WorldWideScience

Sample records for punishment

  1. Conditional Punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Kamei, Kenju

    2014-01-01

    We elicit human conditional punishment types by conducting experiments. We find that their punishment decisions to an individual are on average significantly positively proportional to other members’ punishment decisions to that individual.

  2. Creative Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, John

    1988-01-01

    Punishment given in a caring, supportive environment can assist children to learn some tasks more quickly, when used in conjunction with programmed positive reinforcement. The manner in which a punishment is implemented impacts its effectiveness. Two experiments are presented in which teachers used creative punishment to produce classroom behavior…

  3. Punishing adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Should an adolescent offender be punished more leniently than an adult offender? Many theorists believe the answer to be in the affirmative. According to the diminished culpability model, adolescents are less mature than adults and, therefore, less responsible for their wrongdoings and should...

  4. When punishment pays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Explaining cooperation in groups remains a key problem because reciprocity breaks down between more than two. Punishing individuals who contribute little provides a potential answer but changes the dilemma to why pay the costs of punishing which, like cooperation itself, provides a public good. Nevertheless, people are observed to punish others in behavioural economic games, posing a problem for existing theory which highlights the difficulty in explaining the spread and persistence of punishment. Here, I consider the apparent mismatch between theory and evidence and show by means of instructive analysis and simulation how much of the experimental evidence for punishment comes from scenarios in which punishers may expect to obtain a net benefit from punishing free-riders. In repeated games within groups, punishment works by imposing costs on defectors so that it pays them to switch to cooperating. Both punishers and non-punishers then benefit from the resulting increase in cooperation, hence investing in punishment can constitute a social dilemma. However, I show the conditions in which the benefits of increased cooperation are so great that they more than offset the costs of punishing, thereby removing the temptation to free-ride on others' investments and making punishment explicable in terms of direct self-interest. Crucially, this is because of the leveraging effect imposed in typical studies whereby people can pay a small cost to inflict a heavy loss on a punished individual. In contrast to previous models suggesting punishment is disadvantaged when rare, I show it can invade until it comes into a producer-scrounger equilibrium with non-punishers. I conclude that adding punishment to an iterated public goods game can solve the problem of achieving cooperation by removing the social dilemma.

  5. When Do Punishment Institutions Work?

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Aquino; Robert S. Gazzale; Sarah Jacobson

    2015-01-01

    While peer punishment sometimes motivates increased cooperation, it sometimes reduces cooperation. We use a lab experiment to study why punishment sometimes fails. We begin with a gift exchange game with punishment as it has typically been implemented therein since punishment has often backfired in this game. We modify two features of punishment that could increase its efficacy: punishment's strength and its timing (whether the punisher publicly pre-commits to punishment or acts after the pun...

  6. The neurobiology of punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Ben; Singer, Tania; Dolan, Ray

    2007-04-01

    Animals, in particular humans, frequently punish other individuals who behave negatively or uncooperatively towards them. In animals, this usually serves to protect the personal interests of the individual concerned, and its kin. However, humans also punish altruistically, in which the act of punishing is personally costly. The propensity to do so has been proposed to reflect the cultural acquisition of norms of behaviour, which incorporates the desire to uphold equity and fairness, and promotes cooperation. Here, we review the proximate neurobiological basis of punishment, considering the motivational processes that underlie punishing actions.

  7. Punishment sensitivity predicts the impact of punishment on cognitive control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senne Braem

    Full Text Available Cognitive control theories predict enhanced conflict adaptation after punishment. However, no such effect was found in previous work. In the present study, we demonstrate in a flanker task how behavioural adjustments following punishment signals are highly dependent on punishment sensitivity (as measured by the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS scale: Whereas low punishment-sensitive participants do show increased conflict adaptation after punishment, high punishment-sensitive participants show no such modulation. Interestingly, participants with a high punishment-sensitivity showed an overall reaction time increase after punishments. Our results stress the role of individual differences in explaining motivational modulations of cognitive control.

  8. Punishment sensitivity predicts the impact of punishment on cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, Senne; Duthoo, Wout; Notebaert, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control theories predict enhanced conflict adaptation after punishment. However, no such effect was found in previous work. In the present study, we demonstrate in a flanker task how behavioural adjustments following punishment signals are highly dependent on punishment sensitivity (as measured by the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) scale): Whereas low punishment-sensitive participants do show increased conflict adaptation after punishment, high punishment-sensitive participants show no such modulation. Interestingly, participants with a high punishment-sensitivity showed an overall reaction time increase after punishments. Our results stress the role of individual differences in explaining motivational modulations of cognitive control.

  9. Punished by Rewards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Ron

    1995-01-01

    The author of "Punished by Rewards" (1993), claims that rewards and punishments serve to manipulate behavior and destroy the potential for real learning. Praise is especially tricky, since intangible rewards can also foster compliance, not motivation. An engaging curriculum and a caring atmosphere encourage kids to exercise their natural…

  10. Administration of punishment in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Nataša Z.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Giving consideration to punishment, one of the inevitable elements of school discipline, always reactivates the issue of punishment administration and its effects in school setting. Punishment is administered by a beforehand-determined intention, its general and final goal being the attempt to make a child change his/her behavior so as to more successfully take part in school life. The issue of how much it is justifiable to administer punishment, as a way of directing child’s behavior, is not only raised in professional discussions but occurs as a personal dilemma with parents, teachers and all those involved in child upbringing. The definition of punishment contains certain incompatible elements in attitudes, which is reflected in punishment administration within different social contexts. Based on the analysis of research results, the paper discusses all the elements the teacher should be well acquainted with, influencing the effectiveness of punishment. The effects of punishment administration depend, among other things, on the type of punishment, way in which a person experiences and perceives punishment and the way of administering it. Prior to punishment administration, as a means of directing child’s behavior factors influencing successfulness of punishment should be established consistency in punishment administration, postponement of punishment intensity of punishment, explanation for punishment administration, nature of interrelations between a child and a person punishing him/her.

  11. Punishment – and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno S. Frey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the “Economics of Crime” concentrates too much on punishment as a means of preventing crime, which is unwise for several reasons. There are important instances in which punishment simply cannot reduce crime. Several feasible alternatives to punishment exist, such as offering positive incentives or handing out awards for law abiding behavior. These alternative approaches tend to create a positive sum environment. When people appreciate living in a society that is to a large extent law abiding, they are more motivated to observe the law.

  12. Less crime, more punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Mark; Burt, Callie Harbin

    2008-09-01

    Recasting Durkheim's "community of saints" thesis, the authors argue that the severity of punishment is predicted in part by the prevalence of the deviant behavior of which the deviant stands accused. Although there is some curvilinearity at low levels of prevalence, the relationship is generally negative. Thus, all else equal, where a particular crime is frequent, any punishment applied to it is likely to be mild; conversely, where a crime is infrequent, its punishment ought to be severe. Using hierarchical regression models, the authors support this hypothesis with 1988 homicide conviction and imprisonment decisions in 32 U.S. counties.

  13. Punishment And Resocialization

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Nielsen, Nicklas; Jarvad, Gulliver; Horslund, Oliver; Minor, Jeppe; Mamsen, Johan; Jensen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Recent controversies concerning the resocialization of criminals by the structures of Danish prisons brought the topic of contradictions between contemporary punishment and resocialization to our attention. We have through a spectrum of personal direct sources and the works of the wideranging theoreticists Erving Goffman and Michel Focault analysed and discussed the concept and reality of resocialization. The relationship between punishment and resocialization, though profoundly enlightened,...

  14. Punishment And Resocialization

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Nielsen, Nicklas; Jarvad, Gulliver; Horslund, Oliver; Minor, Jeppe; Mamsen, Johan; Jensen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Recent controversies concerning the resocialization of criminals by the structures of Danish prisons brought the topic of contradictions between contemporary punishment and resocialization to our attention. We have through a spectrum of personal direct sources and the works of the wideranging theoreticists Erving Goffman and Michel Focault analysed and discussed the concept and reality of resocialization. The relationship between punishment and resocialization, though profoundly enlightened,...

  15. Choosy moral punishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavien, Christine; Tanner, Colby J; Clément, Fabrice; Chapuisat, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The punishment of social misconduct is a powerful mechanism for stabilizing high levels of cooperation among unrelated individuals. It is regularly assumed that humans have a universal disposition to punish social norm violators, which is sometimes labelled "universal structure of human morality" or "pure aversion to social betrayal". Here we present evidence that, contrary to this hypothesis, the propensity to punish a moral norm violator varies among participants with different career trajectories. In anonymous real-life conditions, future teachers punished a talented but immoral young violinist: they voted against her in an important music competition when they had been informed of her previous blatant misconduct toward fellow violin students. In contrast, future police officers and high school students did not punish. This variation among socio-professional categories indicates that the punishment of norm violators is not entirely explained by an aversion to social betrayal. We suggest that context specificity plays an important role in normative behaviour; people seem inclined to enforce social norms only in situations that are familiar, relevant for their social category, and possibly strategically advantageous.

  16. Choosy moral punishers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Clavien

    Full Text Available The punishment of social misconduct is a powerful mechanism for stabilizing high levels of cooperation among unrelated individuals. It is regularly assumed that humans have a universal disposition to punish social norm violators, which is sometimes labelled "universal structure of human morality" or "pure aversion to social betrayal". Here we present evidence that, contrary to this hypothesis, the propensity to punish a moral norm violator varies among participants with different career trajectories. In anonymous real-life conditions, future teachers punished a talented but immoral young violinist: they voted against her in an important music competition when they had been informed of her previous blatant misconduct toward fellow violin students. In contrast, future police officers and high school students did not punish. This variation among socio-professional categories indicates that the punishment of norm violators is not entirely explained by an aversion to social betrayal. We suggest that context specificity plays an important role in normative behaviour; people seem inclined to enforce social norms only in situations that are familiar, relevant for their social category, and possibly strategically advantageous.

  17. Neural components of altruistic punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eDu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Altruistic punishment, which occurs when an individual incurs a cost to punish in response to unfairness or a norm violation, may play a role in perpetuating cooperation. The neural correlates underlying costly punishment have only recently begun to be explored. Here we review the current state of research on the neural basis of altruism from the perspectives of costly punishment, emphasizing the importance of characterizing elementary neural processes underlying a decision to punish. In particular, we emphasize three cognitive processes that contribute to the decision to altruistically punish in most scenarios: inequity aversion, cost-benefit calculation, and social reference frame to distinguish self from others. Overall, we argue for the importance of understanding the neural correlates of altruistic punishment with respect to the core computations necessary to achieve a decision to punish.

  18. Administration of punishment in school

    OpenAIRE

    Lalić Nataša Z.

    2003-01-01

    Giving consideration to punishment, one of the inevitable elements of school discipline, always reactivates the issue of punishment administration and its effects in school setting. Punishment is administered by a beforehand-determined intention, its general and final goal being the attempt to make a child change his/her behavior so as to more successfully take part in school life. The issue of how much it is justifiable to administer punishment, as a way of directing child’s behavior, is not...

  19. Corporal Punishment and the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Gordon B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    In order to understand and evaluate the continued prevalence of corporal punishment in school systems, this article reviews the following topics: (1) historical issues; (2) current demographics and correlates; (3) the effectiveness of corporal punishment in school settings; (4) myths; (5) alternatives to corporal punishment; and (6) social policy.…

  20. The social costs of punishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Pieter; Molleman, Lucas; Weissing, Franz J.

    2012-01-01

    Lab experiments on punishment are of limited relevance for understanding cooperative behavior in the real world. In real interactions, punishment is not cheap, but the costs of punishment are of a different nature than in experiments. They do not correspond to direct payments or payoff deductions, b

  1. Crime and Punishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dostoevsky, Fyodor

    2005-01-01

    Crime and Punishment is the story of a brutal double murder and its aftermath. Raskolnikov, a poor student, kills a pawnbroker and her sister, and then has to face up to the moral consequences of his actions. The novel is compelling and rewarding, full of meaning and symbolism, and raises profound

  2. The Punishment of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, T. F.; Smagina, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    The causes of punishment including violence are perceived, first and foremost, as in the nature of family relations. The authors' survey focused on children's interaction with their parents, and the risk of violence is clearly present. Russian sociological research on violence against children within families shows a lack of consensus on what…

  3. Shame, Guilt, and Punishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2009-01-01

    that this analysis enhances our understanding of the various theories of punishment that populate this part of criminal law theory and thereby sharpens the critical tools needed to assess them. My general conclusion is that, in different ways, all of the theories we encounter in this area can benefit from paying...

  4. Crime and Punishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dostoevsky, Fyodor

    2005-01-01

    Crime and Punishment is the story of a brutal double murder and its aftermath. Raskolnikov, a poor student, kills a pawnbroker and her sister, and then has to face up to the moral consequences of his actions. The novel is compelling and rewarding, full of meaning and symbolism, and raises profound q

  5. Hate and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Antti

    2015-06-01

    According to legal expressivism, neither crime nor punishment consists merely in intentionally imposing some kind of harm on another. Crime and punishment also have an expressive aspect. They are what they are in part because they enact attitudes toward others--in the case of crime, some kind of disrespect, at least, and in the case of punishment, society's condemnation or reprobation. Punishment is justified, at least in part, because (and when) it uniquely expresses fitting condemnation or other retributive attitude. What makes retributive attitudes fitting is that they protect the victim's status as inviolable. Hate or bias crimes dramatize the expressive aspect of crime, as they are often designed to send a message to the victim's group and society at large. Treating the enactment of contempt and denigration toward a historically underprivileged group as an aggravating factor in sentencing may be an appropriate way to counter this message, as it reaffirms and indeed realizes the fundamental equality and inviolability of all members of a democratic community.

  6. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.

  7. A New Definition of Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Philip S.

    2013-01-01

    Punishment is a procedure in which responses are followed by either the removal of positive reinforcement or the presentation of an aversive stimulus (Skinner, 1953) that results in a decrease in the frequency and/or intensity of the response (Azrin & Holtz, 1966). By definition, punishment seeks to stop unacceptable, unwanted, and bothersome…

  8. The Banning of Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the 1985 resolution of the Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) for participation in the interdisciplinary effort to ban corporal punishment. Discusses distinctions between discipline and child abuse. Reports medical and psychological effects of physical punishment, and relationships between school corporal punishment…

  9. Corporal Punishment and Child Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucoin, Katherine J.; Frick, Paul J.; Bodin, S. Doug

    2006-01-01

    The association between corporal punishment and children's emotional and behavioral functioning was studied in a sample of 98 non-referred children with a mean age of 12.35 (SD=1.72) recruited from two school systems in the southeastern United States. Children were divided into those who had experienced no corporal punishment over approximately a…

  10. Human cooperation based on punishment reputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Miguel; Rankin, Daniel J; Wedekind, Claus

    2013-08-01

    The threat of punishment usually promotes cooperation. However, punishing itself is costly, rare in nonhuman animals, and humans who punish often finish with low payoffs in economic experiments. The evolution of punishment has therefore been unclear. Recent theoretical developments suggest that punishment has evolved in the context of reputation games. We tested this idea in a simple helping game with observers and with punishment and punishment reputation (experimentally controlling for other possible reputational effects). We show that punishers fully compensate their costs as they receive help more often. The more likely defection is punished within a group, the higher the level of within-group cooperation. These beneficial effects perish if the punishment reputation is removed. We conclude that reputation is key to the evolution of punishment.

  11. On Punishment and Well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Brandts, Jordi; Rivas, María Fernanda

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The existence of punishment opportunities has been shown to cause efficiency in some public goods experiments to increase considerably. In this paper we ask whether punishment also has a downside in terms of process dissatisfaction. We conduct an experiment to study the conjecture that an environment with strong punishment possibilities may lead to higher material payoffs but lower subjective well-being, in comparison with weaker punishment or no punishment possibilities a...

  12. Schedule of Punishment and Inhibition of Aggression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Ross D.; Deur, Jan L.

    1972-01-01

    Data showed that consistent punishment resulted in faster inhibition than inconsistent punishment; subjects who were punished showed less persistence than subjects placed on an extinction schedule. (Authors)

  13. The Ethics of Proportionate Punishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    The book deals with the question of how severely criminals should be punished for their crimes. It provides a critical investigation of a fundamental principle in penal theory and practice: the principle of proportionality.......The book deals with the question of how severely criminals should be punished for their crimes. It provides a critical investigation of a fundamental principle in penal theory and practice: the principle of proportionality....

  14. Why leaders punish: A power perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooijman, Marlon; van Dijk, Wilco W; Ellemers, Naomi; van Dijk, Eric

    2015-07-01

    We propose that power fundamentally changes why leaders punish and we develop a theoretical model that specifies how and why this occurs. Specifically, we argue that power increases the reliance on deterrence, but not just deserts, as a punishment motive and relate this to power fostering a distrustful mindset. We tested our model in 9 studies using different instantiations of power, different measurements and manipulations of distrust while measuring punishment motives and recommended punishments across a number of different situations. These 9 studies demonstrate that power fosters distrust and hereby increases both the reliance on deterrence as a punishment motive and the implementation of punishments aimed at deterrence (i.e., public punishments, public naming of rule breakers and punishments with a mandatory minimum). We discuss the practical implications for leaders, managers and policymakers and the theoretical implications for scholars interested in power, trust, and punishments.

  15. The evolution of punishment through reputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Miguel; Rankin, Daniel J; Wedekind, Claus

    2011-02-07

    Punishment of non-cooperators has been observed to promote cooperation. Such punishment is an evolutionary puzzle because it is costly to the punisher while beneficial to others, for example, through increased social cohesion. Recent studies have concluded that punishing strategies usually pay less than some non-punishing strategies. These findings suggest that punishment could not have directly evolved to promote cooperation. However, while it is well established that reputation plays a key role in human cooperation, the simple threat from a reputation of being a punisher may not have been sufficiently explored yet in order to explain the evolution of costly punishment. Here, we first show analytically that punishment can lead to long-term benefits if it influences one's reputation and thereby makes the punisher more likely to receive help in future interactions. Then, in computer simulations, we incorporate up to 40 more complex strategies that use different kinds of reputations (e.g. from generous actions), or strategies that not only include punitive behaviours directed towards defectors but also towards cooperators for example. Our findings demonstrate that punishment can directly evolve through a simple reputation system. We conclude that reputation is crucial for the evolution of punishment by making a punisher more likely to receive help in future interactions, and that experiments investigating the beneficial effects of punishment in humans should include reputation as an explicit feature.

  16. Outsourcing punishment to God: beliefs in divine control reduce earthly punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Kristin; Shariff, Azim F; Henrich, Joseph; Kay, Aaron C

    2012-08-22

    The sanctioning of norm-transgressors is a necessary--though often costly--task for maintaining a well-functioning society. Prior to effective and reliable secular institutions for punishment, large-scale societies depended on individuals engaging in 'altruistic punishment'--bearing the costs of punishment individually, for the benefit of society. Evolutionary approaches to religion suggest that beliefs in powerful, moralizing Gods, who can distribute rewards and punishments, emerged as a way to augment earthly punishment in large societies that could not effectively monitor norm violations. In five studies, we investigate whether such beliefs in God can replace people's motivation to engage in altruistic punishment, and their support for state-sponsored punishment. Results show that, although religiosity generally predicts higher levels of punishment, the specific belief in powerful, intervening Gods reduces altruistic punishment and support for state-sponsored punishment. Moreover, these effects are specifically owing to differences in people's perceptions that humans are responsible for punishing wrongdoers.

  17. Punishment: necessity or harm in preschool education

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzma, Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical part of my thesis discusses the physical and emotional punishment of children, it mentions the history of punishment and examines the present-day child punishment. The thesis raises awareness about violence caused by sanctioning as well as the unwanted effects and factors influencing it. The thesis develops consciousness on the so-called hidden curriculum since I hold the opinion that child punishment in a kindergarten is part of this hiden curriculum. The empirical part of...

  18. The neural basis of altruistic punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Fischbacher, Urs; Treyer, Valerie; Schellhammer, Melanie; Schnyder, Ulrich; Buck, Alfred; Fehr, Ernst

    2004-08-27

    Many people voluntarily incur costs to punish violations of social norms. Evolutionary models and empirical evidence indicate that such altruistic punishment has been a decisive force in the evolution of human cooperation. We used H2 15O positron emission tomography to examine the neural basis for altruistic punishment of defectors in an economic exchange. Subjects could punish defection either symbolically or effectively. Symbolic punishment did not reduce the defector's economic payoff, whereas effective punishment did reduce the payoff. We scanned the subjects' brains while they learned about the defector's abuse of trust and determined the punishment. Effective punishment, as compared with symbolic punishment, activated the dorsal striatum, which has been implicated in the processing of rewards that accrue as a result of goal-directed actions. Moreover, subjects with stronger activations in the dorsal striatum were willing to incur greater costs in order to punish. Our findings support the hypothesis that people derive satisfaction from punishing norm violations and that the activation in the dorsal striatum reflects the anticipated satisfaction from punishing defectors.

  19. Corporal Punishment: Legalities, Realities, and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Patricia H.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a quiz that will help readers determine the reliability of their own perceptions relating to corporal punishment in schools. Discusses U.S. Courts and corporal punishment, worldwide and nationwide legality, and the realities of corporal punishment in the United States. Discusses implications for what teachers can do to address corporal…

  20. Turkish Primary School Pupils' Views on Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Bahri

    2010-01-01

    Teachers meet with unwanted behavior when they are acting as facilitators of the learning process and they resort to certain tactics to deal with them. One of these tactics is punishment. This study aimed to identify the views held by Turkish primary school pupils on punishment. According to the results of the study, pupils were punished for…

  1. CyberCrime and Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Susan J.; Gumpert, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Surveys ways in which criminal laws are finding their way into cyberspace, the implications of such actions for communicative rights and liabilities, and the media differentials of crime and punishment. Examines crime committed using email and the Internet; computer mediated felonies, misdemeanors, and violations committed in cyberspace; forgery;…

  2. Capital Punishment: An International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Edy

    1983-01-01

    The debate over the death penalty in the United States has implications beyond our borders. Because of the lack of universal standards governing its use, only those countries which have abolished capital punishment may, with any moral authority, denounce its exploitation as an instrument of political expediency. (IS)

  3. Corporal Punishment in Tanzania's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Sheryl; Mwahombela, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to acquire descriptive information regarding corporal punishment in Tanzania's O-level secondary schools. 448 individuals participated in the study: 254 teachers and 194 students, all from government or private secondary schools in the Iringa Region of Tanzania. In addition, 14 students and 14 teachers were…

  4. Discipline, Corporal Punishment, and Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Gonzalo

    Discipline is a major problem in many schools and an important issue to parents and educators alike. Discipline is commonly defined as negative reinforcement--punishment--instead of leadership and good teaching. Its definition should be expanded to relate it to the overall purposes of education. Discipline policy should be integrated with…

  5. Human behaviour: Egalitarian motive and altruistic punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, James H; Johnson, Tim; Smirnov, Oleg

    2005-01-06

    Altruistic punishment is a behaviour in which individuals punish others at a cost to themselves in order to provide a public good. Fehr and Gächter present experimental evidence in humans indicating that negative emotions towards non-cooperators motivate punishment, which, in turn, provokes a high degree of cooperation. Using Fehr and Gächter's original data, we provide an alternative analysis of their experiment that suggests that egalitarian motives are more important than motives for punishing non-cooperative behaviour. This finding is consistent with evidence that humans may have an evolutionary incentive to punish the highest earners in order to promote equality, rather than cooperation.

  6. Punishment mechanisms and their effect on cooperation: A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farjam, M.D.; Faillo, M.; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Haselager, W.F.G.

    2015-01-01

    In social dilemmas punishment costs resources, not just from the one who is punished but often also from the punisher and society. Reciprocity on the other side is known to lead to cooperation without the costs of punishment. The questions at hand are whether punishment brings advantages besides its

  7. Organized Crime, Corruption and Punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Kugler, Maurice; Verdier, Thierry; Zenou, Yves

    2003-01-01

    We analyze an oligopoly model in which differentiated criminal organizations globally compete on criminal activities and engage in local corruption to avoid punishment. When law enforcers are sufficiently well-paid, difficult to bribe and corruption detection highly probable, we show that increasing policing or sanctions effectively deters crime. However, when bribing costs are low, that is badly-paid and dishonest law enforcers work in a weak governance environment, and the rents from crimin...

  8. Corporal and capital punishment of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, H C

    1990-01-01

    There is a previously unobserved connection between corporal punishment of public school children and capital punishment of juveniles. Both are barometers of acceptable levels of violent punishment and their elimination is a hallmark of a maturing and decent society. Within a majority of the eighteen states where school authorities most frequently strike children are housed 25 of the nation's 28 juvenile death row inmates. On average, the homicide rates of these jurisdictions are two and a half times greater than those that have abolished both state-sanctioned corporal and capital punishment or limit death sentences to those age eighteen and older at the time of their crime(s). Most of the eighteen state abolitions of corporal punishment occurred in the 1980's. The US Supreme Court has ruled both corporal and capital punishment of juveniles constitutional. Additional state legislative abolition of both is anticipated in the 1990s.

  9. Corticolimbic gating of emotion-driven punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadway, Michael T; Buckholtz, Joshua W; Martin, Justin W; Jan, Katharine; Asplund, Christopher L; Ginther, Matthew R; Jones, Owen D; Marois, René

    2014-09-01

    Determining the appropriate punishment for a norm violation requires consideration of both the perpetrator's state of mind (for example, purposeful or blameless) and the strong emotions elicited by the harm caused by their actions. It has been hypothesized that such affective responses serve as a heuristic that determines appropriate punishment. However, an actor's mental state often trumps the effect of emotions, as unintended harms may go unpunished, regardless of their magnitude. Using fMRI, we found that emotionally graphic descriptions of harmful acts amplify punishment severity, boost amygdala activity and strengthen amygdala connectivity with lateral prefrontal regions involved in punishment decision-making. However, this was only observed when the actor's harm was intentional; when harm was unintended, a temporoparietal-medial-prefrontal circuit suppressed amygdala activity and the effect of graphic descriptions on punishment was abolished. These results reveal the brain mechanisms by which evaluation of a transgressor's mental state gates our emotional urges to punish.

  10. Cooperation under punishment: Imperfect information destroys it and centralizing punishment does not help

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Sven; Grechenig, Kristoffel; Meier, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    We run several experiments which allow us to compare cooperation under perfect and imperfect information and under a centralized and decentralized punishment regime. We find that (1) centralization by itself does not improve cooperation and welfare compared to an informal, peer-to-peer punishment regime and (2) centralized punishment is equally sensitive to noise as decentralized punishment, that is, it leads to significantly lower cooperation and welfare (total pro ts). Our results shed crit...

  11. Taking punishment into your own hands: An experiment on the motivation underlying punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Duersch, Peter; Müller, Julia

    2010-01-01

    In a punishment experiment, we separate the demand for punishment in general from a possible demand to conduct punishment personally. Subjects experience an unfair split of their earnings from a real effort task and have to decide on the punishment of the person who determines the distribution. First, it is established whether the allocator's payoff is reduced and, afterwards, subjects take part in a second price auction for the right to (physically) carry out the act of payoff reduction. Thi...

  12. Punishment and Deterrence: Evidence from Drunk Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Traditional economic models of criminal behavior have straightforward predictions: raising the expected cost of crime via apprehension probabilities or punishments decreases crime. I test the effect of harsher punishments on deterring driving under the influence (DUI). In this setting, punishments are determined by strict rules on Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) and previous offenses. Regression discontinuity derived estimates suggest that having a BAC above the DUI threshold reduces recidivism b...

  13. The role of corporal punishment in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Koutelekos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Corporal punishment consists the most common method of discipline and it is frequently accepted as a necessary tool of parents behavior, globally. Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about corporal punishment as a method of discipline. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly in the pub med data base which referred to corporal punishment as a method of discipline Results: Though it is internationally recognized in human rights law that children have a right to protection from all forms of violence, including corporal punishment in all settings (home, school, however corporal punishment is still perceived as an acceptable form of "discipline", particularly at home. It is widely accepted that corporal punishment can de hardly defined accurately owing to the discrepancies among the habits and perceptions of individuals regarding childbearing in various countries. The only advantage of corporal punishment is the quick compliance of the child. Furthermore, corporal punishment does not enhance communication within the family on the contrary; it enforces the adoption of the same behavior by the children. Conclusion: Abolishing corporal punishment of children demand action at different levels, such as comprehensive changes in legislation of every country and introduction of new policy measures regarding proper guidance for those working with children and families. It also requires awareness and information of the public about children's human rights, globally.

  14. More 'altruistic' punishment in larger societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J Colette

    2008-03-01

    If individuals will cooperate with cooperators, and punish non-cooperators even at a cost to themselves, then this strong reciprocity could minimize the cheating that undermines cooperation. Based upon numerous economic experiments, some have proposed that human cooperation is explained by strong reciprocity and norm enforcement. Second-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on you; third-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on someone else. Third-party punishment is an effective way to enforce the norms of strong reciprocity and promote cooperation. Here we present new results that expand on a previous report from a large cross-cultural project. This project has already shown that there is considerable cross-cultural variation in punishment and cooperation. Here we test the hypothesis that population size (and complexity) predicts the level of third-party punishment. Our results show that people in larger, more complex societies engage in significantly more third-party punishment than people in small-scale societies.

  15. When the strong punish: why net costs of punishment are often negligible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rueden, Christopher R; Gurven, Michael

    2012-02-01

    In small-scale societies, punishment of adults is infrequent and employed when the anticipated cost-to-benefit ratio is low, such as when punishment is collectively justified and administered. In addition, benefits may exceed costs when punishers have relatively greater physical and social capital and gain more from cooperation. We provide examples from the Tsimane horticulturalists of Bolivia to support our claims.

  16. Examining Punishment and Discipline: Defending the Use of Punishment by Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifried, Chad

    2008-01-01

    Confusion, uncertainty, and debate often surround the terms "discipline" and "punishment" because scholars fail to publicize that they possess distinctive meanings. This article differentiates punishment from discipline and attempts to present some rationale supporting its use, especially corporal punishment, in a sport setting from a coaching…

  17. Effectiveness of conditional punishment for the evolution of public cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaz

    2013-01-01

    Collective actions, from city marathons to labor strikes, are often mass-driven and subject to the snowball effect. Motivated by this, we study evolutionary advantages of conditional punishment in the spatial public goods game. Unlike unconditional punishers who always impose the same fines on defectors, conditional punishers do so proportionally with the number of other punishers in the group. Phase diagrams in dependence on the punishment fine and cost reveal that the two types of punishers...

  18. Selfish punishment: altruism can be maintained by competition among cheaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldakar, Omar Tonsi; Farrell, Dene Leo; Wilson, David Sloan

    2007-11-21

    Altruistic punishment refers to a class of behaviors that deters cheating at a cost to the punisher, making it a form of second-order altruism. Usually, it is assumed that the punishers are themselves "solid citizens" who refrain from cheating. We show in a simulation model that altruism and punishment paradoxically become negatively correlated, leading to a form of selfish punishment. Examples of selfish punishment can be found in organisms as diverse as wasps, birds, and humans.

  19. How much should debtors be punished in case of default?

    OpenAIRE

    Aloisio Araujo; Bruno Funchal

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between debtor punishment and the development of the credit market. We empirically analyze how the level of debtor punishment relates to the credit market expansion. We find evidence that an increase in debtor punishment tends to produce a positive effect on credit markets for states with low level of punishment and a negative effect for states with high level of punishment. Hence, there is an intermediate level of debtor punishment that maximizes the ...

  20. Crime and punishment: Does it pay to punish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, J. R.; Semeshenko, V.; Schneider, E. M.; Gordon, M. B.

    2012-08-01

    Crime is the result of a rational distinctive balance between the benefits and costs of an illegal act. This idea was proposed by Becker more than forty years ago (Becker (1968) [1]). In this paper, we simulate a simple artificial society, in which agents earn fixed wages and can augment (or lose) wealth as a result of a successful (or not) act of crime. The probability of apprehension depends on the gravity of the crime, and the punishment takes the form of imprisonment and fines. We study the costs of the law enforcement system required for keeping crime within acceptable limits, and compare it with the harm produced by crime. A sharp phase transition is observed as a function of the probability of punishment, and this transition exhibits a clear hysteresis effect, suggesting that the cost of reversing a deteriorated situation might be much higher than that of maintaining a relatively low level of delinquency. Besides, we analyze economic consequences that arise from crimes under different scenarios of criminal activity and probabilities of apprehension.

  1. Motivations for Individualization of Punishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobad Naderi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, Motivated by Individualization -defense to penalties, seeks to answers to this question whether principle Individualization penalty, can be recognized as a legal principle? Individualization penalty means: Differentiate between the delinquents and determine the penalty imposed or alternately follows the character of the offender and the punishment that is imposed on him. In this research Western of Jurists the views (of Individualization motivations to penalties have been investigated. Now, to the motivations study of the Individualization we explain penalties.

  2. Punishment does not promote cooperation under exploration dynamics when anti-social punishment is possible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Oliver P; Nowak, Martin A; Rand, David G

    2014-11-07

    It has been argued that punishment promotes the evolution of cooperation when mutation rates are high (i.e. when agents engage in 'exploration dynamics'). Mutations maintain a steady supply of agents that punish free-riders, and thus free-riders are at a disadvantage. Recent experiments, however, have demonstrated that free-riders sometimes also pay to punish cooperators. Inspired by these empirical results, theoretical work has explored evolutionary dynamics where mutants are rare, and found that punishment does not promote the evolution of cooperation when this 'anti-social punishment' is allowed. Here we extend previous theory by studying the effect of anti-social punishment on the evolution of cooperation across higher mutation rates, and by studying voluntary as well as compulsory Public Goods Games. We find that for intermediate and high mutation rates, adding punishment does not promote cooperation in either compulsory or voluntary public goods games if anti-social punishment is possible. This is because mutations generate agents that punish cooperators just as frequently as agents that punish defectors, and these two effects cancel each other out. These results raise questions about the effectiveness of punishment for promoting cooperation when mutations are common, and highlight how decisions about which strategies to include in the strategy set can have profound effects on the resulting dynamics.

  3. Punish, but not too hard: How costly punishment spreads in the spatial public goods game

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk; Perc, Matjaz; Szabo, Gyorgy

    2010-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games where, besides the classical strategies of cooperation (C) and defection (D), we consider punishing cooperators (PC) or punishing defectors (PD) as an additional strategy. Using a minimalist modeling approach, our goal is to separately clarify and identify the consequences of the two punishing strategies. Since punishment is costly, punishing strategies loose the evolutionary competition in case of well-mixed interactions. When spatial interactions are taken into account, however, the outcome can be strikingly different, and cooperation may spread. The underlying mechanism depends on the character of the punishment strategy. In case of cooperating punishers, increasing the fine results in a rising cooperation level. In contrast, in the presence of the PD strategy, the phase diagram exhibits a reentrant transition as the fine is increased. Accordingly, the level of cooperation shows a non-monotonous dependence on the fine. Remarkably, punishin...

  4. Examining punishment at different explanatory levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Miguel; Wedekind, Claus

    2012-02-01

    Experimental studies on punishment have sometimes been over-interpreted not only for the reasons Guala lists, but also because of a frequent conflation of proximate and ultimate explanatory levels that Guala's review perpetuates. Moreover, for future analyses we may need a clearer classification of different kinds of punishment.

  5. Capital Punishment for Juveniles: Albert French's "Billy."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Sonja

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes Albert French's novel "Billy" and its exploration of the United States' use of capital punishment for young criminals. Addresses the underlying causes of Billy's execution. Discusses specific themes and issues that teachers can use for classroom discussions of capital punishment. (RS)

  6. Against the Corporal Punishment of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John

    2004-01-01

    John Wilson suggests there are six advantages for corporal punishment: cheap and easy to administer, effective deterrent, effective reform, adjustable pain, fair because of similar dislike of pain, no permanent damage. None of these survive close scrutiny. An alternative, deontological argument against corporal punishment is proposed building on…

  7. Punishments, Rewards, and the Production of Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.

    2014-01-01

    In legal knowledge acquisition, the threat of punishment remains an important litmus test for categorizing legal rules: something is a real duty if it is backed - directly or indirectly - by a threat of punishment. In practice, no accounts of how enforcement design patterns are superposed on represe

  8. Alternatives to Using Exercise as Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Maura; Pagnano-Richardson, Karen; Burak, Lydia

    2010-01-01

    Although the National Association for Sport and Physical Education and other governing bodies discourage coaches and teachers from using exercise as punishment, its use is still fairly widespread. In order to better understand why coaches and teachers use exercise as punishment, this article examines some of the findings from a recent study (Burak…

  9. Costly punishment prevails in intergroup conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sääksvuori, Lauri; Mappes, Tapio; Puurtinen, Mikael

    2011-11-22

    Understanding how societies resolve conflicts between individual and common interests remains one of the most fundamental issues across disciplines. The observation that humans readily incur costs to sanction uncooperative individuals without tangible individual benefits has attracted considerable attention as a proximate cause as to why cooperative behaviours might evolve. However, the proliferation of individually costly punishment has been difficult to explain. Several studies over the last decade employing experimental designs with isolated groups have found clear evidence that the costs of punishment often nullify the benefits of increased cooperation, rendering the strong human tendency to punish a thorny evolutionary puzzle. Here, we show that group competition enhances the effectiveness of punishment so that when groups are in direct competition, individuals belonging to a group with punishment opportunity prevail over individuals in a group without this opportunity. In addition to competitive superiority in between-group competition, punishment reduces within-group variation in success, creating circumstances that are highly favourable for the evolution of accompanying group-functional behaviours. We find that the individual willingness to engage in costly punishment increases with tightening competitive pressure between groups. Our results suggest the importance of intergroup conflict behind the emergence of costly punishment and human cooperation.

  10. Race, punishment, and the Michael Vick experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero, Alex R; Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Gertz, Marc; Baker, Thomas; Batton, Jason; Barnes, J C

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The relationship between race and crime has been contentious, focusing primarily on offending and incarceration patterns among minorities. There has been some limited work on public perceptions of criminal punishment, and findings show that while minorities believe in the role and rule of law, they simultaneously perceive the justice system as acting in a biased and/or unfair manner. Two limitations have stalled this literature. First, research has focused mainly on criminal punishments to the neglect of noncriminal punishments. Second, most studies have not examined whether race remains salient after considering other demographic variables or discrimination and legitimacy attitudes.Methods. Using data from 400 adults, we examine how race affects perceptions of criminal punishment and subsequent reinstatement into the National Football League in the case of Michael Vick, a star professional quarterback who pled guilty to charges of operating an illegal dog-fighting ring.Results. Findings show that whites are more likely to view Vick's punishment as too soft and that he should not be reinstated, while nonwhites had the opposite views. Race remained significant after controlling for other variables believed to be related to punishment perceptions.Conclusion. Attitudes toward both criminal punishment and NFL reinstatement vary across race such that there exists important divides in how individuals perceive the system meting out punishment and subsequently reintegrating offenders back into society. These results underscore that white and nonwhites perceive the law and its administration differently.

  11. Anger motivates costly punishment of unfair behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seip, E.C.; van Dijk, W.W.; Rotteveel, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we provide empirical support for anger as an underlying mechanism of costly punishment in three studies. A first study showed that participants punished other players more the less these players cooperated in a Public Goods Game and that this effect was mediated by experienced anger.

  12. Antisocial Punishment in Two Social Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique eFatas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sanctions on cooperation depends on social and cultural norms. While free riding is kept at bay by altruistic punishment in certain cultures, antisocial punishment carried out by free riders pushes back cooperation in others. In this paper we analyze sanctions in both a standard public goods game with a linear production function and an otherwise identical social dilemma in which the minimum contribution determines the group outcome. Experiments were run in a culture with traditionally high antisocial punishment (Southern Europe. We replicate the detrimental effect of antisocial sanctions on cooperation in the linear case. However, we find that punishment is still widely effective when actions are complementary: the provision of the public good significantly and substantially increases with sanctions, participants punish significantly less and sanctions radically transform conditional cooperation patterns to generate significant welfare gains.

  13. Role of mutual punishment in the snowdrift game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Zhen

    2015-09-01

    The effects of punishment on cooperation have drawn increasing attention. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism of punishment, in which an individual will punish each neighbor if their strategies are different, and vice versa. We incorporate the mutual punishment into the snowdrift game. Results for well-mixed and structured populations have shown that, for no punishment or small values of punishment fine, the fraction of cooperators continuously decreases with the temptation to defect. However, for large values of punishment fine, there exists an abrupt transition point, at which the fraction of cooperators suddenly drops from 1 to 0. Compared to no punishment, mutual punishment promotes cooperation when the temptation to defect is small but inhibits cooperation when the temptation to defect is large. For weak (strong) temptation to defect, the cooperation level increases (decreases) with the punishment fine. For moderate temptation to defect, there exists an optimal value of the punishment fine that leads to the highest cooperation level.

  14. Evolution of altruistic punishment in heterogeneous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weerd, Harmen; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2011-12-07

    Evolutionary models for altruistic behavior typically make the assumption of homogeneity: each individual has the same costs and benefits associated with cooperating with each other and punishing for selfish behavior. In this paper, we relax this assumption by separating the population into heterogeneous classes, such that individuals from different classes differ in their ability to punish for selfishness. We compare the effects of introducing heterogeneity this way across two population models, that each represents a different type of population: the infinite and well-mixed population describes the way workers of social insects such as ants are organized, while a spatially structured population is more related to the way social norms evolve and are maintained in a social network. We find that heterogeneity in the effectiveness of punishment by itself has little to no effect on whether or not altruistic behavior will stabilize in a population. In contrast, heterogeneity in the cost that individuals pay to punish for selfish behavior allows altruistic behavior to be maintained more easily. Fewer punishers are needed to deter selfish behavior, and the individuals that punish will mostly belong to the class that pays a lower cost to do so. This effect is amplified when individuals that pay a lower cost for punishing inflict a higher punishment. The two population models differ when individuals that pay a low cost for punishing also inflict a lower punishment. In this situation, altruistic behavior becomes harder to maintain in an infinite and well-mixed population. However, this effect does not occur when the population is spatially structured.

  15. Does Self-Regulatory Efficacy Matter? Effects of Punishment Certainty and Punishment Severity on Organizational Deviance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabiru Maitama Kura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Extant empirical research has reported conflicting findings with respect to the effects of punishment certainty and punishment severity on organizational deviance, suggesting the need to introduce a moderator. The present study tested whether self-regulatory efficacy matters on the relationships among punishment certainty, punishment severity, and organizational deviance. Drawing on deterrence and self-efficacy theories, this study examined the effects of punishment certainty, punishment severity, and self-regulatory efficacy on organizational deviance among 197 employed postgraduate students who enrolled in the Master of Business Administration program at two large universities located in the north-west geopolitical zone of Nigeria. We used self-administered questionnaires to collect data. Using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM, we found a significant negative relationship between punishment certainty and organizational deviance. Similarly, the results indicated that punishment severity had a significant negative relationship with organizational deviance. The study also found a significant negative relationship between self-regulatory efficacy and organizational deviance. As expected, self-regulatory efficacy was found to moderate the relationship between punishment certainty and organizational deviance. On the contrary, no significant interaction effect was found between self-regulatory efficacy and punishment severity. Implications of the study in the Nigerian context have been discussed.

  16. Social stress reactivity alters reward and punishment learning

    OpenAIRE

    Cavanagh, James F.; Frank, Michael J.; Allen, John J.B.

    2010-01-01

    To examine how stress affects cognitive functioning, individual differences in trait vulnerability (punishment sensitivity) and state reactivity (negative affect) to social evaluative threat were examined during concurrent reinforcement learning. Lower trait-level punishment sensitivity predicted better reward learning and poorer punishment learning; the opposite pattern was found in more punishment sensitive individuals. Increasing state-level negative affect was directly related to punishme...

  17. Taking Punishment into your Own Hands: An Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Müller (Julia); P. Dürsch (Peter)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn a punishment experiment, we separate the demand for punishment in general from the demand to conduct punishment personally. Subjects experience an unfair split of their earnings from a real effort task and have to decide on the punishment of the person who determines the distribution.

  18. Some effects of punishment shock intensity upon discriminative responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, R W

    1971-01-01

    Three pigeons received visual discrimination training under both multiple variable-ratio extinction and variable-interval extinction schedules. All birds developed nearly perfect discrimination. When punishment for every tenth response during food reinforcement was presented, responding decreased as shock intensity increased. At the same time, responding during extinction, which was not punished, increased at intermediate punishment intensities, but returned to low levels under severe punishment. A second procedure, in which punishment and no-punishment sessions alternated unsystematically, was employed with two of the birds. The results under this procedure essentially replicated the data obtained as punishment shock intensity increased gradually.

  19. Punishment in optional public goods games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Xu, Zhao-Jin; Zhang, Lian-Zhong

    2010-11-01

    In this work, the optional public goods games with punishment are studied. By adopting the approximate best response dynamics, a micro model is given to explain the evolutionary process. Simultaneously, the magnitude of rationality is also considered. Under the condition of bounded rationality which provides a light to interpret phenomena in human society, the model leads to two types of equilibriums. One is the equilibrium without punishers and the other is the equilibrium including only punishers and cooperators. In addition, the effects of rationality on equilibriums are briefly investigated.

