence of iceberg approach to learning division of fractions in school Dasar.Tahapan iceberg approach is as follows: 1. Mathematically oriented environment, 2. Material model, 3. Making foundations, and 4. Formal mathematics. While the division of fractions topics covered consist of: integer division by fractions, division of fractions by integers, and division of fractions by fractions. Use of the iceberg in mathematics learning approach is expected to overcome the difficulties in the elementary school students understand the material fractions in particular the division of fractions.  Key words : Iceberg approach, division of fractions.

  5. Evaluación de riesgo por deslizamiento en el yacimiento Punta Gorda, Moa, Holguín

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    Yuri Almaguer-Carmenate

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available La existencia de taludes inestables dentro del sistema de explotación del yacimiento ferroniquelifero de Punta Gorda, presupone un riesgo que se manifiesta en la ocurrencia de deslizamientos. El presente trabajo se realiza con el objetivo fundamental de determinar en el yacimiento las zonas de riesgo, para esto se aplicó en complejo de métodos que abarcaron campañas de mediciones en el campo, estudios hidrogeológicos, geomecánicos y análisis de estabilidad de taludes. Como resultados brinda una caracterización de los taludes, las propiedades hidrogeológicas de los horizontes lateríticos, además de las características físico-mecánicas y geomecánicas de las rocas y, finalmente, se presenta el mapa de riesgos por deslizamiento para el yacimiento.

  6. [The phytoplankton community of Punta Morales, Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnoli Olivera, E; Morales Ramirez, A

    2001-12-01

    Three daily samplings of the phytoplankton community were made at two consecutive days in March, April, May, September, October, November and December 1997, at Punta Morales, Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica. Samples were collected during each tide at depths of 50% and 10% of light penetration using a Niskin bottle. A total of 43 taxa were identified. Centric diatoms, pennates and flagellates represented 90% of total phytoplankton abundance. In the phytoplankton fraction (cells > 30 microm), diatoms were the most abundant group, and Skeletonema costatum (32%) dominated. In nannophytoplankton (cells < 30 microm), Chaetoceros (23.7%) was the most abundant taxon, followed by flagellates (23%) and Cylindrotheca closterium (13.1%). These results agree with previous surveys and suggest that a typical net phytoplankton community persist through time in the Punta Morales zone. The number of nannophytoplankton fraction cells varied seasonally and suggests quantitative changes in species abundance, with possible modifications of cellular size or chain length in filamentous species. The codominance between S. costatum and Chaetoceros spp. during the rainy season suggested the ocurrence of an early ecological sucession, and nutrients could be the factor generating such population changes.

  7. La punta de muesca de tipo mediterráneo: análisis tecnológico y funcional

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    Muñoz Ibáñez, Francisco J.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of the shouldered point of mediterranean type, coming from the Upper Evolved Solutrean levels of "La Cueva de Ambrosio” (Almería, Spain. This type of proyectile points are characterized from morphological and typometrical parameters. A theoretical model is also proposed to explain the manufacturing processes and their effect on the archaeological record. Finally, the exhaustive analysis of these arrowheads makes it possible to establish some hypotheses on the functioning of their set systems and propulsion systems.

    En este trabajo se aborda el estudio de las puntas de muesca de tipo mediterráneo, procedentes del yacimiento solutrense de La Cueva de Ambrosio (Vélez Blanco, Almería y que se encuadran en el Solutrense Superior Evolucionado. Este tipo de proyectiles se caracterizan a partir de parámetros morfológicos y tipométricos. Asimismo, se propone un modelo teórico sobre los procesos de fabricación y su repercusión en el registro arqueológico. Por último, el análisis exhaustivo de estas puntas de proyectil permite establecer algunas hipótesis sobre su funcionalidad en relación a los sistemas de engaste y de propulsión.

  8. A Coupled Ocean-Iceberg Model Over The 20th Century: Iceberg Flux At 48°N As A Proxy For Greenland Iceberg Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigg, G. R.; Wilton, D.; Hanna, E.

    2013-12-01

    Grant R. Bigg1 , David J. Wilton1 and Edward Hanna1 1Department of Geography, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2TN We have used a coupled ocean-iceberg model, the Fine Resolution Greenland and Labrador ocean model [1], to study the variation in, and trajectory of, icebergs over the twentieth century, focusing particularly on Greenland and surrounding areas. The model is forced with daily heat, freshwater and wind fluxes derived from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project [2]. We use the observed iceberg flux at 48°N off Newfoundland (I48N) from 1900 to 2008 [3] to assess the iceberg component of the model. Model I48N is calculated with both a variable and constant annual calving rate. The results show that ocean and atmosphere changes alone do not account for the variation in observed I48N and suggests that this series can be used as a proxy for iceberg discharge from west Greenland tidewater glaciers. The implication of this proxy is that there is significant interannual variability in Greenland iceberg discharge over the whole twentieth century. Our model results suggest that in the early decades of the twentieth century I48N was dominated by icebergs originating from south Greenland (below latitude 65°N) with west Greenland becoming the main source of I48N from the late 1930s onwards. Modeled icebergs from the east of Greenland very rarely reach 48°N. We also present results from the ocean model showing the variation of ocean transport fluxes over the course of the twentieth and early twenty first century. References 1. M. R. Wadley, and G. R. Bigg, (2002), Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 128, 2187-2203 2. G. P. Compo, et al. (2011), Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 137, 1-28 3. D. L. Murphy (2011) http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/?pageName=IIPIcebergCounts

  9. Abordaje de la punta nasal problemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Soria

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Las puntas nasales globulosas, cuadradas, bífidas, hipoproyectadas, hiperproyectadas o asimétricas, son consideradas problemáticas o dificultosas. Para su tratamiento, en las rinoplastias primarias, debemos abordar los cartílagos alares a través de las incisiones intercartilaginosa y transfixiante interseptocolumelar, primero y paramarginal después. Se disecan por ambas caras y se exteriorizan por una de las narinas. Así expuestos, se les pueden realizar con mayor precisión las correcciones necesarias. Una vez repuestos los cartílagos a su nueva posición, llevaremos a cabo la síntesis de la incisión paramarginal con puntos separados. Los demás pasos de la rinoplastia se pueden efectuar según técnica de elección para cada cirujano.

  10. Manejo inicial de las lesiones de punta de dedo: guía de tratamiento basado en la experiencia en el Hospital San José

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Torres-Fuentes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Las lesiones de punta de dedo son las más frecuentes del miembro superior y constituyen una causa importante de atención en urgencias en los hospitales de Colombia, pues generan incapacidad laboral y funcional por amputaciones de la falange distal. El tratamiento de este tipo de lesiones tiene como objetivo restablecer la función de la punta de dedo, mejorando la calidad de vida del paciente. Objetivo. Plantear un protocolo de manejo aplicable en este tipo de lesiones. Materiales y métodos. Se presentan 91 casos de pacientes con lesión en punta de dedo como diagnóstico de ingreso. Se determinó el mecanismo de lesión, sexo, dominancia manual, si hubo lesión del lecho ungueal y si se presentaron fracturas asociadas. En los casos de amputación se intentó aplicar la clasificación de Allen, pero no fue útil, ya que la mayoría de lesiones fueron producidas por objetos cortocontundentes que generaron lesiones irregulares en tejidos blandos y pérdida de la uña. Por ello, se estableció una clasificación que permite ejecutar las diferentes alternativas de manejo. Resultados. Se evidenció una mayor incidencia en hombres. La mano más afectada fue la derecha; en la mayoría de los casos era la mano dominante. Asimismo, los dedos más afectados fueron el segundo y el tercero. El mecanismo de lesión más frecuentemente reportado fue el trauma por aplastamiento con objeto cortocontundente. Conclusión. La clasificación de Allen no fue útil en ningún caso, por lo cual se aplicó la clasificación y protocolo de manejo sugerido por los autores.

  11. Ocean Fertilization from Giant Icebergs on Earth and Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uceda, E. R.; Fairen, A. G.; Rodriguez, J. A. P.; Woodworth-Lynas, C.

    2016-05-01

    Assuming that life existed on Mars coeval to glacial activity, enhanced concentrations of organic carbon could be anticipated near iceberg trails, analogous to what is observed in polar oceans on Earth.

  12. La industria osea de El Portalón de Cueva Mayor (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos. Biapuntados, puntas de flecha y agujas, morfología y funcionalidad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alday, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una parte de la colección ósea de El Portalón de Cueva Mayor de Atapuerca, En concreto se analiza la categoría de Apuntados, distribuyendo los objetos en sus diversos tipos y contextualizándolos cultural y cronológicamente. El lote se encuadra desde finales del Calcolítico al Bronce medio, y reúne piezas singulares para las que se pueden proponer intercambios de larga distancia, y objetos más comunes quizá, para el caso de las puntas de flecha, de producción local.

  13. Analysis of accidental iceberg impacts with membrane tank LNG carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Myhre, Stine Aas

    2010-01-01

    The probability of ship-iceberg impacts are increasing due to increasing production and due to more transportation routes near arctic areas. The first part of this thesis is an introduction to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and the LNG carriers, particularly LNG carriers with membrane type cargo containment system.Some theory regarding the principles of Non Linear Finite Element Analysis (NLFEA) and ship-iceberg collision is briefly described.A detailed finite element model of the cargo tank is ...

  14. Laboratory investigations of seismicity caused by iceberg calving and capsize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathles, L. M. M., IV; Kaluzienski, L. M.; Burton, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The calving and capsize of cubic kilometer-sized icebergs in both Greenland and Antarctica are known to be the source of long-period seismic events classified as glacial earthquakes. The ability to monitor both calving events and the mass of ice calved using the Global Seismographic Network is quite attractive, however, the basic physics of these large calving events must be understood to develop a robust relationship between seismic magnitude and mass of ice calved. The amplitude and duration of the seismic signal is expected to be related to the mass of the calved iceberg and the magnitude of the acceleration of the iceberg's center of mass, yet a simple relationship between these quantities has proved difficult to develop from in situ observations or numerical models. To address this, we developed and carried out a set of experiments on a laboratory scale model of iceberg calving. These experiments were designed to measure several aspects of the post-fracture calving process. Our results show that a combination of mechanical contact forces and hydrodynamic pressure forces are generated by the capsize of an iceberg adjacent to a glacier's terminus. These forces combine to produce the net horizontal centroid single force (CSF) which is often used to model glacial earthquake sources. We find that although the amplitude and duration of the force applied to the terminus generally increases with the iceberg mass, the details depend on the geometry of the iceberg and the depth of the water. The resulting seismic signal is thus crucially dependent on hydrodynamics of the capsize process.

  15. Giant Icebergs and Biological Productivity on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uceda, E.; Fairen, A. G.; Woodworth-Lynas, C.

    2016-12-01

    We have previously presented evidence for furrows, dump structures and chains of craters that we interpret as indication for giant iceberg transport and grounding on very cold oceans on early Mars, both in the northern plains and in the Hellas basin. Structures include: 1. Furrows: The furrows are located in elevated areas or on local topographic highs, particularly on the Hellas basin. We interpret these features in terms of iceberg rafting and grounding. 2. Chains of craters: High-resolution images of Utopia and Isidis Basins reveal chains of crater-like structures several hundred meters wide and 1 to 5 km long. 3. Dump structures: Dark boulder clusters are revealed at large scales by their slightly darker tonality with respect to the surrounding terrain. These clusters have sizes ranging from several hundred meters to 1-2 km. On Earth's oceans, giant icebergs release melting water containing nanoparticulate iron and other micronutrients, which support biological metabolism and growth to the near-coastal euphotic ecosystems, many of which are iron limited. This iron limitation of primary producers has been documented in large regions of the Earth's oceans, most notably in polar areas proximal to significant glacial activity, and is counterbalanced by the substantial enrichment of terrigenous material supplied by icebergs. The biological productivity extends hundreds of kilometres from the giant icebergs, and persists for over one month after the iceberg passes. Here we propose that giant iceberg activity on early Mars could have promoted a similar enhancing of biological productivity on the planet's oceans. The identification of specific biosignatures in icebergs trails on Earth could give clues as to what kind of biosignatures could be expected on the ancient Mars ocean floors, and where to look for them. In particular, assuming that life existed on Mars coeval to glacial activity, enhanced concentrations of organic carbon could be anticipated near giant iceberg

  16. Guidance and control of iceberg towing operation in open water, with experimental testing

    OpenAIRE

    Sundland, Mika Nikolai

    2013-01-01

    Icebergs pose serious threats to existing and planned offshore structures, vessels, and operations in Arctic waters such as the East Coast of Canada, East and West Greenland, the Barents Sea, and the Kara Sea. A collision between an offshore installation and an iceberg could cause serious damage to the installation, and in a worst case scenario take life. Therefore, if an iceberg is evaluated as a threat, physical iceberg management must be mobilized to mitigate the threat. For open water, th...

  17. Modelling Southern Ocean iceberg drift and decay with FESOM-IB

    OpenAIRE

    Rackow, Thomas; Wesche, Christine; Timmermann, Ralph; Juricke, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Icebergs are commonly ignored in current general circulation models despite their connections to ocean stratification, phytoplankton growth and redistribution of freshwater in the Southern Ocean. On the way to fully including icebergs in ocean circulation models, we present FESOM-IB, the high resolution Finite Element Sea Ice - Ocean Model (FESOM) enhanced by an IceBerg drift and decay module developed at AWI Bremerhaven. By solving the momentum equations for iceberg drift, ...

  18. Numerical modeling of glacial earthquakes induced by iceberg capsize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, A.; Yastrebov, V.; Castelnau, O.; Mangeney, A.; Stutzmann, E.; Montagner, J. P.; Burton, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Glacial earthquakes is a class of seismic events of magnitude up to 5, occurring primarily in Greenland, in the margins of large marine-terminated glaciers with near-grounded termini. They are caused by calving of cubic-kilometer scale unstable icebergs which penetrate the full-glacier thickness and, driven by the buoyancy forces, capsize against the calving front. These phenomena produce seismic energy including surface waves with dominant energy between 10-150 s of period whose seismogenic source is compatible with the contact force exerted on the terminus by the iceberg while it capsizes. A reverse motion and posterior rebound of the terminus have also been measured and associated with the fluctuation of this contact force. Using a finite element model of iceberg and glacier terminus coupled with simplified fluid-structure interaction model, we simulate calving and capsize of icebergs. Contact and frictional forces are measured on the terminus and compared with laboratory experiments. We also study the influence of various factors, such as iceberg geometry, calving style and terminus interface. Being extended to field environments, the simulation results are compared with forces obtained by seismic waveform inversion of registered glacial earthquakes.

  19. Numerical modelling of iceberg calving force responsible for glacial earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Amandine; Yastrebov, Vladislav; Castelnau, Olivier; Mangeney, Anne; Stutzmann, Eleonore; Montagner, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Glacial earthquakes is a class of seismic events of magnitude up to 5, occurring primarily in Greenland, in the margins of large marine-terminated glaciers with near-grounded termini. They are caused by calving of cubic-kilometer scale unstable icebergs which penetrate the full-glacier thickness and, driven by the buoyancy forces, capsize against the calving front. These phenomena produce seismic energy including surface waves with dominant energy between 10-150 s of period whose seismogenic source is compatible with the contact force exerted on the terminus by the iceberg while it capsizes. A reverse motion and posterior rebound of the terminus have also been measured and associated with the fluctuation of this contact force. Using a finite element model of iceberg and glacier terminus coupled with simplified fluid-structure interaction model, we simulate calving and capsize of icebergs. Contact and frictional forces are measured on the terminus and compared with laboratory experiments. We also study the influence of geometric factors on the force history, amplitude and duration at the laboratory and field scales. We show first insights into the force and the generated seismic waves exploring different scenarios for iceberg capsizing.

  20. The "footloose" mechanism: Iceberg decay from hydrostatic stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Till J. W.; Wadhams, Peter; Bates, Richard; Elosegui, Pedro; Stern, Alon; Vella, Dominic; Abrahamsen, E. Povl; Crawford, Anna; Nicholls, Keith W.

    2014-08-01

    We study a mechanism of iceberg breakup that may act together with the recognized melt and wave-induced decay processes. Our proposal is based on observations from a recent field experiment on a large ice island in Baffin Bay, East Canada. We observed that successive collapses of the overburden from above an unsupported wavecut at the iceberg waterline created a submerged foot fringing the berg. The buoyancy stresses induced by such a foot may be sufficient to cause moderate-sized bergs to break off from the main berg. A mathematical model is developed to test the feasibility of this mechanism. The results suggest that once the foot reaches a critical length, the induced stresses are sufficient to cause calving. The theoretically predicted maximum stable foot length compares well to the data collected in situ. Further, the model provides analytical expressions for the previously observed "rampart-moat" iceberg surface profiles.

  1. MARCADORES MOLECULARES ASOCIADOS CON RESISTENCIA A LA ENFERMEDAD PUNTA MORADA EN PAPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferm\\u00EDn Orona-Castro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar marcadores DNA Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar (RAPDs y Secuencias Simples Repetidas (SSR s también conocidos como Mi crosatélites asocia dos con la resistencia al daño causado por fitoplasmas en papa. Se evaluó la severidad de la punta morada de la papa (PMP y la apa rición de color pardo en el tubérculo, así como también se realizaron análisis moleculares en varie dades y líneas avanzadas de papa . El estudio se realizó en el laboratorio de biotecnología de la Facultad de Cie ncia s Biológicas de la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León - Instituto Na cional de Investigaciones Forestales Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INI FAP, México en el 2003 y 2004. Las técnicas utilizadas fueron RAPDs y SSRs también conocido microsatélites. Tres genotip os mostraron resistencia a la apa rición del color pardo deltubérculo, mie ntras que del análisis molecular seis materia les formaron un grupo que incluyó los genotip os con valores de daño mínimos (entre uno y tres de la escala. Los genotip os restantes formaron dos grupos con presencia de color pardo en el tubérculo mayor (entre cinco y siete. Se identificaron marcadores moleculares posiblemente asocia dos con tolerancia a la coloración parda del tubérculo. En el análisis de componentes principa les y el dendograma generado los materia les que presentaron menor severidad de daño, quedaron incluidos en un mismo grupo, mie ntras que materia les con mayor severidad de daño quedaron en un grupo diferente

  2. Hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones wetland area, Ponce, southern Puerto Rico, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Soler-López, Luis R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Municipio Autónomo de Ponce and the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, conducted a study of the hydrogeology and hydrology of the Punta Cabullones area in Ponce, southern Puerto Rico. (Punta Cabullones is also referred to as Punta Cabullón.) The Punta Cabullones area is about 9 square miles and is an ecological system made up of a wetland, tidal flats, saltflats, mangrove forests, and a small fringing reef located a short distance offshore. The swales or depressions between successive beach ridges became development avenues for saline to hypersaline wetlands. The Punta Cabullones area was designated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as a coastal barrier in the 1980s because of its capacity to act as a buffer zone to ameliorate the impacts of natural phenomenon such as storm surges. Since 2003, Punta Cabullones has been set aside for preservation as part of the mitigation effort mandated by Federal and State laws to compensate for the potential environmental effects that might be caused by the construction of the Las Américas Transshipment Port. Total rainfall measured during 2008 within the Punta Cabullones area was 36 inches, which is slightly greater than the long-term annual average of 32 inches for the coastal plain near Ponce. Two evapotranspiration estimates, 29 and 37 inches, were obtained for the subarea of the Punta Cabullones area that is underlain by fan-delta and alluvial deposits by using two variants of the Penman semi-empirical equation. The long-term water stage and chemical character of the wetland in Punta Cabullones are highly dependent on the seasonal and annual variations of both rainfall and sea-wave activity. Also, unseasonal short-term above-normal rainfall and sea-wave events resulting from passing storms may induce substantial changes in the water stage and the chemical character of the wetland. In general, tidal fluctuations exert a minor role in

  3. La ciudad y el viento : la morfología urbana y su relación con el uso estancial del espacio público abierto en territorios con vientos fuertes y climas fríos : el caso de la ciudad de Punta Arenas, región de Magallanes, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante Oleart, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo ahonda en el conocimiento del viento urbano. La investigación pasa revista a la historia de la relación del viento y la ciudad y revisa tres pares de disciplinas implicadas en comprender mejor dicha relación: la arquitectura y el urbanismo, la meteorología y la climatología y, por último, la ingeniería aeroespacial y la aerodinámica civil. Se estudian el comportamiento y la fluidez del viento al desplazarse por cuerpos romos no fuselados (los edificios y la trama urbana), ...

  4. Does Sea Level Change when a Floating Iceberg Melts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Boon Leong

    2010-01-01

    On the answer page to a recent "Figuring Physics" question, the cute mouse asks another question: "Does the [sea] water level change if the iceberg melts?" The conventional answer is "no." However, in this paper I will show through a simple analysis involving Archimedes' principle that the sea level will rise. The analysis shows the wrong…

  5. The 'footloose' mechanism: Iceberg decay from hydrostatic stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, T. J. W.; Wadhams, P.; Bates, C. R.; Elosegui, P.; Stern, A. A.; Vella, D.; Abrahamsen, E. P.; Crawford, A. J.; Nicholls, K. W.

    2014-12-01

    We study a mechanism of iceberg breakup that may act together with the recognized melt and wave-induced decay processes. Our proposal is based on observations from a recent field experiment on a large ice island in Baffin Bay, East Canada. We observed that successive collapses of the overburden from above an unsupported wavecut at the iceberg waterline created a submerged foot fringing the berg. The buoyancy stresses induced by such a foot may be sufficient to cause moderate-sized bergs to break off from the main berg. A mathematical model is developed to test the feasibility of this mechanism. The results suggest that once the foot reaches a critical length, the induced stresses are sufficient to cause calving. The theoretically predicted maximum stable foot length compares well to the data collected in situ. Further, the model provides analytical expressions for the previously observed 'rampart-moat' iceberg surface profiles. Finally, we comment on the implications for the calving of icebergs from shelf fronts, where similar underwater 'feet' have been observed.

  6. Does Sea Level Change when a Floating Iceberg Melts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Boon Leong

    2010-01-01

    On the answer page to a recent "Figuring Physics" question, the cute mouse asks another question: "Does the [sea] water level change if the iceberg melts?" The conventional answer is "no." However, in this paper I will show through a simple analysis involving Archimedes' principle that the sea level will rise. The analysis shows the wrong…

  7. Parametric Study of the Roundhead for the New Port of La Coruna at Punta Langosteira

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Haagensen, Per

    The Port of La Coruna, Spain is to be expanded by a new port at Punta Langosteria. The Port Authority of La Coruna has by contract of October 28, 2002, retained the Hydraulic and Coastal Engineering Laboratory at Aalborg University, Denmark, to make a systematic model test study of the breakwater...

  8. Three-Dimensional Model Test Study of Xbloc Armoured Breakwaters at Punta Catalina, Dominican Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, Mads Sønderstrup; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    The present report presents results from a three-dimensional model test study carried out at Aalborg University in the period June 2015 – August 2015. The objectives of the model tests were to study the stability of the Xbloc armoured breakwaters at Punta Catalina under short-crested wave attack...

  9. TURISMO Y DESARROLLO SOSTENIBLE. EL CASO DE PUNTA UMBRÍA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la O Barroso González

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Present paper analyzes the applications of sustainability paradigm in the tourism and the connection between tourism and sustainable development. It analyzes the importance of the Local Agenda 21 in the sustainable development too. It finally analyzes the applications of Local Agenda 21 in the Punta Umbria municipality and the tourism importance in this process.

  10. The effects of Antarctic iceberg calving-size distribution in a global climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, A. A.; Adcroft, A.; Sergienko, O.

    2016-08-01

    Icebergs calved from the Antarctic continent act as moving sources of freshwater while drifting in the Southern Ocean. The lifespan of these icebergs strongly depends on their original size during calving. In order to investigate the effects (if any) of the calving size of icebergs on the Southern Ocean, we use a coupled general circulation model with an iceberg component. Iceberg calving length is varied from 62 m up to 2.3 km, which is the typical range used in climate models. Results show that increasing the size of calving icebergs leads to an increase in the westward iceberg freshwater transport around Antarctica. In simulations using larger icebergs, the reduced availability of meltwater in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas suppresses the sea-ice growth in the region. In contrast, the increased iceberg freshwater transport leads to increased sea-ice growth around much of the East Antarctic coastline. These results suggest that the absence of large tabular icebergs with horizontal extent of tens of kilometers in climate models may introduces systematic biases in sea-ice formation, ocean temperatures, and salinities around Antarctica.

  11. Ambient Seismic Signals Observed in Iceberg?Filled Waters of the Ross Sea, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macayeal, D. R.; Okal, E. A.; Aster, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    A two-year seismometer deployment on various icebergs in the Ross Sea and on the Ross Ice Shelf (PASSCAL project SOUTHBERG) have produced an unusual seismological "tone poem" constituting a sample of ambient conditions in an iceberg-covered, coastal sea of Antarctica. The original motivation of the project was to investigate the source of signals seen as T-phases in the equatorial Pacific [e.g., Talandier et al., 2002]. During the periods of continuous seismometer operation (i.e., during the October - April periods of 2003-4 and 2004-5 when photovoltaic charging systems kept seismometers in operation) on icebergs B15A, C16 and Nascent Iceberg (a site not yet calved from the Ross Ice Shelf), about 1300 events were observed (roughly one event per day). These events are attributed to the icebergs, and are loosely referred to as "iceberg tremor" due to their long duration (many hours) and spectral structure (e.g., characterized by clearly preferential frequencies in the 1-3 Hz range, accompanied by multiple harmonics of a variable-pitch fundamental). The purpose of this presentation is to give a general qualitative overview of the various categories of iceberg tremor, and to describe their relationship to other variables observed (e.g., iceberg drift velocity, iceberg-on-iceberg collision, iceberg-on-seabed scraping). Speculation on the cause or causes of iceberg tremor will be postponed pending further study. Suggestions as to the relationship between the ambient tone poem of iceberg-covered waters and hydro-acoustic and seismic signals seen in the ocean beyond Antarctica will be offered.

  12. Sonar-based iceberg-relative navigation for autonomous underwater vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Peter; Rock, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Iceberg-relative navigation for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) will enable a new mode of data collection for studies of free-floating icebergs. Compared to current data collection methods, autonomous underwater vehicles offer substantially expanded coverage area and continuous sampling. However, because icebergs translate and rotate through inertial space, standard vehicle navigation methods which rely on inertial sensors are unable to provide iceberg-relative position estimates. Presented here is a new iceberg-relative vehicle navigation technique which is an extension of existing work in terrain-relative navigation. The technique comprises a mapping step and localization step, each of which is modified here to account for the translation and the rotation of free-floating icebergs. In the mapping step, the AUV circumnavigates the iceberg at a sequence of constant depths, collecting multibeam sonar imagery of the iceberg's submerged surface. A map is then generated in post-processing by projecting these sonar data from their corresponding vehicle positions (accounting for iceberg motion) in a frame that is fixed to the iceberg. Overlapping sonar data from the beginning and end of a circumnavigation provide the information necessary to enforce self-consistency of the iceberg map. In the localization step, the AUV uses the previously generated map to determine its position and orientation with respect to the iceberg by correlating incoming sonar ranges with the map. The estimator works by maintaining explicit estimates not only of the vehicle position and orientation, but also of the iceberg translation and rotation rates through inertial space. Results from a proof-of-concept field demonstration of this new iceberg-relative AUV navigation technique prove the feasibility of both generating a self-consistent three-dimensional map of a moving iceberg and localizing a vehicle's position with respect to that iceberg. The data for the experiment were collected

  13. Effect of pressure on the vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, Hande Mutlu [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Denizli (Turkey); Ozturk, Harun Kemal [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, 20070 Kinikli, Denizli (Turkey)

    2009-05-15

    Vacuum cooling is known as a rapid evaporative cooling technique for any porous product which has free water. The aim of this paper is to apply vacuum cooling technique to the cooling of the iceberg lettuce and show the pressure effect on the cooling time and temperature decrease. The results of vacuum cooling are also compared with conventional cooling (cooling in refrigerator) for different temperatures. Vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce at 0.7 kPa is about 13 times faster than conventional cooling of iceberg lettuce at 6 C. It has been also found that it is not possible to decrease the iceberg lettuce temperature below 10 C if vacuum cooling method is used and vacuum pressure is set to 1.5 kPa. (author) [French] Le refroidissement sous vide est connu comme une technique evaporative rapide refroidissant pour n'importe quel produit poreux qui a de l'eau libre. Le but de ce papier est d'appliquer le refroidissement sous vide pour le refroidissement de la laitue et examiner l'effet de la pression sur le temps de refroidissement et la diminution de temperature. Les resultats de refroidissement sous vide sont aussi compares avec le refroidissement conventionnel (refroidissement dans le refrigerateur) pour les differentes temperatures. Le refroidissement a vide de laitue a 0.7 kPa est environ 13 fois plus vite que le refroidissement conventionnel de laitue croquante a 6 C. Il a ete aussi constate qu'il n'est pas possible de diminuer la temperature de laitue ci-dessous 10 C si le refroidissement sous vide est utilise comme methode et la pression a vide est montree a 1.5 kPa. (orig.)

  14. Ocean-driven thinning enhances iceberg calving and retreat of Antarctic ice shelves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Moore, John C; Cheng, Xiao; Gladstone, Rupert M; Bassis, Jeremy N; Liu, Hongxing; Wen, Jiahong; Hui, Fengming

    2015-03-17

    Iceberg calving from all Antarctic ice shelves has never been directly measured, despite playing a crucial role in ice sheet mass balance. Rapid changes to iceberg calving naturally arise from the sporadic detachment of large tabular bergs but can also be triggered by climate forcing. Here we provide a direct empirical estimate of mass loss due to iceberg calving and melting from Antarctic ice shelves. We find that between 2005 and 2011, the total mass loss due to iceberg calving of 755 ± 24 gigatonnes per year (Gt/y) is only half the total loss due to basal melt of 1516 ± 106 Gt/y. However, we observe widespread retreat of ice shelves that are currently thinning. Net mass loss due to iceberg calving for these ice shelves (302 ± 27 Gt/y) is comparable in magnitude to net mass loss due to basal melt (312 ± 14 Gt/y). Moreover, we find that iceberg calving from these decaying ice shelves is dominated by frequent calving events, which are distinct from the less frequent detachment of isolated tabular icebergs associated with ice shelves in neutral or positive mass balance regimes. Our results suggest that thinning associated with ocean-driven increased basal melt can trigger increased iceberg calving, implying that iceberg calving may play an overlooked role in the demise of shrinking ice shelves, and is more sensitive to ocean forcing than expected from steady state calving estimates.

  15. Exploration of ocean waves created by iceberg calving and capsize using SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macayeal, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    The interaction between icebergs, their parent ice shelves and the fluid in which they float (seawater) is one of the most demanding problems in glaciology because the interactions involve multiple widely divergent time scales, a variety of constitutive behaviors along with free surfaces and disconnected domains. As calving begins, compressibility and surface tension of seawater comes into play as free-falling ice encounters the ocean surface, producing jets of spray and filling the water with plumes of bubbles. As calving proceeds, incompressible hydrodynamics describes the interaction between the iceberg and the surface waves (tsunamis) the calving event creates in the ocean. In regions where the Froude number (which inversely measures the ability of the water to relieve pressure on the iceberg, ice shelf and seabed by radiating free-surface gravity waves) is greater than 1, hydraulic pressure coupling can produce extraordinary tensile and compressive stresses in the iceberg and ice shelf, triggering further calving. Eventually, a hydrostatic pressure regime develops in which icebergs may further evolve through capsize, which often produces such strong elastic stress within the iceberg sufficient to cause its disintegration. This presentation will focus on the use of SPH as a means of modeling ice/ocean interaction during iceberg calving. Goals of the investigation will be methodological and will evaluate the efficiency and accuracy of the computation of boundary forces which act on icebergs, ice shelves and seabed/fjord walls during iceberg calving and capsize.

  16. Geochemistry of fluids from submarine hot springs at Punta de Mita, Nayarit, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran, Y. A.; Inguaggiato, S.; Marin, M.; Yurova, L. M.

    2002-06-01

    Thermal springs with a maximum measured temperature of 89°C discharge hot water and gas from a depth of 11 m, 400 m offshore of Punta Pantoque, located in the northern part of Bahı´a de Banderas, near Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. The composition of all water samples collected from the sea bottom is close to that of sea water. Nevertheless, it was possible to estimate the thermal endmember composition by extrapolating the sulfate concentration to zero. This endmember is similar in chemical composition both to waters of the Rio Purificacion and La Tuna thermal springs, located to the South along the Pacific coast of the Jalisco Block, and to pore waters from the deep-sea drilling cores from some accretionary complexes. Gas composition as well as isotopic composition of He and carbon from CO 2, CH 4 and C 2H 6 suggests an essentially thermo-biogenic origin for the gas and the presence of a high proportion of radiogenic, crustal helium. Isotopic composition of He in the Punta de Mita gas (0.4 Ra) is the lowest ever measured in Mexican hydrothermal gases. These findings do not support the idea that there exists a direct connection between the Punta de Mita springs and the last volcanic events which occurred in this area at ˜3 Ma. Rather, this hydrothermal activity is related to deep active faulting and the existence of a deep regional aquifer or local aquifers of connate waters underlying the granites of the Jalisco Block.

  17. Micromorphology of diamicton affected by iceberg-keel scouring, Scoresby Sund, East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linch, Lorna D.; Dowdeswell, Julian A.

    2016-11-01

    Icebergs are important as agents of deposition and seafloor reworking on glacier-influenced continental margins. When the keel of an iceberg exceeds water depth it ploughs through soft sediments producing scours/ploughmarks that can be kilometres long, hundreds of metres wide and sometimes tens of metres deep. Because the influence of iceberg keels on sediment is a critical factor when offshore structures (e.g. pipelines, power cables) are installed, the surface morphology of iceberg scours on the seafloor is relatively well-documented. Less however, is known about sub-scour deformation below the seafloor. This is particularly true of iceberg scoured diamicton (poorly sorted sediment comprising a variety of particle sizes), which is present in many high-latitude fjords and continental shelves. The aim of this research is to examine directly (macroscopically and microscopically, with thin sections) the style and intensity of deformation caused by the scouring action of iceberg keels in diamicton offshore of East Greenland. Results show that a distinctive suite of deformation structures (individual structures and overprinted structural patterns) dominated by planar shear, sediment mixing and high porewater, and dropstones characterises iceberg scoured diamicton. In addition, diamicton from areas of high-intensity iceberg scouring tends to show a wider variety, higher frequency and distribution, more abundant and better-developed deformation structures than diamicton from areas of intermediate- and low-intensity iceberg scouring. Characterising the effects of iceberg scour in diamicton is important more widely to inform: i) reconstruction of the geometry and dynamics of former ice sheets; and ii) installation and protection of offshore engineering structures in diamicton where iceberg scouring presents a geohazard. The value of micromorphology is significant especially in the absence of macroscopic sediment exposures/outcrops where the study of cores is necessary

  18. Criptofauna en rocas de Punta Nizuc, Caribe mexicano y su utilidad como biomonitor potencial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Campos-Vázquez

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Para completar el diagnóstico de la calidad ambiental en el Parque Marino Nacional Isla Mujeres-Cancún-Nizuc Caribe mexicano, se estudió la posible utilidad de la criptofauna de rocas como monitora de impacto. Se trazó un transecto a lo largo de un gradiente de intensidad de visitantes a Punta Nizuc. Se visitaron tres lugares (1.5-4 m prof., a 50, 250 y 500 m de distancia de la plataforma turistica, y en cada uno de ellos se recogieron tres rocas. Los 1368 organismos encontrados fueron identificados y se distribuyen en 218 especies; los grupos de mayor riqueza específica fueron los poliquetos (64 spp, los moluscos (46 spp y los crustáceos (36 spp. Se estudió la variación en número y en biomasa a lo largo del supuesto gradiente ambiental, y también la relación de algunos descriptores de la comunidad (diversidad, dominancia con la distancia a la plataforma, con la densidad de la roca y con la profundidad. Se analizaron algunos índices que utilizan log10(biomasa + 1 y las curvas de abundancia-biomasa para determinar la calidad del ambiente. Se realizaron análisis de agrupamiento (Bray-Curtis y Jaccard para determinar la afinidad entre estaciones. Para evaluar la funcionalidad de la suficiencia taxonómica en fondos coralinos, se compararon los resultados de dominancia de Berger-Parker para las especies y familias. Las agrupaciones entre las rocas ilustran dos grupos principales, uno formado por las rocas recolectadas cerca de la plataforma (zona perturbada y la otra formada por el resto de las rocas en las áreas con mediano y nulo impacto.To complete the environmental quality assesment of Isla Mujeres-Cancún-Nizuc National Marine Park, the potential of rock cryptofauna as impact monitor was considered. A transect was defined along a visitor intensity gradient and three places (1.5-4 m deep, and 50, 250 and 500 m from the tourist platform; in each. Inte three rocks were collected. The variations in abundance and biomass along an

  19. The Cordon del Portillo Permian magmatism, Mendoza, Argentina, plutonic and volcanic sequences at the western margin of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Daniel; Benedini, Leonardo

    2013-03-01

    The Cerro Punta Blanca, Cerro Bayo and Cerro Punta Negra stocks, parts of the Cordillera Frontal Composite Batholith, cropping out in the Cordón del Portillo, records the Gondwana magmatic development of the Cordillera Frontal of Mendoza, in western Argentina. In this area, the San Rafael Orogenic phase, that represents the closure of the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian marine basins, begins at 284 Ma, and ceased before 276 Ma. The Cerro Punta Blanca, Cerro Bayo and Cerro Punta Negra stocks represent a post-orogenic magmatism and are equivalents to the Choiyoi Group. The Gondwana magmatic activity in the Cordón del Portillo area can be divided into two stages. The Cerro Punta Blanca stock (c.a. 276 Ma) represents an early post-orogenic, subduction-related magmatism similar to the basic-intermediate section of the Choiyoi Group (c.a. 277 Ma). The late post-orogenic second event was recorded by the Cerro Bayo (262 Ma) and Cerro Punta Negra stocks which represent a transition between subduction-related and intra-plate magmatism. This event represents the intrusive counterpart of the acidic facies of the upper section of the Choiyoi Group (c.a. 273 Ma). This extensional condition continued during the Triassic when the Cacheuta basin developed.

  20. Representing icebergs in the iLOVECLIM model (version 1.0 – a sensitivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bügelmayer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent modelling studies have indicated that icebergs alter the ocean's state, the thickness of sea ice and the prevailing atmospheric conditions, in short play an active role in the climate system. The icebergs' impact is due to their slowly released melt water which freshens and cools the ocean. The spatial distribution of the icebergs and thus their melt water depends on the forces (atmospheric and oceanic acting on them as well as on the icebergs' size. The studies conducted so far have in common that the icebergs were moved by reconstructed or modelled forcing fields and that the initial size distribution of the icebergs was prescribed according to present day observations. To address these shortcomings, we used the climate model iLOVECLIM that includes actively coupled ice-sheet and iceberg modules, to conduct 15 sensitivity experiments to analyse (1 the impact of the forcing fields (atmospheric vs. oceanic on the icebergs' distribution and melt flux, and (2 the effect of the used initial iceberg size on the resulting Northern Hemisphere climate and ice sheet under different climate conditions (pre-industrial, strong/weak radiative forcing. Our results show that, under equilibrated pre-industrial conditions, the oceanic currents cause the bergs to stay close to the Greenland and North American coast, whereas the atmospheric forcing quickly distributes them further away from their calving site. These different characteristics strongly affect the lifetime of icebergs, since the wind-driven icebergs melt up to two years faster as they are quickly distributed into the relatively warm North Atlantic waters. Moreover, we find that local variations in the spatial distribution due to different iceberg sizes do not result in different climate states and Greenland ice sheet volume, independent of the prevailing climate conditions (pre-industrial, warming or cooling climate. Therefore, we conclude that local differences in the distribution of their

  1. Theoretical Impact of the Inverse Barometer Effect on Giant Icebergs of the Ancient Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, I. D.

    2007-12-01

    Erosional plowmarks or flutes (furrows) 700 to 1000 m below the sea surface on the floor of the Lomonosov and Northwind Ridges, and the Chukchi Borderland and Yermak Plateau in the Arctic Ocean provide convincing evidence that icebergs carved this region over a period of time ranging from 600 to 20 kybp. [Reed, 2001], [Polyak et al., 2001], and [Kristoffersen et al., 2004] However, taking into account the fact that sea level was lower by 100 to 150 m during glacial periods than during interglacials, and that modern icebergs calving off Greenland and Antarctica are never more than 550 m thick, leads us to the conclusion that these ancient icebergs must have been about 800 to 900 m thick to be able to reach the sea floor. [Reed, 2001] and [Kristoffersen et al., 2004] Here, I evaluate the effect the IBE may have had on an iceberg with the horizontal dimensions of the Antarctic iceberg B15A through experimentation in my theoretical model. In comparison to experiments involving modern iceberg drift, an adjustment I needed to make in the model configuration besides increasing the iceberg thickness to 800 m was to replace ocean current drag across the bottom surface with the basal friction force of ice sliding on till sediment of the ocean floor. I also assume that the sea surface gradient gravitational force should have no impact on grounded icebergs, so in reality I am only testing the impact of the pressure gradient force in determining the theoretical trajectories of the ancient mega-bergs. I also assume that the iceberg is barely grounded or buoyant, so that the freeboard is still approximately \\frac{1}{10th} of the iceberg's total height.

  2. Impact of Icebergs on Net Primary Productivity in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang-Ye; Hou, Shugui

    2017-04-01

    Productivity in the Southern Ocean (SO) is iron-limited, and supply of iron dissolved from aeolian dust is believed to be the main source from outside the marine environment. However, recent studies show that icebergs could provide comparable amount of bioavailable iron to the SO as aeolian dust. In addition, small scale areal studies suggest increased concentrations of chlorophyll, krill, and seabirds surrounding icebergs. Based on previous research, this study aims to examine whether iceberg occurrence has a significant impact on marine productivity at the scale of the SO, using remote sensing data of iceberg occurrences and ocean net primary productivity (NPP) covering the period 2002-2014. The impacts of both large and small icebergs are examined in four major ecological zones of the SO: the continental shelf zone (CSZ), the seasonal ice zone (SIZ), the permanent open ocean zone (POOZ) and the polar front zone (PFZ). We found that both large and small icebergs have an observable positive impact on NPP, but their impacts vary in different zones. Small icebergs on average increase NPP in most iron deficient zones: by 21% for the SIZ, 16% for the POOZ, and 12% for the PFZ, but have relatively small effect in the CSZ where iron is supplied from melt water and sediment input from the continent. Large icebergs on average increase the NPP by about 10%. Their impacts are stronger at higher latitudes, where they are more concentrated. From 1992-2014, there is a significant increasing trend for both small and large icebergs. The increase was most rapid in the early 2000s, and has levelled off since then. As the climate continues to warm, the Antarctic Ice Sheet is expected to experience increased mass loss as a whole, which could lead to more icebergs in the region. Based on our study, this could result in higher level of NPP in the SO as a whole, providing a negative feedback for global warming.

  3. Do Falling Iceberg Costs Account for US Export Growth?

    OpenAIRE

    George Alessandria

    2009-01-01

    We study the growth in the share of US manufactured output exported from 1987 to 2002 through the lens of the Melitz (2003) model, a monopolistically competitive model with heterogenous producers and fixed costs of exporting. Using the model, we infer that iceberg costs fell from approximately 54 percent in 1987 to nearly 41 percent in 2002. We then take a version of the model calibrated to match the employment size distribution and characteristic of exporters in 1987 and use it to measure th...

  4. Foundations study using seismic refraction techniques to the Punta Negra Dike, San Juan Province, Argentina; Estudio de fundaciones aplicando el metodo sismico de refraccion en el Dique Punta Negra, Provincia de San Juan, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuneo, Ricardo Horacio; Gonzalez, Juan Miguel; Ponti, Norberto A. [Instituto Sismologico Fernando Volponi (Argentina)

    1995-12-31

    The aim of this work is to determine the thickness and morphology of the deposit that lies over the Graywackes Complex and that will serve as foundations of the prospect Punta Negra Dam, to be built at Punta Negra site, on the right band of the San Juan river, in San Juan, Argentina. Besides, this paper will serve as a complement to studies of geoelectric prospection of the area and will confirm the presence of a paleo river-bed. The depths of the foundation rock and its physical properties were calculated through the refraction seismic method and the stacking method. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Estudio comparativo de la efectividad antibacteriana de la asociación de clorhexidina al 2%, de hidróxido de calcio, puntas de hidróxido de calcio y puntas de clorhexidina frente al Enterococcus faecalis

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo: evaluar el efecto antibacteriano sobre el Enterococcus faecalis, de una pasta de clorhexidina al 2% con hidróxido de calcio, puntas de hidróxido de calcio y las puntas de diacetato de clorhexidina, y determinar cuál de ellas es la mejor alternativa de elección en el tratamiento de conductos de piezas dentarias con diagnóstico de necrosis pulpar. Material y Método: la muestra fue tomada de 60 piezas dentarias unirradiculares con diagnóstico de necrosis pulpar, con presencia de fístul...

  6. Water's structure around hydrophobic solutes and the iceberg model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galamba, N

    2013-02-21

    The structure of water in the hydration shells of small hydrophobic solutes was investigated through molecular dynamics. The results show that a subset of water molecules in the first hydration shell of a nonpolar solute have a significantly enhanced tetrahedrality and a slightly larger number of hydrogen bonds, relative to the molecules in water at room temperature, consistent with the experimentally observed negative excess entropy and increased heat capacity of hydrophobic solutions at room temperature. This ordering results from the rearrangement of a small number of water molecules near the nonpolar solutes that occupy one to two vertices of the enhanced water tetrahedra. Although this structuring is not nearly like that often associated with a literal interpretation of the term "iceberg" in the Frank and Evans iceberg model, it does support a moderate interpretation of this model. Thus, the tetrahedral orientational order of this ensemble of water molecules is comparable to that of liquid water at ~10 °C, although not accompanied by the small contraction of the O-O distance observed in cold water. Further, we show that the structural changes of water in the vicinity of small nonpolar solutes cannot be inferred from the water radial distribution functions, explaining why this increased ordering is not observed through neutron diffraction experiments. The present results restore a molecular view where the slower translational and reorientational dynamics of water near hydrophobic groups has a structural equivalent resembling water at low temperatures.

  7. Characterization of the Punta Toro species complex (genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Michael R.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Guzman, Hilda; Quiroz, Evelia; Savji, Nazir; Carrera, Jean-Paul; Bussetti, Ana Valeria; Ladner, Jason T.; Ian Lipkin, W.; Tesh, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Punta Toro virus (PTV), a member of the PTV complex, is a relatively common causative agent of febrile illness in Panama that is often misdiagnosed as ‘dengue’ or ‘influenza’. Currently, only two named members make up this species complex, PTV and Buenaventura virus (BUEV). Genomic and antigenic characterization of 17 members of the PTV complex, nine of which were isolated from human acute febrile illness cases, reveals that this species complex is composed of six distant viruses. We propose to add four additional new viruses, designated Leticia virus, Cocle virus, Campana virus and Capira virus. PMID:25934793

  8. Bioremediation of soils contaminated by hydrocarbons at the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”.

    OpenAIRE

    Jelvys Bermúdez Acosta; Roberto Núñez Moreira; Yoelvis Castro Hernández

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to describe and assess the main results in the process of bioremediation of 479 m3 of petroleum residuals spilled on the soil and restrained into four deposits of fuel on the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”, Cienfuegos. The volume of hydrocarbons spilled and contained into the tanks was determined by means of their previous mixture with fertile ground in a ratio of 3/1. The hydrocarbons were disposed in a bioremediation area of 115 m X 75m built in situ. In tu...

  9. Tratamiento endodóntico y restaurador de incisivos centrales oscurecidos por puntas de plata

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia de Pablo, Oliver; Díaz Sánchez, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El cambio de color en un diente anterior supone un problema estético importante y un reto para el odontólogo que se enfrenta a él. Es importante identificar la causa para establecer un tratamiento adecuado. Caso clínico: Presentamos el caso de un paciente que fue sometido a tratamientos de conductos con puntas de plata en varios dientes superiores. Años después, acude a la consulta con periodontitis apical crónica de dos incisivos y una estética insatisfactoria, con...

  10. Subtropical iceberg scours: Tracking the path of meltwater in the deglacial North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J. C.; Condron, A.

    2015-12-01

    Over 700 individual iceberg scours have been identified in seafloor bathymetry spanning the southern U.S. Atlantic margin, from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina to the Florida Keys, in water depths from 170-380m. These iceberg scours represent the plowing path of iceberg keels transported southward along the margin in a cold, coastal boundary current derived from the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Despite limited regional multibeam bathymetry data, the scours are traceable along the seafloor for >30 km and exhibit characteristic morphology of iceberg keel marks documented along glaciated continental margins. Many of the scours are flanked by lateral berms that are several meters high and often terminate in semi-circular pits ringed by several meter high ridges (i.e. grounding pits or iceberg plow ridges). The scours decrease in size and abundance moving southward, in accordance with increased iceberg melting farther from the ice calving margin. For example, the scours offshore of South Carolina (~32.5°N) are ~10-100m wide and incised 10-20m into the sediment, whereas scours off the Florida margin (31°N- 24.5°N) are narrower (10-50m wide) and incised 2-5m into the sea floor. Icebergs at these subtropical latitudes would likely have been comparable in size (up 300 m thick) to those calving from the modern-day Greenland Ice Sheet margin. Results from numerical simulations using MITgcm, a high-resolution, eddy-permitting, coupled ice-ocean model configured for the LGM suggest that cold, freshwater and small (≤90m thick) icebergs could have seasonally drifted to South Carolina, but iceberg transport to southern Florida requires much larger (5Sv) meltwater floods to overcome the northward flowing Gulf Stream. These meltwater flood events would most likely have been short-lived (<1 yr), but may have diverted a significant volume of freshwater away from the subpolar regions into the subtropical North Atlantic.

  11. Submarine Melting of Icebergs from Repeat High-Resolution Digital Elevation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderlin, E. M.; Hamilton, G. S.; Straneo, F.; Cenedese, C.

    2014-12-01

    Icebergs calved from tidewater glaciers act as distributed freshwater sources as they transit through fjords to the surrounding ocean basins. Glacier discharge estimates provide a crude approximation of the total iceberg discharge on inter-annual timescales, but the liquid freshwater flux from icebergs in glacial fjords is largely unknown. Here we use repeat high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to derive meltwater fluxes for 18 icebergs in Sermilik Fjord, East Greenland, during the 2011-2013 boreal summers, and for 33 comparably-sized icebergs in Ilulissat Fjord, West Greenland, during March-April 2011 and July 2012. We find that iceberg melt rates for Sermilik Fjord are in good agreement with simulated melt rates along the vertical terminus of Helheim Glacier in winter, i.e. when melting at the glacier front is not enhanced by subglacial discharge, providing an independent validation of our technique. Variations in meltwater fluxes from icebergs are primarily related to differences in the submerged area of individual icebergs, which is consistent with theory. The stratification of water masses in fjords has a noticeable effect on summertime-derived melt estimates, with lower melt rates (and meltwater fluxes) observed in the relatively cold and fresh Polar Water layer and higher melt rates in the underlying warmer and more saline Atlantic Water layer. The meltwater flux dependence on submerged area, particularly within the deeper Atlantic Water layer, suggests that changes in the characteristics of icebergs (size/shape/keel-depth) calved from a tidewater glacier will alter the magnitude and distribution of meltwater fluxes within the fjord, which may in turn influence fjord circulation and the heat content delivered to the glacier terminus.

  12. Microbial isotopic signatures in calcareous tufa from Punta Mita coastal vents, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canet, C.; Prol-Ledesma, R. M.; Melgarejo, J. C.; Reyes, A.

    2002-12-01

    Numerous small calcareous mounds accompanied by Ba, Hg and Tl mineralization occur in shallow submarine hydrothermal manifestations on the sea bottom, at 10 m depth, in Punta Mita (Western coast of Mexico). The formation of calcite mounds in these coastal vents provides an uncommon example of calcareous tufa deposits in a submarine hydrothermal environment. The hydrothermal activity consists in water and gas (essentially nitrogen and methane) venting at 85°C, through a 100 m fissure hosted in basaltic rocks and partially covered by unconsolidated sediments. The mounds consist of travertine-like metre-sized calcite aggregates that develop around the main submarine hot springs. Barite, sulphides (mostly pyrite and cinnabar) and phosphates (carbonate-hydroxylapatite) are also present in these mounds. Two main calcite types are texturally distinguished: firstly an earlier radial-fibrous generation, and a later fine-grained calcite generation that cements the detrital grains and fills the pore spaces. Stable isotope analyses were performed in calcite from these mounds. The δ13C measured values show a strong depletion in 13C, with values as low as -39.2 per mil (PDB). These values agree with a microbially mediated calcite mineralization process, by means of bacterial oxidation of vent derived methane. In contrast to most known cases of microbial methane oxidation, in Punta Mita this process took place under hydrothermal conditions.

  13. Las puntas y rejas prehispánicas de metal en los Andes y su continuidad hasta el presente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Les pointes et les socs préhispaniques en métal dans les Andes et leur continuité jusqu’à aujourd’hui Résumé: Cet article tente de montrer la continuité entre les instruments à usages multiples composés de pointes et des socs en cuivre arsenical insérés sur des manches en bois qui ont été élaborés à partir de 900 d. C. par les Sicán de Batán Grande, département de Lambayeque (Pérou, et certains instruments en acier utilisés actuellement dans les Andes du nord du Pérou et du sud de l’Équateur : les barretas, barretillas, barretones et les petites pelles. Il s’agit d’indiquer, sur la base d’informations ethnographiques, la relation entre ces instruments et les allachus, kituchis et chaquitacllas dont se servent les paysans des hautes terres du centre et du sud du Pérou, ceci dans le but de contribuer à l’élaboration d’une histoire de la technologie andine. Este artículo intenta, por un lado, mostrar la continuidad entre las herramientas multiusos elaboradas a partir de 900 d.C. por los sicanes de Batán Grande, departamento de Lambayeque (Perú, compuestas por puntas y rejas de cobre arsenical insertadas en cabos de madera y algunos de los instrumentos de acero utilizados actualmente en los Andes del norte del Perú y del sur del Ecuador: barretas, barretillas, barretones y pequeñas lampas. Y por otro, indicar, en base a datos etnográficos, la relación entre estos instrumentos y los allachus, kituchis y chaquitacllas que emplean los campesinos de las tierras alto andinas del centro y el sur del Perú. Esto con la finalidad de abogar para la elaboración de una historia de la tecnología andina. Prehispanic metal points and ploughshares in the Andes and their continuity until the present Abstract: This article shows the continuity in the production of multiple use tools that where made beginning AD 900 by the Sicán people of Batán Grande, in the Department of Lambayeque, Peru. These tools are arsenical cooper

  14. Icebergs in the Clouds: the Other Risks of Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing is appealing from management and efficiency perspectives, but brings risks both known and unknown. Well-known and hotly-debated information security risks, due to software vulnerabilities, insider attacks, and side-channels for example, may be only the "tip of the iceberg." As diverse, independently developed cloud services share ever more fluidly and aggressively multiplexed hardware resource pools, unpredictable interactions between load-balancing and other reactive mechanisms could lead to dynamic instabilities or "meltdowns." Non-transparent layering structures, where alternative cloud services may appear independent but share deep, hidden resource dependencies, may create unexpected and potentially catastrophic failure correlations, reminiscent of financial industry crashes. Finally, cloud computing exacerbates already-difficult digital preservation challenges, because only the provider of a cloud-based application or service has the ability to archive a "live," functional copy of a cloud...

  15. O JORNALISMO CULTURAL E A LÓGICA DO ICEBERG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cunha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda uma lacuna do Jornalismo Cultural brasileiro, que é a marginalização da cobertura sobre os processos culturais - particularmente a economia da cultura e a política cultural. Tal lacuna se deve ao enfoque excessivo nas pautas factuais e de agenda – centradas, sobretudo, nas obras em lançamento e nos próprios artistas. Os autores argumentam que tal opção editorial revela uma lógica do iceberg, ou seja, o olhar direcionado quase exclusivamente para aquilo que está em evidência na área das artes e do entretenimento. Para sugerir uma alternativa, o artigo se aprofunda na economia da cultura, revelando sua complexidade e sugerindo formas de como o jornalismo cultural poderia pautar esse campo.

  16. Origin of sediment pellets from the Arctic seafloor: sea ice or icebergs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, P. M.; Pfirman, S. L.; Wollenburg, I.; Henrich, R.

    Sediment cores from the Norwegian and Greenland Seas and the Nansen Basin were studied to determine the origin of sediment pellets, centimetre-sized aggregations of clay to sandsized sediment occurring in the cores. By comparing the grain size, grain shape and composition of the pellet sediments to sediments collected directly from the surfaces of sea ice in the Nansen Basin and from icebergs in the Barents Sea, the pelleted sediment was found to be more similar to that in the icebergs than that on the sea ice. The pellets may be formed on, in or under a glacier or during transport on/in an iceberg. When icebergs overturn or melt, the pellets fall out and are consolidated enough to survive a drop of up to 4 km to the ocean bottom and to retain their integrity even after burial on the seafloor.

  17. Deep water paleo-iceberg scouring on top of Hovgaard Ridge-Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Jan Erik; Niessen, Frank; Jokat, Wilfried; Dorschel, Boris

    2014-07-01

    In multibeam echosounder and subbottom profiler data acquired during R/V Polarstern cruise ARK-VII/3a from the Hovgaard Ridge (Fram Strait), we found evidence for very deep (>1200 m) iceberg scouring. Five elongated seafloor features have been detected that are interpreted to be iceberg scours. The scours are oriented in north-south/south-north direction and are about 15 m deep, 300 m wide, and 4 km long crossing the entire width of the ridge. They are attributed to multiple giant paleo-icebergs that most probably left the Arctic Ocean southward through Fram Strait. The huge keel depths are indicative of ice sheets extending into the Arctic Ocean being at least 1200 m thick at the calving front during glacial maxima. The deep St. Anna Trough or grounded ice observed at the East Siberian Continental Margin are likely source regions of these icebergs that delivered freshwater to the Nordic Seas.

  18. A role for icebergs in the 8.2 ka climate event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, Ane P. [Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Deltares, Department of Morphology and Sedimentary Systems, Utrecht (Netherlands); Jongma, Jochem I. [Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    We investigate the potential role of icebergs in the 8.2 ka climate event, using a coupled climate model equipped with an iceberg component. First, we evaluate the effect of a large iceberg discharge originating from the decaying Laurentide ice sheet on ocean circulation, compared to a release of an identical volume of freshwater alone. Our results show that, on top of the freshwater effect, a large iceberg discharge facilitates sea-ice growth as a result of lower sea-surface temperatures induced by latent heat of melting. This causes an 8% increased sea-ice cover, 5% stronger reduction in North Atlantic Deep Water production and 1 C lower temperature in Greenland. Second, we use the model to investigate the effect of a hypothetical two-stage lake drainage, which is suggested by several investigators to have triggered the 8.2 ka climate event. To account for the final collapse of the ice-dam holding the Laurentide Lakes we accompany the secondary freshwater pulse in one scenario with a fast 5-year iceberg discharge and in a second scenario with a slow 100-year iceberg discharge. Our experiments show that a two-stage lake drainage accompanied by the collapsing ice-dam could explain the anomalies observed around the 8.2 ka climate event in various climate records. In addition, they advocate a potential role for icebergs in the 8.2 ka climate event and illustrate the importance of latent heat of melting in the simulation of climate events that involve icebergs. Our two-stage lake drainage experiments provide a framework in the discussion of two-stage lake drainage and ice sheet collapse. (orig.)

  19. Characteristics of the meltwater field from a large Antarctic iceberg using δ18O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helly, John J.; Vernet, Maria; Murray, Alison E.; Stephenson, Gordon R.

    2015-03-01

    Large tabular icebergs represent a disruptive influence on a stable water column when drifting in the open ocean. This is a study of one iceberg, C18A, encountered in the Powell Basin in the Weddell Sea in March 2009, formed from iceberg C18 (76×7 km) originating from the Ross Ice Shelf in May 2002. C18A was lunate in shape with longest dimensions of 31 km×7 km×184 m. The meltwater field from C18A was characterized using δ18O from water samples collected near C18A (Near-field, 0.4-2 km) and contrasted with a Far-field comprised of samples from an Away site (19 km from C18A), a Control site (70 km away), and a region populated with small icebergs (Iceberg Alley, 175 km away). The in-sample fractions of meteoric water were calculated relative δ18O in iceberg ice and Weddell Deep Water and converted to meteoric water height (m) and a percentage within 100 m depth bins. The Near-field and Far-field difference from surface to 200 m was 0.51±0.28%. The concentration of meteoric water dropped to approximately half that value below 200 m, approximate keel depth of the iceberg, although detectable to 600 m. From surface to 600 m, the overall difference was statistically significant (Pvolume astern of the iceberg (0.16 km3d-1) as a continuous source of meteoric water.

  20. Distribución y clasificación de las intercalaciones en el yacimiento laterítico ferroniquelífero Punta Gorda, Moa, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dictinio de Dios-Leyva

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Las intercalaciones son cuerpos geológicos que aparecen dentro de la masa mineralizada y que al ser extraídas conjuntamente con ésta, alteran las características industriales de la mena y dificultan su procesamiento metalúrgico. Recientemente, una investigación que tuvo el objetivo de conocer la distribución y características de estos cuerpos y que abarcó 88 bloques de explotación con reservas probadas del Sector Central del yacimiento Punta Gorda, arrojó un total de 2 721 intercalaciones en 2 225 pozos (red 33,33 x 33,33 m. Se lograron clasificar las intercalaciones en cinco tipos (I, II, III, IV y V con cinco subtipos (A, B, C, D y E, atendiendo a criterios geológicos e industriales. Se encontró que las intercalaciones del tipo IC son las más abundantes y están constituidas por material ocroso de bajo contenido de Ni, lo cual provoca el empobrecimiento de la mena. Las intercalaciones del tipo IID, representadas por serpentinas descompuestas (saprolita, aparecen en segundo lugar en abundancia y, no obstante poseer un alto contenido de Ni, sus elevados contenidos de sílice las hacen muy nocivas para el procesamiento por la vía carbonato amoniacal. Se obtuvo también el coeficiente de intercalación, el cual es de mucha utilidad en la planificación y control de la minería.

  1. Antarctic icebergs melt over the Southern Ocean : Climatology and impact on sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Nacho; Le Sommer, Julien; Durand, Gael; Jourdain, Nicolas C.; Madec, Gurvan; Mathiot, Pierre; Tournadre, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Recent increase in Antarctic freshwater release to the Southern Ocean is suggested to contribute to change in water masses and sea ice. However, climate models differ in their representation of the freshwater sources. Recent improvements in altimetry-based detection of small icebergs and in estimates of the mass loss of Antarctica may help better constrain the values of Antarctic freshwater releases. We propose a model-based seasonal climatology of iceberg melt over the Southern Ocean using state-of-the-art observed glaciological estimates of the Antarctic mass loss. An improved version of a Lagrangian iceberg model is coupled with a global, eddy-permitting ocean/sea ice model and compared to small icebergs observations. Iceberg melt increases sea ice cover, about 10% in annual mean sea ice volume, and decreases sea surface temperature over most of the Southern Ocean, but with distinctive regional patterns. Our results underline the importance of improving the representation of Antarctic freshwater sources. This can be achieved by forcing ocean/sea ice models with a climatological iceberg fresh-water flux.

  2. Florística y fisonomía de un matorral xerófilo espinoso intervenido en Punta de Piedras, Municipio Miranda, Estado Zulia, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vera

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron los aspectos florísticos y fisonómicos de un matorral xerófilo espinoso intervenido de Punta de Piedras, municipio Miranda, estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se realizaron dieciséis muestreos quincenales, entre noviembre 2005 y junio 2006, para la recolecta, identificación y conteo de las especies tanto en el periodo lluvioso como en el seco. Los muestreos se llevaron a cabo en 10 manchones de vegetación con un área promedio de 718 ± 706.24 m², en una formación graminiforme en la que se emplearon tres parcelas de 20 x 20 (400 m², dividiéndose cada una de éstas en cuatro subparcelas de 20 x 5 (100 m² y a su vez, dentro de ellas, se delimitaron 12 subparcelas de 1 x 1. (1 m², y también se realizaron recorridos para el reconocimiento de otras especies de la zona. El matorral xerófilo espinoso mostró evidencias de intervención antropogénica como quemas periódicas, deposición de desechos sólidos, caminerías para el tránsito de las personas y asentamientos poblacionales en las zonas circunvecinas; y presentó una vegetación semiárida de espinar costero característica y comparable a la señalada para otras regiones del país. Se identificaron 45 especies agrupadas en 22 familias, entre las cuales destacaron: las Poaceae (6, Mimosaceae (4, Boraginaceae (3, Cactaceae (3 Caesalpinaceae (3, Euphorbiaceae (3 y Fabaceae (3. La intervención antropogénica parece generar la aparición de manchones de vegetación arbustiva y arbórea y de una formación graminiforme o pastizal. En esta última, Aristida venesuelae, Aristida pittieri y Portulaca pilosa presentaron los mayores valores de abundancia y frecuencia relativa cuya sumatoria corresponde a 49.38% y 46.86%, respectivamente; mientras que en los manchones se destacaron dos estratos: uno herbáceo menor a 1 m, y otro estrato arbustivo-arbóreo de bajo porte (2.63 ± 1.37 m de altura media, conformado principalmente por Opuntia wentiana, Piptadenia flava y Jatropha

  3. Las consecuencias de la reforma constitucional de 2003 en la organización del Estado francés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles J. Guglielmi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Al  término  del  inventario  provisorio  de  la  descentralización francesa  luego  de  la  reforma  constitucional  de  marzo  de  2003, es conveniente  destacar  la  persistencia  de  la  forma  constitucional del Estado  unitario.  Cualquier  innovación  respecto  de esta característica sólo puede  ser interpretada  estrictamente.  De todas maneras,  la estructura  de las relaciones  entre personas  públicas territoriales  (Estado y  colectividades  es sólo la punta  del  iceberg. Concretamente, in  situ,  es  otro  movimiento  -de  origen  centenario pero  aceleración  vicenal-  el  que  caracteriza  la  gestión descentralizada  de  los asuntos locales: el agrupamiento  de colectividades  territoriales  dentro  de  otras  personas  públicas,  los establecimientos  públicos  de  cooperación  local  (EPCL,  que  reemplaza n  cada  vez  más  a  los municipios  en  la  gestión  de aglomeraciones  o en  cuestiones  de  interés  común  para colectividades  locales  vecinas.  Es  indudable  que, para  mejorar  la democracia  de proximidad,  en  la  práctica  habrá más  que  esperar de estos  EPCL,  siempre  que  sus asambleas  deliberantes  ya  no estén  compuestas  solamente  por  elegidos  locales  que se  designan entre  sí sin  que  los electores  puedan  verlos.

  4. An elastic-plastic iceberg material model considering temperature gradient effects and its application to numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chu; Hu, Zhiqiang; Luo, Yu

    2016-12-01

    To simulate the FPSO-iceberg collision process more accurately, an elastic-plastic iceberg material model considering temperature gradient effects is proposed and applied. The model behaves linearly elastic until it reaches the `Tsai-Wu' yield surfaces, which are a series of concentric elliptical curves of different sizes. Decreasing temperature results in a large yield surface. Failure criteria, based on the influence of accumulated plastic strain and hydrostatic pressure, are built into the model. Based on published experimental data on the relationship between depth and temperature in icebergs, three typical iceberg temperature profiles are proposed. According to these, ice elements located at different depths have different temperatures. The model is incorporated into LS-DYNA using a user-defined subroutine and applied to a simulation of FPSO collisions with different types of iceberg. Simulated area-pressure curves are compared with design codes to validate the iceberg model. The influence of iceberg shape and temperature on the collision process is analyzed. It is indicated that FPSO structural damage not only depends on the relative strength between the iceberg and the structure, but also depends on the local shape of the iceberg.

  5. An Elastic-Plastic Iceberg Material Model Considering Temperature Gradient Effects and its Application to Numerical Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Shi; Zhiqiang Hu; Yu Luo

    2016-01-01

    To simulate the FPSO-iceberg collision process more accurately, an elastic-plastic iceberg material model considering temperature gradient effects is proposed and applied. The model behaves linearly elastic until it reaches the ‘Tsai-Wu’ yield surfaces, which are a series of concentric elliptical curves of different sizes. Decreasing temperature results in a large yield surface. Failure criteria, based on the influence of accumulated plastic strain and hydrostatic pressure, are built into the model. Based on published experimental data on the relationship between depth and temperature in icebergs, three typical iceberg temperature profiles are proposed. According to these, ice elements located at different depths have different temperatures. The model is incorporated into LS-DYNA using a user-defined subroutine and applied to a simulation of FPSO collisions with different types of icebergs. Simulated area-pressure curves are compared with design codes to validate the iceberg model. The influence of iceberg shape and temperature on the collision process is analyzed. It is indicated that FPSO structural damage not only depends on the relative strength between the iceberg and the structure, but also depends on the local shape of the iceberg.

  6. Dilemas de los ‘funcionarios punta de lanza’ en la gestión ambiental en Río San Juan, Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Barrios J

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available ESTE ARTÍCULO ANALIZA EL PAPEL NORMATIVO QUE DESEMPEÑAN las instituciones del Estado y Gobierno Municipal en la gestión ambiental llevada a cabo en el municipio de El Castillo, en cuanto a la protección de la Reserva Biológica Indio Maíz, y el uso y aprovechamiento de los recursos naturales en su zona de amortiguamiento. Muchos de los intereses que entran ‘en juego’ sobre el manejo de los recursos naturales no son compatibles. Hay grandes diferencias entre las reglas y normas formales y las prácticas realizadas en el territorio, además de que hay normas y políticas que son contradictorias. Aunque se reconoce en la literatura internacional la importancia de los dilemas a los que se enfrentan los‘funcionarios punta de lanza’ para entender los cuellos de botella reales, aún hay un vacío en la literatura. Así, este artículo presenta y analiza los dilemas de las instituciones y sus funcionarios que trabajan en la gestión ambiental en el municipio de El Castillo, una zona de alta pobreza.

  7. Iceberg and ship detection and classification in single, dual and quad polarized synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Carl

    Iceberg and ship identification in satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data is an essential part of offering an operational iceberg surveillance program. Identification here refers to detection of ocean SAR targets and then classification of these targets as iceberg, ship, or unknown. Maximizing the detection and minimizing incorrect classification of iceberg and ship targets are required. Because coarser resolution satellite SAR data is at times not as intuitive as satellite optical data for manual human interpreted target classification, this process can be labor intensive, subjective, and error prone. Therefore, it is desired that an automated method for iceberg or ship identification be implemented. The methodology investigated here follows a well known standard in supervised pattern recognition, the maximum likelihood-quadratic discriminant function. The goal here in this thesis is to build class models from known iceberg and ship targets. Each class model is based on features that describe targets such as brightness, texture, and shape. Based on these descriptors as training input into the discriminant functions, future unknown targets can be compared with the class model for best fit. The best fit (or minimum distance) is used to assign class status for these unknown targets. One major consideration when using this type of pattern recognition approach is feature selection. Feature selection is based on the notion that some subset (subspace) of the descriptive metrics will lead to improved classification accuracy when comparing discriminant functions. Sequential forward selection and variants of exhaustive search algorithms are implemented and compared. RADARSAT-1, ENVSIAT AP (HH/HV), and EMISAR SAR iceberg and ship targets are used for algorithm training, feature selection, and performance estimation.

  8. Low temperature phosphine fumigation of pre-chilled iceberg lettuce under insulation cover for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumigation of chilled iceberg lettuce under an insulation cover was studied to develop economical alternatives to conduct low temperature phosphine fumigation for control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on exported lettuce. Vacuum cooled commercial iceberg lettuce o...

  9. Subtropical versus subpolar freshwater routing: The pathways of icebergs and meltwater in the North Atlantic during deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condron, A.; Hill, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Marine sediment records reveal episodes of increased ice rafted debris (IRD) to the subpolar N. Atlantic (40N-50N) during deglaciation that are linked to the calving of enormous numbers of icebergs from the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. There is considerable interest, and uncertainty, as to whether meltwater from these icebergs freshened the ocean sufficiently to weaken the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Very recently, hundreds of iceberg scours have been observed along the east coast of the United States as far south as Florida. The iceberg scours are oriented SSW along the coast and are observed in water depths up to several hundred meters deep, indicating that massive (up to 300m thick) icebergs once drifted along the east coast of N. America into the subtropics during deglaciation. A newly developed iceberg model (MITberg) is coupled to an eddy-permitting ocean model to show that icebergs are carried south to Florida by coastally-confined meltwater currents caused by the sudden release of large volumes of meltwater from Hudson Bay and/or Gulf of St. Lawrence. When meltwater fluxes exceed 2.5Sv simulated icebergs drift as far south as Miami, Florida, and thousands are carried into the center of the subtropical gyre by narrow meltwater filaments and instabilities along the boundary current. When the meltwater flood ends, icebergs can no longer drift into the subtropics, and quickly become confined to the subpolar gyre where the majority of IRD is found. Our results indicate that icebergs and meltwater from the north did not always directly freshening the subpolar gyre, but were periodically transported south of the main subpolar deep water formation regions that regulate AMOC strength and climate. Dating the observed iceberg scours will tell us exactly how active and persistent this coastally-confined meltwater pathway was during deglaciation and help us unravel why there is not always a clear relationship between increased high latitude

  10. Cytochromes P450 of insects: the tip of the iceberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J G; Wen, Z

    2001-10-01

    The cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases are an extremely important metabolic system involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. Collectively, P450 monooxygenases can metabolize numerous substrates and carry out multiple oxidative reactions. The large number of substrates metabolized is due to the plethora of P450 isoforms and to the broad substrate specificity of some isoforms. Monooxygenases of insects have several functional roles, including growth, development, feeding and protection against xenobiotics, including resistance to pesticides and tolerance to plant toxins. This review begins with background information about P450s and their evolution, followed by a discussion of the extraordinary diversity of insect P450s. Given the enormous interest in studying individual P450s, we then provide a synopsis of the different methods that have been used in their isolation and the substrates that are known to be metabolized. We conclude by summarizing the lessons we have learned from the study of individual insect P450s, including their roles in insecticide resistance, plant-insect interactions and insect physiology. However, these studies are just the 'tip of the iceberg'. Our knowledge continues to expand at a rapid pace, suggesting that the next decade will outpace the last in terms of improving our understanding of the cytochromes P450 of insects.

  11. Marine bacterioplankton biomass, activity and community structure in the vicinity of Antarctic icebergs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Alison E.; Peng, Vivian; Tyler, Charlotte; Wagh, Protima

    2011-06-01

    We studied marine bacterioplankton in the Scotia Sea in June 2008 and in the northwest Weddell Sea in March to mid April 2009 in waters proximal to three free-drifting icebergs (SS-1, A-43k, and C-18a), in a region with a high density of smaller icebergs (iceberg alley), and at stations that were upstream of the iceberg trajectories designated as far-field reference sites that were between 16-75 km away. Hydrographic parameters were used to define water masses in which comparisons between bacterioplankton-associated characteristics (abundance, leucine incorporation into protein, aminopeptidase activities and community structure) within and between water masses could be made. Early winter Scotia Sea bacterioplankton had low levels of cells and low heterotrophic production rates in the upper 50 m. Influences of the icebergs on bacterioplankton at this time of year were minimal, if not deleterious, as we found lower levels of heterotrophic production near A-43k in comparison to stations >16 km away. Additionally, the results point to small but significant differences in cell abundance, heterotrophic production, and community structure between the two icebergs studied. These icebergs differed greatly in size and the findings suggest that the larger iceberg had a greater effect. In the NW Weddell Sea in March-mid April bacterioplankton were twice as abundant and had heterotrophic productions rates that were 8-fold higher than what we determined in the Scotia Sea, though levels were still quite low, which is typical for autumn. We did not detect direct iceberg-related influences on the bacterioplankton characteristics studied here. Clues to understanding bacterioplankton responses may lie in the details of community structure, as there were some significant differences in community structure in the winter water and underlying upper circumpolar deep-water masses between stations occupied close to C-18a and at stations 18 km away (i.e. Polaribacter and Pelagibacter

  12. Potentially bioavailable iron delivery by iceberg-hosted sediments and atmospheric dust to the polar oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiswell, Robert; Hawkings, Jon R.; Benning, Liane G.; Baker, Alex R.; Death, Ros; Albani, Samuel; Mahowald, Natalie; Krom, Michael D.; Poulton, Simon W.; Wadham, Jemma; Tranter, Martyn

    2016-07-01

    Iceberg-hosted sediments and atmospheric dust transport potentially bioavailable iron to the Arctic and Southern oceans as ferrihydrite. Ferrihydrite is nanoparticulate and more soluble, as well as potentially more bioavailable, than other iron (oxyhydr)oxide minerals (lepidocrocite, goethite, and hematite). A suite of more than 50 iceberg-hosted sediments contain a mean content of 0.076 wt % Fe as ferrihydrite, which produces iceberg-hosted Fe fluxes ranging from 0.7 to 5.5 and 3.2 to 25 Gmoles yr-1 to the Arctic and Southern oceans respectively. Atmospheric dust (with little or no combustion products) contains a mean ferrihydrite Fe content of 0.038 wt % (corresponding to a fractional solubility of ˜ 1 %) and delivers much smaller Fe fluxes (0.02-0.07 Gmoles yr-1 to the Arctic Ocean and 0.0-0.02 Gmoles yr-1 to the Southern Ocean). New dust flux data show that most atmospheric dust is delivered to sea ice where exposure to melting/re-freezing cycles may enhance fractional solubility, and thus fluxes, by a factor of approximately 2.5. Improved estimates for these particulate sources require additional data for the iceberg losses during fjord transit, the sediment content of icebergs, and samples of atmospheric dust delivered to the polar regions.

  13. Seismic observations of glaciogenic ocean waves (micro-tsunamis) on icebergs and ice shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macayeal, Douglas R.; Okal, Emile A.; Aster, Richard C.; Bassis, Jeremy N.

    Seismometers deployed over a 3 year period on icebergs in the Ross Sea and on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, reveal that impulsive sources of ocean surface waves are frequent (e.g. ˜200 events per year in the Ross Sea) in the ice-shelf and iceberg-covered environment of coastal Antarctica. The 368 events recorded by our field deployment suggest that these impulsive events are generated by glaciological mechanisms, such as (1) small-scale calving and edge wasting of icebergs and ice-shelf fronts, (2) edge-on-edge closing and opening associated with iceberg collisions and (3) possibly the impulsive opening of void space associated with ice-shelf rifting and basal crevasse formation. The observations described here provide a background of glaciogenic ocean-wave phenomena relevant to the Ross Sea and suggest that these phenomena may be exploited in the future (using more purposefully designed observation schemes) to understand iceberg calving and ice-shelf disintegration processes.

  14. Composition of the zooplankton community, with emphasis in copepods, in Punta Morales, Golfo De Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnoli-Olivera, Ernesto; Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Delfino-Machin, Mariana; Morales-Ramírez, Alvaro; Arosemena, Arturo Dominici

    2004-12-01

    The composition of the mesozooplanktonic community was studied in the Punta Morales estuary, Gulf of Nicoya, Pacific coast of Costa Rica, during 1997. Oblique plankton hauls were performed during high and low tide using a 280 microm mesh screen net equipped with a flowmeter. The community was characterized by holoplanktonic and meroplanktonic organisms. For the holoplanktonic community, the main groups were copepods (80%) and chaetognaths (16%). The most abundant species were the copepods Acartia lilljeborgii and Paracalanus parvus. A. lilljeborgii is a typical estuarine species that maintains high populations in estuarine systems. Meroplankton was represented mainly by crustacean larvae (66%), and icthyoplankton (18%). The dominance of crustacean larvae and icthyoplankton is an evidence of the ecological importance of the Punta Morales zone.

  15. A biotechnological product and its potential as a new immunomodulator for treatment of animal phlebovirus infection: Punta Toro virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Nelson; Gowen, Brian B; Costa, Fabio T M; Justo, Giselle Z; Brocchi, Marcelo; Nunes, Odilon S; Nunes, Iseu S

    2009-08-01

    Intracellular pathogens with widespread drug-resistance contribute substantially to the increasing rates in morbidity and mortality due to emerging and reemerging diseases. Thus, the development of new drugs, including those that can enhance the immune response, is urgently needed. The immunomodulator, P-MAPA, a proteinaceous aggregate of ammonium and magnesium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride derived from Aspergillus oryzae, have been shown to induce antitumor activities. The ability of this compound to elicit protective immunity against viral infections has not been fully explored. Here, we report findings on the use of P-MAPA as an antiviral agent in a mouse model of acute phleboviral (Punta Toro virus) disease. A dose administered i.p. 24h post-infectious challenge (100mg/kg dose of P-MAPA) was remarkably effective at preventing death due to Punta Toro virus infection. This dose also reduced systemic viral burden and liver discoloration assayed on day 3 of infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that non-specific immunotherapy with P-MAPA appears to be an effective treatment for blocking Punta Toro virus-induced disease and suggest that further exploration with other viral disease models is warranted.

  16. Fission-track dating of the punta de vacas glaciation in the Rı´o Mendoza valley, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espizua, L. E.; Bigazzi, G.

    Fission-track dating of three tephra samples related to mappable drifts and non-glacial sediments, including alluvium, in the Rı´o Mendoza valley, Argentina, places limiting ages on the oldest two glacial events. A tephra-layer interstratified with fan alluvium that surrounds and cuts the outermost Uspallata moraine has an age of 170,000±50,000 yr, implying that the drift predates marine oxygen isotope stage (OIS) 6. A tephra dated at 134,000±32,000 yr, that was deposited on alluvial fan sediments, underlies Punta de Vacas drift, which is inferred to equate with Isotope Stage 6. The Punta de Vacas outwash, which likely correlates with the Rı´o Colorado drift, overlies another tephra unit that dates to 260,000±150,000 yr. Although the error limits of the dates preclude definitive correlations, all three tephra units may have been deposited during an interval prior to the maximum advance of the Punta de Vacas glaciation during OIS 6 or maybe in the Stage 7 interglacial period.

  17. Iceberg capsize hydrodynamics: a comparison of laboratory experiments and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, J. C.; Cathles, L. M.; Correa-Legisos, S.; Ellowitz, J.; Darnell, K.; Zhang, W. W.; MacAyeal, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Large icebergs are often observed to capsize in open water near fjords. During capsize, large amounts of gravitational potential energy are released which can lead to coastal tsunamis, mixing of the water column, and possibly lead to further calving at the glacier terminus. This process is rarely studied; in nature the scale and irregular timing of the events makes observations exceedingly difficult. Here we compare laboratory experiments and numerical modeling of the capsize process to better understand the coupling of the hydrodynamic forces to the solid iceberg. Although the characteristic Reynolds number is much lower for both the laboratory model and the numerical simulations, the comparison provides a starting point to quantify and identify generic features that can be estimated in the field, such as hydrodynamic pressure, water flow velocities, vertical mixing, and elastic stresses on the iceberg itself, which could lead to fracture.

  18. EQUINODERMOS EN FONDOS SOMEROS DEL SECTOR LA AHUMADERA, BAHÍA DE CISPATÁ, CÓRDOBA, CARIBE COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alexander QUIRÓS-RODRÍGUEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio representa un reporte de la fauna de equinodermos que se encuentran en fondos someros del sector La Ahumadera, bahía de Cispatá, Caribe colombiano. El área está formada por un sustrato de tipo fango-arenoso colonizado por esponjas en punta Terraplén, y arenoso con pasto marino ( Thalassia testudinum , macroalgas y esponjas en punta Robalo. Se identificaron diez especies de equinodermos que pertenecen a cuatro clases (Asteroidea, Ophiuroidea, Echinoidea y Holothuroidea, distribuidas en ocho familias y nueve géneros. El número de taxones identificados corresponde al 4,1% de las especies registradas para el Caribe colombiano, y muestra la representatividad de especies de equinodermos en este sector. Las especies más abundantes en punta Robalo fueron Encope michelini (24,3% y Ophiothrix angulata , mientras que en punta Terraplén fueron los ofiuros O . angulata (36,7% y Ophiactis savignyi (16,5%. Se determinó mayor riqueza (S= 9, diversidad (H’= 2,64 y uniformidad (U= 0,92 de especies en punta Robalo al ser comparado con los valores obtenidos en Terraplén (S= 6, H’= 2,39 y U= 0,83. Ambas estaciones mostraron un índice de similitud (Is de 0,66. Entre las especies identificadas, las siguientes son nuevos registros para el departamento de Córdoba: Holothuria floridana , Encope michelini y Mellita quinquiesperforata .

  19. Pleistocene iceberg dynamics on the west Svalbard margin: Evidence from bathymetric and sub-bottom profiler data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Minshull, Timothy A.; Crocker, Anya J.; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Wu, Shiguo; Soryal, Simon M.

    2017-04-01

    Large icebergs leave evidence of their drift via ploughing of the seabed, thereby providing a geological record of episodes of calving from thick ice sheets. We interpret large-scale curvilinear depressions on the western Svalbard margin as ploughmarks produced by the keels of icebergs that grounded on the seafloor as they drifted through this area. Iceberg ploughmarks were identified at modern water depths between 300 m and 1000 m and in two distinct stratigraphic units. Combining data from sediment cores with seismic stratigraphy from sub-bottom profiler data suggests that the ploughmarks developed in two phases: (1) during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6; and (2) during MIS 2, indicating the presence of large drifting icebergs on the western Svalbard margin during both the Late Saalian and Late Weichselian glaciations. Sediment-core data along the western Svalbard margin indicate a sharp increase in mass-transported sediments dated at 23.7 ± 0.2 ka, consistent with the MIS 2 age of the younger iceberg-ploughed surface. The ploughmarks are oriented in two main directions: SW-NE and S-N. S-N oriented ploughmarks, which shallow to the north, indicate iceberg drift from the south with a SW-NE component marking the zone of splitting of the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) into the Yermak Slope Current (YSC) and North Spitsbergen Current (NSC). Large MIS 6 and MIS 2 icebergs most likely had an Arctic Ocean source. We suggest that these icebergs probably left the Arctic Ocean southward through Fram Strait and circulated within the Norwegian-Greenland Sea before being transported northwards along the Svalbard margin by the WSC. An additional likely source of icebergs to the western Svalbard margin during MIS 2 was the ice-sheet terminating in the western Barents Sea, from which icebergs drifted northward.

  20. Measurement of sea ice and icebergs topography using satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, I.; Power, D.; Prasad, S.

    2016-12-01

    Sea ice topography represents geospatial information on the three-dimensional geometrical attributes of the ice surface including height and shape of various ice features. The features interest consist of deformed (pressure ridges, rubbles and hummocks) and level sea ice as well as glacial ice. Sea ice topography is important for scientific research and climate studies because it helps characterise ice volume and thickness and it influences the near-surface atmospheric transport by impacting the drag coefficients. It also represents critical information to marine operational applications, such as ships navigation and risks assessment for offshore infrastructures. The several methods were used to measure sea ice topography from a single satellite image as well as multiple images. The techniques based on the single image, acquired by optical or synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellites, derive the height and shape information from shadow and shading. Optical stereo images acquired by very high resolution (0.5 m) satellites were used to extract highly detailed digital elevation model (DEM). SAR imagery allowed extraction of DEM using stereo-radargrammetry and interferometry. The images from optical satellites WorldView, Pleiades, GeoEye, Spot, and Landsat-8 were used to measure topography of sea ice deformation features and glacial ice including icebergs and ice islands. These features were mapped in regions of the Central Arctic, Baffin Bay and the coast of Greenland. SAR imagery including interferometric TanDEM-X data and full polarimetric Radarsat-2 were used to extract ridge frequency and measure spatial parameters of glacial features. The accuracy was evaluated by comparison of the results from different methods demonstrating their strengths and limitations. Ridge height and frequency were also compared with the high resolution results from the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE), regionally implemented for Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea.

  1. Acute Traumatic Coagulopathy: Whole Blood Thrombelastography Measures the Tip of the Iceberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Acute traumatic coagulopathy: Whole blood thrombelastography measures the tip of the iceberg James Eric Campbell, PhD, James Keith Aden, PhD, and...measures the tip of the iceberg 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Campbell, J. E. Aden, J. K. Cap, A. P. 5d...by modeling acidemia in lower Hct blood are more indicative of true decreases in coagulation function. We further hypothesize that dilution of blood

  2. Do falling iceberg costs explain recent U.S. export growth?

    OpenAIRE

    George Alessandria; Horag Choi

    2012-01-01

    We study empirically and theoretically the growth of U.S. manufacturing exports from 1987 to 2007. We identify the change in iceberg costs with plant-level data on the intensity of exporting by exporters. Given this change in iceberg costs, we find that a GE model with heterogeneous establishments and a sunk cost of starting to export is consistent with both aggregate U.S. export growth and the changes in the number and size of U.S. exporters. The model also captures the non-linear dynamics o...

  3. The Other Seven-Eighths--Application of Iceberg Principle in The Sun Also Rises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Hemingway is a giant literary figure in American literature and his famous “Iceberg Principle” has great influence on literary creation afterwards. As a main representative of the Lost Generation, he produced great works reflecting the disil usionment that left by the war. The sun also rises is a great one among them and the iceberg principle was successful y applied in the novel. This paper attempts to select a scene of the story to analyze the application of the principle in it, looking for the other seven-eighths.

  4. Geoelectrical Characterization of the Punta Banda System: A Possible Structural Control for the Geothermal Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Galvan, C.; Flores-Marquez, E.; Prol-Ledesma, R.; Working Group, I.

    2007-05-01

    The lack of sufficient drinking water in México has become a very serious problem, especially in the northern desert regions of the country. In order to give a real solution to this phenomenon the IMPULSA research program has been created to develope novel technologies based on desalination of sea and brackish water using renewable sources of energy to face the problem. The Punta Banda geothermal anomaly is located towards the northern part of Baja California Peninsula (Mexico). High water temperatures in some wells along the coast depicted a geothermal anomaly. An audiomagnetotelluric survey was carried out in the area as a preliminary study, both to understand the process generating these anomalous temperatures and to assess its potential exploitation to supply hot water to desalination plants. Among the electromagnetic methods, the audiomagnetotellurics (AMT) method is appropriated for deep groundwater and geothermal studies. The survey consisted of 27 AMT stations covering a 5 km profile along the Agua Blanca Fault. The employed array allowed us to characterize the geoelectrical properties of the main structures up to 500 m depth. Two main geoelectrical zones were identified: 1) a shallow low resistivity media located at the central portion of the profile, coinciding with the Maneadero valley and 2) two high resitivity structures bordering the conductive zone possibly related to NS faulting, already identified by previous geophysical studies. These results suggest that the main geothermal anomalies are controlled by the dominant structural regime in the zone.

  5. Geophysical characterization of subaerial hydrothermal manifestations in Punta Banda, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Marquez, L.; Prol-Ledesma, R. M.; Arango, C.; Canet, C.

    2009-04-01

    Important growth of population in Baja California Peninsula has triggered the need for energy and fresh water. The most sustainable possibility for increasing the availability of fresh water is the use of renewable energy sources in desalination plants. The abundance of geothermal manifestations in the peninsula provides a reliable energy source for desalination purposes. Geothermal development of the Baja California Peninsula dates from the 70's, when the Cerro Prieto geothermal field started producing electricity. Two important cities, Tijuana and Ensenada, are located in the north-western area of Baja California. The city of Ensenada has a desalination plant that is due to be replaced and the geothermal resources of the area could be an option for the new desalination plant. Punta Banda, a region near Ensenada, was specially investigated to determine its geothermal potential. Subaerial springs and the submarine vents were sampled and studied in this work, also geological and geochemical studies were performed, moreover geoelectrical surveys were accomplished to characterize the hydrothermal system at depth. Even though saline intrusion is a severe problem in Ensenada (TDS higher than 3000), thermal springs away from the coast and coastal springs have salinities lower than sea water. According to the geoelectrical models obtained from profiles, the inferred conductive features can be related to thermal anomalies. The existence of hot springs located along a trend suggests that the dynamic of the thermal fluid is restricted by secondary faults.

  6. Nutritional status and obesity in children and young adults with disabilities in Punta Arenas, Patagonia, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Juan C; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Barbosa, Clara I; Díaz, Mauricio; Urzua, Miyochi; Andrade, Asterio H

    2008-12-01

    Childhood obesity is reaching epidemic proportions throughout the world; however, little is known on the nutritional status of children with disabilities. To address this issue, medical records of 748 children aged 18 years or younger receiving physical therapy during 2004-2005 at a privately sponsored free rehabilitation clinic in Punta Arenas, Patagonia, Chile were abstracted. Data included demographic, clinical, and anthropometric information recorded at the first visit. As a comparison, height and weight were also collected in 215 children attending local schools. Nutritional status was calculated as body mass index (above 6 years of age) or evaluated by growth curves (6 years of age or below) as undernourished, normal, overweight, obese, or morbidly obese. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for obesity in these children. Overall, a significant difference in nutritional status between disabled and non-disabled children was found (Pcerebral palsy were less than half as likely to be obese than non-disabled children (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.20-1.03). We conclude that overnutrition continues to be a problem for both disabled and non-disabled children in Patagonia. Programs to increase physical activity and improve nutrition are needed in this isolated part of the world.

  7. Physical oceanographic data from the OTEC Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico Site, September 1979-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, D.; Davison, A.; Leavitt, K.

    1981-01-01

    The first results of an oceanographic measurement program being conducted off the southeast corner of Puerto Rico are presented. The study site is a proposed OTEC site and is located about 20 km off Punta Tuna. The objectives of the measurement program are to document the physical oceanography of the site as related to the engineering and environmental factors involved in OTEC design and operation. Oceanographic measurements include: (1) a subsurface mooring instrumented with five current, temperature, and pressure recorders; and (2) quarterly hydrographic cruises to measure salinity, temperature, and depth profiles on a grid of 33 stations in the vicinity of the mooring site. The first cruise, conducted between 16 and 21 June 1980, included the initial mooring deployment and a CTD (conductivity, temperature, and depth) and XBT (expendable bathythermograph) survey. The CTD/XBT measurements are presented. Also included are results of in situ current, temperature, and pressure measurements made during two previous programs. In September 1979, Coastal Marine Research (CMR) deployed a mooring at approximately the same site as the present mooring. Results from three of these instruments are included. The Naval Underwater Systems Center deployed a mooring at this site in February 1979 and partial results from one instrument on this mooring are also presented. (WHK)

  8. Bioremediation of soils contaminated by hydrocarbons at the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelvys Bermúdez Acosta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to describe and assess the main results in the process of bioremediation of 479 m3 of petroleum residuals spilled on the soil and restrained into four deposits of fuel on the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”, Cienfuegos. The volume of hydrocarbons spilled and contained into the tanks was determined by means of their previous mixture with fertile ground in a ratio of 3/1. The hydrocarbons were disposed in a bioremediation area of 115 m X 75m built in situ. In turn 54, 5 m3 of BIOIL - FC were applied, which were fermented in an industrial bioreactor of 12000 L. An initial sampling was carried out registering values of total hydrocarbons (HTP higher than 41880 mg/kg, with high concentrations of Saturated hydrocarbons, aromatics, resins, asphaltens (SARA. Three subsequent samples were taken with a sampling interval of 0, 45, 90 and 120 days of the application. An average concentration of 1884.57 mg/kg of total hydrocarbons was obtained at 120 days with an average removal rate of 94.8%, moreover values of 94.6%, 90.78%, 86.99% y 79.9% of SARA were respectively reported.

  9. Revisión clínica de diez técnicas tradicionales para cobertura de lesiones en punta de dedo Clinical review of ten traditional techniques for finger tip injuries coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernández García

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Las amputaciones de punta de dedo son lesiones muy comunes para las que se han descrito numerosas técnicas reconstructivas. El manejo de estas heridas supone, con frecuencia, un problema difícil para el cirujano que no dispone de medios para la realización de intervenciones microquirúrgicas. En estos casos, las técnicas convencionales de cobertura, que han probado su eficacia y sencillez, pueden aportar soluciones adecuadas a cada paciente si son correctamente empleadas. Los injertos de piel, colgajos de avance V-Y, las diferentes modalidades de colgajos de dedos cruzados, los colgajos inguinales, colgajos homodigitales de pedículo retrógrado y anterógrado, son algunas de las técnicas desarrolladas en este estudio. El correcto manejo de las técnicas tradicionales, cuyo empleo sigue hoy vigente en muchos Servicios de Urgencias del mundo, se presenta como un recurso eficaz para resolver las más diversas lesiones de punta de dedo.Fingertip amputations are very common injuries and a lot of reconstructive methods have been described to treat them. The management of these wounds frequently supposes a complex problem for surgeons without resources for microsurgical applications. In these cases, conventional coverage techniques, that have proven their effectiveness and simplicity, can be appropriate solutions to each patient if they are correctly employed. Skin grafts, advancement V-Y flaps, different modalities of cross-finger flaps, groin flaps, homodigital direct and reverse pedicle flaps, are some of the techniques developed in this study. Correct management of these traditional techniques, are today effective in many Emergency Services all over the world, and represent an effective resource to solve most of finger tip injuries.

  10. Notice of release of iceberg, romaine, and leaf lettuce breeding lines with improved disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture announces the release of sixteen breeding lines of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Five (SM13-Il, SM13-I2, SM13-I3, SM13-I4, and SM13-I5) of the six iceberg breeding lines can be used for whole head or salad blend production; the sixth i...

  11. Quality of Iceberg and Romaine lettuce treated by combinations of sanitizer, surfactant, and ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report an investigation of the individual and combined effects of sonication, two sanitizers (chlorine and Tsunami 100®) and a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the quality of fresh-cut Iceberg and Romaine lettuce. Lettuce samples were treated for 1 minute with and without ultrasound in...

  12. Beneath the Tip of the Iceberg: Using Representations to Support Student Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, David C.; Boswinkel, Nina; Dekker, Truus

    2008-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the "iceberg model," developed by the Freudenthal Institute, has been used to support teacher identification of informal and preformal representations that build students' understanding of formal mathematics. This article offers suggestions on how this model can be used to support professional development,…

  13. Isolation of phenolic compounds from iceberg lettuce and impact on enzymatic browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Franziska; Glomb, Marcus A

    2013-03-20

    Enzymatic browning is generally reported as the reaction between phenolic substances and enzymes. The quality of iceberg lettuce is directly linked to this discoloration. In particular, the color change of lettuce stems considerably reduces consumer acceptance and thus decreases sales revenue of iceberg lettuce. Ten phenolic compounds (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, phaseolic acid, chicoric acid, isochlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, and quercetin-3-O-(6″-malonyl)-glucoside) were isolated from Lactuca sativa var. capitata by multilayer countercurrent chromatography (MLCCC) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, syringin was identified for the first time in iceberg lettuce. This polyphenolic ingredient was previously not mentioned for the family of Cichorieae in general. The purity and identity of isolated compounds were confirmed by different NMR experiments, HPLC-DAD-MS, and HR-MS techniques. Furthermore, the relationship between discoloration of iceberg lettuce and enzymatic browning was thoroughly investigated. Unexpectedly, the total concentration of phenolic compounds and the activity of polyphenol oxidase were not directly related to the browning processes. Results of model incubation experiments of plant extract solutions led to the conclusion that in addition to the typical enzymatic browning induced by polyphenol oxidases, further mechanisms must be involved to explain total browning of lettuce.

  14. A Good Example of Hemingway’s Iceberg Principle:The Killers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄新月

    2013-01-01

    Hemingway established a well-known literary theory —iceberg principle. He said he always attempted to create his literary works according to this principle. In his opinion, if a prose writer has a pretty clear idea of what he writes about, then he can omit the things he knows, and the readers will strongly feel that what the writer has omitted seems to have been written as long as what he writes is authentic. Hemingway himself once said,“The dignity of movement of an iceberg is due to only one eighth of it being above water.”Here, one eighth refers to the information given by the author, and the rest refers to the unwrit⁃ten information that can be acquired in readers’imagination on the basis of the one eighth. The Killers is a good example of Hemingway’s iceberg principle. This essay will analyse the characters in it to show how the principle was used in this short story. With no doubt the iceberg principle leaves a large space for the readers to imagine and better understand Hemingway’s works.

  15. The Statistical Physics of Iceberg Calving and the Emergence of Universal Calving Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassis, J. N.

    2010-12-01

    Determining a calving law valid for all glaciological regimes has proven to be a difficult problem in glaciology. For this reason, most models of the calving process are semi-empirical, with little connection to the underlying fracture processes. In this study, I introduce methods rooted in statistical physics to show how calving laws, valid for any glaciological domain, can emerge naturally as a large spatial-scale/long temporal-scale limit of an underlying continuous or discrete fracture process. An important element of the method developed here is that iceberg calving is treated as a stochastic process and that the probability that an iceberg will detach in a given interval of time can be described by a probability distribution function. Using limiting assumptions about the underlying probability distribution, the theory is shown to be able to simulate a range of calving styles including the sporadic detachment of large, tabular icebergs from ice tongues and ice shelves and the more steady detachment of smaller sized bergs from tidewater/outlet glaciers. The method developed has the potential to provide a physical basis to include iceberg calving into numerical ice sheet models that can be used to produce more realistic estimates of the glaciological contribution to sea level rise.

  16. On the Mechanisms Producing Iceberg Discharges During Last Glacial Period, Including Heinrich Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Solas, J.; Robinson, A.; Banderas, R.; Montoya, M.

    2014-12-01

    Proxy data reveal the existence of episodes of increased deposition of ice-rafted debris in the North Atlantic Ocean during the last glacial period. These are interpreted as massive iceberg discharges mainly from the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Although these have long been attributed to self-sustained ice sheet oscillations, growing evidence points to an active role of the oceanic circulation. Here we present simulations of the last glacial period carried out with a hybrid ice sheet-ice shelf model. Two mechanisms producing iceberg discharges are compared. First, we reproduce the classic binge-purge by which the iceberg surges are produced thanks to the existence of an internal thermo-mechanical feedback that allows the ice sheet to behave under an oscillatory regime. Second, our ice-sheet model is forced by an oceanic warming index derived from proxy data that accounts for the impact of past ocean circulation changes on ocean temperatures. In this case, the model generates a time series of iceberg calving that agrees with ice-rafted debris records over the past 80 ka. We compare the two theories and discuss their advantages and weaknesses in terms of both the robustness of the physics on which they are based and their comparison with proxies.

  17. Acinetobacter lactucae sp. nov., isolated from iceberg lettuce (Asteraceae: Lactuca sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain NRRL B-41902 and three closely related strains were isolated from iceberg lettuce. The strain was found to consist of strictly aerobic, gram-negative rods that formed cocci in late stationary phase. Subsequent to sequencing the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, it was found that strain NRRL B-41902 was...

  18. A Simple Laboratory Scale Model of Iceberg Dynamics and its Role in Undergraduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, J. C.; MacAyeal, D. R.; Nakamura, N.

    2011-12-01

    Lab-scale models of geophysical phenomena have a long history in research and education. For example, at the University of Chicago, Dave Fultz developed laboratory-scale models of atmospheric flows. The results from his laboratory were so stimulating that similar laboratories were subsequently established at a number of other institutions. Today, the Dave Fultz Memorial Laboratory for Hydrodynamics (http://geosci.uchicago.edu/~nnn/LAB/) teaches general circulation of the atmosphere and oceans to hundreds of students each year. Following this tradition, we have constructed a lab model of iceberg-capsize dynamics for use in the Fultz Laboratory, which focuses on the interface between glaciology and physical oceanography. The experiment consists of a 2.5 meter long wave tank containing water and plastic "icebergs". The motion of the icebergs is tracked using digital video. Movies can be found at: http://geosci.uchicago.edu/research/glaciology_files/tsunamigenesis_research.shtml. We have had 3 successful undergraduate interns with backgrounds in mathematics, engineering, and geosciences perform experiments, analyze data, and interpret results. In addition to iceberg dynamics, the wave-tank has served as a teaching tool in undergraduate classes studying dam-breaking and tsunami run-up. Motivated by the relatively inexpensive cost of our apparatus (~1K-2K dollars) and positive experiences of undergraduate students, we hope to serve as a model for undergraduate research and education that other universities may follow.

  19. Floristic and physiognomic characteristics of disturbed thorny xerophytic scrubland in Punta de Piedras, Miranda Municipality, Zulia State, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Vera, Antonio; Martínez, Maritza; Ayala, Yin; Montes, Sadieth; González, Anderson

    2013-01-01

    We determined the floristic and physiognomic aspects of disturbed thorny xerophytic scrubland in Punta de Piedras, Miranda Municipality, Zulia State, Venezuela. Botanical sampling was done twice monthly (November 2005-June 2006), in both rainy and dry seasons, for a total of 16 samples. The sampling was done in 10 vegetation patches, in an average area of 718,2 ± 706,24 m2, and adjacent graminoid floristic components were identified using three 400 m2 (20 x 20 m) plots, divided into 4 subplot...

  20. Educación ambiental en tiempos de catástrofe: la respuesta educativa al naufragio del Prestige Environmental education in times of catastrophes: the education response to the shipwreck of the Prestige

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Angel Meira Cartea

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available En noviembre de 2002, un petrolero obsoleto, el Prestige, naufragó y vertió su carga en las costas de Galicia (noroeste de la Península Ibérica. Este accidente originó un "experimento" social indeseado pero valioso para comprender cómo se representa socialmente la experiencia catastrófica de los "riesgos manufacturados". Este artículo analiza la respuesta del sistema educativo regional a la catástrofe desde dos puntos de vista: a su comprensión en el marco de la respuesta social crítica y proactiva ante los intentos oficiales de representar una "no-catástrofe" y, b el papel de la Educación Ambiental (EA como praxis pedagógica cuya dimensión política se revela como indispensable. La tesis que defendemos es que la naturaleza política de la EA, muchas veces sólo implícita y otras negada explícitamente, se redescubre aquí como eje primordial en la respuesta del sistema educativo y de otros agentes educadores. En este sentido, la catástrofe no ha sido sólo ecológica, sino también, y sobre todo, social y política al cuestionar la globalización económica - su causa radical - y poner en evidencia la vulnerabilidad de las administraciones, incapaces de prevenir o mitigar su impacto sobre el ambiente y las comunidades humanas. En este escenario, la EA contribuye a reflexionar sobre el origen de la catástrofe como consecuencia inesperada de la "modernidad avanzada", en sintonía con el análisis que hace Ulrich Beck sobre la "sociedad del riesgo" y sobre el potencial politizador de las sucesivas catástrofes - la punta del iceberg - en las que el nuevo ethos social se manifiesta y construye.In November 2002, the Prestige, an obsolete oil tanker, sank and spilled her cargo offshore Galicia (in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. This accident originated a social experiment, unwanted but valuable to understand how the catastrophic experience of the "manufactured risks" is socially represented. The present article analyzes the

  1. The Other 7/8--The application of “Iceberg Principle” in the 17th chapter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟璠

    2013-01-01

    Based on “Iceberg Principle”, the paper briefly introduces the development of this theory in the area of literature, and also gives a brief introduction of Hemingway’s classic novel The Sun Also Rises. The paper studies take the 17th chapter of this novel as an example, analyzing the application of “Iceberg principle” in this chapter from the perspective of both the storyline and characterization and summarizes the effect that “Iceberg Principle” have in this chapter. It will be beneficial for the readers to understand of“Iceberg Principle” in a specific context, and to understand the thoughts and emotion of the novel from a much deeper level.

  2. Determinación del espesor de los dientes del engrane biparamétrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Voronin F.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se muestra una solución a tres problemas teóricos de engranajes de dos grados de libertad: la obtención de la ecuación de la línea de acción en el engranaje biparamétrico, la determinación de la ecuación de la superficie exterior del engrane biparamétrico y del espesor de los dientes del mismo. Se muestra la definición de un tipo de interferencia en la superficie exterior de los dientes de engranes biparamétricos que se manifiesta en dientes en punta. Se presentan los resultados del cálculo del espesor de los dientes en la superficie exterior de un engrane biparamétrico.

  3. Construction and Magmatic Evolution of a Vertically Layered Mid-Crustal Gabbroic Complex (Punta Falcone, Sardinia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, A. C.; Bussy, F.

    2014-12-01

    The granite-hosted mid-crustal complex of Punta Falcone consists of transitional tholeiitic to calc-alkaline high-Al gabbros. Its pervasive vertical structure is the result of injection of at least 6 distinct pulses forming 10 to 60m wide individual cooling units. The complex was built symmetrically by injection of each new pulse in the centre of the system. Contacts between the units are well-defined and present slight chilled margins speaking against a continuous magma flux which would have had a marked thermal impact on the adjacent units. All units have a common magma source (radiogenic isotopes), but show differences as the system evolves. An80-90 plg is the liquidus phase in all units and crystallized in the source region. In the early units it is followed by sub-/euhedral amph of mm-size with a wide range of compositions dominated by the edenite-type substitution, evidencing relatively fast, isobaric cooling at emplacement level. The later units accumulated high-An plg and fractionated Fe-Ti oxides before ascent as indicated by whole-rock chemistry. After emplacement and due to the thermal maturation of the system, they isobarically crystallized big, cm-sized oikocrysts of px enclosing high-An plg, closely followed by amph with the same texture. This led to an An-content jump in the subsequently crystallizing plg rims, whose absence in the mafic phases indicates a strong crystallinity increase over a small T interval. The geometry, size, number of pulses and emplacement chronology of the complex yield constraints on the thermal evolution of the system. Numerical modelling shows that the periodic injection of magma and the latent heat of crystallization of px and amph maintained the latest pulse at high T for several hundreds of years. This induced a slow and regular inward migration of the crystallization front on both sides of the central unit, which allowed the development of a spectacular vertical, cm-scale, rhythmic magmatic layering.

  4. Iceberg discharges of the last glacial period driven by oceanic circulation changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Solas, Jorge; Robinson, Alexander; Montoya, Marisa; Ritz, Catherine

    2013-10-08

    Proxy data reveal the existence of episodes of increased deposition of ice-rafted detritus in the North Atlantic Ocean during the last glacial period interpreted as massive iceberg discharges from the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Although these have long been attributed to self-sustained ice sheet oscillations, growing evidence of the crucial role that the ocean plays both for past and future behavior of the cryosphere suggests a climatic control of these ice surges. Here, we present simulations of the last glacial period carried out with a hybrid ice sheet-ice shelf model forced by an oceanic warming index derived from proxy data that accounts for the impact of past ocean circulation changes on ocean temperatures. The model generates a time series of iceberg discharge that closely agrees with ice-rafted debris records over the past 80 ka, indicating that oceanic circulation variations were responsible for the enigmatic ice purges of the last ice age.

  5. Buried iceberg scours reveal reduced North Atlantic Current during the stage 12 deglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Andrew M. W.; Huuse, Mads; Brocklehurst, Simon H.

    2016-03-01

    Reconstructing past ocean-climate environments and heat transport requires proxies from which these conditions can be quantified. This is particularly important for the evaluation of numerical palaeoclimate models. Here we present new evidence for a reduced North Atlantic Current (NAC) at the termination of the third last glacial, for which palaeocurrent information was previously unavailable. This is based on an exquisitely preserved set of buried iceberg scours seen in three-dimensional seismic reflection images from the mid-Norwegian slope. The scours were formed ~430 ka during the transition from glacial to interglacial conditions. The spiral geometry of the scours suggests that they were carved by grounded icebergs influenced by tidal and geostrophic ocean currents. Using the ratio between the estimated tidal and geostrophic current velocities and comparing them with velocities from the Last Glacial Maximum and the present, we show that the stage 12 NAC velocities may have been ~50% slower than the present.

  6. Iceberg discharges and oceanic circulation changes during glacial abrupt climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Solas, Jorge; Robinson, Alexander; Banderas, Rubén; Montoya, Marisa

    2015-04-01

    Proxy data reveal the existence of episodes of increased deposition of ice-rafted debris in the North Atlantic Ocean during the last glacial period. These are interpreted as massive iceberg discharges mainly from the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Although these have long been attributed to self-sustained ice sheet oscillations, growing evidence points to an active role of the oceanic circulation. Here we will present simulations of the last glacial period carried out with a hybrid ice sheet-ice shelf model. Two mechanisms producing iceberg discharges are compared. First, we reproduce the classic binge-purge by which the iceberg surges are produced thanks to the existence of an internal thermo-mechanical feedback that allows the ice sheet to behave under an oscillatory regime. Second, our ice-sheet model is forced by an oceanic warming index derived from proxy data that accounts for the impact of past ocean circulation changes on ocean temperatures. In this case, the model generates a time series of iceberg calving that agrees with ice-rafted debris records over the past 80 ka. We compare the two theories and discuss their advantages and weaknesses in terms of both the robustness of the physics on which they are based and their comparison with proxies. This comparison highlights the importance of considering past oceanic circulation changes in order to understand the ice-sheet dynamics. However, the ultimate processes determining abrupt changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) remain elusive. Therefore we will also analyze several proposed mechanisms that aims to explain such AMOC reorganizations, focusing on those that do not require freshwater flux forcing.

  7. Dilemas de los funcionarios punta de lanza en la gestión ambiental en Río San Juan, Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broegaard, Rikke; Barrios J., Mariana

    2007-01-01

    . Aunque se reconoce en la literatura internacional la importancia de los dilemas a los que se enfrentan los ‘funcionarios punta de lanza' para entender los cuellos de botella reales, aún hay un vacío en la literatura. Así, este artículo presenta y analiza los dilemas de las instituciones y sus...

  8. La industria lítica del depósito sepulcral de Pico Ramos (Muskiz. Bizkia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gorrochategui

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available La industria lítica del depósito sepulcral calcolítico de la cueva Pico Ramos (Muskiz, Biakaia se compone tanto de restos de talla como de útiles tipologizables entre los que se destacan por su frecuencia la puntas de flecha de varios tipos. Además, se han recuperado láminas, lascas retocadas, dos microlitos y un raspador. El conjunto se enmarca en el tercer milenio B.C. sin calibrar y corresponde a un conjunto funerario, con poca representación de útiles propios de lugares de habitación. Se cuestiona el carácter ritual del depósito de las puntas de flecha y se confirma el de otras piezas (láminas. El conjunto es de cronología posterior a las industrias recuperadas en dólmenes del occidente de Bizkaia.