  20. Punishment in optional public goods games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhen; Xu Zhao-Jin; Zhang Lian-Zhong

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the optional public goods games with punishment are studied. By adopting the approximate best response dynamics, a micro model is given to explain the evolutionary process. Simultaneously, the magnitude of rationality is also considered. Under the condition of bounded rationality which provides a light to interpret phenomena in human society, the model leads to two types of equilibriums. One is the equilibrium without punishers and the other is the equilibrium including only punishers and cooperators. In addition, the effects of rationality on equilibriums are briefly investigated.

  1. Outsourcing punishment to God: beliefs in divine control reduce earthly punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Laurin, Kristin; Azim F Shariff; Henrich, Joseph; Kay, Aaron C.

    2012-01-01

    The sanctioning of norm-transgressors is a necessary—though often costly—task for maintaining a well-functioning society. Prior to effective and reliable secular institutions for punishment, large-scale societies depended on individuals engaging in ‘altruistic punishment’—bearing the costs of punishment individually, for the benefit of society. Evolutionary approaches to religion suggest that beliefs in powerful, moralizing Gods, who can distribute rewards and punishments, emerged as a way to...

  2. God's punishment and public goods : A test of the supernatural punishment hypothesis in 186 world cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dominic D P

    2005-12-01

    Cooperation towards public goods relies on credible threats of punishment to deter cheats. However, punishing is costly, so it remains unclear who incurred the costs of enforcement in our evolutionary past. Theoretical work suggests that human cooperation may be promoted if people believe in supernatural punishment for moral transgressions. This theory is supported by new work in cognitive psychology and by anecdotal ethnographic evidence, but formal quantitative tests remain to be done. Using data from 186 societies around the globe, I test whether the likelihood of supernatural punishment-indexed by the importance of moralizing "high gods"-is associated with cooperation.

  3. Punish, but not too hard: how costly punishment spreads in the spatial public goods game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Dirk; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž; Szabó, György

    2010-08-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games where, besides the classical strategies of cooperation (C) and defection (D), we consider punishing cooperators (PC) or punishing defectors (PD) as an additional strategy. Using a minimalist modeling approach, our goal is to separately clarify and identify the consequences of the two punishing strategies. Since punishment is costly, punishing strategies lose the evolutionary competition in case of well-mixed interactions. When spatial interactions are taken into account, however, the outcome can be strikingly different, and cooperation may spread. The underlying mechanism depends on the character of the punishment strategy. In the case of cooperating punishers, increasing the fine results in a rising cooperation level. In contrast, in the presence of the PD strategy, the phase diagram exhibits a reentrant transition as the fine is increased. Accordingly, the level of cooperation shows a non-monotonous dependence on the fine. Remarkably, punishing strategies can spread in both cases, but based on largely different mechanisms, which depend on the cooperativeness (or not) of punishers.

  4. changing perceptions of discipline and corporal punishment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    objectives that explored, firstly, teachers perceptions of their past experiences of corporal punishment and ..... of Bentham's Panopticon where the supervisor is placed in the central tower observing inmates housed in the .... PhD Thesis.

  5. Macrotheories: child physical punishment, injury and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Judy

    2005-08-01

    This is the first paper in a series of two that focus on causational factors that contribute to child physical punishment and the continuum between physical punishment, injury and child physical abuse. The papers will explore macro and microtheoretical perspectives, examine their influence on child discipline and child physical abuse and propose a framework to guide and inform professional practice in the field of child physical maltreatment Paper one introduces the reader to the political context of child physical discipline and analyses current definitions. The extent of punishment and injuries sustained is explored and the relationship between macrotheoretical perspectives examined. The paper concludes by highlighting the continuum between child physical punishment and child physical abuse.

  6. Wage punishment and place of residence

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Sachsida; Mario Jorge Cardoso de Mendonça; Paulo Roberto Amorim Loureiro

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This article tests the hypothesis of wage punishment against workers living in poor counties. That is, we explicitly test the idea that workers living in poor counts receive a wage punishment in relation to similar skilled workers living in rich counties. The econometric results are robust to both a large set of explanatory variables and different econometric specifications. The 2 Stages and the 3 Stages Least Squares approach are used to correct both the endogeneity of the place of...

  7. On Waging War to Punish Wrongdoers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvad, Ib Martin

    2005-01-01

    When someone shall prepare to kill strangers as in war it helps to make one’s opponents into wrongdoers to be punished. Grotius -perhaps wrongly- attacked Victoria for denying punitive war and claimed that even if there was no global criminal code then there was a natural right to punish wrongdoers...... of punitive war remains deceptive by its fusion of the roles of executioner, judge, legislator, and prosecutor....

  8. Capital Punishment and Deterrence: Understanding Disparate Results

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Navarro; Chao Fu; Steven Durlauf

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Investigate how different model assumptions have driven the conflicting findings in the literature on the deterrence effect of capital punishment. Methods: The deterrence effect of capital punishment is estimated across different models that reflect the following sources of model uncertainty: 1) the uncertainty about the probability model generating the aggregate murder rate equation, 2) the uncertainty about the determinants of individual’s choice of committing a murder or not, 3...

  9. Love or fear: can punishment promote cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupa, Sebestian

    2014-01-01

    Cooperation is a paradox: Why should one perform a costly behavior only to increase the fitness of another? Human societies, in which individuals cooperate with genetically unrelated individuals on a considerably larger scale than most mammals do, are especially puzzling in this regard. Recently, the threat of punishment has been given substantial attention as one of the mechanisms that could help sustain human cooperation in such situations. Nevertheless, using punishment to explain cooperation only leads to further questions: Why spend precious resources to penalize free-riders, especially if others can avoid this investment and cheaters can punish you back? Here, it is argued that current evidence supports punishment as an efficient means for the maintenance of cooperation, and that the gravity of proposed limitations of punishment for maintaining cooperation may have been overestimated in previous studies due to the features of experimental design. Most notably, the importance of factors as characteristic of human societies as reputation and language has been greatly neglected. Ironically, it was largely the combination of the two that enabled humans to shape costly punishment into numerous low-cost and less detrimental strategies that clearly can promote human cooperation.

  10. Wrath of God: religious primes and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ryan; Efferson, Charles; Whitehouse, Harvey; Fehr, Ernst

    2011-06-22

    Recent evidence indicates that priming participants with religious concepts promotes prosocial sharing behaviour. In the present study, we investigated whether religious priming also promotes the costly punishment of unfair behaviour. A total of 304 participants played a punishment game. Before the punishment stage began, participants were subliminally primed with religion primes, secular punishment primes or control primes. We found that religious primes strongly increased the costly punishment of unfair behaviours for a subset of our participants--those who had previously donated to a religious organization. We discuss two proximate mechanisms potentially underpinning this effect. The first is a 'supernatural watcher' mechanism, whereby religious participants punish unfair behaviours when primed because they sense that not doing so will enrage or disappoint an observing supernatural agent. The second is a 'behavioural priming' mechanism, whereby religious primes activate cultural norms pertaining to fairness and its enforcement and occasion behaviour consistent with those norms. We conclude that our results are consistent with dual inheritance proposals about religion and cooperation, whereby religions harness the byproducts of genetically inherited cognitive mechanisms in ways that enhance the survival prospects of their adherents.

  11. Effects of vicarious punishment: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John; Thorsteinsson, Einar; Schutte, Nicola; Rooke, Sally Erin

    2009-07-01

    Vicarious punishment involves observing a model exhibit a behavior that leads to punishment for the model. If observers then exhibit the behavior at a lower rate than do individuals in a control group, vicarious punishment occurred. The authors report the results of a meta-analysis of studies that tested for vicarious-punishment effects. Across 21 research samples and 876 participants, the viewing of a model experiencing punishment for a behavior led to a significantly lower level of the behavior by the observers, d = 0.58. Vicarious punishment occurred consistently with (a) live and filmed models, (b) severe and nonsevere punishment for the model, (c) positive punishment alone or positive plus negative punishment, (d) various types of behavior, (e) adults and children, and (f) male and female participants. The findings have implications for the use of models in reducing undesirable behavior.

  12. Commitment to Cooperation and Peer Punishment: Its Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Sasaki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical studies have generally weighed the effect of peer punishment and pool punishment for sanctioning free riders separately. However, these sanctioning mechanisms often pose a puzzling tradeoff between efficiency and stability in detecting and punishing free riders. Here, we combine the key aspects of these qualitatively different mechanisms in terms of evolutionary game theory. Based on the dilemmatic donation game, we introduce a strategy of commitment to both cooperation and peer punishment. To make the commitment credible, we assume that those willing to commit have to make a certain deposit. The deposit will be refunded as long as the committers faithfully cooperate in the donation game and punish free riders and non-committers. It turns out that the deposit-based commitment offers both the efficiency of peer punishment and the stability of pool punishment and that the replicator dynamics lead to transitions of different systems: pool punishment to commitment to peer punishment.

  13. Punishment can promote defection in group-structured populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Simon T; Taylor, Daniel J; Bryson, Joanna J

    2012-10-21

    Pro-social punishment, whereby cooperators punish defectors, is often suggested as a mechanism that maintains cooperation in large human groups. Importantly, models that support this idea have to date only allowed defectors to be the target of punishment. However, recent empirical work has demonstrated the existence of anti-social punishment in public goods games. That is, individuals that defect have been found to also punish cooperators. Some recent theoretical studies have found that such anti-social punishment can prevent the evolution of pro-social punishment and cooperation. However, the evolution of anti-social punishment in group-structured populations has not been formally addressed. Previous work has informally argued that group-structure must favour pro-social punishment. Here we formally investigate how two demographic factors, group size and dispersal frequency, affect selection pressures on pro- and anti-social punishment. Contrary to the suggestions of previous work, we find that anti-social punishment can prevent the evolution of pro-social punishment and cooperation under a range of group structures. Given that anti-social punishment has now been found in all studied extant human cultures, the claims of previous models showing the co-evolution of pro-social punishment and cooperation in group-structured populations should be re-evaluated.

  14. [Corporal Punishment. Three Works:] The Influence of Corporal Punishment on Learning: A Statistical Study. The Bible and the Rod. 1001 Alternatives to Corporal Punishment, Volume One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Adah; Wallerstein, James S.

    Arguments against the use of corporal punishment in schools are presented in the three publications collected here. "The Influence of Corporal Punishment on Learning: A Statistical Study," by Adah Maurer and James S. Wallerstein, examines the relationship between rates of corporal punishment use and noncompletion of high school in the 50 states.…

  15. [Corporal Punishment. Three Works:] The Influence of Corporal Punishment on Learning: A Statistical Study. The Bible and the Rod. 1001 Alternatives to Corporal Punishment, Volume One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Adah; Wallerstein, James S.

    Arguments against the use of corporal punishment in schools are presented in the three publications collected here. "The Influence of Corporal Punishment on Learning: A Statistical Study," by Adah Maurer and James S. Wallerstein, examines the relationship between rates of corporal punishment use and noncompletion of high school in the 50 states.…

  16. Individual heterogeneity and costly punishment: a volunteer's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przepiorka, Wojtek; Diekmann, Andreas

    2013-05-22

    Social control and the enforcement of social norms glue a society together. It has been shown theoretically and empirically that informal punishment of wrongdoers fosters cooperation in human groups. Most of this research has focused on voluntary and uncoordinated punishment carried out by individual group members. However, as punishment is costly, it is an open question as to why humans engage in the punishment of wrongdoers even in one-time-only encounters. While evolved punitive preferences have been advocated as proximate explanations for such behaviour, the strategic nature of the punishment situation has remained underexplored. It has been suggested to conceive of the punishment situation as a volunteer's dilemma (VOD), where only one individual's action is necessary and sufficient to punish the wrongdoer. Here, we show experimentally that implementing the punishment situation as a VOD sustains cooperation in an environment where punishers and non-punishers coexist. Moreover, we show that punishment-cost heterogeneity allows individuals to tacitly agree on only the strongest group member carrying out the punishment, thereby increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of social norm enforcement. Our results corroborate that costly peer punishment can be explained without assuming punitive preferences and show that centralized sanctioning institutions can emerge from arbitrary individual differences.

  17. Crime and punishment in a roaming cleanerfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Suzanne C; Côté, Isabelle M

    2010-12-07

    Cheating is common in cooperative interactions, but its occurrence can be controlled by various means ranging from rewarding cooperators to active punishment of cheaters. Punishment occurs in the mutualism involving the cleanerfish Labroides dimidiatus and its reef fish clients. When L. dimidiatus cheats, by taking scales and mucus rather than ectoparasites, wronged clients either chase or withhold further visits to the dishonest cleaner, which leads to more cooperative future interactions. Punishment of cheating L. dimidiatus may be effective largely because these cleaners are strictly site-attached, increasing the potential for repeated interactions between individual cleaners and clients. Here, we contrast the patterns of cheating and punishment in L. dimidiatus with its close relative, the less site-attached Labroides bicolor. Overall, L. bicolor had larger home ranges, cheated more often and, contrary to our prediction, were punished by cheated clients as frequently as, and not less often than, L. dimidiatus. However, adult L. bicolor, which had the largest home ranges, did not cheat more than younger conspecifics, suggesting that roaming, and hence the frequency of repeated interactions, has little influence on cheating and retaliation in cleaner-client relationships. We suggest that roaming cleaners offer the only option available to many site-attached reef fish seeking a cleaning service. This asymmetry in scope for partner choice encourages dishonesty by the partner with more options (i.e. L. bicolor), but to be cleaned by a cleaner that sometimes cheats may be a better option than not to be cleaned at all.

  18. Effectiveness of conditional punishment for the evolution of public cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2013-01-01

    Collective actions, from city marathons to labor strikes, are often mass-driven and subject to the snowball effect. Motivated by this, we study evolutionary advantages of conditional punishment in the spatial public goods game. Unlike unconditional punishers who always impose the same fines on defectors, conditional punishers do so proportionally with the number of other punishers in the group. Phase diagrams in dependence on the punishment fine and cost reveal that the two types of punishers cannot coexist. Spontaneous coarsening of the two strategies leads to an indirect territorial competition with the defectors, which is won by unconditional punishers only if the sanctioning is inexpensive. Otherwise conditional punishers are the victors of the indirect competition, indicating that under more realistic conditions they are indeed the more effective strategy. Both continuous and discontinuous phase transitions as well as tricritical points characterize the complex evolutionary dynamics, which is due to mult...

  19. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczyk, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player’s payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value. PMID:28187166

  20. Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Nikiforakis, Nikos; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2014-11-11

    Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals' willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment, individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation.

  1. Does Stake Size matter for Cooperation and Punishment?

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The effects of stake size on cooperation and punishment are investigated using a public goods experiment. We find that an increase in stake size does neither significantly affect cooperation nor, interestingly, the level of punishment.

  2. Differential Suppression by Punishment of Nonconsummatory Licking and Lever Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Gary C.; Herring, Barbara

    1978-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the differential effects of shock punishment on nonconsummatory licking (dry licking) and lever pressing. Results support a motivationally based theory of punishment involving the role of incentive stimuli associated with the particular responses studied. (Editor/RK)

  3. Controlling young people through treatment and punishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt

    2015-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates how both treatment and punishment is part of controlling young people involved in crime in the Danish welfare state. Lately there has been an increase in the use of confinement in young offenders institutions and thus a turn towards stricter punishments for crime. However......, treatment aiming at rehabilitation is still an integrated part of the system and the organization of the young offenders institutions. For the young people subjected to control both treatment and punishment are regarded as effective means of risk-control but there are also limitations and unintended results...... of exclusion and marginalization. When seeking to control young people involved in crime, the Danish social welfare state is not only social and humane but also exclusionary and at times inhumane....

  4. PUNISHMENT BY NOISE IN AN ALTERNATIVE RESPONSE SITUATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HERMAN, R L; AZRIN, N H

    1964-03-01

    Operant responses of human subjects were conditioned according to a variable-interval schedule of positive reinforcement. A brief noise was delivered as punishment for each of the responses. The noise suppressed the punished responses more when an alternative unpunished response was concurrently available than when only a single punished response was available. This finding extends the generality of a previous study that had used a period of extinction rather than the brief noise as the punishing stimulus.

  5. Peer pressure: enhancement of cooperation through mutual punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Rong, Zhihai; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    An open problem in evolutionary game dynamics is to understand the effect of peer pressure on cooperation in a quantitative manner. Peer pressure can be modeled by punishment, which has been proved to be an effective mechanism to sustain cooperation among selfish individuals. We investigate a symmetric punishment strategy, in which an individual will punish each neighbor if their strategies are different, and vice versa. Because of the symmetry in imposing the punishment, one might expect int...

  6. Is Isolation Room Time-Out a Punisher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald E. P.

    1981-01-01

    Consistent, unemotional use of timeout, without ancillary punishers, is shown to result in typical extinction curves (rather than the steeper gradient of punishment curves) for both autistic and mentally impaired children with widely different abrasive behaviors. Dangers of punishment and the therapeutic value of reduced environmental stimulation…

  7. A Survey of Parental Opinions on Corporal Punishment in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    In a survey of 129 parents of military dependents, 51% supported the use of corporal punishment in schools and 37% disagreed. Analysis of the responses displayed a relationship between parental attitudes on the use of corporal punishment and opinion of the positive effects of physical punishment on children's behavior. (Author/CL)

  8. Punishment is the authoritative imposition of something negative or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DENNIS EJIKEME IGWE

    We shall in this paper, critically assess the notion of punishment as it relates to ... Another justification of punishment is “education”, punishment can be ... belong to the Negro race in Africa and speak a language that belongs to the Kwa group of ... life and a people's evaluation of life provides them with a charter of action and.

  9. Administrators' Perceptions of Corporal Punishment in Four Tennessee Counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanger, Brian S.

    2009-01-01

    Corporal punishment is one of the most litigious issues in education. Proponents of corporal punishment believe it is a necessary and effective way to keep order in the schools. Opponents of corporal punishment feel it is detrimental to the welfare of children and should be prohibited in schools. Many states have banned the use of school corporal…

  10. The Dark Side of Altruistic Third-Party Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibbrandt, Andreas; Lopez-Perez, Raul

    2011-01-01

    This article experimentally studies punishment from unaffected third parties in ten different games. The authors show that third-party punishment exhibits several features that are arguably undesirable. First, third parties punish strongly a decider if she chooses a socially efficient or a Pareto efficient allocation and becomes the richest party…

  11. Corporal Punishment in Schools: Theoretical Discussion and Personal Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaif, Omar Abdulaziz

    2015-01-01

    This paper ponders the lasting effects of corporal punishment on students. The paper first considers the benefits and faults of corporal punishment by comparing the experiences of two generations of students and teachers. Starting with the definition of corporal punishment as applied locally and globally, the paper analyzes the reasons for its…

  12. Effects of Reinforcement, Punishment, and Feedback Upon Academic Response Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Hill M.; Buckley, Nancy K.

    1972-01-01

    Results of this study provided indirect support for Marshall's (1965) Hypothesis with regard to the informational versus motivational properties of punishment (punishment of specific responses has discriminative or informative value, whereas punishment applied to the situation may have primary motivational value). (Author)

  13. Kierkegaardian Implications of Punishment, Guilt, and Forgiveness for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyshyn, Yaroslav

    1998-01-01

    Explores Soren Kierkegaard's notion of punishment, which should interest educators because it provides a way to avoid the pitfalls of unjust punishment by viewing it in conjunction with the implications of guilt and forgiveness. The paper notes the need to question the notion of punishment closely and seek to understand its implications. (SM)

  14. Why do we punish? Deterrence and just deserts as motives for punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsmith, Kevin M; Darley, John M; Robinson, Paul H

    2002-08-01

    One popular justification for punishment is the just deserts rationale: A person deserves punishment proportionate to the moral wrong committed. A competing justification is the deterrence rationale: Punishing an offender reduces the frequency and likelihood of future offenses. The authors examined the motivation underlying laypeople's use of punishment for prototypical wrongs. Study 1 (N = 336) revealed high sensitivity to factors uniquely associated with the just deserts perspective (e.g., offense seriousness, moral trespass) and insensitivity to factors associated with deterrence (e.g., likelihood of detection, offense frequency). Study 2 (N = 329) confirmed the proposed model through structural equation modeling (SEM). Study 3 (N = 351) revealed that despite strongly stated preferences for deterrence theory, individual sentencing decisions seemed driven exclusively by just deserts concerns.

  15. changing perceptions of discipline and corporal punishment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Being hit was normal': teachers' (un)changing perceptions of ... Global and national concerns that corporal punishment is still being used, openly in certain ... NCS) as well as the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements (CAPS), respec .... to support teachers towards creating a classroom context that is not only free of.

  16. The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's…

  17. The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's corporal…

  18. Cheating and punishment in cooperative animal societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Christina; Frederickson, Megan E

    2016-02-05

    Cheaters-genotypes that gain a selective advantage by taking the benefits of the social contributions of others while avoiding the costs of cooperating-are thought to pose a major threat to the evolutionary stability of cooperative societies. In order for cheaters to undermine cooperation, cheating must be an adaptive strategy: cheaters must have higher fitness than cooperators, and their behaviour must reduce the fitness of their cooperative partners. It is frequently suggested that cheating is not adaptive because cooperators have evolved mechanisms to punish these behaviours, thereby reducing the fitness of selfish individuals. However, a simpler hypothesis is that such societies arise precisely because cooperative strategies have been favoured over selfish ones-hence, behaviours that have been interpreted as 'cheating' may not actually result in increased fitness, even when they go unpunished. Here, we review the empirical evidence for cheating behaviours in animal societies, including cooperatively breeding vertebrates and social insects, and we ask whether such behaviours are primarily limited by punishment. Our review suggests that both cheating and punishment are probably rarer than often supposed. Uncooperative individuals typically have lower, not higher, fitness than cooperators; and when evidence suggests that cheating may be adaptive, it is often limited by frequency-dependent selection rather than by punishment. When apparently punitive behaviours do occur, it remains an open question whether they evolved in order to limit cheating, or whether they arose before the evolution of cooperation.

  19. Striatal Mechanisms Underlying Movement, Reinforcement, and Punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Kravitz, Alexxai V.; Kreitzer, Anatol C.

    2012-01-01

    Direct and indirect pathway striatal neurons are known to exert opposing control over motor output. In this review, we discuss a hypothetical extension of this framework, in which direct pathway striatal neurons also mediate reinforcement and reward, and indirect pathway neurons mediate punishment and aversion.

  20. Striatal mechanisms underlying movement, reinforcement, and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Alexxai V; Kreitzer, Anatol C

    2012-06-01

    Direct and indirect pathway striatal neurons are known to exert opposing control over motor output. In this review, we discuss a hypothetical extension of this framework, in which direct pathway striatal neurons also mediate reinforcement and reward, and indirect pathway neurons mediate punishment and aversion.

  1. Evolution of altruistic punishment in heterogeneous populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weerd, Harmen; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary models for altruistic behavior typically make the assumption of homogeneity: each individual has the same costs and benefits associated with cooperating with each other and punishing for selfish behavior. In this paper, we relax this assumption by separating the population into heteroge

  2. [Danish physicians' attitude to capital punishment. A questionnaire study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulinius, A C; Andersen, P M; Holm, S

    1989-09-01

    The attitudes of the Danish medical profession to capital punishment and participation in the procedure of capital punishment were illustrated by means of a questionnaire investigation. A total of 1,011 questionnaires were sent to a representative section of Danish doctors. Out of the 591 who replied, 474 considered that capital punishment is not an acceptable form of punishment while 76 considered that capital punishment is acceptable. Twenty doctors were willing to participate actively in executions although medical participation of this type has been condemned both by the Nordic Medical Associations and also by the World Medical Association.

  3. An economic experiment reveals that humans prefer pool punishment to maintain the commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, Arne; Röhl, Torsten; Milinski, Manfred

    2012-09-22

    Punishment can stabilize costly cooperation and ensure the success of a common project that is threatened by free-riders. Punishment mechanisms can be classified into pool punishment, where the punishment act is carried out by a paid third party, (e.g. a police system or a sheriff), and peer punishment, where the punishment act is carried out by peers. Which punishment mechanism is preferred when both are concurrently available within a society? In an economic experiment, we show that the majority of subjects choose pool punishment, despite being costly even in the absence of defectors, when second-order free-riders, cooperators that do not punish, are also punished. Pool punishers are mutually enforcing their support for the punishment organization, stably trapping each other. Our experimental results show how organized punishment could have displaced individual punishment in human societies.

  4. Collective action and the detrimental side of punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutters, Shade T

    2013-04-12

    Cooperative behavior is the subject of intense study in a wide range of scientific fields, yet its evolutionary origins remain largely unexplained. A leading explanation of cooperation is the mechanism of altruistic punishment, where individuals pay to punish others but receive no material benefit in return. Experiments have shown such punishment can induce cooperative outcomes in social dilemmas, though sometimes at the cost of reduced social welfare. However, experiments typically examine the effects of punishing low contributors without allowing others in the environment to respond. Thus, the full ramifications of punishment may not be well understood. Here, I use evolutionary simulations of agents playing a continuous prisoners dilemma to study behavior subsequent to an act of punishment, and how that subsequent behavior affects the efficiency of payoffs. Different network configurations are used to better understand the relative effects of social structure and individual strategies. Results show that when agents can either retaliate against their punisher, or punish those who ignore cheaters, the cooperative effects of punishment are reduced or eliminated. The magnitude of this effect is dependent on the density of the network in which the population is embedded. Overall, results suggest that a better understanding of the aftereffects of punishment is needed to assess the relationship between punishment and cooperative outcomes.

  5. COUNTER-PUNISHMENT, COMMUNICATION AND COOPERATION AMONG PARTNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia eAndrighetto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We study how communication affects cooperation in an experimental public goods environment with punishment and counter-punishment opportunities. Participants interacted over thirty rounds in fixed groups with fixed identifiers that allowed them to trace other group members’ behavior over time. The two dimensions of communication we study are asking for a specific contribution level and having to express oneself when choosing to counter-punish. We conduct four experimental treatments, all involving a contribution stage, a punishment stage and a counter-punishment stage in each round. In the first treatment communication is not possible at any of the stages. The second treatment allows participants to ask for a contribution level at the punishment stage and in the third treatment participants are required to send a message if they decide to counter-punishment. The fourth combines the two communication channels of the second and third treatments. We find that the three treatments involving communication at any of the two relevant stages lead to significantly higher contributions than the baseline treatment. We find no difference between the three treatments with communication. We also relate our results to previous results from treatments without counter-punishment opportunities and do not find that the presence of counter-punishment leads to lower cooperation level. The overall pattern of results shows that given fixed identifiers the key factor is the presence of communication. Whenever communication is possible contributions and earnings are higher than when it is not, regardless of counter-punishment opportunities.

  6. Responsibility and punishment: whose mind? A response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, Oliver R

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience is challenging the Anglo-American approach to criminal responsibility. Critiques, in this issue and elsewhere, are pointing out the deeply flawed psychological assumptions underlying the legal tests for mental incapacity. The critiques themselves, however, may be flawed in looking, as the tests do, at the psychology of the offender. Introducing the strategic structure of punishment into the analysis leads us to consider the psychology of the punisher as the critical locus of cognition informing the responsibility rules. Such an approach both helps to make sense of the counterfactual assumptions about offender psychology embodied in the law and provides a possible explanation for the human conviction of the existence of free will, at least in others. PMID:15590621

  7. Maritime Piracy, its Suppression and Punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Štemberg, Milan

    2011-01-01

    The text Maritime Piracy, Its Suppression and Punishment, analyses piracy as a classical threat to international maritime traffic, which has reappeared after being considered obsolete in a majority of the world for several decades. The text first discusses general questions connected with piracy - a definition of piracy according to public international law is presented. Consequently, the factual side of piracy is presented, since piracy still is a topic not very well-known in the Western wor...

  8. Strict or graduated punishment? Effect of punishment strictness on the evolution of cooperation in continuous public goods games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Shimao

    Full Text Available Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher's threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player's death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results.

  9. Strict or graduated punishment? Effect of punishment strictness on the evolution of cooperation in continuous public goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, Hajime; Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2013-01-01

    Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher's threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player's death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results.

  10. Peer pressure: enhancement of cooperation through mutual punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Rong, Zhihai; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    An open problem in evolutionary game dynamics is to understand the effect of peer pressure on cooperation in a quantitative manner. Peer pressure can be modeled by punishment, which has been proved to be an effective mechanism to sustain cooperation among selfish individuals. We investigate a symmetric punishment strategy, in which an individual will punish each neighbor if their strategies are different, and vice versa. Because of the symmetry in imposing the punishment, one might intuitively expect the strategy to have little effect on cooperation. Utilizing the prisoner's dilemma game as a prototypical model of interactions at the individual level, we find, through simulation and theoretical analysis, that proper punishment, when even symmetrically imposed on individuals, can enhance cooperation. Also, we find that the initial density of cooperators plays an important role in the evolution of cooperation driven by mutual punishment.

  11. Peer pressure: enhancement of cooperation through mutual punishment

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Han-Xin; Rong, Zhihai; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    An open problem in evolutionary game dynamics is to understand the effect of peer pressure on cooperation in a quantitative manner. Peer pressure can be modeled by punishment, which has been proved to be an effective mechanism to sustain cooperation among selfish individuals. We investigate a symmetric punishment strategy, in which an individual will punish each neighbor if their strategies are different, and vice versa. Because of the symmetry in imposing the punishment, one might expect intuitively the strategy to have little effect on cooperation. Utilizing the prisoner's dilemma game as a prototypical model of interactions at the individual level, we find, through simulation and theoretical analysis, that proper punishment, when even symmetrically imposed on individuals, can enhance cooperation. Besides, we find that the initial density of cooperators plays an important role in the evolution of cooperation driven by mutual punishment.

  12. Recorded punishment promotes cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Qing; Du, Wen-Bo; Cao, Xian-Bin

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that punishment is a useful way to promote cooperation in the well-mixed public goods game, whereas it still lacks specific evidence that punishment maintains cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game as well. To address this issue, we introduce a mechanism of recorded punishment, involved with memory and punishment, into spatial prisoner's dilemma game. We find that increasing punishment rate or memory length promotes the evolution of cooperation monotonously. Interestingly, compared with traditional version, recorded punishment will facilitate cooperation better through a recovery effect. Moreover, through examining the process of evolution, we provide an interpretation to this promotion phenomenon, namely, the recovery effect can be warranted by an evolution resonance of standard deviation of fitness coefficient. Finally, we confirm our results by studying the impact of uncertainty within strategy adoptions. We hope that our work may sharpen the understanding of the cooperativ...

  13. Social stress reactivity alters reward and punishment learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, James F; Frank, Michael J; Allen, John J B

    2011-06-01

    To examine how stress affects cognitive functioning, individual differences in trait vulnerability (punishment sensitivity) and state reactivity (negative affect) to social evaluative threat were examined during concurrent reinforcement learning. Lower trait-level punishment sensitivity predicted better reward learning and poorer punishment learning; the opposite pattern was found in more punishment sensitive individuals. Increasing state-level negative affect was directly related to punishment learning accuracy in highly punishment sensitive individuals, but these measures were inversely related in less sensitive individuals. Combined electrophysiological measurement, performance accuracy and computational estimations of learning parameters suggest that trait and state vulnerability to stress alter cortico-striatal functioning during reinforcement learning, possibly mediated via medio-frontal cortical systems.

  14. Peer pressure: Enhancement of cooperation through mutual punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Rong, Zhihai; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    An open problem in evolutionary game dynamics is to understand the effect of peer pressure on cooperation in a quantitative manner. Peer pressure can be modeled by punishment, which has been proved to be an effective mechanism to sustain cooperation among selfish individuals. We investigate a symmetric punishment strategy, in which an individual will punish each neighbor if their strategies are different, and vice versa. Because of the symmetry in imposing the punishment, one might intuitively expect the strategy to have little effect on cooperation. Utilizing the prisoner's dilemma game as a prototypical model of interactions at the individual level, we find, through simulation and theoretical analysis, that proper punishment, when even symmetrically imposed on individuals, can enhance cooperation. Also, we find that the initial density of cooperators plays an important role in the evolution of cooperation driven by mutual punishment.

  15. Study of people’s logical punishment in French law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Parvin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The responsibility of punishment is the border of crime and punishment. It is one’s duty, necessity and option in the conclusion of punishment. The responsibility of punishment among legislators is subjective in French law. Regarding articles 2-121 of new, French crime law, legislative people (other than those of government are responsible for people’s crimes, then they are not deprived. The new, crime law of criminology instruction originate from novice neoclassism, social, novice movement, their effects are visible in criminology. Furthermore, the organ of punishment crime tries to save those who have hurt especially in mortal events. Meanwhile, the principle of common sense is against the legislative reference which is visible in the people’s punishment.

  16. Effects of monetary reward and punishment on information checking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Simon Y W; Cox, Anna L; Or, Calvin; Blandford, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine whether checking one's own work can be motivated by monetary reward and punishment. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a flat-rate payment for completing the task (Control); payment increased for error-free performance (Reward); payment decreased for error performance (Punishment). Experiment 1 (N = 90) was conducted with liberal arts students, using a general data-entry task. Experiment 2 (N = 90) replicated Experiment 1 with clinical students and a safety-critical 'cover story' for the task. In both studies, Reward and Punishment resulted in significantly fewer errors, more frequent and longer checking, than Control. No such differences were obtained between the Reward and Punishment conditions. It is concluded that error consequences in terms of monetary reward and punishment can result in more accurate task performance and more rigorous checking behaviour than errors without consequences. However, whether punishment is more effective than reward, or vice versa, remains inconclusive.

  17. Patient and impatient punishers of free-riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Antonio M; Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Herrmann, Benedikt; Gamella, Juan F

    2012-12-22

    Costly punishment of cheaters who contribute little or nothing to a cooperating group has been extensively studied, as an effective means to enforce cooperation. The prevailing view is that individuals use punishment to retaliate against transgressions of moral standards such as fairness or equity. However, there is much debate regarding the psychological underpinnings of costly punishment. Some authors suggest that costly punishment must be a product of humans' capacity for reasoning, self-control and long-term planning, whereas others argue that it is the result of an impulsive, present-oriented emotional drive. Here, we explore the inter-temporal preferences of punishers in a multilateral cooperation game and show that both interpretations might be right, as we can identify two different types of punishment: punishment of free-riders by cooperators, which is predicted by patience (future orientation); and free-riders' punishment of other free-riders, which is predicted by impatience (present orientation). Therefore, the picture is more complex as punishment by free-riders probably comes not from a reaction against a moral transgression, but instead from a competitive, spiteful drive. Thus, punishment grounded on morals may be related to lasting or delayed psychological incentives, whereas punishment triggered by competitive desires may be linked to short-run aspirations. These results indicate that the individual's time horizon is relevant for the type of social behaviour she opts for. Integrating such differences in inter-temporal preferences and the social behaviour of agents might help to achieve a better understanding of how human cooperation and punishment behaviour has evolved.

  18. Renewal after the punishment of free operant behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bouton, Mark E.; Schepers, Scott T.

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined the role of context in punishment learning. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to lever press for food in Context A and then punished for responding in Context B (by presenting response-contingent footshock). Punishment led to complete suppression of the response. However, when responding was tested (in extinction) in Contexts A and B, a strong renewal of responding occurred in Context A. In Experiment 2, renewal also occurred when initial reinforcement occurred in ...

  19. Elimination of corporal punishment of children's a human right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors indicate the necessity of explicit legal prohibition of all corporal punishment of children that represent a violation of the right of the child to respect his/her physical integrity and human dignity. The paper emphasizes why all corporal punishment of children should be prohibited and points out the progress made at the legislative level to the elimination of all corporal punishment of children in some member states of the Council of Europe and the Republic of Serbia.

  20. More ‘altruistic’ punishment in larger societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J. Colette; Barr, Abigail; Barrett, Clark; Bolyanatz, Alexander; Cardenas, Juan Camilo; Ensminger, Jean; Gurven, Michael; Gwako, Edwins; Henrich, Joseph; Henrich, Natalie; Lesorogol, Carolyn; McElreath, Richard; Tracer, David

    2007-01-01

    If individuals will cooperate with cooperators, and punish non-cooperators even at a cost to themselves, then this strong reciprocity could minimize the cheating that undermines cooperation. Based upon numerous economic experiments, some have proposed that human cooperation is explained by strong reciprocity and norm enforcement. Second-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on you; third-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on someone else. Third-party punishment is an effective way to enforce the norms of strong reciprocity and promote cooperation. Here we present new results that expand on a previous report from a large cross-cultural project. This project has already shown that there is considerable cross-cultural variation in punishment and cooperation. Here we test the hypothesis that population size (and complexity) predicts the level of third-party punishment. Our results show that people in larger, more complex societies engage in significantly more third-party punishment than people in small-scale societies. PMID:18089534

  1. Effectiveness of conditional punishment for the evolution of public cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2013-05-21

    Collective actions, from city marathons to labor strikes, are often mass-driven and subject to the snowball effect. Motivated by this, we study evolutionary advantages of conditional punishment in the spatial public goods game. Unlike unconditional punishers who always impose the same fines on defectors, conditional punishers do so proportionally with the number of other punishers in the group. Phase diagrams in dependence on the punishment fine and cost reveal that the two types of punishers cannot coexist. Spontaneous coarsening of the two strategies leads to an indirect territorial competition with the defectors, which is won by unconditional punishers only if the sanctioning is inexpensive. Otherwise conditional punishers are the victors of the indirect competition, indicating that under more realistic conditions they are indeed the more effective strategy. Both continuous and discontinuous phase transitions as well as tricritical points characterize the complex evolutionary dynamics, which is due to multipoint interactions that are introduced by conditional punishment. We propose indirect territorial competition as a generally applicable mechanism relying on pattern formation, by means of which spatial structure can be utilized by seemingly subordinate strategies to avoid evolutionary extinction.

  2. Renewal after the punishment of free operant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E; Schepers, Scott T

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined the role of context in punishment learning. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to lever press for food in Context A and then punished for responding in Context B (by presenting response-contingent footshock). Punishment led to complete suppression of the response. However, when responding was tested (in extinction) in Contexts A and B, a strong renewal of responding occurred in Context A. In Experiment 2, renewal also occurred when initial reinforcement occurred in Context A, punishment occurred in Context B, and testing occurred in a new context (Context C). In both experiments, behavioral suppression and renewal were not observed in groups that received noncontingent (yoked) footshocks in Context B. In Experiment 3, 2 responses (lever press and chain pull) were separately reinforced in Contexts A and B and then punished in the opposite context. Although the procedure equated the contexts on their association with reinforcement and punishment, renewal of each response was observed when it was tested in its nonpunished context. The contexts also influenced response choice. Overall, the results suggest that punishment is specific to the context in which it is learned, and establish that its context-specificity does not depend on a simple association between the context and shock. Like extinction, punishment may involve learning to inhibit a specific response in a specific context. Implications for theories of punishment and for understanding the cessation of problematic operant behavior (e.g., drug abuse) are discussed.

  3. Mediating role of self-regulatory efficacy on the relationship between punishment certainty, punishment severity and organizational deviance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabiru Maitama Kura

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Employee deviance is prevalent and could have significant consequences to organizations and/or its members. Drawing upon deterrence theory, this study examined the mediating role of self-regulatory efficacy on the relationship between punishment certainty, punishment severity and organizational deviance. The participants were 197 employed postgraduate students who enrolled in the Master of Business Administration programme at two universities located in the north-west geopolitical zone of Nigeria. The model tested suggests that both punishment certainty and punishment severity predict organizational deviance through the influence of self-regulatory efficacy. Results suggest that self-regulatory efficacy partially mediates the relationship between punishment certainty and organizational deviance. Similarly, results suggest that the relationship between punishment severity and organizational deviance was partially mediated by self-regulatory efficacy.

  4. Punishing physicians who torture: a work in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Steven H; Alencar, Telma; Crock, Brittney N

    2010-01-01

    There are only a few anecdotal accounts describing physicians being punished for complicity with torture or crimes against humanity. A fuller list of such cases would address the perception that physicians may torture with impunity and point to how to improve their accountability for such crimes. We performed a multilingual web search of the records of international and national courts, military tribunals, medical associations (licensing boards and medical societies), medical and non-medical literature databases, human rights groups and media stories for reports of physicians who had been punished for complicity with torture or crimes against humanity that were committed after World War II. We found 56 physicians in eight countries who had been punished for complicity with torture or crimes against humanity. Courts punish crimes. Medical societies punish ethics violations. Fifty-one physicians (85%) had been punished by the medical associations of five countries. Eleven (18%) had been punished by domestic courts. International courts had imprisoned two (3%) physicians. Several were punished by courts and professional associations. There are open cases against 22 physicians. Punishments against physicians for crimes against humanity are becoming institutionalized. Medical associations must lead in shouldering responsibility for self-regulation in this matter. Physicians have supervised torture ever since medieval "Torture Physicians" certified that prisoners were medically capable of withstanding the torture and of providing the desired testimony. Revelations of sadistic medical experiments on prisoners during World War II turned the world against physician torturers and led to the "Doctor's Trial" at Nuremberg, a trial that held physicians accountable for crimes against humanity. This paper describes the largest case series of physicians who have been punished for abetting torture or other crimes against humanity committed after World War II. We wanted to: 1

  5. Thomas Hopley and Mid-Victorian Attitudes to Corporal Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the trial of Thomas Hopley, accused of killing his pupil Reginald Cancellor in 1860 during an act of corporal punishment. The case provoked immediate sensational interest and became an important defining point in how corporal punishment is treated in British law. Established by this trial was the test that any corporal…

  6. Functional Communication Training with and without Extinction and Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne; And Others

    1993-01-01

    In this study, functional communication training alone and combined with extinction and/or punishment was evaluated for four clients with severe retardation, behavior problems, and communication deficits. Results showed that the combination of training plus punishment produced the largest and most consistent reductions in target behavior problems.…

  7. Punishment based on public benefit fund significantly promotes cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling Wang

    Full Text Available In prisoner's dilemma game (shortly, PD game, punishment is most frequently used to promote cooperation. However, outcome varies when different punishment approaches are applied. Here the PD game is studied on a square lattice when different punishment patterns are adopted. As is known to all, tax system, a common tool to adjust the temperature of the economy, is widely used in human society. Inspired by this philosophy, players in this study would pay corresponding taxes in accordance with their payoff level. In this way, public benefit fund is established consequently and it would be utilized to punish defectors. There are two main methods for punishing: slight intensity of punishment (shortly, SLP and severe intensity of punishment (shortly, SEP. When the totaling of public benefit fund keeps relatively fixed, SLP extends further, which means more defectors would be punished; by contrast, SEP has a smaller coverage. It is of interest to verify whether these two measures can promote cooperation and which one is more efficient. Simulate results reveal that both of them can promote cooperation remarkably. Specifically speaking, SLP shows constant advantage from the point of view either of fractions of cooperation or average payoff.

  8. A survey of parental opinions on corporal punishment in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, P C; Weir, M R; Fearnow, R G

    1985-06-01

    Forty-three states permit corporal punishment in schools. This practice continues despite the universal opposition of professional organizations, including the American Academy of Pediatrics. This study determines parental attitudes concerning the use of physical punishment in schools. The surveyed sample is drawn from parents of military dependents who brought their children to this clinic for routine physical examinations. One hundred and twenty-nine of 132 questionnaires were returned for a 98% response rate. Fifty-one percent of the parents supported the use of corporal punishment in schools, 37% disagreed (77% of these strongly), 11% had no opinion, and 1% did not respond to the question. Analysis of the responses displayed a relationship between parental attitudes on the use of corporal punishment and opinion of the positive effects of physical punishment on children's behavior (p less than 0.0001). No relationship was found between position on corporal punishment and the respondent (mother, father, or both), the age of parents, the military rank of the sponsor (the individual whose military service makes the child eligible for military medical care, i.e., father, mother, guardian, etc.), the sex of the children, the marital status of the parents, or the schools attended by the children (public or private). Thirty-four percent of parents believed corporal punishment would improve behavior, and 20% of parents felt that physical punishment would improve their child's academic performance.

  9. A facilitative effect of punishment on unpunished behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRETHOWER, D M; REYNOLDS, G S

    1962-04-01

    The key pecking of two pigeons was reinforced on a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement during the presentation of each of two stimuli. In various phases of the experiment, punishment followed every response emitted in the presence of one of the stimuli. In general, when the rate of punished responding changed during the presentation of one stimulus, the rate of unpunished responding during the other stimulus changed in the opposite direction. This sort of change in rate is an example of behavioral contrast. When punishment was introduced, the rate of punished responding decreased and the rate of unpunished responding increased as functions of shock intensity. When the rate of previously punished responding increased after the termination of the shock, the rate of the always unpunished responding decreased. When the procedure correlated with a red key was changed from variable-interval reinforcement and punishment for each response to extinction and no punishment, the rate of reinforced responding during presentations of a green key decreased and then increased while the rate of the previously punished responding during red first increased and then decreased during extinction.

  10. Gendering Corporal Punishment: Beyond the Discourse of Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Sara

    2008-01-01

    In the last few years the Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children has been gathering momentum, with a submission to "The United Nations Secretary General's study on violence against children" the most recent addition to the cause. Nevertheless, corporal punishment in schools is still condoned in many countries and its practice…

  11. Perspective reports of corporal punishment by pupils in Lesotho schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monyooe, L A

    1993-10-01

    This study surveyed reports of practices of corporal punishment at secondary schools in Lesotho by 60 randomly selected pupils. There were 34 males and 26 females, whose mean age was 21 years, with a range between 14 and 29 years. Responses to a questionnaire confirmed that punishment was associated with pupils' reports of academic impairment, psychological damage, and physical injury.