  9. Iceberg ploughmark features on bottom surface of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, Dmitry; Sivkov, Vadim; Dorokhova, Evgenia; Krechik, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    A detail swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar and acoustic profiling combined with sediment sampling during the 64th cruise of RV "Academic Mstislav Keldysh" (October 2015) allowed to identify new geomorphological features of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea bottom surface. The extended chaotic ploughmarks (furrows) in most cases filled with thin layer of mud were discovered on surface of the Gdansk-Gotland sill glacial deposits. They are observed on the depth of more than 70 m and have depth and width from 1 to 10 m. Most of them are v- or u-shaped stepped depressions. The side-scan records of similar geomorpholoical features are extensively reported from Northern Hemisphere and Antarctica (Goodwin et al., 1985; Dowdeswell et al., 1993). Ploughmarks are attributed to the action of icebergs scouring into the sediment as they touch bottom. We are suggest that furrows discovered in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea are also the result of iceberg scouring during the Baltic Ice Lake stage (more than 11 600 cal yr BP (Bjorck, 2008)). This assumption confirmed by occurrence of fragmental stones and boulders on the sea bottom surface which are good indicators of iceberg rafting (Lisitzin, 2003). Ice ploughmarks at sea bottom surface were not occurred before in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea. The study was financed by Russian Scientific Fund, grant number 14-37-00047. References Bjorck S. The late Quaternary development of the Baltic Sea Basin. In: The BACC Author Team (eds) Assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea Basin. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2008. Dowdeswell J. A., Villinger H., Whittington R. J., Marienfeld P. Iceberg scouring in Scoresby Sund and on the East Greenland continental shelf // Marine Geology. V. 111. N. 1-2. 1993. P. 37-53. Goodwin C. R., Finley J. C., Howard L. M. Ice scour bibliography. Environmental Studies Revolving Funds Report No. 010. Ottawa. 1985. 99 pp. Lisitzin A. P. Sea-Ice and Iceberg Sedimentation in the Ocean: Recent and Past. Springer

  10. The role of oceanic variability on millennial-scale iceberg discharges: focus on Heinrich events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Solas, J.; Montoya, M.; Banderas, R.; Dumas, C.; Ritz, C.

    2011-12-01

    Ice core data and marine and continental records reveal the existence of pronounced millennial time-scale climate variability during the last glacial cycle. Greenland ice core records show abrupt transitions known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events within decades from cold (stadial) to relatively warm (interstadial) conditions, followed by a slow cooling lasting several centuries and a more rapid fall through stadial conditions. Two types of explanation have been suggested: periodic external forcing and internal oscillations, for which ocean circulation is the main candidate. On the other hand, six periods of extreme cooling registered in the Northern Hemisphere, known as Heinrich events (HEs), have been found to be coeval with increased deposition of ice-rafted debris, which is interpreted as enhanced discharge of icebergs into the North Atlantic Ocean. Recently, the coupled effects between ocean circulation and ice-sheets dynamics have been suggested to play a major role in triggering HEs. This interpretation of HEs being responding to changes in the oceanic patterns, takes the advantage to provide an explicit relationship between DO events and the periodic iceberg surges. In particular, it has been shown in a box model that a series of DO events favors the occurrence of a HE through a resonance phenomenon, giving an explanation to the denominated Bond cycle. Here this hypothesis is reassessed within a more realistic modeling framework by forcing a 3D ice-sheet/shelf model with the output of abrupt climate change simulations carried out with a coupled climate model. These show the main expected characteristics of such events: an abrupt warming of the North Atlantic and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) intensification followed by a progressive cooling and AMOC reduction and a more drastic fall into a stadial condition. Interestingly, stadial periods are characterized by the occurrence of a subsurface warming up to 3 K in regions where deep water

  11. Distribución fraccional de metales y minerales en la laterita de balance del yacimiento Punta Gorda, Moa, Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alberto Hernández-Flores; Arturo L. Rojas-Purón; George Agyei

    2010-01-01

    Laterita de balance es la denominación tecnológica de la mena procesada para la obtención de níquel en Moa mediante proceso Caron, para la cual se ha establecido un contenido de Fe superior a 35...

  12. Conjunto metálico con puntas de jabalina procedentes del yacimiento de La Pestaña (Badajoz)

    OpenAIRE

    Enríquez Navascués, Juan Javier; Palomo Lechón, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an unpublished photograph whith metal pieces from La Pestaña (Badajoz), where two Pastora-type javelins stand out. The photo comes from the archive of Aurelio Cabrera (1870-1936), sculptor and archaeologist. Six of the pieces have been located in the Badajoz Provincial Archaeological Museum, three of which have elemental anaylises. The other six pieces are missing, including the Pastora-type javelins among them. The photograph attests to their existence and origin strength...

  13. In-Network Processing of an Iceberg Join Query in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on 2-Way Fragment Semijoins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunchul Kang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the in-network processing of an iceberg join query in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. An iceberg join is a special type of join where only those joined tuples whose cardinality exceeds a certain threshold (called iceberg threshold are qualified for the result. Processing such a join involves the value matching for the join predicate as well as the checking of the cardinality constraint for the iceberg threshold. In the previous scheme, the value matching is carried out as the main task for filtering non-joinable tuples while the iceberg threshold is treated as an additional constraint. We take an alternative approach, meeting the cardinality constraint first and matching values next. In this approach, with a logical fragmentation of the join operand relations on the aggregate counts of the joining attribute values, the optimal sequence of 2-way fragment semijoins is generated, where each fragment semijoin employs a Bloom filter as a synopsis of the joining attribute values. This sequence filters non-joinable tuples in an energy-efficient way in WSNs. Through implementation and a set of detailed experiments, we show that our alternative approach considerably outperforms the previous one.

  14. VARIABILIDAD TEMPORAL DE LA SURGENCIA Y LA ZMO, Y SU EFECTO SOBRE LA PRODUCTIVIDAD BIOLOGICA EN UN SISTEMA COSTERO DEL NORTE DE LA CORRIENTE DE HUMBOLDT

    OpenAIRE

    GUIÑEZ ARAYA, MARCOS IGNACIO

    2012-01-01

    Mejillones del Sur (23ºS), es una bahía orientada hacia el norte y ubicada a orillas del desierto más seco del planeta (Atacama). Esta bahía es parte del centro de surgencia de Punta Angamos, localizado en la zona norte del sistema de corrientes de Humboldt. En la bahía de Mejillones se han registrado valores de producción primaria media de 3170 mg C m-2 d-1 y una abundante diversidad fitoplanctónica. En esta bahía se han realizado una serie de estudios sobre la composición y estructura de...

  15. Velocity measurements and changes in position of Thwaites Glacier/iceberg tongue from aerial photography, Landsat images and NOAA AVHRR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Lucchitta, Baerbel K.; Mullinsallison, A. L.; Allen, Robert J.; Gould, W. G.

    1993-01-01

    The Thwaites Glacier/iceberg tongue complex has been a significant feature of the Antarctic coastline for at least 50 years. In 1986, major changes began to occur in this area. Fast ice melted and several icebergs calved from the base of the iceberg tongue and the terminus of Thwaites Glacier. The iceberg tongue rotated to an east-west orientation and drifted westward. Between 1986 and 1992, a total of 140 km of drift has occurred. Remote digital velocity measurements were made on Thwaites Glacier using sequential Landsat images to try to determine if changes in velocity had occurred in conjunction with the changes in ice position. Examination of the morphology of the glacier/iceberg tongue showed no evidence of surge activity.

  16. Myths and verities in protein folding theories: From Frank and Evans iceberg-conjecture to explanation of the hydrophobic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    2013-10-01

    Starting from the seminal article by Frank and Evans where the "iceberg formation" idea was first expressed, we follow the evolution of this idea to the explanation of the hydrophobic effect. We show that the idea of iceberg formation can provide an explanation to the entropy, and enthalpy of solvation of non-polar solutes in water, provided one first explains why a simple non-polar solute would form icebergs in the first place. Having done that, the questions regarding the outstanding large hydrophobic solvation Gibbs energy remains unexplained. This conclusion follows from the exact entropy-enthalpy-compensation pertaining to any structural changes induced in the solvent. We also comment on some misinterpretation of the partial molar heat capacity of non-polar solutes in water.

  17. Injerto columelar extendido angulado. Método para prevenir la rotación cefálica y lateral de los injertos de cartílago en la punta nasal Angulated extended collumelar graft. A method to prevent the cephalic and lateral rotation of the cartilage graft in the nasal tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Castro Govea

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El paciente mestizo generalmente posee una nariz pequeña, de base ancha, con fosas nasales redondas y dorso convexo. Los cartílagos alares son débiles, delgados y cortos, proporcionando un soporte estructural deficiente y pobre definición de la punta nasal. Los injertos de cartílago de la punta nasal se usan frecuentemente para corregir esta condición; sin embargo un problema común es la rotación cefálica, caudal y lateral de estos cartílagos. Empleamos un injerto columelar extendido angulado (ICEA para proporcionar elongación y soporte columelar; la extensión angulada nos brinda a su vez un mejor control y predicción de la posición de los injertos de la punta nasal al prevenir su desplazamiento cefálico y lateral. El protocolo quirúrgico empleado incluyó historia clínica completa, desarrollo de un plan quirúrgico mediante análisis de la deformidad y fotografías pre y postoperatorias para el control de los pacientes a medio y largo plazo. Tratamos 95 pacientes usando este procedimiento; 75 con rinoplastia abierta y 20 con técnica cerrada. El rango del periodo de seguimiento fue de 6 meses a 4 años. Los resultados obtenidos fueron satisfactorios, mostrando mejor control y predicción de la forma de la punta nasal. En conclusión, creemos que el injerto columelar extendido angulado proporciona un mejor control de la proyección y angularidad de los injertos colocados en la punta nasal.The mestizo patient usually has a small nose, with wide base, round nostrils and convex dorsum. The alar cartilages are weak, thin and short, providing a deficient structural support and poor definition of the nasal tip. Cartilage graft in the nasal tip are very often used to correct this condition, but a commun problem of this procedure is the cephalic or lateral rotation of these grafts. We used an angulated extended collumalar graft to give collumelar support and elongation. The angulated extension of the graft provides a better control and

  18. Reverse glacier motion during iceberg calving and the cause of glacial earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, T.; Nettles, M.; Selmes, N.; Cathles, M.; Burton, J. C.; James, T.; Edwards, S.; Martin, I.; O'Farrell, T.; Aspey, R. A.; Rutt, I. C.; Bauge, T.

    2015-12-01

    About half Greenland's mass loss results from iceberg calving, but the physical mechanisms of calving are poorly known and in situobservations are sparse. Glacial earthquakes, globally detectable seismic events, are associated with calving and are occurring at increasing numbers of outlet glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica. However, the processes causing them have not been clear. We installed a wireless network of on-ice GPS sensors at the calving margin of Helheim Glacier for 55 days during summer 2013. The glacier is a major SE Greenland tidewater outlet and during our observations retreated ~1.5 km in a series of calving events. Our GPS sensors captured glacier motion with cm-level accuracy at locations very close to the calving front with a high temporal sampling rate. Calving causes a minutes-long reversal of the glacier's horizontal flow and a downward deflection of its terminus seen on multiple GPS sensors. Each major calving event is associated with a glacial earthquake. For example, a glacial earthquake / calving event on day 206 produced an iceberg of volume 0.36 km3and aspect ratio 0.23. A GPS sensor close to the front showed a pre-earthquake speed of 29 m/day. Immediately prior to the earthquake centroid time, the sensor reversed its direction and moved upglacier at ~40 m/day and downward 10 cm. The reversed motion was sustained for ~200 s and was followed by downglacier rebound and upward movement. The reverse motion of the glacier results from the horizontal force caused by iceberg capsize and acceleration away from the front. We use analog laboratory experiments to demonstrate that the downward motion results from hydrodynamic pressure drop behind the capsizing berg, which also causes an upward force on the solid Earth. We show that these horizontal and vertical forces are the source of glacial earthquakes. Proper interpretation of the earthquake events should allow remote sensing of calving processes at the margins of Greenland and Antarctic

  19. Source mechanics for monochromatic icequakes produced during iceberg calving at Columbia Glacier, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neel, Shad; Pfeffer, W.T.

    2007-01-01

    Seismograms recorded during iceberg calving contain information pertaining to source processes during calving events. However, locally variable material properties may cause signal distortions, known as site and path effects, which must be eliminated prior to commenting on source mechanics. We applied the technique of horizontal/vertical spectral ratios to passive seismic data collected at Columbia Glacier, AK, and found no dominant site or path effects. Rather, monochromatic waveforms generated by calving appear to result from source processes. We hypothesize that a fluid-filled crack source model offers a potential mechanism for observed seismograms produced by calving, and fracture-processes preceding calving.

  20. Problems of Quality of Migrant Workers and Countermeasures from the Perspective of Iceberg Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of Iceberg Model,we analyze levels and structures of quality of migrant workers from knowledge,skills,social role, self-cognition,traits and motives. On the basis of these situations,we put forward countermeasures: value rural education and enhance skill training; make clear occupational planning and set up correct sense of value; assist migrant workers in facing the reality and adjusting their state of mind in working; coordinate interest relationship and call upon social care; rebuild mental world and construct harmonious society.

  1. Production of 4th range iceberg lettuce enriched with calcium. Evaluation of some quality parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Gras Romero, María Luisa; Vidal Brotons, Daniel José; Vásquez-Forttes, Fresia Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    [EN] This project is part of a study on the process of production of 4th range Iceberg lettuce leaves enriched with Ca using the vacuum impregnation (VI) technique. The objectives of this work were (i) to verify if it is possible that a 250 g portion of impregnated lettuce leaves provides the same quantity of Ca (300 mg) as a 250 mL glass of milk, and (ii) to analyze the effects of VI on some quality parameters of the lettuce leaves: water activity, humidity, soluble solids content, real and ...

  2. El inventario del Patrimonio Arqueológico Subacuático dellitoral norte de Gran Canaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Olmo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available  La realización del Inventario del Pa­trimonio Histórico para el Estudio Eco-carto­gráfico de la Zona Norte del Litoral de la isla de Gran Canaria, consistió en la localización e inventario de todos aquellos bienes de in­terés patrimonial que existieran en dicho área de estudio, mediante la puesta en marcha de una serie de labores de documentación y loca­lización espacial de los mismos. En lo que res­pecta al ámbito del estudio subacuático, éste comprendía la franja litoral dispuesta entre la Punta de La Aldea y la Punta de Gando y se extendía desde la línea mareal-costera hasta la cota de 50 metros de profundidad, certifi­cándose finalmente una notable cantidad de vestigios sumergidos.The object of the Inventory of Heritage for the Eco-cartographic Study of the Northern Coast of the island of Gran Canaria was to lo­cate and inventory all those elements deemed of patrimonial interest within the aforemen­tioned study area. With this aim, a series of procedures were employed to determine the spatial placement of elements and document findings. The scope of the underwater study comprised the coastline between La Punta de la Aldea and La Punta de Gando, taking in the area from the tide/coastline out to sea to a depth of 50metres. A considerable number of submerged remains were finally documented.

  3. Ectoparasite occurrence associated with males and females of wild rodents Oligoryzomys flavescens (Waterhouse) and Akodon azarae (Fischer) (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) in the Punta Lara wetlands, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lareschi, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study infestation parameters and indexes of ectoparasites associated with each sex of the wild rodents Oligoryzomys flavescens (Waterhouse) andAkodon azarae (Fischer) in the Punta Lara wetlands, Argentina. A trend towards higher mean abundance (MA) and ectoparasite specific richness was observed in males of O. flavescens whereas those values were similar for both A. azarae sexes. The prevalence of the following ectoparasites was significantly higher on males (Prodent hosts, these results are epidemiologically important.

  4. The northwest trending north Boquerón Bay-Punta Montalva Fault Zone; A through going active fault system in southwestern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig‐Silva, Coral Marie; Asencio, Eugenio; Joyce, James

    2013-01-01

    The North Boquerón Bay–Punta Montalva fault zone has been mapped crossing the Lajas Valley in southwest Puerto Rico. Identification of the fault was based upon detailed analysis of geophysical data, satellite images, and field mapping. The fault zone consists of a series of Cretaceous bedrock faults that reactivated and deformed Miocene limestone and Quaternary alluvial fan sediments. The fault zone is seismically active (local magnitude greater than 5.0) with numerous locally felt earthquakes. Focal mechanism solutions suggest strain partitioning with predominantly east–west left-lateral displacements with small normal faults striking mostly toward the northeast. Northeast-trending fractures and normal faults can be found in intermittent streams that cut through the Quaternary alluvial fan deposits along the southern margin of the Lajas Valley, an east–west-trending 30-km-long fault-controlled depression. Areas of preferred erosion within the alluvial fan trend toward the west-northwest parallel to the onland projection of the North Boquerón Bay fault. The North Boquerón Bay fault aligns with the Punta Montalva fault southeast of the Lajas Valley. Both faults show strong southward tilting of Miocene strata. On the western end, the Northern Boquerón Bay fault is covered with flat-lying Holocene sediments, whereas at the southern end the Punta Montalva fault shows left-lateral displacement of stream drainage on the order of a few hundred meters.

  5. Spatial characterization of the meltwater field from icebergs in the Weddell Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helly, John J; Kaufmann, Ronald S; Vernet, Maria; Stephenson, Gordon R

    2011-04-05

    We describe the results from a spatial cyberinfrastructure developed to characterize the meltwater field around individual icebergs and integrate the results with regional- and global-scale data. During the course of the cyberinfrastructure development, it became clear that we were also building an integrated sampling planning capability across multidisciplinary teams that provided greater agility in allocating expedition resources resulting in new scientific insights. The cyberinfrastructure-enabled method is a complement to the conventional methods of hydrographic sampling in which the ship provides a static platform on a station-by-station basis. We adapted a sea-floor mapping method to more rapidly characterize the sea surface geophysically and biologically. By jointly analyzing the multisource, continuously sampled biological, chemical, and physical parameters, using Global Positioning System time as the data fusion key, this surface-mapping method enables us to examine the relationship between the meltwater field of the iceberg to the larger-scale marine ecosystem of the Southern Ocean. Through geospatial data fusion, we are able to combine very fine-scale maps of dynamic processes with more synoptic but lower-resolution data from satellite systems. Our results illustrate the importance of spatial cyberinfrastructure in the overall scientific enterprise and identify key interfaces and sources of error that require improved controls for the development of future Earth observing systems as we move into an era of peta- and exascale, data-intensive computing.

  6. Evaluation [corrected] of the "Iceberg Phenomenon" in Johne's disease through mathematical modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesham Magombedze

    Full Text Available Johne's disease (JD is a chronic, enteric disease in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. Disease progression follows four distinct stages: silent, subclinical, clinical and advanced. Available diagnostic tests have poor sensitivity and cannot detect early stages of the infection; as a result, only animals in the clinical and advanced stages, which represent the tip of the 'iceberg', are identified through testing. The Iceberg Phenomenon is then applied to provide estimates for JD prevalence. For one animal in the advanced stage, it is assumed that there are one to two in the clinical stage, four to eight in the subclinical stage, and ten to fourteen in the silent stage. These ratios, however, are based on little evidence. To evaluate the ratios, we developed a deterministic ordinary differential equation model of JD transmission and disease progression dynamics. When duration periods associated with the natural course of the disease progression are used, the above ratios do not hold. The ratios used to estimate JD prevalence need to be further investigated.

  7. Thinning sea ice weakens buttressing force of iceberg mélange and promotes calving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Alexander A.

    2017-03-01

    At many marine-terminating glaciers, the breakup of mélange, a floating aggregation of sea ice and icebergs, has been accompanied by an increase in iceberg calving and ice mass loss. Previous studies have argued that mélange may suppress calving by exerting a buttressing force directly on the glacier terminus. In this study, I adapt a discrete element model to explicitly simulate mélange as a cohesive granular material. Simulations show that mélange laden with thick landfast sea ice produces enough resistance to shut down calving at the terminus. When sea ice within mélange thins, the buttressing force on the terminus is reduced and calving is more likely to occur. When a calving event does occur, it initiates a propagating jamming wave within mélange, which causes local compression and then slow mélange expansion. The jamming wave can also initiate widespread fracture of sea ice and further increase the likelihood of subsequent calving events.

  8. The Turbulent Convective Plume at Ice Shelf Fronts and the Sides of Tabular Icebergs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, R. C.; McConnochie, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    We present laboratory experiments and theoretical analysis that quantify the turbulent buoyant plume formed by the dissolution of a vertical ice face in homogeneous salt water. In our experiments, we vary the temperature and salinity of the salt water and measure the dissolution rate of the ice, the temperature of the ice-water interface, the maximum vertical velocity of the buoyant plume, and the rate at which the laboratory tank becomes stratified with buoyant fluid. Using this experimental information, we then construct a theoretical model of the turbulent buoyant plume as a function of height. The plume has a top-hat entrainment coefficient of 0.048 ± 0.006, and is found to have substantial drag. The plume model is used to calculate a plume width, velocity, buoyancy and Reynolds number for typical dissolving icebergs and ice shelf fronts. Our laboratory experiments also examine the effect of a linear salinity gradient on the dissolution of a vertical ice face. As the stratification is increased, the dissolution rate, the interface temperature and the maximum vertical plume velocity all decrease, and their dependence on height changes. We also outline a method of scaling the effects of stratification from our laboratory experiments to the much larger vertical scales of ice shelves and icebergs.

  9. Thinning sea ice weakens buttressing force of iceberg mélange and promotes calving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Alexander A.

    2017-01-01

    At many marine-terminating glaciers, the breakup of mélange, a floating aggregation of sea ice and icebergs, has been accompanied by an increase in iceberg calving and ice mass loss. Previous studies have argued that mélange may suppress calving by exerting a buttressing force directly on the glacier terminus. In this study, I adapt a discrete element model to explicitly simulate mélange as a cohesive granular material. Simulations show that mélange laden with thick landfast sea ice produces enough resistance to shut down calving at the terminus. When sea ice within mélange thins, the buttressing force on the terminus is reduced and calving is more likely to occur. When a calving event does occur, it initiates a propagating jamming wave within mélange, which causes local compression and then slow mélange expansion. The jamming wave can also initiate widespread fracture of sea ice and further increase the likelihood of subsequent calving events. PMID:28248285

  10. Being as an iceberg: hypertensive treatment adherence experiences in southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Dehghan Nayeri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment adherence is often an important issue in the management of hypertension. Deep understanding of adherence behavior as well as its influential factors can expand knowledge about treatment adherence among hypertensives. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore patients, their families, and healthcare providers’ experiences about hypertension treatment adherence in southeast of Iran. Design: A qualitative study was conducted to explore the experience of patients, family members, and healthcare providers (n=18 by using a conventional content analysis. The purposive sampling method was used. Data were collected through semi-structured and deep interviews. Results: Data analysis showed that hypertensive treatment adherence in an Iranian context is like an iceberg with two subthemes. The first subtheme relates to the upper and clear part of this iceberg and it consists of two categories, including 1 healthy and 2 unhealthy regimens. The second subtheme associates with under-water and unanticipated part and it consists of four categories, including 1 the nature of disease and treatment, 2 the individual resources, 3 the healthcare organization, and 4 the socio-cultural environment. Conclusions: The treatment adherence features emerged in this study can be useful in designing and developing context-based hypertension interventions. Further qualitative and quantitative studies with a closer collaboration between the social, natural, and medical sciences in other Iranian populations are needed to confirm the findings.

  11. A Multiagent Robotic System for In-Situ Modeling and Observation of Icebergs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogle, R. A.; Howard, A.

    2013-12-01

    Ships that operate in polar regions continue to face the threat of floating ice sheets and icebergs generated from ice ablation processes. Systems have been implemented to track these threats, with varying degrees of success. We propose a definition of this tracking problem that re-casts it within a class of robotic, multiagent target observation problems. The focus in this new definition is on minimization of the time an initial contact for newly generated targets is obtained, as opposed to obtaining target contacts long after a target has been generated from a source. Focusing on the initial contact time provides for the ability to enact early countermeasures. A probabilistic model that can be computed in-situ by the robotic agents is presented for the target sources (e.g, iceberg calving regions), and methods of extracting information from that model are provided. Algorithms for computing costs associated with the model for reallocating robotic agents during an observation task and determining the behavior of the targets within the model are presented. The effectiveness of these solutions is demonstrated by comparison with an existing observation technique using simulation, and an implementation is provided for a real hardware system that models the type of system that would be required.

  12. Una nueva técnica para el tratamiento de la punta nasal difícil: Experiencia personal de 22 años (1987-2009 A new technique to treat the very difficult nasal tip: A 22 year experience (1987-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rodríguez-Camps

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Existen numerosas formas de remodelar y embellecer un vértice nasal. Y a veces no encontramos el camino a menos que quitemos de en medio todo lo que sobra, toda la chatarra del vértice. Esto puede ocurrir en rinoplastia primaria o secundaria. En principio, todo es posible para recolocar y remodelar, pero, a veces, cuando destapamos la punta nos encontramos con la realidad: un amasijo de cartílagos rotos o abombados de difícil arreglo. Por esta razón se nos ocurrió en 1987 resecar la totalidad de los cartílagos alares en un caso de rinoplastia secundaria que presentaba un aspecto completamente antiestético. El resultado al año era correcto desde el punto de vista estético y funcional, y en la actualidad lo sigue siendo. No hubo colapso con insuficiencia respiratoria nasal y estéticamente se mantuvo la forma. El extremo del tutor (crus medialis lo cubrimos con un pequeño parche de fascia temporal en dos caídas. A partir de ese momento, y solo en casos muy especiales, procedemos de la misma forma: amputación total de los cartílagos alares, incluidas las cúpulas o conservándolas, preservando el tejido fibroadiposo del vértice, sutura al centro del extremo de las crus medialis y cobertura de éste con fascia temporal, aunque esto depende del grosor de la piel del vértice. La indicación principal de esta técnica sería la rinoplastia secundaria con los cartílagos del vértice destruidos completamente y algunos casos de punta excesivamente ancha y globulosa en rinoplastia primaria. Siempre rinoplastia abierta. Nuestra filosofía es pues, el refinamiento y la belleza de la punta nasal en una base sólida y equilátera... Sin prejuicios ni tabúes.There are many ways to remodel and embellish a nasal tip. At times, we cannot find the way without eliminating all the excess, that is, nasal tip surplus. And this may be the case in primary or secondary rhinoplasty. At first, it seems that everything can be relaid and remodelled, yet

  13. Estructura de la comunidad de esponjas (Porifera en tres arrecifes del Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela y su relación con algunas variables ambientales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Romero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio pone en evidencia la variación en la estructura de la comunidad de esponjas en tres localidades del Parque Nacional Morrocoy (Cayo Sombrero, Playa Mero y Punta Brava con distintas condiciones ambientales y afectadas diferencialmente por una mortalidad masiva ocurrida en 1996. En un total de 15 transectos de 10m de largo y 1m de ancho en cuatro estratos comprendidos entre 3 y 15m de profundidad en cada localidad; se contabilizaron los individuos por especie para calcular la abundancia relativa, diversidad y equidad. Se analizaron las variables ambientales por localidad y se aprecian diferencias entre ellas con respecto a la corriente, turbidez, y exposición al oleaje. Fueron totalizadas 27 especies; Cayo Sombrero (23, Playa Mero (18 y Punta Brava (15, en la primera localidad domina: Agelas sceptrum, Amphimedon erina y Niphates erecta, en Playa Mero: Niphates erecta y Dysidea etherea y en Punta Brava: Dysidea etherea, Niphates erecta y Amphimedon erina. La composición de especies mostró diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre localidades. La mayor diversidad y equidad correspondió a Cayo Sombrero; donde las condiciones fueron más favorables para el crecimiento de estos organismos, seguido de Playa Mero y Punta Brava, guardando las dos primeras mayor similitud entre sí, según Índice de Sorensen.

  14. Reconstrucción de la vegetación posglacial y su relación con el ascenso relativo del nivel del mar en el extremo este del canal Beagle, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Borromei, Ana María; Ponce, Juan Federico; Coronato, Andrea; Candel,María Soledad; Olivera,Daniela; Okuda,Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    A partir del análisis polínico de una turbera de Donatia-Astelia ubicada en Punta Moat (Moat-2; 54°58' 50"S, 66°44'10"W; 40 m s.n.m.), este del canal Beagle, y de modelos digitales de terreno vinculados a la curva de ascenso del mar posglacial, se reconstruye la evolución de la línea de costa y la vegetación desde el Último Máximo Glacial (UMG, ca. 25 ka cal AP) hasta el Holoceno medio (5.000 años cal AP). La evolución de las comunidades vegetales en el extremo este del canal Beagle coincide ...

  15. Iceberg lettuce breeding lines with resistance to Verticillium wilt caused by race 1 isolates of Verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture and the University of California, Davis, announce the release of two breeding lines of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Lines RH08-0472 and RH08-0475 are F9 iceberg type lettuce breeding lines with resistance to Verticillium wil...

  16. A statistical approach to iceberg calving: The role of disorder and the demise of deterministic predictability (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassis, J. N.

    2009-12-01

    One of the discoveries in glaciology over the past decade with far reaching consequences is the realization that iceberg calving provides an efficient mechanism to transfer large amounts of ice to the ocean in a near instantaneous fashion. Most attempts at formulating models of the fracture process that precedes iceberg calving have focused on developing criteria that predict when an isolated crevasse can penetrate the entire ice thickness. In this presentation we argue that because the distribution of pre-existing flaws within the ice is something which is largely unknown, the statistical nature of fracture must be considered. We propose a statistical model of iceberg calving based on a combination of extreme value statistics - an approach increasingly common in modeling fracture of quasi-brittle materials - and statistical-thermodynamics - an approach which allows macroscopic, large-scale state variables to influence statistical dynamics of individual flaws. In the theory that we present, the probability of fracture and hence of iceberg calving is a function of the applied stress, ice thickness and fracture density. The size-distribution of fractures is determined using a statistical-thermodynamic approach specifically developed for fracture of disordered media. We compare predictions of our model against observed advance and retreat rates of Greenland outlet glaciers as well as Antarctic ice shelves. A key prediction of our model is the existence of fluctuations in the position of ice fronts, stable or otherwise. These fluctuations can occasionally bump an otherwise healthy tidewater glacier into a phase of irreversible, rapid retreat.

  17. Evolución holocena de la llanura costera del margen sur del Río de la Plata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Cavallotto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La llanura costera del margen del sur del Río de Plata evolucionó sobre un sustrato modelado durante la transgresión del Holoceno. Su configuración presente es el resultado del proceso de progradación que acompañó el último descenso relativo del nivel del mar. La evolución de la llanura costera estuvo controlada por la interacción de las condiciones hidrometeorológicas (relación viento-ola, corrientes y mareas, la migración de un depocentro fangoso, las fluctuaciones relativas del nivel del mar y la geometría de la superficie preholocena. La geometría y fluctuaciones del nivel del mar determinaron la distribución, la extensión y el desarrollo de la secuencia sedimentaria, en tanto que las condiciones hidrometeorológicas establecieron la medida de aporte y transporte del sedimento. El rasgo más importante de la superficie preholocena lo constituye el antiguo valle fluvial del Río de la Plata. Cuando el último ascenso del nivel del mar llegó al borde superior del valle una punta (Punta Piedras localizada en el borde del sudeste de la llanura costera, se comportó como un punto de concentración de las olas provenientes del sudeste. Esto indujo la formación de dos corrientes litorales con direcciones opuestas, una orientada al noroeste (hacia el Río de la Plata y otra al sudoeste (hacia la bahía Samborombón. Dichas condiciones hoy todavía continúan. La evolución costera es sintetizada en tres momentos: estuárico, de llanura costera y de delta fluvio-estuárico, que representan los procesos: de relleno del paleovalle, de progradación costera y de instalación de un aparato deltaico, respectivamente.

  18. The introduced ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa) in Estero de Punta Banda, Mexico: Interactions with the native cord grass, Spartina foliosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchin, M.E.; Hechinger, R.F.; Huspeni, T.C.; Whitney, K.L.; Lafferty, K.D.

    2005-01-01

    Introduced populations of Guekensia demissa occur on the west coast of North America. They have been reported in San Francisco Bay, four southern California wetlands, and in Estero de Punta Banda (EPB), Baja California Norte, Mexico. We randomly sampled benthic invertebrates in four habitat types within EPB: marsh, channel, mudflat and pan. Geukensia demissa was the most abundant bivalve in the wetland at EPB. It was significantly associated with the native cordgrass, Spartina foliosa, and occurred at higher average densities in vegetated marsh sites (24/m2) and Spartina-dominated tidal channels (35/m2), compared to mudflat (0/m2), and pan (0/m 2) sites. We estimated that the total biomass of this invader was over four times that of the next most abundant bivalve, Tagelus spp., in EPB. We examined G. demissa for parasites and found that only a few native parasites colonized this introduced host at very low prevalences and intensities. We performed bird surveys to determine the habitat overlap and potential impact of this mussel on the EPB population of light-footed clapper rails (Rallus longirostrus levipes), an endangered species in the United States. The high abundance of G. demissa in EPB, its presence in clapper rail habitat, and its known effects on salt marsh habitat in it's native range, warrant further investigations of the impact of this invader in EPB and elsewhere. ?? Springer 2005.

  19. Diel variation in the vertical distribution of fish larvae forced by upwelling filaments off Punta Angamos (northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M Rojas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of daily vertical migration (DVM of ichthyoplanktonic associations off Punta Angamos, in northern Chile, was examined. In September 1998 and January 1999, two oceanographic surveys were conducted during coastal upwelling events. Fish larvae were collected during the day/night in three depth strata (0-20, 20-80 and 80-200 m and inside/outside of upwelling filaments. The study area was dominated by a southward flow along 200 m depth; meanwhile, the Ekman layer did not exceed 20 m depth. The greatest accumulation of larvae was found in the middle layer (20-80 m, where the current velocity was low and did not interact with the circulation associated with upwelling the filament formation. Most fish larvae were found in non-upwelling waters in the middle stratum. Independent of the origin of water (upwelling/non-upwelling, larvae of Dioge-nichthys laternatus (Myctophidae, Engraulis ringens (Engraulidae and Bathylagus nigrigenys (Bathylagidae showed a deeper vertical distribution during the day, suggesting a daily vertical migration. This behavior can potentially increase retention of larvae near the coast in productive areas through vertical evasion of the Ekman layer during upwelling events.

  20. High-Resolution Mapping of Sea Ice, Icebergs and Growlers in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, using Ground Based Radar, Satellite, and UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauknes, T. R.; Rouyet, L.; Solbø, S. A.; Sivertsen, A.; Storvold, R.; Akbari, V.; Negrel, J.; Gerland, S.

    2016-12-01

    The dynamics of sea ­ice has a well­ recognized role in the climate system and its extent and evolution is impacted by the global warming. In addition, calving of icebergs and growlers at the tidewater glacier fronts is a component of the mass loss in polar regions. Understanding of calving and ice ­ocean interaction, in particular at tidewater glacier front remains elusive, and a problematic uncertainty in climate change projections. Studying the distribution, volumetry and motion of sea ­ice, icebergs and growlers is thus essential to understand their interactions with the environment in order to be able to predict at short­term their drifts, e.g. to mitigate the risk for shipping, and at longer term the multiple relations with climate changes. Here, we present the results from an arctic fieldwork campaign conducted in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard in April 2016, where we used different remote sensing instruments to observe dynamics of sea ice, icebergs, and growlers. We used a terrestrial radar system, imaging the study area every second minute during the observation period. At the front of the Kronebreen glacier, calving events can be detected and the drift of the generated icebergs and growlers tracked with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. During the field campaign, we collected four Radarsat-2 quad-pol images, that will be used to classify the different types of sea ice. In addition, we used small unmanned aircraft (UAS) instrumented with high resolution cameras capturing HD video and still pictures. This allows to map and measure the size of icebergs and ice floes. Such information is essential to validate sensitivity and detection limits from the ground and satellite based measurements.

  1. The impact of iceberg calving on climate: a model study with a fully coupled ice-sheet - climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugelmayer, Marianne; Roche, Didier; Renssen, Hans

    2013-04-01

    In the current period of climate change the understanding of the interactions between different parts of the climate system gets more and more important. The ice-sheets and ice-shelves, an important part of this system, experienced strong changes in the geological past, ranging from fully ice free to ice covered - thereby altering the whole climate. In the present climate, thousands of icebergs are released every year from Greenland and Antarctica, acting as a moving source of freshwater and a sink of latent heat. As a consequence, these icebergs alter the oceans' stratification and facilitate the formation of sea ice, thus influencing the state of the ocean and of the atmosphere. Up to now, the impact of icebergs on climate has been addressed in different studies which utilize climate models using freshwater and latent heat fluxes to parameterize icebergs. Mostly these fluxes were equally distributed around the coast. However, more recently iceberg modules were integrated into climate models to take into account the temporal and spatial distribution of the iceberg melting. In the presented study, an earth system model of intermediate complexity - iLOVECLIM - that includes a 3D dynamic - thermodynamic iceberg module (Jongma et al., 2008) is coupled to the Grenoble ice shelves and land ice model - GRISLI (Ritz et al., 1997, 2001). In GRISLI, ice sheets evolve according to the precipitation and temperature received from iLOVECLIM. In turn, GRISLI provides its topography and the ice mask to the atmospheric component of iLOVECLIM and all freshwater fluxes (ablation and calving) to its oceanic component. The ablation is directly put into the uppermost layer of the ocean, whereas the calving is used to generate icebergs at the calving sites following the size distribution of Bigg et al. (1997). Using this model set-up we analyse the evolution and the equilibrium state of the Greenland ice-sheet under pre-industrial conditions within three different coupling methods. All

  2. Iceberg killing fields limit huge potential for benthic blue carbon in Antarctic shallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David K A

    2016-10-26

    Climate-forced ice losses are increasing potential for iceberg-seabed collisions, termed ice scour. At Ryder Bay, West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) sea ice, oceanography, phytoplankton and encrusting zoobenthos have been monitored since 1998. In 2003, grids of seabed markers, covering 225 m(2) , were established, surveyed and replaced annually to measure ice scour frequency. Disturbance history has been recorded for each m(2) of seabed monitored at 5-25 m for ~13 years. Encrusting fauna, collected from impacted and nonimpacted metres each year, show coincident benthos responses in growth, mortality and mass of benthic immobilized carbon. Encrusting benthic growth was mainly determined by microalgal bloom duration; each day, nanophytoplankton exceeded 200 μg L(-1) produced ~0.05 mm radial growth of bryozoans, and sea temperature >0 °C added 0.002 mm day(-1) . Mortality and persistence of growth, as benthic carbon immobilization, were mainly influenced by ice scour. Nearly 30% of monitored seabed was hit each year, and just 7% of shallows were not hit. Hits in deeper water were more deadly, but less frequent, so mortality decreased with depth. Five-year recovery time doubled benthic carbon stocks. Scour-driven mortality varied annually, with two-thirds of all monitored fauna killed in a single year (2009). Reduced fast ice after 2006 ramped iceberg scouring, killing half the encrusting benthos each year in following years. Ice scour coupled with low phytoplankton biomass drove a phase shift to high mortality and depressed zoobenthic immobilized carbon stocks, which has persevered for 10 years since. Stocks of immobilized benthic carbon averaged nearly 15 g m(-2) . WAP ice scouring may be recycling 80 000 tonnes of carbon yr(-1) . Without scouring, such carbon would remain immobilized and the 2.3% of shelf which are shallows could be as productive as all the remaining continental shelf. The region's future, when glaciers reach grounding lines and iceberg

  3. Rediseño del Programa de Nivelación Académica para obtener el nivel de Licenciatura en Enfermería”

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Padilla, Ma. Luisa

    2014-01-01

    La Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo (UAEH) es una Institución Pública de educación superior, formadora de recursos humanos, dotados de conocimientos actualizados, con las herramientas tecnológicas de punta y comprometidos con su entorno social, con competencias que les permitan actuar en forma multidisciplinaria, transdiciplinaria e interdisciplinaria, ubicando a los egresados en una posición de competencia profesional, en los planos regional, nacional, e internacional, que muestra ...

  4. Iceberg Semantics For Count Nouns And Mass Nouns: Classifiers, measures and portions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Landman

    2016-12-01

    It is the analysis of complex NPs and their mass-count properties that is the focus of the second part of this paper. There I develop an analysis of English and Dutch pseudo- partitives, in particular, measure phrases like three liters of wine and classifier phrases like three glasses of wine. We will study measure interpretations and classifier interpretations of measures and classifiers, and different types of classifier interpretations: container interpretations, contents interpretations, and - indeed - portion interpretations. Rothstein 2011 argues that classifier interpretations (including portion interpretations of pseudo partitives pattern with count nouns, but that measure interpretations pattern with mass nouns. I will show that this distinction follows from the very basic architecture of Iceberg semantics.

  5. Enhanced tropical methane production in response to iceberg discharge in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Rachael H.; Brook, Edward J.; Chiang, John C. H.; Blunier, Thomas; Maselli, Olivia J.; McConnell, Joseph R.; Romanini, Daniele; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    2015-05-01

    The causal mechanisms responsible for the abrupt climate changes of the Last Glacial Period remain unclear. One major difficulty is dating ice-rafted debris deposits associated with Heinrich events: Extensive iceberg influxes into the North Atlantic Ocean linked to global impacts on climate and biogeochemistry. In a new ice core record of atmospheric methane with ultrahigh temporal resolution, we find abrupt methane increases within Heinrich stadials 1, 2, 4, and 5 that, uniquely, have no counterparts in Greenland temperature proxies. Using a heuristic model of tropical rainfall distribution, we propose that Hudson Strait Heinrich events caused rainfall intensification over Southern Hemisphere land areas, thereby producing excess methane in tropical wetlands. Our findings suggest that the climatic impacts of Heinrich events persisted for 740 to 1520 years.

  6. Paleoclimate. Enhanced tropical methane production in response to iceberg discharge in the North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Rachael H; Brook, Edward J; Chiang, John C H; Blunier, Thomas; Maselli, Olivia J; McConnell, Joseph R; Romanini, Daniele; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P

    2015-05-29

    The causal mechanisms responsible for the abrupt climate changes of the Last Glacial Period remain unclear. One major difficulty is dating ice-rafted debris deposits associated with Heinrich events: Extensive iceberg influxes into the North Atlantic Ocean linked to global impacts on climate and biogeochemistry. In a new ice core record of atmospheric methane with ultrahigh temporal resolution, we find abrupt methane increases within Heinrich stadials 1, 2, 4, and 5 that, uniquely, have no counterparts in Greenland temperature proxies. Using a heuristic model of tropical rainfall distribution, we propose that Hudson Strait Heinrich events caused rainfall intensification over Southern Hemisphere land areas, thereby producing excess methane in tropical wetlands. Our findings suggest that the climatic impacts of Heinrich events persisted for 740 to 1520 years.

  7. Investing the role of buoyancy in iceberg calving dynamics from tidewater glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevers, Matt; Payne, Tony; Cornford, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) currently makes a major and accelerating contribution to sea level rise (SLR), with its contribution split roughly evenly between surface mass balance changes due to increased melting and dynamic ice loss through calving. In recent decades, many of Greenland's major outlet glaciers have retreated dramatically due to increased iceberg calving, associated with an increase in velocity and inland thinning. The potential contribution to SLR of a complete collapse of the GIS is ~7m. Iceberg calving is an important process not only as a major source of mass loss from the GIS, but also for the controlling influence it has on the dynamics of the grounding line and over the ice sheet as a whole. Despite plenty of scientific attention and a diverse body of literature, the processes involved in calving, their controlling factors and how it feeds back into glacier and ice sheet dynamics are still not fully understood. This presents a major uncertainty into projections of SLR over the coming decades and centuries. Using Elmer/Ice, a state-of-the-art full-Stokes finite-element model, we are able to resolve the stress distributions in high resolution at the calving front. Buoyancy forces have been proposed as a major influencing factor in inducing calving. By investigating the stress distributions induced in a buoyant calving front, we hope to gain an understanding of how environmental influences such as surface thinning and waterline notch-cutting influence the calving rate, and compare this to observations from calving glaciers in Greenland.

  8. NEMO-ICB (v1.0: interactive icebergs in the NEMO ocean model globally configured at coarse and eddy-permitting resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marsh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available NEMO-ICB features interactive icebergs in the NEMO ocean model. Simulations with coarse (2° and eddy-permitting (0.25° global configurations of NEMO-ICB are undertaken to evaluate the influence of icebergs on sea-ice, hydrography and transports, through comparison with control simulations in which the equivalent iceberg mass flux is applied as coastal runoff, the default forcing in NEMO. Comparing a short (14 year spin-up of the 0.25° model with a computationally cheaper 105 year spin-up of the 2° configuration, calving, drift and melting of icebergs is evidently near equilibrium in the shorter simulation, justifying closer examination of iceberg influences in the eddy-permitting configuration. Freshwater forcing due to iceberg melt is most pronounced in southern high latitudes, where it is locally dominant over precipitation. Sea ice concentration and thickness in the Southern Ocean are locally increased with icebergs, by up to ~ 8 and ~ 25% respectively. Iceberg melting reduces surface salinity by ~ 0.2 psu around much of Antarctica, with compensating increases immediately adjacent to Antarctica, where coastal runoff is suppressed. Discernible effects on salinity and temperature extend to 1000 m. At many locations and levels, freshening and cooling indicate a degree of density compensation. However, freshening is a dominant influence on upper ocean density gradients across much of the high-latitude Southern Ocean, leading to weaker meridional density gradients, a reduced eastward transport tendency, and hence an increase of ~ 20% in westward transport of the Antarctic Coastal Current.

  9. Pilot scale application of ozonated water wash - effect on microbiological and sensory quality parameters of processed iceberg lettuce during self-life

    OpenAIRE

    Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Leskinen, Marita; Ölmez, Hulya

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of ozonated water wash on the microbiological and sensory quality parameters of minimally processed iceberg lettuce in pilot scale in comparison to aqueous chlorine wash. Alternative solutions for chlorine are needed, since its use is prohibited in organic food processing. Iceberg lettuce samples were washed with three different ozone solutions and the water wash and the 100 ppm chlorine wash were used as control. Ozone generator based on corona d...

  10. SURVEY FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASE IN THE SOUTH AMERICAN FUR SEAL (ARCTOCEPHALUS AUSTRALIS) POPULATION AT PUNTA SAN JUAN, PERU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Gwen; Adkesson, Michael J; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Cárdenas-Alayza, Susana; Majluf, Patricia

    2015-06-01

    The Peruvian population of the South American fur seal ( Arctocephalus australis ) is a distinct evolutionarily significant unit that is endangered. One of the largest rookeries for this species in Peru is located within the Punta San Juan marine protected area (15°22'S, 75°12'W). To better understand the current health status of this population, exposure to 10 pinniped pathogens was evaluated in adult female fur seals (n=29) via serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques in November 2010. The results suggest this population is naïve to canine and phocine distemper viruses (serum neutralization test), five Leptospira interrogans serovars (microscopic agglutination test), and Brucella canis (card test). Indirect fluorescent antibody testing for Toxoplasma gondii , Neospora caninum , and Sarcocystis neurona was also uniformly negative. PCR testing of nasal swabs using previously described Mycoplasma spp. primers was positive in 37.9% (11/29) of samples. One animal was positive via card test for Brucella abortus , whereas 53.7% (15/28) were positive or suspect using a marine Brucella competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody to phocine herpesvirus-1 (PHV-1) was identified in 85.7% (24/28) of the sampled population by serum neutralization testing. Overall, exposure to Mycoplasma spp., Brucella spp., and PHV-1 was observed, but results demonstrated low to no exposure to many key pinniped pathogens. The expansion of human populations, agriculture, and industry along the Peruvian coast may lead to increased pathogen exposure from human, domestic, and wild animal sources. The naïve nature of this key population of South American fur seals raises concerns about potential risk for disease outbreaks.

  11. Reactive transport model of the formation of oxide-type Ni-laterite profiles (Punta Gorda, Moa Bay, Cuba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domènech, Cristina; Galí, Salvador; Villanova-de-Benavent, Cristina; Soler, Josep M.; Proenza, Joaquín A.

    2017-01-01

    Oxide-type Ni-laterite deposits are characterized by a dominant limonite zone with goethite as the economically most important Ni ore mineral and a thin zone of hydrous Mg silicate-rich saprolite beneath the magnesium discontinuity. Fe, less soluble, is mainly retained forming goethite, while Ni is redeposited at greater depth in a Fe(III) and Ni-rich serpentine (serpentine II) or in goethite, where it adsorbs or substitutes for Fe in the mineral structure. Here, a 1D reactive transport model, using CrunchFlow, of Punta Gorda oxide-type Ni-laterite deposit (Moa Bay, Cuba) formation is presented. The model reproduces the formation of the different laterite horizons in the profile from an initial, partially serpentinized peridotite, in 106 years, validating the conceptual model of the formation of this kind of deposits in which a narrow saprolite horizon rich in Ni-bearing serpentine is formed above peridotite parent rock and a thick limonite horizon is formed over saprolite. Results also confirm that sorption of Ni onto goethite can explain the weight percent of Ni found in the Moa goethite. Sensitivity analyses accounting for the effect of key parameters (composition, dissolution rate, carbonate concentration, quartz precipitation) on the model results are also presented. It is found that aqueous carbonate concentration and quartz precipitation significantly affects the laterization process rate, while the effect of the composition of secondary serpentine or of mineral dissolution rates is minor. The results of this reactive transport modeling have proven useful to validate the conceptual models derived from field observations.

  12. A century of variation in the dependence of Greenland iceberg calving on ice sheet surface mass balance and regional climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigg, G R; Wei, H L; Wilton, D J; Zhao, Y; Billings, S A; Hanna, E; Kadirkamanathan, V

    2014-06-08

    Iceberg calving is a major component of the total mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). A century-long record of Greenland icebergs comes from the International Ice Patrol's record of icebergs (I48N) passing latitude 48° N, off Newfoundland. I48N exhibits strong interannual variability, with a significant increase in amplitude over recent decades. In this study, we show, through a combination of nonlinear system identification and coupled ocean-iceberg modelling, that I48N's variability is predominantly caused by fluctuation in GrIS calving discharge rather than open ocean iceberg melting. We also demonstrate that the episodic variation in iceberg discharge is strongly linked to a nonlinear combination of recent changes in the surface mass balance (SMB) of the GrIS and regional atmospheric and oceanic climate variability, on the scale of the previous 1-3 years, with the dominant causal mechanism shifting between glaciological (SMB) and climatic (ocean temperature) over time. We suggest that this is a change in whether glacial run-off or under-ice melting is dominant, respectively. We also suggest that GrIS calving discharge is episodic on at least a regional scale and has recently been increasing significantly, largely as a result of west Greenland sources.

  13. Utilidad de la conformación del túnel liso antes de usar limas rotatorias endodónticas de níquel-titanio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Laureano Nino Barrera

    Full Text Available Introducción: para prevenir la fractura de instrumentos endodonticos actualmente se siguen investigando materiales, técnicas y diseños los cuales buscan reducir su incidencia. La conformación de túnel liso (Glide Path se ha propuesto con este fin, sin embargo su utilidad ha sido controvertida. Objetivo: comprobar teóricamente mediante la utilización de un análisis de elementos finitos, la utilidad de la conformación de túnel liso, antes de la utilización de limas rotatorias endodonticas de níquel-titanio. Métodos: se realizó una simulación numérica mediante un análisis de elementos finitos, para lo cual se construyeron modelos matemáticos de las limas rotatorias de níquel-titanio S1 y S2 de la serie Protaper®. Con el software Simulation multyphisics de Autodesk® se programaron las propiedades mecánicas de las limas y un límite de falla por fractura de 1270,588 MPa. Posteriormente se aplicó el torque recomendado por el fabricante y se fijo la punta del instrumento (sin conformación de túnel liso aplicando allí restricciones en todos los grados de libertad.Para simular la realización de la conformación de túnel liso, se aplicaron restricciones en todos los grados de libertad a una determinada distancia de la punta del instrumento, simulando de esta forma que la punta del instrumento permanecía libre. Resultados: al fijar la punta de las limas, los esfuerzos máximos fueron 1545,77 MPa para la S1 y 1306,47 MPa para la S2, observando fractura de los instrumentos. Al fijar las limas a distancia de la punta no se observó fractura. Conclusiones: se demostró teóricamente que al impedir que se atrapen la punta de las limas, se previene su fractura y que dicho atrapamiento se evita con una conformación de túnel liso, por lo que se concluye que este procedimiento es útil para prevenir la fractura de los instrumentos rotatorios de níquel-titanio.

  14. Estudio comparativo de la morfología ósea, en individuos prehispánicos sanos y con treponematosis, utilizando tecnología de punta

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda Murcia, Zoila Emilia

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo de investigación plantea la posibilidad de utilizar tecnología de punta en el diagnóstico paleopatológico como una herramienta de alta complejidad y mayor discriminación, en el diagnóstico de la microestructura de los huesos con periostitis, frente a un control normal. Se utilizaron secciones pequeñas de tibias y fémur de individuos prehispánicos normales y con periostitis, frente a muestras de individuos contemporáneos. Se realizo un análisis morfológico macroscópico, r...

  15. The sanctuary of Punta Stilo at Kaulonia-Monasterace (Rc, Italy): preliminary results of the close range photogrammetric surveys 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccola, E.; Parra, M. C.; Ampolo, C.

    2014-06-01

    During the 2012-2013 excavations at the Sanctuary of Punta Stilo at Kaulonia, carried out by the University of Pisa and the Scuola Normale Superiore of Pisa, close range aerial and terrestrial photogrammetric surveys were tested for the first time. The aim of the test was to verify the accuracy of the site planimetry currently used, dating back also to a century ago. The 3D data obtained have allowed new data to be acquired for correcting and updating the mapping of the site.

  16. The tip of the iceberg: challenges of accessing hospital electronic health record data for biological data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaxas, Spiros C; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Moore, Jason H

    2016-01-01

    Modern cohort studies include self-reported measures on disease, behavior and lifestyle, sensor-based observations from mobile phones and wearables, and rich -omics data. Follow-up is often achieved through electronic health record (EHR) linkages across primary and secondary healthcare providers. Historically however, researchers typically only get to see the tip of the iceberg: coded administrative data relating to healthcare claims which mainly record billable diagnoses and procedures. The rich data generated during the clinical pathway remain submerged and inaccessible. While some institutions and initiatives have made good progress in unlocking such deep phenotypic data within their institutional realms, access at scale still remains challenging. Here we outline and discuss the main technical and social challenges associated with accessing these data for data mining and hauling the entire iceberg.

  17. Gli Ordinamenti sulla gabella del sale dell’aprile 1318: un esempio della produzione legislativa fiorentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Gualtieri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La documentazione normativa rappresenta una delle principali risorse per lo studio del Comune italiano del medioevo. Nella realtà fiorentina essa si articola principalmente fra statuti, ordinamenti e provvisioni. Gli ordinamenti, in particolare, traggono la propria specificità, più che dalla presenza di peculiari elementi formali, dal particolare valore politico ad essi attribuito dalla signoria. È questo il caso di alcuni ordinamenti relativi all’introduzione di una nuova gabella del sale approvati nell’aprile del 1318. L’introduzione di questa nuova imposta, le cui procedure richiamano per certi aspetti fortemente quelle del vecchio estimo, punta a razionalizzare la gestione delle finanze cittadine, in un periodo - segnato dalla concessione della signoria cittadina a re Roberto di Napoli - di aperte ostilità con le forze ghibelline toscane e di deciso fermento all’interno della classe dirigente cittadina.