  12. The Corporal Punishment of Minorities in the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northington, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Corporal punishment is still legal under various circumstances in the United States public schools. This practice is specified in the discipline policies of cities and towns in roughly twenty-two states. Corporal punishment usually takes the form of paddling with wooden paddles or sticks by school administrators with the consent of the parents.…

  13. Legality Principle of Crimes and Punishments in Iranian Legal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Mohammad Ja'far

    2006-01-01

    The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual…

  14. Altruism in multiplayer snowdrift games with threshold and punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Zhongxin; Sun, Qinglin; Chen, Zengqiang

    2015-09-01

    The puzzle of cooperation attracts broader concerns of the scientific community nowadays. Here we adopt an extra mechanism of punishment in the framework of a threshold multiple-player snowdrift game employed as the scenario for the cooperation problem. Two scenarios are considered: defectors will suffer punishment regardless of the game results, and defectors will incur punishment only when the game fails. We show by analysis that given this assumption, punishing free riders can significantly influence the evolution outcomes, and the results are driven by the specific components of the punishing rule. Particularly, punishing defectors always, not only when the game fails, can be more effective for maintaining public cooperation in multi-player systems. Intriguingly larger thresholds of the game provide a more favorable scenario for the coexistence of the cooperators and defectors under a broad value range of parameters. Further, cooperators are best supported by the large punishment on defectors, and then dominate and stabilize in the population, under the premise that defectors always incur punishment regardless of whether the game ends successfully or not.

  15. Opinions about Child Corporal Punishment and Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Tessa; Romano, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    The use of corporal punishment has been linked to negative developmental outcomes for children. Despite this finding, Section 43 of the Canadian Criminal Code permits the use of corporal punishment by parents for children 2 to 12 years of age. Therefore, this study's first objective is to investigate opinions toward Section 43 and spanking more…

  16. Probability of Corporal Punishment: Lack of Resources and Vulnerable Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seunghee

    2011-01-01

    The author examined corporal punishment practices in the United States based on data from 362 public school principals where corporal punishment is available. Results from multiple regression analyses show that schools with multiple student violence prevention programs and teacher training programs had fewer possibilities of use corporal…

  17. Opposing effects of reward and punishment on human vigor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Benjamin; Beierholm, Ulrik R.

    2017-01-01

    The vigor with which humans and animals engage in a task is often a determinant of the likelihood of the task’s success. An influential theoretical model suggests that the speed and rate at which responses are made should depend on the availability of rewards and punishments. While vigor facilitates the gathering of rewards in a bountiful environment, there is an incentive to slow down when punishments are forthcoming so as to decrease the rate of punishments, in conflict with the urge to perform fast to escape punishment. Previous experiments confirmed the former, leaving the latter unanswered. We tested the influence of punishment in an experiment involving economic incentives and contrasted this with reward related behavior on the same task. We found that behavior corresponded with the theoretical model; while instantaneous threat of punishment caused subjects to increase the vigor of their response, subjects’ response times would slow as the overall rate of punishment increased. We quantitatively show that this is in direct contrast to increases in vigor in the face of increased overall reward rates. These results highlight the opposed effects of rewards and punishments and provide further evidence for their roles in the variety of types of human decisions. PMID:28205567

  18. Corporal Punishment and Youth Externalizing Behavior in Santiago, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Julie; Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Corporal punishment is still widely practiced around the globe, despite the large body of child development research that substantiates its short- and long-term consequences. Within this context, this paper examined the relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and youth externalizing behavior with a Chilean sample to…

  19. Reward from punishment does not emerge at all costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukov, Jeromos; Pinheiro, Flávio L; Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    The conundrum of cooperation has received increasing attention during the last decade. In this quest, the role of altruistic punishment has been identified as a mechanism promoting cooperation. Here we investigate the role of altruistic punishment on the emergence and maintenance of cooperation in structured populations exhibiting connectivity patterns recently identified as key elements of social networks. We do so in the framework of Evolutionary Game Theory, employing the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Stag-Hunt metaphors to model the conflict between individual and collective interests regarding cooperation. We find that the impact of altruistic punishment strongly depends on the ratio q/p between the cost of punishing a defecting partner (q) and the actual punishment incurred by the partner (p). We show that whenever q/ppunishment turns out to be detrimental for cooperation for a wide range of payoff parameters, when compared to the scenario without punishment. The results imply that while locally, the introduction of peer punishment may seem to reduce the chances of free-riding, realistic population structure may drive the population towards the opposite scenario. Hence, structured populations effectively reduce the expected beneficial contribution of punishment to the emergence of cooperation which, if not carefully dosed, may in fact hinder the chances of widespread cooperation.

  20. Religious Beliefs, Sociopolitical Ideology, and Attitudes toward Corporal Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher G.; Bradshaw, Matt

    2009-01-01

    The use of corporal punishment to discipline children remains a perennial focus of controversy. Several studies published in the 1990s linked support for, and use of, corporal punishment with religious factors, particularly core doctrines of conservative (i.e., evangelical and fundamentalist) Protestantism. This study reexamines the relationships…

  1. Punishment Insensitivity in Early Childhood: A Developmental, Dimensional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Sara R; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Estabrook, Ryne; Burns, James L; Kestler, Jacqueline; Berman, Grace; Henry, David B; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2015-08-01

    Impairment in learning from punishment ("punishment insensitivity") is an established feature of severe antisocial behavior in adults and youth but it has not been well studied as a developmental phenomenon. In early childhood, differentiating a normal: abnormal spectrum of punishment insensitivity is key for distinguishing normative misbehavior from atypical manifestations. This study employed a novel measure, the Multidimensional Assessment Profile of Disruptive Behavior (MAP-DB), to examine the distribution, dimensionality, and external validity of punishment insensitivity in a large, demographically diverse community sample of preschoolers (3-5 years) recruited from pediatric clinics (N = 1,855). Caregivers completed surveys from which a seven-item Punishment Insensitivity scale was derived. Findings indicated that Punishment Insensitivity behaviors are relatively common in young children, with at least 50 % of preschoolers exhibiting them sometimes. Item response theory analyses revealed a Punishment Insensitivity spectrum. Items varied along a severity continuum: most items needed to occur "Often" in order to be severe and behaviors that were qualitatively atypical or intense were more severe. Although there were item-level differences across sociodemographic groups, these were small. Construct, convergent, and divergent validity were demonstrated via association to low concern for others and noncompliance, motivational regulation, and a disruptive family context. Incremental clinical utility was demonstrated in relation to impairment. Early childhood punishment insensitivity varies along a severity continuum and is atypical when it predominates. Implications for understanding the phenomenology of emergent disruptive behavior are discussed.

  2. The Role of the Basolateral Amygdala in Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dit-Bressel, Philip Jean-Richard; McNally, Gavan P.

    2015-01-01

    Aversive stimuli not only support fear conditioning to their environmental antecedents, they also punish behaviors that cause their occurrence. The amygdala, especially the basolateral nucleus (BLA), has been critically implicated in Pavlovian fear learning but its role in punishment remains poorly understood. Here, we used a within-subjects…

  3. Asymmetry of Reinforcement and Punishment in Human Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Erin B.; Newland, M. Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis that a penny lost is valued more highly than a penny earned was tested in human choice. Five participants clicked a computer mouse under concurrent variable-interval schedules of monetary reinforcement. In the no-punishment condition, the schedules arranged monetary gain. In the punishment conditions, a schedule of monetary loss was…

  4. Corporal Punishment and Student Outcomes in Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seunghee

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of corporal punishment on student outcomes in rural schools by analyzing 1,067 samples from the School Survey on Crime and Safety 2007-2008. Results of descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analyses indicated that schools with corporal punishment may decrease students' violent behaviors and…

  5. The Use of Different Rules to Allocate Reward and Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles W.

    Much research has been conducted about how and when individuals allocate rewards, yet little research exists concerning the allocation of punishment. The process of allocating negative outcomes may be different from the decision making process for positive outcomes. To examine the decision making process for allocating rewards and punishment,…

  6. Physical punishment, culture, and rights: current issues for professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Joan E

    2008-02-01

    Once considered a legitimate parenting tool, physical punishment is increasingly being redefined as a developmental risk factor by health professionals. Three forces that have contributed to this significant social change are the evolution of pediatric psychology, increasing understanding of the dynamics of parental violence, and growing recognition of children as rights bearers. However, despite the consistency of research findings demonstrating the risks of physical punishment, some practitioners still struggle with the question of whether physical punishment is an appropriate practice among some cultural or ethnic groups. This issue is explored through an analysis of studies examining cultural differences and similarities in physical punishment's effects, as well as legal decisions made throughout the world. Despite practitioners' awareness of the prevalence and impact of parental violence, some still struggle with deciding where to "draw the line" in advising parents about spanking. This issue is addressed through an examination of the role that physical punishment plays in child maltreatment. Finally, the human rights perspective on physical punishment is offered as a new lens through which practitioners may view physical punishment to clarify the fuzzy issues of cultural relativity and the punishment-abuse dichotomy.

  7. Legality Principle of Crimes and Punishments in Iranian Legal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Mohammad Ja'far

    2006-01-01

    The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual…

  8. The Use of Rewards and Punishment in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberly, Deborah A.; Waddle, Jerry L.; Duff, R. Eleanor

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written about the problems associated with reliance on extrinsic rewards and punishment in controlling behavior and motivating students. This study explores the use of extrinsic rewards and punishment by prekindergarten-grade 3 teachers in Missouri. The purpose of the study was to (a) determine the most common motivational practices…

  9. Reinforcement and Punishment among Preschoolers: Characteristics, Effects, and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Michael E.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Observers recorded the sex-typed activities of 49 children during free-play sessions in nursery school and kindergarten. Reinforcing and punishing responses of peers and teachers were also recorded. Among the results, children reinforced one another primarily for gender-appropriate activities. Most reinforcements and punishments were received from…

  10. Criminal Law and the Internal Logic of Punishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause-Jensen, Katrine; Rodogno, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    We argue that punishment has an essentially retributive core that carries its own retributive type of logic or reasons. In particular, we show that punishment is something that we understand as in principle always being assessable in terms of deservingness and that this is ultimately to be unders...

  11. Peer punishment promotes enforcement of bad social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbink, Klaus; Gangadharan, Lata; Handfield, Toby; Thrasher, John

    2017-09-20

    Social norms are an important element in explaining how humans achieve very high levels of cooperative activity. It is widely observed that, when norms can be enforced by peer punishment, groups are able to resolve social dilemmas in prosocial, cooperative ways. Here we show that punishment can also encourage participation in destructive behaviours that are harmful to group welfare, and that this phenomenon is mediated by a social norm. In a variation of a public goods game, in which the return to investment is negative for both group and individual, we find that the opportunity to punish led to higher levels of contribution, thereby harming collective payoffs. A second experiment confirmed that, independently of whether punishment is available, a majority of subjects regard the efficient behaviour of non-contribution as socially inappropriate. The results show that simply providing a punishment opportunity does not guarantee that punishment will be used for socially beneficial ends, because the social norms that influence punishment behaviour may themselves be destructive.Punishment by peers can enforce social norms, such as contributing to a public good. Here, Abbink and colleagues show that individuals will enforce norms even when contributions reduce the net benefit of the group, resulting in the maintenance of wasteful contributions.

  12. Costs and benefits in hunter-gatherer punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    Hunter-gatherer punishment involves costs and benefits to individuals and groups, but the costs do not necessarily fit with the assumptions made in models that consider punishment to be altruistic--which brings in the free-rider problem and the problem of second-order free-riders. In this commentary, I present foragers' capital punishment patterns ethnographically, in the interest of establishing whether such punishment is likely to be costly; and I suggest that in many cases abstentions from punishment that might be taken as defections by free-riders are actually caused by social-structural considerations rather than being an effect of free-rider genes. This presentation of data supplements the ethnographic analysis provided by Guala.

  13. Self-organization of punishment in structured populations

    CERN Document Server

    Perc, Matjaz

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation is crucial for the remarkable evolutionary success of the human species. Not surprisingly, some individuals are willing to bare additional costs in order to punish defectors. Current models assume that, once set, the fine and cost of punishment do not change over time. Here we show that relaxing this assumption by allowing players to adapt their sanctioning efforts in dependence on the success of cooperation can explain both, the spontaneous emergence of punishment, as well as its ability to deter defectors and those unwilling to punish them with globally negligible investments. By means of phase diagrams and the analysis of emerging spatial patterns, we demonstrate that adaptive punishment promotes public cooperation either through the invigoration of spatial reciprocity, the prevention of the emergence of cyclic dominance, or through the provision of competitive advantages to those that sanction antisocial behavior. Presented results indicate that the process of self-organization significantly e...

  14. Probabilistic sharing solves the problem of costly punishment

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaojie; Perc, Matjaz

    2014-01-01

    Cooperators that refuse to participate in sanctioning defectors create the second-order free-rider problem. Such cooperators will not be punished because they contribute to the public good, but they also eschew the costs associated with punishing defectors. Altruistic punishers - those that cooperate and punish - are at a disadvantage, and it is puzzling how such behaviour has evolved. We show that sharing the responsibility to sanction defectors rather than relying on certain individuals to do so permanently can solve the problem of costly punishment. Inspired by the fact that humans have strong but also emotional tendencies for fair play, we consider probabilistic sanctioning as the simplest way of distributing the duty. In well-mixed populations the public goods game is transformed into a coordination game with full cooperation and defection as the two stable equilibria, while in structured populations pattern formation supports additional counterintuitive solutions that are reminiscent of Parrondo's parad...

  15. Fair and unfair punishers coexist in the Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Espín, Antonio M.; Exadaktylos, Filippos; Herrmann, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    In the Ultimatum Game, a proposer suggests how to split a sum of money with a responder. If the responder rejects the proposal, both players get nothing. Rejection of unfair offers is regarded as a form of punishment implemented by fair-minded individuals, who are willing to impose the cooperation norm at a personal cost. However, recent research using other experimental frameworks has observed non-negligible levels of antisocial punishment by competitive, spiteful individuals, which can eventually undermine cooperation. Using two large-scale experiments, this note explores the nature of Ultimatum Game punishers by analyzing their behavior in a Dictator Game. In both studies, the coexistence of two entirely different sub-populations is confirmed: prosocial punishers on the one hand, who behave fairly as dictators, and spiteful (antisocial) punishers on the other, who are totally unfair. The finding has important implications regarding the evolution of cooperation and the behavioral underpinnings of stable social systems. PMID:25113502

  16. Regulatory focus and the assignment of punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Carmichael

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory Focus has been demonstrated to influence human behavior in a number of domains, such as object valuation and readiness to commit time or money to social projects. It has also been demonstrated to influence an individual’s approach to mistakes; and a person’s preference for global or local processing of information. The present work seeks to consider how regulatory focus might interact with punitive behaviors, specifically, the assignment of legal punishment. In this study, 240 undergraduates completed a series of written instruments that assessed their regulatory focus. They read a vignette that described a target that commits a crime, is detected by the police, and is arrested due to a careless mistake. Participants were asked what level of legal punishment they deemed appropriate. Participants’ punitive evaluations show that there are significant interactions a between the regulatory focus of the participant and the regulatory focus of the target and b between the regulatory focus of the participant and the level of detail used to describe the target and her behavior. In each case, when the regulatory foci matched, causing ‘fit,’ the participant was more lenient than in the non-fit condition.

  17. Response-cost punishment via token loss with pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietras, Cynthia J; Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2005-06-30

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate punishment via response-contingent removal of conditioned token reinforcers (response cost) with pigeons. In Experiment 1, key pecking was maintained on a two-component multiple second-order schedule of token delivery, with light emitting diodes (LEDs) serving as token reinforcers. In both components, responding produced tokens according to a random-interval 20-s schedule and exchange periods according to a variable-ratio schedule. During exchange periods, each token was exchangeable for 2.5-s access to grain. In one component, responses were conjointly punished according to fixed-ratio schedules of token removal. Response rates in this punishment component decreased to low levels while response rates in the alternate (no-punishment) component were unaffected. Responding was eliminated when it produced neither tokens nor exchange periods (Extinction), but was maintained at moderate levels when it produced tokens in the signaled absence of food reinforcement, suggesting that tokens served as effective conditioned reinforcers. In Experiment 2, the effect of the response-cost punishment contingency was separated from changes in the density of food reinforcement. This was accomplished by yoking either the number of food deliveries per component (Yoked Food) or the temporal placement of all stimulus events (tokens, exchanges, food deliveries) (Yoked Complete), from the punishment to the no-punishment component. Response rates decreased in both components, but decreased more rapidly and were generally maintained at lower levels in the punishment component than in the yoked component. In showing that the response-cost contingency had a suppressive effect on responding in addition to that produced by reductions in reinforcement density, the present results suggest that response-cost punishment shares important features with other forms of punishment.

  18. An important concept affecting students' motivation levels: Rewards and punishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Yaman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of reward and punishment on student’s motivation level. This research is performed by interviewing with 22 students who are eleven times rewarded and eleven times punished in total. 12 female and 10 males constitute the sample group of the study. The average age of the group is thirteen and they are secondary school students. Qualitative research method is used in data collection. Interviews are recorded by voice record device and a standardized open-ended interview was used as data collection tool for the study. Reward contribute to happiness, enthusiasm, ambition of success, will of studying lesson, following classroom rules, pride, self-confidence and socialization. Students require a reward to increase the level of motivation, but sometimes undeserving people are rewarded and certain people outside. When it comes to punishment, beating, removal from class, class changes, expel are the ways of punishments. Instead of bringing about the extinction of punishment, it is emphasized that punishment reinforce the punished behaviors. The cause of these negative judgments is that the teacher punishes the students with his/her bias without distinguishing fair or unfair. Students are adversely affected by the punishments. Especially, beaten in front of everyone may leave permanent scars on students and it cause a bias against the class and teachers. A student should be able to know which behaviors are rewarded and which ones are punished clearly before. While the award was given, the teacher should give spiritual awards that provide pupils feel themselves valued.

  19. The role of the lateral habenula in punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Richard Dit Bressel, Philip; McNally, Gavan P

    2014-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is a small epithalamic structure that projects via the fasciculus retroflexus to the midbrain. The LHb is known to modulate midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, including inhibition of ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons via glutamatergic excitation of the GABAergic rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg). A variety of lines of evidence show activity in LHb and the LHb-RMTg pathway is correlated with, and is sufficient to support, punishment learning. However, it is not immediately clear whether LHb is necessary for punishment. Here we used a within-subjects punishment task to assess the role of LHb in the acquisition and expression of punishment as well as in aversive choice. Rats that pressed two individually presented levers for pellet rewards rapidly suppressed responding to one lever if it also caused footshock deliveries (punished lever) but continued pressing a second lever that did not cause footshock (unpunished lever). Infusions of an AMPA receptor antagonist (NBQX) into LHb had no effect on the acquisition or expression of this punishment, or on aversive choice, but did increase locomotion. Infusion of the sodium channel blocker bupivacaine likewise had no effect on expression of punishment. However, infusion of the calcium channel blocker mibefradil did affect expression of punishment by significantly decreasing the latency with which rats responded on the punished lever and significantly increasing unpunished lever-pressing. Taken together, these findings indicate that the LHb plays a limited role in punishment, influencing only latency to respond. This role is linked to calcium channel permeability and not AMPA receptor or sodium channel permeability.

  20. Third-party punishment as a costly signal of trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jillian J; Hoffman, Moshe; Bloom, Paul; Rand, David G

    2016-02-25

    Third-party punishment (TPP), in which unaffected observers punish selfishness, promotes cooperation by deterring defection. But why should individuals choose to bear the costs of punishing? We present a game theoretic model of TPP as a costly signal of trustworthiness. Our model is based on individual differences in the costs and/or benefits of being trustworthy. We argue that individuals for whom trustworthiness is payoff-maximizing will find TPP to be less net costly (for example, because mechanisms that incentivize some individuals to be trustworthy also create benefits for deterring selfishness via TPP). We show that because of this relationship, it can be advantageous for individuals to punish selfishness in order to signal that they are not selfish themselves. We then empirically validate our model using economic game experiments. We show that TPP is indeed a signal of trustworthiness: third-party punishers are trusted more, and actually behave in a more trustworthy way, than non-punishers. Furthermore, as predicted by our model, introducing a more informative signal--the opportunity to help directly--attenuates these signalling effects. When potential punishers have the chance to help, they are less likely to punish, and punishment is perceived as, and actually is, a weaker signal of trustworthiness. Costly helping, in contrast, is a strong and highly used signal even when TPP is also possible. Together, our model and experiments provide a formal reputational account of TPP, and demonstrate how the costs of punishing may be recouped by the long-run benefits of signalling one's trustworthiness.

  1. Predicting Filipino Mothers' and Fathers' Reported Use of Corporal Punishment from Education, Authoritarian Attitudes, and Endorsement of Corporal Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocson, Rosanne M.; Alampay, Liane Pena; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    The relations of education, authoritarian child-rearing attitudes, and endorsement of corporal punishment to Filipino parents' reported use of corporal punishment were examined using two waves of data. Structured interviews using self-report questionnaires were conducted with 117 mothers and 98 fathers from 120 families when their children were 8…

  2. Evolutionary Snowdrift Game Incorporating Costly Punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yap Yee Jiun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of punishments in promoting cooperation is an important issue. We incorporate costly punishments into the snowdrift game (SG by introducing a third punishing (P character and study the effects.  The punishers, who carry basically a cooperative (C character, are willing to pay a cost of a so as to punish a non-cooperative (D opponent by ß. Depending on the initial fractions of the characters, a, ß, and the cost-to-benefit ratio r in SG, the three-character system evolves either into a steady state consisting only of C and P characters or only of C and D characters in a well-mixed population.  The former situation represents an enhancement in cooperation relative to SG, while the latter is similar to SG. The dynamics in approaching these different steady states are found to be different.  Analytically, the key features in the steady states and dynamics obtained by simulations are captured by a set of differential equations.  The sensitivity to the initial distribution of characters is studied by depicting the flow in a phase portrait and analyzing the nature of fixed points. The analysis also shows the role of P-character in preventing a system from invasion by D-character agents. Starting from a population consisting only of C and P agents, a D-character agent intended to invade the system cannot survive when the initial fraction of P-agents is greater than r/ß. Our model, defined intentionally as a simulation algorithm, can be readily generalized to incorporate many interesting effects, such as those in a networked population. ABSTRAK: Peranan hukuman dalam meningkatkan kerjasama merupakan isu penting.  Hukuman berat diterapkan ke dalam permainan hanyutan salji (snowdrift game (SG dengan memperkenalkan karekter penghukum (P ketiga dan akibatnya dipantau. Penghukum, pada asasnya membawa watak koperatif (C, sanggup membayar kos a, agar dia menghukum lawan yang tidak koperatif (D dengan ß. Bergantung kepada pecahan permulaan watak

  3. Competitions between prosocial exclusions and punishments in finite populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Linjie; Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila

    2017-04-01

    Prosocial punishment has been proved to be a powerful mean to promote cooperation. Recent studies have found that social exclusion, which indeed can be regarded as a kind of punishment, can also support cooperation. However, if prosocial punishment and exclusion are both present, it is still unclear which strategy is more advantageous to curb free-riders. Here we first study the direct competition between different types of punishment and exclusion. We find that pool (peer) exclusion can always outperform pool (peer) punishment both in the optional and in the compulsory public goods game, no matter whether second-order sanctioning is considered or not. Furthermore, peer exclusion does better than pool exclusion both in the optional and in the compulsory game, but the situation is reversed in the presence of second-order exclusion. Finally, we extend the competition among all possible sanctioning strategies and find that peer exclusion can outperform all other strategies in the absence of second-order exclusion and punishment, while pool exclusion prevails when second-order sanctioning is possible. Our results demonstrate that exclusion is a more powerful strategy than punishment for the resolution of social dilemmas.

  4. Do humans really punish altruistically? A closer look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric J.; Kurzban, Robert; McCullough, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Some researchers have proposed that natural selection has given rise in humans to one or more adaptations for altruistically punishing on behalf of other individuals who have been treated unfairly, even when the punisher has no chance of benefiting via reciprocity or benefits to kin. However, empirical support for the altruistic punishment hypothesis depends on results from experiments that are vulnerable to potentially important experimental artefacts. Here, we searched for evidence of altruistic punishment in an experiment that precluded these artefacts. In so doing, we found that victims of unfairness punished transgressors, whereas witnesses of unfairness did not. Furthermore, witnesses’ emotional reactions to unfairness were characterized by envy of the unfair individual's selfish gains rather than by moralistic anger towards the unfair behaviour. In a second experiment run independently in two separate samples, we found that previous evidence for altruistic punishment plausibly resulted from affective forecasting error—that is, limitations on humans’ abilities to accurately simulate how they would feel in hypothetical situations. Together, these findings suggest that the case for altruistic punishment in humans—a view that has gained increasing attention in the biological and social sciences—has been overstated. PMID:23466983

  5. Corporal punishment in schools: myths, problems and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubanoski, R A; Inaba, M; Gerkewicz, K

    1983-01-01

    In many countries, corporal punishment of school children continues to be an officially or unofficially sanctioned form of institutional child abuse. Continuing support for the use of corporal punishment is related to the following factors: (1) widely held beliefs regarding the effectiveness of corporal punishment, (2) an unawareness of problems resulting from the use of physical punishment, and (3) a lack of knowledge about effective disciplinary alternatives. The purpose of this paper is threefold: One is to show that many of the beliefs are myths, e.g., corporal punishment is not needed to build character. The second purpose is to show that physical punishment can lead to more problems than it appears to solve, e.g., the punitive teacher is avoided, and thus, is not a positive factor in the child's education and development. The third purpose is to discuss two types of alternatives to punishment, the social learning approach and communication skills training. These positive methods of discipline not only enhance classroom behavior, but also facilitate learning. In an atmosphere free of abusing and demeaning acts and in a classroom characterized by positive mutual regard, teachers can maximize their effectiveness as teachers and students can maximize their effectiveness as learners.

  6. Tolerance-based punishment in continuous public goods game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jia; Li, Zhi; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long

    2012-08-01

    Altruistic punishment for defectors is considered as a key motive for the explanation of cooperation. However, there is no clear border between the cooperative and defective behaviors in a continuous strategy game. We propose a model to study the effect of punishment on the evolution of cooperation in continuous public goods game, wherein individuals have the traits to punish the co-players based on social tolerance. We show that a reasonable punishment with a uniform tolerance can spur individuals to make more investments. Additionally, for a fixed punishment cost and a fixed fine, a moderate value of tolerance can result in the best promotion of cooperation. Furthermore, we investigate the coevolutionary dynamics of investment and tolerance. We find that the population splits into two branches: high-tolerance individuals who make high investments and low-tolerance individuals who make low investments. A dynamic equilibrium is achieved between these two types of individuals. Our work extends punishment to continuous cooperative behaviors and the results may enhance the understanding of altruistic punishment in the evolution of human cooperation.

  7. Costly third-party punishment in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Katherine; Jordan, Jillian J; Warneken, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Human adults engage in costly third-party punishment of unfair behavior, but the developmental origins of this behavior are unknown. Here we investigate costly third-party punishment in 5- and 6-year-old children. Participants were asked to accept (enact) or reject (punish) proposed allocations of resources between a pair of absent, anonymous children. In addition, we manipulated whether subjects had to pay a cost to punish proposed allocations. Experiment 1 showed that 6-year-olds (but not 5-year-olds) punished unfair proposals more than fair proposals. However, children punished less when doing so was personally costly. Thus, while sensitive to cost, they were willing to sacrifice resources to intervene against unfairness. Experiment 2 showed that 6-year-olds were less sensitive to unequal allocations when they resulted from selfishness than generosity. These findings show that costly third-party punishment of unfair behavior is present in young children, suggesting that from early in development children show a sophisticated capacity to promote fair behavior.

  8. Rewarding and punishing children of different social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić-Vučetić Nataša

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the actions of rewarding and punishing children of different social behavior. The application of rewarding and punishing demands knowing and fulfilling several conditions which enable their efficiency: the nature of reward and punishment, the way in which pupils receive them, the context in which rewarding and punishing takes place and the characteristics of the subject (age, gender, cognitive capacities, social behavior. It is familiar that teachers prefer pupils who are cooperative, socially responsible, prone to conforming to school rules, kind, friendly and polite, while teacher’s work can often be aggravated on the part of the pupils who are aggressive, asocial, socially irresponsible, disruptive or prone to deviant behavior. In order to accomplish the outcomes which want to be achieved by these procedures, in applying reward and punishment, it is necessary to figure out carefully the criteria of rewarding and punishing and adhere to them consistently, paying attention to the characteristics of social behavior of the pupils. A special chapter is devoted to the consideration of unjust reward and punishment as one of the phenomena present in the experience of a large number of children. The analyzed problems assume adequate preparation of teachers, that is, the knowledge about basic characteristics of upbringing procedures applied in working with pupils, and which will have as a result a more successful social behavior, a more positive attitude towards school and studying.

  9. On the determinants and consequences of punishment goals : power, distrust, and rule compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijman, M.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the determinants and consequences of leaders’ punishment goals. I investigate how and why leaders rely on certain punishment goals, and how and why leaders’ reliance on such punishment goals affects punishment effectiveness. Specifically, in this dissertation I demonstra

  10. Punitive preferences, monetary incentives and tacit coordination in the punishment of defectors promote cooperation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Przepiorka, Wojtek

    2015-01-01

    Peer-punishment is effective in promoting cooperation, but the costs associated with punishing defectors often exceed the benefits for the group. It has been argued that centralized punishment institutions can overcome the detrimental effects of peer-punishment. However, this argument presupposes th

  11. No Punishment Without Guilt: The Case concerning German Prosecution of a Former GDR Border Guard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jens Elo

    2003-01-01

    Menneskerettigheder, Human Rights, Den Europæiske Menneskerettighedskonvention, European Convention of Human Rights, Straf, Punishment, tilbagevirkende straf, retroactive punishment......Menneskerettigheder, Human Rights, Den Europæiske Menneskerettighedskonvention, European Convention of Human Rights, Straf, Punishment, tilbagevirkende straf, retroactive punishment...

  12. The Role of Compassion in Altruistic Helping and Punishment Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Helen Y; Fox, Andrew S; Hessenthaler, Heather C; Stodola, Diane E; Davidson, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Compassion, the emotional response of caring for another who is suffering and that results in motivation to relieve suffering, is thought to be an emotional antecedent to altruistic behavior. However, it remains unclear whether compassion enhances altruistic behavior in a uniform way or is specific to sub-types of behavior such as altruistic helping of a victim or altruistic punishment of a transgressor. We investigated the relationship between compassion and subtypes of altruistic behavior using third-party paradigms where participants (1) witnessed an unfair economic exchange between a transgressor and a victim, and (2) had the opportunity to either spend personal funds to either economically (a) help the victim or (b) punish the transgressor. In Study 1, we examined whether individual differences in self-reported empathic concern (the emotional component of compassion) was associated with greater altruistic helping or punishment behavior in two independent samples. For participants who witnessed an unfair transaction, trait empathic concern was associated with greater helping of a victim and had no relationship to punishment. However, in those who decided to punish the transgressor, participants who reported greater empathic concern decided to punish less. In Study 2, we directly enhanced compassion using short-term online compassion meditation training to examine whether altruistic helping and punishment were increased after two weeks of training. Compared to an active reappraisal training control group, the compassion training group gave more to help the victim and did not differ in punishment of the transgressor. Together, these two studies suggest that compassion is related to greater altruistic helping of victims and is not associated with or may mitigate altruistic punishment of transgressors.

  13. The Role of Compassion in Altruistic Helping and Punishment Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Y Weng

    Full Text Available Compassion, the emotional response of caring for another who is suffering and that results in motivation to relieve suffering, is thought to be an emotional antecedent to altruistic behavior. However, it remains unclear whether compassion enhances altruistic behavior in a uniform way or is specific to sub-types of behavior such as altruistic helping of a victim or altruistic punishment of a transgressor. We investigated the relationship between compassion and subtypes of altruistic behavior using third-party paradigms where participants (1 witnessed an unfair economic exchange between a transgressor and a victim, and (2 had the opportunity to either spend personal funds to either economically (a help the victim or (b punish the transgressor. In Study 1, we examined whether individual differences in self-reported empathic concern (the emotional component of compassion was associated with greater altruistic helping or punishment behavior in two independent samples. For participants who witnessed an unfair transaction, trait empathic concern was associated with greater helping of a victim and had no relationship to punishment. However, in those who decided to punish the transgressor, participants who reported greater empathic concern decided to punish less. In Study 2, we directly enhanced compassion using short-term online compassion meditation training to examine whether altruistic helping and punishment were increased after two weeks of training. Compared to an active reappraisal training control group, the compassion training group gave more to help the victim and did not differ in punishment of the transgressor. Together, these two studies suggest that compassion is related to greater altruistic helping of victims and is not associated with or may mitigate altruistic punishment of transgressors.

  14. Serotonergic modulation of reward and punishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, the bulk of research on the human reward system was focused on studying the dopaminergic and opioid neurotransmitter systems. However, extending the initial data from animal studies on reward, recent pharmacological brain imaging studies on human participants bring a new line...... of evidence on the key role serotonin plays in reward processing. The reviewed research has revealed how central serotonin availability and receptor specific transmission modulates the neural response to both appetitive (rewarding) and aversive (punishing) stimuli in putative reward-related brain regions......-related processing and may also provide a neural correlated for the emotional blunting observed in the clinical treatment of psychiatric disorders with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Given the unique profile of action of each serotonergic receptor subtype, future pharmacological studies may favor receptor...

  15. Cybercrime Victimisations/Criminalisation and Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nemrat, Ameer; Jahankhani, Hamid; Preston, David S.

    With the increased of use of the internet as a means of sharing information, the need to protect and preserve the confidentiality and integrity of data is ever more evident. The digital age provides not only established criminals with new ways of committing, but also has empowered previously non deviant individuals, into new cyber criminal behaviour. Many individuals are unaware of online threats and many fail to take advantage of precautionary measures to protect themselves from risks when they are online. Therefore, individuals consistently underestimate their risk of becoming victims or underestimate the punishment that may face if they are engaged on online deviant behaviour. This ongoing research has found that there is a relationship between individual's perception of cybercrime law and cybercrime victimisation and/or criminalisation.

  16. Punishment, Pharmacological Treatment, and Early Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that pharmacological treatment may have an impact on aggressive and impulsive behavior. Assuming that these results are correct, would it be morally acceptable to instigate violent criminals to accept pharmacological rehabilitation by offering this treatment in return...... for early release from prison? This paper examines three different reasons for being skeptical with regard to this sort of practice. The first reason concerns the acceptability of the treatment itself. The second reason concerns the ethical legitimacy of making offers under coercive conditions. The third...... relates to the acceptability of the fact that those criminals who accepted the treatment would be exempted from the punishment they rightly deserved. It is argued that none of these reasons succeeds in rejecting this sort of offer....

  17. The Importance of Emotions for the Effectiveness of Social Punishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuben, Ernesto; Hopfensitz, Astrid

    This paper experimentally explores how the enforcement of cooperative behavior in a social dilemma is facilitated through institutional as well as emotional mechanisms. Recent studies emphasize the importance of anger and its role in motivating individuals to punish free riders. However, we find...... that anger also triggers retaliatory behavior by the punished individuals. This makes the enforcement of a cooperative norm more costly. We show that in addition to anger, ‘social’ emotions like guilt need to be present for punishment to be an effective deterrent of uncooperative actions. They play a key...

  18. Escaping the Tragedy of the Commons through Targeted Punishment

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Failures of cooperation cause many of society's gravest problems. It is well known that cooperation among many players faced with a social dilemma can be maintained thanks to the possibility of punishment, but achieving the initial state of widespread cooperation is often much more difficult. We show here that there exist strategies of `targeted punishment' whereby a small number of punishers can shift a population of defectors into a state of global cooperation. The heterogeneity of players, often regarded as an obstacle, can in fact boost the mechanism's effectivity. We conclude by outlining how the international community could use a strategy of this kind to combat climate change.

  19. The Importance of Emotions for the Effectiveness of Social Punishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuben, Ernesto; Hopfensitz, Astrid

    This paper experimentally explores how the enforcement of cooperative behavior in a social dilemma is facilitated through institutional as well as emotional mechanisms. Recent studies emphasize the importance of anger and its role in motivating individuals to punish free riders. However, we find...... that anger also triggers retaliatory behavior by the punished individuals. This makes the enforcement of a cooperative norm more costly. We show that in addition to anger, ‘social’ emotions like guilt need to be present for punishment to be an effective deterrent of uncooperative actions. They play a key...

  20. Experimental self-punishment and superstitious escape behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIGLER, B

    1963-07-01

    Rats were trained to escape from shock by pressing a bar. Bar holding was subsequently punished with very brief shocks. This treatment failed to depress bar-holding behavior. In some cases, although the escape shocks were delivered very infrequently, bar holding was maintained and resulted in the delivery of several thousand punishments per session. These and other effects of the punishment treatment were investigated. Finally, some of the possibilities of superstitious escape responding were explored by presenting inescapable shocks to rats that had been trained to escape shock by lever pressing. Although responding during these shocks had no programmed consequences, responding was sustained.

  1. Maintenance of cooperation induced by punishment in public goods games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Xu, Zhao-Jin; Huang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Lian-Zhong

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we study the public goods games with punishment by adopting the well-known approximate best response dynamics. It shows that the evolution of cooperation is affected by two aspects when other parameters are fixed. One is the punishment mechanism which can avoid the dilemma of lacking investment, and the other is the degree of rationality. Theoretical analysis and numerical results indicate that the existence of punishment mechanism and distribution of rationality are the keys to the enhancement of cooperation level. We also testify that they can heavily influence the payoffs of system as well. The findings in this paper may provide a deeper understanding of some social dilemmas.

  2. Enactment of Third-Party Punishment by 4-Year-Olds

    OpenAIRE

    Kenward, Ben; Östh, Therese

    2012-01-01

    When prompted, preschoolers advocate punishment for moral transgressions against third parties, but little is known about whether and how they might act out such punishment. In this study, adult demonstrators enacted doll stories in which a perpetrator child doll made an unprovoked attack on a victim child doll, after which an adult doll punished either the perpetrator (consistent punishment) or victim (inconsistent punishment). When asked to help retell the story, given free choice of their ...

  3. On the determinants and consequences of punishment goals: power, distrust, and rule compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Mooijman, M.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the determinants and consequences of leaders’ punishment goals. I investigate how and why leaders rely on certain punishment goals, and how and why leaders’ reliance on such punishment goals affects punishment effectiveness. Specifically, in this dissertation I demonstrate that—with increasing power over others—leaders rely more on punishment goals that are suboptimal in promoting rule compliance. I demonstrate that power fosters a distrustful mindset towards peop...

  4. Promote or hinder? The role of punishment in the emergence of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shiping; Wu, Te; Nie, Suli; Wang, Long

    2015-12-07

    Investigation of anti-social punishment has shaken the positive role of punishment in the evolution of cooperation. However, punishment is ubiquitous in nature, and the centralized, apposed to decentralized, punishment is more favored by certain modern societies in particular. To explore the underlying principle of such phenomenon, we study the evolution of cooperation in the context of pro- and anti-social punishments subject to two distinct patterns: costly centralized and decentralized punishments. The results suggest that the pattern of punishment has a great effect on the role of punishment in the evolution of cooperation. In the absence of anti-social punishment, the costly centralized punishment is more effective in promoting the emergence of cooperation. Anti-social punishment can subvert the positive role of punishment when anti- and pro-social punishments are in the same pattern. However, driven by centralized pro-social punishment, cooperation can be more advantageous than defection even in the presence of decentralized anti-social punishment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Punishment and Alternative Strategies for Decreasing a Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vought, James J.

    1984-01-01

    Provides an overview on the subject of punishment and alternative procedures to decelerate a behavior. Describes differential reinforcement, extinction, satiation, corrective feedback, using peers as models and rearranging the environment as positive and nonaversive procedures for decreasing a behavior. (LLL)

  6. ABOUT THE PUNISHMENT ESTABLISHED FOR THE CRIME COMMITTED DURING PROBATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂTĂLIN ONCESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Probation represents a measure of trust as far as the convict is concerned and it is ruled by the court for the continuation of the execution of the rest of the punishment without being detained. Exactly for this reason it is considered that when a person on probation has committed a crime while on probation, the applied punishment should be oriented according to the manner of calculation of the punishment in the case of the post-release recidivism.In this article, certain aspects of the probation institution have been analyzed, the opportunity of revocation or the maintaining of probation in case a new crime is committed between the period of probation and that of the punishment’s fulfillment, and also the manner the punishment is established for this case being further examined.

  7. 423 Implications of Capital Punishment in the Nigerian Society

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... every sphere of its political, economic, religious and social life. It is ... the criminal tendencies and capital punishment in Nigeria. Vol. 5 (4), Serial ..... Nigerian, cultural norms or encourage conformity and obedience to cultural.

  8. The economics of altruistic punishment and the maintenance of cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egas, M.; Riedl, A.

    2008-01-01

    Explaining the evolution and maintenance of cooperation among unrelated individuals is one of the fundamental problems in biology and the social sciences. Recent findings suggest that altruistic punishment is an important mechanism maintaining cooperation among humans. We experimentally explore the

  9. Impact of Social Punishment on Cooperative Behavior in Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meloni, Sandro; Zhou, Chang-Song; Moreno, Yamir

    2013-10-01

    Social punishment is a mechanism by which cooperative individuals spend part of their resources to penalize defectors. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in 2-person evolutionary games on networks when a mechanism for social punishment is introduced. Specifically, we introduce a new kind of role, punisher, which is aimed at reducing the earnings of defectors by applying to them a social fee. Results from numerical simulations show that different equilibria allowing the three strategies to coexist are possible as well as that social punishment further enhance the robustness of cooperation. Our results are confirmed for different network topologies and two evolutionary games. In addition, we analyze the microscopic mechanisms that give rise to the observed macroscopic behaviors in both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. Our conclusions might provide additional insights for understanding the roots of cooperation in social systems.

  10. Disease dynamics and costly punishment can foster socially imposed monogamy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Chris T; McElreath, Richard

    2016-04-05

    Socially imposed monogamy in humans is an evolutionary puzzle because it requires costly punishment by those who impose the norm. Moreover, most societies were--and are--polygynous; yet many larger human societies transitioned from polygyny to socially imposed monogamy beginning with the advent of agriculture and larger residential groups. We use a simulation model to explore how interactions between group size, sexually transmitted infection (STI) dynamics and social norms can explain the timing and emergence of socially imposed monogamy. Polygyny dominates when groups are too small to sustain STIs. However, in larger groups, STIs become endemic (especially in concurrent polygynist networks) and have an impact on fertility, thereby mediating multilevel selection. Punishment of polygynists improves monogamist fitness within groups by reducing their STI exposure, and between groups by enabling punishing monogamist groups to outcompete polygynists. This suggests pathways for the emergence of socially imposed monogamy, and enriches our understanding of costly punishment evolution.

  11. Reward and Punishment Patterns in Rural and Town Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, E. D.; Slaughter, Margo Fitzgerald

    1977-01-01

    In this study 480 children from two types of communities, rural and town, were interviewed concerning recent critical incidents involving praise or punishment. Data were used to evaluate sex differences, community differences, and grade level differences. (SB)

  12. Gender, Religion and National Origin: Latinos' Attitude toward Capital Punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Baik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Previous studies on attitudes toward capital punishment are heavily focused on comparisons between blacks and whites with little attention to the Latino population. This is problematic given the rapid growth of Latino population who is now the largest and fastest-growing ethnic minority in the United States. Approach: Empirical studies devoted exclusively to studying Latinos’ attitude toward capital punishment are few and thus, I focus on exclusively examining the Latino population utilizing 2007 Hispanic Religion Survey, which is the most recent survey that includes questions on Latinos’ attitude toward capital punishment. Results: I found that Latinos’ attitude toward capital punishment is driven by various demographic, religious and cultural factors. The most influential factors were gender, religion and the country of origin. Conclusion: Very few studies have examined Latinos’ attitude toward criminal justice policies in general and this study should be extended to study other criminal justice policies as well.

  13. Water Cooler Ostracism: Social Exclusion as a Punishment Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    David Johnson; Brent Davis

    2013-01-01

    Within social situations free-riding individuals can be informally punished through social ostracism; ostracized group members are removed from the social aspect of the group but are still formally members. In this study we examine the effectiveness of non-monetary social ostracism as a punishment for low contributions to a public account. Social ostracism may occur in the workplace where workers produce a public good amongst their inputs. Since these workers are all of the same rank, no work...

  14. Evolutionary snowdrift game incorporating costly punishment in structured populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Nat W. H.; Xu, C.; Tey, Siew Kian; Yap, Yee Jiun; Hui, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The role of punishment and the effects of a structured population in promoting cooperation are important issues. Within a recent model of snowdrift game (SG) incorporating a costly punishing strategy (P), we study the effects of a population connected through a square lattice. The punishers, who carry basically a cooperative (C) character, are willing to pay a cost α so as to punish a non-cooperative (D) opponent by β. Depending on α, β, the cost-to-benefit ratio r in SG, and the initial conditions, the system evolves into different phases that could be homogeneous or inhomogeneous. The spatial structure imposes geometrical constraint on how one agent is affected by neighboring agents. Results of extensive numerical simulations, both for the steady state and the dynamics, are presented. Possible phases are identified and discussed, and isolated phases in the r-β space are identified as special local structures of strategies that are stable due to the lattice structure. In contrast to a well-mixed population where punishers are suppressed due to the cost of punishment, the altruistic punishing strategy can flourish and prevail for appropriate values of the parameters, implying an enhancement in cooperation by imposing punishments in a structured population. The system could evolve to a phase corresponding to the coexistence of C, D, and P strategies at some particular payoff parameters, and such a phase is absent in a well-mixed population. The pair approximation, a commonly used analytic approach, is extended from a two-strategy system to a three-strategy system. We show that the pair approximation can, at best, capture the numerical results only qualitatively. Due to the improper way of including spatial correlation imposed by the lattice structure, the approximation does not give the frequencies of C, D, and P accurately and fails to give the homogeneous AllD and AllP phases.

  15. Asymmetry of Reinforcement and Punishment in Human Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Erin B.; Newland, M. Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis that a penny lost is valued more highly than a penny earned was tested in human choice. Five participants clicked a computer mouse under concurrent variable-interval schedules of monetary reinforcement. In the no-punishment condition, the schedules arranged monetary gain. In the punishment conditions, a schedule of monetary loss was superimposed on one response alternative. Deviations from generalized matching using the free parameters c (sensitivity to reinforcement) and log k...

  16. Expectation of success following noncontingent punishment in introverts and extraverts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce-McCall, D; Newman, J P

    1986-02-01

    Recent findings indicate that extraverts are more likely than introverts to continue responding in the face of punishment and frustrating nonreward (Newman & Kosson, 1984; Tiggemann, Winefield, & Brebner, 1982). The current study investigates whether extraverts' expectations for success are, similarly, resistant to interruption and alteration. To test this hypothesis, 50 introverted and 50 extraverted male undergraduates were exposed to pretreatment with either a 50% level of noncontingent reward or a 50% level of noncontingent punishment. As predicted, there were significant Group X Pretreatment interactions on all dependent measures. In comparison to those introverts who received the punishment pretreatment, extraverts exposed to the same pretreatment placed larger wagers on their ability to succeed, and reported higher levels of perceived control. In addition, relative to their estimates for the pretreatment task, extraverts exposed to noncontingent punishment increased their expectation for success, whereas introverts exposed to noncontingent punishment decreased their performance expectations. No differences were observed between the two groups following pretreatment with noncontingent reward. The results suggest that extraverts are characterized by a distinctive reaction to punishment involving response facilitation as opposed to response inhibition.

  17. Self-organization of punishment in structured populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila

    2012-04-01

    Cooperation is crucial for the remarkable evolutionary success of the human species. Not surprisingly, some individuals are willing to bear additional costs in order to punish defectors. Current models assume that, once set, the fine and cost of punishment do not change over time. Here we show that relaxing this assumption by allowing players to adapt their sanctioning efforts in dependence on the success of cooperation can explain both the spontaneous emergence of punishment and its ability to deter defectors and those unwilling to punish them with globally negligible investments. By means of phase diagrams and the analysis of emerging spatial patterns, we demonstrate that adaptive punishment promotes public cooperation through the invigoration of spatial reciprocity, the prevention of the emergence of cyclic dominance, or the provision of competitive advantages to those that sanction antisocial behavior. The results presented indicate that the process of self-organization significantly elevates the effectiveness of punishment, and they reveal new mechanisms by means of which this fascinating and widespread social behavior could have evolved.

  18. A Cross-Cultural Study of Punishment Beliefs and Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen; Knowles, Eric D

    2016-12-07

    The current research examined cultural similarities and differences in punishment beliefs and decisions. Participants were European Americans (N = 50), Chinese Americans (N = 57), and Chinese in Mainland China (N = 50). The Functions of Punishment Questionnaire was used to measure participants' beliefs about the retributive or deterrent functions of punishment and a scenario method was used to measure the extent to which punishment decisions were driven by individuals' concerns for retribution or deterrence. The results indicated that, contrary to the hypothesis that the retributive function would be emphasized by individualistic groups and the deterrent function by collectivistic groups, Mainland Chinese participants had a stronger belief in retribution and a weaker belief in deterrence than did European and Chinese Americans. The results also indicated that retribution played a bigger role in punishment decisions for Chinese than for the other two groups, but the importance of the deterrence function in punishment decisions did not differ across the three groups. Finally, the correlation between interdependence orientation and the belief in retribution was positive for Chinese but negative for European Americans. Taken together, the findings provided little evidence that collectivists are more deterrence-oriented and individualists more retribution-oriented.

  19. Preschoolers' emotion knowledge and the differential effects of harsh punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzenski, Sara R; Yates, Tuppett M

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the influence of caregiver-reported harsh physical and verbal punishment on children's behavioral and self-system adjustment. Children's emotion knowledge was evaluated as a heretofore unrecognized moderator of these relations. We assessed 250 preschool-aged children (50% female; Mage = 49.06 months) from diverse backgrounds (50% Hispanic, 18% African American, 10.4% Caucasian, 21.6% multiracial/other) using various instruments through teacher, caregiver, self, and observer report in the domains of harsh punishment, conduct problems, self-concept, and emotion knowledge. Emotion knowledge moderated the relation between harsh punishment and child adjustment. Harsh physical punishment was associated with conduct problems for children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for boys. Harsh verbal punishment was associated with self-concept deficits among children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for girls. These relations were also specifically applicable to non-Hispanic children. These results highlight the importance of investigating hypothesis-driven interactive effects and the specificity of experience to understand the psychosocial sequelae of parenting practices broadly, and to clarify the mixed evidence in the punishment literature specifically. Clinical implications point to the salience of emotion processes in parent-child disciplinary interventions for understanding the prevalence and pattern of child behavioral adjustment and self-concept, as well as more broadly to the role of individual differences in children's responses to adversity and subsequent therapeutic needs.

  20. Punishing hypocrisy: the roles of hypocrisy and moral emotions in deciding culpability and punishment of criminal and civil moral transgressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Sean M; Clark, Brian A M; Walker, Stephannie; Wiseman, Kimberly D

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments explored how hypocrisy affects attributions of criminal guilt and the desire to punish hypocritical criminals. Study 1 established that via perceived hypocrisy, a hypocritical criminal was seen as more culpable and was punished more than a non-hypocritical criminal who committed an identical crime. Study 2 expanded on this, showing that negative moral emotions (anger and disgust) mediated the relationships between perceived hypocrisy, criminal guilt, and punishment. Study 3 replicated the emotion finding from Study 2 using new scenarios where group agents were clearly aware of the hypocrisy of their actions, yet acted anyway. Again, perceived hypocrisy worked through moral emotions to affect criminal guilt and punishment. The current studies provide empirical support for theories relating hypocrisy and moral transgressions to moral emotions, also informing the literature on the role of moral emotions in moral reasoning and legal decision making.

  1. Outcomes and intentions in children's, adolescents', and adults' second- and third-party punishment behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummerum, Michaela; Chu, Maria T

    2014-10-01

    Theories of morality maintain that punishment supports the emergence and maintenance of moral behavior. This study investigated developmental differences in the role of outcomes and the violator's intentions in second-party punishment (where punishers are victims of a violation) and third-party punishment (where punishers are unaffected observers of a violation). Four hundred and forty-three adults and 8-, 12-, and 15-year-olds made choices in mini-ultimatum games and newly-developed mini-third-party punishment games, which involved actual incentives rather than hypothetical decisions. Adults integrated outcomes and intentions in their second- and third-party punishment, whereas 8-year-olds consistently based their punishment on the outcome of the violation. Adolescents integrated outcomes and intentions in second- but not third-party punishment.

  2. Building the Leviathan--Voluntary centralisation of punishment power sustains cooperation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jörg; Méder, Zsombor Z; Okamoto-Barth, Sanae; Riedl, Arno

    2016-02-18

    The prevalence of cooperation among humans is puzzling because cooperators can be exploited by free riders. Peer punishment has been suggested as a solution to this puzzle, but cumulating evidence questions its robustness in sustaining cooperation. Amongst others, punishment fails when it is not powerful enough, or when it elicits counter-punishment. Existing research, however, has ignored that the distribution of punishment power can be the result of social interactions. We introduce a novel experiment in which individuals can transfer punishment power to others. We find that while decentralised peer punishment fails to overcome free riding, the voluntary transfer of punishment power enables groups to sustain cooperation. This is achieved by non-punishing cooperators empowering those who are willing to punish in the interest of the group. Our results show how voluntary power centralisation can efficiently sustain cooperation, which could explain why hierarchical power structures are widespread among animals and humans.

  3. Building the Leviathan – Voluntary centralisation of punishment power sustains cooperation in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jörg; Méder, Zsombor Z.; Okamoto-Barth, Sanae; Riedl, Arno

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cooperation among humans is puzzling because cooperators can be exploited by free riders. Peer punishment has been suggested as a solution to this puzzle, but cumulating evidence questions its robustness in sustaining cooperation. Amongst others, punishment fails when it is not powerful enough, or when it elicits counter-punishment. Existing research, however, has ignored that the distribution of punishment power can be the result of social interactions. We introduce a novel experiment in which individuals can transfer punishment power to others. We find that while decentralised peer punishment fails to overcome free riding, the voluntary transfer of punishment power enables groups to sustain cooperation. This is achieved by non-punishing cooperators empowering those who are willing to punish in the interest of the group. Our results show how voluntary power centralisation can efficiently sustain cooperation, which could explain why hierarchical power structures are widespread among animals and humans. PMID:26888519

  4. The Dynamics of Crime and Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausken, Kjell; Moxnes, John F.

    This article analyzes crime development which is one of the largest threats in today's world, frequently referred to as the war on crime. The criminal commits crimes in his free time (when not in jail) according to a non-stationary Poisson process which accounts for fluctuations. Expected values and variances for crime development are determined. The deterrent effect of imprisonment follows from the amount of time in imprisonment. Each criminal maximizes expected utility defined as expected benefit (from crime) minus expected cost (imprisonment). A first-order differential equation of the criminal's utility-maximizing response to the given punishment policy is then developed. The analysis shows that if imprisonment is absent, criminal activity grows substantially. All else being equal, any equilibrium is unstable (labile), implying growth of criminal activity, unless imprisonment increases sufficiently as a function of criminal activity. This dynamic approach or perspective is quite interesting and has to our knowledge not been presented earlier. The empirical data material for crime intensity and imprisonment for Norway, England and Wales, and the US supports the model. Future crime development is shown to depend strongly on the societally chosen imprisonment policy. The model is intended as a valuable tool for policy makers who can envision arbitrarily sophisticated imprisonment functions and foresee the impact they have on crime development.

  5. Time-dependent changes in altruistic punishment following stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkers, Christiaan H; Zorn, Jelle V; Cornelisse, Sandra; Koot, Susanne; Houtepen, Lotte C; Olivier, Berend; Verster, Joris C; Kahn, René S; Boks, Marco P M; Kalenscher, Tobias; Joëls, Marian

    2013-09-01

    Decisions are rarely made in social isolation. One phenomenon often observed in social interactions is altruistic punishment, i.e. the punishment of unfair behavior by others at a personal cost. The tendency for altruistic punishment is altered by affective states including those induced by stress exposure. Stress is thought to exert bi-directional effects on behavior: immediately after stress, reflex-like and habitual behavior is promoted while later on more far-sighted, flexible and goal-directed behavior is enhanced. We hypothesized that such time-dependent effects of stress would also be present in the context of altruistic punishment behavior. Healthy male participants (N=80) were exposed to either a grouped stress test or a control condition. Participants were tested in prosocial decision making tasks either directly after stress or 75 min later. Altruistic punishment was assessed using the Ultimatum Game. General altruism was assessed with a one-shot version of the Dictator Game in which an anonymous donation could be offered to a charitable organization. We found that stress caused a bi-directional effect on altruistic punishment, with decreased rejection rates in the late aftermath of stress in response to ambiguous 30% offers. In the Dictator Game, stressed participants were less generous than controls, but no time-dependent effect was observed, indicating that the general reward sensitivity remained unchanged at various time-points after stress. Overall, during the late aftermath after acute stress exposure (i.e. 75 min later), participants acted more consistent with their own material self-interest, and had a lower propensity for altruistic punishment, possibly through upregulation of cognitive self-control mechanisms. Thus, our findings underscore the importance of time as a factor in simple, real-life economic decisions in a stressful social context.

  6. Group Cooperation without Group Selection: Modest Punishment Can Recruit Much Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max M Krasnow

    Full Text Available Humans everywhere cooperate in groups to achieve benefits not attainable by individuals. Individual effort is often not automatically tied to a proportionate share of group benefits. This decoupling allows for free-riding, a strategy that (absent countermeasures outcompetes cooperation. Empirically and formally, punishment potentially solves the evolutionary puzzle of group cooperation. Nevertheless, standard analyses appear to show that punishment alone is insufficient, because second-order free riders (those who cooperate but do not punish can be shown to outcompete punishers. Consequently, many have concluded that other processes, such as cultural or genetic group selection, are required. Here, we present a series of agent-based simulations that show that group cooperation sustained by punishment easily evolves by individual selection when you introduce into standard models more biologically plausible assumptions about the social ecology and psychology of ancestral humans. We relax three unrealistic assumptions of past models. First, past models assume all punishers must punish every act of free riding in their group. We instead allow punishment to be probabilistic, meaning punishers can evolve to only punish some free riders some of the time. This drastically lowers the cost of punishment as group size increases. Second, most models unrealistically do not allow punishment to recruit labor; punishment merely reduces the punished agent's fitness. We instead realistically allow punished free riders to cooperate in the future to avoid punishment. Third, past models usually restrict agents to interact in a single group their entire lives. We instead introduce realistic social ecologies in which agents participate in multiple, partially overlapping groups. Because of this, punitive tendencies are more expressed and therefore more exposed to natural selection. These three moves toward greater model realism reveal that punishment and cooperation

  7. Group Cooperation without Group Selection: Modest Punishment Can Recruit Much Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnow, Max M; Delton, Andrew W; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2015-01-01

    Humans everywhere cooperate in groups to achieve benefits not attainable by individuals. Individual effort is often not automatically tied to a proportionate share of group benefits. This decoupling allows for free-riding, a strategy that (absent countermeasures) outcompetes cooperation. Empirically and formally, punishment potentially solves the evolutionary puzzle of group cooperation. Nevertheless, standard analyses appear to show that punishment alone is insufficient, because second-order free riders (those who cooperate but do not punish) can be shown to outcompete punishers. Consequently, many have concluded that other processes, such as cultural or genetic group selection, are required. Here, we present a series of agent-based simulations that show that group cooperation sustained by punishment easily evolves by individual selection when you introduce into standard models more biologically plausible assumptions about the social ecology and psychology of ancestral humans. We relax three unrealistic assumptions of past models. First, past models assume all punishers must punish every act of free riding in their group. We instead allow punishment to be probabilistic, meaning punishers can evolve to only punish some free riders some of the time. This drastically lowers the cost of punishment as group size increases. Second, most models unrealistically do not allow punishment to recruit labor; punishment merely reduces the punished agent's fitness. We instead realistically allow punished free riders to cooperate in the future to avoid punishment. Third, past models usually restrict agents to interact in a single group their entire lives. We instead introduce realistic social ecologies in which agents participate in multiple, partially overlapping groups. Because of this, punitive tendencies are more expressed and therefore more exposed to natural selection. These three moves toward greater model realism reveal that punishment and cooperation easily evolve by

  8. Exploring the Motivations for Punishment: Framing and Country-Level Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Jonathan E; McAuliffe, Katherine; Raihani, Nichola J

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the motives underpinning punishment is crucial for understanding its evolved function. In principle, punishment of distributional inequality could be motivated by the desire to reciprocate losses ('revenge') or by the desire to reduce payoff asymmetries between the punisher and the target ('inequality aversion'). By separating these two possible motivations, recent work suggests that punishment is more likely to be motivated by disadvantageous inequality aversion than by a desire for revenge. Nevertheless, these findings have not consistently replicated across different studies. Here, we suggest that considering country of origin-previously overlooked as a possible source of variation in responses-is important for understanding when and why individuals punish one another. We conducted a two-player stealing game with punishment, using data from 2,400 subjects recruited from the USA and India. US-based subjects punished in response to losses and disadvantageous inequality, but seldom invested in antisocial punishment (defined here as punishment of non-stealing partners). India-based subjects, on the other hand, punished at higher levels than US-based subjects and, so long as they did not experience disadvantageous inequality, punished stealing and non-stealing partners indiscriminately. Nevertheless, as in the USA, when stealing resulted in disadvantageous inequality, India-based subjects punished stealing partners more than non-stealing partners. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that variation in punitive behavior varies across societies, and support the idea that punishment might sometimes function to improve relative status, rather than to enforce cooperation.

  9. Graduated punishment is efficient in resource management if people are heterogeneous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Yoh; Lee, Joung-Hun

    2013-09-21

    In natural resource managements, people often overcome tragedy of commons by developing an institution that punishes selfish actions, thus enhancing pro-social behavior. Elinor Ostrom reported that many successful communities apply graduated punishment--the punishment level gradually increases with the amount of harm of the selfish action. This observation is apparently in conflict with a theoretical study of public good game supporting a severe and strict punishment. Here, we study the conditions in which graduated punishment enforces cooperation most efficiently. If people follow a quantal response equilibrium, the optimal punishment is a jump from no punishment to a high level of punishment then increases little with the societal harm, which is inconsistent with the graduated punishment concept. We find that the graduated punishment is the most efficient rule if there is a small probability that player's action is reported incorrectly and if players are heterogeneous in their sensitivity to utility (or payoff) difference. We derive a mathematical formula for the optimal punishment when people's sensitivity to utility difference follows an exponential distribution. When the magnitude of harm is large, the optimal punishment increases in proportion to the square root of the societal harm, thus confirming the efficiency of the graduated punishment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Blunted cardiovascular reactivity in dysphoria during reward and punishment anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Jessica; Brinkmann, Kerstin

    2015-03-01

    Hyposensitivity to reward in depression and dysphoria has been found in behavioral and neuroimaging studies. For punishment responsiveness, some studies showed hyposensitivity to punishment while other studies demonstrated hypersensitivity. Only few studies have addressed the motivational question as to whether depressed individuals mobilize less effort in anticipation of a positive or a negative consequence. The present study aimed at investigating reward and punishment responsiveness in subclinical depression from an effort mobilization perspective. Working on a recognition memory task, one third of the participants could earn small amounts of money, one third could lose small amounts of money, and one third could neither earn nor lose money. Effort mobilization was operationalized as participants' cardiovascular reactivity during task performance. As expected, reactivity of cardiac pre-ejection period and heart rate was higher in both incentive conditions compared to the neutral condition for nondysphorics, while it was blunted across conditions for dysphorics. Moreover, the present study found that dysphorics show an altered behavioral response to punishment. These findings thus show that dysphorics present a reduced motivation to obtain a reward or to avoid a punishment in terms of reduced effort-related cardiac reactivity.

  11. The effect of power asymmetries on cooperation and punishment in a prisoner's dilemma game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Jonathan E; Wallace, Brian; Bshary, Redouan; Raihani, Nichola J

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that punishment is detrimental because punishment provokes retaliation, not cooperation, resulting in lower overall payoffs. These findings may stem from the unrealistic assumption that all players are equal: in reality individuals are expected to vary in the power with which they can punish defectors. Here, we allowed strong players to interact with weak players in an iterated prisoner's dilemma game with punishment. Defecting players were most likely to switch to cooperation if the partner cooperated: adding punishment yielded no additional benefit and, under some circumstances, increased the chance that the partner would both defect and retaliate against the punisher. Our findings show that, in a two-player game, cooperation begets cooperation and that punishment does not seem to yield any additional benefits. Further work should explore whether strong punishers might prevail in multi-player games.

  12. The effect of power asymmetries on cooperation and punishment in a prisoner's dilemma game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Bone

    Full Text Available Recent work has suggested that punishment is detrimental because punishment provokes retaliation, not cooperation, resulting in lower overall payoffs. These findings may stem from the unrealistic assumption that all players are equal: in reality individuals are expected to vary in the power with which they can punish defectors. Here, we allowed strong players to interact with weak players in an iterated prisoner's dilemma game with punishment. Defecting players were most likely to switch to cooperation if the partner cooperated: adding punishment yielded no additional benefit and, under some circumstances, increased the chance that the partner would both defect and retaliate against the punisher. Our findings show that, in a two-player game, cooperation begets cooperation and that punishment does not seem to yield any additional benefits. Further work should explore whether strong punishers might prevail in multi-player games.

  13. Competition and cooperation among different punishing strategies in the spatial public goods game

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaojie; Perc, Matjaz

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the fact that people have diverse propensities to punish wrongdoers, we study a spatial public goods game with defectors and different types of punishing cooperators. During the game, cooperators punish defectors with class-specific probabilities and subsequently share the associated costs of sanctioning. We show that in the presence of different punishing cooperators the highest level of public cooperation is always attainable through a selection mechanism. Interestingly, the selection not necessarily favors the evolution of punishers who would be able to prevail on their own against the defectors, nor does it always hinder the evolution of punishers who would be unable to prevail on their own. Instead, the evolutionary success of punishing strategies depends sensitively on their invasion velocities, which in turn reveals fascinating examples of both competition and cooperation among them. Furthermore, we show that under favorable conditions, when punishment is not strictly necessary for the main...

  14. Emergence of responsible sanctions without second order free riders, antisocial punishment or spite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbe, Christian; Traulsen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    While empirical evidence highlights the importance of punishment for cooperation in collective action, it remains disputed how responsible sanctions targeted predominantly at uncooperative subjects can evolve. Punishment is costly; in order to spread it typically requires local interactions, voluntary participation, or rewards. Moreover, theory and experiments indicate that some subjects abuse sanctioning opportunities by engaging in antisocial punishment (which harms cooperators), spiteful acts (harming everyone) or revenge (as a response to being punished). These arguments have led to the conclusion that punishment is maladaptive. Here, we use evolutionary game theory to show that this conclusion is premature: If interactions are non-anonymous, cooperation and punishment evolve even if initially rare, and sanctions are directed towards non-cooperators only. Thus, our willingness to punish free riders is ultimately a selfish decision rather than an altruistic act; punishment serves as a warning, showing that one is not willing to accept unfair treatments.

  15. Facial Likability and Smiling Enhance Cooperation, but Have No Direct Effect on Moralistic Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieth, Laura; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2016-09-01

    The present study serves to test how positive and negative appearance-based expectations affect cooperation and punishment. Participants played a prisoner's dilemma game with partners who either cooperated or defected. Then they were given a costly punishment option: They could spend money to decrease the payoffs of their partners. Aggregated over trials, participants spent more money for punishing the defection of likable-looking and smiling partners compared to punishing the defection of unlikable-looking and nonsmiling partners, but only because participants were more likely to cooperate with likable-looking and smiling partners, which provided the participants with more opportunities for moralistic punishment. When expressed as a conditional probability, moralistic punishment did not differ as a function of the partners' facial likability. Smiling had no effect on the probability of moralistic punishment, but punishment was milder for smiling in comparison to nonsmiling partners.

  16. From a School Board Member: The Case Against Corporal Punishment in the Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonin, Tobyann

    1977-01-01

    No matter what kind of classroom we choose, we have to remember that discipline must not be used interchangeably with corporal punishment. Constructive discipline is a positive means of managing a classroom; corporal punishment is an exceedingly negative one. (Author)

  17. The Influence of Divine Rewards and Punishments on Religious Prosociality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleam, James; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    A common finding across many cultures has been that religious people behave more prosocially than less (or non-) religious people. Numerous priming studies have demonstrated that the activation of religious concepts via implicit and explicit cues (e.g., ‘God,’ ‘salvation,’ among many others) increases prosociality in religious people. However, the factors underlying such findings are less clear. In this review we discuss hypotheses (e.g., the supernatural punishment hypothesis) that explain the religion-prosociality link, and also how recent findings in the empirical literature converge to suggest that the divine rewards (e.g., heaven) and punishments (e.g., hell) promised by various religious traditions may play a significant role. In addition, we further discuss inconsistencies in the religion-prosociality literature, as well as existing and future psychological studies which could improve our understanding of whether, and how, concepts of divine rewards and punishments may influence prosociality. PMID:27536262

  18. Exit, punishment and rewards in commons dilemmas: an experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giangiacomo Bravo

    Full Text Available Commons dilemmas are interaction situations where a common good is provided or exploited by a group of individuals so that optimal collective outcomes clash with private interests. Although in these situations, social norms and institutions exist that might help individuals to cooperate, little is known about the interaction effects between positive and negative incentives and exit options by individuals. We performed a modified public good game experiment to examine the effect of exit, rewards and punishment, as well as the interplay between exit and rewards and punishment. We found that punishment had a stronger effect than rewards on cooperation if considered by itself, whereas rewards had a stronger effect when combined with voluntary participation. This can be explained in terms of the 'framing effect', i.e., as the combination of exit and rewards might induce people to attach higher expected payoffs to cooperative strategies and expect better behaviour from others.

  19. Probabilistic sharing solves the problem of costly punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-08-01

    Cooperators that refuse to participate in sanctioning defectors create the second-order free-rider problem. Such cooperators will not be punished because they contribute to the public good, but they also eschew the costs associated with punishing defectors. Altruistic punishers—those that cooperate and punish—are at a disadvantage, and it is puzzling how such behaviour has evolved. We show that sharing the responsibility to sanction defectors rather than relying on certain individuals to do so permanently can solve the problem of costly punishment. Inspired by the fact that humans have strong but also emotional tendencies for fair play, we consider probabilistic sanctioning as the simplest way of distributing the duty. In well-mixed populations the public goods game is transformed into a coordination game with full cooperation and defection as the two stable equilibria, while in structured populations pattern formation supports additional counterintuitive solutions that are reminiscent of Parrondo's paradox.

  20. Asymmetrical effects of reward and punishment on attributions of morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Weiner, Bernard

    2008-08-01

    The authors found that 3 experiments revealed that compliance with a pro-social request for an anticipated reward as opposed to a threatened punishment resulted in greater inferences of personal morality. In Experiment 1, participants received information about a teaching assistant (TA) who was either promised a reward or threatened with a punishment when asked for compliance. The participants perceived the TA as more moral for complying given the positive incentive as opposed to the negative incentive. Experiment 2 replicated this finding in a different culture, using different vignettes and incentives. Last, in Experiment 3, the results revealed that a perceived actor's real intentions mediated the effect of incentive valence on dispositional causation. That is, given a reward relative to a punishment, participants were more likely to assume that the agent would have helped even if no incentive had been offered.

  1. Exit, punishment and rewards in commons dilemmas: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Giangiacomo; Squazzoni, Flaminio

    2013-01-01

    Commons dilemmas are interaction situations where a common good is provided or exploited by a group of individuals so that optimal collective outcomes clash with private interests. Although in these situations, social norms and institutions exist that might help individuals to cooperate, little is known about the interaction effects between positive and negative incentives and exit options by individuals. We performed a modified public good game experiment to examine the effect of exit, rewards and punishment, as well as the interplay between exit and rewards and punishment. We found that punishment had a stronger effect than rewards on cooperation if considered by itself, whereas rewards had a stronger effect when combined with voluntary participation. This can be explained in terms of the 'framing effect', i.e., as the combination of exit and rewards might induce people to attach higher expected payoffs to cooperative strategies and expect better behaviour from others.

  2. Contextual modulation of value signals in reward and punishment learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palminteri, Stefano; Khamassi, Mehdi; Joffily, Mateus; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2015-08-25

    Compared with reward seeking, punishment avoidance learning is less clearly understood at both the computational and neurobiological levels. Here we demonstrate, using computational modelling and fMRI in humans, that learning option values in a relative--context-dependent--scale offers a simple computational solution for avoidance learning. The context (or state) value sets the reference point to which an outcome should be compared before updating the option value. Consequently, in contexts with an overall negative expected value, successful punishment avoidance acquires a positive value, thus reinforcing the response. As revealed by post-learning assessment of options values, contextual influences are enhanced when subjects are informed about the result of the forgone alternative (counterfactual information). This is mirrored at the neural level by a shift in negative outcome encoding from the anterior insula to the ventral striatum, suggesting that value contextualization also limits the need to mobilize an opponent punishment learning system.

  3. Crime and punishment: is "justice" good public policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, George C; Nygaard, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    Dysfunctional features of American penology are mitigated somewhat by the application (though uneven) of modern science. Unfortunately, these advances do not address major flaws in the ideas on which the system is erected. These include retribution, proportional punishment, and all-or-none notions of criminal responsibility. We propose abandoning retribution for its own sake; making punishment proportional to its effectiveness for behavior change rather than to the indignation evoked by the offense; and incorporating punishment into sentences based on the clinical and behavioral characteristics of the offender, including containment as necessary for public safety. Every offender would be held responsible, but the meaning and consequences thereof would change. The proposed changes could only occur incrementally. New systems of oversight and accountability would be required. Legislative bodies could provide guidelines, and courts could oversee, but neither could micromanage. Few are better qualified to work toward these goals than readers of this journal.

  4. The effect of altruistic tendency on fairness in third-party punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Lu eSun; Peishan eTan; You eCheng; Jingwei eChen; Chen eQu

    2015-01-01

    Third-party punishment, as an altruistic behavior, was found to relate to inequity aversion in previous research. However, not all people show altruistic third party punishment, previous research found that altruistic tendency, as an individual difference, affects resource division. Here, using the ERP technique and a third party punishment of dictator game paradigm, we explored third-party punishments in high and low altruists and recorded their EEG data. Behavioral results showed high altru...

  5. Corporal Punishment as a Parental Practice and Anxiety in Pre-adolescent Children

    OpenAIRE

    Yosi Yaffe; David Burg

    2014-01-01

    Corporal punishment is the physical punitive measures of parents against children with devastating consequences when bordering on child abuse. This has even led to legislation against corporal punishment while controversy and criticism divides researchers and practitioners as to the prohibition against moderate and functional corporal punishment which may act as an effective method of education. Limited research exists on corporal punishment and its effect on the emotional aspects of children...

  6. Synapsin determines memory strength after punishment- and relief-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewalda, Thomas; Michels, Birgit; Jungnickel, Roswitha; Diegelmann, Sören; Kleber, Jörg; Kähne, Thilo; Gerber, Bertram

    2015-05-13

    Adverse life events can induce two kinds of memory with opposite valence, dependent on timing: "negative" memories for stimuli preceding them and "positive" memories for stimuli experienced at the moment of "relief." Such punishment memory and relief memory are found in insects, rats, and man. For example, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) avoid an odor after odor-shock training ("forward conditioning" of the odor), whereas after shock-odor training ("backward conditioning" of the odor) they approach it. Do these timing-dependent associative processes share molecular determinants? We focus on the role of Synapsin, a conserved presynaptic phosphoprotein regulating the balance between the reserve pool and the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. We find that a lack of Synapsin leaves task-relevant sensory and motor faculties unaffected. In contrast, both punishment memory and relief memory scores are reduced. These defects reflect a true lessening of associative memory strength, as distortions in nonassociative processing (e.g., susceptibility to handling, adaptation, habituation, sensitization), discrimination ability, and changes in the time course of coincidence detection can be ruled out as alternative explanations. Reductions in punishment- and relief-memory strength are also observed upon an RNAi-mediated knock-down of Synapsin, and are rescued both by acutely restoring Synapsin and by locally restoring it in the mushroom bodies of mutant flies. Thus, both punishment memory and relief memory require the Synapsin protein and in this sense share genetic and molecular determinants. We note that corresponding molecular commonalities between punishment memory and relief memory in humans would constrain pharmacological attempts to selectively interfere with excessive associative punishment memories, e.g., after traumatic experiences.

  7. A sociological perspective on public support for capital punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C W; Foster, S C

    1975-07-01

    Conceptualizations of public support for the death penalty that suggest that punitiveness, desire for vengenance, authoritarianism, polital conservatism, or other characteristics generally held in low esteem by many in the academic and research communities are the primary or most significant predictors of citizen responses to this issue are challenged. It is proposed instead that fear of crime, perceptions of increasing crime rates, a belief in the efficacy of punishment as a means of deterrence, and a willingness to employ punishment as a response to criminality have a far more important causal role than has previously been recognized.

  8. VARIOUS TECHNIQUES OF INDIVIDUALISING PUNISHMENTS IN THE NEW CRIMINAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION IFRIM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the new criminal code provisions in relation to criminal law in force, the new Penal Code has dropped explicit mention, as criteria of individualization of punishment, the general provisions of Part penalty and limits set out in the Special Part of Penal Code, as and causes that aggravate or mitigate criminal liability. Also, the new Penal Code was established several general criteria of individualization of punishment on which the judge can make a clearer assessment of the social significance of the individual offense and offender.

  9. The risks and alternatives to physical punishment use with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateah, Christine A; Secco, M Loretta; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2003-01-01

    Despite strong evidence of negative developmental outcomes resulting from the use of physical (or corporal) punishment with children, its use by parents and other caregivers is common. Such negative outcomes include child aggression, mental health issues, and physical abuse. Health care providers have a responsibility to promote disciplinary strategies that facilitate positive parent-children relationships and keep children's self-esteem and bodies healthy and intact. The incidence, factors, and outcomes associated with parental use of physical punishment are reviewed and useful advice for parents and age-appropriate disciplinary strategies and resources are outlined for the various stages of child development from infancy to school age.

  10. Corporal Punishment in Schools and Fundamental Human Rights: A South African Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsloo, Justus

    In many western countries, corporal punishment has been abolished as a form of punishment in criminal trials and in schools. Under South African common law, persons entitled to enforce discipline may inflict corporal punishment within certain guidelines established by the Supreme Court. For the first time in the Republic of South Africa (RSA), the…

  11. Indirect reciprocity provides only a narrow margin of efficiency for costly punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Iwasa, Yoh; Nowak, Martin A

    2009-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a key mechanism for the evolution of human cooperation. Our behaviour towards other people depends not only on what they have done to us but also on what they have done to others. Indirect reciprocity works through reputation. The standard model of indirect reciprocity offers a binary choice: people can either cooperate or defect. Cooperation implies a cost for the donor and a benefit for the recipient. Defection has no cost and yields no benefit. Currently there is considerable interest in studying the effect of costly (or altruistic) punishment on human behaviour. Punishment implies a cost for the punished person. Costly punishment means that the punisher also pays a cost. It has been suggested that costly punishment between individuals can promote cooperation. Here we study the role of costly punishment in an explicit model of indirect reciprocity. We analyse all social norms, which depend on the action of the donor and the reputation of the recipient. We allow errors in assigning reputation and study gossip as a mechanism for establishing coherence. We characterize all strategies that allow the evolutionary stability of cooperation. Some of those strategies use costly punishment; others do not. We find that punishment strategies typically reduce the average payoff of the population. Consequently, there is only a small parameter region where costly punishment leads to an efficient equilibrium. In most cases the population does better by not using costly punishment. The efficient strategy for indirect reciprocity is to withhold help for defectors rather than punishing them.

  12. Corporal Punishment in the State of Louisiana: A Descriptive Study of Policies and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Mary R.

    2014-01-01

    Louisiana is currently one of the 19 states in the United States that still allow the use of corporal punishment in public schools. The research questions that drove this study explored Louisiana-published court cases involving corporal punishment in public schools, district policies regarding the use of corporal punishment, reported instances of…

  13. Corporal Punishment in U.S. Public Schools: A Continuing Challenge for School Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupper, David R.; Montgomery Dingus, Amy E.

    2008-01-01

    Although corporal punishment has been banned in 29 states, more than a million cases of corporal punishment in U.S. schools continue to be reported annually, with states located in the southeastern and southwestern United States accounting for the vast majority of instances of corporal punishment. This article provides an overview of corporal…

  14. Does insurance against punishment undermine cooperation in the evolution of public goods games?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jianlei; Chu, Tianguang; Weissing, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    In a public goods game, cooperation can be a stable outcome if defectors are facing efficient punishment. In some public goods systems, punishment is undermined by an insurance system where speculators buy a policy that sequentially covers all punishment costs. Here, we study a simple model to inves

  15. Enactment of third-party punishment by four-year-olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben eKenward

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available When prompted, preschoolers advocate punishment for moral transgressions against third parties, but little is known about whether and how they might act out such punishment. In this study, adult demonstrators enacted doll stories in which a perpetrator child doll made an unprovoked attack on a victim child doll, after which an adult doll punished either the perpetrator (consistent punishment or victim (inconsistent punishment. When asked to help retell the story, given free choice of their own preferred actions for the adult doll, four-year-olds (N = 32 were influenced by the demonstrated choice of target when selecting a target for punishment or admonishment. This influence was weak following inconsistent punishment, however, because the participants tended to change the story by punishing or admonishing the perpetrator when the demonstrator had punished the victim. Four-year-olds’ tendency to select a moral rule violator as a target for punishment is therefore stronger than their tendency to copy the specific actions of adults, which itself is known to be very strong. The evidence suggests that four-year-olds’ enactment of punishment is at least partially based on a belief that antisocial actions deserve to be punished.

  16. A Methodology for Distinguishing between Extinction and Punishment Effects Associated with Response Blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C.; Iwata, Brian A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a method for distinguishing between extinction and punishment effects. In extinction and punishment, different schedules of reinforcement or punishment are in effect when a given proportion of responses is blocked. Response patterns in treatment of hand mouthing in an adult with profound mental retardation suggest that a…

  17. Physical Punishment and Signs of Mental Distress in Normal Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachar, Eytan; Canetti, Laura; Bonne, Omer; DeNour, Atara Kaplan; Shalev, Arieh Y.

    1997-01-01

    Examines signs of mental distress in the general population of normal adolescents. Results, based on 871 Israeli high school students, indicate that greater physical punishment was associated with higher levels of psychiatric symptoms and lower general well-being. Results persisted after controlling for parental attitudes and socioeconomic status.…

  18. Sex, attractiveness, and third-party punishment in fairness consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Social evaluation of others is often influenced by the physical attractiveness of the person being judged, leading to either a beauty premium or penalty depending on the circumstances. Here we asked Chinese participants to act as an interest-free third party in a dictator game and to evaluate the fairness level of monetary allocation by attractive and less attractive proposers of the same or opposite sex. We also instructed participants to express their willingness to punish the proposers by using a visual analogue scale. Results confirmed that the reasonableness evaluation was mainly affected by the reasonableness of offers. However, participants' intention to punish the proposers was affected by the level of reasonableness in the asset distribution and by both the sex and attractiveness of the proposers. Overall, male proposers were punished more severely than female proposers. Moreover, the same-sex proposers were punished more severely than opposite-sex proposers when they were physically attractive; this pattern was reversed when the proposers were less physically attractive. These results demonstrate social responses following an individual's unfair asset distribution can be affected by both social norms and the personal characteristics of the individual.

  19. Sex, attractiveness, and third-party punishment in fairness consideration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    Full Text Available Social evaluation of others is often influenced by the physical attractiveness of the person being judged, leading to either a beauty premium or penalty depending on the circumstances. Here we asked Chinese participants to act as an interest-free third party in a dictator game and to evaluate the fairness level of monetary allocation by attractive and less attractive proposers of the same or opposite sex. We also instructed participants to express their willingness to punish the proposers by using a visual analogue scale. Results confirmed that the reasonableness evaluation was mainly affected by the reasonableness of offers. However, participants' intention to punish the proposers was affected by the level of reasonableness in the asset distribution and by both the sex and attractiveness of the proposers. Overall, male proposers were punished more severely than female proposers. Moreover, the same-sex proposers were punished more severely than opposite-sex proposers when they were physically attractive; this pattern was reversed when the proposers were less physically attractive. These results demonstrate social responses following an individual's unfair asset distribution can be affected by both social norms and the personal characteristics of the individual.

  20. Corporal punishment in South African schools: a neglected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    day-to-day running of schools but they have a key role to play in po- ... Examining corporal punishment from an historical perspective ... gang invasions, assaults and levels of successful prosecution of ... volvement would reduce home-school dissonance — a factor held to ..... The self-managing school project: A review of.

  1. Rewards and punishments, goal-directed behavior and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressler, Newton

    2004-03-01

    A parsimonious account of consciousness is given in which it emerges as a direct consequence of basic neural processes without the necessity of any higher order system. In this model, pleasant or unpleasant conscious feelings of various stimuli in the environment stem from their higher order associations to innate rewards or punishments. When a conditioned stimulus (CS) is associated with a reward, it acquires pleasant feelings due to the temporal correlation of the activations representing its sensory features with those representing innate visceral reward acquisition processes. When the CS is associated with the punishment, it acquires unpleasant feelings due to the correlation of its sensory features with the innate visceral inhibition of punishment acquisition processes. The correlations involve coherent activity between the sensory cortex, the limbic system, the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex, and more lateral prefrontal areas where stimuli can be incorporated into working memory. A conscious act involves responses (or attempts to improve the environment) made on the basis of the feelings of such stimuli. Covert memory scans, in which comparisons are made of the reward and punishment associations of the outcomes of previous responses, are related to the motivations and attention behind the conscious selection of a current response. This model appears to fit together various empirical observations. Its relations to some higher or more abstract mental processes, and some evolutionary implications are discussed.

  2. ACID SPLASH: QISAS PUNISHMENT TO BE IMPOSED AGAINST THE OFFENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Farid Huzaimi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In Islamic countries, there are cases where a court has given punishment to an acid splasher to be punished by acid as well. In 2004, an Iranian woman was blinded with acid by her suitor for turning down his marriage proposal. Four years later, the Iranian court sentenced the offender to be blinded in both eyes for taking away the woman’s sight under the retribution principle permitted under Iran’s Islamic law. This case’s decision has regularly been objected as the punishment seems inhuman. This paper will discuss in detail the nature of the offence and the punishment imposed in Islamic perspective. Terdapat beberapa kasus di negara-negara Islam di mana pengadilan memberikan hukuman pembalasan terhadap terdakwa yang menyiram cairan asam ke tubuh orang lain. Pada tahun 2004, seorang perempuan Iran dibutakan dengan asam oleh peminangnya setelah si perempuan menolak lamaran pria tersebut. Empat tahun setelahnya, pengadilan di Iran memutuskan untuk menghukum pria tersebut dengan hukuman yang sama, yaitu dibutakan dengan asam. Hukuman ini dijatuhkan dengan dasar asas retribusi menurut hukum Islam di Iran. Putusan hakim dalam kasus ini telah menuai kritik karena hukuman tersebut dianggap tidak berperikemanusiaan. Artikel ini akan membahas lebih dalam tentang perbuatan menyiram cairan asam dan hukuman pembalasan menurut perspektif Islam.

  3. "Split" Character Studies in "Crime and Punishment." [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Mary

    Based on Fyodor Dostoevsky's novel "Crime and Punishment," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that: a close study of the characters of a literary classic will yield important clues to an understanding of the work as a whole; an effective analysis of stylistic devices depends upon selection and interpretation…

  4. The Learning Theory Model of Punishment: Implications for Delinquency Deterrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    1983-01-01

    Presents five principles which yield predictions about deterrence of illegal acts by the use of negative sanctions in the form of testable hypotheses, including intensity, temporal proximity, availability of reward, schedule of delivery, and availability of alternative behaviors. Suggests application of any principle of punishment is premature…

  5. The co-evolution of fairness preferences and costly punishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Hetzer

    Full Text Available We study the co-evolutionary emergence of fairness preferences in the form of other-regarding behavior and its effect on the origination of costly punishment behavior in public good games. Our approach closely combines empirical results from three experiments with an evolutionary simulation model. In this way, we try to fill a gap between the evolutionary theoretical literature on cooperation and punishment on the one hand and the empirical findings from experimental economics on the other hand. As a principal result, we show that the evolution among interacting agents inevitably favors a sense for fairness in the form of "disadvantageous inequity aversion". The evolutionary dominance and stability of disadvantageous inequity aversion is demonstrated by enabling agents to co-evolve with different self- and other-regarding preferences in a competitive environment with limited resources. Disadvantageous inequity aversion leads to the emergence of costly ("altruistic" punishment behavior and quantitatively explains the level of punishment observed in contemporary lab experiments performed on subjects with a western culture. Our findings corroborate, complement, and interlink the experimental and theoretical literature that has shown the importance of other-regarding behavior in various decision settings.

  6. Corporal punishment in elementary education: views of Barbadian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S; Payne, M A

    1994-04-01

    Most previous research has suggested that children often express little unconditional disapproval of the use of corporal punishment in schools. However, this might be expected to change when pupils become aware that such treatment is no longer permitted in many countries, or hear it labelled as "abuse." This paper reports on research conducted in elementary schools in the Caribbean island of Barbados, where head teachers (or their authorized deputies) are still permitted by law to use corporal punishment. Findings indicated that approximately three-quarters of pupils surveyed still approved use of corporal punishment with their own age group, although their comments also suggested that a considerable amount of routine (and illegal) "flogging" or "lashing" by regular classroom teachers occurred, which many wished to see stopped. The growing risk of clashes between parents and schools was also identified. While this and other recent studies in Barbados provide little evidence of support for the total abolition of corporal punishment within the educational system, it is hoped that research may have some role to play in exerting pressure on schools to eliminate some of their more ritualized and pedagogically counterproductive practices.