  18. Characterization of Rift Valley fever virus MP-12 strain encoding NSs of Punta Toro virus or sandfly fever Sicilian virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A Lihoradova

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen which can cause hemorrhagic fever, neurological disorders or blindness in humans, and a high rate of abortion in ruminants. MP-12 strain, a live-attenuated candidate vaccine, is attenuated in the M- and L-segments, but the S-segment retains the virulent phenotype. MP-12 was manufactured as an Investigational New Drug vaccine by using MRC-5 cells and encodes a functional NSs gene, the major virulence factor of RVFV which 1 induces a shutoff of the host transcription, 2 inhibits interferon (IFN-β promoter activation, and 3 promotes the degradation of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR. MP-12 lacks a marker for differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA. Although MP-12 lacking NSs works for DIVA, it does not replicate efficiently in type-I IFN-competent MRC-5 cells, while the use of type-I IFN-incompetent cells may negatively affect its genetic stability. To generate modified MP-12 vaccine candidates encoding a DIVA marker, while still replicating efficiently in MRC-5 cells, we generated recombinant MP-12 encoding Punta Toro virus Adames strain NSs (rMP12-PTNSs or Sandfly fever Sicilian virus NSs (rMP12-SFSNSs in place of MP-12 NSs. We have demonstrated that those recombinant MP-12 viruses inhibit IFN-β mRNA synthesis, yet do not promote the degradation of PKR. The rMP12-PTNSs, but not rMP12-SFSNSs, replicated more efficiently than recombinant MP-12 lacking NSs in MRC-5 cells. Mice vaccinated with rMP12-PTNSs or rMP12-SFSNSs induced neutralizing antibodies at a level equivalent to those vaccinated with MP-12, and were efficiently protected from wild-type RVFV challenge. The rMP12-PTNSs and rMP12-SFSNSs did not induce antibodies cross-reactive to anti-RVFV NSs antibody and are therefore applicable to DIVA. Thus, rMP12-PTNSs is highly efficacious, replicates efficiently in MRC-5 cells, and encodes a DIVA marker, all of which

  19. High Resolution Model Development to Quantify the Impact of Icebergs on the Stability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condron, Alan [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2016-10-18

    In the present-day North Atlantic Ocean, relatively warm and salty water moves northwards from the tropics to the high latitudes, sinks, and returns southward towards the equator as North Atlantic Deep Water, forming the so called Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). It has been found that the stability of the AMOC is non-linearly related to the freshwater budget of the North Atlantic. In this way, additional fresh water can be added to the ocean with little impact, until a tipping point is reached that causes the AMOC to suddenly weaken and the Northern Hemisphere to abruptly cool. A great deal of uncertainty still remains over the sensitivity of the AMOC to changes in freshwater discharge as a result of the unrealistic manner in which freshwater has historically been added to climate models. Frequently, freshwater is discharged in ocean models entirely as liquid water, but in reality a large fraction of freshwater entering the ocean is ice calving from marine glaciers (half for Antarctica and two-thirds for Greenland). To more accurately quantify AMOC sensitivity to past and future changes in freshwater input, this project developed a comprehensive iceberg model to more realistically simulate the interaction between the cryosphere and the oceans at high-latitudes. The iceberg model created is written in Fortran90 and designed to scale efficiently on High Performance Computing (HPC) clusters so that tens-of-thousands of icebergs can be simulated at any time. Experiments performed with our model showed that in the Pleistocene there would have been enormous floods of freshwater released into the North Atlantic that would have transported icebergs and meltwater along the entire east coast of the United States, as far south as Florida Keys. In addition, high-resolution, modern-day, model simulations showed that if the Greenland Ice Sheet continues to melt at its current rate then there will be a 6-fold increase in the number of icebergs drifting in the

  20. The Iceberg Nature of Fibromyalgia Burden: The Clinical and Economic Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavidel-Parsa, Banafsheh; Bidari, Ali; Amir Maafi, Alireza; Ghalebaghi, Babak

    2015-07-01

    This review has focused on important but less visible aspects of fibromyalgia (FM) with respect to the high impact of this disorder on patients and societies. FM is a common but challengeable illness. It is characterized by chronic widespread pain, which can be accompanied by other symptoms including fatigue, sleep disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety and depressive episodes. While our understanding of this debilitating disorder is limited, diagnosis and treatment of this condition is very difficult, even in the hands of experts. Due to the nature of disease, where patients experience invalidation by medical services, their families and societies regarding the recognition and management of disease, direct, indirect and immeasurable costs are considerable. These clinical and economic costs are comparable with other common diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and osteoarthritis, but the latter usually receives much more attention from healthcare and non-healthcare resources. Present alarming data shows the grave and "iceberg-like" burden of FM despite the benign appearance of this disorder and highlights the urgent need both for greater awareness of the disease among medical services and societies, as well as for more research focused on easily used diagnostic methods and target specific treatment.

  1. Acinetobacter lactucae sp. nov., isolated from iceberg lettuce (Asteraceae: Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Alejandro P; Dunlap, Christopher A; Flor-Weiler, Lina B

    2016-09-01

    Strain NRRL B-41902T and three closely related strains were isolated from iceberg lettuce. The strain was found to consist of strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative rods that formed cocci in late stationary phase. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain NRRL B-41902T was most closely related to species within the genera Acinetobacter, and that a grouping of it and the three other closely related strains was most closely related to the type strain of Acinetobacter pittii, which was also confirmed through a phylogenomic analysis. Moreover, in silico DNA-DNA hybridization analysis revealed a substantial amount of genomic divergence (39.1 %) between strain NRRL B-41902T and the type strain of A. pittii, which is expected if the strains represent distinct species. Further phenotypic analysis revealed that strain NRRL B-41902T was able to utilize a combination of l-serine, citraconic acid and citramalic acid, which differentiated it from other, closely related Acinetobacter species. Therefore, strain NRRL B-41902T (=CCUG 68785T) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species, Acinetobacter lactucae sp. nov.

  2. Coherent Resonant Millenial-scale Climate Oscillations Triggered By Iceberg Surges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, A.; Gildor, H.; Tziperman, E.; Schulz, M.

    We study the role of mean and stochastic freshwater forcing on the generation of millenial-scale climate variability in the North Atlantic using a low-order coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea-ice model. It is shown that millenial-scale oscillations can be excited stochastically, once the North Atlantic ocean is fresh enough. This finding is used in order to interpret the aftermath of iceberg surges (Heinrich events) in the glacial North Atlantic, which was characterized by an excitation of Dansgaard- Oeschger events. Based on our model results we hypothesize that Heinrich events trigger Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles, thereby explaining the existence of Bond cycles. The low order climate model is used in order to determine the mechanism of stochasti- cally excited millenial-scale variability in the North Atlantic. Sensitivity experiments reveal that the timescale of the oscillations can be decomposed into a stochastic and a diffusive component and that a generic homoclinic bifurcation acts as an organizing center for coherent resonant oscillations. Implications for interpreting paleo climatic records are discussed.

  3. Attachment icebergs: Maternal and child health nurses' evaluation of infant-caregiver attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Edith; Ridgway, Lael; Lucas, Sandra

    2016-05-01

    Secure attachment of infants to their caregiver is important when promoting the emotional wellbeing and mental health of infants. Maternal and child health (MCH) nurses are well positioned to observe the quality of interactions between infants and caregivers and to assess and intervene. However, as yet there are no approved methods to assess the emotional and mental health of infants in community settings. A qualitative descriptive study of 12 MCH nurses in Victoria, Australia, using semi-structured interviews, was thematically analysed. The data revealed that nurses used many skills to identify and manage attachment difficulties. Key among these were observations of interactions, collaboration with caregivers and reflective practice. Assessments and interventions are also influenced by nurses' emotions, attitudes and workplace factors. An unexpected finding was that attachment markers can be likened to an 'iceberg': warning indicators at the tip can be easily observed by the nurse, while the less obvious underlying factors need to be explored in order to support attachment and improve infant mental health outcomes. Education for nurses should include concepts of attachment and link behaviours with emotional wellbeing.

  4. How do icebergs affect the Greenland ice sheet under pre-industrial conditions? – A model study with a fully coupled ice sheet–climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bügelmayer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Icebergs have a potential impact on climate since they release freshwater over a wide spread area and cool the ocean due to the take up of latent heat. Yet, so far, icebergs have never been modelled using an ice sheet model coupled to a global climate model. Thus, in climate models their impact on climate was restricted to the ocean. In this study, we investigate the effect of icebergs on the Northern Hemisphere climate and the Greenland ice sheet itself within a fully coupled ice sheet (GRISLI–Earth system (iLOVECLIM model set-up under pre-industrial climate conditions. This set-up enables us to dynamically compute the calving sites as well as the ice discharge and to close the water cycle between the climate and the cryosphere model components. Further, we analyse the different impact of moving icebergs compared to releasing the ice discharge at the calving sites directly. We performed a suite of sensitivity experiments to investigate the individual role of the different factors presiding at the impact of ice release to the ocean: release of ice discharge as icebergs vs. as freshwater fluxes; freshening and latent heat effects. We find that icebergs enhance the sea ice thickness south and east of Greenland, thereby cooling the atmosphere and decreasing the Greenland ice sheet's height. In contrast, melting the ice discharge locally at the calving sites, causes an increased ice sheet thickness due to enhanced precipitation. Yet, releasing the ice discharge into the ocean at the calving sites while taking up the latent heat homogeneously, results in a similar ice sheet configuration and climate as the icebergs. Therefore, we conclude that in our fully coupled atmosphere–ocean–cryosphere model set-up, the spatial distribution of the take-up of latent heat related to icebergs melting has a bigger impact on the climate than the input of their melt water. Moreover, we find that icebergs affect the ice sheet's geometry even under pre

  5. WATER TEMPERATURE, SALINITY, and HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE collected from MV NEPTUNE in Baffin Bay from 2012-07-25 to 2012-08-03 around Iceberg PII-B (NCEI Accession 0131206)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean temperature, salinities and pressures where collected around a large tabular iceberg PII-B from 2012-07-25 to 2012-08-03. The distance from the iceberg of each...

  6. Crisis del lóbulo temporal registrada mediante magnetoencefalografía: caso clínico Temporal lobe seizure recorded by magnetoencephalography: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Amo; Marta Santiuste; Fernando Maestú; Alberto Fernández; Renata Egatz; Mercedes González-Hidalgo; Cristóbal Saldaña; Antonio Sáiz; Tomás Ortiz

    2004-01-01

    La localización del inicio de las crisis es un factor importante para la evaluación prequirúrgica de la epilepsia. En este trabajo se describe la localización del inicio de una crisis registrada mediante magnetoencefalografía (MEG) en un niño de 12 años que presenta crisis parciales complejas farmacorresistentes. La RM muestra una lesión de 20mm de diámetro en el hipocampo izquierdo. EEG de superficie con ondas theta temporales izquierdas. Registro MEG interictal con punta-onda aislada poster...

  7. Navigating the iceberg: reducing the number of parameters within the Welfare Quality(®) assessment protocol for dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, C A E; Browne, W J; Mullan, S; Main, D C J

    2014-12-01

    The Welfare Quality(®) protocols provide a multidimensional assessment of welfare, which is lengthy, and hence limited in terms of practicality. The aim of this study was to investigate potential 'iceberg indicators' which could reliably predict the overall classification as a means of reducing the length of time for an assessment and so increase the feasibility of the Welfare Quality(®) protocol as a multidimensional assessment of welfare. Full Welfare Quality(®) assessments were carried out on 92 dairy farms in England and Wales. The farms were all classified as Acceptable or Enhanced. Logistic regression models with cross validation were used to compare model fit for the overall classification on farms. 'Absence of prolonged thirst', on its own, was found to correctly classify farms 88% of the time. More generally, the inclusion of more measures in the models was not associated with greater predictive ability for the overall classification. Absence of prolonged thirst could thus, in theory, be considered to be an iceberg indicator for the Welfare Quality(®) protocol, and could reduce the length of time for a farm assessment to 15 min. Previous work has shown that the parameters within the Welfare Quality(®) protocol are important and relevant for welfare assessment. However, it is argued that the credibility of the published aggregation system is compromised by the finding that one resource measure (Absence of prolonged thirst) is a major driver for the overall classification. It is therefore suggested that the prominence of Absence of prolonged thirst in this role may be better understood as an unintended consequence of the published measure aggregation system rather than as reflecting a realistic iceberg indicator.

  8. Determination of Antarctic Ice Sheet stability over the last ˜500 ka through a study of iceberg-rafted debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitler, Lora; Warnke, Detlef A.; Venz, Kathryn A.; Hodell, David A.; Becquey, Sabine; Gersonde, Rainer; Teitler, Winston

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed ice-rafted debris (IRD) from the South Atlantic Ocean (˜43°S, 9°E) in order to investigate Antarctic Ice Sheet history during the late Pleistocene; the cores examined for this study include piston core TN057-6-PC4 and Ocean Drilling Program Leg 177 drill core Site 1090 (177-1090). Over the last 500 ka at this distal location, IRD arrived during both glacials and interglacials. IRD is present even during warmer intervals, is greatest during colder intervals, and is absent only during terminations and a few other brief intervals. Four different methods are used to normalize the IRD counts, which are then compared to support our interpretation. Several other high-quality climate proxies from this location also aid our interpretations. We conclude that sea surface temperatures are the primary control on the delivery of IRD to this site. During cold times more icebergs survived to reach this distal location. During warm times only a few of the largest icebergs could travel this far. Garnets found in these sediments suggest a likely East Antarctic origin for the IRD; the presence of garnets even during warm intervals further strongly supports that the iceberg source must be the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Therefore, the EAIS must have continued to reach the ocean at least in some part of its margin throughout the last 500 ka. On the other hand, we cannot specifically trace any IRD to the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), so WAIS persistence cannot be tested. A particular radiolarian, identified as Dictyocoryne profunda (Ehrenberg) (sensu Boltovskoy (1998)), shows up in the examined size fraction generally only during warm phases. We suggest that D. profunda is a sensitive indicator of warm water temperatures and that it deserves further study.

  9. Exploring Northern Hemisphere Ice Sheet Variability in the Pliocene using Ice Rafted Debris Records and Iceberg Trajectory Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Y.; Haywood, A. M.; Hill, D. J.; Dolan, A. M.; Dowsett, H. J.; Robinson, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GRIS) contains approximately 7.36m of sea level equivalent that could melt over the next 1000 years. Therefore understanding the response of the GRIS during past warm periods is fundamentally important. The Late Pliocene (LP) has similarities to the projected 21st Century climate, and there is enough available data to constrain ice sheet and iceberg modelling studies, thus it make the LP a useful palaeoclimate modelling target. Within the LP, the mid Piacenzian Warm Period (mPWP) is particularly well documented. The USGS PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation & Synoptic Mapping) project focuses on the mPWP (3.26 -3.025Ma) and was chosen for the similarities to modern in paleogeography, CO2 levels and because fossil assemblages of LP foraminifera are largely composed of extant species. Data sets of PRISM are used as boundary conditions in climate models which simulate ice sheet and iceberg scenarios in warm conditions of the mid/high latitudes. In the mPWP, temperatures were 2-3°C warmer than present and CO2 level was about 405ppmv. Multi-climate and multi-ice sheet modelling studies show retreat in the GRIS to higher elevation. However, immediately prior to the mPWP, Marine Isotope Stage M2 (3.3Ma) is a cold period in the warmer LP background. Localized evidence of ice during the M2 exists but if a larger northern hemisphere (NH) glaciation occurred, evidence has been erased. Evidence shows a drop in sea level up to 60m and CO2 at 220ppmv. Climate models show a medium/large NH ice cover is plausible at the M2. The exact extent during both warm and cold periods in the LP remains unclear. Evidence of this extent can be seen in marine sediment cores as ice rafted debris (IRD) which helps decipher the state of the ice sheet. The distribution of mPWP North Atlantic IRD in space and time tells us about the location of iceberg-producing glaciers of the NH. Using the M2 and mPWP climate scenarios, we have modelled iceberg trajectories to see

  10. Brief communication: Impacts of a developing polynya off Commonwealth Bay, East Antarctica, triggered by grounding of iceberg B09B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogwill, Christopher J.; van Sebille, Erik; Cougnon, Eva A.; Turney, Chris S. M.; Rintoul, Steve R.; Galton-Fenzi, Benjamin K.; Clark, Graeme F.; Marzinelli, E. M.; Rainsley, Eleanor B.; Carter, Lionel

    2016-11-01

    The dramatic calving of the Mertz Glacier tongue in 2010, precipitated by the movement of iceberg B09B, reshaped the oceanographic regime across the Mertz Polynya and Commonwealth Bay, regions where high-salinity shelf water (HSSW) - the precursor to Antarctic bottom water (AABW) - is formed. Here we present post-calving observations that suggest that this reconfiguration and subsequent grounding of B09B have driven the development of a new polynya and associated HSSW production off Commonwealth Bay. Supported by satellite observations and modelling, our findings demonstrate how local icescape changes may impact the formation of HSSW, with potential implications for large-scale ocean circulation.

  11. Full-Stokes modeling of grounding line dynamics, ice melt and iceberg calving for Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hongju; Rignot, Eric; Morlighem, Mathieu; Seroussi, Helene

    2016-01-01

    Thwaites Glacier (TG), West Antarctica, has been losing mass and retreating rapidly in the past three decades. Here we present a two-dimensional, Full-Stokes (FS) modeling study of the grounding line dynamics and iceberg calving of TG. First, we compare FS with two simplified models, the higher-order (HO) model and the shallow-shelf approximation (SSA) model, to determine the impact of changes in ice shelf basal melt rate on grounding line dynamics. Second, we combine FS with the Linear Elast...

  12. Hipéridos (Crustacea: Amphipoda en el sector norte del Pacífico oriental tropical colombiano Hyperiids (Crustacea: Amphipoda along the northern margin of the eastern tropical Pacific of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellineth Valencia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de analizar la composición, abundancia y diversidad de la comunidad de anfipodos hipéridos en las localidades de Punta Cruces y Cabo Marzo, costa norte del Pacífico colombiano (Pacífico oriental tropical, se realizó una campaña de muestreo en enero de 2008 siguiendo una malla de nueve estaciones. Se encontró un total de 20 especies, siendo Lestrigonus bengalensis e Hyperioides sibaginis las más abundantes, representando el 91% de la comunidad en Cabo Marzo y el 95% de la comunidad en Punta Cruces. La abundancia y la diversidad en las dos localidades fueron muy variables, y no presentaron diferencias significativas (Mann Whitney; p > 0,05. Así mismo, se estableció que la similitud en términos de la composición y la abundancia entre las comunidades de hipéridos de Punta Cruces y Cabo Marzo fue de un 64,6%. Este trabajo proporciona información inédita sobre un componente poco estudiado del zooplancton en el Pacífico oriental tropical, incrementando el número de especies registradas para el Pacífico colombiano.In order to analyze the composition, abundance, and diversity of hyperiid amphipods at Punta Cruces and Cabo Marzo, on the northern Pacific coast of Colombia (eastern tropical Pacific, a sampling campaign was carried out in January 2008 that covered a nine-station sampling grid. Twenty species were found, of which Lestrigonus bengalensis and Hyperioides sibaginis were the most abundant (91% of the community at Cabo Marzo and 95% at Punta Cruces. Although the abundance and diversity were highly variable at both sites, they did not differ significantly (Mann Whitney; p > 0.05. Likewise, the similarity in terms of composition and abundance between the hyperiid communities at Punta Cruces and Cabo Marzo was 64.6%. This re-search provides new information regarding a scarcely studied component of the zooplankton in the eastern tropical Pacific and increases the number of hyperiid species reported for the Pacific

  13. MUCHO MÁS QUE SÓLO APROVISIONAMIENTO LÍTICO: ACTIVIDADES EN CANTERAS Y PRÁCTICAS SOCIALES EN LAS FUENTES DE PAMPA OESTE, QUEBRADA SECA Y PUNTA DE LA PEÑA (ANTOFAGASTA DE LA SIERRA, CATAMARCA / Much more than just lithic procurement: activities at quarrie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Miguel Bobillo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se abordan las canteras y talleres asociados de Punta de la Peña, Quebrada Seca y Pampa Oeste, en Antofagasta de la Sierra (Catamarca, con el objeto de explorar la multiplicidad de actividades y prácticas sociales involucradas en la utilización de dichas fuentes. Se trata de tres fuentes de vulcanitas intensamente explotadas a lo largo de la secuencia prehispánica del área. De esta forma, se toma a las canteras no sólo como un depósito de rocas útiles para la subsistencia, sino como un escenario social donde confluyen y se materializan diferentes prácticas y expresiones sociales. Así, a la explotación de las rocas se suman toda una serie de tareas vinculadas, por ejemplo, con prácticas de enseñanza/aprendizaje y actividades de subsistencia, procesamiento/consumo y rituales. Esta aproximación considera a las canteras desde una perspectiva orientada a abordar las elecciones y prácticas llevadas a cabo por los agentes en contextos de aprovisionamiento, partiendo de la base de que estos actúan desarrollando una diversidad de actividades conectadas en torno a la apropiación de un recurso específico.Abstract  Quarries and workshops at Punta de la Peña, Quebrada Seca and Pampa Oeste (Antofagasta de la Sierra, Catamarca are considered in this paper. The goal is to explore the multiplicity of social activities and practices involved in the use of these quarries. These three vulcanite sources were intensively exploited during the pre-Hispanic history of the region. In this way, quarries are not only considered rock deposits useful for subsistence, but also a social scenario where different social practices and social expressions converge and are materialized. Thereby, series of linked tasks are added to rock exploitation. For example, teaching/learning practices and subsistence, processing/consumption and ritual activities. This approach considers quarries from a perspective oriented to the analysis of elections and

  14. Response of the Southern Ocean dynamics to the changes in the Antarctic glacial runoff and icebergs discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Yevgeny; Nurser, George; Bacon, Sheldon; Rye, Craig; Megann, Alex; Kjellsson, Joakim; Holland, Paul; Ridley, Jeff; Coward, Andrew; Marshall, Gareth; Marsh, Bob; Mathiot, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    This study examines how changes in the freshwater discharge from the Antarctic (liquid runoff and icebergs) affect stratification and ocean circulation in the Southern Ocean. The changes in the ocean circulation could potentially modify transports of the warm subsurface waters onto the continental shelves and increase ice sheet melting. We investigate impacts of the increased freshwater discharge in the 1990s-2000s on the subsurface waters in the Southern Ocean in the NEMO 1° global sea ice-ocean model. In the simulations the warming signal is largely circum-Antarctic, with "hot spots" in the Bellingshausen-Amundsen and Ross seas. The warming of the subsurface waters in the Bellingshausen-Amundsen Sea exceeds 0.5°C/decade. Differences in spreading of the liquid freshwater and icebergs in the Southern Ocean are investigated. Hindcasts and forward projections with the eddy-admitting global NEMO 1/4° model are diagnosed to examine regional trends in the ocean and sea ice states and to attribute these to the changes in the freshwater forcing and wind. The study contributes to the "Poles Apart" research project and is funded by the Natural Environment Research Council UK.

  15. Consideraciones sobre calidad de vida urbana en el Proyecto de Costanera de la ciudad de Punta Arenas

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Espinoza Pino

    2015-01-01

    Profundo anhelo de nuestra ciudad ha sido ver materializada la costanera del estrecho. Por los volúmenes de inversión necesarios para una obra vial de tal magnitud, este deseo se ha visto largamente postergado, no obstante parte de este eje se ha concretado gracias al esfuerzo de distintas instituciones.

  16. El tamaño de grano ferrítico: un factor ignorado, de hecho, en el análisis del fallo en el hundimiento de un famoso barco

    OpenAIRE

    JOSÉ ANTONIO PERO-SANZ ELORZ; JOSÉ PEDRO SANCHO MARTÍNEZ; JOSÉ IGNACIO VERDEJA GONZÁLEZ; LUIS FELIPE VERDEJA GONZÁLEZ

    2012-01-01

    En la mucha literatura publicada sobre el hundimiento del famoso trasatlántico Titanic, el 15 de Abril de 1912 en las aguas del Atlántico Norte, tras chocar con un iceberg, no se ha hecho un análisis suficientemente riguroso de las causas de aquel, en relación al comportamiento de los materiales, dada la maniobra del buque y choque producidos. En las planchas de acero, material del casco, se abrió una tremenda grieta de varias decenas de metros y no existe una explicación suficientemente sati...

  17. Analysis of low-frequency seismic signals generated during a multiple-iceberg calving event at Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Fabian; Amundson, Jason M.; O'Neel, Shad; Truffer, Martin; Fahnestock, Mark; Fricker, Helen A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated seismic signals generated during a large-scale, multiple iceberg calving event that occurred at Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland, on 21 August 2009. The event was recorded by a high-rate time-lapse camera and five broadband seismic stations located within a few hundred kilometers of the terminus. During the event two full-glacier-thickness icebergs calved from the grounded (or nearly grounded) terminus and immediately capsized; the second iceberg to calve was two to three times smaller than the first. The individual calving and capsize events were well-correlated with the radiation of low-frequency seismic signals (forces acting at the glacier terminus. The signals therefore appear to be local manifestations of glacial earthquakes, although the magnitudes of the signals (twice-time integrated force histories) were considerably smaller than previously reported glacial earthquakes. We thus speculate that such earthquakes may be a common, if not pervasive, feature of all full-glacier-thickness calving events from grounded termini. Finally, a key result from our study is that waveform inversions performed on low-frequency, calving-generated seismic signals may have only limited ability to quantitatively estimate mass losses from calving. In particular, the choice of source time function has little impact on the inversion but dramatically changes the earthquake magnitude. Accordingly, in our analysis, it is unclear whether the smaller or larger of the two calving icebergs generated a larger seismic signal.

  18. Maximal Frequent Itemsets Mining Based on Iceberg Concept Lattice%基于Iceberg概念格的最大频繁项集挖掘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛安荣; 王富强; 李明

    2011-01-01

    Some existing algorithms for mining Maximal Frequent Itemset(MFI) limit in scanning data sets frequently and tremendous candidate set size, etc. Based on Iceberg concept lattice model, this paper presents a maximal frequent itemsets mining algorithm Iceberg Concept Lattice Maxmal Frequent Itemset Algorithm(1CMFIA) in the Iceberg concept lattice. The algorithm builds the Iceberg concept lattice through .scanning the data sets at a time, by using the coverage relationship between frequent concepts in the Iceberg concept lattice, it can quickly calculate the maximum frequent concepts corresponding to the maximum frequent itemsets. The intension of all maximal frequent concepts is the set of all maximal frequent itemsets. Experimental results show that ICMFIA algorithm outperforms other existing algorithms in the number of scan data sets and mining efficiency.%最大频繁项集挖掘算法存在扫描数据集次数多和候选集规模过大等局限.基于Iceberg概念格模型,提出一种在Iceberg概念格上挖掘最大频繁项集的算法ICMFIA.该算法通过一次扫描数据集构建Iceberg概念格,利用Iceberg概念格中频繁概念之间良好的覆盖关系能快速计算出最大频繁项集所对应的最大频繁概念,所有最大频繁概念的内涵就是所求的最大频繁项集的集合.实验结果表明,该算法具有扫描数据集次数少和挖掘效率高的优点.

  19. Release of Romanomermis iyengari (Nematoda:Mermithidae) to control Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera:Culicidae) in Punta del Este, Isla de la Juventud, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamarina Mijares, A; García Avila, I; Rivera Rosales, J; Solís Montero, A

    1996-07-01

    Preparasites of Romanomermis iyengari Welch were applied at the rate of 1,000 preparasites per square meter of surface area in 5 natural breeding sites in carbonate rock depressions to control Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedeman larvae. Larval parasitism averaged 100, 97, 81, and 80% in 1-4 instars, respectively. Three of 5 sites produced parasitism in excess of 90%. The range of salinity and water depth had little influence on the levels of parasitism. Ae. taeniorhynchus density was reduced from 78 to 96% at the 5 sites 8 d posttreatment.

  20. Consideraciones sobre calidad de vida urbana en el Proyecto de Costanera de la ciudad de Punta Arenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Espinoza Pino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Profundo anhelo de nuestra ciudad ha sido ver materializada la costanera del estrecho. Por los volúmenes de inversión necesarios para una obra vial de tal magnitud, este deseo se ha visto largamente postergado, no obstante parte de este eje se ha concretado gracias al esfuerzo de distintas instituciones.

  1. New insights into the Middle Pleistocene paleoecology and paleoenvironment of the Northern Iberian Peninsula (Punta Lucero Quarry site, Biscay): A combined approach using mammalian stable isotope analysis and trophic resource availability modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Laura; Rodríguez-Gómez, Guillermo; Libano, Iñaki; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier

    2017-08-01

    The northern coastal area of the Iberian Peninsula shows an excellent archaeo-paleontological record with a unique representation of Pleistocene mammalian fossils. While the Late Pleistocene is better recorded, the Middle Pleistocene record remains more fragmentary. The Punta Lucero site (Biscay) has yielded the most important fossil assemblage of the middle Middle Pleistocene for the northern Iberian Peninsula in both, number of identified specimens and taxonomic diversity. Punta Lucero constitutes a unique opportunity to evaluate Middle Pleistocene mammalian resource and habitat use, and trophic dynamics employing a combined approach: biogeochemical analysis and mathematical modeling. Stable isotope analysis points to resource partitioning between Punta Lucero cervids and bovids. Stable isotope analysis and trophic modeling evidence resource overlap and interspecific competition among predators, especially between the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium latidens and the European jaguar Panthera gombaszoegensis. The trophic resource availability modeling assumes that Canis mosbachensis consumed a 20% of preys of more than 10 kg, mainly as carrion. Thus, while there would be a taxonomic overlap with those preys consumed by the large felids, the different strategy would have facilitated the coexistence of these canids with larger carnivores. Trophic modeling indicates a high competition among the predator guild. The potential presence of hominins in the area would have reached to an unsustainable situation. However, the potential presence of other prey species, such as Equus sp., would have made the ecosystem more sustainable. The methodology followed in this study highlights the potential of multidisciplinary approaches in the assessment of Pleistocene faunal dynamics.

  2. Mejoramiento de la competitividad en Lima Norte con la reducción del caos vehicular, implementando un terminal terrestre interprovincial con interconexión vial futura al metro de Lima y corredor complementario

    OpenAIRE

    Avila Nuñez, Guiselle Melissa; Castañeda Del Castillo, Luis Fernando; Minaya Rosario, Carlos Danilo; Orihuela Aguilar, Overton Christian

    2017-01-01

    Propone mejorar la competitividad de la zona de Lima Norte como parte de Lima Metropolitana, con la construcción de un Terminal Terrestre al norte de la ciudad de Lima ubicado en el distrito de Puente Piedra. Teniendo como función principal la restricción del transporte de los buses interprovinciales por Lima Centro y a la vez descongestionar la zona de Lima Norte en las denominadas horas puntas por las mañanas y las noches, desde la zona del distrito de Puente Piedra hasta la Av. Eduardo de...

  3. FACTORES BIOQUÍMICOS Y CELULARES EN LA RESPUESTA INFLAMATORIA PULPAR EN LOS EQUINOS Y SU IMPORTANCIA EN LA FARMACOTERAPIA ACTUAL PARA LA ABOLICIÓN DEL DOLOR PRE, INTRA Y POSOPERATORIO ENDODÓNTICO

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Argueta López; Rafael Argueta García; Ana María Berlín Gómez

    2013-01-01

    La enfermedad pulpar dental es un de sorden bucal común de los caballos y de gran impacto en la práctica de la clínica del dolor y anestesiología estomatológica veterinaria en equinos. Desafortunadamente, el examen oral realizado por la mayor parte de los médico veterinarios especialistas en equinos consiste sólo en separar los labios, observar los incisivos y colocar un dedo en el carrillo para palpar puntas sobre los primeros dientes superiores del carrillo. Este tipo de examen dete cta sól...

  4. FACTORES BIOQUÍMICOS Y CELULARES EN LA RESPUESTA INFLAMATORIA PULPAR EN LOS EQUINOS Y SU IMPORTANCIA EN LA FARMACOTERAPIA ACTUAL PARA LA ABOLICIÓN DEL DOLOR PRE, INTRA Y POSOPERATORIO ENDODÓNTICO

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Argueta López

    2013-01-01

    La enfermedad pulpar dental es un de sorden bucal común de los caballos y de gran impacto en la práctica de la clínica del dolor y anestesiología estomatológica veterinaria en equinos. Desafortunadamente, el examen oral realizado por la mayor parte de los médico veterinarios especialistas en equinos consiste sólo en separar los labios, observar los incisivos y colocar un dedo en el carrillo para palpar puntas sobre los primeros dientes superiores del carrillo. Este tipo de examen dete cta sól...

  5. Deep seated tectonic-gravitive failure and large landslide in the area from Scilla to Punta Pezzo (Calabria region South Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerricchio, A.; Doglioni, A.; Simeone, V.

    2012-04-01

    A critical analysis of the morphological characters of the Southern Calabria region in the area from Scilla (RC province- Southern Italy) to Messina Strait show some geomorphological anomalies due to deep tectonic-gravitational failures and landslides induced by the uplift of the same area. The above mentioned phenomena involve, in fact the whole structure of the ridge included between the coastline and Fiumara di Catona (Catona Torrent), starting from Melia Highland (Pian della Melia) towards the promontory of Punta Pezzo on Messina Strait; and have a severe influence on the morphological forms of the territory, on the surface and coastal erosion phenomena and probably, also on the effect of seismic shocks on large engineering works, as the-to-be built Messina Strait bridge, which is very close to Scilla and Punta Pezzo area. The evidence of these failure can be recognized in the arched morphological steps breaking down the crystalline rock masses, but specially in the hydrographic stream network that is so deep and irregular in crystalline rocks that cannot be imputed only to surficial erosion. In fact at the end of the main streams or torrents as Santa Trara or San Gregorio torrents (fiumare) there are not relevant alluvial fan deposits. These tectonic-gravitative failure have been favored by the presence of biotitic schists underlying gneiss and granite rock masses. The first ones has a stiffness lower than the seconds, so they are more deformable. It is also possible that schist rock masses overlie the more deformable phyllite rocks, not outcropping in the area, as it happen in other zones of Calabria region (Guerricchio e Al., 2007). Tectonic-gravitative failures have broken and disarticulated also the terraces of Late Pleistocene deposits lying over the crystalline basement multiplied by these failures, so that may seem terraces of different order. The coastal slope between Gioia Tauro and Scilla is quite high and in a sudden way changes its form just in the

  6. Relationship between organochlorine pesticides and stress indicators in hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) nesting at Punta Xen (Campeche), Southern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Nelly; Ortíz Arana, Alejandro; González Jáuregui, Mauricio; Rendón-von Osten, Jaime

    2017-03-01

    Data on the impact of environmental pollution on the homeostasis of sea turtles remains scarce, particularly in the Southern Gulf of Mexico. As many municipalities along the coastline of the Yucatan Peninsula do not rely on a waste treatment plant, these organisms could be particularly vulnerable. We searched for relationships between the presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and the level of several oxidative and pollutant stress indicators of the hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) during the 2010 nesting season at Punta Xen (Campeche, Mexico). Of the 30 sampled sea turtles, endosulfans, aldrin related (aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, endrin ketone, endrin aldehyde) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDT) families were detected in 17, 21 and 26, respectively. Significant correlation existed between the size of sea turtles with the concentration of methoxychlor, cholinesterase activity in plasma and heptachlors family, and catalase activity and hexachlorohexane family. Cholinesterase activity in washed erythrocytes and lipid peroxidation were positively correlated with glutathione reductase activity. Antioxidant enzyme actions seem adequate as no lipids damages were correlated with any OCPs. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effect of OCPs on males of the area due to the significant detection of methoxychlor, which target endocrine functioning and increases its concentration with sea turtles size.

  7. Prevalencia del uso de teléfonos móviles durante la conducción de vehículos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrain I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio fue estimar la prevalencia del uso de teléfono móvil durante la conducción de vehículos en la ciudad de Lleida. Métodos: Se seleccionó una muestra aleatoria de 1.536 automóviles en 6 cruces regulados por semáforos de la ciudad de Lleida (3 con tráfico urbano y 3 con tráfico interurbano. Se excluyeron ciclistas, motoristas y automóviles de autoescuelas. Las variables estudiadas fueron uso de teléfono móvil, sexo, edad (18-40; 41-60; > 61 años, ir acompañado en el vehículo, tipo de cruce (tráfico urbano/tráfico interurbano, día de la semana (laborable/festivo y hora del día (punta/no punta. Se calculó la prevalencia del uso de teléfono móvil en porcentajes con un intervalo de confianza (IC del 95%. La relación de la variable dependiente (uso de teléfono móvil con el resto de variables independientes se estudió con la odds ratio (OR y con IC del 95%. Resultados: Se realizaron 1.536 observaciones directas y se detectó uso de teléfono móvil en 50 conductores. La prevalencia fue del 3,3% (IC del 95%, 2,4-4,3. Esta prevalencia fue superior en los varones (OR = 2,2; IC del 95%, 1,0-5,7 en los mayores de 60 años (OR = 2,2; IC del 95%, 0,5-8,4 y en el grupo de 18-40 años (OR = 1,5; IC del 95%, 0,8-3,0, en conductores sin acompañante (OR = 3,0; IC del 95%, 1,5-6,3, en cruces urbanos (OR = 2,7; IC del 95%, 1,2-5,9, en días laborables (OR = 2,0; IC del 95%, 0,9-4,4 y en horas punta (OR = 1,4; IC del 95%, 0,8-2,4. Conclusiones: La prevalencia del uso de teléfono móvil durante la conducción se considera elevada por el incremento del riesgo de accidentes. El perfil de los usuarios se corresponde con varones de 18 a 40 años o mayores de 61, en circuitos urbanos, sin acompañante, en días laborables y horas punta. Se recomienda tomar medidas para reducir el uso de teléfono móvil durante la conducción.

  8. La industria metálica del depósito sepulcral de Pico Ramos (Muskiz, Biscay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Salgado

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Los materiales metálicos del conjunto calcolítico de la cueva sepulcral de Pico Ramos son un punzón biapuntado y una punta de cobre. Además, existe una pieza laminar que podría pertenecer a este momento a pesar de que cuenta con impurezas más frecuentes en épocas posteriores. El análisis de Fluorescencia de Rayos X de las dos primeras piezas citadas indica que ambas cuentan con un   contenido similar de cobre, bajo en níquel y alto en arsénico, en comparación con otros materiales del País Vasco. Se apunta la posibilidad de que el material de Pico Ramos corresponda a una primera fase de la metalurgia, quizá producto de intercambios previos al desarrollo local del proceso productivo metalúrgico.

  9. Contaminación por metales pesados en la Cuenca del Río Moche, 1980 – 2010, La Libertad – Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Félix Huaranga Moreno; Eduardo Méndez García; Vito Quilcat León; Félix Huaranga Arévalo

    2012-01-01

    La contaminación de las aguas continentales es un problema de escala mundial,principalmente debido alimpacto de los relaves mineros. Utilizando tecnologías de punta,como plantas de neutralización de aguasácidas,muchas empresas están mitigando el impacto de su funcionamiento; por lo que tomando comoreferencia los cambios en la concentración de metales pesados presentes en aguas, suelos y cultivos de lacuenca alta, media y baja del río Moche, se realizaron muestreos de agua en ocho estaciones d...

  10. Una alabarda procedente del valle del Manzanares (Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel de BLAS CORTINA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se estudia una alabarda metálica procedente —sin datos precisos de su localización— del valle del Manzanares (Madrid. Posiblemente apareciera con otros materiales (¿puntas Palmela?, pero el hecho no pudo ser comprobado. Fundida en un molde monovalvo que proporciona un acabado homogéneo a una sola de las caras, se integra metalúrgicamente en el grupo E 01 (cobres arsenicales propio de la Península Ibérica durante el Calcolítico y el Bronce Antiguo. Tipológicamente puede ser clasificada como integrante del grupo Carrapatas al que pertenecen un conjunto de alabardas procedentes del N.E. de Portugal (Bragança y Tras os Montes del que se conocen escasos testimonios fuera del área característica. Especialmente significativo es el hallazgo de la finca de la Paloma (Pantoja, Toledo que muestra la asociación entre las alabardas Carrapatas y elementos propios del campaniforme tardío de España y Portugal, circunstancia que permite fechar el tipo entre el 1700-1500 a. de J.C., datación similar a las fechas admitidas para las alabardas irlandesas con las que algunos autores ven posibles relaciones. La existencia de alabardas grabadas en estelas más tardías o en rocas al aire libre plantea el problema de su perduración. No obstante, el carácter simbólico de las armas grabadas puede hacer que sea solamente la imagen representada la que superviva, aunque el arma como tal haya perdido vigencia. La alabarda del Manzanares, junto con las de Pantoja, señala la presencia en la Meseta Sur de elementos metalúrgicos propios del N.W. de la Península en un momento sincrónico con las fases finales del campaniforme.ABSTRACT: We study a metallic halberd found in an indeterminate place in the valley of the river Manzanares (Madrid. It might have appeared with other materials (Palmela Points?, although this fact could not be confirmed. Made in a single-faced mould which allows a homogeneous finish to only one of the sides, it belongs from

  11. Evaluation of Models Describing the Growth of Nalidixic Acid-Resistant E. coli O157:H7 in Blanched Spinach and Iceberg Lettuce as a Function of Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonil Cho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to model the growth of nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7NR in blanched spinach and to evaluate model performance with an independent set of data for interpolation (8.5, 13, 15 and 27 °C and for extrapolation (broth and fresh-cut iceberg lettuce using the ratio method and the acceptable prediction zone method. The lag time (LT, specific growth rate (SGR and maximum population density (MPD obtained from each primary model were modeled as a function of temperature (7, 10, 17, 24, 30, and 36 °C using Davey, square root, and polynomial models, respectively. At 7 °C, the populations of E. coli O157:H7NR increased in tryptic soy broth with nalidixic acid (TSBN, blanched spinach and fresh-cut iceberg lettuce, while the populations of E. coli O157:H7 decreased in TSB after 118 h of LT, indicating the risk of nalidixic acid-resistant strain of E. coli O157:H7 contaminated in ready-to-eat produce at refrigerated temperature. When the LT and SGR models of blanched spinach was extended to iceberg lettuce, all relative errors (percentage of RE = 100% were inside the acceptable prediction zone and had an acceptable Bf and Af values. Thus, it was concluded that developed secondary models for E. coli O157:H7NR in blanched spinach were suitable for use in making predictions for fresh cut iceberg lettuce, but not for static TSBN in this work.

  12. Evaluation of models describing the growth of nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli O157:H7 in blanched spinach and Iceberg lettuce as a function of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juhui; Chung, Hyunjung; Cho, Joonil; Yoon, Kisun

    2013-07-09

    The aim of this study was to model the growth of nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7NR) in blanched spinach and to evaluate model performance with an independent set of data for interpolation (8.5, 13, 15 and 27 °C) and for extrapolation (broth and fresh-cut iceberg lettuce) using the ratio method and the acceptable prediction zone method. The lag time (LT), specific growth rate (SGR) and maximum population density (MPD) obtained from each primary model were modeled as a function of temperature (7, 10, 17, 24, 30, and 36 °C) using Davey, square root, and polynomial models, respectively. At 7 °C, the populations of E. coli O157:H7NR increased in tryptic soy broth with nalidixic acid (TSBN), blanched spinach and fresh-cut iceberg lettuce, while the populations of E. coli O157:H7 decreased in TSB after 118 h of LT, indicating the risk of nalidixic acid-resistant strain of E. coli O157:H7 contaminated in ready-to-eat produce at refrigerated temperature. When the LT and SGR models of blanched spinach was extended to iceberg lettuce, all relative errors (percentage of RE = 100%) were inside the acceptable prediction zone and had an acceptable Bf and Af values. Thus, it was concluded that developed secondary models for E. coli O157:H7NR in blanched spinach were suitable for use in making predictions for fresh cut iceberg lettuce, but not for static TSBN in this work.

  13. Early neogene history of the central American arc from Bocas del Toro, western Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A.G.; Aubry, M.-P.; Berggren, W.A.; Collins, Luke S.; Kunk, M.

    2003-01-01

    A newly discovered sequence of lower to middle Miocene rocks from the eastern Bocas del Toro archipelago, western Panama, reveals the timing and environment of the earliest stages in the rise of the Isthmus of Panama in this region. Two new formations, the Punta Alegre Formation (lower Miocene, Aquitanian to Burdigalian) and the Valiente Formation (middle Miocene, Langhian to Serravallian), are here named and formally described. The Punta Alegre Formation contains a diagnostic microfauna of benthic and planktic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils that indicate deposition in a 2000-m-deep pre-isthmian neotropical ocean from as old as 21.5-18.3 Ma. Its lithology varies from silty mudstone to muddy foraminiferal ooze with rare thin microturbidite layers near the top. The Valiente Formation, which ranges in age from 16.4 to ca. 12.0 Ma, lies with slight angular unconformity on the Punta Alegre Formation and consists of five lithofacies: (1) columnar basalt and flow breccia, (2) pyroclastic deposits, (3) coarse-grained volcaniclastic deposits, (4) coral-reef limestone with diverse large coral colonies, and (5) marine debris-flow deposits and microturbidities. These lithofacies are interpreted to indicate that after ca. 16 Ma a volcanic arc developed in the region of Bocas del Toro and that by ca. 12 Ma an extensively emergent archipelago of volcanic islands had formed. 39Ar/40Ar dating of basalt flows associated with the fossiliferous sedimentary rocks in the upper part of the Valiente Formation strongly confirms the ages derived from planktic foraminifera and nannofossils. Paleobathymetric analysis of the two new formations in the Valiente Peninsula and Popa Island, in the Bocas del Toro archipelago, shows a general shallowing from lower- through upper-bathyal to upper-neritic and emergent laharic and fluviatile deposits from ca. 19 to 12 Ma. The overlying nonconformable Bocas del Toro Group contains a lower transgressive sequence ranging from basal nearshore

  14. Observations of vertical tidal motions of a floating iceberg in front of Shirase Glacier, East Antarctica, using a geodetic-mode GPS buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Yuichi; Kim, Tae-Hee; Doi, Koichiro; Hayakawa, Hideaki; Higashi, Toshihiro; Ohsono, Shingo; Shibuya, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    A dual-frequency GPS receiver was deployed on a floating iceberg downstream of the calving front of Shirase Glacier, East Antarctica, on 28 December 2011 for utilizing as floating buoy. The three-dimensional position of the buoy was obtained by GPS every 30 s with a 4-5-cm precision for ca. 25 days. The height uncertainty of the 1-h averaged vertical position was ∼0.5 cm, even considering the uncertainties of un-modeled ocean loading effects. The daily evolution of north-south (NS), east-west (EW), and up-down (UD) motions shows periodic UD variations sometimes attaining an amplitude of 1 m. Observed amplitudes of tidal harmonics of major constituents were 88%-93% (O1) and 85%-88% (M2) of values observed in the global ocean tide models FES2004 and TPXO-8 Atlas. The basal melting rate of the iceberg is estimated to be ∼0.6 m/day, based on a firn densification model and using a quasi-linear sinking rate of the iceberg surface. The 30-s sampling frequency geodetic-mode GPS buoy helps to reveal ice-ocean dynamics around the calving front of Antarctic glaciers.

  15. Methodology for locating faults in the Eastern distribution system PDVSA, Punta de Mata and Furrial Divisions; Metodologia para la localizacion de fallas en el sistema de distribucion de PDVSA Oriente, Divisiones Punta de Mata y Furrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, F [Universidad Nacional Experimental Politecnica, Antonio Jose de Sucre, Guayana, Bolivar (Venezuela)]. E-mail: fco_martinez@outlook.com; Vasquez, C [Petroleos de Venezuela S.A., Maturin, Monagas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: vasquezcp@pdvsa.com

    2013-03-15

    Fault location in distribution systems has received a lot of attention in recent years in order to increase the availability of electricity supply. Due to the characteristics of distribution networks, fault location is a complicated task, so methods have been developed based on the variation of current and voltage values measured at the source substation, in normal operating condition and under the occurrence of short circuits. This article presents the implementation in MATLAB of a fault location algorithm applied to distribution systems, based on graphical analysis of the fault reactance which is determined by the minimum value of the reactance, using serial impedance matrix and fault/prefault voltage and current metering. Developed Tool Accuracy was verified by comparing the results obtained through it with actual recorded event data (Multilin SR 760) and distance to a known failure point. Additionally the method was applied to an experimental case that was compared with network fault simulation using ETAP Software. For both evaluated cases, the absolute error did not exceed 7%. [Spanish] La localizacion de fallas en sistemas de distribucion ha recibido atencion en los ultimos anos con el fin de aumentar la disponibilidad del suministro de energia electrica. Debido a las caracteristicas propias de las redes de distribucion, la ubicacion de fallas resulta una tarea complicada, por lo que se han desarrollado metodos basados en la variacion de los valores de corriente y voltaje medidos en la subestacion fuente, en condicion normal de operacion y ante la ocurrencia de cortocircuitos. Este articulo presenta la implementacion en MATLAB de un algoritmo de localizacion de fallas en sistemas de distribucion que se fundamenta en el analisis grafico de la reactancia de falla, mediante el cual se determina el minimo valor de la reactancia, utilizando la matriz de impedancia serie y la medicion de los voltajes y corrientes de prefalla y falla. Se verifico la precision de la

  16. Disease Burden of Dengue in the Philippines: Adjusting for Underreporting by Comparing Active and Passive Dengue Surveillance in Punta Princesa, Cebu City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Edillo, Frances E; Erasmo, Jonathan Neil V; Alera, Maria Theresa P; Yoon, In-Kyu; Largo, Francisco M; Shepard, Donald S

    2017-04-01

    AbstractDengue virus (DENV) is a serious threat to public health. Having reliable estimates of the burden of dengue is important to inform policy and research, but surveillance systems are not designed to capture all symptomatic DENV infections. We derived the rate of reporting of dengue by comparing active surveillance of symptomatic DENV infections in a prospective community-based seroepidemiological cohort study (N = 1008) of acute febrile illness in Punta Princesa, Cebu City, Philippines, with passive surveillance data from the Cebu City Health Department. Febrile episodes detected in a weekly follow-up of participants were tested for serotype-specific DENV by hemi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (nested RT-PCR) and acute/convalescent blood samples tested by dengue IgM/IgG enzyme immunoassay. We estimated the burden of dengue in the Philippines in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and conducted a probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte-Carlo simulations to address uncertainty. The results showed a 21% cumulative reporting rate of symptomatic DENV infections, equivalent to an expansion factor of 4.7 (95% certainty level [CL]: 2.2-15.1). Based on surveillance data in the Philippines for 2010-2014, we estimated 794,255 annual dengue episodes (95% CL: 463,000-2,076,000) and a disease burden of 535 (95% CL: 380-994) DALYs per million population using age weights and time discounting and 997 (95% CL: 681-1,871) DALYs per million population without age and time adjustments. Dengue imposes a substantial burden in the Philippines; almost 10 times higher than estimated for rabies, about twice the burden of intestinal fluke infections, and about 10% of the burden of tuberculosis. Our estimates should inform policy makers and raise awareness among the public.

  17. Investigating Coseismic vs. Interseismic Uplift of Marine Terraces at the Southern Terminus of the Cascadia Subduction Zone: Cape Mendocino to Punta Gorda, Petrolia, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, B.; Vermeer, J.; Hemphill-Haley, M. A.; Michalak, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Cascadia subduction zone of the Pacific Northwest terminates in the south at the Mendocino Triple Junction, a region of elevated seismic activity. Here, tectonically driven uplift is likely responsible for the formation of Holocene-aged marine terraces. In 1992, a M 7.1 thrust mainshock and two ~M 6.5 aftershocks occurred offshore of Cape Mendocino, resulting in 1.4 meters of uplift, measured from stranded intertidal species on uplifted wave-cut platforms. However, it is unknown whether these marine terraces formed due solely to large episodic coseismic uplift caused by moderately large to large magnitude earthquakes, orwhether interseismic deformation plays a role in their formation. Moreover, detailed mapping of these terraces has not been done since Merits (1996). For this study, we map a suite of four terraces and bedrock wave cut platforms between Cape Mendocino and Punta Gorda on the northern California coast near the town of Petrolia. By mapping both exposed and buried Holocene marine terraces we aim to discern the pattern of deformation causing their uplift, and determine whether uplift is related solely to episodic coseismic events, or both coseismic and interseismic deformation. Detailed mapping of the extent and elevation of both exposed and buried terraces is achieved by using real time kinematic (RTK) GPS surveying on base maps compiled using the 2009-2011 California Coastal Conservancy LIDAR. Preliminary results indicate formation predominantly from coseismic uplift in moderate magnitude subduction earthquakes. This work offers insight into understanding the upper plate crustal response to seismic events and interseismic periods in tectonically complex areas like the southern end of the Cascadia Subduction zone.

  18. High genotypic diversity of the reef-building coral Porites lobata (Scleractinia: Poritidae in Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer N. Boulay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The isolated Isla del Coco experiences periodic, extreme disturbances which devastate coral reefs surrounding the island. Scleractinian corals build the physical structure of the reef therefore ecosystem recovery relies on coral species recovery. Coral recruits can be of sexual or asexual origin, and the relative success of the two recruit types influences the speed and spread of recovery processes. Here we focus on the massive coral, Porites lobata, because it is the main reef-builder around Isla del Coco to describe the relative contribution of asexual and sexual recruits to population maintenance. P. lobata samples were collected using a spatially explicit random sampling design in three plots at Isla del Coco: Punta Ulloa (n=17, Bahía Weston (n=20 and Punta María (n=20 and samples were genotyped with 11 microsatellite markers. Additional sampling was conducted at three “coastal” sites near the Costa Rican mainland (Isla del Caño Biological Reserve: Caño1 (n=8, Caño2 (n=10, Caño5 (n=11 to compare the contributions of asexual and sexual recruits at Isla del Coco sites to coastal sites. Isla del Coco sites were characterized by small colony size (>60% of colonies Los ambientes marinos del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco experimentan perturbaciones extremas periódicamente como por ejemplo El Niño-Oscilación del Sur (ENOS que han devastado las comunidades coralinas. La cobertura coralino se redujo drásticamente durante El Niño de 1982-83. Los corales escleractinios construyen la estructura física de los arrecifes así que la recuperación de estos ecosistemas depende de que los corales se recuperen. Los corales pueden reproducirse sexual y asexualmente, y el éxito relativo de cada forma de reproducción va a guiar el proceso de recuperación con implicaciones potenciales a la diversidad de las comunidades asociadas. En la mayoría de los arrecifes alrededor de la Isla del Coco, el coral masivo, Porites lobata, es la especie

  19. A Sluggish Ocean Conveyer in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea During the Stage 12 Deglaciation: Geomorphological Evidence from Buried Iceberg Scours on the mid-Norwegian Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, A.; Huuse, M.; Brocklehurst, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    To confidently project future environmental changes as the climate warms it is imperative that we are able to quantify and explain changes in the geological past. Such analyses are important for reducing the uncertainty and range of future projections of climate change. The ocean system is a key component of all numerical models because of the role that currents have in distributing heat across the globe. Grain-size measurements, provenance studies and palaeocurrent directions from iceberg scours are among some of the traditional proxies used for investigating the strengths and directions of ancient currents. Many authors have shown that deep-water production and northward transport of heat in the North Atlantic was reduced during the Last Glacial Maximum, but our knowledge of past climatic cycles is comparatively limited. In this work we show new evidence for a similar reduction during the third last glacial, for which only very limited palaeocurrent information was previously available. This is based on the discovery of an exquisitely well-preserved set of buried iceberg scours seen in 3D seismic reflection data on the mid-Norwegian shelf. These scours are dated to ~429 ka based on a spike of ice-rafted detritus on the Voring Plateau. This marks the culmination of the stage 12 glaciation when the Northern Hemisphere ice cover was rapidly melting before the onset of the stage 11 interglacial. This time period has long been seen as a crucial analogue for understanding the Holocene interglacial and contemporary climate change. The geometry of the scours shows that the icebergs were influenced by tidal and translatory ocean currents. The ratio of these current velocities compared to present shows that the translatory current was 50% slower than today. This suggests that northward movement of heat was reduced due to a more sluggish meridional overturning circulation during the deglacial. This was likely in response to large volumes of deglacial freshwater and icebergs

  20. Internal ice - Sheet variability as source for the multi-century and millennial-scale iceberg events during the Holocene? A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bügelmayer-Blaschek, Marianne; Roche, Didier M.; Renssen, Hans; Andrews, John T.

    2016-04-01

    The climate of the Holocene, the current interglacial covering the past 11,700 years, has been relatively stable compared to previous periods. Nevertheless, repeating occurrence of rapid natural climate changes that challenged human society are seen in proxy reconstructions. Ocean sediment cores for example display prominent peaks of enhanced ice rafted debris (IRD) during the Holocene with a multi-decadal to millennial scale periodicity. Different mechanisms were proposed that caused these enhanced IRD events, for example variations in the incoming total solar irradiance (TSI), volcanic eruptions and the combination of internal climate variability and external forcings. We investigate the probable mechanisms causing the occurrence of IRD-events over the past 6000 years using a fully coupled climate - ice-sheet - iceberg model (iLOVECLIM). We performed 19 experiments that differ in the applied forcings (TSI, volcanic) and the initial atmospheric conditions. To explore internal ice sheet variability one further experiment was done with fixed climate conditions. All the model runs displayed prominent peaks of enhanced iceberg melt flux (IMF), independent of the chosen experimental set-up. The spectral analysis of the experiments with the ice-sheet - climate model coupled displays significant peaks at 2000, 1000 years in all the experiments and at 500 years in most runs. The experiment with fixed climate conditions displays one significant peak of about 1500 years related to internal ice sheet variability. This frequency is modulated to 2000 and 1000 years in all the experiments with a coupled climate - ice sheet due to interactions between the climate components. We further investigate the impact of minimum TSI events on the timing and occurrence of enhanced IMF. In the experimental set-up that was forced with idealized sinusoidal TSI variations (±4 Wm-2), we find a significant occurrence of an increased iceberg melt flux about 60 years after the minimum TSI value

  1. 结球生菜多酚氧化酶动力学特性研究%Study on the kinetic character of polyphenol oxidase in iceberg lettuce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶先军; 刘升; 王则金; 冯双庆; 颜丽萍

    2011-01-01

    For solving the problem of browning in the process and storage of iceberg lettuce,the Kinetic Character of polyphenol oxidase(PPO)in iceberg lettuce were studied.Analysised the PPO activity in different pH,temperature and substrate concentration,established the kinetic equation of iceberg lettuce browning.The results showed that the optimum pH and temperature of lettuce PPO was 8.0 and 40℃,respectively.The reaction kinetic of enzymatic browning was accordant with michaelis equation,the Km and vmax were 0.0691mol/L and 26.5957U/min,respectively.The PPO activity in iceberg lettuce leaf tissue was very strong,little difference of PPO activity in the organization of petiole and stems,but lower than in the leaf tissue.And the PPO activity was 6.12U/min in iceberg lettuce stems incision which had some browning,much higher than no browning part.%为解决生菜加工贮藏过程中出现的褐变问题,研究了结球生菜多酚氧化酶(polyphenol oxidase,PPO)动力学特性,分析了pH、温度及底物浓度等因素对PPO活性的影响,建立了结球生菜褐变的反应动力学方程。结果表明,结球生菜最适pH为8.0,最适温度为40℃。用Michaelis-Menten机理描述可得结球生菜PPO相应的动力学参数Km=0.0691mol/L,vmax=26.5957U/min。生菜叶片组织中的PPO活性较强,叶柄和茎部组织中的PPO活性差异不大,均低于叶片组织中的PPO活性,且结球生菜茎部切口处已经发生褐变的部分PPO活性为6.12U/min,远高于没有发生褐变的部分。

  2. A subglacial landform assemblage on the outer-shelf of M'Clure Strait, Canadian Arctic, ploughed by deglacial iceberg keels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Christine; Dowdeswell, Julian; Dowdeswell, Evelyn; Todd, Brian

    2015-04-01

    stream. The subglacial landforms and sediments in M'Clure Strait were subsequently traversed and reworked by the keels of deep-drafted icebergs (up to 280 m thick) during deglaciation. Groups of parallel to subparallel iceberg ploughmarks indicate a uniform pattern of iceberg drift to the west and northwest during deglaciation. The ploughmarks were formed either by large individual icebergs with wide and uneven keels, or by several deep-keeled icebergs drifting uniformly while trapped within a thick multi-year sea-ice floe. It is possible that multi-year sea-ice cover developed in the relatively protected setting between the islands that flank M'Clure Strait. The iceberg keels which formed the parallel to subparallel ploughmarks also dissected some of the esker-like ridges, redistributing the sediment from the ridges across the seafloor. Isolated linear to curvilinear ploughmarks with highly-irregular orientations record the grounding of individual iceberg keels in seafloor sediments during the later stages of deglaciation.

  3. Estilos del arte rupestre en Cuba. Una nueva interpretación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Izquierdo Díaz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A partir del hallazgo de una cueva con pictografías en Isla de Pinos, en 1922, fecha anterior al descubrimiento de la caverna con dibujos rupestres de Lascoux, en Francia, se desató una fiebre por el estudio de esas célebres pinturas parietales entre arqueólogos y estudiosos de la historia y la cultura cubanas. Un alto nivel abstraccional de los pictogramas de la cueva no 1 de Punta del Este en Isla de Pinos, aparentemente no coincidente con la cultura a que aparecen asociados los dibujos, planteó un enigma acerca del Arte rupestre de los aborígenes del País que ha llegado indemne prácticamente hasta el presente. Estudios precedentes de destacadas personalidades de la ciencia han permitido, gracias a su sistematicidad, una base de datos que es utilizada por los autores del presente trabajo para una contrastación de las tendencias de desarrollo del arte rupestre en Cuba mediante métodos computarizados.Los conceptos propios de la pintura y el arte plástico en general, en el estudio de estas manifestaciones en el País, son reenfocados con criterios homogéneos y el rigor científico necesario. Igualmente las referencias al nivel de desarrollo sociocultural de las comunidades aborígenes que se han supuesto sus autores, requirieron de un tratamiento especial de acuerdo con los conocimientos más actualizados sobre la arqueología en el momento de la realización del estudio; todo ello con el fin de deslindar objetivamente los endebles nexos entre autor y obra propios del arte rupestre. Los análisis desarrollados posibilitaron comprobar que los conceptos de figuración y abstracción en las comunidades aborígenes de Cuba concuerdan con las distintas fases de los procesos de “neolitización” en que aquellas se encontraban; y Punta del Este en Isla de Pinos es un caso particular que, no obstante, se enmarca coherentemente en un proceso de esta naturaleza. Pudo constatarse, asimismo, que la relación de las cuevas con su entorno influy

  4. Glacier fluctuations in the Kenai Fjords, Alaska, U.S.A.: An evaluation of controls on Iceberg-calving glaciers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, G.C. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States); Calkin, P.E. [Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Post, A. [Geological Survey, Vashon, WA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The histories of four iceberg-calving outlet-glacier systems in the Kenai Fjords National Park underscore the importance of fiord depth, sediment supply, and fiord geometry on glacier stability. These parameters, in turn, limit the reliability of calving glacier chronologies as records of climatic change. Tree-ring analysis together with radiocarbon dating show that the Northwestern and McCarty glaciers, with large drainage basins, were advancing in concert with nearby land-terminating glaciers about A.D. 600. After an interval of retreat and possible nonclimatically induced extension during the Medieval Warm Period, these ice margins advanced again through the Little Ice Age and then retreated synchronously with the surrounding land-terminating glaciers about A.D. 1900. In contrast, Holgate and Aialik glaciers, with deeper fiords and smaller basins, retreated about 300 yr earlier. Reconstructions of Little Ice Age glaciers suggest that equilibrium-line altitudes of Northwestern and McCarty glaciers were, respectively, 270 and 500 m lower than now. Furthermore, the reconstructions show that these two glaciers were climatically sensitive when at their terminal moranies. However, with ice margins at their present recessional positions and accumulation area ratios between 0.8 and 0.9, only McCarty Glacier shows evidence of advance. Aialik and Holgate glaciers were climatically insensitive during the Little Ice Age maxima and remain insensitive to climate. 40 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Generación de electricidad en horas de punta a partir de la digestión anaeróbica de camalote Generating electricity during peak hours in Asuncion, Paraguay, through anaerobic digestion of cultivated water hyacinths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulfer J.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objeto de presentar una propuesta novedosa y sustentable para la generación de energía eléctrica en el área metropolitana de Asunción basada en una fuente renovable de energía. Dicha generación se realizaría principalmente en horas de punta con el fin de reducir la potencia contratada por la ANDE en las usinas existentes y de esta forma disminuir costos y al mismo tiempo estabilizar las redes de transmisión y de distribución en la zona de Asunción. La electricidad se generaría en una planta térmica de ciclo combinado de 130 MW de potencia instalada utilizando como combustible biogás obtenido por medio de la digestión anaeróbica en biodigestores de plantas de camalote cultivadas en piletas a ser construidas en la orilla del río Paraguay frente al Jardín Botánico de Asunción. La principal ventaja para el aprovechamiento del camalote es su elevado índice de crecimiento, que es entre 100 y 500 g por día y por m2 según las condiciones ambientales, lo que permite que se duplique su masa vegetal cada 6 a 15 días. La relación entre carbono y nitrógeno, que se encuentra en su masa vegetal es óptima para la generación de biogás, cuyo poder calorífico de unos 6,4 kWh/m3 es suficientemente elevado para utilizarlo para la generación de calor y por ende también de electricidad en una planta térmica. Esa usina podría conectarse directamente al SIN a través de la Estación de Puerto Botánico mediante una línea de transmisión en 220 kV de 2 km cruzando el río Paraguay. Mediante este proyecto la ANDE podría ahorrar por año hasta US$ 25,000,000 en concepto de la contratación de potencia en la represa de Itaipú. Aunque dicho ahorro se reduciría cada año de 3% por el incremento de la demanda, la inversión de unos US$ 98,000,000 podría ser amortizada en un plazo de 15 años y tendrá un TIR del 5% y un VAN de US$ 40,548,000The objective of the present paper is to present an innovative and

  6. Estudio epidemiológico y anatómico del Síndrome de iris flácido intraoperatorio en pacientes con tratamiento con bloqueantes alfa 1 adrenérgicos

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El Síndrome de iris flácido intraoperatorio (IFIS), descrito por Chang y Campbell en 2005, acontece durante la microcirugía de cataratas mediante facoemulsificación ultrasónica en pacientes que están en tratamiento con bloqueantes alfa-1 adrenérgicos (bloq-alfa1A). Está compuesto por una triada clínica: iris flácido atónico que se ondula en respuesta a la irrigación intraocular propia de la fluídica perioperatoria, tendencia iridiana a prolapsarse hacia la punta del facoemulsificador y las in...

  7. Estudio preliminar del esqueleto postcraneal del Muscardinus cyclopeus Agustí, Moyà-Solà & Pons-Moyà, 1982 (Mammalia, Rodentia, Myoxidae

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    Quintana Cardona, J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, the partial skeleton of the Pliocene Muscardinus cyclopeus is described from Punta Nati-3, located in the northwest of the municipality of Ciutadella de Menorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean. Based on bone parameters it is shown that the size of Muscardinus cyclopeus is on overage 69% higher than that of Muscardinus avellanarius. The main features that distinguish M. cyclopeus from M. avellanarius are, among others: the relatively wider diameter of the proximal epiphysis of the ulna; the relatively shorter olecranon; the less marked concavity in the fovea of the proximal epiphysis of the radius; the relatively shorter ilium; the more symmetrical epicondyles of the distal femoral epiphysis; the relatively higher lateral epicondyle dorsoventrally, with a very flat ventral surface; and the relatively narrower tibia transversely. As a species evolved in an insular context, it is still very difficult to discern which of these characters are primitive and which are derived.Se describe, por primera vez, parte del esqueleto del muscardino gigante del Plioceno de Menorca, procedente del yacimiento 3 de Punta Nati, situado al noroeste del término municipal de Ciutadella de Menorca (Islas Baleares, Mediterráneo occidental. A partir de los parámetros óseos se ha podido constatar que Muscardinus cyclopeus muestra, de media, un tamaño un 69% superior al de Muscardinus avellanarius (Linnaeus, 1758. Entre las principales características óseas que diferencian M. cyclopeus de M. avellanarius cabe destacar, entre otras, el diámetro proporcionalmente más ancho de la epífisis proximal de la ulna, el olecranon proporcionalmente más corto, la fóvea de la epífisis proximal del radio con una concavidad menos marcada, el ilium proporcionalmente más corto, los epicóndilos de la epífisis distal del fémur más simétricos, el epicóndilo lateral proporcionalmente más alto en sentido dorso-ventral, con la superficie ventral

  8. A method for examining the geospatial distribution of CO2 storage resources applied to the Pre-Punta Gorda Composite and Dollar Bay reservoirs of the South Florida Basin, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Ashby, Tina; Brandon N. Ashby,

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates geospatial modification of the USGS methodology for assessing geologic CO2 storage resources, and was applied to the Pre-Punta Gorda Composite and Dollar Bay reservoirs of the South Florida Basin. The study provides detailed evaluation of porous intervals within these reservoirs and utilizes GIS to evaluate the potential spatial distribution of reservoir parameters and volume of CO2 that can be stored. This study also shows that incorporating spatial variation of parameters using detailed and robust datasets may improve estimates of storage resources when compared to applying uniform values across the study area derived from small datasets, like many assessment methodologies. Geospatially derived estimates of storage resources presented here (Pre-Punta Gorda Composite = 105,570 MtCO2; Dollar Bay = 24,760 MtCO2) were greater than previous assessments, which was largely attributed to the fact that detailed evaluation of these reservoirs resulted in higher estimates of porosity and net-porous thickness, and areas of high porosity and thick net-porous intervals were incorporated into the model, likely increasing the calculated volume of storage space available for CO2 sequestration. The geospatial method for evaluating CO2 storage resources also provides the ability to identify areas that potentially contain higher volumes of storage resources, as well as areas that might be less favorable.

  9. Is There a Relation between the Microscopic Leaf Morphology and the Association of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 with Iceberg Lettuce Leaves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN der Linden, Inge; Eriksson, Markus; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Devlieghere, Frank

    2016-10-01

    To prevent contamination of fresh produce with enteric pathogens, more insight into mechanisms that may influence the association of these pathogens with fresh produce is needed. In this study, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were chosen as model pathogens, and fresh cut iceberg lettuce was chosen as a model fresh produce type. The morphological structure of iceberg lettuce leaves (stomatal density and length of cell margins per leaf area) was quantified by means of leaf peels and light microscopy of leaves at different stages of development (outer, middle, and inner leaves of the crop) on both leaf sides (abaxial and adxial) and in three leaf regions (top, center, and bottom). The morphology of the top region of the leaves was distinctly different from that of the center and base, with a significantly higher stomatal density (up to five times more stomata), different cell shape, and longer cell margins (two to three times longer). Morphological differences between the same regions of the leaves at different stages of development were smaller or nonsignificant. An attachment assay with two attenuated E. coli O157:H7 strains (84-24h11-GFP and BRMSID 188 GFP) and two Salmonella strains (serovars Thompson and Typhimurium) was performed on different regions of the middle leaves. Our results confirmed earlier reports that these pathogens have a higher affinity for the base of the lettuce leaf than the top. Differences of up to 2.12 log CFU/g were seen ( E. coli O157:H7 86-24h11-GFP). Intermediate attachment occurred in the central region. The higher incidence of preferential bacterial attachment sites such as stomata and cell margins or grooves could not explain the differences observed in the association of the tested pathogens with different regions of iceberg lettuce leaves.

  10. Provenance of Greenland Ice Sheet icebergs constrained by Ar-Ar radioisotope data from late glacial-early Holocene records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutz, P. C.; Storey, M.; Kuijpers, A.

    2009-12-01

    Radiogenic Ar-Ar dating of hornblende has been used to constrain the sources of ice-rafted detritus on the southwest Greenland margin and central Davis Strait. Single hornblende grains (total of 248) were picked from sand-size fractions of two marine cores, DA04-31P and TTR462G, covering the early Holocene to late glacial interval including Heinrich events (HE) 1-3. Paleoceanographic analyses of DA04-31P have indicated that the last deglaciation of the southern Greenland Ice Sheet occurred in multiple steps during the early deglacial/HE1, Allerød and early Holocene intervals (Knutz et al., in review). Each of these collapse stages were preceded by upper ocean warming related to enhanced Irminger Current activity. Pre-HE1, Allerød and Holocene hornblende samples show a bimodal signature of late Archean (2.5-3.0 Ga) and early Proterozoic (1.6-2.2 Ga) ages consistent with southern Greenland bedrock sources. In contrast hornblende grains from detrital carbonate HE layers and within the Younger Dryas interval show a dominant early Proterozoic spectrum that is similar to results obtained from the central North Atlantic IRD belt. The early Proterozoic age of Younger Dryas samples from the Davis Strait site and the high amounts of basalt in this core, presumably derived from the Disko-Nussuaq province, suggests that icebergs carrying Archean material from southern Greenland did not enter the Baffin Bay or at least not for this specific time interval. The conclusion of our study is that the Greenland Ice Sheet appears to have been a much larger contributor to non-Heinrich IRD in the North Atlantic than thought previously. P. C. Knutz, H. Ebbesen, S. Christiansen, M.-A. Sicre and A. Kuijpers. Multiple deglaciation steps of the southern Greenland Ice Sheet driven by vigorous Irminger Current: Significance for the Younger Dryas cooling. Submitted to Quaternary Science Reviews.

  11. Offshore platform construction for sea areas where there is danger of iceberg collisions. Fralands plattformkonstruksjon for havomraader hvor Det er fare for kollisjon med isfjell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kure, G.; Jenssen, D.; Naesje, K.

    1984-11-19

    The patent concerns an offshore platform designed to be secured on the sea bed particularly in areas where there is danger of iceberg collisions. The platform construction comprises a foundation with a carrier section which normally supports a platform deck. The foundation has considerably larger diameter than the supporting section and is circular or polygonal. The basis has a protection section with an outer and an inner wall which is connected with each other by a number of vertical and horizontal partition walls that divide the protection section in a number of cells and chambers. The protection section is separated from the supporting section. 6 drawings.

  12. La gestión del agua: tensiones globales y latinoamericanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Nieto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La historia del mundo está llena de tensiones provocadas por la escasez de recursos naturales, oro, diamantes y petróleo. Sin embargo, el agua, que hasta ahora no había sido considerada un factor de conflicto, con el cambio climático se convierte en "el oro azul" de este siglo. El presente texto analiza los riesgos de la falta de agua a escala mundial, particularmente en América Latina, que pese a sus abundantes recursos, enfrenta problemas de escasez. El aumento de la población, inadecuadas políticas de gestión, falta de tecnología de punta y prácticas de corrupción agravan la situación, poniendo en peligro el desarrollo de la región latinoamericana.

  13. Per un etimo del toponimo carsico slov. Opčina (ital. Opicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Doria

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available II nuovo etimo1 che qui propongo per il noto toponimo carsico, slov. Opčina, ital. Opicina ( e ted. -nel passato-- Obezenach, v. sotto , le cui prime attestazioni risalgono al 1308 e 13 l l (forme documentate Obchena, Obchiena2, mi è stato suggerito dalla lettura di un elenco di toponimi dalmati (croati dell'isola di Uglian ed altre dell'arcipelago zaratino, elenco nel quale ho trovato un interessante Opatschina, il quale differisce dal nostro Opčina unicamente per la presenza, dopo la labiale, di una a, vocale, questa, che nel toponimo isolano è certamente etimologica, in quanto appartiene alla base slava opât "abbate" (in subordine al noto opatija "abbazia", vecchi adattamenti dalle voci tedesche ant. abt, apt, aptei (ted. mod. Abt, Abtei, a sua volta risalenti a lat. (tardo abbās, abbātia ecc. (cfr. Bezlaj e Skok ss.vv. opat, risp. opat. Nell'ambito delle isole quarnerine e della Dalmazia insulare la forma Opatschina non è isolata e fa compagnia ad un abbastanza noto Opat, nome di una punta, colle (m.100 e insenatura dell'isola Incoronata4, ad un Opatija dell'isola di Veglia (glagolit. a. 1633, I. Jelenic IZ 6, 1966, p. 2815 e ad un Opatova, punta all'entrata dello stretto di Catena, tra l'Isola Lunga e l'Incoronata (cfr. Segelhandbuch p. 341. Ad ogni modo, per quanto avremo da esporre a proposito del toponimo (carsico! Op(pac(chiasella, ancor più specifico appare il confronto con altra espressione toponimica insulare, questa volta dell'isola di Eso, Opatiae verth (=Wrh (a. 1392, Hilje cit. p. 696, tale e quale l'Opachiç<; del 1459 (Hilje p. 72 e l'Opačak Veli odierno (Scotti p. 136.

  14. Per in etimo del toponimo carsico slov. Opčina (ital. Opicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Doria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available II nuovo etimo1 che qui propongo per il noto toponimo carsico, slov. Opčina, ital. Opicina ( e ted. -nel passato-- Obezenach, v. sotto , le cui prime attestazioni risalgono al 1308 e 1311 (forme documentate Obchena, Obchiena2, mi è stato suggerito dalla lettura di un elenco di toponimi dalmati (croati dell'isola di Uglian ed altre dell'arcipelago zaratino, elenco nel quale ho trovato un interessante Opatschina 3, il quale differisce dal nostro Opčina unicamente per la presenza, dopo la labiale, di una a, vocale, questa, che nel toponimo isolano è certamente etimologica, in quanto appartiene alla base slava opât "abbate" (in subordine al noto opatija "abbazia", vecchi adattamenti dalle voci tedesche ant. abt, apt, aptei (ted. mod. Abt, Abtei, a sua volta risalenti a lat. (tardo abbās, abbātia ecc. (cfr. Bezlaj e Skok ss.vv. opât, risp. òpat. Nell'ambito delle isole quamerine e della Dalmazia insulare la forma Opatschina non è isolata e fa compagnia ad un abbastanza noto Opat, nome di una punta, colle (m.100 e insenatura dell'isola Incoronata4, ad un Opatija dell'isola di Veglia (glagolit. a. 1633, I. Jelenic JZ 6, 1966, p. 2815 e ad un Opatova, punta all'entrata dello stretto di Catena, tra l'Isola Lunga e l'Incoronata (cfr. Segelhandbuch p. 341. Ad ogni modo, per quanto avremo da esporre a proposito del toponimo (carsico! Op(pac(chiasella, ancor più specifico appare il confronto con altra espressione toponimica insulare, questa volta dell'isola di Eso, Opatiae verth (=Verh (a. 1392, Hilje cit. p. 696, tale e quale 1'0pachiaç del 1459 (Hilje p. 72 e l'Opačak Veli odiemo (Scotti p. 136.

  15. Acotaciones a las églogas de Juan del Encina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Prenz

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde un punta de vista semiológico, el objeto teórico del arte teatral reside en la individualización de su funcionamiento como fenómeno de significación y de comunicación. Ya en 1963 R. Barthes hablaba del teatro como "una especie de máquina cibernética" que emite mensajes simultáneamente y que, por lo tanto, "constituye un objeto semiológico privilegiado". Resulta clara, pues, que, cuando hablamos de teatro, nos estamos refiriendo a un objeto sincrético y multidimensional en el que participan un conjunto de lenguajes heterogéneos, que se modifican cada vez, y cuyo funcionamiento no puede ser explicado sabre la base de un código único, sino en relacion con la pluralidad de codigos que lo conforman. Si bien, el propósito de nuestro trabajo no es estrictamente semiológico, no podemos perder de vista los aspectos arriba mencionados.

  16. Environmental extremes versus ecological extremes: impact of a massive iceberg on the population dynamics of a high-level Antarctic marine predator†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambert, Thierry; Rotella, Jay J.; Garrott, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme events have been suggested to play a disproportionate role in shaping ecological processes, but our understanding of the types of environmental conditions that elicit extreme consequences in natural ecosystems is limited. Here, we investigated the impact of a massive iceberg on the dynamics of a population of Weddell seals. Reproductive rates of females were reduced, but survival appeared unaffected. We also found suggestive evidence for a prolonged shift towards higher variability in reproductive rates. The annual number of females attending colonies showed unusual swings during the iceberg period, a pattern that was apparently the consequence of changes in sea-ice conditions. In contrast to the dramatic effects that were recorded in nearby populations of emperor penguins, our results suggest that this unusual environmental event did not have an extreme impact on the population of seals in the short-term, as they managed to avoid survival costs and were able to rapidly re-achieve high levels of reproduction by the end of the perturbation. Nevertheless, population projections suggest that even this modest impact on reproductive rates could negatively affect the population in the long run if such events were to occur more frequently, as is predicted by models of climate change. PMID:23015628

  17. A survey of iceberg lettuce for the presence of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Shigenobu; Mizuno, Yasuko; Kawasaki, Susumu; Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2011-09-01

    No information has been available on the prevalence of pathogens in fresh produce in Japan. In the present study, information was collected on the occurrence of contamination by Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes in iceberg lettuce in a Japanese retail store. A total of 419 samples of lettuce that had been harvested in different districts and/or by different producers from July 2008 to March 2009 were examined. A multiplex PCR method was used to simultaneously identify the three bacterial pathogens. No pathogenic bacteria, including Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes, were detected from any of the samples with this highly sensitive and validated procedure. The aerobic bacteria plate counts and coliform bacteria counts in lettuce throughout the examination period did not show any seasonal trends, and the numbers were comparable to those reported by others from around the world. Based on the results of this study, we concluded that none of the three major pathogens were present in this limited survey of iceberg lettuce sold by a retailer in Japan.

  18. Ocurrence of the sea anemone Telmatactis panamensis (Verrill, 1869 (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria at Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián H. Acuña

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The sea anemone fauna of Isla del Coco National Park (also known as Cocos Island Nacional Park, Pacific Costa Rica is poorly known. In the present work we report the first occurrence of the species Telmatactis panamensis. Individuals of this sea anemone (n=24 were collected at Chatham Bay intertidal and at 15m depth in Punta Ulloa, in both cases attached to rocks; during the expedition UCR-UNA-COCO-I in April 2010. We provide photographs of live individuals, external anatomy and an inventory of cnidae of the studied specimens. Possibly this species is extended to greater depth as observed by other authors in the Galápagos Islands.La fauna de anémonas de mar es prácticamente desconocida para el Parque Nacional Isla del Coco (Costa Rica. En el presente trabajo se reporta por primera vez la presencia de la especie Telmatactis panamensis. Individuos de esta anémona de mar fueron colectados en el intermareal de Bahía Chatham y a 15m de profundidad en Punta Ulloa, en ambos casos adheridas a rocas; durante la expedición UCR-UNA-COCO-I en Abril de 2010. Se proveen fotografías de ejemplares vivos, datos de su anatomía externa y un inventario del cnidae de los especímenes estudiados. Posiblemente esta especie se extienda a mayor profundidad, tal como fue observado por otros autores para ejemplares de las Islas Galápagos.

  19. Vulnerabilidad al ascenso del nivel del mar en la costa de la provincia de Río Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Kokot

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Los escenarios elaborados a escala mundial por el Panel Internacional de Cambio Climático (IPCC respecto al ascenso del nivel del mar, debido principalmente a la expansión térmica del océano y a las pérdidas de masa de los glaciares, prevén valores que en promedio oscilan entre 0,09 y 0,88 m desde 1990 al 2100, con tendencia a la aceleración. Los impactos potenciales por la elevación del mar conducen a cambios en el área costera, que incluyen inundación, incremento en el retroceso costero, e intrusión salina en los acuíferos y estuarios. Con el objeto de posibilitar un adecuado manejo de la costa de la provincia de Río Negro, se efectuó una zonificación que permite disponer de información referente a la vulnerabilidad por ascenso del nivel del mar, a través de un mapa de simple lectura. Las áreas de peligrosidad geológica, referidas a inundación permanente y/o episódica se identificaron mediante índices de vulnerabilidad costera, también denominados índices de susceptibilidad, obtenidos a través de la aplicación de un algoritmo que relaciona variables obtenidas a partir de información geológica costera, oceanográfica y climatológica. Las zonas más vulnerables al ascenso del nivel del mar, corresponden a Balneario El Salado (Playas Doradas, San Antonio Oeste - San Antonio Este, Caleta de los Loros y la desembocadura del río Negro, mientras que el tramo de costa correspondiente a la costa acantilada ubicada al oeste del río Negro y al sur de punta Pórfido, muestra una vulnerabilidad baja.

  20. Nurse staffing issues are just the tip of the iceberg: a qualitative study about nurses' perceptions of nurse staffing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oostveen, Catharina J; Mathijssen, Elke; Vermeulen, Hester

    2015-08-01

    To obtain in-depth insight into the perceptions of nurses in the Netherlands regarding current nurse staffing levels and use of nurse-to-patient-ratios (NPR) and patient classification systems (PCS). In response to rising health care demands due to ageing of the patient population and increasing complexity of healthcare, hospital boards have been implementing NPRs and PCSs. However, many nurses at the unit level believe that staffing levels have become critically low, endangering the quality and safety of their patient care. This descriptive phenomenological qualitative study was conducted in a 1000-bed Dutch university hospital among 24 wards of four specialties (surgery, internal medicine, neurology, gynaecology & obstetrics and paediatric care). Data were collected from September until December 2012. To collect data four focus groups (n=44 nurses) were organized. Additionally, a total of 27 interviews (20 head nurses, 4 nurse directors and 3 quality advisors) were conducted using purposive sampling. The focus groups and interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Nurse staffing issues appear to be merely the 'tip of the iceberg'. Below the surface three underlying main themes became clear - nursing behaviour, authority, and autonomy - which are linked by one overall theme: nurses' position. In general, nurses' behaviour, way of thinking, decision-making and communication of thoughts or information differs from other healthcare disciplines, e.g. physicians and quality advisors. This results in a perceived and actual lack of authority and autonomy. This in turn hinders them to plead for adequate nurse staffing in order to achieve the common goal of safe and high-quality patient care. Nurses desired a valid nursing care intensity system as an interdisciplinary and objective communication tool that makes nursing care visible and creates possibilities for better positioning of nurses in hospitals and further professionalization in

  1. The status quo of the domestic and foreign iceberg competency model application%国内外护理冰山能力素质模型研究的应用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇斐; 李继平; 刘畅

    2014-01-01

    目的 了解国内外冰山能力素质模型应用现状和发展趋势,为我国护理冰山能力素质模型进一步研究与应用提供依据.方法 查阅分析2009年以来有关国内外冰山能力素质模型应用研究,列举相关数据,了解国内外护理冰山能力素质模型的研究现状.结果 国内共检索出2009年以来主题为冰山能力素质模型的文献141篇,仅有3篇文献涉及护理领域,大多数研究涉及企业中高阶层管理人员和销售人员.国外关于冰山能力素质模型研究比较多,涉及各行各业,护理研究方向已从通用冰山能力素质模型转向对特定岗位的研究.结论 国内护理冰山能力素质模型研究起步较晚,缺乏研究的广度、深度和科学性,与国外相比有很大的差距,应深入剖析冰山能力素质模型,早期为我国护理人力资源管理的理论和实践提供一个全新的视角和一种更为有利的工具.%Objective To understand status quo of the domestic and foreign iceberg competency model application,and to provide basis for further study in the nursing iceberg competency model.Methods A literature review about the application of competency iceberg model at home and abroad since 2009 was carried out,the relevant data was listed,and the research situation of domestic and foreign nursing iceberg competency model was summarized.Results According to the 141 total literatures whose theme was the iceberg competency model,only 3 articles were related to the nursing field,while most of the iceberg competency model aimed at the study of enterprises in the high-level management personnel,sales personnel and so on.More researches on competency iceberg model were conducted abroad,involved in all walks of life,an research direction of nursing had turned from general iceberg competency model to the study of specific posts.Conclusions The iceberg competency model applied to the management of nursing human resources in China is developed

  2. Based on the introduction to the understanding of the family sports"iceberg theory"%基于"冰山理论"浅谈家庭体育的认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙秉昶

    2015-01-01

    This study using the literature material law, comparative study and logical analysis, the "iceberg theory" are summarized, the theory comes from psychologist sigmund Freud and the broad, published studies of hysteria and Hemingway in his works of documentary "the afternoon''s death," to "iceberg theory" as the research horizon of the family sports to make: the tip of the iceberg- the dominance of family sports meet, underwater iceberg - family sports tacit understanding;This study based on the "iceberg theory" introduction to the family sports, aims to offer a theoretical basis for the understanding of the family sports research and using for reference.%本研究运用文献资料法、对比研究法、逻辑分析法,对"冰山理论"进行概述,该理论源于心理学家弗洛伊德与布罗伊尔合作发表的《歇斯底里研究》和海明威在他的纪实性作品《午后之死》中,以"冰山理论"为研究视域对家庭体育作出:冰山一角——家庭体育的显性认识、水下冰山——家庭体育的隐性认识;本研究基于"冰山理论"浅谈家庭体育,旨在为家庭体育的认识研究提供理论基础与借鉴.

  3. Caracterización morfométrica de los pezones en vacas del sector privado en el municipio de Fomento.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmo G. Hurtado Sosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer las características morfométricas de pezones de los grupos genéticos Holstein x Cebú(HC y Suizo x Cebú(SC en el municipio de Fomento se realizó un estudio de 344 pezones y las evidencias de mastitis en los grupos genéticos mencionados. El análisis de los datos se efectuó por medio de la prueba de Análisis de Varianza de Efectos Fijos Completamente Aleatorizado de dos Factores y además se utilizó la hoja Microsoft office Excel 2007. La forma del pezón más frecuente en el cruce HC es la cilíndrica seguida de la forma de embudo y por último la de botella, en el cruce SC predomina de igual manera y en la misma secuencia las categorías descritas, en el caso de las formas de las puntas en el cruce HC en orden descendente la forma redonda, puntiaguda y plana al igual que en cruce SC, no se observaron puntas planas ni prolapsadas, se evidenció un porcentaje mayor de mastitis en ambos cruces en los pezones en forma cilíndrica y de botella, no así en los pezones en forma de embudo, lo cual constituye una característica importante como patrón de selección.

  4. A practice method to evaluate ecotoxicological risks; Tecnica d`indagine per la valutazione del rischio tossicologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossi, M. C.; Marsili, L.; Casini, S.; Savelli, C.

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a multi trial diagnostic and prognostic approach, based on nondestructive bio markers and residue analyses, to evaluate eco toxicological risk to endangered species of southwest Atlantic pinnipeds. Two colonies of the sea lion Otaria flavescens, one located in a heavily polluted harbour (Mar del Plata, Argentina) and the other in a `remote area` (Punta Bermeja, Patagonia, Argentina) were the subject of this preliminary research. Samples of hair and excreta were collected in a completely non-invasive way from several specimens of each colony. Blood and skin samples were obtained from a few specimens in each colony after anaesthetising the animals. These preliminary results illustrate the potential of this approach for hazard assessment in endangered species.

  5. 基于冰山模型的农业推广人员素质研究%Research on Competency of Agricultural Extension Workers Based on Iceberg Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜华章

    2011-01-01

    农业推广作为农业科技成果转化为生产力的桥梁和纽带,是现代农业发展不可缺少的重要环节。目前农业推广人员的总体素质不高,很大程度上制约了我国农业科技成果的推广应用和农民科技素质的提高。引入素质冰山模型并给予相应的理论阐释,从显性素质与隐性素质两方面讨论了农业推广人员素质不高的问题和原因,并根据素质冰山模型的要求提出了强化思想教育、强化素质培训、强化激励机制等提升农业推广人员素质的对策建议。%Agricultural extension is an indispensable task of modern agricultural development as the bridge and link to turn agricultural sci-tech achievements into productive force.At present,the overall competency of agricultural extension workers is not high,which hinders the further spread and use of agricultural sci-tech achievements and improve the sci-tech and cultural qualities of peasants.This article introduces Iceberg Model and some theoretical explanation of it are also given,and discusses and reasons existed in the competency of agricultural extension workers from dominant competency and recessive competency.It also puts forward proposals about how to enhance the competency of agricultural extension workers based on the demand of Iceberg Model.

  6. Effects of calcium ascorbate on quality of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce%抗坏血酸钙对鲜切生菜品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张留圈; 李艺; 梁颖; 丁莹; 张娟; 刘贤金

    2016-01-01

    The influence of concentrations and time duration of calcium ascorbate treatment on the quality of fresh⁃cut iceberg lettuce during storage at 4℃ were studied. The results showed that Ca( AsA) 2 treatment delayed Vc content de⁃crease and prevented relative conductivity from increasing. Ca( AsA) 2 treatment could inhibit the activities of polyphenol ox⁃idase (PPO) and peroxidae (POD), decrease the level of total phenol(TP) content, and control the browning of fresh⁃cut iceberg, thereby delaying senescence and keeping better quality. Among the treatments, the concentration of 35 g/L calcium ascorbate treating for 20 min presented the best effect.%以鲜切结球生菜为材料,研究了不同抗坏血酸钙浓度和浸泡时间对其在4℃货架期间品质的影响。结果表明:抗坏血酸钙处理能够延缓鲜切生菜贮藏期间Vc含量降低,阻止相对电导率增大,同时抑制多酚氧化酶(PPO)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性,减缓总酚(TP)含量增加,延缓衰老,保持较好的质地。其中,35 g/L抗坏血酸钙处理20 min的抑制效果最佳。

  7. Non-seasonality of births in Tierra del Fuego (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, J; García-Moro, C; Hernández, M

    2000-01-01

    Tierra del Fuego is situated at the southern tip of the American continent, which conditions its environmental and climatic characteristics. The colonizing population arrived, at the end of the 19th century, from other Chilean regions (particularly from Chiloé) and diverse European countries, especially Britain and Croatia, but also Germany, Spain and Italy. In the present study, the existence of a seasonal pattern in 5430 births registered in the Chilean population of Tierra del Fuego from 1890 to 1995 was analysed. The analysis showed no seasonal distribution of births in the periods 1890-1920 and from 1946 to the present day, a phenomenon rarely reported in the literature. The absence of seasonality in birth distribution could be related to the great diversity in the origins of the population's families, the constant renovation of this and the declining importance of the administrative capital of the province of Tierra del Fuego, Porvenir, in favour of Punta Arenas, capital of the Magellanic region. In the period of maximum development of the capital of the province, a seasonal pattern was detected with a peak in April and a trough in October, which corresponds with a maximum of conceptions in July and, in general, during the early southern winter and a decline in births from late spring to mid-summer, with a trough in January. This birth distribution is interpreted as a subordination of activity and social life to the annual sheep cycle. In addition to temporal trends, the influence on the observed patterns of environmental parameters, father's occupation, seasonality of marriage and the origin of the parents were analysed.

  8. Primer análisis de restos óseos humanos del Sitio PP9.I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Baroni, Lucía G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La recuperación de restos óseos humanos provenientes de un entierro secundario del sitio Punta de la Peña 9, sector I, motivó la necesidad de efectuar un primer análisis bioantropológico de los mismos. Estos corresponden a ocupaciones agropastoriles anteriores a los 830 años AP que fechan carbones suprayacentes. El material recuperado, fragmentado y en regular estado de conservación, fue objeto de una inspección macroscópica, seguida de un análisis morfológico y métrico destinado a estimar MNI, edad, sexo, estado sanitario y presencia, o no, de deformación cefálica artificial. Los resultados alcanzados son: 2 individuos, uno de probable sexo femenino (el otro no determinado, de edad entre 20 y 40 años, sin señales de violencia evidentes, y con una asimetría de la sutura sagital y espina frontal, desplazadas hacia la izquierda del individuo. Se encuentra en proceso una segunda etapa de aná- lisis que permita completar o complementar los aspectos arriba mencionados incluyendo el estudio del contexto de depositación.

  9. Aves de la costa del Pacífico, Municipio de Guapi, Cauca, Colombia, I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivares Antonio

    1957-06-01

    Full Text Available Las aves estudiadas en este trabajo las coleccioné en el Municipio de Guapi, Cauca, Colombia, durante el tiempo comprendido entre el 21 de noviembre de 1955 y el 19 de enero de 1956.  El Municipio está situado en el extremo suroeste del Departamento del Cauca. entre los 20 11' y 20 40' de latitud norte y los 770 10' y 78" (aprox. de longitud occidental de Greenwich. Limita al norte con Timbiquí, al oriente con el Tambo, al sur y occidente con el Departamento de Nariño y al noroeste lo baña el Océano Pacífico en una extensión aproximada de 20 kms. en línea recta, medidos sin tener en cuenta los senos y puntas del litoral. Tiene una extensión de 2.946 kms, de los cuales al clima cálido le corresponden 1.649, al medio 930 y al frio 367. Solamente exploré en el clima cálido.

  10. Teorie del tutto la ricerca della spiegazione ultima

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    1992-01-01

    «Come, quando e perché l’universo ha avuto origine? Questi interrogativi di carattere fondamentale sono stati fuori moda per secoli: gli scienziati ne diffidavano, teologi e filosofi se ne erano stancati. Poi, d’improvviso, gli scienziati hanno cominciato a porseli con la massima serietà, e i teologi si sono trovati, scavalcati, a dover tenere dietro alle teorizzazioni matematiche della nuova generazione di scienziati... Oggi i fisici credono di essersi imbattuti in una chiave capace di guidarci al segreto matematico che sta al cuore dell’universo: una scoperta che punta verso una “teoria del tutto”, una sorta di quadro onnicomprensivo di tutte le leggi di natura dal quale deve derivare, in modo logicamente ineccepibile, l’inevitabilità di tutto ciò che ci circonda. Una volta in possesso di questa stele di Rosetta cosmica, potremmo leggere il libro della natura in tutta la sua estensione temporale, e intendere ogni cosa che sia stata, che è e che sarà. Di questa possibilità si è sempre fa...

  11. Potencial del Agua del suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustamante Heliodoro

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available La energía potencial del agua presenta diferencias de un punto del suelo a otro; esas diferencias son las que originan el movimiento del agua de acuerdo a la tendencia universal de la materia en el sentido de moverse de donde la energía potencial es mayor a donde dicha energía es menor. En el suelo el agua en consecuencia se mueve hacia donde su energía decrece hasta lograr su estado de equilibrio. Se desprende entonces que la cantidad de energía potencial absoluta contenida en el agua, no es importante por sí misma, sino por su relación con la energía en diferentes lugares dentro del suelo. El concepto Potencial de agua del suelo es un criterio para esta energía.

  12. La cueva Epullán Grande, Provincia del Neuquén. Análisis de los artefactos líticos del Período Tardío (1100 AP - contacto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Martín Palacios

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El sector analizado tuvo una serie de ocupaciones sucesivas y breves, lo que no permite confirmar su estacionalidad. Se encontró cerámica desde la base de la pila sedimentaria. Allí se procesaron cueros y molieron pigmentos, así como otras sustancias no identificadas. Se analizaron 61 instrumentos y 1292 desechos de talla de la Antesala de Epullán Grande. La roca dominante es la sílice y le siguen las vulcanitas negras, la obsidiana y otras. El tipo de corteza sugiere el abastecimiento en una corriente de agua, tal vez el río Limay. El índice de bifacialidad es alto en instrumentos y desechos, probablemente por la introducción del arco durante el período. Las puntas de proyectil encontradas son pequeñas y de flecha. La curva del índice de bifacialidad del sitio se ajusta a la tendencia observada en la región a lo largo del tiempo.

  13. Disminución de Demanda en Horario Punta (Peak Shaving) Mediante el Uso de un Generador en Sitio, Utilizando Diesel y Biodiesel B20

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco Cuevas, Humberto

    2005-01-01

    En la actualidad, la energía eléctrica es un servicio del cuál muy difícilmente podemos prescindir, nos hemos acostumbrado a depender de ella de tal manera que en el momento que no la tenemos se vuelve un problema el realizar nuestras actividades más elementales. Imaginemos por un momento que sÚbitamente una ciudad se queda sin energía eléctrica: los semáforos inoperantes generarían un caos vial, las oficinas sin aire acondicionado y computadoras serían insoportables, las industrias no podría...

  14. Ponerse las puntas, ponerse los guantes: similitudes entre las prácticas de educación corporal para hacerse bailarina y para hacerse boxeador

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Ana Sabrina

    2008-01-01

    Leyendo el relato que hace Loïc Wacquant en Entre las Cuerdas. Cuadernos de un aprendiz de boxeador, basado en su trabajo de campo en un gym de boxeo de Chicago, me resultaron notorias una serie de concordancias entre las prácticas de educación corporal involucradas en el aprendizaje de ese deporte, y aquellas que se ponen en juego en el proceso de formación en danzas clásicas. Más allá de pertenecer a campos diferentes, ambas disciplinas comparten el hecho de ser prácticas de educación del c...

  15. Potencial del agua del suelo

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante Heliodoro

    2012-01-01

    La energía potencial del agua presenta diferencias de un punto del suelo a otro; esas diferencias son las que originan el movimiento del agua de acuerdo a la tendencia universal de la materia en el sentido de moverse de donde la energía potencial es mayor a donde dicha energía es menor. En el suelo el agua en consecuencia se mueve hacia donde su energía decrece hasta lograr su estado de equilibrio. Se desprende entonces que la cantidad de energía potencial absoluta contenida en el agua, no es...

  16. Iceberg Theory Functions in A Clean Well - lighted Place%冰山理论在《一个干净明亮的地方》一文中的作用(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璐

    2011-01-01

    Hemingway' s works are famous for these using of iceberg theory. The dignity of movement of an iceberg is due to only one eighth of it being above water. 192 This is the origin of iceberg theory. In fact when a writer is using this theory, he employs many%冰山理论的运用在海明威写作风格中有重要体现。"冰山在海里移动很是庄严雄伟,这是因为它只有八分之一露在水面上。"这是冰山理论的出处。实际上,一个作家只有拥有出色的语言技巧和高明的叙事方法,才能在创作时很好的运用这一理论。《一个干净明亮的地方》是海明威的一篇出色的短篇小说。海明威的风格在这篇小说中得到很好的体现。本篇论文通过分析此篇作品在象征,语言风格,反复手法,自由直接引语的使用这四方面,来展现冰山理论是如何起作用的。

  17. The Application of “Iceberg Theory” in Medical Students' Quality Education%“冰山理论”在医学生素质教育中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦英; 沈途

    2012-01-01

    In iceberg theory, the quality of people or talent is to he divided inio "water part" and "underwater pan", the part of the underwater as water based, making of potential ability and quality. And in the new period, quality education is more and more important role in medical students. The reform, based on the "iceberg theory" as the foundation from professional quality comprehensive development, quality education and clinical practice teaching and so on, indicates that the "iceberg theory" is importance in the medical students of own development and the growth.%在冰山理论中,人的素质或才能被分为“水上部分”和“水下部分”,其中水下部分作为水上部分的基础,构成了人的潜在能力和素质.而在新时期,医学生的素质教育越来越重要.因此,以“冰山理论”为基础,从职业化素质的全面发展、素质教育和临床实践教学等方面,指出了”冰山理论”在医学生的自身发展及成长中的作用.

  18. BDS Based on the Uses of the Oceans Icebergs Envisaged for the Service of Mankind%基于 BDS 利用海洋上冰山为人类服务的设想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭英起; 范国敏; 刘甫斌; 毕继鑫

    2015-01-01

    The ocean iceberg although called 'Ocean killers',but if humans are able to well prepared in advance ,also can use the tip to the service of humanity .This paper ex‐pounds the ocean iceberg characteristics ,and studied the compass navigation satellite system (BDS) based on the assumption of utilization of marine an iceberg in the service of mankind . The research conclusion can also be for future construction of digital ocean to provide refer‐ence .%海洋上冰山虽然被人们称为“海洋杀手”,但是如果人类能够在远航之前做好充分的准备,亦可以利用冰山为人类服务。本文阐述了海洋上冰山的特点,而且研讨了基于北斗卫星导航系统(BDS )利用海洋上冰山为人类服务的设想。本文研讨的结论也可以为以后数字海洋的建设提供参考。

  19. Análisis comparativo del diseño de la geometría alar para una góndola aerodinámica de un globo sonda recuperable y reutilizable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rubio Forero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo plantea dos diseños conceptuales de alas que mantienen el área alar, la razón de aspecto, la envergadura y los perfiles aerodinámicos iguales, mediante la variación de la forma alar y cambiando la longitud de la cuerda en la raíz y la punta de cada modelo, con el fin de determinar el diseño con más eficiencia de la geometría alar de una góndola aerodinámica que pueda ser implementada en una radiosonda recuperable y reutilizable. Se analiza el coeficiente de sustentación y arrastre en función del ángulo de ataque, como parámetro comparativo, lo que permite evidenciar una mejora en la sustentación cuando la cuerda de la punta tiene más longitud.

  20. del alcoholismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arias Duque

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el punto de vista farmacológico, es importante comprender qué es el alcohol y cómo actúa en el organismo. No existe una causa simple, sino una interacción complicada de factores neuroquímicos, fisiológicos, psicológicos y sociales que originan y desarrollan esta grave enfermedad fármaco-dependiente. La acción psicofisiológica y farmacodinámica del alcohol es fundamentalmente depresiva, por la reducción de la transmisión sináptica en el sistema nervioso humano. Es un hecho conocido que el consumo excesivo de alcohol causa una disfunción aguda y crónica del cerebro, produciendo trastornos en el sistema nervioso central, presentando alteraciones en la memoria y en las funciones intelectuales como cálculo, comprensión y aprendizaje. A nivel hepático tiene lugar, en su mayoría, el metabolismo del alcohol, produciéndose un hígado graso alcohólico, aumentando el tamaño, terminando en necrosis e inflamación grave del hígado; esto se llama hepatitis alcohólica, y si se sigue consumiendo alcohol se desarrollará la cirrosis. El alcohol también ha estado relacionado con alteraciones del miocardio; se ha constatado en animales de experimentación sanos que tanto la velocidad de contracción del músculo cardiaco y su máxima tensión disminuyen en presencia del alcohol, como consecuencia, la fuerza de cada contracción y el aumento de presión en el ventrículo izquierdo son menores, perdiendo eficacia el corazón como bomba.

  1. Mineralogía y génesis de las arcillas de las unidades del Campo de Gibraltar. V. Unidad de Bolonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Cruz, M. D.

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available The mineralogical results of the Bolonia Unit are analysed in the work. The Cabrito-l section is characterized by the mineralogical association kaolinite-illite-interestratified I-S, and is similar to the section of Punta Tarifa series of the Algeciras Unit. The Pulido section, characterized by the mineralogical association (kaolinite-illite-chlorite, may be considered as the most distal zone of the «areniscoso-micaceo» flysch of the Algeciras Unit. The most significant difference between the fine fractions of these Units is the remarkable development, in the Bolonia Unit, of authigenic chlorites, whose composition shows a diagenetic environment rich in Fe and Mg. On the other hand, the mineralogical composition of the fine fraction has made possible the identification in the Bolonia Unit, not only the «areniscas del Aljibe» levels, but also clay levels of Aljibe Unit, which has not been noticed until now. These mineralogical and lithological aspects lead to consider the Bolonia Unit as an intermediate Unit between the Algeciras and the Aljibe ones.En este trabajo se recogen los resultados obtenidos a partir del estudio mineralógico de la Unidad de Bolonia. De los perfiles estudiados, el del Cabrito, caracterizado por la asociación mineralógica caolinita-ilita, interestratificados I-E, es similar en gran medida a la serie tipo punta Tarifa de la Unidad de Algeciras. El perfil del Pulido, caracterizado por la asociación (caolinita-ilita-clorita puede interpretarse como la parte más distal del flysch areniscoso-micáceo de la Unidad de Algeciras. La diferencia más notable en la mineralogía de la fracción fina entre ambas Unidades se refiere al desarrollo notable, en Bolonia, de cloritas autigénicas, cuya composición indica un medio diagenético rico en Fe y Mg. Por otra parte, la mineralogía de la fracción fina ha permitido identificar en la Unidad de Bolonia no sólo los niveles de areniscas del Aljibe sino tambi

  2. Assessment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 transference from soil to iceberg lettuce via a contaminated field coring harvesting knife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Luo, Yaguang; Millner, Patricia; Turner, Ellen; Feng, Hao

    2012-02-15

    The potential for lettuce field-coring harvesting knives to cross-contaminate lettuce heads with pathogens was evaluated. Rings and blades of the harvest knives artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC), were used to core three successive heads of iceberg lettuce. The coring rings and blades were inoculated by dipping into soils containing EHEC at concentration ranges of 1-10(5) MPN/g soil. Factors that influenced EHEC transference from soil to iceberg lettuce via contaminated coring knife blade, included water content (WC) of clay and sandy soils, EHEC concentration, and degree of blade contact (stem, medium, and heavy) with edible tissue. High moisture content clay soil was positively associated with high pathogen transference. No EHEC were detected on any cut heads when clay soil contaminated with 10(5) MPN/g EHEC had WC of 20% or less, or when the knife blade was dipped into sandy soil contaminated with EHEC at the same level, regardless of percent WC. The extent to which the harvesting knife blade cut across edible lettuce tissues was also an important factor in the amount of pathogen transference that occurred. EHEC were detectable on first and second sequentially cut lettuce heads when medium-contact was made between knife blade and edible tissues and on all three sequentially cut lettuce heads using the heavy-contact cutting scenario, when the blade was contaminated with 10(4) cfu/g EHEC in clay soil (25% WC). However, when the blade, contaminated at the same soil EHEC level, was used to cut only the stem and had no contact with the edible portion of the lettuce head, no pathogen transference was detected. Under the current CIF harvesting practice, the cutting blade has a higher potential than the coring ring to be contaminated by the soil, but less opportunity to transfer pathogens to harvested lettuce. However, once contaminated, the coring ring has much higher potential than the blade to transfer pathogens to the harvested lettuce.

  3. Minimal processing of iceberg lettuce has no substantial influence on the survival, attachment and internalization of E. coli O157 and Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Linden, Inge; Avalos Llano, Karina R; Eriksson, Markus; De Vos, Winnok H; Van Damme, Els J M; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Devlieghere, Frank

    2016-12-05

    The influence of a selection of minimal processing techniques (sanitizing wash prior to packaging, modified atmosphere, storage conditions under light or in the dark) was investigated in relation to the survival of, attachment to and internalization of enteric pathogens in fresh produce. Cut Iceberg lettuce was chosen as a model for fresh produce, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157) and Salmonella enterica were chosen as pathogen models. Care was taken to simulate industrial post-harvest processing. A total of 50±0.1g of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce was packed in bags under near ambient atmospheric air with approximately 21% O2 (NAA) conditions or equilibrium modified atmosphere with 3% O2 (EMAP). Two lettuce pieces inoculated with E. coli O157 BRMSID 188 or Salmonella Typhimurium labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were added to each package. The bags with cut lettuce were stored under either dark or light conditions for 2days at 7°C. The pathogens' capacity to attach to the lettuce surface and cut edge was evaluated 2days after inoculation using conventional plating technique and the internalization of the bacteria was investigated and quantified using confocal microscopy. The effect of a sanitizing wash step (40mg/L NaClO or 40mg/L peracetic acid+1143mg/L lactic acid) of the cut lettuce prior to packaging was evaluated as well. Our results indicate that both pathogens behaved similarly under the investigated conditions. Pathogen growth was not observed, nor was there any substantial influence of the investigated atmospheric conditions or light/dark storage conditions on their attachment/internalization. The pathogens attached to and internalized via cut edges and wounds, from which they were able to penetrate into the parenchyma. Internalization through the stomata into the parenchyma was not observed, although some bacteria were found in the substomatal cavity. Washing the cut edges with sanitizing agents to reduce enteric pathogen numbers was not

  4. Variation in species diversity and functional traits of sponge communities near human populations in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole G. Easson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have renewed interest in sponge ecology by emphasizing the functional importance of sponges in a broad array of ecosystem services. Many critically important habitats occupied by sponges face chronic stressors that might lead to alterations in their diversity, relatedness, and functional attributes. We addressed whether proximity to human activity might be a significant factor in structuring sponge community composition, as well as potential functional roles, by monitoring sponge diversity and abundance at two structurally similar sites that vary in distance to areas of high coastal development in Bocas Del Toro, Panama. We surveyed sponge communities at each site using belt transects and differences between two sites were compared using the following variables: (1 sponge species richness, Shannon diversity, and inverse Simpson’s diversity; (2 phylogenetic diversity; (3 taxonomic and phylogenetic beta diversity; (4 trait diversity and dissimilarity; and (5 phylogenetic and trait patterns in community structure. We observed significantly higher sponge diversity at Punta Caracol, the site most distant from human development (∼5 km. Although phylogenetic diversity was lower at Saigon Bay, the site adjacent to a large village including many houses, businesses, and an airport, the sites did not exhibit significantly different patterns of phylogenetic relatedness in species composition. However, each site had a distinct taxonomic and phylogenetic composition (beta diversity. In addition, the sponge community at Saigon included a higher relative abundance of sponges with high microbial abundance and high chlorophyll a concentration, whereas the community at Punta Caracol had a more even distribution of these traits, yielding a significant difference in functional trait diversity between sites. These results suggest that lower diversity and potentially altered community function might be associated with proximity to human populations

  5. Estudio de "las capas del cabo ladrillero superior" en el cabo homónimo, mioceno inferior de la cuenca austral, tierra del fuego

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    Estefanía P Tudisca

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En los acantilados del cabo Ladrillero, situado sobre la costa atlántica de la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, afloran parte de los depósitos cuspidales que rellenan la cuenca de antepaís Austral o de Magallanes. Estos depósitos del Mioceno inferior son conocidos como "capas del Cabo Ladrillero" y "capas del Cabo San Pablo", siendo las "capas del Cabo Ladrillero superior" las analizadas en este trabajo. La zona de estudio, situada a una decena de kilómetros al norte del frente orogénico emergente (Punta Gruesa, permitió reconocer cuatro asociaciones de facies que registran depósitos gravitacionales resedimentados en un ambiente marino supra batial y una cuña deltaica progradante y somerizante hacia el noreste. Entre los rasgos más conspicuos observados en esta sucesión se destacan bancos deformados, intervalos macizos y abundantes diques clásticos, cuyo análisis estadístico indica un patrón transtensivo. Los microfósiles documentados en el área y utilizados previamente como herramienta para sostener un ambiente marino profundo provienen de niveles estratigráficos infrayacentes y corresponden a niveles de la Formación Desdémona y las capas del Cabo Ladrillero inferior, aflorantes hacia el sur de la zona de estudio. Las evidencias sedimentológicas no son concluyentes respecto de la batimetría, pero la ausencia de turbiditas clásicas, flujos hiperpícnicos, la abundancia de bancos deformados y resedimentados, restos vegetales y fragmentos de carbón son compatibles con un ambiente somero y deltaico con altas tasas de aporte y pendientes inestables antes que un ambiente marino profundo, y sugieren una historia compleja de la evolución del relleno sedimentario que no se explica meramente con los esquemas basados exclusivamente en el contenido de foraminíferos que domina en la literatura.

  6. Análisis y Modelación Estructural del Hotel Blau Varadero

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    Héctor Alfonso Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza la modelación del hotel Blau Varadero formado por dos edificios de 9 plantas en los extremos y 13 el central. La estructura tiene forma piramidal logrando grandes espacios interiores con gran altura y visuales a todos los pasillos. Dada esta configuración, en fase constructiva, el edificio trabaja como una viga inclinada en voladizo; y cuando se termina de ejecutar el trabajo es como un arco y los estados tensionales son otros. En el análisis se partió de la premisa de no realizar una falsa obra para sostener la gran estructura por su alto costo. En el diseño se emplearon tecnologías de punta como los entrepisos de encofrado colaborante y tensores metálicos para colgar los pasillos. El análisis conllevo 51 corridas para llegar a un resultado final: las tres partes del hotel Blau Varadero están ejecutadas y sus elementos han respondido según lo esperado en el diseño.