  7. Maternal Violence, Victimization, and Child Physical Punishment in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J.; Silvestre, Eva A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined whether mothers' experience of violence was a risk factor for physical punishment. Methods: Data were derived from the nationally representative 2000 Peru Demographic and Family Health Survey. Participants were 12,601 currently married women who were living with biological children aged 0-17 years and were…

  8. Reward, Punishment, and Cooperation : A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balliet, Daniel; Mulder, Laetitia B.; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    How effective are rewards (for cooperation) and punishment (for noncooperation) as tools to promote cooperation in social dilemmas or situations when immediate self-interest and longer term collective interest conflict? What variables can promote the impact of these incentives? Although such

  9. Reward, Punishment, and Cooperation: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliet, Daniel; Mulder, Laetitia B.; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2011-01-01

    How effective are rewards (for cooperation) and punishment (for noncooperation) as tools to promote cooperation in social dilemmas or situations when immediate self-interest and longer term collective interest conflict? What variables can promote the impact of these incentives? Although such questions have been examined, social and behavioral…

  10. Close up on Capital Punishment: Challenging Students' Ideas of Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christopher W.

    2012-01-01

    Capital punishment, still practiced in many countries around the world, represents a highly controversial human rights issue. As citizens of the world, the existence of a diversity of death penalties challenges some of the most cherished and universal values. For social studies educators seeking to move their students toward finding their voice as…

  11. Regulative Discourses of Primary Schooling in Greece: Memories of Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimaki, Anna; Koustourakis, Gerasimos; Vergidis, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of discipline and power within the institution of the school constitute, in part, the relationship between society and childhood. This article traces the relationship between official regulative discourses of control and punishment practices over students in primary school. It focuses on the memories of schooling of first-year…

  12. Latino/a Student Misbehavior and School Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Shekarkhar, Zahra

    2011-01-01

    Although Latino/as are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. student population, Latino/a youth face a number of educational hurdles, such as disproportionate school punishment. This topic is particularly relevant today in the midst of the current social, political, and economic debate over the influence of Latino/a immigration in the US school…

  13. The Experience of Corporal Punishment in Schools, 1890-1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Corporal punishment was an important part of the educational experience of many children educated during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It has often been assumed that it was an uncontroversial and widely accepted means of maintaining school discipline. This article questions these assumptions, using autobiographical accounts produced by…

  14. Corporal Punishment in Private Schools: The Case of Kathmandu, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Jeevan; Park, Sae-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate the situation of corporal punishment which is being practiced in Nepalese schools going against new policies that promote the non-violence teaching. It was based on original qualitative study of one private school of Kathmandu (the capital city of Nepal) having more than 2000 students and 100 teachers.…

  15. EFFECTS OF REWARD AND PUNISHMENT ON STUTTERING IN CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JENSEN, PAUL J.

    THE STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE WHETHER OR NOT THERE ARE SIGNIFICANTLY GREATER LATENCY AND RESPONSE DURATIONS IN CHILDREN'S SPEECH AS A RESULT OF VERBAL PUNISHMENT COMPARED TO REWARD, AND WHETHER THE EFFECTS ARE GREATER IN YOUNGER OR OLDER CHILDREN AND IN BOYS OR GIRLS. SUBJECTS WERE 160 BOYS AND GIRLS FROM THIRD AND SIXTH GRADES. DURING A…

  16. Screening for Harsh Punishment in a Pediatric Primary Care Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelman, Susan; Dubowitz, Howard; Lane, Wendy; Prescott, Leslie; Meyer, Walter; Tracy, J. Kathleen; Kim, Jeongeun

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine: (1) the prevalence of harsh punishment among parents in a pediatric clinic, and (2) the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and stability of a brief screening measure. Methods: A subset of families involved in a study of child maltreatment prevention were recruited for this study. Two items in a parent screening…

  17. Harsh Corporal Punishment of Yemeni Children: Occurrence, Type and Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyahri, Abdullah; Goodman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the occurrence, type and associations of harsh corporal punishment in Yemen. Methods: Caregiver and teacher reports were obtained on 1,196 Yemeni 7-10-year olds obtained by systematic random sampling of children in the 1st to 4th grades of urban and rural schools. Caregivers (86% mothers) reported on disciplinary practices,…

  18. The Punitive Paradox: Desert and the Compulsion to Punish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clear, Todd R.

    1996-01-01

    Explores the concept of a "just deserts" justice paradox in which carrying out a deserved penalty breaches the values that undergird the theory of just deserts. Examines whether it might ever be proper, from a desert perspective, to choose not to impose a deserved punishment. (KW)

  19. Electrophysiological ratio markers for the balance between reward and punishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Honk, E.J. van

    2005-01-01

    It has been argued that prototypical forms of psychopathology result from an imbalance in reward and punishment systems. Recent studies suggest that the ratios between slower and faster waves of the electroencephalogram (EEG) index this motivational balance and might therefore have diagnostic value

  20. Conection between physical punishment of children and their agressive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Torlak

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim Investigate influence of physical punishment of children to their aggressive, delinquent or asocialbehavior.Methods Data for this research were collected on a sample of 284 primary school students from SarajevoCanton being 11 to 14 years of age. Children filled in a Questionnaire for Students (designed by theauthor of this paper, and a Questionnaire for Youth YSR 6-18. Class teachers filled in a Questionnairefor Teachers, TRF 6-18.Results There was a statistically significant difference between children that were physically punishedon a scale of aggressiveness and delinquent behavior in favor of the children that were not physicallypunished (YSR-p=,016,TRF-p=,017. Physically punished children have shown tendency to aggressivebehavior and other behaviors ranging from running away from home and school and tendency of usinglies, up to delinquency (YSR-p=,040, TRF-p=,049. Correlation between negative attitude of parentstowards children including physical punishment and increased incidence of externalization of problemsin children is confirmed (YSR-p=046, TRF-p=007. Children that were physically punished are demonstratinghigher level of aggressiveness and delinquent behavior.Conclusion In addition to legal regulations, educational activities with parents and children are necessary,as well as teachers whose involvement is obligatory.

  1. Reward, Punishment, and Cooperation: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliet, Daniel; Mulder, Laetitia B.; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2011-01-01

    How effective are rewards (for cooperation) and punishment (for noncooperation) as tools to promote cooperation in social dilemmas or situations when immediate self-interest and longer term collective interest conflict? What variables can promote the impact of these incentives? Although such questions have been examined, social and behavioral…

  2. Reward, Punishment, and Cooperation : A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balliet, Daniel; Mulder, Laetitia B.; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2011-01-01

    How effective are rewards (for cooperation) and punishment (for noncooperation) as tools to promote cooperation in social dilemmas or situations when immediate self-interest and longer term collective interest conflict? What variables can promote the impact of these incentives? Although such questio

  3. Discriminative Control of Punished Stereotyped Behavior in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Shannon S.; Anderson, Cynthia M.; Doughty, Adam H.; Williams, Dean C.; Saunders, Kathryn J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to establish discriminative control of responding by an antecedent stimulus using differential punishment because the results of past studies on this topic have been mixed. Three adults with mental retardation who exhibited stereotypy not maintained by social consequences (i.e., automatic reinforcement)…

  4. Parenting Without Punishment: Making Problem Behavior Work for You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, John W.

    1997-01-01

    Details the concepts of reinforcement and punishment and their roles in parenting. Claims that responding only to a child's negative behavior is problematic. Disputes contrary opinions of reinforcement techniques and outlines the importance of teaching and reinforcing desirable behavior. Provides examples as illustrations. (RJM)

  5. Heightened sensitivity to punishment and reward in anorexia nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glashouwer, Klaske A; Bloot, Lotte; Veenstra, Esther M; Franken, Ingmar H A; de Jong, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate reinforcement sensitivity in anorexia nervosa (AN). It was tested whether self-reported punishment (PS) and reward sensitivity (RS) differed between adolescents with AN and healthy controls, and/or between AN-subtypes. In addition, the predictive v

  6. Serotonergic neurons signal reward and punishment on multiple timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremiah Y; Amoroso, Mackenzie W; Uchida, Naoshige

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin's function in the brain is unclear. One challenge in testing the numerous hypotheses about serotonin's function has been observing the activity of identified serotonergic neurons in animals engaged in behavioral tasks. We recorded the activity of dorsal raphe neurons while mice experienced a task in which rewards and punishments varied across blocks of trials. We ‘tagged’ serotonergic neurons with the light-sensitive protein channelrhodopsin-2 and identified them based on their responses to light. We found three main features of serotonergic neuron activity: (1) a large fraction of serotonergic neurons modulated their tonic firing rates over the course of minutes during reward vs punishment blocks; (2) most were phasically excited by punishments; and (3) a subset was phasically excited by reward-predicting cues. By contrast, dopaminergic neurons did not show firing rate changes across blocks of trials. These results suggest that serotonergic neurons signal information about reward and punishment on multiple timescales. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06346.001 PMID:25714923

  7. Effects of punishment in a mobile population playing the prisoner's dilemma game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Daniel R; Fort, Joaquim

    2011-12-01

    We deal with a system of prisoner's dilemma players undergoing continuous motion in a two-dimensional plane. In contrast to previous work, we introduce altruistic punishment after the game. We find punishing only a few of the cooperator-defector interactions is enough to lead the system to a cooperative state in environments where otherwise defection would take over the population. This happens even with soft nonsocial punishment (where both cooperators and defectors punish other players, a behavior observed in many human populations). For high enough mobilities or temptations to defect, low rates of social punishment can no longer avoid the breakdown of cooperation.

  8. Effects of punishment in a mobile population playing the prisoner's dilemma game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Daniel R.; Fort, Joaquim

    2011-12-01

    We deal with a system of prisoner's dilemma players undergoing continuous motion in a two-dimensional plane. In contrast to previous work, we introduce altruistic punishment after the game. We find punishing only a few of the cooperator-defector interactions is enough to lead the system to a cooperative state in environments where otherwise defection would take over the population. This happens even with soft nonsocial punishment (where both cooperators and defectors punish other players, a behavior observed in many human populations). For high enough mobilities or temptations to defect, low rates of social punishment can no longer avoid the breakdown of cooperation.

  9. Physical punishment of children: can we continue to accept the status quo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Kim

    2011-08-01

    All children require discipline, although physical punishment is just one form of discipline. Parental use of physical punishment is inter-generational. There is now evidence that physical punishment of children is not only less effective than other forms of discipline but can also lead to aggressive behaviour in childhood and adult life. Twenty-nine countries, including New Zealand, have laws against physical punishment in the home. Australian attitudes are slowly changing in favour of less use of physical punishment, but there is a long way to go. As advocates for children, paediatricians should not be content to accept the status quo.

  10. Sanctions as honest signals--the evolution of pool punishment by public sanctioning institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, Sarah; Hilbe, Christian; Blasius, Bernd; Traulsen, Arne

    2014-09-07

    In many species, mutual cooperation is stabilized by forms of policing and peer punishment: if cheaters are punished, there is a strong selective pressure to cooperate. Most human societies have complemented, and sometimes even replaced, such peer punishment mechanisms with pool punishment, where punishment is outsourced to central institutions such as the police. Even before free-riding occurs, such institutions require investments, which could serve as costly signals. Here, we show with a game theoretical model that this signaling effect in turn can be crucial for the evolution of punishment institutions: In the absence of such signals, pool punishment is only stable with second-order punishment and can only evolve when individuals have the freedom not to take part in any interaction. With such signals, individuals can opportunistically adjust their behavior, which promotes the evolution of stable pool punishment even in situations where no one can stand aside. Thus, the human propensity to react opportunistically to credible punishment threats is often sufficient to establish stable punishment institutions and to maintain high levels of cooperation.

  11. Corporal punishment-related ocular injuries in Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwakemi Adegbehingbe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the contribution of corporal punishment to ocular morbidity and visual impairment in Nigerian children. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted of all patients aged 0-15 years seen with ocular injuries over a four year period. Those who sustained ocular injuries during the administration of corporal punishment were further studied. Relevant information was documented using a semistructured questionnaire. Data was analyzed by simple descriptive statistics using SPSS statistical package version 10. Results: A total of 186 children were seen within the study period. Eighty-nine (47.8% had ocular injuries and 27 (30.3% had ocular injuries resulting from corporal punishment. Of the latter group, eighteen were males and nine were females. Their ages ranged from 3-15 years (mean = 8.5 ± 2.4 years. Corporal punishment-associated injuries occurred most commonly as seen in 17 (63% of our study population who were aged 7-12 years. These 27 cases of injuries were sustained in the schools: 13 (48.2%, homes: eight (29.6%, market place: three (11.1%, workshop: two (7.4% and worship houses: one (3.7%. A stick was the object mostly implicated in causing ocular injuries in 13 (48.2% followed by a belt in five (18.5% and a whip in four (14.8%. Severe visual impairment occurred in two (7.4% patients while blindness occurred in three (11.1% patients. Conclusion: Corporal punishment is a major cause of ocular morbidity and blindness in Nigerian children.

  12. Costly punishment and cooperation in the evolutionary snowdrift game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Ji, M.; Yap, Yee Jiun; Zheng, Da-Fang; Hui, P. M.

    2011-05-01

    The role of punishments in promoting cooperation is an important issue. We incorporate costly punishments into the snowdrift game (SG) by introducing a third punishing (P) character, and study the effects. The punishers, who carry basically a cooperative (C) character, are willing to pay a cost α so as to punish a non-cooperative (D) opponent by β. Depending on the initial fractions of the characters, α, β, and the cost-to-benefit ratio r in the SG, the three-character system evolves into a steady state consisting either only of C and P characters or only of C and D characters, in a well-mixed population. The former situation represents an enhancement in cooperation relative to the SG, while the latter is similar to the SG. The dynamics in approaching these different steady states are found to be different. Analytically, the key features in the dynamics and the steady states observed in simulations are captured by a set of differential equations. The sensitivity to the initial distribution of characters is studied by depicting the flow in a phase portrait and analyzing the nature of fixed points. The analysis also shows the role of P-character agents in preventing a system from invasion by D-character agents. Starting from a population consisting only of C and P agents, a D-character agent intended to invade the system cannot survive when the initial fraction of P agents is greater than r/β. Our model, defined intentionally as a simulation algorithm, can be readily generalized to incorporate many interesting effects, such as those in a networked population.

  13. A strategic interaction model of punishment favoring contagion of honest behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Cremene

    Full Text Available The punishment effect on social behavior is analyzed within the strategic interaction framework of Cellular Automata and computational Evolutionary Game Theory. A new game, called Social Honesty (SH, is proposed. The SH game is analyzed in spatial configurations. Probabilistic punishment is used as a dishonesty deterrence mechanism. In order to capture the intrinsic uncertainty of social environments, payoffs are described as random variables. New dynamics, with a new relation between punishment probability and punishment severity, are revealed. Punishment probability proves to be more important than punishment severity in guiding convergence towards honesty as predominant behavior. This result is confirmed by empirical evidence and reported experiments. Critical values and transition intervals for punishment probability and severity are identified and analyzed. Clusters of honest or dishonest players emerge spontaneously from the very first rounds of interaction and are determinant for the future dynamics and outcomes.

  14. Sustainable institutionalized punishment requires elimination of second-order free-riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perc, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    Although empirical and theoretical studies affirm that punishment can elevate collaborative efforts, its emergence and stability remain elusive. By peer-punishment the sanctioning is something an individual elects to do depending on the strategies in its neighborhood. The consequences of unsustainable efforts are therefore local. By pool-punishment, on the other hand, where resources for sanctioning are committed in advance and at large, the notion of sustainability has greater significance. In a population with free-riders, punishers must be strong in numbers to keep the "punishment pool" from emptying. Failure to do so renders the concept of institutionalized sanctioning futile. We show that pool-punishment in structured populations is sustainable, but only if second-order free-riders are sanctioned as well, and to a such degree that they cannot prevail. A discontinuous phase transition leads to an outbreak of sustainability when punishers subvert second-order free-riders in the competition against defectors.

  15. Parental Use of Corporal Punishment in Europe: Intersection between Public Health and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    duRivage, Nathalie; Keyes, Katherine; Leray, Emmanuelle; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Koç, Ceren; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Fermanian, Christophe; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane

    2015-01-01

    Studies have linked the use of corporal punishment of children to the development of mental health disorders. Despite the recommendation of international governing bodies for a complete ban of the practice, there is little European data available on the effects of corporal punishment on mental health and the influence of laws banning corporal punishment. Using data from the School Children Mental Health Europe survey, the objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the prevalence and legal status of corporal punishment across six European countries and to evaluate the association between parental use of corporal punishment and children’s mental health. The study found that odds of having parents who reported using occasional to frequent corporal punishment were 1.7 times higher in countries where its use is legal, controlling for socio-demographic factors. Children with parents who reported using corporal punishment had higher rates of both externalized and internalized mental health disorders. PMID:25674788

  16. Punishment has a lasting impact on error-related brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesel, Anja; Weinberg, Anna; Endrass, Tanja; Kathmann, Norbert; Hajcak, Greg

    2012-02-01

    The current study examined whether punishment has direct and lasting effects on error-related brain activity, and whether this effect is larger with increasing trait anxiety. Participants were told that errors on a flanker task would be punished in some blocks but not others. Punishment was applied following 50% of errors in punished blocks during the first half of the experiment (i.e., acquisition), but never in the second half (i.e., extinction). The ERN was enhanced in the punished blocks in both experimental phases--this enhancement remained stable throughout the extinction phase. More anxious individuals were characterized by larger punishment-related modulations in the ERN. The study reveals evidence for lasting, punishment-based modulations of the ERN that increase with anxiety. These data suggest avenues for research to examine more specific learning-related mechanisms that link anxiety to overactive error monitoring.

  17. A strategic interaction model of punishment favoring contagion of honest behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremene, Marcel; Dumitrescu, D; Cremene, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    The punishment effect on social behavior is analyzed within the strategic interaction framework of Cellular Automata and computational Evolutionary Game Theory. A new game, called Social Honesty (SH), is proposed. The SH game is analyzed in spatial configurations. Probabilistic punishment is used as a dishonesty deterrence mechanism. In order to capture the intrinsic uncertainty of social environments, payoffs are described as random variables. New dynamics, with a new relation between punishment probability and punishment severity, are revealed. Punishment probability proves to be more important than punishment severity in guiding convergence towards honesty as predominant behavior. This result is confirmed by empirical evidence and reported experiments. Critical values and transition intervals for punishment probability and severity are identified and analyzed. Clusters of honest or dishonest players emerge spontaneously from the very first rounds of interaction and are determinant for the future dynamics and outcomes.

  18. Parental use of corporal punishment in Europe: intersection between public health and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    duRivage, Nathalie; Keyes, Katherine; Leray, Emmanuelle; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Koç, Ceren; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Fermanian, Christophe; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane

    2015-01-01

    Studies have linked the use of corporal punishment of children to the development of mental health disorders. Despite the recommendation of international governing bodies for a complete ban of the practice, there is little European data available on the effects of corporal punishment on mental health and the influence of laws banning corporal punishment. Using data from the School Children Mental Health Europe survey, the objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the prevalence and legal status of corporal punishment across six European countries and to evaluate the association between parental use of corporal punishment and children's mental health. The study found that odds of having parents who reported using occasional to frequent corporal punishment were 1.7 times higher in countries where its use is legal, controlling for socio-demographic factors. Children with parents who reported using corporal punishment had higher rates of both externalized and internalized mental health disorders.

  19. Sustainable institutionalized punishment requires elimination of second-order free-riders

    CERN Document Server

    Perc, Matjaz

    2012-01-01

    Although empirical and theoretical studies affirm that punishment can elevate collaborative efforts, its emergence and stability remain elusive. By peer-punishment the sanctioning is something an individual elects to do depending on the strategies in its neighborhood. The consequences of unsustainable efforts are therefore local. By pool-punishment, on the other hand, where resources for sanctioning are committed in advance and at large, the notion of sustainability has greater significance. In a population with free-riders, punishers must be strong in numbers to keep the "punishment pool" from emptying. Failure to do so renders the concept of institutionalized sanctioning futile. We show that pool-punishment in structured populations is sustainable, but only if second-order free-riders are sanctioned as well, and to a such degree that they cannot prevail. A discontinuous phase transition leads to an outbreak of sustainability when punishers subvert second-order free-riders in the competition against defector...

  20. Sustainable institutionalized punishment requires elimination of second-order free-riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perc, Matjaž

    2012-03-01

    Although empirical and theoretical studies affirm that punishment can elevate collaborative efforts, its emergence and stability remain elusive. By peer-punishment the sanctioning is something an individual elects to do depending on the strategies in its neighborhood. The consequences of unsustainable efforts are therefore local. By pool-punishment, on the other hand, where resources for sanctioning are committed in advance and at large, the notion of sustainability has greater significance. In a population with free-riders, punishers must be strong in numbers to keep the ``punishment pool'' from emptying. Failure to do so renders the concept of institutionalized sanctioning futile. We show that pool-punishment in structured populations is sustainable, but only if second-order free-riders are sanctioned as well, and to a such degree that they cannot prevail. A discontinuous phase transition leads to an outbreak of sustainability when punishers subvert second-order free-riders in the competition against defectors.

  1. Analog study investigating diary assessments of rewards and punishments for emotional states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Shudo, Yusuke; Sakai, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    Behavioral Activation is a treatment for depression relying on rewards from activities; but it is possible that the effects of punishments should also be considered, as should its generalizability to the healthy population. Effect of rewards and punishments on emotional states and depression were investigated by using the daily diary method. Participants (7 men, 21 women; M age = 19.4 yr.) recorded their daily activities and the intensity of rewards and punishments accompanying each activity for one week. Positive and negative affects of participants were assessed using the Japanese version of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both rewards and punishments predicted depressive symptoms. Moreover, rewards (but not punishments) predicted positive affect, whereas punishments predicted negative affects (and rewards did not). These preliminary results suggest that the effects of both rewards and punishments given for activities should be considered in models of behavioral activation.

  2. Parental use of corporal punishment in Europe: intersection between public health and policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie duRivage

    Full Text Available Studies have linked the use of corporal punishment of children to the development of mental health disorders. Despite the recommendation of international governing bodies for a complete ban of the practice, there is little European data available on the effects of corporal punishment on mental health and the influence of laws banning corporal punishment. Using data from the School Children Mental Health Europe survey, the objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the prevalence and legal status of corporal punishment across six European countries and to evaluate the association between parental use of corporal punishment and children's mental health. The study found that odds of having parents who reported using occasional to frequent corporal punishment were 1.7 times higher in countries where its use is legal, controlling for socio-demographic factors. Children with parents who reported using corporal punishment had higher rates of both externalized and internalized mental health disorders.

  3. Carry a big stick, or no stick at all An experimental analysis of trust and capacity of punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Calabuig; Enrique Fatas; Gonzalo Olcina; Ismael Rodriguez-Lara

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effect of punishment in a trust game with endowment heterogeneity in which the investor may punish the allocator at a cost. Our results indicate that the effect of the punishment crucially depends on the investor’s capacity of punishment, that is measured in our experiment by the proportion of the allocator’s payoffs that the investor can destroy. We find that punishment fosters trust when the capacity of punishment is high (i.e., when the cost of punishing is relatively lo...

  4. Spare the rod and spoil the child. Is this a sensible justification for the use of punishment in child rearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, T A

    1994-12-01

    This paper examines the validity of the well-used proverb Spare the rod and spoil the child. To do this, the original form of the proverb from the Bible is compared with the modern form, and some significant differences are highlighted. The definition of punishment is considered, and the differences between punishment and corporal punishment are examined. Punishment is explored in some detail with attention given to the criteria that need to be satisfied in order for punishment to be effective. Discrepancies in the literature concerning these criteria are pointed out, making punishment a complex issue. The negative effects of punishment are significant with links to social problems such as teenage delinquency and violence. Reference is made to cultures where corporal punishment has been banned and the effects of this action. Given the problems associated with punishment programs, especially those being used in families, alternatives to punishment are discussed. Finally, an alternative form of the proverb to the current adaptation is offered.

  5. Is costly punishment altruistic? Exploring rejection of unfair offers in the Ultimatum Game in real-world altruists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brethel-Haurwitz, Kristin M; Stoycos, Sarah A; Cardinale, Elise M; Huebner, Bryce; Marsh, Abigail A

    2016-01-07

    In the Ultimatum Game (UG), incurring a cost to punish inequity is commonly termed altruistic punishment. This behaviour is thought to benefit others if the defector becomes more equitable in future interactions. However, clear connections between punishment in the UG and altruistic behaviours outside the laboratory are lacking. We tested the altruistic punishment hypothesis in a sample of extraordinarily altruistic adults, predicting that if punishing inequity is predictive of altruism more broadly, extraordinary altruists should punish more frequently. Results showed that punishment was not more prevalent in extraordinary altruists than controls. However, a self-reported altruism measure previously linked to peer evaluations but not behaviour, and on which extraordinary altruists and controls did not differ, did predict punishment. These findings support suggestions that altruistic punishment in the UG is better termed costly punishment and may be motivated by social, but not necessarily prosocial, concerns. Results also support prior suggestions that self-reported altruism may not reliably predict altruistic behaviour.

  6. I dare you to punish me-vendettas in games of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Fehl

    Full Text Available Everybody has heard of neighbours, who have been fighting over some minor topic for years. The fight goes back and forth, giving the neighbours a hard time. These kind of reciprocal punishments are known as vendettas and they are a cross-cultural phenomenon. In evolutionary biology, punishment is seen as a mechanism for maintaining cooperative behaviour. However, this notion of punishment excludes vendettas. Vendettas pose a special kind of evolutionary problem: they incur high costs on individuals, i.e. costs of punishing and costs of being punished, without any benefits. Theoretically speaking, punishment should be rare in dyadic relationships and vendettas would not evolve under natural selection. In contrast, punishment is assumed to be more efficient in group environments which then can pave the way for vendettas. Accordingly, we found that under the experimental conditions of a prisoner's dilemma game, human participants punished only rarely and vendettas are scarce. In contrast, we found that participants retaliated frequently in the group environment of a public goods game. They even engaged in cost-intense vendettas (i.e. continuous retaliation, especially when the first punishment was unjustified or ambiguous. Here, punishment was mainly targeted at defectors in the beginning, but provocations led to mushrooming of counter-punishments. Despite the counter-punishing behaviour, participants were able to enhance cooperation levels in the public goods game. Few participants even seemed to anticipate the outbreak of costly vendettas and delayed their punishment to the last possible moment. Overall, our results highlight the importance of different social environments while studying punishment as a cooperation-enhancing mechanism.

  7. Development of in-group favoritism in children's third-party punishment of selfishness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jillian J; McAuliffe, Katherine; Warneken, Felix

    2014-09-02

    When enforcing norms for cooperative behavior, human adults sometimes exhibit in-group bias. For example, third-party observers punish selfish behaviors committed by out-group members more harshly than similar behaviors committed by in-group members. Although evidence suggests that children begin to systematically punish selfish behavior around the age of 6 y, the development of in-group bias in their punishment remains unknown. Do children start off enforcing fairness norms impartially, or is norm enforcement biased from its emergence? How does bias change over development? Here, we created novel social groups in the laboratory and gave 6- and 8-year-olds the opportunity to engage in costly third-party punishment of selfish sharing behavior. We found that by age 6, punishment was already biased: Selfish resource allocations received more punishment when they were proposed by out-group members and when they disadvantaged in-group members. We also found that although costly punishment increased between ages 6 and 8, bias in punishment partially decreased. Although 8-y-olds also punished selfish out-group members more harshly, they were equally likely to punish on behalf of disadvantaged in-group and out-group members, perhaps reflecting efforts to enforce norms impartially. Taken together, our results suggest that norm enforcement is biased from its emergence, but that this bias can be partially overcome through developmental change.

  8. Temporal characteristics of the influence of punishment on perceptual decision making in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Helen; Biele, Guido; Heekeren, Hauke R; Philiastides, Marios G

    2013-02-27

    Perceptual decision making is the process by which information from sensory systems is combined and used to influence our behavior. In addition to the sensory input, this process can be affected by other factors, such as reward and punishment for correct and incorrect responses. To investigate the temporal dynamics of how monetary punishment influences perceptual decision making in humans, we collected electroencephalography (EEG) data during a perceptual categorization task whereby the punishment level for incorrect responses was parametrically manipulated across blocks of trials. Behaviorally, we observed improved accuracy for high relative to low punishment levels. Using multivariate linear discriminant analysis of the EEG, we identified multiple punishment-induced discriminating components with spatially distinct scalp topographies. Compared with components related to sensory evidence, components discriminating punishment levels appeared later in the trial, suggesting that punishment affects primarily late postsensory, decision-related processing. Crucially, the amplitude of these punishment components across participants was predictive of the size of the behavioral improvements induced by punishment. Finally, trial-by-trial changes in prestimulus oscillatory activity in the alpha and gamma bands were good predictors of the amplitude of these components. We discuss these findings in the context of increased motivation/attention, resulting from increases in punishment, which in turn yields improved decision-related processing.

  9. Corporal Punishment of Children in Nine Countries as a Function of Child Gender and Parent Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Lansford

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a global perspective on corporal punishment by examining differences between mothers' and fathers' use of corporal punishment with daughters and sons in nine countries. Methods. Interviews were conducted with 1398 mothers, 1146 fathers, and 1417 children (age range =7 to 10 years in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Results. Across the entire sample, 54% of girls and 58% of boys had experienced mild corporal punishment, and 13% of girls and 14% of boys had experienced severe corporal punishment by their parents or someone in their household in the last month. Seventeen percent of parents believed that the use of corporal punishment was necessary to rear the target child. Overall, boys were more frequently punished corporally than were girls, and mothers used corporal punishment more frequently than did fathers. There were significant differences across countries, with reports of corporal punishment use lowest in Sweden and highest in Kenya. Conclusion. This work establishes that the use of corporal punishment is widespread, and efforts to prevent corporal punishment from escalating into physical abuse should be commensurately widespread.

  10. If cooperation is likely punish mildly: insights from economic experiments based on the snowdrift game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Luo-Luo; Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila

    2013-01-01

    Punishment may deter antisocial behavior. Yet to punish is costly, and the costs often do not offset the gains that are due to elevated levels of cooperation. However, the effectiveness of punishment depends not only on how costly it is, but also on the circumstances defining the social dilemma. Using the snowdrift game as the basis, we have conducted a series of economic experiments to determine whether severe punishment is more effective than mild punishment. We have observed that severe punishment is not necessarily more effective, even if the cost of punishment is identical in both cases. The benefits of severe punishment become evident only under extremely adverse conditions, when to cooperate is highly improbable in the absence of sanctions. If cooperation is likely, mild punishment is not less effective and leads to higher average payoffs, and is thus the much preferred alternative. Presented results suggest that the positive effects of punishment stem not only from imposed fines, but may also have a psychological background. Small fines can do wonders in motivating us to chose cooperation over defection, but without the paralyzing effect that may be brought about by large fines. The later should be utilized only when absolutely necessary.

  11. Differential effects of reward and punishment on conscious and unconscious eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaukopf, Clare L; DiGirolamo, Gregory J

    2006-10-01

    Very little is known about how human movements are influenced by abstract rewards and punishments relevant for human behaviour. The purpose of this study was to expand our knowledge of the behavioural effects of monetary reward and punishment. We introduced a high and low reward and punishment scheme into an antisaccade task where trials were either rewarded for a correct response (+1 or +25p) or punished for an incorrect response (-1 or -25p). The monetary value of the trial was indicated by the go signal, so subjects had to both program the location of the movement and determine the valence in the short interval before the eye movement was executed. We analysed both correct antisaccade responses and prosaccade errors. Importantly, the errors in this task can be either conscious (recognised) or unconscious (unrecognised). Saccades in both high-reward and high-punishment trials were slowed compared to saccades in low-reward and low-punishment trials, respectively. Therefore, unlike moderate rewards only (Blaukopf and DiGirolamo in Exp Brain Res 167:654-659, 2005), combining rewards and punishments and increasing motivation levels leads to a delay in movement execution during high valence trials where all actions are slowed, even errors. However, unconscious errors were differentially affected as they were speeded when punishment was high. We conclude that reward and punishment similarly influence the programming of conscious movements, but the strong saliency for punishment affords unconscious errors immunity from this delay.

  12. If cooperation is likely punish mildly: insights from economic experiments based on the snowdrift game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo-Luo Jiang

    Full Text Available Punishment may deter antisocial behavior. Yet to punish is costly, and the costs often do not offset the gains that are due to elevated levels of cooperation. However, the effectiveness of punishment depends not only on how costly it is, but also on the circumstances defining the social dilemma. Using the snowdrift game as the basis, we have conducted a series of economic experiments to determine whether severe punishment is more effective than mild punishment. We have observed that severe punishment is not necessarily more effective, even if the cost of punishment is identical in both cases. The benefits of severe punishment become evident only under extremely adverse conditions, when to cooperate is highly improbable in the absence of sanctions. If cooperation is likely, mild punishment is not less effective and leads to higher average payoffs, and is thus the much preferred alternative. Presented results suggest that the positive effects of punishment stem not only from imposed fines, but may also have a psychological background. Small fines can do wonders in motivating us to chose cooperation over defection, but without the paralyzing effect that may be brought about by large fines. The later should be utilized only when absolutely necessary.

  13. The Misconception of Corporal Punishment: A Rejoin to Albrecht's "Drop and Give Us 20, Seifried: A Practical Response to Defending the Use of Punishment by Coaches"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifried, Chad

    2010-01-01

    Dr. Rick Albrecht's article, titled "Drop and Give Us 20, Seifried: A Practical Response to Defending the Use of Punishment by Coaches," argued that I held a disregard for the unintended negative consequences of punishment and pointed out several items of concern he felt obligated to communicate to the scholarly and professional community to…

  14. Some relationships between punishment, stuttering, and galvanic skin responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, C G; Lingwall, J B

    1976-06-01

    The simultaneous effects of response-contingent punishment on stuttering behaviors and the frequency of galvanic skin response (GSR) deflections for 10 subjects were investigated. GSR's and stuttering responses were recorded during base rate, treatment, and extinction conditions. The subjects demonstrated a 50% or greater decrease in stuttering frequency during the treatment condition. Combined data for all subjects indicated that the mean frequency of GSR deflections remained stable or declined across conditions of the study. Analysis of individual data revealed that GSR deflections during treatment as compared with base rate increased for four subjects, remained essentially the same in two subjects, and decreased for four subjects. These results suggest that experimental procedures which result in functional punishment effects on stuttering frequency may not be associated with any predictable pattern on concomitant autonomic arousal.

  15. Independent natural genetic variation of punishment- versus relief-memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Mirjam; Kocabey, Samet; Savage, Sinead; König, Christian

    2016-01-01

    A painful event establishes two opponent memories: cues that are associated with pain onset are remembered negatively, whereas cues that coincide with the relief at pain offset acquire positive valence. Such punishment- versus relief-memories are conserved across species, including humans, and the balance between them is critical for adaptive behaviour with respect to pain and trauma. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster as a study case, we found that both punishment- and relief-memories display natural variation across wild-derived inbred strains, but they do not covary, suggesting a considerable level of dissociation in their genetic effectors. This provokes the question whether there may be heritable inter-individual differences in the balance between these opponent memories in man, with potential psycho-clinical implications. PMID:28003518

  16. Ordinary physical punishment: is it harmful? Comment on Gershoff (2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana; Larzelere, Robert E; Cowan, Philip A

    2002-07-01

    E. T. Gershoff (2002) reviewed processes that might mediate and contexts that might moderate the associations between corporal punishment (CP) and child behaviors and provided an account of the methodological weaknesses of the research reviewed in her meta-analyses. In this examination of Gershoff, the authors argue that the biases and confounds in the meta-analyses further limit any causal inferences that can be drawn concerning the detrimental "effects" of CP on associated child behaviors. The authors suggest that undesirable child outcomes are associated with CP because the construct marks inept harsh parenting and conclude that although the harmful effects of physical abuse and other extreme punishments are clear, a blanket injunction against spanking is not justified by the evidence presented by Gershoff.

  17. Functional communication training with and without extinction and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W; Piazza, C; Cataldo, M; Harrell, R; Jefferson, G; Conner, R

    1993-01-01

    Functional communication training has been reported to be a promising treatment for severe behavior problems. In this study, functional communication training alone and combined with extinction and/or punishment was evaluated for 4 clients with severe retardation, behavior problems, and communication deficits. The participants were inpatients on a hospital unit for treatment of severe behavior disorders. They received individualized interventions based on functional assessment that included reinforcement of a communication response with the same function as their destructive behavior. Results showed that for some patients, functional communication training was not sufficient to produce clinically significant reductions in destructive behavior, and the combination of training plus punishment produced the largest and most consistent reductions.

  18. Parenting Programs to Prevent Corporal Punishment: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolla Magioni Santini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies have shown that corporal punishment against children is a common family practice, causing damage to child development. Considering that parents are the main perpetrators of this type of aggression, parenting programs are needed to raise children without violence. This study aimed at performing a systematic review of parenting programs evaluations to reduce corporal punishment. Intervention procedures, as well as design, results and limitations were identified for each study. The PRISMA protocol (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses was used for reporting the results. A literature survey was conducted in Brazilian databases, as well as English ones from 1994-2014. One Brazilian study and eight international studies were selected as relevant, and only four used randomized controlled trials (RCT. All studies reported satisfactory results in decreasing aggression by parents against their children. Further research in the area with solid methodology is recommended.

  19. General functioning predicts reward and punishment learning in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somlai, Zsuzsanna; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Kéri, Szabolcs; Myers, Catherine E; Gluck, Mark A

    2011-04-01

    Previous studies investigating feedback-driven reinforcement learning in patients with schizophrenia have provided mixed results. In this study, we explored the clinical predictors of reward and punishment learning using a probabilistic classification learning task. Patients with schizophrenia (n=40) performed similarly to healthy controls (n=30) on the classification learning task. However, more severe negative and general symptoms were associated with lower reward-learning performance, whereas poorer general psychosocial functioning was correlated with both lower reward- and punishment-learning performances. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that general psychosocial functioning was the only significant predictor of reinforcement learning performance when education, antipsychotic dose, and positive, negative and general symptoms were included in the analysis. These results suggest a close relationship between reinforcement learning and general psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia.

  20. 论间接处罚%Discussion on Indirect Punishment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙书强

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of indirect punishment in judicial practice not only expands the scope of the crime, but also increases the penalties for offenders. This phenomenon is contrary to the principle of a legally prescribed punishment for a specified crime and criminal guilt to adapt the principle that expose the latter, intervents all aspects of national life and violate national human rights at the same time.%司法实践中存在的间接处罚现象,加重了对犯罪者的处罚.这种与罪刑法定原则,罪责刑相适应原则相违背的现象,使刑法介入国民生活的各个方面,侵犯国民的人权.

  1. Electrophysiological ratio markers for the balance between reward and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutter, Dennis J L G; Van Honk, Jack

    2005-08-01

    It has been argued that prototypical forms of psychopathology result from an imbalance in reward and punishment systems. Recent studies suggest that the ratios between slower and faster waves of the electroencephalogram (EEG) index this motivational balance and might therefore have diagnostic value for psychopathology. To scrutinize this notion, the present study investigated whether resting state EEG ratios would predict decision making on the Iowa gambling task (Iowa-GT), a well-known marker for motivational imbalance. A resting state EEG recording was acquired followed by the Iowa-GT in twenty-eight healthy right-handed volunteers. Results showed that higher versus lower EEG ratios were associated with disadvantageous versus advantageous decision making strategies indicating motivational imbalances in reward- and punishment-driven behavior, respectively. This finding provides the first direct evidence that the electrophysiologically derived EEG ratios can serve as biological markers for balance and imbalance in motivation.

  2. Functional communication training with and without extinction and punishment.

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, W.; Piazza, C; Cataldo, M.; Harrell, R.; Jefferson, G.; Conner, R

    1993-01-01

    Functional communication training has been reported to be a promising treatment for severe behavior problems. In this study, functional communication training alone and combined with extinction and/or punishment was evaluated for 4 clients with severe retardation, behavior problems, and communication deficits. The participants were inpatients on a hospital unit for treatment of severe behavior disorders. They received individualized interventions based on functional assessment that included r...

  3. Contextual modulation of value signals in reward and punishment learning

    OpenAIRE

    Palminteri, S; Khamassi, M.; Joffily, M.; Coricelli, G.

    2015-01-01

    Compared with reward seeking, punishment avoidance learning is less clearly understood at both the computational and neurobiological levels. Here we demonstrate, using computational modelling and fMRI in humans, that learning option values in a relative--context-dependent--scale offers a simple computational solution for avoidance learning. The context (or state) value sets the reference point to which an outcome should be compared before updating the option value. Consequently, in contexts w...

  4. A role for negative reinforcement of response omission in punishment?

    OpenAIRE

    Arbuckle, Jeffery L.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    1987-01-01

    This experiment attempted to disentangle response-rate reductions controlled by the direct suppressive effects of a punisher from those due to negative reinforcement of response omission. Key-peck responding of pigeons was maintained by a conjoint variable-interval 3-min schedule of food presentation variable-interval 30-s schedule of response-dependent electric shock presentation. Omission of responses for 5, 10, or 30 s resulted in the possibility of canceling a scheduled shock. Response ra...

  5. How to keep punishment to maintain cooperation: Introducing social vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Okada, Isamu

    2016-02-01

    Although there is much support for the punishment system as a sophisticated approach to resolving social dilemmas, more than a few researchers have also pointed out the limitations of such an approach. Second-order free riding is a serious issue facing the punishment system. Various pioneering works have suggested that an anti-social behavior or noise stemming from a mutation may, surprisingly, be helpful for avoiding second-order freeloaders. In this work, we show through mathematical analysis and an agent-based simulation of a model extending the meta-norms game that the coercive introduction of a small number of non-cooperators can maintain a cooperative regime robustly. This paradoxical idea was inspired by the effect of a vaccine, which is a weakened pathogen injected into a human body to create antibodies and ward off infection by that pathogen. Our expectation is that the coercive introduction of a few defectors, i.e., a social vaccine, will help maintain a highly cooperative regime because it will ensure that the punishment system works.

  6. Anger and selective attention to reward and punishment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Jin, Xinyi; Zhang, Meng; Huang, Xiang; Shui, Rende; Shen, Mowei

    2013-07-01

    Anger is a negative emotion associated with approach motivation and may influence children's attention preference. Three experiments examined the effect of anger on the attentional biases accompanying reward versus punishment cues in Chinese 5- and 6-year-olds. Experiment 1 tested children who were prone to report angry feelings in an unfair game. Experiment 2 measured children who were rated by parents and teachers for temperamental anger. Experiment 3 explored children who reported angry feelings in a frustrating attention task with rigged and noncontingent feedback after controlling for temperament anger. Results suggested that both the angry and anger-prone children were faster to engage attention toward the reward cues than toward the punishment cues in the three experiments. Furthermore, the angry children in the frustrating attention task (and those with poor attention focusing by parental report) were slower in disengaging attention away from the reward versus punishment cues (especially after negative feedback). Results support the approach motivation of anger, which can facilitate children's attention toward the appetitive approach-related information. The findings are discussed in terms of the adaptive and maladaptive function of anger.

  7. Reward and punishment act as distinct factors in guiding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubanek, Jan; Snyder, Lawrence H; Abrams, Richard A

    2015-06-01

    Behavior rests on the experience of reinforcement and punishment. It has been unclear whether reinforcement and punishment act as oppositely valenced components of a single behavioral factor, or whether these two kinds of outcomes play fundamentally distinct behavioral roles. To this end, we varied the magnitude of a reward or a penalty experienced following a choice using monetary tokens. The outcome of each trial was independent of the outcome of the previous trial, which enabled us to isolate and study the effect on behavior of each outcome magnitude in single trials. We found that a reward led to a repetition of the previous choice, whereas a penalty led to an avoidance of the previous choice. Surprisingly, the effects of the reward magnitude and the penalty magnitude revealed a pronounced asymmetry. The choice repetition effect of a reward scaled with the magnitude of the reward. In a marked contrast, the avoidance effect of a penalty was flat, not influenced by the magnitude of the penalty. These effects were mechanistically described using a reinforcement learning model after the model was updated to account for the penalty-based asymmetry. The asymmetry in the effects of the reward magnitude and the punishment magnitude was so striking that it is difficult to conceive that one factor is just a weighted or transformed form of the other factor. Instead, the data suggest that rewards and penalties are fundamentally distinct factors in governing behavior.

  8. [Effects of variable-interval punishment on lever pressing maintained by variable-ratio reinforcement in the rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Naritoshi; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2007-12-01

    The effects of reinforcement and punishment on response suppression under variable-ratio reinforcement and variable-interval punishment schedules were investigated. In the baseline period, lever pressing in rats was maintained by a variable-ratio food reinforcement schedule. In the punishment condition, responding was punished by a grid shock under a variable-interval schedule. Baseline and punishment conditions alternated, and were continued until the response stabilized. Three rats were given five or six punishment rates with a fixed reinforcement rate and another three rats were given four or five reinforcement rates with a fixed punishment rate. The results indicated that the responses were either completely suppressed or not suppressed at all. When the punishment rate increased or the reinforcement rate decreased, the response was suppressed completely. Whereas when the punishment rate decreased or the reinforcement rate increased, the responses were not suppressed. These results agree with the predictions of the molar theory.

  9. Competition of individual and institutional punishments in spatial public goods games

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila; Czako, Lilla

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the evolution of strategies in spatial public goods games where both individual (peer) and institutional (pool) punishments are present beside unconditional defector and cooperator strategies. The evolution of strategy distribution is governed by imitation based on random sequential comparison of neighbors' payoff for a fixed level of noise. Using numerical simulations we have evaluated the strategy frequencies and phase diagrams when varying the synergy factor, punishment cost, and fine. Our attention is focused on two extreme cases describing all the relevant behaviors in such a complex system. According to our numerical data peer punishers prevail and control the system behavior in a large segments of parameters while pool punishers can only survive in the limit of weak peer punishment when a rich variety of solutions is observed. Paradoxically, the two types of punishment may extinguish each other's impact resulting in the triumph of defectors. The technical difficulties and suggested meth...

  10. Human punishment is motivated by inequity aversion, not a desire for reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihani, N J; McAuliffe, K

    2012-10-23

    Humans involved in cooperative interactions willingly pay a cost to punish cheats. However, the proximate motives underpinning punitive behaviour are currently debated. Individuals who interact with cheats experience losses, but they also experience lower payoffs than the cheating partner. Thus, the negative emotions that trigger punishment may stem from a desire to reciprocate losses or from inequity aversion. Previous studies have not disentangled these possibilities. Here, we use an experimental approach to ask whether punishment is motivated by inequity aversion or by a desire for reciprocity. We show that humans punish cheats only when cheating produces disadvantageous inequity, while there is no evidence for reciprocity. This finding challenges the notion that punishment is motivated by a simple desire to reciprocally harm cheats and shows that victims compare their own payoffs with those of partners when making punishment decisions.

  11. The effect of altruistic tendency on fairness in third-party punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Lu; Tan, Peishan; CHENG, YOU; Chen, Jingwei; Chen QU

    2015-01-01

    Third-party punishment, as an altruistic behavior, was found to relate to inequity aversion in previous research. Previous researchers have found that altruistic tendencies, as an individual difference, can affect resource division. Here, using the event-related potential (ERP) technique and a third-party punishment of dictator game paradigm, we explored third-party punishments in high and low altruists and recorded their EEG data. Behavioral results showed high altruists (vs. low altruists) ...

  12. Cooperation in the two-population snowdrift game with punishment enforced through different mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, André Barreira da Silva

    2016-01-01

    I study two mechanisms based on punishment to promote cooperation in the two-population snowdrift game. The first mechanism follows the traditional approach in the literature and is based on the inclusion of a third additional strategy in the payoff matrix of the stage-game. The second mechanism consists of letting cooperators to punish defectors with a given exogenous frequency. While both mechanisms share the same result regarding the minimum required level of punishment in order to elimina...

  13. The Effect of Rehabilitative Punishments on Juvenile Crime and Labor Market Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Huttunen, Kristiina; Mälkönen, Ville

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of a rehabilitative punishment on the post-release outcomes of juvenile criminals using a unique Finnish data set on sentences and punishments merged with the longitudinal population census for 1990-2007. The rehabilitative program was aimed at improving the social skills and labor market attachment of young offenders aged 15 to 17. A variety of research designs are used to isolate the effect of the juvenile punishment and to control for observable characterist...

  14. Reinforcement and punishment effects in concurrent schedules: A test of two models

    OpenAIRE

    Farley, Joseph

    1980-01-01

    The joint effects of punishment and reinforcement on the pigeon's key-peck response were examined in three choice experiments conducted to compare predictions of Farley and Fantino's (1978) subtractive model with those made by Deluty's (1976) and Deluty and Church's (1978) model of punishment. In Experiment 1, the addition of equal punishment schedules to both alternatives of a concurrent reinforcement schedule enhanced the preference exhibited for the more frequent reinforcement alternative....

  15. Observed Punishment Spillover Effects: A Laboratory Investigation of Behavior in a Social Dilemma.

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Dickinson; E. Glenn Dutcher; Rodet, Cortney S.

    2013-01-01

    Punishment has been shown to be an effective reinforcement mechanism. Intentional or not, punishment will likely generate spillover effects that extend beyond one’s immediate decision environment, and these spillovers are not as well understood. We seek to understand these secondary spillover effects in a controlled lab setting using a standard social dilemma: the voluntary contributions mechanism. We find that spillovers occur when others observe punishment outside their own social dilemma. ...

  16. Effects of reinforcement for alternative behavior during punishment of self-injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, R H; Iwata, B A; Conners, J; Roscoe, E M

    1999-01-01

    A number of variables influence the effectiveness of punishment and may determine the extent to which less intrusive forms of punishment may be used as alternatives to more intrusive interventions. For example, it has been suggested that response suppression during punishment may be facilitated if reinforcement is concurrently available for an alternative response. However, results of basic research demonstrating this finding have not been replicated with interventions more commonly prescribe...

  17. Punishment History and Spillover Effects: A Laboratory Investigation of Behavior in a Social Dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Dickinson; E. Glenn Dutcher; Rodet, Cortney S.

    2011-01-01

    Punishment has been shown to be an effective reinforcement mechanism. Intentional or not, punishment will likely generate spillover effects that extend beyond one’s immediate decision environment, and these spillovers are not as well understood. We seek to understand these secondary spillover effects in a controlled lab setting using a standard social dilemma: the voluntary contributions mechanism game. We find that spillovers from punishment lead to either more or less cooperative behavior d...

  18. Punishment as a means of competition: implications for strong reciprocity theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tünde Paál

    Full Text Available Strong negative reciprocity, that is, sanctions imposed on norm violators at the punisher's own expense, has powerful cooperation-enhancing effects in both real-life and experimental game situations. However, it is plausible that punishment may obtain alternative roles depending on social context and the personality characteristics of participants. We examined the occurrence of punishing behavior among 80 subjects in a strongly competitive Public Goods game setting. Despite the punishment condition, the amount of the contributions decreased steadily during the game. The amount of contributions had no significant effect on received and imposed punishments. The results indicate that certain social contexts (in this case, intensive competition exert modifying effects on the role that punishment takes on. Subjects punished each other in order to achieve a higher rank and a financially better outcome. Punishment primarily functioned as a means of rivalry, instead of as a way of second-order cooperation, as strong reciprocity suggests. These results indicate the need for the possible modification of the social conditions of punishment mechanisms described by the strong reciprocity theory as an evolutionary explanation of human cooperation.

  19. Power Asymmetries and Punishment in a Prisoner's Dilemma with Variable Cooperative Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Jonathan E; Wallace, Brian; Bshary, Redouan; Raihani, Nichola J

    2016-01-01

    In many two-player games, players that invest in punishment finish with lower payoffs than those who abstain from punishing. These results question the effectiveness of punishment at promoting cooperation, especially when retaliation is possible. It has been suggested that these findings may stem from the unrealistic assumption that all players are equal in terms of power. However, a previous empirical study which incorporated power asymmetries into an iterated prisoner's dilemma (IPD) game failed to show that power asymmetries stabilize cooperation when punishment is possible. Instead, players cooperated in response to their partner cooperating, and punishment did not yield any additional increase in tendency to cooperate. Nevertheless, this previous study only allowed an all-or-nothing-rather than a variable-cooperation investment. It is possible that power asymmetries increase the effectiveness of punishment from strong players only when players are able to vary their investment in cooperation. We tested this hypothesis using a modified IPD game which allowed players to vary their investment in cooperation in response to being punished. As in the previous study, punishment from strong players did not increase cooperation under any circumstances. Thus, in two-player games with symmetric strategy sets, punishment does not appear to increase cooperation.

  20. Dimensions of child punishment in two Central American countries: Guatemala and El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Goodwin, Mary M; Samandari, Ghazaleh; Kim, Shin Y; Clyde, Maureen

    2008-04-01

    Severe physical punishment of children is an important issue in international child health and welfare. This study examines such punishment in Guatemala and El Salvador. Data came from nationally representative surveys of women aged 15-49 and men aged 15-59 residing in Guatemala (2002) and El Salvador (2002-2003). The surveys included questions about punishment experienced during childhood, with response options ranging from verbal scolding to beating. In Guatemala, parents were asked how they disciplined their children; questions allowed them to compare how they were punished in their childhood with how they punished their own children. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are presented. In Guatemala, 35% of women and 46% of men reported being beaten as punishment in childhood; in El Salvador, the figures were 42% and 62%, respectively. In both countries, older participants were relatively more likely than younger participants to have been beaten as children. Witnessing familial violence was associated with an increased risk of being beaten in childhood. In Guatemala, having experienced physical punishment as a child increased the chance that parents would use physical punishment on their own children. Multivariate analyses revealed that women who were beaten in childhood were significantly more likely in both countries to be in a violent relationship. The use of beating to physically punish children is a common problem in Guatemala and El Salvador, with generational and intergenerational effects. Its negative and lingering effects necessitate the introduction of policies and programs to decrease this behavior.

  1. High strength-of-ties and low mobility enable the evolution of third-party punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Patrick; Gelfand, Michele; Nau, Dana; Carr, Ryan

    2014-02-07

    As punishment can be essential to cooperation and norm maintenance but costly to the punisher, many evolutionary game-theoretic studies have explored how direct punishment can evolve in populations. Compared to direct punishment, in which an agent acts to punish another for an interaction in which both parties were involved, the evolution of third-party punishment (3PP) is even more puzzling, because the punishing agent itself was not involved in the original interaction. Despite significant empirical studies of 3PP, little is known about the conditions under which it can evolve. We find that punishment reputation is not, by itself, sufficient for the evolution of 3PP. Drawing on research streams in sociology and psychology, we implement a structured population model and show that high strength-of-ties and low mobility are critical for the evolution of responsible 3PP. Only in such settings of high social-structural constraint are punishers able to induce self-interested agents toward cooperation, making responsible 3PP ultimately beneficial to individuals as well as the collective. Our results illuminate the conditions under which 3PP is evolutionarily adaptive in populations. Responsible 3PP can evolve and induce cooperation in cases where other mechanisms alone fail to do so.

  2. Punishment as a means of competition: implications for strong reciprocity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paál, Tünde; Bereczkei, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Strong negative reciprocity, that is, sanctions imposed on norm violators at the punisher's own expense, has powerful cooperation-enhancing effects in both real-life and experimental game situations. However, it is plausible that punishment may obtain alternative roles depending on social context and the personality characteristics of participants. We examined the occurrence of punishing behavior among 80 subjects in a strongly competitive Public Goods game setting. Despite the punishment condition, the amount of the contributions decreased steadily during the game. The amount of contributions had no significant effect on received and imposed punishments. The results indicate that certain social contexts (in this case, intensive competition) exert modifying effects on the role that punishment takes on. Subjects punished each other in order to achieve a higher rank and a financially better outcome. Punishment primarily functioned as a means of rivalry, instead of as a way of second-order cooperation, as strong reciprocity suggests. These results indicate the need for the possible modification of the social conditions of punishment mechanisms described by the strong reciprocity theory as an evolutionary explanation of human cooperation.

  3. Democratic decisions establish stable authorities that overcome the paradox of second-order punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbe, Christian; Traulsen, Arne; Röhl, Torsten; Milinski, Manfred

    2014-01-14

    Individuals usually punish free riders but refuse to sanction those who cooperate but do not punish. This missing second-order peer punishment is a fundamental problem for the stabilization of cooperation. To solve this problem, most societies today have implemented central authorities that punish free riders and tax evaders alike, such that second-order punishment is fully established. The emergence of such stable authorities from individual decisions, however, creates a new paradox: it seems absurd to expect individuals who do not engage in second-order punishment to strive for an authority that does. Herein, we provide a mathematical model and experimental results from a public goods game where subjects can choose between a community with and without second-order punishment in two different ways. When subjects can migrate continuously to either community, we identify a bias toward institutions that do not punish tax evaders. When subjects have to vote once for all rounds of the game and have to accept the decision of the majority, they prefer a society with second-order punishment. These findings uncover the existence of a democracy premium. The majority-voting rule allows subjects to commit themselves and to implement institutions that eventually lead to a higher welfare for all.

  4. Beyond just deserts and deterrence: An evolutionary psychology of punishment and rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Bang

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that punishment is driven by just deserts motives rather than deterrence motives. In the just deserts perspective, punishment is based on the seriousness of the crime, and rehabilitative alternatives to punishment are only expected to be considered when the seriousness...... is low. By drawing on recent advances in evolutionary psychology, a range of contrasting expectations are developed. Especially, it is expected that the choice between punishment and rehabilitation is determined by assessing the future social value of the criminal. The expectations are supported by data...

  5. On hitting children: a review of corporal punishment in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Research has clearly demonstrated associations between corporal punishment of children and maladaptive behavior patterns such as aggression and delinquency. Hitting children is an act of violence and a clear violation of children's human rights. In this article, the position of the United States on corporal punishment of children is discussed. Professional and international progress on ending corporal punishment is explained, and the relationship between corporal punishment and child abuse is discussed. An appeal is made for prevention efforts such as parent education and removal of social sanctions for hitting children that may hold significant promise for preventing child maltreatment.

  6. Power Asymmetries and Punishment in a Prisoner's Dilemma with Variable Cooperative Investment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Bone

    Full Text Available In many two-player games, players that invest in punishment finish with lower payoffs than those who abstain from punishing. These results question the effectiveness of punishment at promoting cooperation, especially when retaliation is possible. It has been suggested that these findings may stem from the unrealistic assumption that all players are equal in terms of power. However, a previous empirical study which incorporated power asymmetries into an iterated prisoner's dilemma (IPD game failed to show that power asymmetries stabilize cooperation when punishment is possible. Instead, players cooperated in response to their partner cooperating, and punishment did not yield any additional increase in tendency to cooperate. Nevertheless, this previous study only allowed an all-or-nothing-rather than a variable-cooperation investment. It is possible that power asymmetries increase the effectiveness of punishment from strong players only when players are able to vary their investment in cooperation. We tested this hypothesis using a modified IPD game which allowed players to vary their investment in cooperation in response to being punished. As in the previous study, punishment from strong players did not increase cooperation under any circumstances. Thus, in two-player games with symmetric strategy sets, punishment does not appear to increase cooperation.

  7. Evolution of cooperation by the introduction of the probabilistic peer-punishment based on the difference of payoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohdaira, Tetsushi

    2016-05-01

    There are two types of costly punishment, i.e. peer-punishment and pool-punishment. While peer-punishment applies direct face to face punishment, pool-punishment is based on multi-point, collective interaction among group members. Regarding those two types of costly punishment, peer-punishment is especially considered to have the flaws that it lowers the average payoff of all players as well as pool-punishment does, and facilitates antisocial behaviour like retaliation of a defector on a cooperator. Here, this study proposes the new peer-punishment that punishment to an opponent player works at high probability when an opponent one is uncooperative, and the difference of payoff between a player and an opponent one becomes large in order to prevent such antisocial behaviour. It is natural to think that players of high payoff do not expect to punish others of lower payoff because they do not have any complaints regarding their economic wealth. The author shows that the introduction of the proposed peer-punishment increases both the number of cooperative players and the average payoff of all players in various types of topology of connections between players.

  8. Corporal punishment: mother's disciplinary behavior and child's psychological profile in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; El-Bourgy, Mohamed D; Seif El Din, Amira G; Mehanna, Azza A

    2009-01-01

    Although all professionals oppose abusive physical punishment, nonabusive physical punishment is still controversial. The aim of the present study was (i) to determine parents' behavior regarding the discipline of their children using corporal punishment or other alternative disciplinary methods, (ii) to identify the different associated factors for corporal punishment, and (iii) to determine the association between exposure of the child to corporal punishment and his or her psychosocial well-being. A representative sample of 400 fifth-grade primary school children and their mothers were subjected to a cross-sectional survey. Mothers were subjected to a questionnaire to assess their behavior on corporal punishment and other disciplinary methods. The children were subjected to Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory to assess their self-esteem, and a questionnaire to assess their relationship with others. About three-quarter of children (76.3%) were corporally punished, and about half of them (46.2%) were punished on sites other than the extremities or buttocks. In 59.3% of them the frequency of the punishment ranged from once or twice/week to more than once/day, and it left marks in about 20%. Other disciplinary methods used by mothers were yelling/insulting (43.5%), taking away a toy or privilege (39.3%), discussing/explaining (9.5%), and time out (2.8%). The significant predictors of mothers' use of corporal punishment were male gender of the child (p punishment of children and their self-esteem was not statistically significant; however, corporally punished children scored lower on their relationship with others than noncorporally punished ones (Z= 2.60, p punishment is a widespread disciplinary method in Alexandria. The use of corporal punishment could have adverse effects on the child especially on his or her relationship with others. Planning an awareness-raising educational program for current and expectant parents is recommended, to promote positive nonviolent

  9. Change in Corporal Punishment Over Time in a Representative Sample of Canadian Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, Sabrina; Romano, Elisa

    2015-08-01

    Corporal punishment is a controversial form of discipline. Although its prevalence appears high, legal reforms and public education efforts to limit corporal punishment may be resulting in a decrease in its prevalence and frequency of use. This study drew on Canadian nationally representative data to understand the social change that might be happening and to characterize parents who continue to use corporal punishment. The study relied on cross-sectional data from Cycles 1 (1994) to 8 (2008) of the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to examine parental reports of corporal punishment for children ages 2–11 years. Analyses were conducted separately for 2- to 5-, 6- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds, and sociodemographics associated with corporal punishment were examined. A significant decrease in the prevalence and frequency of corporal punishment use was observed across time for all age groups. Child sex, parent age, employment status, family structure, household size, immigration status, ethnicity, and religion significantly distinguished parents who use corporal punishment from those who do not, but there was variability across the age groups. Effect sizes question the relevance of the observed decrease in corporal punishment from an applied perspective. Approximately 25% of Canadian parents still use corporal punishment with children ages 2–11 years; therefore, it remains an issue that merits continued attention. Certain child, parent, and family characteristics seem to characterize parents who use corporal punishment, but other more dynamic variables may be important to consider, such as parental stress and their attitudes toward corporal punishment.

  10. Fairness overrides group bias in children's second-party punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Katherine; Dunham, Yarrow

    2017-04-01

    Adults and children show ingroup favoritism in their 3rd-party punishment of cooperative norm violations, suggesting that group loyalty importantly shapes enforcement of cooperation. Ingroup favoritism additionally influences punishment of unfairness in the 2-party ultimatum game, in which people are directly affected by unfair behavior. However, the directionality of this relationship is unclear: In some cases, people are more forgiving of ingroup unfairness, whereas in others they are less forgiving. Here we aim to disambiguate this relationship by studying its origins in development, asking whether ingroup favoritism influences children's offers to others and whether it affects their responses to being treated unfairly. Six- to 10-year-olds played a group-based ultimatum game after being assigned to minimal groups and made proposals to-and responded to offers from-members of their in- and outgroups. We tested children's real bargaining behavior in the absence of deception. Results showed that, regardless of group membership, children's primary concern lay with fairness: Participants regularly offered equal splits and were more likely to reject unfair offers than fair offers. Consistent with past work, older children made more generous proposals than did younger children. Although our group manipulation successfully induced ingroup bias in participants, neither children's proposals nor responses were influenced by group membership. This suggests that second-party punishment of fairness norm violations is unbiased early in development and points to the potentially important role of experience with different groups in shaping later emerging bias in norm enforcement. We discuss implications for theories regarding when and to what extent group bias influences cooperation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Learning and generalization from reward and punishment in opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Catherine E; Rego, Janice; Haber, Paul; Morley, Kirsten; Beck, Kevin D; Hogarth, Lee; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2017-01-15

    This study adapts a widely-used acquired equivalence paradigm to investigate how opioid-addicted individuals learn from positive and negative feedback, and how they generalize this learning. The opioid-addicted group consisted of 33 participants with a history of heroin dependency currently in a methadone maintenance program; the control group consisted of 32 healthy participants without a history of drug addiction. All participants performed a novel variant of the acquired equivalence task, where they learned to map some stimuli to correct outcomes in order to obtain reward, and to map other stimuli to correct outcomes in order to avoid punishment; some stimuli were implicitly "equivalent" in the sense of being paired with the same outcome. On the initial training phase, both groups performed similarly on learning to obtain reward, but as memory load grew, the control group outperformed the addicted group on learning to avoid punishment. On a subsequent testing phase, the addicted and control groups performed similarly on retention trials involving previously-trained stimulus-outcome pairs, as well as on generalization trials to assess acquired equivalence. Since prior work with acquired equivalence tasks has associated stimulus-outcome learning with the nigrostriatal dopamine system, and generalization with the hippocampal region, the current results are consistent with basal ganglia dysfunction in the opioid-addicted patients. Further, a selective deficit in learning from punishment could contribute to processes by which addicted individuals continue to pursue drug use even at the cost of negative consequences such as loss of income and the opportunity to engage in other life activities.

  12. The Effects of Verbal and Material Rewards and Punishers on the Performance of Impulsive and Reflective Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Philip; Douglas, Virginia I.

    1977-01-01

    Impulsive and reflective children performed in a discrimination learning task which included four reinforcement conditions: verbal-reward, verbal-punishment, material-reward, and material-punishment. (SB)

  13. Citizen Views on Punishment: the Difference between Talking and Deciding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ines Bergoglio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Province of Córdoba, Argentina implemented lay participation in criminal decisions by means of Law 9182. The law was passed within a context of national debate concerning efficient measures to fight against insecurity and crime. These debates were brought about by a social movement led by Juan Carlos Blumberg, which demanded harsher penalties and judicial reform as means to improve urban safety.Data obtained in two public opinions studies, conducted in 1993 and 2011, are used to analyze trends in attitudes towards criminal punishment, including issues such as the image of criminals or opinions on capital punishment. The revision also includes the influence of the fear of crime on attitudes towards punishment.The analysis of citizen views on punishment extends beyond public opinion data to the judicial field, reviewing how these views are expressed during jury service. Using a set of 213 sentences decided between 2005 and 2012, juror and judge decisions on the same cases are compared. En 2004, la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina, estableció la participación ciudadana en las decisiones penales por medio de la ley 9182. La ley fue aprobada en el contexto de un debate nacional sobre las medidas más eficientes para luchar contra la inseguridad y el delito, impulsados por un movimiento social liderado por Juan Carlos Blumberg. Las demandas de este movimiento incluían endurecimiento penal y reforma judicial, entendidos como medios para mejorar la seguridad.Empleando datos de encuesta de población general recogidos en 1993 y 2011, el artículo analiza las tendencias en actitudes hacia el castigo penal, incluyendo temas como la imagen de los delincuentes y las opiniones sobre la pena de muerte. Se revisa especialmente la influencia de la sensación de inseguridad sobre las actitudes respecto del castigo.El análisis de las actitudes ciudadanas ante el castigo se extiende hacia el terreno judicial, revisando la dureza de las decisiones

  14. The Consent Solution to Punishment and the Explicit Denial Objection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Imbrisevic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, David Boonin has put forward several objections to Carlos S. Nino's 'Consensual Theory of Punishment'. In this paper I will defend Nino against the 'explicit denial objection'. I will discuss whether Boonin's interpretation of Nino as a tacit consent theorist is right. I will argue that the offender's consent is neither tacit nor express, but a special category of implicit consent. Further, for Nino the legal-normative consequences of an act (of crime are 'irrevocable', i.e. one cannot (expressly and successfully deny liability to them. I will suggest an explanation for Nino's irrevocability claim.

  15. Title I Middle School Administrators' Beliefs and Choices about Using Corporal Punishment and Exclusionary Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Brianna L.; Murphy, Amy S.; Jordan, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This grounded theory study of how Title I middle school administrators determine students' punishments was developed using interviews with 27 Florida administrators from schools allowing corporal punishment. Administrators' choices were shaped by their upbringings, their experiences as parents, their job requirements, the expectations of students'…

  16. Summary Report of a Seminar on the Role of Punishment in Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Erling E.

    Teachers and other school personnel studied research and theoretical literature related to learning and punishment, and explored the implications of the findings for educational practice. The initial series of lectures emphasized the psychology of learning and the role of punishment. Specific applications of this knowledge to educational problems…

  17. A methodology for distinguishing between extinction and punishment effects associated with response blocking.

    OpenAIRE

    Lerman, D C; Iwata, B A

    1996-01-01

    We present one method for distinguishing between extinction and punishment effects. The proportion of responses that produced a consequence (blocking) was varied while hand mouthing was treated in a man diagnosed with profound mental retardation. Response patterns across the schedule changes suggested that the blocking procedure functioned as a punishing event.

  18. Intermittent Punishment of Self-stimulation: Effectiveness During Application and Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanczyk, Raymond G.

    1977-01-01

    Two studies were performed comparing the effectiveness of fixed-ratio (FR) and variable-ratio (VR) schedules of punishment during application and extinction. Subjects were two young children. Both studies found significant positive "side effects" of punishment in terms of increased play and social behavior as well as increased performance of…

  19. Establishing the dopamine dependency of human striatal signals during reward and punishment reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, M.E. van der; Schouwenburg, M.R. van; Geurts, D.E.M.; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Buitelaar, J.; Verkes, R.J.; Cools, R.

    2014-01-01

    Drugs that alter dopamine transmission have opposite effects on reward and punishment learning. These opposite effects have been suggested to depend on dopamine in the striatum. Here, we establish for the first time the neurochemical specificity of such drug effects, during reward and punishment lea

  20. Title I Middle School Administrators' Beliefs and Choices about Using Corporal Punishment and Exclusionary Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Brianna L.; Murphy, Amy S.; Jordan, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This grounded theory study of how Title I middle school administrators determine students' punishments was developed using interviews with 27 Florida administrators from schools allowing corporal punishment. Administrators' choices were shaped by their upbringings, their experiences as parents, their job requirements, the expectations of students'…

  1. Methods and Rates of Punishment Implemented by Families to Enuretic Children in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ihsan Karaman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Nocturnal enuresis is a serious health problem affecting a significant portion of the population. In this study, we investigated the frequency of punishment methods in nocturnal enuresis (NE in Turkey and its relationship with other parameters. Materials and Methods A total of 501 children (301 boys and 200 girls who were admitted to our outpatient clinic due to nocturnal enuresis were included in the study. Mean age was 9.39 years (range 5-18. Prepared questionnaire form inquiring educational status of the family, frequency and implementation and duration of punishment methods was applied to patients and families. Results At least one punishment method was applied to 291 (58.1% of children with NE. Punishment methods of parents were detected as condemnation (257 patients, 51.3%, depriving desires of the child (120 patients, 23.9%, humiliating the child in the presence of other children (113 patients, 22.6%, reprimanding- threatening with punishment (203 patients, 40.5%. This application was found to continue for longer than 1 year in 52% of punished children. Families graduated of high school and above were found to use punishment methods significantly more than others. Conclusion According to the results of our study, a quite high proportion of enuretic children were detected to be exposed to punishment methods. Even, some parents consider that these methods are a part of nocturnal enuresis treatment. We, the doctors, should endeavor more for raising awareness of the community in order to diminish this worrisome behavior.

  2. Corporal Punishment in American Public Schools and the Rights of the Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    After reviewing the history of corporal punishment in schools, author discusses "Ingraham v. Wright," wherein the U.S. Supreme Court found that the use of corporal punishment in schools was not unconstitutional. Calls for the federal courts to ensure that a student's 14th Amendment liberty interest is protected when subjected to excessive use of…

  3. Corporal Punishment in Public Schools: Is the United States Out of Step?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Martha M.

    2005-01-01

    Few topics evoke more emotion than how to discipline children in public schools. And not many people are neutral in their views toward corporal punishment. Surprisingly, the United States stands almost alone on its position regarding the legality of corporal punishment. Among thirty-five industrialized countries, only the United States and the…

  4. Willingness to use corporal punishment among school administrators in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medway, F J; Smircic, J M

    1992-08-01

    Administrators of 221 South Carolina public elementary and middle schools were surveyed regarding behaviors appropriate for corporal punishment. Analysis indicated that aggressive acts by students, both mild and severe, were rated appropriate for corporal punishment, and these were not typically seen as appropriate for a psychologist's intervention. Rather, psychologists were seen as useful for character problems such as lying, cheating, and tantrums.

  5. The Relationship between Social Capital and Corporal Punishment in Schools. A Theoretical Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between the use of corporal punishment in the public schools and the amount of social capital (i.e., residents degree of involvement in community matters) in a state. Existing state-level data regarding social capital and incidents of corporal punishment were utilized. Results show a statistically significant…

  6. Competition and cooperation among different punishing strategies in the spatial public goods game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-07-01

    Inspired by the fact that people have diverse propensities to punish wrongdoers, we study a spatial public goods game with defectors and different types of punishing cooperators. During the game, cooperators punish defectors with class-specific probabilities and subsequently share the associated costs of sanctioning. We show that in the presence of different punishing cooperators the highest level of public cooperation is always attainable through a selection mechanism. Interestingly, the selection does not necessarily favor the evolution of punishers who would be able to prevail on their own against the defectors, nor does it always hinder the evolution of punishers who would be unable to prevail on their own. Instead, the evolutionary success of punishing strategies depends sensitively on their invasion velocities, which in turn reveals fascinating examples of both competition and cooperation among them. Furthermore, we show that under favorable conditions, when punishment is not strictly necessary for the maintenance of public cooperation, the less aggressive, mild form of sanctioning is the sole victor of the selection process. Our work reveals that natural strategy selection cannot only promote, but sometimes also hinders competition among prosocial strategies.

  7. Rewards and Punishments Role in Teacher-Student Relationship from the Mentor's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langa, Claudiu

    2014-01-01

    Rewards and punishments have a major role in behavior change strategies. The purpose of the study is to identify the most efficient modalities of intervening on the child's disturbing behavior applying the punishment-reward duet. The conclusions further to the research provide relevant data for improving pupils' conduct by applying the most…

  8. Neural sensitivity to social reward and punishment anticipation in social anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, H.R.; Veer, I.M.; Spinhoven, P.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Roelofs, K.

    2015-01-01

    An imbalance in the neural motivational system may underlie Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). This study examines social reward and punishment anticipation in SAD, predicting a valence-specific effect: increased striatal activity for punishment avoidance compared to obtaining a reward. Individuals with

  9. Physical Punishment and the Development of Aggressive and Violent Behavior: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Elizabeth

    The value of physical or corporal punishment is disputed among psychologists; most regard it as harmless, although a subgroup of researchers has controversially suggested that parental use of physical punishment may be causally related to the development of aggression. Thus, the psychological community appears to have separated into determined…

  10. Looking Under the Hood of Third-Party Punishment Reveals Design for Personal Benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnow, Max M; Delton, Andrew W; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2016-03-01

    Third-party intervention, such as when a crowd stops a mugger, is common. Yet it seems irrational because it has real costs but may provide no personal benefits. In a laboratory analogue, the third-party-punishment game, third parties ("punishers") will often spend real money to anonymously punish bad behavior directed at other people. A common explanation is that third-party punishment exists to maintain a cooperative society. We tested a different explanation: Third-party punishment results from a deterrence psychology for defending personal interests. Because humans evolved in small-scale, face-to-face social worlds, the mind infers that mistreatment of a third party predicts later mistreatment of oneself. We showed that when punishers do not have information about how they personally will be treated, they infer that mistreatment of other people predicts mistreatment of themselves, and these inferences predict punishment. But when information about personal mistreatment is available, it drives punishment. This suggests that humans' punitive psychology evolved to defend personal interests.

  11. Cultural, Human, and Social Capital as Determinants of Corporal Punishment: Toward an Integrated Theoretical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohe; Tung, Yuk-Ying; Dunaway, R. Gregory

    2000-01-01

    This article constructs a model to predict the likelihood of parental use of corporal punishment on children in two-parent families. Reports that corporal punishment is primarily determined by cultural, human, and social capital that are available to, or already acquired by parents. Discusses an integrated, resource-based theory for predicting use…

  12. Generosity is a sign of trustworthiness-the punishment of selfishness is not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Przepiorka, Wojtek; Liebe, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Peer-punishment is an important determinant of cooperation in human groups. It has been suggested that, at the proximate level of analysis, punitive preferences can explain why humans incur costs to punish their deviant peers. How punitive preferences could have evolved in humans is still not entire

  13. Generosity is a sign of trustworthiness-the punishment of selfishness is not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Przepiorka, Wojtek; Liebe, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Peer-punishment is an important determinant of cooperation in human groups. It has been suggested that, at the proximate level of analysis, punitive preferences can explain why humans incur costs to punish their deviant peers. How punitive preferences could have evolved in humans is still not

  14. Punishment and Forgiveness: A Phenomenological Analysis of Archetypal Leadership Patterns and the Implications for Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Neil Remington; Senyshyn, Yaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Archetypal psychology suggests the possibility of a punishment archetype representing the unconscious preferences of human beings as a species about what constitutes appropriate ways for leaders (students, teachers and educational leaders) to correct followers who do harm to others. Mythological analysis compared God's process of punishment, in…

  15. The Effect of Social Dominance Orientation on Perceptions of Corporal Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Chelsie A.; Gray, Jennifer M.; Nunez, Narina L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested the use of corporal punishment is widely endorsed in our society (Straus, 2000; Straus & Stewart, 1999). Furthermore, perceptions of what constitutes corporal punishment vary. The present study examined social dominance orientation (SDO) and age of child as potential factors that may influence perceptions of what is…

  16. Views on the Efficacy and Ethics of Punishment: Results from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.; Lovett, Benjamin J.

    2008-01-01

    Punishment-based interventions are among the most controversial treatments in the applied behavior analysis literature. The controversy concerns both the efficacy and the ethics of punishment. Five hundred randomly selected members of the Association for Behavior Analysis were sent a survey concerning their views on the efficacy and ethics of…

  17. An Analysis of Corporal Punishment Practices in the State of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Jessie

    2014-01-01

    Most research concludes that corporal punishment in schools does not lead to better student behavior, more respect for teachers, or higher scores on the Achievement Composite Test (ACT). In addition, some research points to the conclusion that corporal punishment of children is associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, which can include such…

  18. The Relationship between Punishment History and Skin Conductance Elicited during Swearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomash, J. J.; Reed, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Despite its theoretical importance, the effect of past punishment on verbal behavior is often overlooked in research due to the difficulty of measuring it. The present study explores the relationship between physiological arousal in humans and swearing; a behavior likely to have been punished in the typical conditioning history of an individual.…

  19. Dealing with Misbehavior at Schools in Kentucky: Theoretical and Contextual Predictors of Use of Corporal Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Timothy E.; May, David C.

    2008-01-01

    To test and compare theoretical explanations of the use of corporal punishment in school, the authors examine how well county-level measures of culture, socioeconomic strain, and social capital predict the prevalence and incidence of corporal punishment in Kentucky schools. Although several variables are significantly correlated with corporal…

  20. Acting on social exclusion: neural correlates of punishment and forgiveness of excluders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Geert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A; Güroğlu, Berna

    2015-02-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural correlates of punishment and forgiveness of initiators of social exclusion (i.e. 'excluders'). Participants divided money in a modified Dictator Game between themselves and people who previously either included or excluded them during a virtual ball-tossing game (Cyberball). Participants selectively punished the excluders by decreasing their outcomes; even when this required participants to give up monetary rewards. Punishment of excluders was associated with increased activation in the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and bilateral anterior insula. Costly punishment was accompanied by higher activity in the pre-SMA compared with punishment that resulted in gains or was non-costly. Refraining from punishment (i.e. forgiveness) was associated with self-reported perspective-taking and increased activation in the bilateral temporoparietal junction, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings show that social exclusion can result in punishment as well as forgiveness of excluders and that separable neural networks implicated in social cognition and cognitive control are recruited when people choose either to punish or to forgive those who excluded them.

  1. Secondary School Teachers' Perception of Corporal Punishment: A Case Study in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruvalath, Reena; Tripathi, Medha

    2015-01-01

    This article examines secondary school teachers' perceptions of corporal punishment in India. Although it has been banned in Indian schools, various types of corporal punishment are still used by teachers. It has been mainly used as a mechanism for controlling disciplinary problems in schools. Based on a pilot study of 160 secondary teachers, the…

  2. Is It Time for a U.S. Policy to Ban Corporal Punishment of Schoolchildren?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breshears, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This article examines corporal punishment in U.S. public schools, proposes a national conversation regarding its use, and advocates for a national policy to promote nonviolent discipline methods and prohibit corporal punishment of children in educational settings. The United States remains one of the few postmodern societies without a national…

  3. Cooperation and retaliation in collective good games : Does counter-punishment really destroy cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Dieko; Dijkstra, Jacob; Flache, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has pointed to the potential of counter-punishment opportunities to undermine the positive effects of ‘altruistic punishment’ on cooperation in collective good games. These studies may have excluded important aspects of punishment in real life settings, notably the ambiguity whethe

  4. Voluntary rewards mediate the evolution of pool punishment for maintaining public goods in large populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Uchida, Satoshi; Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-03-01

    Punishment is a popular tool when governing commons in situations where free riders would otherwise take over. It is well known that sanctioning systems, such as the police and courts, are costly and thus can suffer from those who free ride on other's efforts to maintain the sanctioning systems (second-order free riders). Previous game-theory studies showed that if populations are very large, pool punishment rarely emerges in public good games, even when participation is optional, because of second-order free riders. Here we show that a matching fund for rewarding cooperation leads to the emergence of pool punishment, despite the presence of second-order free riders. We demonstrate that reward funds can pave the way for a transition from a population of free riders to a population of pool punishers. A key factor in promoting the transition is also to reward those who contribute to pool punishment, yet not abstaining from participation. Reward funds eventually vanish in raising pool punishment, which is sustainable by punishing the second-order free riders. This suggests that considering the interdependence of reward and punishment may help to better understand the origins and transitions of social norms and institutions.

  5. A Study on Technical High School Teachers' Views Concerning Corporal Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Said

    2016-01-01

    Corporal punishment is defined as inflicting pain on body of someone who presents undesired behavior or does not present expected behavior. In the developed world, experiencing information society, corporal punishment is still in the agenda in educational system in Turkey. In this study, it was aimed to determine technical high school teachers'…

  6. An Analysis of Corporal Punishment Practices in the State of Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Damond, Twyla A.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this research mainly centers on a quantitative descriptive overview of corporal punishment practices in the state of Mississippi, but this study also includes a legal document analysis component. This study forms the Mississippi portion of a comprehensive analysis of the demographics of corporal punishment in the public schools of the…

  7. Influence of depression symptoms on history-independent reward and punishment processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevers, Christopher G; Worthy, Darrell A; Gorlick, Marissa A; Nix, Brittany; Chotibut, Tanya; Todd Maddox, W

    2013-05-15

    Prior research indicates that depressed individuals are less responsive to rewards and more sensitive to punishments than non-depressed individuals. This study examines decision-making under reward maximizing or punishment minimizing conditions among adults with low (n=47) or high (n=48) depression symptoms. We utilized a history-independent decision-making task where learning is experience-based and the participants' goal is to enhance immediate payoff. Results indicated a significant interaction between incentive condition (reward maximizing, punishment minimizing) and depression group. Within the low depression group, better performance was observed for reward maximization than punishment minimization. In contrast, within the high depression group, better performance was observed for punishment minimization than reward maximization. Further, the high depression group outperformed the low depression symptom group in the punishment minimization condition, but no depression group differences were observed in the reward maximization condition. Computational modeling indicated that the high depression group was more likely to choose options with the highest expected reward, particularly in the punishment condition. Thus, decision-making is improved for people with elevated depression symptoms when minimizing punishment relative to maximizing rewards.

  8. Male cleaner wrasses adjust punishment of female partners according to the stakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihani, Nichola J; Pinto, Ana I; Grutter, Alexandra S; Wismer, Sharon; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-01-22

    Punishment is an important deterrent against cheating in cooperative interactions. In humans, the severity of cheating affects the strength of punishment which, in turn, affects the punished individual's future behaviour. Here, we show such flexible adjustments for the first time in a non-human species, the cleaner wrasse (Labroides dimidiatus), where males are known to punish female partners. We exposed pairs of cleaners to a model client offering two types of food, preferred 'prawn' items and less-preferred 'flake' items. Analogous to interactions with real clients, eating a preferred prawn item ('cheating') led to model client removal. We varied the extent to which female cheating caused pay-off reduction to the male and measured the corresponding severity of male punishment. Males punished females more severely when females cheated during interactions with high value, rather than low value, model clients; and when females were similar in size to the male. This pattern may arise because, in this protogynous hermaphrodite, cheating by similar-sized females may reduce size differences to the extent that females change sex and become reproductive competitors. In response to more severe punishment from males, females behaved more cooperatively. Our results show that punishment can be adjusted to circumstances and that such subtleties can have an important bearing on the outcome of cooperative interactions.

  9. Maternal Use of Physical Punishment in Response to Child Misbehavior: Implications for Child Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateah, C.A.; Durrant, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The objective was to examine the roles of cognition and affect in maternal use of physical punishment. Method:: Through a review of the literature, distal and proximal predictors (cognitive and affective) of physical punishment use were identified. One hundred and ten mothers of 3-year-old children were interviewed regarding two…

  10. Attitudes toward Capital Punishment: Preference for the Penalty or Mere Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandys, Marla; McGarrell, Edmund F.

    1995-01-01

    Using a quota sampling procedure, 514 Indiana citizens were asked about specific circumstances surrounding capital punishment and about their support for various goals of sentencing. Results suggest that although general favorability toward capital punishment is quite high, such a result is misleading with only nine percent supporting it under all…

  11. Reassessing the Racial Divide in Support for Capital Punishment: The Continuing Significance of Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnever, James D.; Cullen, Francis T.

    2007-01-01

    This project investigates the racial divide in support for capital punishment. The authors examine whether race has a direct effect on support for capital punishment and test whether the influence of race varies across class, being a native southerner, confidence in government officials, political orientation, and religious affiliation. Using data…

  12. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment.

  13. Experiments combining communication with punishment options demonstrate how individuals can overcome social dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, Elinor

    2012-02-01

    Guala raises important questions about the misinterpretation of experimental studies that have found that subjects engage in costly punishment. Instead of positing that punishment is the solution for social dilemmas, earlier research posited that when individuals facing a social dilemma agreed on their own rules and used graduated sanctions, they were more likely to have robust solutions over time.

  14. Effects of leader contingent and noncontingent reward and punishment behaviors on subordinate performance and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, P M; Todor, W D; Skov, R

    1982-12-01

    This study investigated the nature of the relationships between leader reward and punishment behaviors and subordinate performance and satisfaction. Only performance-contingent reward behavior was found to affect subordinate performance significantly. Positive relationships were found between leader contingent reward behavior and employee satisfaction. Contingent punishment had no effects on subordinate performance or satisfaction.

  15. Effects of Point-Loss Punishers on Human Signal-Detection Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Celia; Alsop, Brent

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments using human participants varied the distribution of point-gain reinforcers or point-loss punishers in two-alternative signal-detection procedures. Experiment 1 varied the distribution of point-gain reinforcers for correct responses (Group A) and point-loss punishers for errors (Group B) across conditions. Response bias varied…

  16. Sex Differences in Reinforcement and Punishment on Prime-Time Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, A. Chris; Gowan, Darryl C.

    1980-01-01

    Television programs were analyzed for frequencies of positive reinforcement and punishment exchanged among performers varying in age and sex. Females were found to more often exhibit and receive reinforcement, whereas males more often exhibited and received punishment. These findings have implications for children's learning of positive and…

  17. Gender differences in reward and punishment for monetary and social feedback in children: An ERP study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuchen; Song, Yan; Xiao, Xue; Huang, Wanyi; Li, Yanfang

    2017-01-01

    Gender differences in feedback processing have been observed among adolescents and adults through event-related potentials. However, information on whether and how this feedback processing is affected by feedback valence, feedback type, and individual sensitivity in reward/punishment among children remains minimal. In this study, we used a guessing game task coupled with electroencephalography to investigate gender differences in feedback processing, in which feedback to reward and punishment was presented in the context of monetary and social conditions. Results showed that boys were less likely to switch their response after punishment, had generally less feedback-related negativity (FRN) amplitude, and longer FRN latency in monetary and punishment conditions than girls. Moreover, FRN for monetary punishment, which is related to individual difference in reward sensitivity, was observed only in girls. The study provides gender-specific evidence for the neural processing of feedback, which may offer educational guidance for appropriate feedback for girls and boys. PMID:28346515

  18. Punishment of an extinguishing shock-avoidance response by time-out from positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, M R

    1966-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of punishment by time-out from positive reinforcement on the extinction of discriminated shock-avoidance responding. Subjects were trained initially to bar press for food on an intermittent schedule of reinforcement and, concurrently, to avoid shock at the onset of a warning signal. Experiment I compared avoidance extinction performance under no punishment and when avoidance responding resulted in a 30-sec TO from reinforced appetitive responding. In Exp II, the contingent use of TO punishment was compared with its random, or noncontingent use. The results of both experiments showed that in the absence of punishment, avoidance extinction was characterized by short latencies and nearly 100% avoidance responding. Avoidance responding in extinction was little affected by noncontingent TO punishment. When TO was made contingent upon avoidance responding, however, avoidance latencies immediately increased and the frequency of avoidance responses subsequently decreased to zero.