  7. Localización inicial de la punta del catéter central de inserción periférica (PICC) en recién nacidos

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Ponce de Camargo; Amélia Fumiko Kimura; Edi Toma; Maria Alice Tsunechiro

    2008-01-01

    Estudo transversal com coleta prospectiva de dados, que objetivouidentificar o posicionamento inicial da ponta do cateter central de inserção periférica (PICC) e verificar a prevalência de sucesso de sua inserção em neonatos. Os dados foram coletados no berçário anexo à maternidade do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, entre março e setembro de 2006. Dos 37 neonatos submetidos à inserção do cateter PICC, a taxa de sucesso no procedimento foi de 72,3% ...

  8. Continental sedimentary successions exposed in Centinela del Mar, Buenos Aires, Argentina (Lower Pleistocene - Holocene); Las sucesiones sedimentarias continentales expuestas en Centinela del Mar, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina (Pleistoceno Inferior-Holoceno)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenizo, M. M.

    2011-07-01

    In the present paper, the geomorphologic and sedimentary characteristics of the continental sequences exposed on the coastal cliffs and surrounding areas of the Centinela del Mar locality are described and interpreted. Fourteen lithofacies are defined, their relation, geometry and structure are represented using transversal and longitudinal detailed profiles. In the basal and medium sector of the profile, facies of different degrees of transport and aqueous rework were recognized. In the superior sector, a succession of marine peri-coastal facies corresponding to the Belgranense transgression (=Fm. Pascua) were identified, ending the sequence with relictual eolic facies. The different historical interpretations are discussed, homologating the units referred previously with the ones proposed on this paper. These units are correlated with those defined in the allostratigrapic scheme proposed by other authors for the area covered between Playa San Carlos and Arroyo Chapadmalal. This allowed recognize for the area under study the presence of the Punta San Andres and Arroyo Loberia Alloformations (basal-medium and superior sector, respectively). Between these two entities, a association of well defined progradant marine facies are found and named on this paper as Centinela del Mar Alloformation. Finally, periferithe information gathered here (magnetostratigraphy, radiometric dating, stratigraphic correlations, etc) indicates, at least preliminarily, that the sequence of Centinela del Mar corresponds to the Ensenadense- Lujanense interval (Lower Pleistocene - Holocene). (Author) 73 refs.

  9. Análisis del estado estructural y administrativo de los campos de juego de los distritos urbanos de Ulloa, San Francisco, Heredia Centro y Mercedes del Cantón Central de la provincia de Heredia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Morera Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de esta investigación fue analizar los factores que influirían en el estado estructural y administrativo de los campos de juegos en cuatro distritos urbanos del Cantón Central de la provincia de Heredia. En esta investigación mixta se analizó una muestra del 40% de los cien campos de juego en estudio, por medio de una hoja de evaluación del estado estructural de los aparatos, una entrevista estructurada y la técnica de recopilación pictórica. El estado general de los campos de juego se ve afectado por aspectos como desechos, la falta de basureros, la iluminación, entre otros. Asimismo, la diversidad de aparatos en los campos de juegos es escasa y el daño más frecuente es la herrumbre. El mantenimiento lo brindaba en la mayoría de los casos la propia comunidad o la Municipalidad de Heredia y los planes de mantenimiento eran escasos o nulos. Los campos de juego son actualmente espacios poco seguros que cuentan con peligros como la corrosión de las estructuras, puntas filosas y aparatos dañados. Por lo tanto, requieren una atención inmediata de las autoridades pertinentes y, en su mayoría, no están cumpliendo con el objetivo de su creación.

  10. 海明威冰山文体风格的语篇格律解读%Deciphering Textual Periodicity in Hemingway's Iceberg Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李菁菁

    2012-01-01

    Halliday stated that a discourse unfolds regularly as a dynamic wave. It is further discussed by Martin and Rose that the wave-like theory is valid for all levels of a discourse beyond the clause. This paper applies Halliday' theory of functional linguistics and the theory of Periodicity developed by Martin and Rose to examine the regularity of information flow of the discourse A Clean, Well-lighted Place aiming for deciphering the iceberg style of Hemingway, and exploring the research mode of literary text in terms of functional stylistics.%韩礼德认为语篇意义具有格律运动。马丁和罗斯进一步指出格律存在于语篇的各个层面。作家通过格律谋篇布局,读者也可以通过格律解读作家的文体风格。以韩礼德的功能语言学理论及马丁和罗斯的格律论为理论框架,解读海明威的“冰山风格”,探究文学语篇的功能文体学研究模式。

  11. Culturas del Mundo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benwell, Ann Fenger; Costa, Alberto; Waehle, Espen

    2006-01-01

    ’Culturas del mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca’ with Ann Fenger Benwell in Culturas del Mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca, ed. Silvia Sauquet, Fundación "la Caixa", Barcelona 2006, pp. 31-39......’Culturas del mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca’ with Ann Fenger Benwell in Culturas del Mundo. Colecciones del Museo Nacional de Dinamarca, ed. Silvia Sauquet, Fundación "la Caixa", Barcelona 2006, pp. 31-39...

  12. La utilización del arco y las flechas en la cultura ibérica

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    Quesada Sanz, Fernando

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the finds of arrowheads, the iconographic representation of bows, and the literary references to the use of archery in the period between the first Phoenician settlements and the Roman conquest of the Iberian Peninsula. With the help of explicit parallels from other Mediterranean cultures, we shall try to explain the absence of bows and arrows in the Iberian period. Our hypothesis is that the Iberians considered the bow to be an effeminate and cowardly weapon, unworthy of aristocratic warriors. This would explain the absence of this weapon in grave goods and artistic representations.

    En este trabajo estudiamos los hallazgos de puntas de flecha, de representaciones iconográficas del arco y de referencias literarias a la utilización de este arma en el periodo comprendido entre las primeras colonias fenicias y la conquista romana de la Península Ibérica. Se busca, con el apoyo en paralelos explícitos en otras culturas mediterráneas, una explicación a la casi total ausencia del arco y las flechas en época ibérica. Nuestra hipótesis es que hay entre los iberos un menosprecio del arco como arma innoble e indigna de guerreros aristocráticos, lo que explica su ausencia en ajuares funerarios y representaciones iconográficas.

  13. El Grupo Cabo Domingo, Tierra del Fuego: bioestratigrafía, paleoambientes y acontecimientos del Eoceno-Mioceno marino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Malumián

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El Grupo Cabo Domingo, cuenca Austral, Eoceno superior a Mioceno medio, comprende una secuencia episódica de sedimentitas marinas levemente dislocadas y depositadas principalmente al norte de la falla de punta Gruesa en Tierra del Fuego. Se inicia con la profundización de la cuenca, resultado de los niveles de mar alto del Eoceno tardío amplificados por un diastrofismo generalizado (Fase Incaica. En el depocentro de la cuenca está representado por el miembro superior de la Formación Cerro Colorado (140 m, fangolitas y areniscas, con el último registro de Globigerinatheka index, y las apariciones de Praetenuitella insolita e Isthmolithus recurvus, 36-34 Ma; y fuera del depocentro, por el conglomerado Tchat-Chii (70 m, Eoceno cuspidal-Oligoceno basal, y el glauconítico A en el subsuelo en el norte de la Isla. El mínimo contenido de esmectita y la abundancia de niveles con Chiloguembelina reflejan tectonismo activo y caída de temperatura durante la depositación del miembro superior y el glauconítico A. Continúan las capas de la Estancia María Cristina (>75 m, arcillitas y areniscas, Oligoceno temprano, 34-30 Ma y del puesto Herminita (200 m, arcillitas, Oligoceno, 30-26,5 Ma, principalmente con microfaunas residuales de foraminíferos aglutinados depositadas por debajo de la línea de compensación de la calcita, corresponden a la máxima profundización de la cuenca que habilitó el ingreso de aguas antárticas corrosivas. Seguidas por la Formación Desdémona (250 m, fangolitas tobáceas, bioturbadas, depositadas en las proximidades de la lisoclina, con asociaciones de foraminíferos de aguas abisales, que representa los niveles altos de mar del Oligoceno cuspidal-Mioceno temprano. Seguidas por las capas del Cabo Ladrillero (80 m, areniscas glauconíticas basales y fangolitas con asociaciones de foraminíferos de plataforma externa, y 75 m de fangolitas carbonosas, areniscas finas y arcillitas, Mioceno inferior, con la asociaci

  14. El envejecimiento, la asignatura olvidada en la universidad española: ¿El iceberg de un tipo de negligencia? Ageing, the forgotten course in Spanish university: the iceberg type of negligence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª del Carmen Jiménez Díaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El envejecimiento poblacional ha condicionado que la mayor parte de la actividad profesional de numerosos titulados de diferentes carreras se realice en personas ancianas. En su vertiente no intencional, el abandono del anciano como tipo de maltrato se puede deber a un conocimiento inadecuado (tal y como se define la impericia profesional. Por ello, la etapa de formación de la carrera reviste gran importancia en el cumplimiento de la misión universitaria. Así, todos los profesionales que desarrollen su actividad profesional con mayores deben tener conocimientos en gerontología que les permitan obtener, en cada momento, los mejores resultados posibles. Metodología: análisis descriptivo de los planes de estudio de las carreras de Enfermería, Medicina, Fisioterapia, Trabajo Social, Terapia Ocupacional y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte. Conclusiones: excepto en Enfermería y Terapia Ocupacional, el resto de titulaciones universitarias no ofertan asignaturas troncales relacionadas con el envejecimiento.Population aging has conditioned most of the professional activity of many graduates of different degrees, to be conducted in older people. In its unintended side, abandoning the elderly, such as type of abuse, may be due to inadequate knowledge (defined as the professional skill, so the training stage of the race of great importance in meeting the university mission. Thus, all the professionals who develop their professional activity with older should have knowledge in gerontology to enable them to obtain at each moment the best possible results. Methodology: descriptive analysis of the curricula of degree programs in Nursing, Medicine, Physiotherapy, Social Work, Occupational Therapy and Science of Physical Activity and Sport. Conclusions: except in Nursing and Occupational Therapy, the other university degrees offered no core subjects related to aging.

  15. del Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydi Robles

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra los resultados de una investigación sobre la ansiedad causada por el aprendizaje de idiomas. Está centrado en la ansiedad relacionada con la habilidad de producción oral. El objetivo del estudio era identificar los factores externos que producen ansiedad en el desarrollo de la competencia oral en un grupo de estudiantes de Psicología. Para lograr su objetivo, la investigación utilizó diarios, cuestionarios, grabaciones (opiniones personales, presentaciones orales breves y entrevistas. Con respecto de los factores externos que producen ansiedad en relación con las actividades, los resultados muestran que todas las actividades orales producen un alto grado de ansiedades en los estudiantes, especialmente las actividades no programadas. También muestran una falta de participación en clase con un fuerte rechazo a las actividades orales. Entre las posibles causas de reticencia puede estar el hecho de que los estudiantes no quieren ser objeto de burla. Además, la habilidad de producción oral no fue estimulada en los niveles anteriores del programa de inglés. Es vital mencionar que los alumnos son conscientes de sus carencias en algunos aspectos del idioma como vocabulario, gramática y fluidez.

  16. LA MINERÍA DEL CARBÓN EN MAGALLANES ENTRE 1868 - 2003

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    MATEO MARTINIC B.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de carbón mineral lignita era conocida en el territorio de Magallanes desde el comienzo de la colonización chilena en la región del Estrecho de Magallanes. Los primeros esfuerzos fracasaron y lo mismo ocurrió en otros lugares de este vasto territorio, hasta fines del siglo XIX. Solamente al comienzo del siglo XX sí que la explotación carbonífera recuperó su vigor, con la inversión hecha por el empresario chileno Agustín Ross en el río del Valle de las Minas, cerca de Punta Arenas (mina Loreto. La actividad se extendió a otro distrito magallánico, principalmente en la isla Riesco (mina Elena. Y de este modo la minería del carbón alcanzó un período culminante hacia 1943, especialmente estimulado por la exportación de carbón a Argentina. Desde 1950 y durante los siguientes 30 años la actividad carbonífera decayó hasta perder toda su importancia económica. Sin embargo, desde 1984 una segunda época productiva se inició, con una tecnología moderna y una fuerte inversión de capital, que permitió la explotación del sitio Pecket (distrito norte de la península de Brunswick desde 1987, alcanzando un máximo de 1.262.847 toneladas. Desde 1998 la producción anual excede una media de 300.000 toneladas, y un renovado desarrollo carbonífero espera la iniciación de nuevos sitios productivos en la isla Riesco a partir del año 2003.The presence of charcoal mineral-lignite -was known in the Magellan territory since the beginning of the Chilean settlement in the Magellan strait region. The fist efforts failed and the same happened in other places of this vast territory, until the end of the XIX century. Only starting with the XX century did the carboniferous exploitation recover new strength, with the investment made by the Chilean businessman Agustin Ross in the rio de las Minas valley, near Punta Arenas (Loreto mine. The activity extended to other magellanic district, mainly in Riesco Island (Elena mine. And so, the

  17. Vulnerabilidad al ascenso del nivel del mar en la costa de la provincia de Río Negro Vulnerability to sea-level rise of the coast of the Río Negro province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Kokot

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Los escenarios elaborados a escala mundial por el Panel Internacional de Cambio Climático (IPCC respecto al ascenso del nivel del mar, debido principalmente a la expansión térmica del océano y a las pérdidas de masa de los glaciares, prevén valores que en promedio oscilan entre 0,09 y 0,88 m desde 1990 al 2100, con tendencia a la aceleración. Los impactos potenciales por la elevación del mar conducen a cambios en el área costera, que incluyen inundación, incremento en el retroceso costero, e intrusión salina en los acuíferos y estuarios. Con el objeto de posibilitar un adecuado manejo de la costa de la provincia de Río Negro, se efectuó una zonificación que permite disponer de información referente a la vulnerabilidad por ascenso del nivel del mar, a través de un mapa de simple lectura. Las áreas de peligrosidad geológica, referidas a inundación permanente y/o episódica se identificaron mediante índices de vulnerabilidad costera, también denominados índices de susceptibilidad, obtenidos a través de la aplicación de un algoritmo que relaciona variables obtenidas a partir de información geológica costera, oceanográfica y climatológica. Las zonas más vulnerables al ascenso del nivel del mar, corresponden a Balneario El Salado (Playas Doradas, San Antonio Oeste - San Antonio Este, Caleta de los Loros y la desembocadura del río Negro, mientras que el tramo de costa correspondiente a la costa acantilada ubicada al oeste del río Negro y al sur de punta Pórfido, muestra una vulnerabilidad baja.According to the global predictions by the International Panel of Climate Change (IPCC, the sea-level rise due to ocean thermal expansion and glacier mass loss will average 0.09 - 0.88 m between 1990 and 2100, with a trend toward an increasing rise rate. Potential impacts of this increasing rise rate relate to changes in the coastal area, including floods, increased coastal retreat, and saline intrusion in the coastal acquiferous

  18. The Snows of Kilimanjaro based on Iceberg Theory%冰山理论下的《乞力马扎罗山上的雪》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成伟; 刘璐

    2013-01-01

    The snows of Kilimanjaro is a very concentrated novel in Hemingway's famous works, which is the representative of the iceberg theory. In the novel, symbolism is omnipresent, presenting the theme, revealing personality, and heightening the atmosphere, so as to achieve the purpose of deepening the theme. Meanwhile, Hemingway took the narrative of stream of consciousness in this novel, which sometimes brings the readers into the nightmare and sometimes returns to the real world with the hero. This stream of consciousness alternated between time and space, which is an exact reproduction of Harry's inner life before he died.%海明威的创作具有“冰山风格”,《乞力马扎罗山上的雪》就是海明威笔下一篇浓缩了的长篇小说,是体现其冰山理论的代表作。小说中雪、豹子、秃鹫和鬣狗等意象各具意蕴,象征意义深刻,揭示了人物的性格特征,渲染了气氛,达到了深化主题的目的。作者通过对意识流叙事手法的运用,巧妙安排了主人公的意识在时间和空间里的自然流动,省去了大量的笔墨,有利于海明威“冰山风格”创作理论的运用。

  19. Inactivation of murine Norovirus-1, coliphage φX174 and Bacteroides fragilis phage B40-8 on surfaces and fresh cut iceberg lettuce by hydrogen peroxide and UV light

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the inactivating properties of liquid hydrogen peroxide (L-H2O2), vaporized hydrogen peroxide (V-H2O2), UV light, and a combination of V-H2O2 and UV light were tested on murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) and bacteriophages (φX174 and B40-8) as models for human noroviruses. Disinfection of surfaces was examined on stainless steel discs based on European Standard EN 13697 (2001). For fresh-produce decontamination, a mixture of the viruses was inoculated onto shredded iceberg lettuce and...

  20. Morfología externa del desarrollo larvario de Hemicaranx amblyrhynchus (Pisces: Carangidae del sur del Golfo de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Flores Coto

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el desarrollo larvario de Hemicaranx amblyrhynchus con especímenes capturados en el sur del Golfo de México. Los ejemplares presentaron tallas desde 1.87 mm hasta 16.43 mm. Los ejemplares más pequeños presentan una cresta supraoccipital aserrada que se distingue todavía en el espécimen de 5.7 mm de LP y desaparece en los de talla superior. El cuerpo es moderadamente alto en la preflexión y aumenta ligeramente durante el desarrollo. Las aletas dorsal y anal son visibles a partir del espécimen de 2.65 mm de LN; el número de espinas y radios está casi completo alrededor de los 9.0 mm LP. Las larvas de H. amblyrhynchus pueden reconocerse por una mancha de pigmentos en la punta del hocico, que está conformada, entre otros, por melanóforos en el palatino.Larval development of Hemicaranx amblyrhynchus is described from wild specimens (standard length SL: 1.8-16.4 mm caught in the southern Gulf of Mexico (N=25. A serrated occipital crest was present only in specimens smaller than 5.73 mm SL and a supraocular crest with a small spine in those between 4 and 5 mm. As in all larval carangids, the angle preopercle spine was conspicuous since the first stages. Supracleithral and posttemporal spines were present during flexion stage, and then disappeared in transformation stage. Body depth is moderate, increasing with development. The dorsal and anal fins start to be evident in the 2.65 mm NL specimen; total number of spines and soft rays are almost complete around 9.0 mm SL. The pelvic bud was observed in the 3.16 mm LP specimens. From the early stages, the larvae are very pigmented and could be recognized by a pigmentation blotch on the tip of nose, which is conformed by palatine melanophores among others. Larvae of H. amblyrhynchus occurred scarcely in the area; they were essentially recorded on the inner shelf, in surface waters, not deeper than 30 m. The present paper is the first larval record for the species in the southern Gulf

  1. El Complejo Cultural del Neolítico Final - Edad del Bronce en el País Vasco Cantábrico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gorrochategui

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el Neolítico Final a la Edad del Bronce reconocemos en el área cantábrica del País Vasco una serie de manifestaciones culturales: dólmenes, túmulos, cuevas de habitación, cuevas sepulcrales y poblados al aire libre. Estos restos de la actuación humana nos hablan de un poblamiento básico al aire libre, aunque se siguieron utilizando las cuevas. El único poblado al aire libre excavado en la zona hasta la fecha, Ilso Betaio, se localiza en una zona de montaña, a 712 m. de altitud. Consiste en una serie de fondos de cabaña pedregosos, circulares, de unos 8 m. de diámetro, con un hogar central excavado en el terreno. El fenómeno más original de ésta época es el constituido por el megalitismo, durante el cual se ocupan las diversas alineaciones montañosas desde 200 a más de 1000 m. de altitud. Esta ocupación constituye un verdadero proceso de colonización con la extensión de tierras agrícolas y pastizales a costa del bosque. La secuencia cultural dista mucho de ser conocida con   detalle pues las excavaciones realizadas hasta la fecha son escasas y los testimonios materiales a menudo poco relevantes. Constatamos una primera etapa microlítica durante la 2ª mitad del cuarto milenio a. de C. (Neolítico Final a la que sigue otra con puntas de flecha foliáceas (y posteriormente de aletas y pedúnculo durante el Calcolítico, ya en la 2ª mitad del tercer milenio. La etapa campaniforme, yuxtapuesta o no a la anterior, apenas está representada, como los metales correspondientes al Bronce Antiguo o Medio (ya dentro del 2º milenio. Sin embargo, presuponemos que a medida que se realicen nuevas excavaciones se irán determinando de manera más fidedigna estas etapas finales del complejo cultural aquí abordado puesto que el País Vasco cantábrico ha demostrado ser a lo largo de la historia una zona sometida a diversas influencias exteriores.

  2. Influencia de la marea astronómica sobre las variaciones del nivel del Río Negro en la zona de Carmen de Patagones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique D'Onofrio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El Río Negro, límite natural entre las provincias de Buenos Aires y Río Negro, es uno de los ríos más importantes de la Patagonia que desemboca en el Océano Atlántico. Es navegable desde su desembocadura hasta Carmen de Patagones por embarcaciones de hasta 2,04 m de calado, dificultándose por irregularidades en la profundidad aguas arriba. La onda de marea proveniente del océano Atlántico ingresa al río haciendo que este adopte un régimen semidiurno hasta Carmen de Patagones. El conocimiento de la onda de marea en este tramo del río es de fundamental importancia para la calibración de modelos numéricos, el perfeccionamiento de los sistemas de alerta de inundaciones y la toma de decisiones relacionadas con el manejo costero. En este trabajo se analizan cuatro series de mediciones de marea, dos obtenidas en el hidrómetro de Carmen de Patagones con una duración de 608 y 731 días, una de 77 días proveniente de un mareómetro instalado en el kilómetro 18 del río y una de 79 días obtenida con un sensor de presión fondeado en proximidades de Punta Redonda (desembocadura del Río Negro. Se calculan y comparan los espectros de potencia de las alturas observadas en los tres sitios para detectar los cambios energéticos producidos en la banda de frecuencias correspondientes a la marea astronómica. De su comparación surge que la energía de las componentes semidiurnas y diurnas disminuye un 22% y un 45% respectivamente desde la desembocadura del Río Negro hasta Carmen de Patagones. En contraposición se observa un ligero aumento de la energía correspondiente a las frecuencias de las componentes cuarto diurnas. Esto se debe fundamentalmente a procesos no lineales inducidos por aguas someras y a irregularidades en la morfología del fondo del río. Para obtener las amplitudes y épocas de la marea se realizan análisis armónicos por el método de cuadrados mínimos. Las amplitudes de las componentes diurnas en Carmen de Patagones

  3. La asimetría bilateral y la inestabilidad del desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocilovo, José Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En organismos con simetría bilateral, durante la morfogénesis, las unidades anatómicas pares alcanzan un tamaño y forma semejantes, aunque no del todo idénticos, como producto de la homeostasis del desarrollo. La diferencia entre estas unidades se distribuye como una variable aleatoria y es comúnmente conocida como asimetría bilateral (AB. Es causada por el efecto de factores localizados principalmente ambientales que actúan durante el crecimiento de los individuos y se considera una medida de la estabilidad del desarrollo. El objetivo del presente trabajo es la evaluación de este rasgo en un grupo de pescadores del período arcaico tardío exhumado en Punta de Teatinos del Norte Semiárido de Chile (4905 100 AP - 4000 95 AP. La experiencia pudo ser realizada por la calidad de la información disponible obtenida por uno de los autores (SQ. Los datos de mediciones bilaterales del cráneo y del esqueleto postcraneal fueron analizados en forma sencilla desde el punto de vista de las respectivas distribuciones y de los estadísticos que permiten caracterizarlas. Este análisis se completa con una breve exposición sobre los estadísticos referidos a la descomposición de la varianza fenotípica para cada rasgo. En la mayoría de los casos se observaron distribuciones semejantes al modelo normal y las diferencias entre medias derechas e izquierdas no son significativas, indicando un proceso de desarrollo estable durante la vida de los individuos. Hay casos en los cuales los valores de la diferencia se apartan pronunciadamente de la media, originando distribuciones no normales, dependientes de ciertas perturbaciones producidas en el cráneo de algunos individuos, así como en los miembros superiores e inferiores, más frecuentes en niños que en adultos. Los datos obtenidos se discuten en el marco de toda la información disponible sobre el proceso de adaptación a la vida marítima de este particular grupo de pescadores.

  4. Estudio de "las capas del cabo ladrillero superior" en el cabo homónimo, mioceno inferior de la cuenca austral, tierra del fuego Study of "The Upper Cabo Ladrillero Beds" in the homonym locality, Lower Miocene of the Austral Basin, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía P Tudisca

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En los acantilados del cabo Ladrillero, situado sobre la costa atlántica de la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, afloran parte de los depósitos cuspidales que rellenan la cuenca de antepaís Austral o de Magallanes. Estos depósitos del Mioceno inferior son conocidos como "capas del Cabo Ladrillero" y "capas del Cabo San Pablo", siendo las "capas del Cabo Ladrillero superior" las analizadas en este trabajo. La zona de estudio, situada a una decena de kilómetros al norte del frente orogénico emergente (Punta Gruesa, permitió reconocer cuatro asociaciones de facies que registran depósitos gravitacionales resedimentados en un ambiente marino supra batial y una cuña deltaica progradante y somerizante hacia el noreste. Entre los rasgos más conspicuos observados en esta sucesión se destacan bancos deformados, intervalos macizos y abundantes diques clásticos, cuyo análisis estadístico indica un patrón transtensivo. Los microfósiles documentados en el área y utilizados previamente como herramienta para sostener un ambiente marino profundo provienen de niveles estratigráficos infrayacentes y corresponden a niveles de la Formación Desdémona y las capas del Cabo Ladrillero inferior, aflorantes hacia el sur de la zona de estudio. Las evidencias sedimentológicas no son concluyentes respecto de la batimetría, pero la ausencia de turbiditas clásicas, flujos hiperpícnicos, la abundancia de bancos deformados y resedimentados, restos vegetales y fragmentos de carbón son compatibles con un ambiente somero y deltaico con altas tasas de aporte y pendientes inestables antes que un ambiente marino profundo, y sugieren una historia compleja de la evolución del relleno sedimentario que no se explica meramente con los esquemas basados exclusivamente en el contenido de foraminíferos que domina en la literatura.In the cliffs of the Ladrillero cape, situated on the Atlantic coast of the Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, the uppermost records of the

  5. Del Derecho laboral al Derecho del trabajo

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Jassir, Ivan Daniel

    2011-01-01

    El Derecho Laboral hijo de la revolución industrial, calificado como el acontecimiento jurídico del siglo XX, reduce su ámbito de estudio al trabajo subordinado. Los cambios del sistema de producción superan la centralidad del contrato de trabajo subordinado a tiempo indeterminado, situación que demanda ampliación del ámbito de aplicación subjetivo y objetivo de la materia, dando paso al Derecho del Trabajo que se ocupa del trabajo en todas sus modalidades como fuente de ingreso para satisfac...

  6. ALGUNAS CONSIDERACIONES EN LA FORMACIÓN DE LOS INGENIEROS PARA EL 2do DECENIO DEL 3er MILENIO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dester Perdomo Pérez

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A partir del análisis de la situación internacional, la del país y de los planes deestudio que hoy se aplican en cuba y otros países se definió.Establecer una carrera de amplio perfil para formar profesionales con unasólida formación básica, con habilidades para la solución de los problemas másgenerales y frecuentes de su profesión, que incluyan la apropiación del modode actuación profesional que caracteriza esta profesión y la diferencian deotras, que posea además un conjunto de habilidades profesionales generalesque le permitan alcanzar una formación integral cultural y educativa en elsentido más amplio de estos términos.En la elaboración y perfeccionamiento del nuevo plan de estudios para elIngeniero Mecánico cubano, que enfrentará las exigencias de los inicios delsiglo XXI, se ha tenido en consideración no solo la proyección nacional de estaprofesión, sino además, la situación que actualmente se plantea por lasinstituciones que marcan punta en el desarrollo de la misma, manteniendo losprincipios rectores de la educación cubana expresados en los planes deestudio anteriores.Tomando como elementos de referencia los aspectos anteriormente señaladosse definió un Cuerpo de Conocimientos de la Carrera de Ingeniería Mecánicapara poder comparar con los del plan de estudios vigente.

  7. Hummocky cross-stratification-like structures and combined-flow ripples in the Punta Negra Formation (Lower-Middle Devonian, Argentine Precordillera): A turbiditic deep-water or storm-dominated prodelta inner-shelf system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilici, Giorgio; de Luca, Pedro Henrique Vieira; Poiré, Daniel G.

    2012-08-01

    Turbidity-current and storm-induced deposits may exhibit similarities, in particularly when the latter is laid down by a combination of oscillatory and unidirectional flows. Recent progress in facies analysis helps to discriminate the sedimentary effects of oscillatory from unidirectional components of the flow. On the basis of detailed analysis of sedimentary facies, strata geometry, and palaeocurrent data, the present study reinterprets the Punta Negra Formation (PNF) (Lower-Middle Devonian, Argentine Precordillera), previously considered as a depositional system of deep-water, as a storm-dominated prodeltaic shelf depositional system. In the sandstone beds of the PNF, planar, low-angle and undulating laminations with weakly asymmetric hummocky and swaley bedforms, combined-flow ripples, accretionary hummocky cross-stratification-like (HCS-like), and anisotropic HCS-like suggest the action of oscillatory currents combined with unidirectional currents in forming the deposits. Different hypotheses on the origin of the oscillatory currents have been examined. The most convincing interpretation is that the oscillatory component of the velocity is attributed to storm-induced waves. The palaeocurrent data indicate offshore current directions, suggesting that the unidirectional flow was a gravity-induced bottom current. Inverse grading at the base and overlying normally graded divisions of the sandstone beds testify to waxing-waning behaviour of the depositional flows; interbedding of sedimentary structures (undulating laminations, low-angle and parallel laminations, and combined-flow ripples) in the lower and intermediate divisions of the beds indicate fluctuations of flow velocity. This organisation of the sedimentary structures permits association of the unidirectional component with hyperpycnal bottom currents. The terrestrial origin of the hyperpycnal flows is suggested by the abundance of terrestrial plant remains, the mineralogical and textural immaturity of the

  8. La guerra delle ossa: la controversia sull’Uomo di Kennewick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Busatta

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available - La controversia sull’Uomo di Kennewick mostra come un pezzo di legislazione protettiva dei diritti delle minoranze, il NAGPRA, sia diventato un potentemezzo di controllo politico e scientifico nelle mani spregiudicate di politici indiani fondamentalisti e di cinici funzionari federali. Senza dimenticare l’autocritica che da decenni antropologi e archeologi conducono all’interno delle rispettive discipline, la questione rivela la punta di un iceberg: in nome della correttezza politica e del relativismo religioso assoluto è giusto cedere alle pretese di controllo politico dell’archeologia americana oppure c’è una responsabilità più universalistica verso le generazioni future, anche indiane, che hanno il diritto di esplorare com’è stata popolata l’America?

  9. La burbuja inmobiliaria en China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylène Gaulard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Si bien algunos economistas rechazan la hipótesis de una burbuja inmobiliaria en China, observamos que el aumento de los precios de los bienes raíces se ha venido desvinculando gradualmente de los salarios reales que se observan en las principales ciudades chinas. El crecimiento exponencial de los préstamos bancarios podría suscitar en particular temores de que surjan, en un futuro próximo, problemas de sobrendeudamiento en un número considerable de desarrolladores inmobiliarios. Sin embargo, estas dificultades son sólo la punta del iceberg de problemas más profundos en la economía china.

  10. 基于素质冰山模型的社区教育专职教师能力建设探讨%On the Capacity Building of Full-time Community Education Teachers based on Quality Iceberg Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林洪龙

    2016-01-01

    社区教育专职教师是社区教育的骨干力量,其能力建设事关社区教育的蓬勃发展。本文基于素质冰山模型,从知识与技能、社会角色、自我概念、个性、动机这五个维度构建了社区教育专职教师能力模型,继而进一步探讨了基于素质冰山模型的社区教育专职教师能力建设的策略。%Full-time community education teachers are backbones of community education , so their capacity building is a matter of the booming of community education .Based on quality iceberg model, this paper builds the capacity model for full -time community education teachers from the five aspects of knowledge& skill , social roles, self-concept, traits, motives.Then further discus-ses capacity building strategies for full -time community education teachers based on quality iceberg model.

  11. MICROANATOMÍA QUIRÚRGICA DEL SENO CAVERNOSO: SEGUNDA PARTE - UN NUEVO REPARO PARA ACCEDER AL CONTENIDO DEL SENO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Armando Mejía C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumen

    Objetivo: Hallar reparos anatómicos que permitan el abordaje seguro al seno cavernoso, utilizando medidas cronométricas para la conservación de estructuras vasculonerviosas.

    Métodos: Se disecaron 25 especímenes frescos obtenidos del Instituto de Medicina Legal y ciencias forenses a través de un abordaje extradural y la medición con microcalibrador L& W tools desde la apófisis clinoide anterior y posterior hasta las estructuras neurovasculares de importancia. Se presentan los resultados de las mediciones y se hace un análisis de sus resultados donde se especifica la longitud de cada una de las aristas de los triángulos de dicha región.

    Resultados: Se encuentra que a 5 milímetros de la punta del apófisis clinoide anterior medidos hacia abajo en una línea imaginaria perpendicular al piso de la fosa media en 21 especímenes se accedió al área del triangulo de Parkinson es decir entre el IV par y el oftálmico de Willis, pudiendo fácilmente encontrar el tronco meningohipofisiario, la porción transversa de la carótida interna intracavernosa y el segmento cavernoso del motor ocular externo; solo en cuatro piezas se llego al triangulo superior (cuya área es menor que la del triangulo de Parkinson y a través de este no fue fácil evidenciar ni el tronco meningohipofisiario ni el sexto par.

    Conclusiones: Debido al mayor área del triángulo de Parkinson (dada por su arista posterior más larga el abordaje a dicho triángulo podría ser una vía útil para la búsqueda de patologías asociadas con las estructuras neurovasculares que a través de dicho triangulo se pueden visualizar (aneurismas del tronco meningohipofisiario, aneurismas saculares del segmento transverso de la carótida interna intracavernosa y/o neurinomas del VI par intracavernoso; y se en cuentra a 5 milímetros desde la punta de la apófisis clinoide anterior medidos hacia abajo en una línea imaginaria

  12. ESTRUCTURA ESPACIAL DE Eucinostomus argenteus (PISCES: GERREIDAE EN LA ZONA NORTE DEL CARIBE COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA PACHECO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se llevó a cabo para determinar la distribución espacial de la densidad (captura por unidad de área - CPUA y de la estructura de tallas de Eucinostomus argenteus y su relación con las variables ambientales en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano. Los datos se tomaron durante un crucero de investigación realizado en la época seca (febrero de 2006 entre Puerto Estrella (La Guajira y Santa Marta (Magdalena. Las muestras biológicas se recolectaron con una red de arrastre (en estratos de profundidad < 50 m y 50-100 m siguiendo un diseño de muestreo sistemático. Los individuos ma- duros y de tallas mayores se encontraron distribuidos principalmente entre Manaure y Punta Gallinas (La Guajira, donde la plataforma continental es muy ancha y la oceano- grafía local está modulada por la surgencia estacional. Los peces juveniles, se distribu- yeron al sur del área de estudio, entre Boca Camarones (La Guajira y el río Buritaca (Magdalena, cerca de la costa. En este sector la plataforma es muy estrecha y con alta productividad biológica por la presencia de ríos, manglares y pastos marinos, sirviendo como zona de alimentación y refugio para E. argenteus. En general, los resultados sugieren que las variables ambientales son importantes para la distribución espacial de la abundancia y las tallas de E. argenteus en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano, siendo la temperatura y la profundidad las variables que predijeron mejor la distribución espacial de la especie.

  13. Hallazgo de depósitos sedimentarios postcretácicos en Bahía Crossley, Isla de los Estados, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Ponce

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Un afloramiento de rocas sedimentarias postcretácicas, desconocido hasta el momento, ha sido hallado en bahía Crossley (54°48'16"S y 64°41'3,8"O en la porción noroeste de la isla de los Estados. El mismo se dispone en forma horizontal a subhorizontal sobre los estratos plegados de la Formación Beauvoir (Jurásico Superior-Cretácico Inferior por medio de una discordancia angular. No se conocen datos ni menciones previas sobre esta secuencia en la literatura. Una posible correlación podría establecerse con los estratos del Terciario continental de las Formaciones Punta Cactus y Sloggett, aflorantes en bahía Sloggett, Tierra del Fuego (54°59'34"S y 66°19'3";O. Aún no se cuenta con información fehaciente que precise la edad de estos nuevos depósitos, aunque son posteriores al plegamiento de la Formación Beauvoir (Cretácico Superior. Se presentan las características principales de estas capas y las implicancias del hallazgo para la historia geológica de la región.

  14. EL TAMAÑO DE GRANO FERRÍTICO: UN FACTOR IGNORADO, DE HECHO, EN EL ANÁLISIS DEL FALLO EN EL HUNDIMIENTO DE UN FAMOSO BARCO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO PERO-SANZ ELORZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En la mucha literatura publicada sobre el hundimiento del famoso trasatlántico Titanic, el 15 de Abril de 1912 en las aguas del Atlántico Norte, tras chocar con un iceberg, no se ha hecho un análisis suficientemente riguroso de las causas de aquel, en relación al comportamiento de los materiales, dada la maniobra del buque y choque producidos. En las planchas de acero, material del casco, se abrió una tremenda grieta de varias decenas de metros y no existe una explicación suficientemente satisfactoria al día de hoy. El acero se calificó malo por exceso de azufre, dándole excesiva importancia a la presencia de inclusiones de sulfuro de manganeso o a su forma poco globular, habiendo también demasiada fijación en el fallo de los remaches. En realidad la causa primordial fue, en nuestra opinión, la ausencia en el acero de aleantes afinantes de grano y el correspondiente tratamiento de la chapa, que produjeron un tamaño de grano excesivo. En las condiciones de navegación, en aguas bajo 0ºC, el acero del Titanic había pasado con holgura la temperatura de transición dúctil-frágil, convirtiendo el casco en un recipiente de "cristal".

  15. The first archaeometric data metallurgy in the cemetery and settlement of Calvari del Molar (Priorat, Tarragona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armada Pita, Xosé-Lois

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Phoenician pottery along the course of the river Ebro has been linked to Phoenician interest in the mineral resources of the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula in general and the Molar-Bellmunt-Falset area in particular, but until now this proposition has not been verified. In this article we present the first evidence of metalworking from the site of Calvari del Molar (Priorat, Tarragona excavations of 2002-2003, which consists of a tuyère of a type hitherto unknown in Catalonia, a millstone used to crush ore, and an Orientalizing arrowhead that can be interpreted as a local imitation of foreign prototypes. The archaeometallurgical study of four other bronzes found during the excavations by S. Vilaseca (1930 is also included. Publication of these archaeological and archaeometrical results enables us to set out our proposals for future research on the settlement, its mining/metallurgical area and its relationship with Phoenician traders. Special attention is paid to silver, which was obtained from ores of that metal, from native silver and from lead sulphide.

    La presencia de materiales fenicios en el curso del río Ebro se ha relacionado con su interés hacia los recursos mineros del nordeste peninsular en general y del área Molar- Bellmunt-Falset en particular, pero hasta la fecha esta propuesta no había sido adecuadamente contrastada. En este artículo presentamos las primeras evidencias de actividad metalúrgica procedentes del poblado de Calvari del Molar (Priorat, Tarragona (campañas 2002-2003, que consisten en una tobera de tipología desconocida hasta la fecha en Cataluña, un molino empleado para triturar el mineral y una punta de flecha orientalizante que puede interpretarse como una imitación local de modelos foráneos. Damos a conocer también el estudio arqueometalúrgico de otros cuatro bronces procedentes de las excavaciones de S. Vilaseca (1930. La publicación de los resultados arqueológicos y arqueom

  16. Sul ‘Prometeo incatenato’. Tragedia dello sguardo e anatomie del tempo: considerazioni di regia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Longhi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay aims at showing the development of the critical thought about Prometheus Bound that underlied the staging of this tragedy at the Teatro Greco of Siracusa during the spring of 2012. The performance was directed by the author of these pages for the Istituto nazionale del dramma antico (premiere: Siracusa, 11th May. In the framework of a hermeneutic paradigm based on the ‘critically’ untimely nature of the classic, the staging of Prometheus here discussed wanted to inquire the role of sight in the orchestration of this tragedy, as well as to account for the way time is treated in the text. In the light of this approach, Prometheus looks like a cruel portrait of a world in a state of crisis, suspended between two disasters (one has just ended, the other is looming ominously on the horizon; from its remote distance, such a world gives us an image both lucid and alienated of our present.Il saggio si propone di restituire il percorso di riflessione critica intorno al Prometeo incatenato che nella primavera del 2012 ha sostanziato il processo di messa in scena della tragedia presso il teatro greco di Siracusa, curata dall’autore di queste pagine per conto dell’Istituto nazionale del dramma antico (debutto: Siracusa, 11 maggio. Entro un paradigma ermeneutico fondato sul principio dell’inattualità ‘critica’ del classico, l’allestimento del Prometeo di cui qui si riferisce punta a indagare il ruolo svolto dallo sguardo nell’orchestrazione della tragedia, così come a render ragione del trattamento cui la funzione tempo è sottoposta nell’opera. Sulla base di un simile approccio, il Prometeo appare così come un crudele ritratto di un mondo in crisi sospeso tra due catastrofi (l’una appena trascorsa, l’altra minacciosamente incombente all’orizzonte; un mondo che dalla sua remota distanza ci consegna un’immagine ad un tempo lucida e straniata del nostro presente.

  17. del cambio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Canales

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las propuestas y los compromisos en materia de cobertura y de financiamiento en el periodo 2000-2006. En particular, revisa las modificaciones y los ajustes de los tres principales documentos en los que se expresaron las iniciativas: el de la Asociación Nacional de Universidades e Instituciones de Educación Superior, el del equipo de la transición y el programa sectorial. Los resultados muestran que las cifras de atención a la demanda educativa e inversión quedaron lejos de las metas autoimpuestas por el gobierno federal y que será necesario realizar mayores esfuerzos para atender tales desafíos.

  18. Prevalencia del uso de teléfonos móviles durante la conducción de vehículos Prevalence of mobile phone use while driving vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Astrain

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio fue estimar la prevalencia del uso de teléfono móvil durante la conducción de vehículos en la ciudad de Lleida. Métodos: Se seleccionó una muestra aleatoria de 1.536 automóviles en 6 cruces regulados por semáforos de la ciudad de Lleida (3 con tráfico urbano y 3 con tráfico interurbano. Se excluyeron ciclistas, motoristas y automóviles de autoescuelas. Las variables estudiadas fueron uso de teléfono móvil, sexo, edad (18-40; 41-60; > 61 años, ir acompañado en el vehículo, tipo de cruce (tráfico urbano/tráfico interurbano, día de la semana (laborable/festivo y hora del día (punta/no punta. Se calculó la prevalencia del uso de teléfono móvil en porcentajes con un intervalo de confianza (IC del 95%. La relación de la variable dependiente (uso de teléfono móvil con el resto de variables independientes se estudió con la odds ratio (OR y con IC del 95%. Resultados: Se realizaron 1.536 observaciones directas y se detectó uso de teléfono móvil en 50 conductores. La prevalencia fue del 3,3% (IC del 95%, 2,4-4,3. Esta prevalencia fue superior en los varones (OR = 2,2; IC del 95%, 1,0-5,7 en los mayores de 60 años (OR = 2,2; IC del 95%, 0,5-8,4 y en el grupo de 18-40 años (OR = 1,5; IC del 95%, 0,8-3,0, en conductores sin acompañante (OR = 3,0; IC del 95%, 1,5-6,3, en cruces urbanos (OR = 2,7; IC del 95%, 1,2-5,9, en días laborables (OR = 2,0; IC del 95%, 0,9-4,4 y en horas punta (OR = 1,4; IC del 95%, 0,8-2,4. Conclusiones: La prevalencia del uso de teléfono móvil durante la conducción se considera elevada por el incremento del riesgo de accidentes. El perfil de los usuarios se corresponde con varones de 18 a 40 años o mayores de 61, en circuitos urbanos, sin acompañante, en días laborables y horas punta. Se recomienda tomar medidas para reducir el uso de teléfono móvil durante la conducción.Objective: To estimate the prevalence of mobile telephone use while driving vehicles in

  19. Evidence of varying magma chambers and magmatic evolutionary histories for the Table Mountain Formation in the Carson-Iceberg Wilderness region, Sonora Pass, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, R.; Putirka, K. D.; Pluhar, C. J.; Farner, M. J.; Torrez, G.; Shrum, B. L.; Jones, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Sonora Pass- Dardanelles region in the Carson- Iceberg Wilderness area is located in the central Sierra Nevada and home to the type section for latites (Slemmons, 1953), a volcanic rock that contains high potassium, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase phenocysts. Latite lavas and tuffs exposed in the Sonora Pass region originated from the sources in the eastern Sierra Nevada (Noble et al., 1974) where lavas flowed toward California's Great Valley, and were emplaced in stream valleys along the way, which are now inverted to form "table mountains", ergo the name "Table Mountain Latite" (TML) (Slemmons, 1966). Similarly high-K volcanic rocks of the same age are exposed at Grouse Meadows, which is just north of the Walker Lane Caldera east of Sonora Pass, and at the type section, between Red Peak and Bald Peak west of Sonora Pass. Latites lavas and tuffs in all three regions were analyzed for major oxides and trace elements with X-ray fluorescence spectrometry at California State University, Fresno. Analysis of three locations of (TML) at the type section show that they (Ransome, 1898), may have a different magmatic evolutionary history compared to other latites, exposed at Sonora Pass and Grouse Meadows, as the latter two show similar major oxide and trace element compositions. Most compelling is the contrast in the behavior of Al2O3 and CaO at the type section. Variation diagrams show that at the type section Al2O3 and CaO enrichment decreases with increasing amounts of MgO as fractional crystallization occurs. Conversely, at Sonora Peak and Grouse Meadows, CaO and Al2O3 concentrations mostly increase as MgO decreases with fractional crystallization. This contrasts shows that plagioclase was a major fractioning phase at the type section, but not at the other two localities. This suggests that the lava flows at the type section were erupted from a distinct set of magma chambers and vents that underwent a very distinct magmatic evolutionary history, perhaps involving

  20. From enzymes and viruses to clouds, snow, sea-glaciers, and green icebergs: How a protein crystallographer got into glaciology and atmospheric radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    Through a series of lucky breaks beginning five years after my Ph.D., I was able to change careers from molecular biology to earth science, via a postdoc at NCAR in 1978, leading to a job at the University of Washington (UW) in 1982. Steve Schneider, Warren Wiscombe, Julius London, Gary Thomas, and Ed LaChapelle helped me make the transition. At UW, a collaboration with Tom Grenfell got me started in Antarctic fieldwork. Long-term dedicated coworkers Carole Hahn (cloud climatology) and Rich Brandt (radiative and thermal properties of snow and sea ice) kept our funded projects going. Conversations with UW colleagues Bob Charlson on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and Qiang Fu on the microwave sounding unit (MSU) enticed me into unfunded projects (biological influence on cloud albedo; satellite-derived tropospheric temperatures). Several other key collaborators I first met when they were students at UW: Tony Clarke and Sarah Doherty (black carbon in snow), Bonnie Light (laboratory experiments for Snowball Earth), and Von Walden (longwave radiation spectra). Ian Allison of the Australian Antarctic Division sponsored my first sabbatical, to learn about sea ice. Most of our work, of course, is on projects that are proposed, then funded, then completed (or not completed). But at least as much fun are projects that were completed but not proposed. Some of these were inspired by listening to seminars (particularly by Charlson), or were developed from student term-papers in my snow-and-ice class (Jon Rhodes's report on suncups, and Steve Hudson's on Antarctic bacteria). There is not much cross-cultural connection between my former life and my current life, but there is some, now institutionalized in UW's Astrobiology Program. My enthusiasm for the CLAW project was partly motivated by my background in biology and the knowledge that DMS originates from the amino acid methionine. I was happy to accept oceanic biota as the explanation for the color of green icebergs. And my motivation

  1. LA POLITICA SOCIAL DEL "GOBIERNO DEL CAMBIO"

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Mota Díaz

    2002-01-01

    El artículo se centra en la política social del actual sexenio foxista , la cual se ha definido como incluyente y equitativa dentro del marco de un gobierno autodenominado del cambio, no sólo por lo que se refiere a la alternancia política del poder, sino porque además pretende ser un gobierno con una visión más amplia del desarrollo. Todo ello se traduce en nuevas estrategias para alcanzar la democracia, la equidad, la justicia social y el bienestar general de la población. El ob...

  2. La cueva Epullán Grande, provincia del Neuquén: Análisis de los artefactos líticos del Período Tardío (1100 AP - contacto

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    Oscar Martín Palacios

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El sector analizado tuvo una serie de ocupaciones sucesivas y breves, lo que no permite confirmar su estacionalidad. Se encontró cerámica desde la base de la pila sedimentaria. Allí se procesaron cueros y molieron pigmentos, así como otras sustancias no identificadas. Se analizaron 61 instrumentos y 1292 desechos de talla de la Antesala de Epullán Grande. La roca dominante es la sílice y le siguen las vulcanitas negras, la obsidiana y otras. El tipo de corteza sugiere el abastecimiento en una corriente de agua, tal vez el río Limay. El índice de bifacialidad es alto en instrumentos y desechos, probablemente por la introducción del arco durante el período. Las puntas de proyectil encontradas son pequeñas y de flecha. La curva del índice de bifacialidad del sitio se ajusta a la tendencia observada en la región a lo largo del tiempo.The analyzed sector had a series of successive and brief occupations, not being possible to confirm its seasonality. There was ceramic from the base of the sedimentary pile. There, leathers were processed and pigments milled, as well as other non identified substances. Sixty one lithic tools and 1292 knapping debris of the Epullán Grande Antesala were analyzed. The dominant rock is the silica and they continue him the black vulcanites, the obsidian and others. The cortex type suggests the supply in a current of water, perhaps the Limay river. The thinning biface index is high in lithic tools and debitage, probably for the introduction of the bow and arrow during the period. The projectile points are small and of arrow. The thinning biface index curve of the site is adjusted to the tendency observed in the region along the time.

  3. Valoración del cambio ambiental según los “junqueros” y “leñateros” en el sector sur de la región rioplatense (Argentina

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    Pablo C. Stampella

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediante un abordaje etnoecológico, se realizaron 24 entrevistas a informantes calificados de los partidos de Magdalena y Punta Indio, en el litoral rioplatense, con el objetivo de recopilar y evaluar las narrativas de junqueros y leñateros locales respecto del cambio ambiental y su impacto en sus vidas cotidianas. Estas actividades extractivas (obtención de leña y recolección de juncos fueron muy importantes en esta zona, aunque en la actualidad sufren una merma, sobre todo en la actividad junquera, debido principalmente a dos acontecimientos que marcaron el rumbo de la actividad: derrame de petróleo y cambios en los sistemas productivos. En la actividad leñera se registraron cambios principalmente como producto de la creación de la Reserva de Biosfera “Parque Costero del Sur”, sin embargo, a diferencia de los junqueros, la abundancia del recurso leñatero y la reformulación en las prácticas y estrategias de selección hizo posible la permanencia de la actividad a pesar de los cambios sufridos en el área de estudio. Las actividades ejercidas por los informantes influyeron en las narrativas sobre su valoración del cambio ambiental, dado que se reconocieron pocos cambios en común, principalmente, en relación con el clima y la fauna.

  4. Hallazgo de depósitos sedimentarios postcretácicos en Bahía Crossley, Isla de los Estados, Tierra del Fuego Discovery of post-Cretacoeus sedimentary deposits in Bahía Crossley, Isla de los Estados, Tierra del Fuego

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    J.F. Ponce

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Un afloramiento de rocas sedimentarias postcretácicas, desconocido hasta el momento, ha sido hallado en bahía Crossley (54°48'16"S y 64°41'3,8"O en la porción noroeste de la isla de los Estados. El mismo se dispone en forma horizontal a subhorizontal sobre los estratos plegados de la Formación Beauvoir (Jurásico Superior-Cretácico Inferior por medio de una discordancia angular. No se conocen datos ni menciones previas sobre esta secuencia en la literatura. Una posible correlación podría establecerse con los estratos del Terciario continental de las Formaciones Punta Cactus y Sloggett, aflorantes en bahía Sloggett, Tierra del Fuego (54°59'34"S y 66°19'3";O. Aún no se cuenta con información fehaciente que precise la edad de estos nuevos depósitos, aunque son posteriores al plegamiento de la Formación Beauvoir (Cretácico Superior. Se presentan las características principales de estas capas y las implicancias del hallazgo para la historia geológica de la región.A post-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks outcrop has been found in Bahía Crossley (54°48'16"S and 64°41'3.8"W in the north-western part of the island. The lower contact with the folded strata of the Beauvoir Formation (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous is represented by an angular unconformity. These new deposit could be correlated with the Tertiary continental strata of the Punta Cactus and Bahía Sloggett Formations, Bahía Sloggett (54°59'34"S and 66°19'57"W, Tierra del Fuego. There is not enough available information yet to provide a precise age of these new outcrops, although they are younger than the folding of the Beauvoir Formation (Late Cretaceous. We present the principal characteristics of these beds and the implications of this discovery for the regional geological history.

  5. Las sucesiones sedimentarias continentales expuestas en Centinela del Mar, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina (Pleistoceno Inferior-Holoceno

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    Cenizo, Marcos M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the geomorphological and sedimentary characteristics of the continental sequences exposed on the coastal cliffs and surrounding areas of the Centinela del Mar locality are described and interpreted. Fourteen lithofacies are defined, their relation, geometry and structure are represented using transversal and longitudinal detailed profiles. In the basal and medium sector of the profile, facies of different degrees of transport and aqueous rework were recognized. In the superior sector, a succession of marine peri-coastal facies corresponding to the «Belgranense» transgression (=Fm. Pascua were identified, ending the secuence with relictual eolic facies. The different historical interpretations are discussed, homologating the units referred previously with the ones proposed on this paper. These units are correlated with those defined in the allostratigrapic scheme proposed by other authors for the area covered between Playa San Carlos and Arroyo Chapadmalal. This allowed recognize for the area under study the presence of the Punta San Andrés and Arroyo Lobería Alloformations (basal-medium and superior sector, respectively. Between these two entities, a association of well defined progradant marine facies are found and named on this paper as Centinela del Mar Alloformation. Finally, the information gathered here (magnetostratigraphy, radiometric dating, stratigraphic correlations, etc indicates, at least preliminarily, that the secuence of Centinela del Mar corresponds to the Ensenadense-Lujanense interval (Lower Pleistocene - Holocene.

    Son descriptas e interpretadas las características geomorfológicas y sedimentarias de las sucesiones continentales expuestas en los acantilados litorales y sectores aledaños de la localidad Centinela del Mar. Se definen catorce litofacies, cuyas relaciones, geometría y estructuras son representadas mediante perfiles transversales y longitudinales de detalle. En el sector basal y

  6. Establishment of growth model of Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh-cut iceberg lettuce%鲜切结球莴苣中单增李斯特菌生长预测模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张引成; 尹晓婷; 雷云; 韦莹莹; 潘磊庆; 屠康

    2013-01-01

    为建立不同温度下鲜切结球莴苣中单增李斯特菌生长模型,将单增李斯特菌接种到鲜切结球莴苣表面,并于不同温度下贮藏,获得其在4、8、16、24和32℃下的生长数据,选用Gompertz模型进行拟合,建立初级生长模型.在此基础上建立二级模型研究温度对初级模型中单增李斯特菌生长动力学参数的影响,并进行数学检验.结果表明,对最大比生长速率和延滞时间建立平方根模型,结果呈良好的线性关系,相关系数R2分别为0.977 2和0.984 7,所建立的预测模型能很好地描述不同温度下单增李斯特菌的生长动态.%This paper was designed to establish the growth model of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh-cut iceberg lettuce in different temperatures.The L.Monocytogenes was inoculated to the surface of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce and then preserved in temperature of 4 ℃,8 ℃,16 ℃,24℃,32 ℃.Gompertz model was selected as the primary model.A secondary model was created to study the effects of temperature on growth kinetics parameters of Listeria monocytogenes in the primary model.Mathematical evaluation was also conducted.The results showed that the regression of Belehradek model well described the effect of temperatures on the maximumgrowth rate and the lag phase,and correlation coefficients of determination were 0.9772,0.9847,respectively.Therefore,the model can predict the growth of L.monocytogenes in fresh-cut iceberg lettuce perfectly.

  7. Nanoindentación en materiales cerámicos: efecto de la carga y de la geometría del indentador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico, A.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A lot of research has been published about the determination of mechanical properties like hardness and elastic modulus using depth sensing indentation techniques. The Oliver and Pharr method allows calculating these properties through the experimental force-displacement curve. However, several phenomena could affect the analysis of experimental data. Discrepancies from the nominal results could be induced by size effect and indenter geometry. In this work, indentation size and indenter geometry effects on hardness and elastic modulus have been studied using several maximum loads and two different indenter geometries: Berkovich and spherical. Mechanical properties changes have been observed with indentation load in both geometries. These tendencies depend on the indenter geometry.

    Desde la aparición de las técnicas de indentación instrumentada se han publicado gran cantidad de trabajos en los que se evalúan propiedades mecánicas como la dureza o el módulo elástico de recubrimientos y materiales cerámicos. La metodología desarrollada por Oliver y Pharr permite calcular estas propiedades a partir de la curva fuerza – desplazamiento obtenida en un ensayo. Sin embargo, existen algunos factores ajenos al material que pueden condicionar el análisis de los datos experimentales. En particular, el efecto del tamaño de la indentación y la geometría del indentador empleado pueden producir variaciones considerables respecto de los resultados esperables. En este trabajo, se estudia el efecto que el tamaño de la indentación y de la geometría de la punta tienen sobre la dureza y el módulo elástico utilizando varias cargas máximas y dos geometrías para los indentadores: Berkovich y esférica. En ambas geometrías se aprecian variaciones de las propiedades mecánicas con la carga, aunque estos cambios siguen tendencias diferentes en función del tipo de punta empleada.

  8. El Grupo Cabo Domingo, Tierra del Fuego: bioestratigrafía, paleoambientes y acontecimientos del Eoceno-Mioceno marino The Cabo Domingo Group, Tierra del Fuego: Biostratigraphy, paleoenvironments, and events of the marine Eocene-Miocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Malumián

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El Grupo Cabo Domingo, cuenca Austral, Eoceno superior a Mioceno medio, comprende una secuencia episódica de sedimentitas marinas levemente dislocadas y depositadas principalmente al norte de la falla de punta Gruesa en Tierra del Fuego. Se inicia con la profundización de la cuenca, resultado de los niveles de mar alto del Eoceno tardío amplificados por un diastrofismo generalizado (Fase Incaica. En el depocentro de la cuenca está representado por el miembro superior de la Formación Cerro Colorado (140 m, fangolitas y areniscas, con el último registro de Globigerinatheka index, y las apariciones de Praetenuitella insolita e Isthmolithus recurvus, 36-34 Ma; y fuera del depocentro, por el conglomerado Tchat-Chii (70 m, Eoceno cuspidal-Oligoceno basal, y el glauconítico A en el subsuelo en el norte de la Isla. El mínimo contenido de esmectita y la abundancia de niveles con Chiloguembelina reflejan tectonismo activo y caída de temperatura durante la depositación del miembro superior y el glauconítico A. Continúan las capas de la Estancia María Cristina (>75 m, arcillitas y areniscas, Oligoceno temprano, 34-30 Ma y del puesto Herminita (200 m, arcillitas, Oligoceno, 30-26,5 Ma, principalmente con microfaunas residuales de foraminíferos aglutinados depositadas por debajo de la línea de compensación de la calcita, corresponden a la máxima profundización de la cuenca que habilitó el ingreso de aguas antárticas corrosivas. Seguidas por la Formación Desdémona (250 m, fangolitas tobáceas, bioturbadas, depositadas en las proximidades de la lisoclina, con asociaciones de foraminíferos de aguas abisales, que representa los niveles altos de mar del Oligoceno cuspidal-Mioceno temprano. Seguidas por las capas del Cabo Ladrillero (80 m, areniscas glauconíticas basales y fangolitas con asociaciones de foraminíferos de plataforma externa, y 75 m de fangolitas carbonosas, areniscas finas y arcillitas, Mioceno inferior, con la asociaci

  9. Centrales hidroeléctricas del Zemm – Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, W.

    1972-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to accommodate an increasing rate, doubled every ten years, of current consumption in this country, two hydroelectric power plants were constructed in the Zemm River. This type of power plant has the advantage of being able to produce energy at the time of consumption so as to be to handle peak energy production; while the normal power load requirement is covered by nuclear, petroleum and gas, and river power plants. These two plants have 517.500 kW, with a total annual yield of 648 GWh, or 778 GWh with pumping equipment. The gravity dam of the upper reservoir is 131 m high and 725 m long at the top. 960,000 m3 of concrete were used in its construction and it has an annual storage capacity of 127.4 millions m3. The earthen dam of the lower reservoir, which required 820,000 m3 to build, is about 28 m high and 480 m wide at the crown, with a capacity of 6,4 millions m3.Para poder hacer frente al aumento de consumo de corriente en el país, que se duplica cada 10 años, se construyeron dos centrales hidroeléctricas en el río Zemm. Este tipo de centrales tienen la ventaja de poder producir la energía en el mismo momento del consumo, por lo que se les confía la producción de energía de punta; mientras que la demanda de carga normal es cubierta por centrales de: energía nuclear; de petróleo y gas, y fluviales. Estas dos centrales tienen una potencia de 517.500 kW, con un rendimiento anual total de 648 GWh, ampliable en 130 GWh con el equipo de bombeo. La presa del embalse superior es de tipo gravedad, con 131 m de altura y una longitud de coronación de 725 m. Se emplearon 960.000 m3 de hormigón en su construcción. Tiene una capacidad de embalse anual de 127,4 millones de m3 En el embalse inferior, la presa es de tierra y se necesitaron 820.000 m3 para su construcción. Tiene una altura de unos 28 m, y una longitud de coronación de 480 m. Su capacidad es de 6,4 millones de m3.

  10. Steady state analysis and Eastern power system dynamic PDVSA EyP considering incorporating Furrial and PIGAP II generation plants; Analisis en regimen permanente y dinamico del sistema electrico de PDVSA EyP Oriente considerando la incorporacion de las plantas de generacion Furrial y PIGAP II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, S [Universidad Nacional Experimental Politecnica, Antonio Jose de Sucre, Guayana, Bolivar (Venezuela)]. E-mail: sergiodrg200@gmail.com; Vasquez, C [Petroleos de Venezuela S.A., Maturin, Monagas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: vasquezcp@pdvsa.com

    2013-03-15

    This paper is focused on steady state and dynamic analysis of Eastern Power System of Petroleum of Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) Exploration and Production, considering new single cycle gas turbine power plants in Punta de Mata and El Furrial operational areas that will start up in 2015. Network operating conditions were determined, specifically the behavior of power flows and voltage profiles in normal condition of operation and under Contingencies N-1 in PDVSA Power System, as well as the short-circuit levels at all buses of the transmission network. Afterward, it was evaluated the impact on the network caused by the starting of the biggest motor in the system, considering island operation, verifying that it's necessary to maintain the interconnection with the National Electric System. For motor starting study, machine dynamic model was determined by mean of parameters estimation of its equivalent circuit, as well as the application of nonlinear regression methods in order to obtain load model using the information supplied by the manufacturer. [Spanish] El presente trabajo esta enfocado al analisis del comportamiento en regimen permanente y dinamico del sistema electrico de Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) Exploracion y Produccion Oriente, considerando la incorporacion de nuevas Plantas de Generacion Termoelectricas de Ciclo Simple a Gas que entraran en operacion en las areas operacionales de Punta de Mata y El Furrial para el ano 2015. Se determinaron las condiciones de operacion de la red, especificamente el comportamiento de los flujos de potencia y perfiles de voltaje en Condicion Normal de operacion y bajo Contingencias N-1 dentro del Sistema de PDVSA, asi como el incremento en los niveles de cortocircuito en todas las barras de la red de transmision. Luego se evaluo el impacto en la red originado por el arranque del motor de mayor capacidad considerando la posible operacion en isla del sistema, determinandose que es necesario operar interconectado con el

  11. ICEBERG, Phase III. Appendix H

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-05-06

    N r j O N 2 | < N | r -~~~~~~~~~~~~I-jI- H ol (9 0) _~ tq r~ >- U r 0 P- 0 ~nIJ p-i e * *I sF · L-- c~~J r3~~ ~~O~~~~~r CD , , . °OY O W @u upt eo a...tz C Ct < eo O el I’ Fffl C+ C Od 0~~~~~~~~~~~’ oq w~ O~ @r 0o . - O, OC 0 I O~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~C F CD ? -32sc .Fd IJ 0 t3L CD d r· c ; (p...present vrill include: Shore Based Supported fro;- forces afloat 10 LCT 9 DD 6 YMIS 20 LCIA 6 DE 2 PCS(H) 10 LCVP 6 PC(IJC) 1 QGP 4 YWTT 6 sc (Nc) 1 IRL

  12. Throwing Icebergs at White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    Where do the metals come from that pollute the atmospheres of many white dwarfs? Close-in asteroids may not be the only culprits! A new study shows that distant planet-size and icy objects could share some of the blame.Pollution ProblemsArtists impression of rocky debris lying close around a white dwarf star. [NASA/ESA/STScI/G. Bacon]When a low- to intermediate-mass star reaches the end of its life, its outer layers are blown off, leaving behind its compact core. The strong gravity of this white dwarf causes elements heavier than hydrogen and helium to rapidly sink to its center in a process known as sedimentation, leaving an atmosphere that should be free of metallic elements.Therefore its perhaps surprising that roughly 2550% of all white dwarfs are observed to have atmospheric pollution by heavy elements. The short timescales for sedimentation suggest that these elements were added to the white dwarf recently but how did they get there?Bringing Ice InwardIn the generally accepted theory, pre-existing rocky bodies or an orbiting asteroid belt survive the stars evolution, later accreting onto the final white dwarf. But this scenario doesnt explain a few observations that suggest white dwarfs might be accreting larger planetary-size bodies and bodies with ices and volatile materials.Dynamical evolution of a Neptune-like planet (a) and a Kuiper belt analog object (b) in wide binary star systems. Both have large eccentricity excitations during the white dwarf phase. [Stephan et al. 2017]How might you get large or icy objects which would begin on very wide orbits close enough to a white dwarf to become disrupted and accrete? Led by Alexander Stephan, a team of scientists at UCLA now suggest that the key is for the white dwarf to be in a binary system.Influence of a CompanionIn the authors model, the white-dwarf progenitor is orbited by both a distant stellar companion (a common occurrence) and a number of large potential polluters, which could have masses between that of a large asteroid up to several times the mass of Jupiter. These potential polluters have very wide orbits that allow them to maintain ice and volatile materials.At the end of the progenitors lifetime it loses a significant amount of mass, causing the orbits of the surviving objects in the system to expand. After this stage, the stellar companion gravitationally perturbs the potential polluters onto extremely eccentric orbits, bringing these massive and long-period objects close enough accrete onto what is now the white dwarf.The Need for ObservationsThe likelihood distributions for orbital parameters of the systems that result in white dwarfs polluted by Neptune-like planets and Kuiper-belt-analog objects. The black arrows mark the parameters for one of the few observed systems, WD 1425+540, for comparison. [Stephan et al. 2017]By running large Monte Carlo simulations, Stephan and collaborators demonstrate that this scenario can successfully produce accretion of both Neptune-like planets and Kuiper-belt-analog objects. Their simulation results indicate that 1% of all white dwarfs should accrete Neptune-like planets, and 7.5% of all white dwarfs should accrete Kuiper-belt-analog objects.While these fractions are broadly consistent with observations, its hard to say with certainty whether this model is correct, as observations are scant. Only 200 polluted white dwarfs have been observed, and of these, only 15 have had detailed abundance measurements made. Next steps for understanding white-dwarf pollution certainly must includegathering more observations of polluted white dwarfs and establishing the statistics of what is polluting them.CitationAlexander P. Stephan et al 2017 ApJL 844 L16. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa7cf3

  13. Throwing Icebergs at White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Alexander P.; Naoz, Smadar; Zuckerman, B.

    2017-08-01

    White dwarfs (WDs) have atmospheres that are expected to consist nearly entirely of hydrogen and helium, since heavier elements will sink out of sight on short timescales. However, observations have revealed atmospheric pollution by heavier elements in about a quarter to a half of all WDs. While most of the pollution can be accounted for with asteroidal or dwarf planetary material, recent observations indicate that larger planetary bodies, as well as icy and volatile material from Kuiper belt analog objects, are also viable sources of pollution. The commonly accepted pollution mechanisms, namely scattering interactions between planetary bodies orbiting the WDs, can hardly account for pollution by objects with large masses or long-period orbits. Here we report on a mechanism that naturally leads to the emergence of massive body and icy and volatile material pollution. This mechanism occurs in wide binary stellar systems, where the mass loss of the planets’ host stars during post main sequence stellar evolution can trigger the Eccentric Kozai-Lidov mechanism. This mechanism leads to large eccentricity excitations, which can bring massive and long-period objects close enough to the WDs to be accreted. We find that this mechanism readily explains and is consistent with observations.

  14. Vitamin D: the iceberg nutrient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Laura A G; Heaney, Robert P

    2011-03-01

    The understanding of vitamin D's role in human health has recently expanded. It is now recognized as more than a hormone activated in the kidney only for calcium homeostasis. It is metabolized and used by virtually every cell in the body. Patients with chronic kidney disease have a deficit in their kidney production of 1,25(OH)(2)D and have classically been treated with calcitriol or its active analogues. Despite often having lower systemic levels of 1,25(OH)(2)D, patients with chronic kidney disease retain the capability of extra renal production of 1,25(OH)(2)D. This has far reaching implications for their health. This review examines clinical trials and observations in 3 areas that impact chronic kidney disease patients. Cancer, cardiovascular disease and infections are responsible for much of the morbidity and mortality in this patient population. We will discuss vitamin D's role in these disease states with a focus on the chronic kidney disease patient.

  15. Active packaging for fresh-cut iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. / Embalagem ativa para alface americana (Lactuca sativa L. minimamente processada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Yamashita

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The minimal processing of horticultural products endears the raw material and is convenient to the consumer due to the facility for preparing and consuming. The objective of this work was to develop an active packaging for fresh-cut iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. to increase its shelf life. Minimally processing methodology was defined and the product quality was determined by sensorial, physico-chemical and microbiological analysis. The lettuce tree was selected, trimmed, pre-washed, soaked in sanitized water (100ppm of active chlorine for 15 minutes and centrifuged. The lettuce leafs were packed in polypropylene pots with a sachet containing 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP and sealed with biodegradable starch film. Soon after the processing, the product was stored at 4oC for 12 days. Periodically samples were evaluated in terms of appearance and purchase intention, soluble solids and vitamin C contents, pH, texture, color, weight loss and total count of mesophilic and psicotrofic microorganisms, lactic bacteria, mould and yeast. Using 1-MCP in sachet format did not increase the lettuce shelf life but the minimal processing combined with packaging sealed with biodegradable film is practicable as the product showed good sensorial acceptance, low microbiological counts and shelf life of 5 days at 4oC.O processamento mínimo de produtos hortícolas agrega valor à matéria-prima e são convenientes ao consumidor, devido à facilidade de preparo e consumo. O objetivo do trabalho foi desenvolver uma embalagem ativa para alface americana (Lactuca sativa L. minimamente processada visando o aumento da vida útil. Foi definida uma metodologia de processamento mínimo e a qualidade do produto foi acompanhada através de avaliação sensorial, físico-química e microbiológica. As cabeças de alface foram desfolhadas, selecionadas, pré-lavadas, sanificadas (100 ppm de cloro ativo por 15 minutos e centrifugadas. As folhas foram acondicionadas em potes de

  16. La organización de la tecnología lítica de los pobladores tempranos del este de Uruguay The Organization Of Lithic Technology Among The Early Inhabitants Of Eastern Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Gascue

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de las investigaciones realizadas en el sitio Rincón de los Indios (Rocha, Uruguay. Se analizaron los vestigios líticos (lascas, núcleos, instrumentos tallados, instrumentos confeccionados por picoteo y/o abrasión, preformas de puntas de proyectil y puntas de proyectil recuperados en los niveles tempranos. Con el análisis se ha buscado la especificidad de la utilización diferencial de las materias primas y los diferentes procesos de fabricación, identificando así los distintos subsistemas tecnológicos. La organización de la tecnología de los pobladores tempranos del Este de Uruguay implicó el aprovisionamiento de diversas materias primas minerales, tanto locales y regionales, como extra regionales. Se realizaban importantes desplazamientos para aprovisionarse de rocas de buena calidad, concordando con grupos cazadores de alta movilidad residencial que explotaban gran diversidad de ambientesThis paper presents the results of research carried out in Rincón de los Indios site, Rocha, Uruguay. The lithic remains (flakes, cores, flaked instruments, polished and pecked instruments, projectile point preforms and projectile points recovered from the early levels were analyzed. The objective was to study the distinctive use of raw materials and manufacture procedures, identifying the different technological sub-systems. The technological organization of the early inhabitants of eastern Uruguay involved the acquisition of a variety of local, regional and extra-regional mineral raw materials. These groups undertook signifi cant displacements in order to stock up on good quality rocks, which accords with groups of hunter-gatherers with high residential mobility who exploited a high diversity of environments

  17. 舷侧板架与冰体碰撞数值仿真及模型试验研究%Research on numerical simulation and model test of collision between side grillage and icebergs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 万正权; 黄进浩; 尹群

    2014-01-01

    Both numerical simulation and model test method were carried out to research the collision be-tween side grillage and icebergs. The finite element model of side grillage considering scale factor was built, the response of grillage structure under ice load was calculated; and then the same entity of side grillage as the finite element model was made, iceberg collision test was conducted, the results such as impact force, strain and deformation of grillage model were obatined respectively, Finally, The results of model test and numerical simulation are compared, the two agreed basicly. The response law of grillage structure under ice load is revealed by research results.%文章利用数值仿真及模型试验两种方法对船体舷侧板架与冰体碰撞进行研究。首先建立了舷侧板架的缩尺比有限元模型,计算冰体碰撞载荷作用下板架结构响应;进而制作了与有限元仿真相同的舷侧板架模型,进行冰体碰撞模型试验,分别获得冰体对板架结构的碰撞力、板架应力分布、板架变形等结果,最后将试验结果与数值仿真结果进行了比较,两者基本吻合。研究结果揭示了冰载荷作用下船体板架结构的响应规律。

  18. On Experimental Teaching of the "Iceberg Theory"——To Strengthen Integrity Education%实验教学“冰山学说”浅谈——加强诚信教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白雪梅; 刘树昌; 詹伟达; 崔莹

    2012-01-01

    文章依据实验教学的"冰山学说",从人文教育的角度辨析诚信教育问题;总结了现阶段实验教学中诚信教育存在的问题和挑战,分析了实验教学中学生诚信意识缺失的原因,结合教学实践提出了加强诚信教育的策略和措施;诚信教育是对实验教学"冰山学说"的重要完善和补充,有望成为解决现阶段实验教学质量差和人才培养水平低这一教育教学改革难题的有效途径之一。%According to the experimental teaching of the "iceberg theory",from the perspective of humanistic education Discrimination integrity of educational issues;summarizes the issues and challenges the integrity of education at this stage experimental teaching,the reasons for the lack of experimental teaching high school students awareness of honesty,combined with teaching practice proposedstrategies and measures to strengthen the integrity of education;the integrity of education is to improve and supplement the experimental teaching "iceberg theory",is expected to become one of the effective waysto resolve at this stage the poor quality of experimental teaching and training of personnel to low levels of educational reform challenges.

  19. Inactivation of murine norovirus 1, coliphage phiX174, and Bacteroides [corrected] fragilis phage B40-8 on surfaces and fresh-cut iceberg lettuce by hydrogen peroxide and UV light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Baert, Leen; De Jonghe, Maarten; Van Coillie, Els; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Devlieghere, Frank; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the inactivating properties of liquid hydrogen peroxide (L-H(2)O(2)), vaporized hydrogen peroxide (V-H(2)O(2)), UV light, and a combination of V-H(2)O(2) and UV light were tested on murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) and bacteriophages (φX174 and B40-8) as models for human noroviruses. Disinfection of surfaces was examined on stainless steel discs based on European Standard EN 13697 (2001). For fresh-produce decontamination, a mixture of the viruses was inoculated onto shredded iceberg lettuce and treated after overnight incubation at 2°C. According to our results, L-H(2)O(2) (2.1%) was able to inactivate MNV-1 and φX174 on stainless steel discs by approximately 4 log(10) units within 10 min of exposure, whereas for B40-8, 15% of L-H(2)O(2) was needed to obtain a similar reduction in 10 min. Only a marginal reduction (≤1 log(10) unit after 5 min of exposure) by V-H(2)O(2) (2.52%) was achieved for the tested model viruses, although in combination with UV light, a 4-log(10)-unit decrease within 5 min of treatment was observed on stainless steel discs. Similar trends were observed for the decontamination of shredded iceberg lettuce, but the viral decline was reduced. These results demonstrated that both L-H(2)O(2) and a combination of V-H(2)O(2) and UV light can be used for norovirus inactivation on surfaces; V-H(2)O(2) (2.52%) in combination with UV light is promising for decontamination of fresh produce with much less consumption of water and disinfectant.

  20. Inactivation of Murine Norovirus 1, Coliphage φX174, and Bacillus fragilis Phage B40-8 on Surfaces and Fresh-Cut Iceberg Lettuce by Hydrogen Peroxide and UV Light▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Baert, Leen; De Jonghe, Maarten; Van Coillie, Els; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Devlieghere, Frank; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the inactivating properties of liquid hydrogen peroxide (L-H2O2), vaporized hydrogen peroxide (V-H2O2), UV light, and a combination of V-H2O2 and UV light were tested on murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) and bacteriophages (φX174 and B40-8) as models for human noroviruses. Disinfection of surfaces was examined on stainless steel discs based on European Standard EN 13697 (2001). For fresh-produce decontamination, a mixture of the viruses was inoculated onto shredded iceberg lettuce and treated after overnight incubation at 2°C. According to our results, L-H2O2 (2.1%) was able to inactivate MNV-1 and φX174 on stainless steel discs by approximately 4 log10 units within 10 min of exposure, whereas for B40-8, 15% of L-H2O2 was needed to obtain a similar reduction in 10 min. Only a marginal reduction (≤1 log10 unit after 5 min of exposure) by V-H2O2 (2.52%) was achieved for the tested model viruses, although in combination with UV light, a 4-log10-unit decrease within 5 min of treatment was observed on stainless steel discs. Similar trends were observed for the decontamination of shredded iceberg lettuce, but the viral decline was reduced. These results demonstrated that both L-H2O2 and a combination of V-H2O2 and UV light can be used for norovirus inactivation on surfaces; V-H2O2 (2.52%) in combination with UV light is promising for decontamination of fresh produce with much less consumption of water and disinfectant. PMID:21183630

  1. Consideraciones alrededor del Libro del Almismo, el Libro del Pensar.

    OpenAIRE

    MartaLucía Tamayo Fernandez

    1999-01-01

    La doctora MarthaLucía Tamayo comparte muchas inquietudes alrededor del Libro del Almismo, el Libro del Pensar; de dónde salió ese nombre; de juntar en medicina y en genética a tres escritores como lo son Jorge Luis Borges, Macedonio Fernández y Julio Cortázar. Su conferencia dice así:

    El término almismo fue ideado por Macedonio Fernández porque defendía mucho el ensimismamiento y el pensamiento hacia el interior, mirar hacia adentro; cada uno somos un “sí mismo” qu...

  2. Caracterización metalúrgica de tres piezas arqueológicas de materiales base cobre procedentes del Bajo Aragón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabaldón, A.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Three archaeological metallic objects corresponding to three different cultural times are studied. The objects are: a point of arrow Palmela type, a fragment of adze (possibly of the First Iron Age and a ring or small ring of the Roman Period. The analysis show concordant results whit similar finds of the same cronology and contribute new data about the metallurgical technology of the copper base material for each of the cultural times of origen. At the same time how has affected the environment in which the objects have been found has been determinate.

    Se estudian tres piezas metálicas arqueológicas correspondientes a tres momentos culturales diversos. Se trata de una punta de flecha tipo Palmela, de un fragmento de azuela (posiblemente de la Primera Edad del Hierro y de un anillo o anilla del período romano. Los análisis ofrecen resultados concordantes con los de objetos similares de la misma cronología y aportan datos nuevos sobre la tecnología metalúrgica de los materiales de base cobre para cada uno de los momentos culturales de procedencia. Al mismo tiempo, se ha determinado cómo ha afectado el medio en el que se hallaron a su estado de conservación.

  3. Acerca del moho

    Science.gov (United States)

    El moho forma parte del medio ambiente natural. Afuera del hogar, el moho juega un papel en la naturaleza al desintegrar materias organicas tales como las hojas que se han caido o los arboles muertos. El moho puede crecer adentro del hogar cuando las espor

  4. Measuring the electric energy services for the World Trade Center in Mexico city; Medicion de los servicios de energia electrica del World Trade Center de la ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Nunez, Humberto; Robledo Vera, Humberto [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In conforming the project of measuring the electric power for the World Trade Center of Mexico City, the use of top technology has been considered that in its field represents the application for the first time in our country the automatic reading of the electric energy meters. In this paper the network for the supply of electric power to the World Trade Center is described as well as the measuring systems of this building and mention is made of the characteristics of the system components and the advantages of remote reading. General data is provided on this collection of buildings, the connections in its tower and a feeding one line diagram of the tower itself [Espanol] En la conformacion del proyecto de medicion de la energia electrica para el edificio World Trade Center de la Ciudad de Mexico, se ha considerado el uso de tecnologia de punta que en su campo representa la aplicacion por primera vez en nuestro pais de la lectura automatica de medidores de energia electrica. En esta ponencia se describen la red de suministro al World Trade Center, los sistemas de medicion de este edificio y se mencionan las caracteristicas de los componentes del sistema y las ventajas de las lecturas remotas. Se proporciona datos generales sobre el conjunto de este edificio, las derivaciones en su torre y un diagrama unifilar de alimentacion de la torre del mismo

  5. TEORÍAS IMPLÍCITAS SOBRE LAS CAUSAS DEL DELITO EN INTERNOS CONDENADOS DE ALTO Y BAJO COMPROMISO DELICTUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Caceres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar las diferencias existentes entre delincuentes con alto y bajo compromiso delictual en su adherencia a teorías implícitas (determinismo b iológico y social, entiteismo , esencialismo y atribución causal , sobre el comportamiento delictivo. La medición de las variables se realizó mediante la aplicación de encuestas. La muestra fue no probabilística, (N=80, siendo los participantes individuos de sexo masculino condenados, internos en el recinto penitencia rio de Punta Arenas. Los resultados indican que los participantes que poseen un perfil criminológico más severo suelen adherir de distinto modo a algunas de las teorías implícitas en comparación con los individuos que poseen un bajo compromiso con el delit o. En la dirección de las hipótesis, los participantes altos en co mpromiso delictual se mostraron más estables respecto de la naturaleza de los grupos. Estos resultados son discutidos con relación a su relevancia en el desarrollo de programas de prevención e intervención del comportamiento delincuente.

  6. Opciones y resultados en el tratamiento quirúrgico de las fracturas del olécranon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Gabriel Díaz Carrillo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Las fracturas del olécranon, resultantes de un trauma directo o sobrecarga muscular del tríceps sobre la epífisis proximal, representan aproximadamente el 10% de las fracturas de la articulación del codo. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar los resultados clínicos, obtenidos con la fijación interna de las fracturas del olécranon en pacientes operados en el hospital “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna” de la provincia de Las Tunas, y actualizar al cirujano ortopedista sobre conceptos recientes y tipos novedosos de osteosíntesis, usados en esta lesión traumática articular. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo desde octubre de 2010 a enero de 2013; el universo estuvo conformado por trece lesionados y la muestra no probabilística fue de doce pacientes. Se analizaron los datos mediante técnicas estadísticas descriptivas. Para el tratamiento quirúrgico se consideró la estabilidad de la fractura, el número de fragmentos y el desplazamiento focal. La edad promedio fue de 36,8 años y predominó el sexo masculino, en relación de 5:1. Como técnicas operatorias se utilizaron el cerclaje de alambre, tornillo endomedular, cerclaje antidistractor, tornillos interfragmentarios, resección de la punta del olécranon y placas reconstructivas. La reducción abierta con la osteosíntesis con cerclaje fue el método usual de tratamiento, para las fracturas desplazadas del olécranon, y brindó resultados satisfactorios. La complicación más frecuente fue el aflojamiento con osteosíntesis sintomática. Los resultados del tratamiento fueron excelentes y buenos en el 83,4% de los pacientes

  7. Del territorio del sujeto al emplazamiento del Común

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Adrían Ferretti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La construcción de lo público abarca una variedad de dinámicas que condicionan el resultado físico de los espacios donde actúan los individuos en sus necesidades de habitar, modificando su realidad desde la diferenciación y la singularización subjetiva del entorno que derivan en nuevas formas de territorialidad de lo público a partir de la dialéctica entre lo público y lo privado. Sin embargo, los resultados de tales representaciones entendidas como acciones colectivas –y por tanto comunes- no siempre explican los valores que desde lo simbólico partiendo del sujeto constituyan un estatus diferente de lo público en los procesos de territorialización. Se propone una aproximación que aborde de manera teórica cuestiones tales como: los vínculos del individuo con los procesos de acumulación material y transformación del territorio y las implicaciones que dichos fenómenos tienen en la posibilidad de constitución de un sujeto que trascendiendo al individuo sea capaz de conformar un nuevo estatus del sujeto o, dicho de otro modo, un emplazamiento del Común.

  8. Historia del genoma humano

    OpenAIRE

    Castaño Valencia, Óscar

    2006-01-01

    En 1990 el Doctor Charles de Lisi presentó el proyecto del GENOMA HUMANO en asocio del Instituto de Salud Americano, el Instituto Whithead de Cambridge, la Universidad de Washingtong, el Colegio Médico de Baylor y el Instituto del Genoma Humano, de California.Estos organismos han venido actuando desde esa época, contando con la financiación de los gobiernos del Japón, Alemania, Francia, China y naturalmente del americano.En sus fases iniciales fue orientado por el Dr. James Watson quien contó...

  9. Los nudos del sistema

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Pieza central del antiguo régimen; pacto, acuerdo o trato con algunos actores decisivos del sistema político susceptible de ser revisado; forma cultural de relaciones de poder o de intercambio; pirámide de organizaciones o estructura sectorial: ¿qué tan invisible sigue siendo, qué tan montada sigue estando la pirámide del corporativismo mexicano antes y después del 2 de julio de 2000? Este fenómeno constituye el eje central de las reflexiones del presente ensayo. En torno al mismo, se pres...

  10. Estimación de la varianza genética y ambiental en caracteres métricos del esqueleto humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela, Héctor Hugo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En la teoría evolutiva de rasgos cuantitativos el conocimiento de la varianza genética (VG es determinante para hacer inferencias acerca del parentesco. En muchos casos no es posible estimar dicha componente sin la información obtenida a partir de la correlación entre parientes o de experimentos de selección. Por esta razón, en ausencia de datos apropiados es posible lograr una aproximación mediante el análisis de la repetibilidad de caracteres cuantitativos. En este trabajo se estima la proporción de la varianza genética máxima (VGmax o repetibilidad de medidas del cráneo y del esqueleto postcraneal, empleando la información obtenida por la Dra. Silvia Quevedo en el grupo prehistórico de Punta Teatinos (Norte Semiárido de Chile. La VG es igual a la varianza fenotípica (VP menos la varianza ambiental (VE. Esta última se puede particionar en una varianza ambiental especial (VEe y en una varianza ambiental general (VEg. Como la VEe se puede conocer por la medición de caracteres simétricos del lado derecho e izquierdo del individuo, entonces es posible calcular la varianza genética máxima de la siguiente manera, VGmax=VP-VEe. La proporción de la VGmax se obtuvo para siete variables del esqueleto postcraneano en individuos femeninos (n=56, masculinos (n=55, de ambos sexos (n=115 e infantiles (n=66, y para nueve mediciones del cráneo en un único grupo (n=54. Los resultados indican que la proporción media de la VGmax es menor en el cráneo que en el esqueleto postcraneal sugiriendo una distribución diferencial del efecto ambiental desde el punto de vista topográfico. Además, dicha cantidad es mayor en individuos infantiles que en masculinos y femeninos posiblemente por la existencia en aquellos de una mayor influencia del efecto ambiental general confundido con la VGmax.

  11. Algunas aclaraciones acerca del conocimiento del singular.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Llano Cifuentes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Llano tries to explain the main purpose of El Conocimiento del Singular, showing how the individuals about which the book is concerned are basically human individuals: people as decision makers.

  12. Impacto del manejo del ecosistema del pastizal en la fertilidad natural y sostenibilidad del suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Senra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sobre la base de resultados, principalmente de Cuba, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar el impacto del manejo del ecosistema del pastizal, en condiciones del trópico estacional -en sistemas de explotación bovina- para conocer sus efectos en la sostenibilidad y eficiencia del pastizal y el suelo. Se discute el efecto del manejo del pastizal en la compactación, y el escurrimiento e infiltración del agua, así como la erosión pluvial de los suelos. Se señalan los impactos positivos de la inclusión de los árboles multipropósito en los pastizales y sus efectos en disminuir las radiaciones solares y evaporación en el suelo, así como suavizar el ambiente. Se indican índices fundamentales para el control sistemático de la sostenibilidad y eficiencia en los sistemas de explotación bovina con base de pastos; se enfatiza el papel decisivo del hombre en garantizar adecuadas tecnologías de manejo y su ajuste a las condiciones de explotación. Se llega a conclusiones y recomendaciones que podrán ayudar a la recuperación, sostenibilidad y eficiencia de la ganadería en nuestras condiciones.

  13. Research on Ice Material Model Applied in Numerical Simulation of Ship Structure Response under Iceberg Collision%冰材料模型在船-冰碰撞结构响应数值仿真中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 张淼溶; 万正权; 尹群

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an ice material model is provided, which is applicable to numerical simulation of ship structure response under iceberg collision,. Based on this ideal ice model, numerical simulation of collision between ship and iceberg is carried out. The characteristics of dynamic response of ship structure under different collision angles of the iceberg are studied. The features of deformation, impact force and energy absorption by the ship under various conditions are revealed. The research provides a reference for ship design under ice induced loads.%提出适用于船-冰碰撞数值仿真研究的冰体材料模型。基于该模型,用非线性有限元软件对整船-冰碰撞进行数值仿真,研究船舶肩部与冰体在不同碰撞角度下发生碰撞时的动态响应特性,用以揭示不同工况下船舶损伤变形、碰撞力、能量吸收的规律,为船舶抗冰载荷设计提供参考。

  14. Electricity sector prospective 2009-2024; Prospectiva del sector electrico 2009-2024

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irastorza Trejo, Veronica; Doniz Gonzalez; Virginia; Cue Aguilar; Gumersindo [Secretaria de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    , las fuentes de energia primaria y secundaria que se utilizan para generar electricidad en varios paises y regiones, las proyecciones del consumo de combustibles, asi como la dinamica en la construccion de nuevas centrales e infraestructura mediante tecnologia de punta que, tanto en las economias avanzadas como en las emergentes, representan tendencias estrategicas en el contexto del combate global al cambio climatico, entre las que destacan la tecnologia de los nuevos reactores nucleares avanzados y las tecnologias aplicables al aprovechamiento de las fuentes renovables como la eolica, solar, geotermica, mini hidraulica, y bioenergeticas, entre otras. En el segundo capitulo se presenta la estructura del marco legal y regulatorio del sector electrico, asi como los instrumentos de politica regulatoria aplicables en Mexico y el estado que guardan los permisos otorgados en las modalidades consideradas en la Ley del Servicio Publico de Energia Electrica. En el tercer capitulo se analiza la evolucion del mercado electrico nacional de los ultimos anos, considerando el comportamiento del consumo nacional de electricidad, las ventas para el servicio publico y sector, el comportamiento estacional de la demanda y la estructura tarifaria. En el cuarto capitulo se presenta la trayectoria de planeacion del consumo y la demanda de electricidad a nivel nacional, sectorial y regional con el proposito de identificar los requerimientos de capacidad y de energia necesaria para el periodo 2009-2024.

  15. Facies del subfondo del canal Beagle, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bujalesky

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available El canal Beagle conecta los océanos Pacífico y Atlántico en el extremo meridional de Sudamérica y se ubica en el ambiente subantártico. Conforma una cuenca de unos 300 m de profundidad máxima y está separada del océano Atlántico por un umbral de 30 m de profundidad. El canal es un valle tectónico que fue completamente cubierto por el hielo glacial durante la última glaciación. Posteriormente, el canal fue ocupado por un lago glacial desde los 12.000 a los 8.000 años A.P., cuando fue invadido por el mar que alcanzó un nivel máximo entre los 6.000 y 5.000 años A.P. Con el objetivo de analizar las facies sedimentarias superficiales y del subfondo del canal se realizó un relevamiento geofísico con sonar de barrido lateral y un perfilador de 3,5 kHz. Sobre un basamento constituido por rocas metamórficas del Mesozoico, se identificaron depósitos de till y secuencias granodecrecientes que representan distintos estadios del retroceso glaciar, evidenciando hacia la sección superior facies lacustres y por encima depósitos de la transgresión marina del Holoceno. Además, se han identificado paleocauces y secuencias fluviales cubiertas por sedimentos marinos transgresivos.

  16. 能力素质冰山模型在儿科护理安全管理中的应用%Application of ability-quality iceberg model on nursing safety management in pediatric department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓云; 张立力

    2016-01-01

    Objective To preliminarily explore the application of ability-quality iceberg model on nursing safety management in the pediatric department .Methods Firstly, a nursing safety management team was established which was comprised of six professional nurses .The ability-quality iceberg model was used to analyze the reasons for all adverse events due to inappropriate nursing emerged in 2014 , in order to improve the quality of nursing care .Moreover, the nursing safety effects were compared between 2014 and 2015 in pediatric department .Lastly, the incidence of nursing mistakes was also an important outcome according to randomly investigating the nurse identity verification and non-standard verification behaviors . Results The nursing adverse events significantly reduced from 2014 to 2015 , especially for cases of falling down from bed (P <0.05).The incidence of nursing disputes also reduced with patient satisfaction increased (P<0.05).The nurse identity verification rate was 100.00% and non-standard verification behaviors rate and incidence of nursing mistakes were 0.00%.Conclusions The ability-quality iceberg model can effectively analyze the reasons for adverse events due to inappropriate nursing and can improve the nurse training method as well as the nursing safety management .%目的:初步探讨能力素质冰山模型在儿科护理安全管理中的作用。方法组织科室护理骨干6名成立护理安全管理小组,运用能力素质冰山模型分析2014年1—12月我院儿科所有护理不良事件发生的“人”方面的原因,依据分析结果,采取多种方法提升护士的潜在素质;收集2014年及2015年1—12月反映科室护理安全效果的数据进行统计对比;随机抽查2015年全年护士身份核对执行情况、不规范核对行为,统计护理差错发生率。结果2015年全年护理不良事件发生例数较2014年明显下降(P<0.05),其中坠床例数下降明显(P<0.05)。护理

  17. Las vitrinas del museo

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Tanto las obras de arte como los animales nos ocultan información cuando se reúnen en un museo, pues quedan al margen del contexto espacial y temporal del que proceden. No obstante, el ojo avezado sabrá interpretar una parte de esa historia perdida. Del mismo modo, algunas especies vivas traslocadas conservan rasgos que nos ayudan a inferir las condiciones ambientales de su lugar de origen.

  18. Psicodrama del duelo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Espina Barrio

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available La pérdida de rituales agrava y alarga la reacción del duelo. Se define el Psicodrama Antropológico y su intervención en el proceso del duelo. El Psicodrama Focal del Duelo es una psicoterapia breve centrada en el proceso de Duelo. Se comentan varios casos y resultados. Se concluye con un programa sencillo para el duelo en Atención Primaria.

  19. Psicodrama del duelo.

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Espina Barrio; Marisol Filgueira Bouza

    1997-01-01

    La pérdida de rituales agrava y alarga la reacción del duelo. Se define el Psicodrama Antropológico y su intervención en el proceso del duelo. El Psicodrama Focal del Duelo es una psicoterapia breve centrada en el proceso de Duelo. Se comentan varios casos y resultados. Se concluye con un programa sencillo para el duelo en Atención Primaria.

  20. Fractura triple del complejo suspensorio del hombro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraclio Delgado Rifá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El complejo suspensorio del hombro es una estructura sumamente importante, compuesta por un anillo de huesos y tejidos blandos. Las lesiones aisladas de este complejo anatómico son frecuentes y no afectan su estabilidad. La interrupción doble conduce a la inestabilidad de esta estructura y usualmente requiere tratamiento quirúrgico. La triple interrupción, por su parte, es sumamente rara y es encontrada en casos de trauma de alta energía a menudo en asociación con otras lesiones. Se presenta una triple lesión del complejo suspensorio del hombro en un paciente de 46 años de edad, con una fractura de la glenoides, del acromion tipo III de Kuhn y de la coracoides tipo II de Ogawa. En este caso, la fractura del acromion fue tratada con fijación percutánea con alambres de Kirschner, por tener asociado lesiones de partes blandas que contraindicaron la reducción abierta. La fractura de la glenoides y de la apófisis coracoides fueron tratadas conservadoramente. Después de 6 meses de evolución, el paciente tuvo un resultado funcional aceptable, con una abducción de 90 grados, los 30 grados de rotación externa y 70 de rotación interna, además asintomático y consolidación de todas las fracturas. A pesar de ser catalogada de una lesión grave del cinturón escapular y estar asociada a otras lesiones se obtuvo un resultado satisfactorio al final del tratamiento.

  1. La unidualidad del hombre

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, Edgar

    1997-01-01

    Este art??culo acomete la cuesti??n de la definici??n y unidad del g??nero humano. Tras poner de manifiesto la doble conciencia de la que depende la noci??n de hombre, se ocupa de la afirmaci??n humanista de la unidad del hombre, mostrando los reversos de esta afirmaci??n (separaci??n del hombre de la naturaleza e ignorancia de la unidad biol??gica de la especie homo), as?? como de las distintas envestidas contra el humanismo cuestionadoras de la unidad del hombre lanzadas durante el siglo XX...

  2. Concepto del Derecho Mercantil

    OpenAIRE

    Morelli C., Francisco

    2014-01-01

    No existe nada más difícil en el campo del Derecho Mercantil que pretender dar un concepto orgánico del mismo. La razón fundamental de esta imposibilidad  estriba precisamente en la falta de concordancia entre el derecho mercantil y el derecho de comercio. Una definición que considera el derecho mercantil como la parte del derecho privado encargada de regular las relaciones que se derivan del comercio, como lo hacen todas las definiciones clásicas,  pecaría de un doble defecto que la harían i...

  3. Application of ‘Iceberg Model ’ in the Curriculum System Constructing of Vocational Colleges%“冰山模型”在高职课程体系构建中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶红; 李存园

    2014-01-01

    Curriculum system is the key to protect and enhance the quality of education. The “iceberg model” basic theory is applied to vocational tourism management curriculum system construction, and it can help to change the disciplinary system for the training of student-led curriculum model and recessive quality. Using the basic theory of “iceberg model” to exporting the higher education curriculum system, constructing the curriculum system of the specific ability, general ability, and cross-professional ability, professional core competencies corresponding with platform courses, orientation courses, expanding courses and public courses consisting of a complete curriculum. In the course of teaching staff, curriculum such as the practice of teaching and learning condition, to ensure smooth implementation of the curriculum system. In the course of teaching methods emphasis on the construction process, the order and proportion, teaching staff, curriculum, such as the practice of teaching and learning conditions, to ensure smooth implementation of the curriculum system.%课程体系是保障和提升教育质量的关键。将“冰山模型”基本理论应用于高职旅游管理课程体系的构建,有利于改变学科体系为主导的课程模式和学生隐性素质的培养。以“冰山模型”基本理论为基础构建与职业特定能力、行业通用能力、跨行业职业能力、职业核心能力相对应的平台课程、方向课程、拓展课程和公共课程组成的完整课程体系,在课程建设过程中重视教学方式、课程的顺序和比例、师资队伍建设、实践教学条件等,能够确保课程体系的顺利实施。

  4. Late Paleozoic onset of subduction and exhumation at the western margin of Gondwana (Chilenia Terrane): Counterclockwise P-T paths and timing of metamorphism of deep-seated garnet-mica schist and amphibolite of Punta Sirena, Coastal Accretionary Complex, central Chile (34° S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyppolito, T.; García-Casco, A.; Juliani, C.; Meira, V. T.; Hall, C.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the Paleozoic albite-epidote-amphibolite occurring as meter-sized intercalations within garnet-mica schist at Punta Sirena beach (Pichilemu region, central Chile) is characterized for the first time. These rocks constitute an unusual exposure of subduction-related rocks within the Paleozoic Coastal Accretionary Complex of central Chile. Whereas high pressure (HP) greenschist and cofacial metasediments are the predominant rocks forming the regional metamorphic basement, the garnet-mica schist and amphibolite yield higher P-T conditions (albite-epidote amphibolite facies) and an older metamorphic age. Combining detailed mineral chemistry and textural information, P-T calculations and Ar-Ar ages, including previously published material from the Paleozoic Accretionary Complex of central Chile, we show that the garnet-mica schist and associated amphibolite (locally retrograded to greenschist) are vestiges of the earliest subducted material now forming exotic bodies within the younger HP units of the paleo-accretionary wedge. These rocks are interpreted as having been formed during the onset of subduction at the southwestern margin of Gondwana. However, we show that the garnet-mica schist formed at a slightly greater depth (ca. 40 km) than the amphibolite (ca. 30 km) along the same hot-subduction gradient developed during the onset of subduction. Both lithotypes reached their peak-P conditions at ca. 335-330 Ma and underwent near-isobaric cooling followed by cooling and decompression (i.e., counterclockwise P-T paths). The forced return flow of the garnet-mica schist from the subduction channel started at ca. 320 Ma and triggered the exhumation of fragments of shallower accreted oceanic crust (amphibolite). Cores of phengite (garnet-mica schist) and amphibole (amphibolite) grains have similar chemical compositions in both the S1 and S2 domains, indicating rotation of these grains during the transposition of the burial-related (prograde peak-T) foliation S1

  5. LA POLITICA SOCIAL DEL "GOBIERNO DEL CAMBIO"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mota Díaz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se centra en la política social del actual sexenio foxista , la cual se ha definido como incluyente y equitativa dentro del marco de un gobierno autodenominado del cambio, no sólo por lo que se refiere a la alternancia política del poder, sino porque además pretende ser un gobierno con una visión más amplia del desarrollo. Todo ello se traduce en “nuevas” estrategias para alcanzar la democracia, la equidad, la justicia social y el bienestar general de la población. El objetivo es analizar las posibilidades y limitaciones de un verdadero cambio que contribuya a mejorar la calidad de vida de la población en su sentido más amplio, pues los retos son cada vez mayores dado el incremento en los niveles de pobreza, el creciente desempleo y la constante violación a los derechos humanos.

  6. LA OCUPACIÓN SOLUTRENSE DEL ABRIGO DE LA BOJA (MULA, MURCIA, ESPAÑA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Lucena

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El relleno pleistoceno del Abrigo de la Boja (ADB empieza con un nivel adscrito al Magdaleniense superior, seguido de un potente paquete con ocupación difusa bajo el cual se desarrolla una secuencia depositada durante el último máximo glacial caracterizada por una serie de estructuras de combustión, de tipo hogar plano/amorfo (open hearth, existiendo también hogares de cubeta. Destaca un hogar enlosado, completo y muy bien conservado, excavado en 2012 y adscrito provisionalmente al Solutreogravetiense. Los niveles solutrenses subyacentes son ricos en elementos de adorno, entre los cuales conchas perforadas de Littorina obtusata y Smaragdia viridis; su industria lítica incluye raspadores, algunas puntas, y escasos buriles. La datación 14C de muestras de carbón de Juniperus sp. situa este paquete entre 16990 ± 70 BP (VERA-5364a, a techo, y 20980 ± 120 BP (VERA-5366, a muro.The Pleistocene fill of the La Boja rock shelter (ADB starts with an Upper Magdalenian level, followed by a thick package with poorly defined occupations under which there is a Last Glacial Maximum sequence with combustion features, mostly of the open hearth type. A particularly well preserved and seemingly complete stone-paved hearth of probable Solutreogravettian age was excavated in 2012. The abundant ornaments in the Solutrean levels include pierced Littorina obtusata and Smaragdia viridis shells and the stone tool assemblages feature endscrapers, some points and rare burins. The 14C dating of Juniperus sp. charcoal samples places this sequence between 16990 ± 70 BP (VERA-5364a, at the top, and 20980 ± 120 BP (VERA-5366, at the bottom.

  7. The dogma of bacteriology and other events as spearheads of virology Dogma de la bacteriología y otros eventos como puntas de lanza de la virología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Volcy

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    This review analyzes some of the main events during the twentieth century that led to the birth of virology. In the literature of the time, a relationship of causality was established between virus and disease, and within this pathological context, the notions of fixed virus, volatile virus, contagium vivum fluidum and contagium fixum were formed. The transformation of the virus concept as a technoscientific object took place based on the criterion of filterability and on the methodology devised for the bacteriology dogma. Studies on tobacco mosaic virus are highlighted, as well as those on viral diseases of human beings and animals, which led to the discovery of these submicroscopic agents through the appropriation of technologies and the impulse triggered by political and economic factors.

    Esta investigación analiza algunos de los eventos principales del siglo XIX que condujeron hacia la cristalización de la virología. En los documentos de esta investigación analiza algunos de los eventos principales del siglo XIX que condujeron hacia la cristalización de la virología. En los documentos de aquella época, se plasmó una relación de causalidad entre virus y enfermedad o contagio, y en este contexto patológico, se elaboraron las nociones de virus fijo, virus volátil, contagium vivum fluidum y contagium fixum. De otro lado, la transformación conceptual hacia el virus como objeto tecnocientífico tuvo lugar con base en el criterio de filtrabilidad y en la metodología trazada por la bacteriología convertida en dogma. Asimismo, se

  8. La luz del origen del universo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casas, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Penzias and Wilson discovered the cosmic microwave background, a luminous echo of the Big Bang, in 1965. The amount of information encoded in this relic of the early universe is truly extraordinary. At present, the most precise data about the origin and structure of the universe comes from the study of this primordial light, the full potential of which has yet to be explored.En 1965 se descubrió el fondo de radiación de microondas, un eco luminoso de la Gran Explosión (Big Bang. La cantidad de información contenida en esta reliquia del universo primitivo es verdaderamente extraordinaria. En la actualidad los datos más precisos sobre el origen y estructura del universo provienen del estudio de esta luz primigenia, que aún no ha sido explorada en todo su potencial.

  9. Descripción de una especie nueva de Meloe Linnaeus, 1758 del subgénero Eurymeloe Reitter, 1911 (Coleoptera, Meloidae del norte de Marruecos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-París, M.

    2009-12-01

    Marruecos y se localizaron en hábitat forestal hiperhúmedo de montaña. La nueva especie se caracteriza por presentar: coloración negro mate con tonalidad grisácea; pilosidad blanquecino-amarillenta, muy corta, curvada y poco densa que no forma mechones; pronoto transverso, subrectangular, con surco medio longitudinal y depresiones longitudinales a ambos lados; punteado de cabeza y pronoto impreso y subconfluente; élitros apenas rugosos; artejos tarsales con cepillos pilosos poco desarrollados; edeago con lóbulos paramerales curvados con depresiones laterales y terminados en punta aguda, y lóbulo medio con el diente distal de la zona ventral cercano al ápice. El nuevo taxon es fenéticamente afín a M. nanus, M. baudueri y M. flavicomus, pero diferenciado de ellos tanto por los caracteres morfológicos externos como del edeago indicados. Esta especie, conocida únicamente de la localidad tipo, comparte área geográfica general con M. murinus, M. nanus y posiblemente M. baudueri, si bien hasta el momento no se ha detectado simpatría estricta con ninguna de ellas. El tipo de hábitat en el que se localiza la especie nueva, áreas de montaña con formaciones forestales mixtas de Pinus pinaster hamiltonii var. maghrebiana, P. nigra mauritanica y Abies maroccana (exclusivas del Rif calizo noroccidental, contrasta con los señalados para esas otras especies de Eurymeloe del subgrupo de M. (E. murinus.

  10. Il dono del racconto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polito, Paola

    1998-01-01

    'importanza assunta nel romanzo dal piano dell'enunciazione come luogo privilegiato di manifestazione del soggetto quale esperiente una vicenda di maturazione. Il protagonista, qui, non solo si rappresenta in ciò che enuncia e riferisce, ma anche e soprattutto si svela nelle modalità specifiche del proprio discorso...

  11. Archivo del Duelo

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrera, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    Photos taken from the Archive of Mourning following the March 11 terrorist attacks El Archivo del Duelo. Creaci?n de un archivo etnogr?fico de los Atentados del 11 de marzo en Madrid. Ministerio de Educaci?n y Ciencia HUM2005-03490.

  12. del desarrollo sustentable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Goñi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se sintetiza una concepción del desarrollo sustentable elaborada por los autores de este trabajo desde una perspectiva multidimensional (social, económica y ambiental, fundamentalmente signada por una impronta político-social y una visión crítica del "sustentabilismo" ecologista hegemónico.

  13. Usos alternativos del chocho.

    OpenAIRE

    Villacrés, Elena; Rubio, Armando; Egas, Luis; Segovia, Gabriela

    2006-01-01

    La valorización del chocho exige conocer tecnologías de transformación, técnicas para aumentar la vida útil, minimizar los riesgos y mejorar las propiedades nutritivas, funcionales y sensoriales, con el objeto de diversificar e incrementar la utilización y el consumo del grano…

  14. Il corpo del mostro: retoriche del neofantastico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Micali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Attraverso l’analisi di alcuni testi di Julio Cortázar e Tommaso Landolfi, l’articolo illustra alcune delle strategie retoriche attraverso le quali il fantastico del Novecento affronta la rappresentazione propriamente fisica del 'corpo mostruoso', e in particolare di quello femminile, portatore di un’alterità tanto più inconcepibile e inaccettabile quanto più si impone con la propria evidenza corporea nell’orizzonte di realtà in cui il testo è collocato.

  15. Elementos del sistema electoral del Congreso Mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Medina García; Irina Cervantes Bravo

    2013-01-01

    El presente artículo es un estudio de los componentes del sistema electoral, diseñado por el legislador mexicano para integrar al parlamento federal. Estudio desarrollado a sabiendas de la importancia que reviste el sistema electoral como un medio que permite a los ciudadanos convertir su voto expresado en las urnas en escaños a favor de determinado candidato o partido. En dicho análisis tomamos en cuenta la evolución constitucional del sistema electoral mexicano, la participación de las fuer...

  16. Desarrollo del lenguaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Villena Omer

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available

    E. Owens Robert (2003. Desarrollo del lenguaje. Madrid: Pearson Education, S.A. , 2003, (463 páginas. Estamos ante un texto destinado a entender el dominio o ámbito de la "psicolingüística del desarrollo" en el que terapeutas del lenguaje, psicólogos, profesores y lingüistas encontrarán información actualizada y amplia en lo que respecta a los avances que este campo ha experimentado en las dos últimas décadas. Tanto en las cinco ediciones en lengua inglesa desde 1998 a esta esperada edición en español, el propósito del autor es entregar una visión profunda de los procesos de adquisición y desarrollo del lenguaje.

  17. Analysis on Hills Like White Elephant under the Principle of Iceberg%“冰山原则”理论下《白象似的群山》解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茂君

    2015-01-01

    Ernest Hemingway, the winner of the Nobel Prize for literature, is one of the most famous Nov⁃elist in America in the twentieth century. He summarized the experience of the years of literary creation, and formed the principle of iceberg. His short story Hills Like White Elephant is a great example in which the fa⁃mous Hemingway style, including the objective narrative skills and the simple dialogues. It makes the story more vivid and graceful.%诺贝尔文学奖获得者欧内斯特·海明威是20世纪美国最著名的小说家之一,他总结出自己多年创作的经验,形成了著名的“冰山原则”。《白象似的群山》是他最负盛名的短篇小说,小说采用客观凝练的叙事技巧,运用简洁的对话形式使文章生动而含蓄,其象征手法更是使“冰山原则”得到了充分的体现。

  18. “冰山模型”视角下农民工素质问题与对策研究%Problems of Quality of Migrant Workers and Countermeasures from the Perspective of Iceberg Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜毓洁; 刘园

    2012-01-01

    以“冰山模型”的视角,从知识、技能、社会角色、自我认知、品质、动机等多个方面,对当前农民工素质层次与结构进行了分析.提出了提高农民工素质的对策:重视农村教育,加强技能培训;明晰职业规划,树立正确价值观;帮助农民工面对现实,调整农民工工作心态;协调利益关系,呼吁社会关怀;重塑精神家园,构筑和谐社会.%From the perspective of Iceberg Model, we analyze levels and structures of quality of migrant workers from knowledge, skills, social role, self-cognition, quality, and motivation. On the basis of these situations, we put forward counlermeasures: value rural education and enhance skill training; make clear occupational planning and set up correct sense of value; assist migrant workers in facing the reality and adjusting their state of mind in working; coordinate interest relationship and call upon social concern; rebuild menial world and construct harmonious society.

  19. 基于“冰山模型”的高校辅导员胜任力培养%On Cultivation of Advisors' Competency Based on Iceberg Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕云超

    2011-01-01

    基于“冰山模型”的理论框架,通过访谈法建立高校辅导员胜任力模型,即知识、技能、社会角色、自我概念、人格特质、动机6个维度及20项胜任力特征,包括以辅导员职业动机为核心的师德培育体系、以辅导员职业忠诚为核心的价值观培育体系、以大学生成人成才为核心的技能培育体系和以辅导员职业范畴为核心的知识培育体系。%Based on the theoretical frame of the Iceberg Model, this paper proposes to build through interviews college advisors' competency model which contains six dimensions, i.e. knowledge, skill, social role, self--concept, personality trait and 20 competency characteristics. What needs to he done is to build systems for cultivating advisors' professional ethics centered on motivation, their values centered on loyalty, their skills centered on the growth of college students and their expertise centered on occupational scope.