  19. Defector-accelerated cooperativeness and punishment in public goods games with mutations

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk; Perc, Matjaz; Szabo, Gyorgy

    2010-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games with four competing strategies: cooperators, defectors, punishing cooperators, and punishing defectors. To explore the robustness of the cooperation-promoting effect of costly punishment, besides the usual strategy adoption dynamics we also apply strategy mutations. As expected, frequent mutations create kind of well-mixed conditions, which support the spreading of defectors. However, when the mutation rate is small, the final stationary state does not significantly differ from the state of the mutation-free model, independently of the values of the punishment fine and cost. Nevertheless, the mutation rate affects the relaxation dynamics. Rare mutations can largely accelerate the spreading of costly punishment. This is due to the fact that the presence of defectors breaks the balance of power between both cooperative strategies, which leads to a different kind of dynamics.

  20. Personality, punishment, and procedural learning: a test of J.A. Gray's anxiety theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, P J; Pickering, A D; Gray, J A

    1997-08-01

    Effects of punishment and personality on a phylogenetically old form of knowledge acquisition, procedural learning, were studied to test J. A. Gray's 1970, 1987, 1991) theory of anxiety. Broad measures of personality (extraversion, E.; neuroticism, N; and psychoticism, P) and specific measures of trait anxiety (Anx) and impulsivity (Imp) were taken. Punishment led to response invigoration, reducing reaction time latency, but this was not related to personality. A negative correlation of P and learning was observed in both punishment and control conditions. In support of Gray's theory, high Anx improved learning under punishment (and impaired learning under control), and low Anx improved learning under control (and impaired learning under punishment). These data are contrasted with H.J. Eysenck's (1967) arousal theory of personality. Results point to a new behavioral tool with which researchers can explore further the interaction of reinforcement, arousal, and personality.

  1. Phase diagrams for the spatial public goods game with pool punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Szabó, György; Perc, Matjaž

    2011-03-01

    The efficiency of institutionalized punishment is studied by evaluating the stationary states in the spatial public goods game comprising unconditional defectors, cooperators, and cooperating pool punishers as the three competing strategies. Fines and costs of pool punishment are considered as the two main parameters determining the stationary distributions of strategies on the square lattice. Each player collects a payoff from five five-person public goods games, and the evolution of strategies is subsequently governed by imitation based on pairwise comparisons at a low level of noise. The impact of pool punishment on the evolution of cooperation in structured populations is significantly different from that reported previously for peer punishment. Representative phase diagrams reveal remarkably rich behavior, depending also on the value of the synergy factor that characterizes the efficiency of investments payed into the common pool. Besides traditional single- and two-strategy stationary states, a rock-paper-scissors type of cyclic dominance can emerge in strikingly different ways.

  2. Defector-accelerated cooperativeness and punishment in public goods games with mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Dirk; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž; Szabó, György

    2010-05-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games with four competing strategies: cooperators, defectors, punishing cooperators, and punishing defectors. To explore the robustness of the cooperation-promoting effect of costly punishment, besides the usual strategy adoption dynamics we also apply strategy mutations. As expected, frequent mutations create kind of well-mixed conditions, which support the spreading of defectors. However, when the mutation rate is small, the final stationary state does not significantly differ from the state of the mutation-free model, independently of the values of the punishment fine and cost. Nevertheless, the mutation rate affects the relaxation dynamics. Rare mutations can largely accelerate the spreading of costly punishment. This is due to the fact that the presence of defectors breaks the balance of power between both cooperative strategies, which leads to a different kind of dynamics.

  3. Phase diagrams for the spatial public goods game with pool-punishment

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaz

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of institutionalized punishment is studied by evaluating the stationary states in the spatial public goods game comprising unconditional defectors, cooperators, and cooperating pool-punishers as the three competing strategies. Fine and cost of pool-punishment are considered as the two main parameters determining the stationary distributions of strategies on the square lattice. Each player collects its payoff from five five-person public goods games, and the evolution of strategies is subsequently governed by imitation based on pairwise comparisons at a low level of noise. The impact of pool-punishment on the evolution of cooperation in structured populations is significantly different from that reported previously for peer-punishment. Representative phase diagrams reveal remarkably rich behavior, depending also on the value of the synergy factor that characterizes the efficiency of investments payed into the common pool. Besides traditional single and two-strategy stationary states, a rock-pape...

  4. Effects of reinforcement for alternative behavior during punishment of self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R H; Iwata, B A; Conners, J; Roscoe, E M

    1999-01-01

    A number of variables influence the effectiveness of punishment and may determine the extent to which less intrusive forms of punishment may be used as alternatives to more intrusive interventions. For example, it has been suggested that response suppression during punishment may be facilitated if reinforcement is concurrently available for an alternative response. However, results of basic research demonstrating this finding have not been replicated with interventions more commonly prescribed as treatments for problem behavior. We evaluated the effects of relatively benign punishment procedures (reprimands or brief manual restraint) on the self-injurious behavior of 4 individuals who had been diagnosed with mental retardation, when access to reinforcement for alternative behavior (manipulation of leisure materials) was and was not available. In all cases, punishment produced greater response suppression when reinforcement for an alternative response was available.

  5. Spare the Rod, Destroy the Child: Examining the Speculative Association of Corporal Punishment and Deviant Behavior among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to examine the relationship between the utilization of corporal punishment and its relationship to subsequent deviant behavior among youth. Fundamental aspects regarding corporal punishment (e.g. definition of corporal punishment, supportive and opposing arguments, etc.) are discussed. Socio-demographic factors…

  6. Correlates and Consequences of Spanking and Verbal Punishment for Low-Income White, African American, and Mexican American Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Lisa J.; Ispa, Jean M.; Fine, Mark A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Brady-Smith, Christy; Ayoub, Catherine; Bai, Yu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of spanking and verbal punishment in 2,573 low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers at ages 1, 2, and 3. Both spanking and verbal punishment varied by maternal race/ethnicity. Child fussiness at age 1 predicted spanking and verbal punishment at all 3 ages.…

  7. Raskolnikov’s Desire for Confession and Punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyyan Bal

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Much criticism about Dostoevsky’s Crime and Punishment has focused on the variety and ambivalence of Raskolnikov’s motives for committing the crime or transgression of the title. Sergei Hackel, in his article “Raskolnikov through the Looking-Glass: Dostoevsky and Camus’s L’Etranger”, sums up the various motives that have been discussed in relation to Raskolnikov’s crime as follows: In fact, it is the multiplicity of possible motives that makes Raskolnikov so convincing a presence. Was he seeking money to help his family? Or simply seeking money? Was he putting his concept of the Napoleonic superman to the test? Or killing to relieve the tension created by introspection in his claustrophobic room? Was he mentally or physically ill? Tempted by Satan? Was he expressing his resentment against society? Or attempting to bridge the gulf between society and himself by attracting the former's attention? Or by killing, and thus utterly possessing, one of society's representatives? Or seeking punishment to allay some subconscious guilt? Indulging a will to suffer? (196

  8. The dead donor rule, voluntary active euthanasia, and capital punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, Christian; Levin, Noah

    2011-06-01

    We argue that the dead donor rule, which states that multiple vital organs should only be taken from dead patients, is justified neither in principle nor in practice. We use a thought experiment and a guiding assumption in the literature about the justification of moral principles to undermine the theoretical justification for the rule. We then offer two real world analogues to this thought experiment, voluntary active euthanasia and capital punishment, and argue that the moral permissibility of terminating any patient through the removal of vital organs cannot turn on whether or not the practice violates the dead donor rule. Next, we consider practical justifications for the dead donor rule. Specifically, we consider whether there are compelling reasons to promulgate the rule even though its corresponding moral principle is not theoretically justified. We argue that there are no such reasons. In fact, we argue that promulgating the rule may actually decrease public trust in organ procurement procedures and medical institutions generally - even in states that do not permit capital punishment or voluntary active euthanasia. Finally, we examine our case against the dead donor rule in the light of common arguments for it. We find that these arguments are often misplaced - they do not support the dead donor rule. Instead, they support the quite different rule that patients should not be killed for their vital organs.

  9. Nationalization of International Criminal Norm of Crime and Punishment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomeng LI

    2011-01-01

    1.OverviewThe issue for this paper is Korean situation of nationalization of international treaty that contains provisions of crime and punishment,It has come to be a very important issue,in that,through bilateral or multilateral agreement,international criminal norm regarding crime and punishment that often does not correspond to Korean criminal justice system,has been and will be implanted in it.Not every international norm that was introduced in Korean criminal justice system has been great.As everyone knows,because a criminal justice system,if it is abused,can easily violate a citizen's liberty and right,we should pay more attention to what is introduced in Korean criminal justice system,under the name of international cooperation and progressive norm of criminal justice policy.In short,the tactics for the benefit of state power lead to the creation of so-called a new system,to cope with new criminal phenomenon.

  10. Punishment, Democracy and Transitional Justice in Argentina (1983-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Arturo Zysman Quirós

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Latin America has neither suffered the majority of mass atrocities in the contemporary world nor the worst of them but, after a sustained period of transition to democracy, it holds the record for the most domestic trials for human rights abuses. Argentina is an emblematic case in Latin America and the world. Due to the early development of its human rights trials, their social impact and their scale, it has a leading role in what is known as ‘the justice cascade’. Until recently, leading scholars in sociology of punishment have studied the penality of ‘ordinary crimes’ through causally deep and global narratives largely from the perspective of the Global North. State crimes and regional paths of transitional justice have been neglected in their accounts. This paper will question this state of affairs – or ‘parallelism’ – through an exploration of the punishment of both ‘common crimes’ and ‘state crimes’ in Argentina, thus contributing to the growing body of scholarship on southern criminology.

  11. Experiences of punishment by parents during childhood: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaković Olivera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study described perceived differences in the choice of child rearing practices aimed at correcting children’s inappropriate behaviors as remembered by the participants at young adulthood. The sample consisted of 207 students of under-graduate studies of the University of Novi Sad. The most of the participants does not have children and they grew up in complete families. On the Dimensions of Discipline Inventory (A (DDI-A, Straus, Fauchier, 2007, the participants estimated the experience and methods of disciplining which were used by their parents during their childhood. The participants describe uniform discipline behaviors of their parents regarding the estimated discipline techniques. These behaviors are dominated by the punishing ones, and the differences between fathers and mothers are visible in a stronger tendency to describe fathers as the ones who use corporal punishment, abolish privileges and give restorative tasks. The described discipline techniques for both fathers and mothers remain stable and similar, regardless of the socio-demographic characteristics of the families as family completeness, work experience and level of education of the parents, as well as estimated economic status of the family.

  12. Associations between sensitivity to punishment, sensitivity to reward, and gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaher, Raluca M; Hahn, Austin M; Shishido, Hanako; Simons, Jeffrey S; Gaster, Sam

    2015-03-01

    The majority of individuals gamble during their lifetime; however only a subset of these individuals develops problematic gambling. Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory may be relevant to understanding gambling problems. Differences in sensitivity to punishments and rewards can influence an individual's behavior and may be pertinent to the development of gambling problems. This study examined the functional associations between sensitivity to punishment (SP), sensitivity to reward (SR), and gambling problems in a sample of 2254 college students. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression was used to predict gambling problems as well as the absence of gambling problems. Gambling problems were hypothesized to be positively associated with SR and inversely associated with SP. In addition, SP was hypothesized to moderate the association between SR and gambling problems, attenuating the strength of the association. As hypothesized, SR was positively associated with gambling problems. However, SP did not moderate the relationship between SR and gambling problems. SP did, however, moderate the relationship between SR and the likelihood of never experiencing gambling problems. The results demonstrate that individual differences in SP and SR are functionally associated with gambling problems.

  13. Individual differences in behavioural inhibition explain free riding in public good games when punishment is expected but not implemented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skatova Anya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature on social dilemmas and punishment focuses on the behaviour of the punisher. However, to fully explain the effect of punishment on cooperation, it is important to understand the psychological mechanisms influencing the behaviour of those who expect to be punished. This paper examines whether the expectation of punishment, rather than the implementation of punishment is sufficient to prevent individuals from free riding. Individual differences in the punishment sensitivity have been linked to both threat responses (flight, fight, fear system, or the FFFS and to the response to the uncertainty of punishment (BIS-anxiety.The paper, therefore, examines if individual differences in BIS-anxiety and FFFS can explain some of the variability in free riding in the face of implemented and non-implemented punishment. Methods Participants took part in a series of one-shot Public Goods Games (PGGs facing two punishment conditions (implemented and non-implemented and two standard non-punishment PGGs. The punishment was implemented as a centralized authority punishment (i.e., if one participant contributed less than their group members, they were automatically fined. Individual contribution levels and presence/absence of zero contributions indexed free riding. Individual differences in behavioural inhibition were assessed. Results Individuals contributed more under the threat of punishment (both implemented and non-implemented. However, individuals contributed less when the punishment was not implemented compared to when it was. Those scoring high in BIS-anxiety contributed more when the punishment expectations were not implemented. This effect was not observed for FFFS. Conclusion Supporting previous research, punishment had a powerful effect in increasing contribution levels in the PGGs. However, when expected punishment was not implemented, individual differences in punishment sensitivity, specifically in BIS-anxiety, were

  14. A look at corporal punishment and some implications of its use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, F C

    1982-01-01

    The author notes several legal, social, philosophical and educational attitudes common to Canada and the United States which have, for centuries, characterized the uses of corporal punishment with children. Specifically, corporal punishment is viewed as a technique for developing discipline within the school system. Inconsistencies in both Canada and the U.S. are noted regarding court decisions and their application in the classroom. Recent revisions to The Ontario Child Welfare Act are discussed in light of its implications for parents and teachers who physically punish their children or students. Research findings related to corporal punishment and their implications for schools are cited. Negative side-effects of administering punishment are also described. The evidence suggests that corporal punishment besides being an ineffective learning technique, is not the uncomplicated, quick solution many may think it. The author concludes by proposing that because of their important role in the lives of developing children and considering the resources devoted to teacher training, teachers should be held as legally accountable for their use of corporal punishment with children as parents are. As well, he indicates the need for (1) increased teacher training in the areas of child management, classroom management and interactional processes; (2) greater opportunity to devise creative problem-solving strategies; and (3) a re-ordering of priorities at universities, colleges and faculties of education which would benefit not only teachers, but ultimately their students.

  15. Corporal punishment, maternal warmth, and child adjustment: a longitudinal study in eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Sharma, Chinmayi; Malone, Patrick S; Woodlief, Darren; Dodge, Kenneth A; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Two key tasks facing parents across cultures are managing children's behaviors (and misbehaviors) and conveying love and affection. Previous research has found that corporal punishment generally is related to worse child adjustment, whereas parental warmth is related to better child adjustment. This study examined whether the association between corporal punishment and child adjustment problems (anxiety and aggression) is moderated by maternal warmth in a diverse set of countries that vary in a number of sociodemographic and psychological ways. Interviews were conducted with 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 1,196; 51% girls) and their mothers in 8 countries: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. Follow-up interviews were conducted 1 and 2 years later. Corporal punishment was related to increases, and maternal warmth was related to decreases, in children's anxiety and aggression over time; however, these associations varied somewhat across groups. Maternal warmth moderated the effect of corporal punishment in some countries, with increases in anxiety over time for children whose mothers were high in both warmth and corporal punishment. The findings illustrate the overall association between corporal punishment and child anxiety and aggression as well as patterns specific to particular countries. Results suggest that clinicians across countries should advise parents against using corporal punishment, even in the context of parent-child relationships that are otherwise warm, and should assist parents in finding other ways to manage children's behaviors.

  16. Third-party punishment increases cooperation in children through (misaligned) expectations and conditional cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lergetporer, Philipp; Angerer, Silvia; Glätzle-Rützler, Daniela; Sutter, Matthias

    2014-05-13

    The human ability to establish cooperation, even in large groups of genetically unrelated strangers, depends upon the enforcement of cooperation norms. Third-party punishment is one important factor to explain high levels of cooperation among humans, although it is still somewhat disputed whether other animal species also use this mechanism for promoting cooperation. We study the effectiveness of third-party punishment to increase children's cooperative behavior in a large-scale cooperation game. Based on an experiment with 1,120 children, aged 7 to 11 y, we find that the threat of third-party punishment more than doubles cooperation rates, despite the fact that children are rarely willing to execute costly punishment. We can show that the higher cooperation levels with third-party punishment are driven by two components. First, cooperation is a rational (expected payoff-maximizing) response to incorrect beliefs about the punishment behavior of third parties. Second, cooperation is a conditionally cooperative reaction to correct beliefs that third party punishment will increase a partner's level of cooperation.

  17. Stop Saying That It Is Wrong! Psychophysiological, Cognitive, and Metacognitive Markers of Children's Sensitivity to Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Scheres, Anouk; Tobon, Carlos Andres; Damm, Juliane; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Marino, Julian; Marder, Sandra; Manes, Facundo; Abrevaya, Sofia; Ibanez, Agustin

    2015-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental evidence suggests that children's main decision-making strategy is to avoid options likely to induce punishment. However, the cognitive and affective factors contributing to children's avoidance to high punishment frequency remain unknown. The present study explored psychophysiological, cognitive, and metacognitive processes associated with sensitivity to punishment frequency. We evaluated 54 participants (between 8 and 15 years old) with a modified Iowa Gambling Task for children (IGT-C) which included options with varying long-term profit and punishment frequencies. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) were recorded during this task. Additionally, we assessed IGT-C metacognitive knowledge, fluid intelligence, and executive functions. Participants exhibited behavioral avoidance and high anticipatory SCRs to options with high frequency of punishment. Moreover, age, IGT-C metacognitive knowledge, and inhibitory control were associated with individual differences in sensitivity to punishment frequency. Our results suggest that children's preference for infrequently punished decisions is partially explained by psychophysiological signals as well as task complexity and development of cognitive control.

  18. 'Being hit was normal': teachers' (unchanging perceptions of discipline and corporal punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sagree Govender

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Global and national concerns that corporal punishment is still being used, openly in certain milieus and surreptitiously in others, suggests that education stakeholders need to take cognisance of teachers' perceptions and experiences that influence their classroom discipline in the context of changing curriculum policies and legislation. This study was guided by research objectives that explored, firstly, teachers perceptions of their past experiences of corporal punishment and, secondly, their perceptions of their disciplinary techniques since the abolition of corporal punishment. Through a qualitative research methodology of semi-structured interviews, data were collected from seven primary school teachers in KwaZulu-Natal. Teachers' perceptions of their experiences and practices of corporal punishment were explored through two dimensions of the Foucauldian concept of bio-power, namely, disciplinary power and governmentality. The findings show that although all teachers experienced corporal punishment negatively when they were pupils, their responses to the abolition of corporal punishment were varied, multiple and complex. Recommendations for further research include exploring the resilience of authoritarian teaching approaches and teacher professional development of learner-centred approaches to curb teacher frustration that contributes to their use of corporal punishment.

  19. Consequences of corporal punishment among African Americans: the importance of context and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Su, Xiaoli

    2013-08-01

    Corporal punishment is a controversial practice used by the majority of American parents and is especially prevalent among African Americans. Research regarding its consequences has produced mixed results although it is clear that there is a need for considering the context within which corporal punishment is administered. To assess the impact of spanking, we employed an expanded parenting typology that includes corporal punishment. Longitudinal self-report data from a sample of 683 African American youth (54% female) were utilized to evaluate the relative impact of the resulting eight parenting styles on three outcomes: conduct problems, depressive symptoms, and school engagement. Results from Negative Binomial Regression Models indicate that the effect of corporal punishment depends upon the constellation of parenting behaviors within which it is embedded and upon the type of outcome being considered. While it is never the case that there is any added benefit of adding corporal punishment, it is also the case that using corporal punishment is not always associated with poor outcomes. Overall, however, our findings show that parenting styles that include corporal punishment do not produce outcomes as positive as those associated with authoritative parenting.

  20. Corporal Punishment, Maternal Warmth, and Child Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study in Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sharma, Chinmayi; Malone, Patrick S.; Woodlief, Darren; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective Two key tasks facing parents across cultures are managing children’s behaviors (and misbehaviors) and conveying love and affection. Previous research has found that corporal punishment generally is related to worse child adjustment, whereas parental warmth is related to better child adjustment. This study examined whether the association between corporal punishment and child adjustment problems (anxiety and aggression) is moderated by maternal warmth in a diverse set of countries that vary in a number of sociodemographic and psychological ways. Method Interviews were conducted with 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 1,196; 51% girls) and their mothers in eight countries: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. Follow-up interviews were conducted one and two years later. Results Corporal punishment was related to increases, and maternal warmth was related to decreases, in children’s anxiety and aggression over time; however, these associations varied somewhat across groups. Maternal warmth moderated the effect of corporal punishment in some countries, with increases in anxiety over time for children whose mothers were high in both warmth and corporal punishment. Conclusions The findings illustrate the overall association between corporal punishment and child anxiety and aggression as well as patterns specific to particular countries. Results suggest that clinicians across countries should advise parents against using corporal punishment, even in the context of parent-child relationships that are otherwise warm, and should assist parents in finding other ways to manage children’s behaviors. PMID:24885184

  1. Threat of punishment motivates memory encoding via amygdala, not midbrain, interactions with the medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; Labar, Kevin S; Adcock, R Alison

    2012-06-27

    Neural circuits associated with motivated declarative encoding and active threat avoidance have both been described, but the relative contribution of these systems to punishment-motivated encoding remains unknown. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans to examine mechanisms of declarative memory enhancement when subjects were motivated to avoid punishments that were contingent on forgetting. A motivational cue on each trial informed participants whether they would be punished or not for forgetting an upcoming scene image. Items associated with the threat of shock were better recognized 24 h later. Punishment-motivated enhancements in subsequent memory were associated with anticipatory activation of right amygdala and increases in its functional connectivity with parahippocampal and orbitofrontal cortices. On a trial-by-trial basis, right amygdala activation during the motivational cue predicted hippocampal activation during encoding of the subsequent scene; across participants, the strength of this interaction predicted memory advantages due to motivation. Of note, punishment-motivated learning was not associated with activation of dopaminergic midbrain, as would be predicted by valence-independent models of motivation to learn. These data are consistent with the view that motivation by punishment activates the amygdala, which in turn prepares the medial temporal lobe for memory formation. The findings further suggest a brain system for declarative learning motivated by punishment that is distinct from that for learning motivated by reward.

  2. Stop Saying That It Is Wrong! Psychophysiological, Cognitive, and Metacognitive Markers of Children's Sensitivity to Punishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luz Gonzalez-Gadea

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopmental evidence suggests that children's main decision-making strategy is to avoid options likely to induce punishment. However, the cognitive and affective factors contributing to children's avoidance to high punishment frequency remain unknown. The present study explored psychophysiological, cognitive, and metacognitive processes associated with sensitivity to punishment frequency. We evaluated 54 participants (between 8 and 15 years old with a modified Iowa Gambling Task for children (IGT-C which included options with varying long-term profit and punishment frequencies. Skin conductance responses (SCRs were recorded during this task. Additionally, we assessed IGT-C metacognitive knowledge, fluid intelligence, and executive functions. Participants exhibited behavioral avoidance and high anticipatory SCRs to options with high frequency of punishment. Moreover, age, IGT-C metacognitive knowledge, and inhibitory control were associated with individual differences in sensitivity to punishment frequency. Our results suggest that children's preference for infrequently punished decisions is partially explained by psychophysiological signals as well as task complexity and development of cognitive control.

  3. Memory decay and susceptibility to amnesia dissociate punishment--from relief-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diegelmann, Sören; Preuschoff, Stephan; Appel, Mirjam; Niewalda, Thomas; Gerber, Bertram; Yarali, Ayse

    2013-08-23

    Painful events shape future behaviour in two ways: stimuli associated with pain onset subsequently support learned avoidance (i.e. punishment-learning) because they signal future, upcoming pain. Stimuli associated with pain offset in turn signal relief and later on support learned approach (i.e. relief-learning). The relative strengths of such punishment- and relief-learning can be crucial for the adaptive organization of behaviour in the aftermath of painful events. Using Drosophila, we compare punishment- and relief-memories in terms of their temporal decay and sensitivity to retrograde amnesia. During the first 75 min following training, relief-memory is stable, whereas punishment-memory decays to half of the initial score. By 24 h after training, however, relief-memory is lost, whereas a third of punishment-memory scores still remain. In accordance with such rapid temporal decay from 75 min on, retrograde amnesia erases relief-memory but leaves a half of punishment-memory scores intact. These findings suggest differential mechanistic bases for punishment- and relief-memory, thus offering possibilities for separately interfering with either of them.

  4. Memory decay and susceptibility to amnesia dissociate punishment- from relief-learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diegelmann, Sören; Preuschoff, Stephan; Appel, Mirjam; Niewalda, Thomas; Gerber, Bertram; Yarali, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    Painful events shape future behaviour in two ways: stimuli associated with pain onset subsequently support learned avoidance (i.e. punishment-learning) because they signal future, upcoming pain. Stimuli associated with pain offset in turn signal relief and later on support learned approach (i.e. relief-learning). The relative strengths of such punishment- and relief-learning can be crucial for the adaptive organization of behaviour in the aftermath of painful events. Using Drosophila, we compare punishment- and relief-memories in terms of their temporal decay and sensitivity to retrograde amnesia. During the first 75 min following training, relief-memory is stable, whereas punishment-memory decays to half of the initial score. By 24 h after training, however, relief-memory is lost, whereas a third of punishment-memory scores still remain. In accordance with such rapid temporal decay from 75 min on, retrograde amnesia erases relief-memory but leaves a half of punishment-memory scores intact. These findings suggest differential mechanistic bases for punishment- and relief-memory, thus offering possibilities for separately interfering with either of them. PMID:23658002

  5. Corporal Punishment in U.S. Public Schools: Prevalence, Disparities in Use, and Status in State and Federal Policy. Social Policy Report. Volume 30, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Font, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    School corporal punishment is currently legal in 19 states, and over 160,000 children in these states are subject to corporal punishment in schools each year. Given that the use of school corporal punishment is heavily concentrated in Southern states, and that the federal government has not included corporal punishment in its recent initiatives…

  6. Remembering with gains and losses: effects of monetary reward and punishment on successful encoding activation of source memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemune, Yayoi; Tsukiura, Takashi; Kambara, Toshimune; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-05-01

    The motivation of getting rewards or avoiding punishments reinforces learning behaviors. Although the neural mechanisms underlying the effect of rewards on episodic memory have been demonstrated, there is little evidence of the effect of punishments on this memory. Our functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the effects of monetary rewards and punishments on activation during the encoding of source memories. During encoding, participants memorized words (item) and locations of presented words (source) under 3 conditions (Reward, Punishment, and Control). During retrieval, participants retrieved item and source memories of the words and were rewarded or penalized according to their performance. Source memories encoded with rewards or punishments were remembered better than those without such encoding. fMRI data demonstrated that the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra and nucleus accumbens activations reflected both the processes of reward and punishment, whereas insular activation increased as a linear function of punishment. Activation in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex predicted subsequent retrieval success of source memories. Additionally, correlations between these reward/punishment-related regions and the hippocampus were significant. The successful encoding of source memories could be enhanced by punishments and rewards, and interactions between reward/punishment-related regions and memory-related regions could contribute to memory enhancement by reward and/or punishment.

  7. Childhood physical punishment or maltreatment and partnership outcomes at age 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Geraldine F H; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John

    2014-05-01

    Childhood physical abuse is known to be associated with impaired outcomes in adulthood (e.g., particularly for mental and physical health). However, relatively little is known about adult partnership outcomes for those exposed to childhood physical punishment or maltreatment. This study aims to examine the associations between childhood physical punishment or maltreatment and partnership outcomes at age 30. This investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of more than 900 New Zealand adults studied to age 30. At ages 18 and 21, cohort members reported on the extent of exposure to childhood physical punishment or maltreatment prior to age 16. Measures of partner relations were collected up to age 30. After adjustment for childhood social, family, and related factors, increasing exposure to childhood physical punishment or maltreatment was associated with greater negative partner relationships (p=.002), partner social adjustment problems (p=.006), interpartner violence victimization (p=.010), and interpartner violence perpetration (p=.019). However, after adjustment, the association between childhood physical punishment or maltreatment and the number of cohabiting relationships was no longer statistically significant (p=.151). Interactions between childhood physical punishment or maltreatment and gender were tested for each of the outcomes. This analysis showed an interactive relationship between childhood physical punishment or maltreatment and partner social adjustment problems in which childhood physical punishment or maltreatment for females, but not males, was associated with partner social adjustment problems. These findings suggest that increasing exposure to childhood physical punishment or maltreatment is associated with impaired partnership outcomes: more negative partner relations, increased reports of a partner with social adjustment problems, and higher levels of interpartner violence.

  8. Diffusion of responsibility attenuates altruistic punishment: A functional magnetic resonance imaging effective connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunliang; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Liu, Chao; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yue-Jia; Krueger, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Humans altruistically punish violators of social norms to enforce cooperation and pro-social behaviors. However, such altruistic behaviors diminish when others are present, due to a diffusion of responsibility. We investigated the neural signatures underlying the modulations of diffusion of responsibility on altruistic punishment, conjoining a third-party punishment task with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivariate Granger causality mapping. In our study, participants acted as impartial third-party decision-makers and decided how to punish norm violations under two different social contexts: alone (i.e., full responsibility) or in the presence of putative other third-party decision makers (i.e., diffused responsibility). Our behavioral results demonstrated that the diffusion of responsibility served as a mediator of context-dependent punishment. In the presence of putative others, participants who felt less responsible also punished less severely in response to norm violations. Our neural results revealed that underlying this behavioral effect was a network of interconnected brain regions. For unfair relative to fair splits, the presence of others led to attenuated responses in brain regions implicated in signaling norm violations (e.g., AI) and to increased responses in brain regions implicated in calculating values of norm violations (e.g., vmPFC, precuneus) and mentalizing about others (dmPFC). The dmPFC acted as the driver of the punishment network, modulating target regions, such as AI, vmPFC, and precuneus, to adjust altruistic punishment behavior. Our results uncovered the neural basis of the influence of diffusion of responsibility on altruistic punishment and highlighted the role of the mentalizing network in this important phenomenon. Hum Brain Mapp 37:663-677, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Punishing personal and electoral corruption: Experimental evidence from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Weschle

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A growing literature examines the effect of corruption on political behavior. However, little attention has been paid so far to the fact that politicians engage in it for various reasons and with different welfare consequences. In this article, I argue that voters judge corrupt politicians differently depending on what the money is used for. I show results from a survey experiment in India in which respondents heard about a politician who accepted money for a political favor. One treatment group was told that the politician used the money to personally enrich himself (personal corruption, while the other group was informed that he used it to buy votes (electoral corruption. Respondents who received the vote buying treatment were clearly and consistently less likely to agree with a series of potential punishments. This suggests that the overall welfare consequences of corrupt exchanges are an important factor when voters decide how to judge offending politicians.

  10. Crime and punishment: the economic burden of impunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, M. B.; Iglesias, J. R.; Semeshenko, V.; Nadal, J. P.

    2009-03-01

    Crime is an economically relevant activity. It may represent a mechanism of wealth distribution but also a social and economic burden because of the interference with regular legal activities and the cost of the law enforcement system. Sometimes it may be less costly for the society to allow for some level of criminality. However, a drawback of such a policy is that it may lead to a high increase of criminal activity, that may become hard to reduce later on. Here we investigate the level of law enforcement required to keep crime within acceptable limits. A sharp phase transition is observed as a function of the probability of punishment. We also analyze other consequences of criminality as the growth of the economy, the inequality in the wealth distribution (the Gini coefficient) and other relevant quantities under different scenarios of criminal activity and probabilities of apprehension.

  11. Political Parties’ Welfare Image, Electoral Punishment and Welfare State Retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Gijs; Vis, Barbara; van Kersbergen, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Will voters punish the government for cutting back welfare state entitlements? The comparative literature on the welfare state suggests that the answer is yes. Unless governments are effectively employing strategies of blame avoidance, retrenchment leads to vote loss. Because a large majority...... of voters supports the welfare state, the usual assumption is that retrenchment backfires equally on all political parties. This study contributes to an emerging body of research that demonstrates that this assumption is incorrect. On the basis of a regression analysis of the electoral fate of the governing...... parties of 14 OECD countries between 1970 and 2002, we show that most parties with a positive welfare image lose after they implemented cutbacks, whereas most parties with a negative welfare image do not. In addition, we show that positive welfare image parties in opposition gain votes, at the expense...

  12. The academic plagiarism and its punishments - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto G. S. Berlinck

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is an increase in the occurrence of plagiarism in varied types of academic texts. Therefore, in agreement with the Brazilian Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES policies, Brazilian higher education institutions should establish guidelines for the detection and inhibition of academic plagiarism. However, the notion of plagiarism is extremely complex, since the ability of textual construction acquired during education is also developed using others' words. Thus, it is necessary to better know the concept of plagiarism and its implications, as well as the consequences of plagiarism and the punishments that may result from it. Consequently, rules and policies to be established will be better founded in order to address the problem of plagiarism in academic texts in a comprehensive and consistent way, not only to inhibit plagiarism but also to promote education on how is possible to create texts in an original fashion.

  13. The dissociable effects of punishment and reward on motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Joseph M; Mallia, Elizabeth; Rothwell, John; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    A common assumption regarding error-based motor learning (motor adaptation) in humans is that its underlying mechanism is automatic and insensitive to reward- or punishment-based feedback. Contrary to this hypothesis, we show in a double dissociation that the two have independent effects on the learning and retention components of motor adaptation. Negative feedback, whether graded or binary, accelerated learning. While it was not necessary for the negative feedback to be coupled to monetary loss, it had to be clearly related to the actual performance on the preceding movement. Positive feedback did not speed up learning, but it increased retention of the motor memory when performance feedback was withdrawn. These findings reinforce the view that independent mechanisms underpin learning and retention in motor adaptation, reject the assumption that motor adaptation is independent of motivational feedback, and raise new questions regarding the neural basis of negative and positive motivational feedback in motor learning.

  14. Molecular neuroeconomics of crime and punishment: implications for neurolaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Taiki

    2012-01-01

    Criminal behaviors have been associated with risk, time and social preferences in economics (Becker 1968; Davis 1988), criminology (Chamlin & Cochran 1997), and neurolaw (Goodenough & Tucker 2010). This study proposes a molecular neuroeconomic framework for the investigation into crime and punishment. Neuroeconomic parameters (e.g., risk-attitude, probability weighting, time discounting in intertemporal choice, loss aversion, and social discounting) are predicted to be related to criminal behavior. Neurobiological and neuroendocrinological substrates such as serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, cortisol (a stress hormone), sex hormones (e.g., testosterone), and oxytocin in brain regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex, the amygdala, and the cingulate may be related to the neuroeconomic parameters governing criminal behaviors. The present framework may help us develop "neurolaw" based on molecular neuroeconomics of criminal and antisocial decision-making processes.

  15. Mentally ill persons who commit crimes: punishment or treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Yuval

    2010-01-01

    In many countries, there continue to be conflicting opinions and mechanisms regarding the appropriateness of treatment and/or punishment for mentally ill individuals who commit crimes. The general population is concerned with public safety and often finds it difficult to accept the possibility that a mentally ill individual who commits a crime can be hospitalized and eventually discharged, sometimes after a relatively short time. In most countries the options of incarceration and hospitalization are available in concert. In some, incarceration occurs before hospitalization. In others, hospitalization is first, followed by a prison term. An additional option could be "treatment years." The court would determine the number of years of treatment required, according to the crime. This dilemma has no unequivocal solution. The goal is to reach a balance between the right of the patient to treatment and the responsibility of the courts to ensure public safety.

  16. Vicious circles of punishment: a reading of Melanie Klein's Envy and gratitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Henry F

    2008-01-01

    Staged as a moral drama, Melanie Klein's Envy and Gratitude (1957) straddles two eras: one reflecting a simpler more concrete, historical method, and the other an approach of greater complexity, focused on the transferential moment. Embedded within the transference are the vicious circles of envy and punishment that are the hallmark of Klein's text. Punishment itself which is always punishment of both self and other, creates its own vicious circle, set in motion by a single act. In the sadomasochistic enactments that result, the moral force of Klein's categories fuels the countertransference. A detailed clinical hour is presented.

  17. The combined effects of noncontingent reinforcement and punishment on the reduction of rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosa, Nicole M; Roane, Henry S; Bishop, Jamie R; Silkowski, Erica L

    2016-09-01

    The current study extends the literature on the assessment and treatment of rumination through the evaluation of a combined reinforcement- and punishment-based intervention. The study included a single participant with a history of rumination maintained by automatic reinforcement, as identified via a functional analysis. Both noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) with preferred edible items and punishment, in the form of a facial screen, were implemented separately to evaluate their independent effects on the occurrence of rumination. The final treatment package included both NCR and punishment procedures. Implementation of the combined treatment resulted in a 96.5% reduction in rumination relative to baseline. Procedural modifications and integrity errors also were evaluated.

  18. Subcomponents of psychopathy have opposing correlations with punishment judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaich Borg, Jana; Kahn, Rachel E; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Kurzban, Robert; Robinson, Paul H; Kiehl, Kent A

    2013-10-01

    Psychopathy research is plagued by an enigma: Psychopaths reliably act immorally, but they also accurately report whether an action is morally wrong. The current study revealed that cooperative suppressor effects and conflicting subsets of personality traits within the construct of psychopathy might help explain this conundrum. Among a sample of adult male offenders (N = 100) who ranked deserved punishment of crimes, Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) total scores were not linearly correlated with deserved punishment task performance. However, these null results masked significant opposing associations between task performance and factors of psychopathy: the PCL-R Interpersonal/Affective (i.e., manipulative and callous) factor was positively associated with task performance, while the PCL-R Social Deviance (i.e., impulsive and antisocial) factor was simultaneously negatively associated with task performance. These relationships were qualified by a significant interaction where the Interpersonal/Affective traits were positively associated with task performance when Social Deviance traits were high, but Social Deviance traits were negatively associated with task performance when Interpersonal/Affective traits were low. This interaction helped reveal a significant nonlinear relationship between PCL-R total scores and task performance such that individuals with very low or very high PCL-R total scores performed better than those with middle-range PCL-R total scores. These results may explain the enigma of why individuals with very high psychopathic traits, but not other groups of antisocial individuals, usually have normal moral judgment in laboratory settings, but still behave immorally, especially in contexts where social deviance traits have strong influence.

  19. Testosterone shifts the balance between sensitivity for punishment and reward in healthy young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honk, E.J. van; Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Hermans, E.J.; Putman, P.L.J.; Tuiten, A.; Koppeschaar, H.P.F.

    2004-01-01

    Animal research has demonstrated reductions in punishment sensitivity and enhanced reward dependency after testosterone administration. In humans, elevated levels of testosterone have been associated with violent and antisocial behavior. Interestingly, extreme forms of violent and antisocial

  20. A double-edged sword: Benefits and pitfalls of heterogeneous punishment in evolutionary inspection games

    CERN Document Server

    Perc, Matjaz

    2015-01-01

    As a simple model for criminal behavior, the traditional two-strategy inspection game yields counterintuitive results that fail to describe empirical data. The latter shows that crime is often recurrent, and that crime rates do not respond linearly to mitigation attempts. A more apt model entails ordinary people who neither commit nor sanction crime as the third strategy besides the criminals and punishers. Since ordinary people free-ride on the sanctioning efforts of punishers, they may introduce cyclic dominance that enables the coexistence of all three competing strategies. In this setup ordinary individuals become the biggest impediment to crime abatement. We therefore also consider heterogeneous punisher strategies, which seek to reduce their investment into fighting crime in order to attain a more competitive payoff. We show that this diversity of punishment leads to an explosion of complexity in the system, where the benefits and pitfalls of criminal behavior are revealed in the most unexpected ways. D...

  1. Don't Punish Pregnant Women for Opioid Use, Docs Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163680.html Don't Punish Pregnant Women for Opioid Use, Docs Say Better prevention ... action, should be the focus when dealing with pregnant women who use opioids, a leading pediatricians' group ...

  2. Largest Laplacian eigenvalue predicts the emergence of costly punishment in the evolutionary ultimatum game on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Cao, Lang

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in studying the role of costly punishment in promoting altruistic behaviors among selfish individuals. Rejections in ultimatum bargaining as a metaphor exemplify costly punishment, where the division of a sum of resources proposed by one side may be rejected by the other side, and both sides get nothing. Under a setting of the network of contacts among players, we find that the largest Laplacian eigenvalue of the network determines the critical division of players’ proposals, below which pure punishers who never accept any offers will emerge as a phase transition in the system. The critical division of offers that predicts the emergence of costly punishment is termed as the selfishness tolerance of a network within evolutionary ultimatum game, and extensive numerical simulations on the data of the science collaboration network, and computer-generated small-world/scale-free networks support the analytical findings.

  3. No pain no gain: The positive impact of punishment on the strategic regulation of accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michelle M; Chisholm, Lisa M; Prike, Toby

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that punishing people through a large penalty for volunteering incorrect information typically leads them to withhold more information (metacognitive response bias), but it does not appear to influence their ability to distinguish between their own correct and incorrect answers (metacognitive accuracy discrimination). The goal of the current study was to demonstrate that punishing people for volunteering incorrect information-versus rewarding volunteering correct information-produces more effective metacognitive accuracy discrimination. All participants completed three different general-knowledge tests: a reward test (high points for correct volunteered answers), a baseline test (equal points/penalties for volunteered correct/incorrect answers) and a punishment test (high penalty for incorrect volunteered answers). Participants were significantly better at distinguishing between their own correct and incorrect answers on the punishment than reward test, which has implications for situations requiring effective accuracy monitoring.

  4. Low cortisol levels and the balance between punishment sensitivity and reward dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Honk, Jack; Schutter, Dennis J L G; Hermans, Erno J; Putman, Peter

    2003-10-27

    The neuro-endocrinological basis of psychopathy, a disorder characterized by lack of fear, is relatively unknown. However, low levels of cortisol may result in fearlessness and have been observed in individuals with psychopathic tendencies. Low fear models state that psychopaths are not motivated to avoid punishment, especially when reward is pending. In agreement, disadvantageous decision making on the IOWA gambling task in psychopaths and psychopathic analogous, indicates low punishment sensitivity and high reward dependency. Here, it was investigated whether low basal cortisol levels predicted the balance between punishment sensitivity and reward dependency in the same manner. As hypothesized, the most disadvantageous pattern of decision making was found in the subjects with the lowest cortisol levels. These findings suggest that low levels of cortisol may set the balance between the sensitivity for punishment and reward dependency towards a pre-disposition for psychopathy.

  5. Effects of an Oral Hygiene Punishment Procedure on Chronic Rumination and Collateral Behaviors in Monozygous Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    When an oral hygiene punishment procedure was introduced, rumination (regurgitation) of profoundly retarded monozygous adolescent twins was dramatically reduced. The decrease was maintained over a 6 month period and was accompanied by increased rates of socially appropriate behavior. (CL)

  6. Parsing the Behavioral and Brain Mechanisms of Third-Party Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnie, Richard J.; Hoffman, Morris B.; Shen, Francis X.; Simons, Kenneth W.

    2016-01-01

    The evolved capacity for third-party punishment is considered crucial to the emergence and maintenance of elaborate human social organization and is central to the modern provision of fairness and justice within society. Although it is well established that the mental state of the offender and the severity of the harm he caused are the two primary predictors of punishment decisions, the precise cognitive and brain mechanisms by which these distinct components are evaluated and integrated into a punishment decision are poorly understood. Using fMRI, here we implement a novel experimental design to functionally dissociate the mechanisms underlying evaluation, integration, and decision that were conflated in previous studies of third-party punishment. Behaviorally, the punishment decision is primarily defined by a superadditive interaction between harm and mental state, with subjects weighing the interaction factor more than the single factors of harm and mental state. On a neural level, evaluation of harms engaged brain areas associated with affective and somatosensory processing, whereas mental state evaluation primarily recruited circuitry involved in mentalization. Harm and mental state evaluations are integrated in medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate structures, with the amygdala acting as a pivotal hub of the interaction between harm and mental state. This integrated information is used by the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex at the time of the decision to assign an appropriate punishment through a distributed coding system. Together, these findings provide a blueprint of the brain mechanisms by which neutral third parties render punishment decisions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Punishment undergirds large-scale cooperation and helps dispense criminal justice. Yet it is currently unknown precisely how people assess the mental states of offenders, evaluate the harms they caused, and integrate those two components into a single punishment decision. Using a

  7. Cooperation in social dilemmas: free riding may be thwarted by second-order reward rather than by punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyonari, Toko; Barclay, Pat

    2008-10-01

    Cooperation among nonrelatives can be puzzling because cooperation often involves incurring costs to confer benefits on unrelated others. Punishment of noncooperators can sustain otherwise fragile cooperation, but the provision of punishment suffers from a "second-order" free-riding problem because nonpunishers can free ride on the benefits from costly punishment provided by others. One suggested solution to this problem is second-order punishment of nonpunishers; more generally, the threat or promise of higher order sanctions might maintain the lower order sanctions that enforce cooperation in collective action problems. Here the authors report on 3 experiments testing people's willingness to provide second-order sanctions by having participants play a cooperative game with opportunities to punish and reward each other. The authors found that people supported those who rewarded cooperators either by rewarding them or by punishing nonrewarders, but people did not support those who punished noncooperators--they did not reward punishers or punish nonpunishers. Furthermore, people did not approve of punishers more than they did nonpunishers, even when nonpunishers were clearly unwilling to use sanctions to support cooperation. The results suggest that people will much more readily support positive sanctions than they will support negative sanctions.