  20. “冰山理论”对警察危机管理主体素质培养的启示%The Enlightenment of the Iceberg Theory on Police Crisis Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔海龙

    2012-01-01

      The great importance should be attached to the subject of the crisis management in crisis management activities. From the perspective of the iceberg theory, this article categorizes the subject of crisis management into two groups. One is implicit quality, the other is explicit quality. And in the article, combining with the concept of “all police participating”, the pathway of quality training is also discussed by the means of the analysis for the subject quality.%  在警察危机管理活动中必须高度重视“人”,即危机管理主体的作用。对危机管理主体素质的探讨可以借鉴“冰山理论”,将危机管理主体的素质分为隐形素质、显性素质。文章以此为基础,并结合危机管理中“全警参与”理念,探讨专门人员与其他部门民警所分别应具有的隐形素质、显性素质及其相应的培养途径

  1. Observation and Modelling of the Evolution of a Field of Rifts Near Hemmen Ice Rise, Ronne Iceshelf, Antarctica, Before the Rupture of Iceberg A38 on October 13th 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larour, E. Y.; Rignot, E.; Aubry, D.

    2002-12-01

    Hemmen Icerise, on Ronne Iceshelf, Antarctica, is at the origin of a large field of rifts, which were involved in the calving of iceberg A38 on October 13 th 1998. We use radar interferometric images collected by ERS 1 and RSAT 1 between 1992 and 2000 to observe the behavior of this field. From the interferograms generated, we retrieve important kinematic data, which we use to validate a model of ice deformation. This model is based on a viscous behavior of the iceshelf in which the rifts propagate according to a Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics criterion. We then reconstruct the entire sequence of events before the final calving. We are able to reach a good agreement with the observations on several points: 1) The propagation rates and the activity of the rifts are correctly evaluated throughout time. 2) The evolution of the iceflow around Hemmen Icerise is mapped adequately and plays a key role in the activation of rifts. 3) The acceleration of the active rifts and the onset of instability are determined with enough precision as to validate the LEFM theory behind our model. These results are an important step towards the setting up of a calving law for iceshelves.

  2. A Brief Analysis on Iceberg Theory′s Application in the Construction of Talent Team%浅析冰山理论在人才梯队建设中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冉; 赵铁迪

    2015-01-01

    人力资源管理是以教育测量学、管理学、心理学、计算机技术和行为科学等学科为基础的一种综合体系。本文采用动态冰山理论对技术人才及人才梯队进行科学的评价,旨在通过研究讨论,提升人力资源管理的效率与质量,为企业的招聘、选拔以及调用等人力资源管理工作提供科学的保证。%Human resources management is a comprehensive system based on the educational sur-veying, management science, psychology, computer technology and behavioral science. This pa-per adopts dynamic iceberg theory of technical personnel and talent echelon of scientific evaluation via the research and discussion to improve the quality and efficiency of human resources manage-ment, and to provide scientific guarantee for the enterprise recruitment, selection and invocation of the human resources management.

  3. Estructura espacial de Eucinostomus argenteus (Pisces: Gerreidae en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez Claudia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se llevó a cabo para determinar la distribución espacial de la densidad (captura por unidad de área – CPUA y de la estructura de tallas de Eucinostomus argenteus y su relación con las variables ambientales en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano. Los datos fueron se tomaron durante un crucero de investigación realizado en  la época seca (febrero de 2006 entre  Puerto Estrella (La Guajira y Santa Marta (Magdalena. Las muestras biológicas se colectaron con una red de arrastre (en estratos de profundidad < 50 m y 50-100 m siguiendo un diseño de muestreo sistemático. Los individuos maduros y de tallas mayores se encontraron distribuidos principalmente entre Manaure y Punta Gallinas, donde la plataforma continental es muy ancha y la oceanografía local esta modulada por la surgencia estacional. Los peces juveniles, se distribuyeron al sur del área de estudio, entre Boca Camarones y el Río Buritaca, cerca de la costa. En este sector la plataforma es muy estrecha y con alta productividad biológica por la presencia de ríos, manglares y pastos marinos, sirviendo como zona de alimentación y refugio para E. argenteus. En general los resultados sugieren que las variables ambientales son importantes para la distribución espacial de la abundancia y las tallas de

  4. Influencia del tratamiento UV-C sobre carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. mínimamente procesada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Andrade

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Español:La carambola (Averroha carambola L. es una fruta tropical exótica, perteneciente a la familia de las oxalidáceas, muy cotizada en los mercados internacionales, conocida como “fruta-estrella” o “star-fruit”. Su cultivo fue introducido hace aproximadamente unos treinta años en el Ecuador. Los frutos se cosechan verdes, son altamente perecederos, se recomienda su conservación a temperaturas no menores a 5°C. Tiene una forma ovalada, alargada, con cinco aristas que al corte forman una estrella de cinco puntas por lo que se utiliza en la decoración de la cocina gourmet. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la influencia del tratamiento UV-C sobre la calidad de carambola mínimamente procesada almacenada a 5°C. Frutos recién cosechados, lavados y seleccionados, se cortaron en rodajas de 5 mm de ancho, se dividieron en dos grupos: frutos tratados (13 kJ/m2 y no tratados (controles y se almacenaron en bandejas plásticas cubiertas con film PVC durante 21 días. A los 7, 14 y 21 días se determinó la pérdida de peso, acidez, pH, sólidos solubles y se observó visualmente el avance de pardeamiento, decaimiento y firmeza al tacto. Los frutos tratados y controles presentaron un incremento en la pérdida de peso durante el almacenamiento, sin embargo, ésta fue menor en los frutos tratados. No se observaron diferencias significativas en los parámetros físico-químicos analizados a lo largo del almacenamiento. A los 14 días, los frutos control mostraron mayor pardeamiento y pérdida de firmeza que los tratados. Además, a este tiempo, los frutos control dejaron de ser consumibles dado que mostraban desarrollo de microorganismos. Los frutos tratados recién mostraron desarrollo fúngico a los 21 días de almacenamiento a 5ºC. Los resultados sugieren que el tratamiento UV-C retardó los síntomas de daño permitiendo la conservación de carambola mínimamente procesada con una buena calidad comercial por más tiempo.

  5. Variabilidad de las comunidades de parásitos metazoos del róbalo Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830 (Pisces: Eleginopidae en Chile Variability of metazoan parasite communities in the rock cod Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830 (Pisces: Eleginopidae off Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La comparación de las variaciones en el tiempo cronológico y en el espacio es uno de los aspectos menos estudiados en la ecología de las comunidades de parásitos. Por eso, en este estudio se compara la abundancia total, riqueza y composición de las infracomunidades de parásitos del róbalo Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830 (Pisces: Eleginopidae, entre muestras tomadas en Chile centro-sur en tres localidades geográficas (Talcahuano, Puerto Montt y Punta Arenas, y en dos momentos del tiempo en cada una de ellas. En el conjunto de las 126 infracomunidades examinadas se encontraron 18 taxa de parásitos. La abundancia total y la composición de las infracomunidades se modificaban con la ontogenia del hospedador. Sin embargo, se encontró que la variación entre años en una localidad es de similar magnitud a la que hay entre lugares geográficos, luego de corregir por el efecto de la ontogenia del hospedador. Estos resultados resaltan la necesidad de implementar diseños de muestreo más rigurosos al momento de usar a los parásitos como marcadores biológicos de las poblaciones de hospedadores. Se propone que futuros estudios en las fuentes de variación de las comunidades de parásitos mejoren la descripción de estas variaciones con diseños de muestreo con medidas replicadas en el tiempo y el espacio.Comparison of variations in both chronological time and space is one of the least studied subjects in the ecology of parasite communities. Thus, we compared the abundance, richness and composition of parasite infracommunities in the rock cod Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier & Valenncienes, 1830 (Pisces: Eleginopidae, between three widely separated localities along south-central Chile (Talcahuano, Puerto Montt and Punta Arenas, which were sampled in two different years each. Eighteen parasite taxa were taxonomically determined in the 126 hosts examined. Total abundance and infracommunity composition changed along host ontogeny

  6. La crisi del diritto del lavoro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Garilli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto - L’Autore ripercorre in chiave critica l’evoluzione delle politiche legislative in materia di lavoro, alla luce dell’attuale fase di crisi economico finanziaria. Nell’esaminare i principali interventi normativi attuati da inizio secolo, l’Autore mette in evidenza le scelte di metodo e gli elementi di continuità che accomunano i vari provvedimenti, individuandoli nell’affannosa ricerca del punto di equilibrio tra flessibilità e garantismo. La riflessione si chiude con alcuni interrogativi sulle ultime linee di riforma del mercato del lavoro e con l’auspicio che, anche al cospetto delle imprescindibili ragioni dell’economia, il diritto del lavoro possa continuare a svolgere il proprio tradizionale ruolo di disciplina di tutela della persona.   Abstract - The author analyzes, with a critically oriented approach, the development of the employment law, in the light of the current economic and financial crisis. In examining the main regulatory measures implemented since the beginning of the century, the author highlights the methodological choices and the elements of continuity that unite the various measures, focusing them in a hard research of a point of balance between flexibility and security. The discussion concludes with some questions about the last lines of the reform of the labor market and with the hope that, even in the face of compelling reasons of economy, labor law can continue to play its traditional role of governing the protection of person.

  7. OBJETIVO DEL DESARROLLO DEL MILENIO 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita M. Pérez O.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio, también conocidos como los Objetivos del Milenio, constituyeron las metas finales que aprobaron los dirigentes mundiales, 189 jefes de estado y de gobierno en la Cumbre del Milenio de las Naciones Unidas celebrada en Nueva York en el año 2000, en la cual los Estados miembros de la organización reafirmaron su compromiso de luchar por un mundo en el que el desarrollo sostenible y la eliminación de la pobreza tuvieran máxima prioridad1 . En la cumbre se definió la Declaración del Milenio, la cual detalla los objetivos, principios, valores, metas y acciones para erradicar la pobreza Mundial hacia el año 2015, todos ellos ratificados con alto interés y acción estratégica de carácter global, como marco para la medición de los progresos en materia de desarrollo.

  8. Elementos del sistema electoral del Congreso Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Medina García

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es un estudio de los componentes del sistema electoral, diseñado por el legislador mexicano para integrar al parlamento federal. Estudio desarrollado a sabiendas de la importancia que reviste el sistema electoral como un medio que permite a los ciudadanos convertir su voto expresado en las urnas en escaños a favor de determinado candidato o partido. En dicho análisis tomamos en cuenta la evolución constitucional del sistema electoral mexicano, la participación de las fuerzas minoritarias en la integración del Senado y de la Cámara de Diputados, la división que se hace del territorio en circunscripciones electorales, la barrera electoral que se fija a los partidos políticos para acceder a la representación en el Parlamento, la fórmula de asignación que se aplica a la votación obtenida, para finalmente concluir que el sistema electoral mexicano es esencialmente mayoritario aun cuando se vista de proporcional.

  9. Elementos del sistema electoral del Congreso Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Medina García

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es un estudio de los componentes del sistema electoral, diseñado por el legislador mexicano para integrar al parlamento federal. Estudio desarrollado a sabiendas de la importancia que reviste el sistema electoral como un medio que permite a los ciudadanos convertir su voto expresado en las urnas en escaños a favor de determinado candidato o partido. En dicho análisis tomamos en cuenta la evolución constitucional del sistema electoral mexicano, la participación de las fuerzas minoritarias en la integración del Senado y de la Cámara de Diputados, la división que se hace del territorio en circunscripciones electorales, la barrera electoral que se fija a los partidos políticos para acceder a la representación en el Parlamento, la fórmula de asignación que se aplica a la votación obtenida, para finalmente concluir que el sistema electoral mexicano es esencialmente mayoritario aun cuando se vista de proporcional.

  10. Influencia del manejo del riego en el rendimiento del cafeto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Cisneros Z.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo trata sobre una investigación de manejo del riego en el cafeto (Coffea Arábica Lin Var. Caturra Rojo de 12 años de edad en la provincia de Pinar del Rió, plantado sobre un suelo Ferralítico Amarillento Lixiviado Cuarcitico. Fueron estudiados 6 tratamientos con un diseño experimental de bloques al azar, el momento de riego y el volumen de aplicación se controló por el método gravimétrico. La técnica de riego empleada fue la microaspersión bajo el principio de cobertura total (no localizada. Como promedio de los cuatro años de estudio se obtuvo que el mejor tratamiento fue el de regar todo el año al 85 % del límite superior de agua disponible, donde fue necesario aplicar 21 riegos con norma parcial neta de 355 m3/ha y norma total neta de 7 455 m3/ha, esta variante produjo 17,94 t/ha de café cereza para un incremento de 3,98 t/ha (29 % con respecto al secano. La rentabilidad más alta se detectó en el tratamiento de riego todo el año (Tratamiento 1 con 236,93 % en comparación con el testigo (Tratamiento 6

  11. Del Ver y del Decir en Merleau-Ponty

    OpenAIRE

    Mont Verdaguer, Maria

    2016-01-01

    [spa] El presente trabajo busca determinar la relación entre los ejes del lenguaje y la visión como entidades propias y fundantes del saber a través de la obra de Merleau-Ponty. Se trata pues de comprender cómo y en qué medida las dimensiones lingüística y visual del conocer construyen en el hombre un poso de conocimiento, un asiento positivo del saber. A partir del estudio de la evolución del primer al segundo Merleau-Ponty y del anàlisis de algunos de sus conceptos fundamentales tales co...

  12. Species composition and abundance of solpugids (Arachnida: Solifugae in ecotopes of the transitional coastal desert of Chile Composición de especies y abundancia de solífugos (Arachnida: Solifugae en ecotopos del desierto costero transicional de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Eugenio Valdivia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Using pitfall traps, the species composition and abundance of solpugids were studied in several ecotopes of Chile's transitional coastal desert. The study was conducted in the area around Punta de Choros (29°15'S, 71°26'W and in Los Choros Archipelago (29°32'S, 67°61'W, in 2005 and 2006. Five species were recorded: Procleobis sp.; Sedna pirata Muma, 1971 (Ammotrechidae; Mummucia sp.; Mummucia variegata (Gervais, 1849 (Mummuciidae; and Ammotrechelis goetschi Roewer, 1934 (Daesiidae. Solpugid abundance was higher on the continent (65% than on the islands (35%. The ANOSIM used to evaluate any difference in species richness between ecotopes revealed no significant differences (R= 0.097, p= 0.13. The similarity dendrogram obtained from the Bray-Curtis matrix indicates that there are 3 groups of ecotopes: steppe, dune, and a miscellaneous group. From the data it is inferred that the diversity and abundance of solpugids in the ecotopes studied may be related to plant structure and to the pedological conditions of the habitat.Mediante trampas de intercepción se estudió la composición específica y la abundancia de solífugos en diversos ecotopos del desierto costero transicional de Chile. El trabajo se llevó a cabo tanto en el sector de Punta de Choros (29°15'S, 71°26'O como en el archipiélago de Los Choros (29°32'S, 67°61'O, durante los años 2005 y 2006. Se registró la presencia de 5 especies: Procleobis sp.; Sedna pirata Muma, 1971 (Ammotrechidae, Mummucia sp.; Mummucia variegata (Gervais, 1849 (Mummuciidae y Ammotrechelis goetschi Roewer, 1934 (Daesiidae. En el sector continental se observó mayor abundancia que en el sector insular (65% y 35%, respectivamente. El ANOSIM aplicado para evaluar la diferencia en la riqueza especifica entre ecotopos, no mostró diferencias significativas (R= 0.097; p= 0.13. El dendrograma de similitud generado a partir de la matriz Bray-Curtis mostró 3 agrupaciones de ecotopos: estepario, dunario y

  13. Secretos del test extraterrestre

    OpenAIRE

    Hybris, Profesor

    2016-01-01

    Por el parasicólogo y astrólogo Profesor Hybris La prensa mundial ha revelado recientemente los detalles del extraño caso de Asdrúbal Carrasquilla, el camionero chileno que desapareciera misteriosamente en su país, ante el asombro de varios automovilistas que lo vieron desvanecerse en el aire, junto con su camión, en la muy transitada vía entre Las Fraguas y San Venancio, en la provincia chilena de Valverde. El hecho ocurrió a las 16.55 del 15 de diciembre de 1981. A las 16.58 del mismo día, ...

  14. Aspectos sociales del emprendedor

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Hoy en día es de vital importancia el papel de los emprendedores en la sociedad. Por lo que, es importante analizar los aspectos sociales que les rodean, los que influyen para tomar la decisión de crear una nueva empresa y adentrarse en el mundo del emprendimiento. A partir de esta realidad, se busca explicar, mediante un estudio bibliográfico de la literatura científica del emprendimiento, y más tarde con un análisis de datos obtenidos del GEM 2012, GEM 2013, y otros facilitados por el p...

  15. Sin razones del derecho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Salas Espinosa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo pretende abarcar algunos puntos de vista (no todos, en lo concerniente a la Razón de la Sinrazón del Derecho. Sí, por decirlo así, se puede o ha podido pensarse en una razón del Derecho, por qué cuánto más no, en una “sinrazón” o más bien unas cuántas “sinrazones” del mismo.

  16. Hipertrofia del proceso coronoideo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Moretti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre las principales causas de la reducción progresiva y sin dolor de la apertura bucal en pacientes jóvenes, se encuentra la denominada hipertrofia del proceso coronoideo. Se trata de una patología secundaria a la elongación anormal del proceso coronoideo por el crecimiento del hueso que provoca una alteración mecánica al abrir la boca. Presentamos nuestra experiencia con la recogida de 5 casos clínicos.

  17. Los antecedentes del ITESO

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero-Anaya, Luis J.; Núñez-DelaPeña, Francisco J.

    1985-01-01

    En la primera parte del artículo se analizan, como antecedentes remotos de la fundación del ITESO, la inserción en el artículo tercero constitucional, del calificativo "socialista" a la educación, que causa el inicio de la educación privada en México, y se plantea el ambiente local en Guadalajara, marcado por la clausura de la Universidad de Guadalajara (1934-1937) y la fundación de la Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara (1935). En la segunda parte se presentan algunos hitos de la expansión d...

  18. La voz del delator

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Bernardo Figueroa Muñoz

    2009-01-01

    La palabra del delator es degradada:deja de constituir un mensajeen el que se articula el deseo delsujeto para quedar convertida enobjeto. El delator, reducido a puravoz, es instrumentalizado paracompletar al Otro. La voz es causaen el imperativo al heroísmo, a laobediencia. Aquello del cuerpoque debe ser sacrificado para queel lenguaje opere en el sujeto, esrecuperado en la delación. A estosplanteamientos se llega a partir delanálisis del material de divulgaciónde una campaña para fomentarla...

  19. Estenosis malignas del estomago

    OpenAIRE

    Jácome Valderrama, José A.; Gutiérrez Arango, Roberto; Parra Torres, Augusto; Forero Laverde, Humberto; Medina Medina, Julio

    2011-01-01

    Al hablar de estenosis malignas del estomago, no vamos a referirnos a las obstrucciones producidas por lesiones extrínsecas, en las cuales influye como causa determinante el fenómeno mecánico de compresión exterior, sino a aquellas lesiones que primitivamente se originan en los tejidos del estomago, vale decir en sus paredes u orificios. Las estenosis intrínsecas malignas del estomago son producidas generalmente por tumores derivados de sus diferentes tejidos y por consiguiente se agrupan en ...

  20. Envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Las principales características del envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular reflejan cambios anatómicos y estructurales a nivel de la pared de los vasos, la relajación miocárdica, el llenado ventricular y la respuesta a las catecolaminas . Muchos de los cambios funcionales asociados con la edad están relacionados con estos fenómenos. Esta revisión describe los cambios relacionados con el envejecimiento a nivel estructural y funcional del sistema cardiovascular, sus posibles factores etiológ...

  1. Hipertrofia del proceso coronoideo

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, E.; I.O. Cal; Galetto, M.; L. Londoño; Blanco, R

    2014-01-01

    Entre las principales causas de la reducción progresiva y sin dolor de la apertura bucal en pacientes jóvenes, se encuentra la denominada hipertrofia del proceso coronoideo. Se trata de una patología secundaria a la elongación anormal del proceso coronoideo por el crecimiento del hueso que provoca una alteración mecánica al abrir la boca. Presentamos nuestra experiencia con la recogida de 5 casos clínicos.

  2. Tratamiento del pie equino

    OpenAIRE

    Robles, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    El pie equino varo es una patología frecuente en los pacientes con Encefalopatía crónica no evolutiva (ECNE).Se observó que existe una mayor frecuencia en el sexo masculino. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, comparativo y secundario, durante el periodo de septiembre del 2006 a septiembre del 2011, con un total de 125 pacientes con Ecne, de los cuales se encontraron 101 con pie equino varo congénito. Objetivo: observar los resultados obtenidos en la rehabilitación del pie equino, en niños de ...

  3. Aspectos quirales del grafeno

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Silva,H; J.L. López-Bonilla

    2011-01-01

    El grafeno, una alotropía del carbono, es un logro de los avances de la nanotecnología. Siendo una nanoestructura, este componente estructural del grafito posee propiedades que lo han convertido en un potencial sustituto del silicio en el diseño y fabricación de circuitos integrados. Este artículo resume sus orígenes, posibilidades teóricas, así como sus propiedades prácticas. Se presentan aspectos teóricos de quiralidad en el grafeno, específicamente una teoría quiral para el grafeno, vincul...

  4. La muerte del mito

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Biosca, Vicente

    1990-01-01

    Habría de ser de nuevo John Ford quien sentenciará la defunción del western en cuanto mito, su imposibilidad de construirse en el vacío de la historia. Y habría de ser en uno de los más lúcidos films de la historia del cine: The Man who shot Liberty Valance (El hombre que mató a Liberty Valance, 1962). Todo en este film posee un reverso: un viaje en ferrocarril abre paso al pueblecito de Shinbone. Pero, en el interior del relato, otro emprendido por el antes pionero y ho...

  5. EL PROBLEMA DEL PROVEEDOR

    OpenAIRE

    Raffo Lecca, Eduardo; FII-UNMSM

    2014-01-01

    Este es un famoso problema desde los anales de la literatura en investigación de operaciones. G. Dantzig en [1] se refiere a W.W. Jacobs con su paper "The Caterer Problem" del Nav. Res. Log. Quart. 1, 1954; como también a Gaddum, Hoffman y Sokolowsky en "On the Solution of the Caterer Problem" del Naval Res, Logist. Quart., Vol. 1, N°3, september, 1954 y a William Prager en "On the Caterer Problem" del Management Sci., Vo...

  6. A dor durante a punção do canal vertebral e sua relação com a inervação do ligamento amarelo, da dura-máter e do ligamento longitudinal posterior El dolor durante la punción del canal vertebral y su relación con la inervación del ligamento amarillo, de la dura-máter y del ligamento longitudinal posterior Pain during spinal canal puncture and its relationship with ligamentum flavum, dura-mater and posterior longitudinal ligament innervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    2004-12-01

    écnica. La solución anestésica no deberá ser inyectada para evitar una posible lesión de la raíz nerviosa o de la médula espinal. Se debe retroceder la aguja y alterar su dirección antes de nuevo avance. El relato de dolor es totalmente imposible si el paciente está adormecido bajo influencia de la anestesia general y, por este motivo, es recomendable que bloqueos sean realizados con el paciente consciente. El dolor solamente es referido cuando la punta de la aguja o la punta del catéter se desvían del plano medio sagital para alcanzar el compartimiento peridural antero-lateral, pudiendo, de esta forma tocar las radículas nerviosas situadas próximas a los forames intervertebrales. Excluyéndose los estudios sobre la inervación de la piel, del tejido celular subcutáneo y del ligamento interespinoso, el objetivo de este trabajo es el de rever la inervación de algunas estructuras del canal vertebral: del ligamento amarillo, del ligamento longitudinal posterior, de la dura-máter y del disco intervertebral. CONTENIDO: Estudios sobre la inervación del canal vertebral serán presentados en esta revisión de la literatura, con la intención de querer entender la razón del origen del dolor durante la punción del canal raquidiano. CONCLUSIONES: El ligamento amarillo es desprovisto de inervación, explicando la ausencia de dolor durante su punción. Otros dolores, durante la punción, pueden ser atribuidos al nervio de Luschka que inerva el ligamento longitudinal posterior y la porción ventral de la dura-máter.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pain during spinal puncture is a warning that needle tip has touched a nervous structure. If patients refer pain during puncture, it is mandatory to interrupt the technique. Anesthetic solution should not be injected to prevent potential nervous root or spinal cord injury. Needle should be drawn back and have its direction changed before a new advance is attempted. Pain complain is totally impossible if patients are asleep under the

  7. Diario del General Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Hernández De Alba

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available El doctor Rafael Martínez Briceño, eminente médico legista y abogado con notables títulos en la cultura colombiana como humanista y bibliófilo de rara erudición, posee una de las bibliotecas privadas más ricas del país, donde están representados en ediciones príncipes o rarísimas, los ingenios del Renacimiento y de la cultura universal del Barroco, así como las más raras ediciones impresas en hispanoamérica a partir del siglo XVI, especialmente relacionadas con las letras neogranadinas y colombianas.

  8. La escritura del Yo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Landaeta Mardones

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Si la creación de una imagen fidedigna del mundo fue la condición de la conquista cognitiva y económica de la tierra, las imágenes mediáticas circulan hoy en día a la manera de un montaje que organiza los sujetos como elementos de un territorio. En esta presentación abordaremos el cruce entre estos dos hechos, entre la escritura del mundo y la de los sujetos, a partir de la idea de Fabulación para mostrar otra escritura del mundo y del yo, leyendo textos e imágenes de la Primera buena Corónica y Buen Gobierno de Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala.

  9. Niveles del aprendizaje organizacional

    OpenAIRE

    Garzón Castrillón, Manuel Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    En la propuesta de modelo de aprendizaje organizacional (AO), la segunda variable se denomina niveles del aprendizaje organizacional ; los niveles de aprendizaje que contemplamos para nuestra investigación son: individual, de equipo, organizacional e interorganizacional.

  10. Brainworkers: Trabajadores del conocimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Abellón García

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Los trabajadores del conocimiento realizan trabajos que requieren el empleo de la inteligencia, de la facultad de entender: son intelectuales. Se crecen ante los problemas complejos, aprecian la dificultad de la abstracción simplificada, juegan con modelos de realidades virtuales, razonan con transversalidad e intuición, son creativos e innovadores, transfieren informaciones y conceptos, en redes que vinculan conocimientos y amistades; manifiestan, en ese sentido, un espíritu renacentista. La mejor novedad que aporta el trabajador del conocimiento es su alto estado de alerta, su buen manejo de la información y por lo mismo es un guía en adaptación a los cambios del entorno. Las crisis de sectores son precisamente una prueba del funcionamiento ecosistémico de los procesos de cambio.

  11. Actividad del virus del oeste del Nilo y otros flavivirus en cinco departamentos del Caribe colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Álvarez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El virus del oeste del Nilo (VON y el virus de la encefalitis de San Luis (VESL pertenece a la familia Flaviviridae, género Flavivirus y hacen parte del serocomplejo de la encefalitis japonesa (1. Estos virus se encuentran distribuidos en Estados Unidos, centro América y suramerica (2. Son mantenidos en la naturaleza en un ciclo enzoótico ave-mosquito-ave. Humanos, équidos y otros vertebrados se infectan por la picadura de mosquitos del genero Culex principalmente (1,2. En humanos se han identificado y descrito nuevos modos de transmisión de VON incluyendo infección a través de productos sanguíneos contaminados (3, transplante de órganos (4, transmisión a través de la leche materna (5, transmisión intrauterina (6, y exposición ocupacional (7.

  12. Preferencias del Turista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Leiva Olivencia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente existen aplicaciones orientadas al turismo basadas en realidad aumentada, pero no integran técnicas de recomendación. Este articulo describe RAMCAT (Realidad Aumentada Móvil Contextual Aplicada al Turismo un modelo de guía turística, que recomienda puntos de interés, teniendo en cuenta factores como preferencias personales y atributos contextuales. Se presentan los componentes teóricos de la arquitectura propuesta, así como sus características, destacando la integración de diferentes sistemas de recomendación, que permiten añadir nuevos motores en el futuro. El articulo se centra en describir sus funcionalidades y el modulo correspondiente al sistema de recomendación basado en el perfil del turista. Otra característica importante del sistema propuesto es la retroalimentación del mismo mediante calificaciones del turista y su trazabilidad.

  13. Los muertos del Floreanismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ayala Mora

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza el crimen político durante las primeras décadas de vida de la República del Ecuador. Específicamente centra su estudio en el período dominado por la figura de Juan José Flores, primer presidente del Ecuador. La inestabilidad política, la precariedad de las alianzas entre las élites regionales, la crisis económica generada por las guerras de Independencia, las conspiraciones y la violencia que caracterizaron al período de surgimiento de las repúblicas andinas hicieron del crimen político un “vicio de nacimiento”. El asesinato del general Antonio José de Sucre, la muerte de los miembros de la sociedad El Quiteño Libre, el homicidio de Juan Otamendi, entre otros, hicieron patente esta característica.

  14. El envejecimiento, la asignatura olvidada en la universidad española: ¿El iceberg de un tipo de negligencia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª del Carmen Jiménez Díaz

    Full Text Available El envejecimiento poblacional ha condicionado que la mayor parte de la actividad profesional de numerosos titulados de diferentes carreras se realice en personas ancianas. En su vertiente no intencional, el abandono del anciano como tipo de maltrato se puede deber a un conocimiento inadecuado (tal y como se define la impericia profesional. Por ello, la etapa de formación de la carrera reviste gran importancia en el cumplimiento de la misión universitaria. Así, todos los profesionales que desarrollen su actividad profesional con mayores deben tener conocimientos en gerontología que les permitan obtener, en cada momento, los mejores resultados posibles. Metodología: análisis descriptivo de los planes de estudio de las carreras de Enfermería, Medicina, Fisioterapia, Trabajo Social, Terapia Ocupacional y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte. Conclusiones: excepto en Enfermería y Terapia Ocupacional, el resto de titulaciones universitarias no ofertan asignaturas troncales relacionadas con el envejecimiento.

  15. Consideraciones alrededor del Libro del Almismo, el Libro del Pensar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MartaLucía Tamayo Fernandez

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La doctora MarthaLucía Tamayo comparte muchas inquietudes alrededor del Libro del Almismo, el Libro del Pensar; de dónde salió ese nombre; de juntar en medicina y en genética a tres escritores como lo son Jorge Luis Borges, Macedonio Fernández y Julio Cortázar. Su conferencia dice así:

    El término almismo fue ideado por Macedonio Fernández porque defendía mucho el ensimismamiento y el pensamiento hacia el interior, mirar hacia adentro; cada uno somos un “sí mismo” que nos hace diferentes aunque al mismo tiempo podemos ser iguales. Todos tenemos esa parte interior que la medicina debe trabajar y que no puede olvidar.

    “El Libro del Almismo, el libro del pensar” nos lleva a replantear y a repensar un poco la medicina que queremos, una medicina vuelta a pensar.

    Quiero contarles la historia de cómo se llegó a este libro y por qué y para qué se sigue trabajando en estos temas: Después de mi internado y de un trabajo un poco triste de rural, volví al Instituto de Genética y a la Universidad Javeriana en donde encontré al doctor Bernal y un espacio que estaba buscando para esa medicina diferente que quería, con un grupo de personas que me permitía no sólo ver la medicina sino ver muchas otras cosas más; había espacio para la literatura, para Mafalda, para hablar de niños, de locos, había incluso tiempo para hablar de medicina dentro del golf, de carros antiguos y de todo eso fui aprendiendo.

    Eso era lo que estaba buscando. Una medicina que diera espacios diferentes, que fuera más humanizada. Rápidamente me ubiqué y me quedé! No me arrepiento en lo absoluto de haberme quedado porque fue, ha sido y sigue siendo, una experiencia enriquecedora, de muchas vivencias importantes. Sabía exactamente dónde estaba y sabía que había que seguir rápido y había que trabajar muchos aspectos de esa medicina que estábamos buscando y de esa genética especial.

    Rápidamente empezamos a trabajar

  16. Responsabilidad profesional del fisioterapeuta

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Los objetivos de esta tesis son: Conocer el origen histórico y legislativo de la Fisioterapia. Analizar las definiciones que hoy existen de la Fisioterapia, y aportar una nueva que refleje la profesión actual. Establecer un marco de derechos y obligaciones del Fisioterapeuta, como profesional sanitario. Y por último, determinar la Responsabilidad Profesional del Fisioterapeuta, en el ámbito Civil, Penal y de la Administración Pública.

  17. Desarrollo Integral del Preescolar

    OpenAIRE

    Montes Hasslocher, Patricia Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Los niño cuyas edades oscilan entre los 2 y los 6 años de edad reciben el nombre de preescolares (etapa también conoconida como infancia temprana). Esta etapa es supremamente importante en la vida porque es aquí donde se sientan las bases del desarrollo posterior. Los adultos cuidadores deben acompañarlo afectuosa y permanentemente para logar su desarrollo integral, y estimularla adquisición de las metas del desarrollo

  18. Quiste epidermoide del ciego

    OpenAIRE

    YAMANAKA,WATARU; Llamosas B,Fernando; Adorno R,Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Quiste epidermoide es un saco con características benignas que se origina del ectodermo embrionario. Histológicamente consiste en una delgada capa de epitelio escamoso. Quistes epidermoide de ciego son excepcionalmente raros. Reportamos un caso de quiste epidermoide en pared anterior del ciego en una paciente sin cirugía previa y realizamos una revisión de lo publicado sobre esta patología.

  19. Il problema del litio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antona, F.

    1995-03-01

    Contents: 1. Introduzione. 2. La nucleosintesi del Big Bang. 3. Il litio nelle stelle di popolazione II. 4. I modelli stellari standard. 5. Il litio negli ammassi aperti. 6. Meccanismi di distruzione "non standard". 7. I modelli non-standard applicati alla popolazione II. 8. L'evoluzione Galattica del litio. 9. Quali stelle producono litio? 10. Il litio come elemento chiave per dare un nome agli oggetti stellari più minuscoli. 11. Conclusioni.

  20. El horror antes del horror

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez-Varea, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    El autor de este ensayo precisa la definición y alcance del género del horror y establece qué elementos del mismo se trasfunden en las primeras historietas del siglo XX y cómo se deslizan y transforman en algunos personajes de los cómics americanos previos a la gran proliferación del género en los comic books.

  1. Morphodynamics of a gravel-dominated macrotidal estuary: Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego Morfodinámica de un estuario macromareal dominado por gravas: Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico I. Isla

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Rio Grande city (Tierra del Fuego is located on two attached beach systems, one of Upper Pleistocene (Sangamonian and the other of Holocene age. Both gravel spits grew from north to south modifying the inlet of the Rio Grande estuary. The present estuary is constrained by the modern and recurved spit Popper Spit. The main characteristic of this macrotidal estuary is that both margins and the bottom are mainly composed of rounded gravel. Expansion of the city is limited by oceanic and estuarine coasts, and is taking place towards salt marshes taking up more than 30 hectares in the last 20 years. The alteration of the tidal prism induced by marsh reclamation and the construction of a bridge may be affecting the inlet dynamics. The area of salt marsh and gravel banks were calculated by means of supervised classifications derived from a Landsat TM image. The inlet morphology changes in response to cycles dominated by longshore drift, wave refraction and ebb-tidal delta configuration. Oceanic beaches are characterised by large disc-shape boulders at the storm berm, spherical pebbles and sand runs at the foreshore, and fine sand on the low-tide terrace. Although tidal effects are very significant in the dynamics of the estuary, wind can prevail during some days or during slack water.La ciudad de Río Grande (Tierra del Fuego está ubicada sobre dos sistemas de playas adosadas, una del Pleistoceno superior (Sangamon y la otra del Holoceno. Ambas espigas de grava crecieron de norte a sur condicionando la desembocadura del estuario del Río Grande, que a su vez está limitada por una espiga moderna y recurvada denominada Punta Popper. La característica de los ambientes estuarinos es el dominio de las gravas, tanto en los márgenes como en los bancos de fondo. El crecimiento de la ciudad, bordeada por costa de mar y de estuario, se está desarrollando hacia las marismas del estuario, ocupando más de 30 hectáreas en los últimos 20 años. La alteraci

  2. On the evaluation of the storage volume of flood control reservoirs; Sul calcolo del volume degli invasi di laminazione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maione, U.; Tomirotti, M. [Milan Politecnico, Milan (Italy). DIIAR; Mignosa, P. [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Civile

    2000-10-01

    approssimata mediante un'espressione analitica semplice, i cui parametri, portata al colmo di assegnato tempo di ritorno e coefficiente di punta del bacino, possono essere stimati sulla base dell'informazione idrologica usualmente disponibile oppure attraverso modelli statistici regionali nel caso di siti non strumentati.

  3. pensiones del ISSSTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Villagómez Amezcua

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis en este estudio ofrece una valoración sobre el problema de viabilidad financiera del programa de pensiones del ISSSTE y la urgente necesidad de modificarlo, no sólo por el costo fiscal que implica, sino porque este costo será creciente. Actualmente las aportaciones no son suficientes para cubrir las pensiones vigentes por lo que se recibe una transferencia de recursos del ramo XIX que en 2001 superó 0.20% del PIB. Utilizando supuestos moderados para el comportamiento futuro de la economía y de este programa, estimamos que de no reformarse el costo fiscal oscilará entre 22 y 39% del PIB. Si se realiza una reforma menor que sólo afecte algunos de los parámetros del esquema actual como contribuciones y edad de retiro, este costo puede reducirse en casi 50%. Sin embargo, no deben descartarse alternativas mixtas que permitan mitigar este costo aún más al tiempo que el programa cumpla con su objetivo final que es el de garantizar pensiones a los trabajadores.

  4. el Valle del Cauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Humberto Ortiz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se enfoca en la identi- ficación de aquellos factores estructurales que explican la pérdida de dinamismo económico de largo plazo en Colombia y, en particular, en el Valle del Cauca. Se examina la competitividad del Valle en relación con Colombia y con el resto del mundo. Se cuestiona la insistencia en una estrategia exportadora como dinamizadora del desarrollo económico. Se identifica que una gran parte de la población está excluida de los beneficios del desarrollo económico. Para construir un modelo de desarrollo que incluya a esta población se recomienda recuperar la senda de la industrialización, invertir en el capital humano (educación de alta calidad, salud, salubridad y nutrición, e invertir en infraestructura. La participación del Estado en estas inversiones sociales es necesaria para disminuir la desigualdad y aumentar el crecimiento económico.

  5. Espectroscopia del Cometa Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, O.; Fuenmayor, F.; Ferrin, L.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones espectroscópicas del cometa Halley. Los espectros fueron tomados usando el espectrógrafo del telescopio reflector de 1 metro del Observatorio Nacional de Venezuela. Se utilizó óptica azul, con una red de difracción de 600 lineas/min, obteniéndose una dispersión de 74.2 A/mm y una resolución de 2.5 A, en el rango espectral de 3500 a 6500 A. Seis placas fueron tomadas con emulsión IIa-O y dos con IIa-D. Los tiempos de exposición fueron entre 10 y 150 minutos. El cometa se encontraba entre 0.70 y 1.04 UA del Sol, y entre 1.28 y 0.73 UA de la Tierra. Las emisiones más prominentes en el espectro, son las del CN, C2, y C3. Otras emisiones detectadas corresponden a CH, NH2 y Na. Los espectros muestran un fuerte continuo, indicando un contenido significativo de polvo. Se detectó mayor intensidad del contínuo, en la dirección anti solar, lo cual es evidencia de la cola de polvo.

  6. Sucesiones volcánico-sedimentarias tremadocianas y arenigianas en la sierra de las Planchadas-Narváez: registros evolutivos del arco magmático Famatiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Eugenia Cisterna

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan secciones volcano-sedimentarias ordovícicas del norte del Sistema de Famatina, aportando nuevos datos petrológicos para la comprensión de la naturaleza de sus magmas y de los procesos volcanológicos asociados con la evolución del arco magmático en la región. Información paleontológica previa, apoyada por estudios estructurales y por las relaciones de intrusividad con una granodiorita de 485 ± 7 Ma, asignaron edades del Tremadociano temprano a las sedimentitas de Las Angosturas y del Arenigiano temprano - medio a las de las secciones Vuelta de la Tolas - Chaschuil y quebrada Larga - Punta Pétrea. Los litotipos que integran la sucesión tremadociana son lavas basálticas, andesíticas, dacíticas y riodacíticas, interestratificadas con limolitas y psamitas finas, polideformadas y con importante alteración hidrotermal, habiéndose reconocido paragénesis de metamorfismo de bajo grado y de contacto. Los depósitos arenigianos, afectados por plegamiento y desarrollo de clivaje localmente, consisten en lavas basálticas, andesíticas, dacíticas y riolíticas, facies hialoclásticas, depósitos resedimentados sin-eruptivos y volcanogénicos. Si bien ambas asociaciones son subalcalinas y peraluminosas, se concluye, para los representantes tremadocianos, que sus características son consistentes con un ambiente donde fueron producidos fundidos de un manto empobrecido (MORB y enriquecidos durante eventos de subducción, asociados con la evolución de una cuenca marginal. Las volcanitas arenigianas muestran filiación geoquímica de arco magmático continental. Ambas asociaciones exhiben características similares a las observadas en la Puna occidental, lo que plantearía la posible continuación en la Puna del arco magmático ordovícico reconocido en el Sistema de Famatina.

  7. The Effect of Goal Setting and Self-efficacy on the Iceberg Model Quality Ability of Undergraduate%“目标设置”与“自我效能感”对大学生“冰山模型素质能力”的影响——基于A大学的问卷调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊

    2011-01-01

    The research design is to understand the level of undergraduates' goal-setting and self-efficacy and to explore the effect of these two variables on undergraduates' iceberg model quality ability.The instrument of iceberg model quality ability questionnaire is applied to 226 students of A university.Statistics show that the level of undergraduates' goal setting and self-efficacy is low and positively related to iceberg model quality ability.It is suggested that career planning guidance should go throughout all phases of university education and various measures be taken to increase the self-efficacy of undergraduates.%为了解大学生"目标设置"(即"我要做")与"自我效能感"(即"我能做")的水平,并探讨这两种变量对大学生"冰山模型素质能力"(即"应知能力、应会能力和应变能力")的影响,以"冰山模型素质能力"调查表对A大学226名有效被试进行了问卷调查。数据统计显示,大学生的"目标设置"与"自我效能感"都较低,并和"冰山模型素质能力"存在正相关。研究表明,高校应当把大学生生涯规划教育贯穿于大学教育的各个阶段,并通过多种形式增强大学生的自我效能感。

  8. Desarrollo larvario de algunas especies del género Bregmaceros (Pisces: Bregmacerotidae del sureste del Golfo de México

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    Jorge Blas-Cabrera

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe el desarrollo larvario de Bregmaceros cantori con 925 organismos en tallas de 1.1 a 20.2 mm de longitud patrón (LP y se describen algunos ejemplares de B. atlanticus (27 larvas de 1.7 a 7.5 mm, de B. houdei (seis organismos de 1.5 a 1.9 mm y de B. macclellandi (tres larvas de 2.4, 3.4 y 5.4 mm del sur del Golfo de México (27 noviembre - 6 diciembre 1998. Las larvas se identificaron a nivel específico y se describieron con base en pigmentación, y características morfométricas y merísticas. En la etapa de preflexión B. cantori presentó un mayor crecimiento del tamaño de la boca y de la longitud de la cabeza en relación con la longitud patrón (alometría positiva; en cambio de la etapa de flexión a la etapa de juvenil decrecen (alometría negativa. B. cantori es la especie con la menor altura del cuerpo y longitud de la cabeza, siendo así la más delgada. Las larvas de B. macclellandi son las más robustas. De las cuatro especies que se reportan en el sur del Golfo de México, las larvas de B. atlanticus son las que tienen la mayor pigmentación tanto en la cabeza como en el cuerpo, de manera uniforme; los ejemplares de B. macclellandi muestran un patrón de pigmentación diferente: grandes grupos de melanóforos cuya ubicación cambia con la etapa; además ya en la etapa de preflexión tiene desarrollo del radio occipital y las aletas pélvicas. Las larvas de B. houdei con tallas de 1.5 a 1.9 mm tienen melanóforos en la punta de la mandíbula inferior, en la cabez y en la base de las aletas pectorales. Se observó un mayor desarrollo larvario de B. cantori y B. atlanticus que en especímenes de latitudes mayores.Larval development of some Bregmaceros species (Pisces: Bregmacerotidae from the southeast Gulf of Mexico. We redescribe the larval development of Bregmaceros cantori based on 925 specimens ranging from 1.1 to 20.2 mm in standard length (SL, and describe the larvae of B. atlanticus (27 larvae, 1.7-7.5 mm, B

  9. 基于“冰山理论”的市场营销专业人才潜能培养创新模式构建%Building students' essential ability of marketing basing on iceberg theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏东霞

    2016-01-01

    市场营销专业人才培养的关键是核心能力体系的构建。文章基于“冰山理论”强调培养学生隐性能力的重要性。第一,以销售岗位工作能力需求为基础,构建营销职业人才核心能力体系;第二,在课程中加强营销专业核心能力的培养,挖掘学生的“隐性能力”;第三,以保险业岗位需求调查为切入口,建立常态化的劳动力市场需求调查和评估机制。通过三个步骤的有机结合,挖掘学生潜在的隐性能力,为学生顺利就业及未来职业迁移和发展打下坚实基础。%The core aspect of students’ training on marketing is to build the essential ability. According to the iceberg theory, this paper emphasizes that it is important to train student’s recessive ability. The first is to build the essential ability system according to the demand for capability on marketing. The second is to develop students’ recessive ability and to strengthen students’ core ability by the course design. The third is to construct a regular survey and evaluation system on labor market demanding basing on job demand. The school may develop students recessive ability and provide a fine basis for students in the future job market through the above three methods.

  10. Análisis del uso del precedente en fallos del Tribunal Contencioso Administrativo del Valle del Cauca

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    Alexander Atehortúa Rizo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1991 la jurisdicción contenciosa administrativa es la encargada de emitir las sentencias que involucran responsabilidad estatal por fallas en la prestación de servicios públicos. Este artículo presenta la metodología y resultados de una investigación encaminada a examinar las líneas jurisprudenciales adoptadas por el Tribunal Contencioso Administrativo del Valle del Cauca en su tratamiento a demandas contra el Estado, especialmente en casos de perjuicios económicos debido a la crisis del cooperativismo y de responsabilidad por la muerte de reclusos en centros penitenciarios

  11. La imagen del pase.

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    Hernando Bernal.

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir de un texto del poeta Octavio Paz llamado «La imagen», se busca proseguir la equivalencia entre las imágenes de la poesía y la función que ellas tienen para el poeta, y el fantasma fundamental y su función para el analizante que está en el momento del pase. Se parte de la idea de que la poesía busca entrar en el ser así como el psicoanálisis tiene como finalidad apuntar al corazón del ser del sujeto. Se hace entonces una distinción del concepto de «ser» para el psicoanálisis, haciendo alusión también al discurso de la filosofía. Esclarecido el sentido de lo que es el «ser» para el psicoanálisis, se aborda de lleno – entre otras cosas, relacionadas con la experiencia del pase específicamente- la equivalencia entre la definición que hace Octavio Paz de «La Imagen» y el momento del pase en el análisis de un sujeto, imagen que, al igual que el mito para la filosofía, las leyes para la ciencia y el matema para el psicoanálisis, se constituyen en los instrumentos con los que cada una de estas disciplinas horadan en lo real.

  12. de desarrollo del milenio

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    Diana Alarcón

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En septiembre de 2000 la Asamblea general de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU decidió por consenso adoptar la Declaración del Milenio de donde se derivan los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio que proponen metas sociales específicas dentro del marco del desarrollo humano que deben ser alcanzadas en el 2015. México, como país de ingreso medio, ya ha logrado algunas de las metas y ha mostrado un buen ritmo hacia el cumplimiento de otras. Buena parte de estos logros están asociados al rápido progreso social registrado durante los noventa. En otros renglones, sin embargo, la situación es distinta. La revisión hecha en este trabajo muestra que hay áreas en las que el progreso de los noventa fue lento, rubros en los que los logros sociales no son suficientes y situaciones en las que aún cuando el progreso y el desarrollo son buenos en promedio, la desigualdad que caracteriza el desarrollo del país significa que sectores importantes de la población no tienen acceso a servicios básicos. En particular resalta la débil asociación que existe entre el crecimiento económico, la distribución de ingresos y la incidencia de la pobreza. Nuestra revisión del progreso social en los últimos años nos lleva a concluir que el cumplimiento de los objetivos a los que México se comprometió requiere de una redefinición de las prioridades de desarrollo que permita fortalecer el impacto del crecimiento económico sobre el desarrollo social para cerrar las grandes brechas que existen entre distintos grupos de población y regiones

  13. del Estado Carabobo

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    Jennifer Fuenmayor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Al iniciarse el proceso de descentralización político-territorial a finales de los ochenta, las gobernaciones de Venezuela deben redefinir sus directrices debido al traspaso de funciones y competencias que les son otorgadas desde el gobierno central, e insertarse en una dinámica orientada hacia una economía de mercado impulsada por la globalización, y enmarcada en el discurso del desarrollo sustentable. El propósito de este artículo es explorar las acciones desplegadas por la Gobernación de Carabobo en el período 1990-2004, en pro del desarrollo sustentable y sostenible en los ámbitos: económico, ambiental y social. Para ello se considera la definición que nos da Dourojeanni (1999 sobre el desarrollo sustentable y sostenible. Se parte del supuesto de que debido a la orientación neoliberal del Gobierno de Carabobo, este ha concentrado sus esfuerzos en la promoción del crecimiento, la eficiencia, la productividad y la competitividad, privilegiando con ello sólo un ámbito del desarrollo: el económico. La metodología consistió en el estudio de documentos teóricos y empí-Al iniciarse el proceso de descentralización político-territorial a finales de los ochenta, las gobernaciones de Venezuela deben redefinir sus directrices debido al traspaso de funciones y competencias que les son otorgadas desde el gobierno central, e insertarse en una dinámica orientada hacia una economía de mercado impulsada por la globalización, y enmarcada en el discurso del desarrollo sustentable. El propósito de este artículo es explorar las acciones desplegadas por la Gobernación de Carabobo en el período 1990-2004, en pro del desarrollo sustentable y sostenible en los ámbitos: económico, ambiental y social. Para ello se considera la definición que nos da Dourojeanni (1999 sobre el desarrollo sustentable y sostenible. Se parte del supuesto de que debido a la orientación neoliberal del Gobierno de Carabobo, este ha concentrado sus esfuerzos en

  14. Dalt del tren

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    Jaume Subirana

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Ens consta que la saviesa popular hi toca més del que a aquest temps d’enquestes, telèfons mòbils i targetes de crèdit li ve de gust admetre, per això em fa gràcia, en veure la pausada però continuada intrusió de la cultura catalana a Internet, recordar les cançons de quan era petit: “Dalt del tren, tots anem-hi dalt del tren, hi ha lloc per tota la gent”, dèiem, i “El tren pinxo de Banyoles és el més bonic que hi ha, ple de llaunes i cassoles i barrets de capellà”. I resulta que per una vegada a la vida hem pujat, efectivament, dalt del tren que passava per l’estació de Catalunya i en cinc anys hem passat de gairebé res a prou pàgines amb un contingut, a més, apreciable i, sobretot, a un petit teixit de persones i institucions que han entès la importància de la revolució comunicativa que Internet representa i que hi teixeixen i projecten webs amb el convenciment dels conversos.

  15. del empleo independiente

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    Luis Eduardo Díaz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los cambios que la gerencia pública del trabajo debe asumir por el aumento del empleo independiente, partiendo de la hipótesis que las decisiones planteadas dependen de que el Estado pueda superar severos condicionantes que limitan su accionar, cada vez más reducido. Siguiendo un enfoque metodológico cualitativo descriptivo y requiriéndose de la contextualización por el lado de la administración previsional; se constata que pese al número de iniciativas disponibles, la gerencia del trabajo, adoptó una reforma uniforme sin logros satisfactorios. Sin embargo, países que no lo hicieron, obtuvieron resultados similares, por rígidos condicionantes en curso, tales como la incursión a la economía mundial; la crisis de lo colectivo; la no inclusión de la seguridad social en la agenda partidista; y la falta de una gerencia propia y especializada. Se concluye que la seguridad social no es un programa neutral y que las mejoras gerenciales sólo serán posibles al superarse tales restricciones. Por su parte, el Ministerio del Trabajo, como ente principal, a causa de la contracción del mercado, pierde significado e importancia, pues las políticas públicas se desplazan prioritariamente a otros programas de tipo asistencial.

  16. Historia del vuelo aviano

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    Sanz, José Luis

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.El análisis del registro fósil proporciona información sobre la historia evolutiva del aparato volador aviano y el origen y desarrollo del vuelo moderno. Existen dos hipótesis alternativas para explicar las complejas presiones de selección que configuraron la aparición del vuelo. La propuesta del corredor («desde el suelo hacia arriba» es la que mejor se ajusta a la evidencia disponible. El ave primitiva Archaeopteryx produciría, probablemente, algún tipo de vuelo batido, aunque su capacidad de maniobra, despegue y aterrizaje sería limitada. El vuelo activo moderno comenzó, durante el Cretácico inferior, con las aves ornitotoraces basales, como Iberomesornis. No obstante, esta ave primitiva, cuya capacidad de vuelo estaba claramente incrementada con respecto a la condición ancestral presente en Archaeopteryx, tampoco parece tener las perfectas habilidades voladoras de las aves modernas.

  17. Las carreras del futuro

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    Luis Piscoya Hermoza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La primera década del siglo XXI ha estado signada por un énfasis en los estudiosde prospectiva, los mismos que, a partir de procesos de complejizacióny articulación de la sociedad planetaria como son la digitalización, el progresivodeterioro del medio ambiente, la necesidad del cambio de la matriz energéticay la globalización del mercado, han ensayado hipótesis para identificar lastendencias que se fortalecerán y profundizarán durante las próximas décadas.Desde el punto de vista metodológico, existen muchas maneras de clasificarlaspara conceptualizarlas y entenderlas mejor. Sin embargo, considerando lanaturaleza de esta edición nos proponemos enfocar directamente aquellas queestán estrechamente ligadas a la formación universitaria.Naturalmente, no pensamos que estamos ante tendencias inevitables en lamedida que epistemológicamente la creencia en leyes históricas deterministases insostenible y la práctica social nos muestra que la construcción del futuroes nuestra responsabilidad y siempre rebasa las mejores previsiones.

  18. La espiral del mestizaje

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    Guillermo Cervantes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo explora el papel jugado por el mestizaje como instrumento para forjar una identidad nacional en México; donde lo indígena convive y se fusiona con lo europeo, en la persecución y construcción de algo entendido propiamente como mexicano. Partiendo desde la época colonial en la Nueva España, abordaremos el papel concedido al indígena mexicano y su lenta inclusión en la sociedad mediante la adopción de prácticas consideradas como occidentales y civilizadas en detrimento de sus prácticas indígenas tradicionales, consideradas primitivas y atrasadas, como medio de asimilación. Fenómeno que más tarde habría de proponer al mestizo como estereotipo de la identidad nacional mexicana durante el siglo XIX; y que culminaría en su consolidación a principios del siglo XX. Así mismo se aborda la percepción del mestizaje como medio de civilización en la idiosincrasia del mexicano y del méxico-americano para culminar con una evolución de la constante búsqueda de lo occidental, esta vez mediante la asimilación al modo de vida estadounidense, como continuación del proceso civilizatorio entendido como mestizaje

  19. El Cuerpo del Saber

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    Lourdes Consuelo Pacheco Ladrón de Guevara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se aborda la exclusión del cuerpo realizado por la cien - cia moderna puesto que en la tradición del conocimiento científico el cuerpo se convirtió en un obstáculo epistemológico. Las mujeres fueron consideradas estructuradas por el cuerpo, sus deseos y pulsiones en tanto los varones fueron autovalorados como signados por la razón, la objetividad y la neutralidad. La incorporación de las mujeres a la ciencia llevó a discutir los postulados de la ciencia, el silenciamiento del cuerpo y el reconocimiento de la subjetividad como parte del quehacer científico. Los saberes desde el cuerpo de las muje - res enuncian otra forma de conocer, transgreden la legitimidad de la ciencia masculina de la dominación porque su proceso de construcción no ocurre en el distanciamiento del mundo, sino en la proximidad con él.

  20. Apostillas acerca del postrabajo

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    Arturo Torrecilla

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available El más reciente debate en torno al postrabajo transforma la herencia de los dos ciclos que le precedieron desde los años setenta. El primero se correspondía con la crítica de la división social y técnica de labores informada por una filosofía de la alienación o bien por una rectificación de la arquitectónica marxista pero salvaguardando la promesa laborista del buen trabajo. El segundo ciclo hacía eco del rechazo a las cadenas de montaje fordistas y se abría al horizonte de la abolición del trabajo salarial, manteniendo sin embargo el abolengo del sujeto unitario de la historia. La presente escena asume una densidad mayor, producto del encuentro entre las nuevas tecnologías informacionales, las discusiones en el ámbito de la sociología y la antropología, de la tecnología y la ciencia, junto al dueto que inaugura el posmodernismo.