  8. The influence of trial order on learning from reward versus punishment in a probabilistic categorization task: Experimental and computational analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Moustafa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that trial ordering affects cognitive performance, but this has not been not tested using category-learning tasks that differentiate learning from reward and punishment. Here, we tested two groups of healthy young adults using a probabilistic category learning task of reward and punishment in which there are two types of trials (reward, punishment and three possible outcomes: (1 positive feedback for correct responses in reward trials, (2 negative feedback for incorrect responses in punishment trials, and (3 no feedback for incorrect answers in reward trials and correct answers in punishment trials. Hence, trials without feedback are ambiguous, and may represent either successful avoidance of punishment or failure to obtain reward. In Experiment 1, the first group of subjects received an intermixed task in which reward and punishment trials were presented in the same block, as a standard baseline task. In Experiment 2, a second group completed the separated task, in which reward and punishment trials were presented in separate blocks. Additionally, in order to understand the mechanisms underlying performance in the experimental conditions, we fit individual data using a Q-learning model. Results from Experiment 1 show that subjects who completed the intermixed task paradoxically valued the no-feedback outcome as a reinforcer when it occurred on reinforcement-based trials, and as a punisher when it occurred on punishment-based trials. This is supported by patterns of empirical responding, where subjects showed more win-stay behavior following an explicit reward than following an omission of punishment, and more lose-shift behavior following an explicit punisher than following an omission of reward. In Experiment 2, results showed similar performance whether subjects received reward-based or punishment-based trials first. However, when the Q-learning model was applied to these data, there were differences between

  9. Decision making in the reward and punishment variants of the iowa gambling task: evidence of "foresight" or "framing"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varsha; Khan, Azizuddin

    2012-01-01

    Surface-level differences in the reward and punishment variants, specifically greater long-term decision making in the punishment variant of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) observed in previous studies led to the present comparison of long-term decision making in the two IGT variants (n = 320, male = 160). It was contended that risk aversion triggered by a positive frame of the reward variant and risk seeking triggered by a negative frame of the punishment variant appears as long-term decision making in the two IGT variants. Apart from the frame of the variant as a within-subjects factor (variant type: reward and punishment), the order in which the frame was triggered (order type: reward-punishment or punishment-reward), and the four types of instructions that delineated motivation toward reward from that of punishment (reward, punishment, reward and punishment, and no-hint) were hypothesized to have an effect on foresighted decision making in the IGT. As expected, long-term decision making differed across the two IGT variants suggesting that the frame of the variant has an effect on long-term decision making in the IGT (p punishment resulted in greater foresight than the commonly used IGT instructions that fail to distinguish between reward and punishment. As observed in previous studies, there were more number of participants (60%) who showed greater foresight in the punishment variant than in the reward variant (p punishment frame in an asymmetric manner, an observation that is aligned with the behavioral decision making framework. Benefits of integrating findings from behavioral studies in decision neuroscience are discussed, and a need to investigate cultural differences in the IGT studies is pointed out.

  10. Autonomic concomitants of discriminative avoidance and punishment training in the monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raich, M S; Kimmel, H D

    1979-01-01

    Two Cebus albifrons monkeys were trained to press a back-lighted panel to postpone a brief electric shock to the tail using a Sidman avoidance schedule (SS = 40 sec, RS = 40 sec). After 25 training sessions, a discriminative schedule was introduced, with the Sidman avoidance continuing in the presence of one discriminative stimulus and punishment introduced in the presence of the other. The discriminative stimuli were colors on the panel. Discriminative training also involved 25 sessions, each with a random sequence of 6 avoidance and 6 punishment segments, with 30 sec intervals between the segments. Plantar skin conductance and heart rate were recorded along with the panel-pressing behavior. The two monkeys adjusted to the discriminative schedule quite differently from one another. One animal responded at a high level and avoided very well (during avoidance) but was punished frequently (during punishment). The other animal responded less frequently and received many shocks during avoidance but almost none during punishment. The animal that showed less ability to inhibit responding (and received about four times as many shocks overall) appeared to have discriminated better temporally in spacing its responses during avoidance training. The monkey whose panel-pressing behavior resulted in more shocks also tended to show a higher tonic level of autonomic arousal. However, within-animal differences in shock frequency (between avoidance and punishment) were not similarly related to autonomic arousal. The animal that received fewer shocks overall (but more during avoidance) showed greater arousal during punishment. The animal that received more shocks overall (but fewer during avoidance) showed no arousal differences between avoidance and punishment.

  11. Attitudes of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners Towards Parental Use of Corporal Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    1974; Baumrind , 1967; Sears, Maccoby, & Levin, 1957). Sears, Maccoby, and Levin’s (1957) classic study examining the child-rearing practices of 379...34 (Sears, Maccoby, & Levin, 1957, pg 484). In a series of studies, Baumrind (1967) found that punishment, even corporal punishment, was an effective...1993; Lamb, Ketterlenus, & Fracasso, 1992; Baumrind , 1967). Baumrind’s research assessed patterns of parental behavior using interviews, standardized

  12. The Inclination to Evil and the Punishment of Crime - from the Bible to Behavioral Genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Azgad; Appelbaum, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    The evolving field of behavioral genetics is gradually elucidating the complex interplay between genes and environment. Scientific data pertaining to the behavioral genetics of violent behavior provides a new context for an old dilemma regarding criminal responsibility and punishment: if the inclination to violent behavior is inherent in someone's nature, how should it affect punishment for crime? Should it be considered as a mitigating or an aggravating factor? Given psychiatrists’ increasin...

  13. Crime and Punishment Again: The Economic Approach with a Psychological Twist

    OpenAIRE

    William T. Dickens

    1986-01-01

    Akerlof and Dickens (1982) suggested that in a model of criminal behavior which considered the effects of cognitive dissonance, increasing the severity of punishment could increase the crime rate. This paper demonstrates that that conjecture was correct. With cognitive dissonance, people may have to rationalize not committing crimes under normal circumstances if punishment is not severe. The rationalization may lead them to underestimate the expected utility of committing crimes when opportun...

  14. Neural Mechanism of Altruistic Punishment%利他惩罚的神经机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原胜; 郭丰波

    2015-01-01

    Altruistic punishment,which occurs when an individual incurs a cost to punish unfairness or norm violation, may play a role in perpetuating cooperation.The neural mechanism underlying costly punishment has only recently begun to be explored.Here we review current studies on the neural basis of altruism from the perspectives of costly punishment,emphasi-zing the importance of elementary neural processes underlying a decision to punish.Particularly,there are four cognitive proces-ses that contribute to the decision to altruistically punish in most situations:inequity aversion,cost-benefit calculation,social reference frame to distinguish self from others and cognitive control.Overall,understanding the neural mechanism of altruistic punishment with respect to the core computations necessary to achieve a decision to punish is useful for us to learn the altruistic behavior of human being.%利他性惩罚指一个人选择付出代价去惩罚不公平行为和规则违背行为,以维持长期而稳定的合作行为。代价惩罚的视角回顾近期研究中利他性惩罚的神经基础,主要强调做出惩罚决策背后的神经加工过程。存在四种认知加工过程可能会促使人们在大多数场景中做出利他性决策:不公平厌恶,代价-利益评估,区分自己与他人的社会参照框架以及认知控制。总之,理解利他惩罚决策背后的核心神经加工机制有助于了解人类的利他行为。

  15. Guilt and Punishment-A Comparison of the Characters in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢盈盈

    2013-01-01

    The following essay makes a comparison of the three major characters-Hester Prynne, Arthur Dimmesdale and Roger Chil ingworth from three aspects, which are guilt, attitudes and results. By making comparison, the author’s viewpoint of the theme is obvious:people are all inevitably guilty and faced with punishments, but different people with different natures and different moral concepts may take different attitudes towards the guilt and punishment, and their different attitudes lead to their different results.

  16. Corporal Punishment of Children in Nine Countries as a Function of Child Gender and Parent Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Liane Peña Alampay; Suha Al-Hassan; Dario Bacchini; Anna Silvia Bombi; Bornstein, Marc H.; Lei Chang; Kirby Deater-Deckard; Laura Di Giunta; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Paul Oburu; Concetta Pastorelli; Runyan, Desmond K.; Skinner, Ann T.; Emma Sorbring

    2010-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a global perspective on corporal punishment by examining differences between mothers' and fathers' use of corporal punishment with daughters and sons in nine countries. Methods. Interviews were conducted with 1398 mothers, 1146 fathers, and 1417 children (age range = 7 to 10 years) in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Results. Across the entire sample, 54% of girls and 58% ...

  17. Temporal characteristics of the influence of punishment on perceptual decision making in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, H.; Guido, B.; Heekeren, H.R.; Philiastides, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual decision making is the process by which information from sensory systems is combined and used to influence our behavior. In addition to the sensory input, this process can be affected by other factors, such as reward and punishment for correct and incorrect responses. To investigate the temporal dynamics of how monetary punishment influences perceptual decision making in humans, we collected electroencephalography (EEG) data during a perceptual categorization task whereby the punis...

  18. Different carrots and different sticks: Do we reward and punish differently than we approve and disapprove?

    OpenAIRE

    Leibbrandt, Andreas; López Pérez, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports lab data from four games in order to analyze and compare the motivations behind monetary punishment and reward and their non-monetary counterparts, disapproval and approval, an important question given that both types of punishment/rewards affect cooperation and norm compliance. The results in our games support the hypothesis that a motivation akin to reciprocity plays the key role for approval and disapproval whereas payoff comparisons play the key role f...

  19. Threat of Punishment Motivates Memory Encoding via Amygdala, Not Midbrain, Interactions with the Medial Temporal Lobe

    OpenAIRE

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2012-01-01

    Neural circuits associated with motivated declarative encoding and active threat avoidance have both been described, but the relative contribution of these systems to punishment-motivated encoding remains unknown. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans to examine mechanisms of declarative memory enhancement when subjects were motivated to avoid punishments that were contingent on forgetting. A motivational cue on each trial informed participants whether they wo...

  20. Exposure to superfluous information reduces cooperation and increases antisocial punishment in reputation-based interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel edos Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human cooperation is often based on reputation gained from previous interactions with third parties. Such reputation can be built on generous or punitive actions, and both, one’s own reputation and the reputation of others have been shown to influence decision making in experimental games that control for confounding variables. Here we test how reputation-based cooperation and punishment react to disruption of the cognitive processing in different kinds of helping games with observers. Saying a few superfluous words before each interaction was used to possibly interfere with working memory. In a first set of experiments, where reputation could only be based on generosity, the disruption reduced the frequency of cooperation and lowered mean final payoffs. In a second set of experiments where reputation could only be based on punishment, the disruption increased the frequency of antisocial punishment (i.e. of punishing those who helped and reduced the frequency of punishing defectors. Our findings suggest that working memory can easily be constraining in reputation-based interactions within experimental games, even if these games are based on a few simple rules with a visual display that provides all the information the subjects need to play the strategies predicted from current theory. Our findings also highlight a weakness of experimental games, namely that they can be very sensitive to environmental variation and that quantitative conclusions about antisocial punishment or other behavioral strategies can easily be misleading.

  1. Alterations of monetary reward and punishment processing in chronic cannabis users: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzi, Björn; Lissek, Silke; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Tegenthoff, Martin; Nicolas, Volkmar; Scherbaum, Norbert; Juckel, Georg; Roser, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in reward and punishment processing have been reported in adults suffering from long-term cannabis use. However, previous findings regarding the chronic effects of cannabis on reward and punishment processing have been inconsistent. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to reveal the neural correlates of reward and punishment processing in long-term cannabis users (n = 15) and in healthy control subjects (n = 15) with no history of drug abuse. For this purpose, we used the well-established Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task, a reliable experimental paradigm that allows the differentiation between anticipatory and consummatory aspects of reward and punishment processing. Regarding the gain anticipation period, no significant group differences were observed. In the left caudate and the left inferior frontal gyrus, cannabis users were - in contrast to healthy controls - not able to differentiate between the conditions feedback of reward and control. In addition, cannabis users showed stronger activations in the left caudate and the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus following feedback of no punishment as compared to healthy controls. We interpreted these deficits in dorsal striatal functioning as altered stimulus-reward or action-contingent learning in cannabis users. In addition, the enhanced lateral prefrontal activation in cannabis users that is related to non-punishing feedback may reflect a deficit in emotion regulation or cognitive reappraisal in these subjects.

  2. Collective punishment is more effective than collective reward for promoting cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Zhen; Pansini, Riccardo; Li, Yao-Tang; Wang, Rui-Wu

    2015-12-04

    Collective punishment and reward are usually regarded as two potential mechanisms to explain the evolution of cooperation. Both scenarios, however, seem problematic to understand cooperative behavior, because they can raise the second-order free-rider problem and many organisms are not able to discriminate less cooperating individuals. Even though they have been proved to increase cooperation, there has been a debate about which one being more effective. To address this issue, we resort to the N-player evolutionary snowdrift game (NESG), where a collective punishment/reward mechanism is added by allowing some players to display punishment/reward towards all remaining players. By means of numerous simulations and analyses, we find that collective punishment is more effective in promoting cooperation for a relatively high initial frequency of cooperation or for a relatively small group. When the intensity of punishment exceeds a certain threshold, a stable state of full cooperation emerges for both small and large groups. In contrast, such state does not appear for large groups playing a NESG with reward mechanism. In the case of mutualistic interactions, finally, our results show the new payoff with collective punishment/reward can lead to the coexistence of cooperators and defectors when discrimination between these two is not possible.

  3. Undestanding of the past and present meaning of punishment and penal policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Tesla

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Punishment has a dual meaning: it is necessary because it leads to a change in behavior, but it also causes emotional imbalance between teachers and pupils. There are three basic theories of punishment – retributivism, which requires pu- nishment as a method that will stop the individual from wanting to repeat the offense; utilitarianism, in which the primary goal of punishment is changing the individual, whereas the abolitionism theory searches for alternative forms of resolving disputes and deviant behavior. Zero tolerance means application of the same penalties for minor and major transgressions. Its opposite is inclusion, aimed at enabling people of different abilities to live together in peace and develop positive values. It is hard to imagine upbringing without punishment, despite the fact that the use of sanctions have negative effects. Theore- tically speaking, if punishment is whatever an individual experiences as unpleasantness, then penalty cannot be eliminated in upbringing. Classic penalties can be replaced by measures proposed by opponents of traditional punishment

  4. Reconsidering the role of power, punishment and discipline in South African schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Venter

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of discipline and punishment in South African schools and seeks to interrogate the underlying power relations that guide teaching and learning in South Africa. It deconstructs the pre-occupation with discipline, power and punishment in South African schools in terms of the theoretical framework provided by Michel Foucault in his work entitled “Surveiller et punir: naissance de la prison” (1975 which was translated as “Discipline and punish: the birth of the prison”(1977. It was Foucault who reminded us that the modern school is based on Prussian military ideals of punctuality, discipline, neatness and submissiveness to authority. Foucault tends to see schooling as one side of “corriger”, which is to punish or to teach. Education as “correction” is therefore regarded as the antipode of authoritarian punishment. Foucault draws attention to the subtle tactics and constraints beneath the surface of proclaimed bourgeois freedom. It was found that in South African schools the problem of authoritarian punishment is still rife. From the readings of Foucault’s works suggestions are made for changes to the system and to teachers’ mental attitude in order to move to a more constructive way of maintaining power and discipline.

  5. Alterations of Monetary Reward and Punishment Processing in Chronic Cannabis Users: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzi, Björn; Lissek, Silke; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Tegenthoff, Martin; Nicolas, Volkmar; Scherbaum, Norbert; Juckel, Georg; Roser, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in reward and punishment processing have been reported in adults suffering from long-term cannabis use. However, previous findings regarding the chronic effects of cannabis on reward and punishment processing have been inconsistent. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to reveal the neural correlates of reward and punishment processing in long-term cannabis users (n = 15) and in healthy control subjects (n = 15) with no history of drug abuse. For this purpose, we used the well-established Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task, a reliable experimental paradigm that allows the differentiation between anticipatory and consummatory aspects of reward and punishment processing. Regarding the gain anticipation period, no significant group differences were observed. In the left caudate and the left inferior frontal gyrus, cannabis users were – in contrast to healthy controls – not able to differentiate between the conditions feedback of reward and control. In addition, cannabis users showed stronger activations in the left caudate and the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus following feedback of no punishment as compared to healthy controls. We interpreted these deficits in dorsal striatal functioning as altered stimulus-reward or action-contingent learning in cannabis users. In addition, the enhanced lateral prefrontal activation in cannabis users that is related to non-punishing feedback may reflect a deficit in emotion regulation or cognitive reappraisal in these subjects. PMID:25799565

  6. Intergenerational transmission of corporal punishment in China: the moderating role of marital satisfaction and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meifang; Xing, Xiaopei; Zhao, Jinxia

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the intergenerational patterns in the transmission of parental corporal punishment in China and the moderating effects of marital satisfaction (of the second generation: G2) and gender (of three generations: G1, G2 and G3) on these patterns. Six hundred thirty-five father-mother dyads with preschool-aged children were recruited to participate in this survey. The results provided evidence of cross-generational continuity in parental corporal punishment in Chinese society and also supported the hypothesis that same-gender continuity in parental corporal punishment is stronger than cross-gender continuity. Moreover, it was found that marital satisfaction moderated the transmission of parental corporal punishment, and there were some interesting gender differences in the moderator effect. Specifically, marital satisfaction buffered the transmission of corporal punishment from grandmothers to mothers of daughters and to fathers of sons but strengthened the transmission from grandfathers to fathers of sons. The findings broaden our understanding of the factors and processes that account for both discontinuity and continuity in parental corporal punishment, particularly within the Chinese cultural context.

  7. Collective punishment is more effective than collective reward for promoting cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Zhen; Pansini, Riccardo; Li, Yao-Tang; Wang, Rui-Wu

    2015-12-01

    Collective punishment and reward are usually regarded as two potential mechanisms to explain the evolution of cooperation. Both scenarios, however, seem problematic to understand cooperative behavior, because they can raise the second-order free-rider problem and many organisms are not able to discriminate less cooperating individuals. Even though they have been proved to increase cooperation, there has been a debate about which one being more effective. To address this issue, we resort to the N-player evolutionary snowdrift game (NESG), where a collective punishment/reward mechanism is added by allowing some players to display punishment/reward towards all remaining players. By means of numerous simulations and analyses, we find that collective punishment is more effective in promoting cooperation for a relatively high initial frequency of cooperation or for a relatively small group. When the intensity of punishment exceeds a certain threshold, a stable state of full cooperation emerges for both small and large groups. In contrast, such state does not appear for large groups playing a NESG with reward mechanism. In the case of mutualistic interactions, finally, our results show the new payoff with collective punishment/reward can lead to the coexistence of cooperators and defectors when discrimination between these two is not possible.

  8. Voluntary rewards mediate the evolution of pool punishment for maintaining public goods in large populations

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    Punishment is a popular tool when governing commons in situations where free riders would otherwise take over. It is well known that sanctioning systems, such as the police and courts, are costly and thus can suffer from those who free ride on other's efforts to maintain the sanctioning systems (second-order free riders). Previous game-theory studies showed that if populations are very large, pool punishment rarely emerges in public good games, even when participation is optional, because of second-order free riders. Here we show that a matching fund for rewarding cooperation leads to the emergence of pool punishment, despite the presence of second-order free riders. We demonstrate that reward funds can pave the way for a transition from a population of free riders to a population of pool punishers. A key factor in promoting the transition is also to reward those who contribute to pool punishment, yet not abstaining from participation. Reward funds eventually vanish in raising pool punishment, which is sustai...

  9. From Blame to Punishment: Disrupting Prefrontal Cortex Activity Reveals Norm Enforcement Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Martin, Justin W; Treadway, Michael T; Jan, Katherine; Zald, David H; Jones, Owen; Marois, René

    2015-09-23

    The social welfare provided by cooperation depends on the enforcement of social norms. Determining blameworthiness and assigning a deserved punishment are two cognitive cornerstones of norm enforcement. Although prior work has implicated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in norm-based judgments, the relative contribution of this region to blameworthiness and punishment decisions remains poorly understood. Here, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and fMRI to determine the specific role of DLPFC function in norm-enforcement behavior. DLPFC rTMS reduced punishment for wrongful acts without affecting blameworthiness ratings, and fMRI revealed punishment-selective DLPFC recruitment, suggesting that these two facets of norm-based decision making are neurobiologically dissociable. Finally, we show that DLPFC rTMS affects punishment decision making by altering the integration of information about culpability and harm. Together, these findings reveal a selective, causal role for DLPFC in norm enforcement: representational integration of the distinct information streams used to make punishment decisions.

  10. Reward and punishment sensitivity and alcohol use: the moderating role of executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Nienke C; Ostafin, Brian D; Glashouwer, Klaske A; van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E; de Jong, Peter J

    2014-05-01

    Reward sensitivity and to a lesser extent punishment sensitivity have been found to explain individual differences in alcohol use. Furthermore, many studies showed that addictive behaviors are characterized by impaired self-regulatory processes, and that individual differences related to alcohol use are moderated by executive control. This is the first study that explores the potential moderating role of executive control in the relation between reward and punishment sensitivity and alcohol use. Participants were 76 university students, selected on earlier given information about their alcohol use. Half of the participants indicated to drink little alcohol and half indicated to drink substantial amounts of alcohol. As expected, correlational analyses showed a positive relationship between reward sensitivity and alcohol use and a negative relation between punishment sensitivity and alcohol use. Regression analysis confirmed that reward sensitivity was a significant independent predictor of alcohol use. Executive control moderated the relation between punishment sensitivity and alcohol use, but not the relation between reward sensitivity and alcohol use. Only in individuals with weak executive control punishment sensitivity and alcohol use were negatively related. The results suggest that for individuals with weak executive control, punishment sensitivity might be a protective factor working against substantial alcohol use.

  11. Roles of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons in mediating reward and punishment signals in insect visual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unoki, Sae; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Mizunami, Makoto

    2006-10-01

    Insects, like vertebrates, have considerable ability to associate visual, olfactory or other sensory signals with reward or punishment. Previous studies in crickets, honey bees and fruit-flies have suggested that octopamine (OA, invertebrate counterpart of noradrenaline) and dopamine (DA) mediate various kinds of reward and punishment signals in olfactory learning. However, whether the roles of OA and DA in mediating positive and negative reinforcing signals can be generalized to learning of sensory signals other than odors remained unknown. Here we first established a visual learning paradigm in which to associate a visual pattern with water reward or saline punishment for crickets and found that memory after aversive conditioning decayed much faster than that after appetitive conditioning. Then, we pharmacologically studied the roles of OA and DA in appetitive and aversive forms of visual learning. Crickets injected with epinastine or mianserin, OA receptor antagonists, into the hemolymph exhibited a complete impairment of appetitive learning to associate a visual pattern with water reward, but aversive learning with saline punishment was unaffected. By contrast, fluphenazine, chlorpromazine or spiperone, DA receptor antagonists, completely impaired aversive learning without affecting appetitive learning. The results demonstrate that OA and DA participate in reward and punishment conditioning in visual learning. This finding, together with results of previous studies on the roles of OA and DA in olfactory learning, suggests ubiquitous roles of the octopaminergic reward system and dopaminergic punishment system in insect learning.

  12. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavien, Christine; Mersch, Danielle P; Chapuisat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms.

  13. No Evidence for Moral Reward and Punishment in an Anonymous Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Clavien

    Full Text Available Human social interactions are regulated by moral norms that define individual obligations and rights. These norms are enforced by punishment of transgressors and reward of followers. Yet, the generality and strength of this drive to punish or reward is unclear, especially when people are not personally involved in the situation and when the actual impact of their sanction is only indirect, i.e., when it diminishes or promotes the social status of the punished or rewarded individual. In a real-life study, we investigated if people are inclined to anonymously punish or reward a person for her past deeds in a different social context. Participants from three socio-professional categories voted anonymously for early career violinists in an important violin competition. We found that participants did not punish an immoral violin candidate, nor did they reward another hyper-moral candidate. On the contrary, one socio-professional category sanctioned hyper-morality. Hence, salient moral information about past behavior did not elicit punishment or reward in an impersonal situation where the impact of the sanction was indirect. We conclude that contextual features play an important role in human motivation to enforce moral norms.

  14. Arbitrariness and the death penalty: how the defendant's appearance during trial influences capital jurors' punishment decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the defendant's appearance during the trial on capital jurors' punishment decision. The data used in this analysis were gathered by the Capital Jury Project (CJP), a national program of research on the decision-making of capital jurors. A series of multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted using four aggravating circumstances related to the killing and eight defendant appearance variables as predictors of jurors' punishment decision at three points during the capital trial: (1) after the punishment phase ended, but before formal deliberation began; (2) when the first vote was taken on punishment at jury deliberations; and (3) at the final vote on punishment. Results indicated that when the defendant appeared emotionally involved during the trial (i.e. sorry and sincere) jurors either favored a life sentence or were undecided about punishment; however, when the defendant appeared emotionally uninvolved during the trial (i.e. bored) jurors either sought a death sentence or remained undecided. Policy implications will be discussed.

  15. The effects of response-cost punishment on instructional control during a choice task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Adam E; Pietras, Cynthia J

    2013-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of punishing responses inconsistent with rules on instructional control during a choice task. In a procedure modeled after Hackenberg and Joker (1994), 7 adults were presented with repeated choices between progressive- and fixed-time schedules of reinforcement and were given instructions (rules) for how to respond to maximize earnings. Across sessions, the progressive-time schedule step size was manipulated so that the instructions became increasingly inaccurate, and deviating from the instructions produced greater earnings. The experiment consisted of two phases, Penalty and No Penalty. During the Penalty phase, deviating from the instructions produced a money-loss penalty (response-cost punishment). Two participants showed persistent instructional control and therefore completed only one phase (Penalty or No Penalty), and 1 participant showed little instructional control during the Penalty phase until the punishment magnitude was increased. In all 4 participants who experienced both Penalty and No Penalty phases, punishment increased the consistency of choices with the instructions, and in 2 of these participants punishment increased the progressive-schedule step size at which choices began to systematically deviate from the instructions. These results show that monetary penalties for breaking with rules may enhance instructional control, but that deviations from rules still occur under punishment when such deviations produce greater reinforcement than rule following.

  16. [Treatment instead of punishment. The process of diversion from custody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapos, Miklós Péter

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, the functioning of treatment alternative to punishment principle (diversion from custody) is surveyed from legal, medical and financial points of views. In this regard, the philosophical aspects of the issue are also taken into account. The emergence of diversion from custody appeared in the Hungarian criminal code in relation to the joining process with European Union of Hungary. The history of the changes of legal regulations of diversion from custody and the current regulation of that are also made known. And afterwards the medical difficulties, particularly the motivation of clients, are discussed. The most serious criticism addressed from legal point of view can be given as to frequent changes of the rules, and the disharmonic and pro forma nature of law. Several critical points are seen from medical point of view, either. Among others and in particular, the lack of the differentiation of clients of various additional history according to their therapeutic needs, the unambiguous essence of therapy based on protocols fitting to health needs and follow-up studies. A critical factor is the motivation of clients, too. At the same time, further concern emerges in the regard of the lack of investigation of cost/benefit of diversion from custody and the missing definition of success. The author also rises the responsibility of patients and examines the dispute upon legalization of marihuana with particular interest in pros and cons. The reason for the existence of diversion from custody in the prison is, however, queried in this paper. Although the diversion from custody has been criticized by several and proposals have also been worked out, indeed, a system presenting the problem in a comprehensive manner has not been elaborated yet. Finally, the author outlines a uniform system of an addictional approach for the treatment alternative to punishment and hurries a decision along the stipulation of minima terms in the regard of personnel and material

  17. The influence of trial order on learning from reward vs. punishment in a probabilistic categorization task: experimental and computational analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed A; Gluck, Mark A; Herzallah, Mohammad M; Myers, Catherine E

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that trial ordering affects cognitive performance, but this has not been tested using category-learning tasks that differentiate learning from reward and punishment. Here, we tested two groups of healthy young adults using a probabilistic category learning task of reward and punishment in which there are two types of trials (reward, punishment) and three possible outcomes: (1) positive feedback for correct responses in reward trials; (2) negative feedback for incorrect responses in punishment trials; and (3) no feedback for incorrect answers in reward trials and correct answers in punishment trials. Hence, trials without feedback are ambiguous, and may represent either successful avoidance of punishment or failure to obtain reward. In Experiment 1, the first group of subjects received an intermixed task in which reward and punishment trials were presented in the same block, as a standard baseline task. In Experiment 2, a second group completed the separated task, in which reward and punishment trials were presented in separate blocks. Additionally, in order to understand the mechanisms underlying performance in the experimental conditions, we fit individual data using a Q-learning model. Results from Experiment 1 show that subjects who completed the intermixed task paradoxically valued the no-feedback outcome as a reinforcer when it occurred on reinforcement-based trials, and as a punisher when it occurred on punishment-based trials. This is supported by patterns of empirical responding, where subjects showed more win-stay behavior following an explicit reward than following an omission of punishment, and more lose-shift behavior following an explicit punisher than following an omission of reward. In Experiment 2, results showed similar performance whether subjects received reward-based or punishment-based trials first. However, when the Q-learning model was applied to these data, there were differences between subjects in the reward

  18. Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed.

  19. Teenage sexuality and rights in Chile: from denial to punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Ahumada, Claudia

    2009-11-01

    While Chile sees itself as a country that has fully restored human rights since its return to democratic rule in 1990, the rights of teenagers to comprehensive sexuality education are still not being met. This paper reviews the recent history of sexuality education in Chile and related legislation, policies and programmes. It also reports a 2008 review of the bylaws of 189 randomly selected Chilean schools, which found that although such bylaws are mandatory, the absence of bylaws to prevent discrimination on grounds of pregnancy, HIV and sexuality was common. In relation to how sexual behaviour and discipline were addressed, bylaws that were non-compliant with the law were very common. Opposition to sexuality education in schools in Chile is predicated on the denial of teenage sexuality, and many schools punish sexual behaviour where transgression is perceived to have taken place. While the wider Chilean society has been moving towards greater recognition of individual autonomy and sexual diversity, this cultural shift has yet to be reflected in the government's political agenda, in spite of good intentions. Given this state of affairs, the Chilean polity needs to recognise its youth as having human rights, or will continue to fail in its commitment to them.

  20. Inactivation of the central nucleus of the amygdala reduces the effect of punishment on cocaine self-administration in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, YueQiang; Steketee, Jeffery D.; Sun, Wenlin

    2012-01-01

    Continued cocaine use despite the negative consequences is a hallmark of cocaine addiction. One such consequence is punishment that is often used by society to curb cocaine use. Unfortunately, we know little about the mechanism involved in regulation by punishment of cocaine use. The fact that cocaine addicts continue cocaine use despite potential severe punishment suggests that the mechanism may be impaired. Such impairment is expected to critically contribute to compulsive cocaine use. This...

  1. The influence of trial order on learning from reward vs. punishment in a probabilistic categorization task: experimental and computational analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed A. Moustafa; Gluck, Mark A.; Herzallah, Mohammad M.; Myers, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that trial ordering affects cognitive performance, but this has not been tested using category-learning tasks that differentiate learning from reward and punishment. Here, we tested two groups of healthy young adults using a probabilistic category learning task of reward and punishment in which there are two types of trials (reward, punishment) and three possible outcomes: (1) positive feedback for correct responses in reward trials; (2) negative feedback for incor...

  2. Perceptions of the Stakeholders towards the Use of Corporal Punishment in Zimbabwean Schools: A Case Study of Bulawayo

    OpenAIRE

    P. Makwanya; W. Moyo; T. Nyenya

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzed the views of the stakeholders towards the administration of corporal punishment in Zimbabwean schools, with Bulawayo as a Case Study. The use of corporal punishment may pose both negative and positive effects in the Zimbabwean education system whereas the complete negation of corporal punishment has its own detrimental and positive effects as well. In rigorous efforts to establish child friendly schools in Zimbabwe, where children are seen as stakeholders as well as link...

  3. Non-Strategic Punishment when Monitoring is Costly: Experimental Evidence on Differences between Second and Third Party Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Goeschl, Timo; Jarke, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies monitoring and punishment behavior by second and third parties in a cooperation experiment with endogenous information structures: Players are uninformed whether the target player cooperated or defected at the cooperation stage, but can decide to resolve the information imperfection at non-negative cost at the punishment stage. We examine how monitoring and punishment respond to changes in monitoring costs, and exploit the evidence to gain new insights about commonalities a...

  4. Reward and Punishment Sensitivity in Children with ADHD: Validating the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire for Children (SPSRQ-C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luman, Marjolein; van Meel, Catharina S.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2012-01-01

    This study validates the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire for children (SPSRQ-C), using a Dutch sample of 1234 children between 6-13 years old. Factor analysis determined that a 4-factor and a 5-factor solution were best fitting, explaining 41% and 50% of the variance respectively. The 4-factor model was highly…

  5. Reward and Punishment Sensitivity in Children with ADHD: Validating the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire for Children (SPSRQ-C)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Luman (Marjolein); C.S. Meel (Catharine); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); H.M. Geurts (Hilde )

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study validates the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire for children (SPSRQ-C), using a Dutch sample of 1234 children between 6-13 years old. Factor analysis determined that a 4-factor and a 5-factor solution were best fitting, explaining 41% and 50% of

  6. Reward and punishment sensitivity in children with ADHD: validating the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire for Children (SPSR-C)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luman, M.; van Meel, C.S.; Oosterlaan, J.; Geurts, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study validates the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire for children (SPSRQ-C), using a Dutch sample of 1234 children between 6-13 years old. Factor analysis determined that a 4-factor and a 5-factor solution were best fitting, explaining 41% and 50% of the varianc

  7. Incubation of methamphetamine and palatable food craving after punishment-induced abstinence.

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    Krasnova, Irina N; Marchant, Nathan J; Ladenheim, Bruce; McCoy, Michael T; Panlilio, Leigh V; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin; Cadet, Jean L

    2014-07-01

    In a rat model of drug craving and relapse, cue-induced drug seeking progressively increases after withdrawal from methamphetamine and other drugs, a phenomenon termed 'incubation of drug craving'. However, current experimental procedures used to study incubation of drug craving do not incorporate negative consequences of drug use, which is a common factor promoting abstinence in humans. Here, we studied whether incubation of methamphetamine craving is observed after suppression of drug seeking by adverse consequences (punishment). We trained rats to self-administer methamphetamine or palatable food for 9 h per day for 14 days; reward delivery was paired with a tone-light cue. Subsequently, for one group within each reward type, 50% of the lever-presses were punished by mild footshock for 9-10 days, whereas for the other group lever-presses were not punished. Shock intensity was gradually increased over time. Next, we assessed cue-induced reward seeking in 1-h extinction sessions on withdrawal days 2 and 21. Response-contingent punishment suppressed extended-access methamphetamine or food self-administration; surprisingly, food-trained rats showed greater resistance to punishment than methamphetamine-trained rats. During the relapse tests, both punished and unpunished methamphetamine- and food-trained rats showed significantly higher cue-induced reward seeking on withdrawal day 21 than on day 2. These results demonstrate that incubation of both methamphetamine and food craving occur after punishment-induced suppression of methamphetamine or palatable food self-administration. Our procedure can be used to investigate mechanisms of relapse to drug and palatable food seeking under conditions that more closely approximate the human condition.

  8. Importance of punishment frequency in the Iowa gambling task: an fMRI study.

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    Ma, Shuangye; Zang, Yufeng; Cheung, Vinci; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2015-12-01

    It has been widely found that in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; Bechara et al. Cognition, 50(1), 7-15 1994) normal subjects would gradually learn to prefer obtaining rewards for long-term benefits than seeking immediate rewards to maximize the overall profit. The current study aimed to gain an understanding of how punishment frequency in the IGT would be processed and its association with subjects' reward preferences. In this study, we employed the clinical version of the IGT, in which response options are not only different in the long-term outcome, but also associated with different punishment frequencies. Event-related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was used to capture the subjects' brain activity when performing the IGT. A total of 24 male subjects (mean age = 21.7 years, SD = 1.8 years), who were university students, participated in the experiment. It is found that subjects learned to select more from the decks that were advantageous in the long-term, but they were more sensitive to the effect of long-term outcome under the condition of high punishment frequency. The corresponding brain activation showed that the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) had significantly higher activation during the disadvantageous choices than the advantageous choices. Such activity difference between the two conditions of long-term outcome was more prominent with high punishment frequency than low punishment frequency; and this brain activity difference was significantly correlated with the behavioral performance under the condition of high punishment frequency. The results suggested that only in the context with high punishment frequency, there would be increased neural activity in ACC when subjects intended to select from the disadvantageous choices so that these choices would be inhibited and advantageous choices would be selected.

  9. [Experience of Icelandic adults of corporal punishment and abuse in childhood].

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    Gunnlaugsson, Geir; Einarsdottir, Jonina

    2013-05-01

    Corporal punishment and abuse of children can have a negative impact on their health and well-being. The aim is to examine on Icelandic adults, experience of corporal punishment as children, its prevalence, justification as victims, and its impact on the assessment of their upbringing. From the national population register, out of 1500 randomly selected adults 18 years and older, 977 (65%) participated. In a telephone interview, they appraised their upbringing, followed by questions regarding 5 specific forms of corporal punishment in addition to an open-ended question about other forms experienced. Out of 968 respondents, 810 (84%) regarded their upbringing as good. In total, 465 (48%) reported at least one form of corporal punishment in childhood, with spanking being the most prevalent one (29%). Respondents 30 years and older were 1.9 times more likely to have experienced corporal punishment compared to those who were younger (95% CI 1.4-2.6) and males were 1.6 times more likely to report it compared to females (95% CI 1.2-2.0). Those who had frequently been punished were significantly more likely to hold of the opinion that it had never been justified (OR=6.5; 95% CI 1.8-22.9) and were more likely to judge their upbringing to have been reasonable or bad (OR=10.2; 95% CI 4.7-21.9) compared to those who had no such experience. The practice of corporal punishment of Icelandic children was significantly less prevalent among respondents born about 1980 and later compared to those born earlier. Increased public debate and awareness of children's rights and changed ideas about their upbringing has facilitated such development.

  10. Punishment sensitivity modulates the processing of negative feedback but not error-induced learning

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    Kerstin eUnger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that individual differences in punishment and reward sensitivity are associated with functional alterations in neural systems underlying error and feedback processing. In particular, individuals highly sensitive to punishment have been found to be characterized by larger midfrontal error signals as reflected in the error negativity (Ne/ERN and the FRN (feedback-related negativity. By contrast, reward sensitivity has been shown to relate to the error positivity (Pe. Given that Ne/ERN, FRN, and Pe have been functionally linked to flexible behavioral adaptation, the aim of the present research was to examine how these electrophysiological reflections of error and feedback processing vary as a function of punishment and reward sensitivity during reinforcement learning. We applied a probabilistic learning task that involved three different conditions of feedback validity (100%, 80%, and 50%. In contrast to prior studies using response competition tasks, we did not find reliable correlations between punishment sensitivity and the Ne/ERN. Instead, higher punishment sensitivity predicted larger FRN amplitudes, irrespective of feedback validity. Moreover, higher reward sensitivity was associated with a larger Pe. However, only reward sensitivity was related to better overall learning performance and higher post-error accuracy, whereas highly punishment sensitive participants showed impaired learning performance, suggesting that larger negative feedback-related error signals were not beneficial for learning or even reflected maladaptive information processing in these individuals. Thus, although our findings indicate that individual differences in reward and punishment sensitivity are related to electrophysiological correlates of error and feedback processing, we found less evidence for influences of these personality characteristics on the relation between performance monitoring and feedback-based learning.

  11. An Evolutionary Model of Cooperation, Fairness and Altruistic Punishment in Public Good Games

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    Hetzer, Moritz; Sornette, Didier

    2013-01-01

    We identify and explain the mechanisms that account for the emergence of fairness preferences and altruistic punishment in voluntary contribution mechanisms by combining an evolutionary perspective together with an expected utility model. We aim at filling a gap between the literature on the theory of evolution applied to cooperation and punishment, and the empirical findings from experimental economics. The approach is motivated by previous findings on other-regarding behavior, the co-evolution of culture, genes and social norms, as well as bounded rationality. Our first result reveals the emergence of two distinct evolutionary regimes that force agents to converge either to a defection state or to a state of coordination, depending on the predominant set of self- or other-regarding preferences. Our second result indicates that subjects in laboratory experiments of public goods games with punishment coordinate and punish defectors as a result of an aversion against disadvantageous inequitable outcomes. Our third finding identifies disadvantageous inequity aversion as evolutionary dominant and stable in a heterogeneous population of agents endowed initially only with purely self-regarding preferences. We validate our model using previously obtained results from three independently conducted experiments of public goods games with punishment. PMID:24260101

  12. The effect of altruistic tendency on fairness in third-party punishment

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    Lu eSun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Third-party punishment, as an altruistic behavior, was found to relate to inequity aversion in previous research. However, not all people show altruistic third party punishment, previous research found that altruistic tendency, as an individual difference, affects resource division. Here, using the ERP technique and a third party punishment of dictator game paradigm, we explored third-party punishments in high and low altruists and recorded their EEG data. Behavioral results showed high altruists (vs. low altruists were more likely to punish the dictators in unfair offers. ERP results revealed that patterns of MFN were modulated by unfairness. For high altruists, high unfair offers (90:10 elicited a larger MFN than medium unfair offers (70:30 and fair offers (50:50. By contrast, for low altruists, fair offers elicited larger MFN while high unfair offers caused the minimal MFN. It is suggested that the altruistic tendency effect influences fairness consideration in the early stage of evaluation. Moreover, the results provide further neuroscience evidence for inequity aversion.

  13. An evolutionary model of cooperation, fairness and altruistic punishment in public good games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Hetzer

    Full Text Available We identify and explain the mechanisms that account for the emergence of fairness preferences and altruistic punishment in voluntary contribution mechanisms by combining an evolutionary perspective together with an expected utility model. We aim at filling a gap between the literature on the theory of evolution applied to cooperation and punishment, and the empirical findings from experimental economics. The approach is motivated by previous findings on other-regarding behavior, the co-evolution of culture, genes and social norms, as well as bounded rationality. Our first result reveals the emergence of two distinct evolutionary regimes that force agents to converge either to a defection state or to a state of coordination, depending on the predominant set of self- or other-regarding preferences. Our second result indicates that subjects in laboratory experiments of public goods games with punishment coordinate and punish defectors as a result of an aversion against disadvantageous inequitable outcomes. Our third finding identifies disadvantageous inequity aversion as evolutionary dominant and stable in a heterogeneous population of agents endowed initially only with purely self-regarding preferences. We validate our model using previously obtained results from three independently conducted experiments of public goods games with punishment.

  14. Neural sensitivity to social reward and punishment anticipation in Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk eCremers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An imbalance in the neural motivational system may underlie Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD. This study examines social reward and punishment anticipation in SAD, predicting a valence-specific effect: increased striatal activity for punishment avoidance compared to obtaining a reward. Individuals with SAD (n=20 and age, gender, and education case-matched controls (n=20 participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study. During fMRI scanning, participants performed a Social Incentive Delay task to measure the anticipation of social reward and punishment. The left putamen (part of the striatum showed a valence-specific interaction with group after correcting for medication use and comorbidity. The control group showed a relatively stronger activation for reward vs. punishment trials, compared to the social anxiety group. However, post-hoc pairwise comparisons were not significant, indicating that the effect is driven by a relative difference. A connectivity analysis (Psychophysiological interaction further revealed a general salience effect: SAD patients showed decreased putamen-ACC connectivity compared to controls for both reward and punishment trials. Together these results suggest that the usual motivational preference for social reward is absent in SAD. In addition, cortical control processes during social incentive anticipation may be disrupted in SAD. These results provide initial evidence for altered striatal involvement in both valence-specific and valence nonspecific processing of social incentives, and stress the relevance of taking motivational processes into account when studying social anxiety.

  15. Gossip Versus Punishment: The Efficiency of Reputation to Promote and Maintain Cooperation.

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    Wu, Junhui; Balliet, Daniel; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2016-04-04

    Prior theory suggests that reputation spreading (e.g., gossip) and punishment are two key mechanisms to promote cooperation in groups, but no behavioral research has yet examined their relative effectiveness and efficiency in promoting and maintaining cooperation. To examine these issues, we observed participants interacting in a four-round public goods game (PGG) with or without gossip and punishment options, and a subsequent two-round trust game (TG). We manipulated gossip as the option to send notes about other group members to these members' future partners, and punishment as the option to assign deduction points to reduce other group members' outcomes with a fee-to-fine ratio of 1:3. Findings revealed that in the four-round PGG, the option to gossip increased both cooperation and individual earnings, whereas the option to punish had no overall effect on cooperation (but a positive effect on cooperation in the last two rounds of the PGG) and significantly decreased individual earnings. Importantly, the initial option to gossip made people more trusting and trustworthy in the subsequent TG when gossip was no longer possible, compared to the no-gossip condition. Thus, we provide some initial evidence that gossip may be more effective and efficient than punishment to promote and maintain cooperation.

  16. Punishment for bedwetting is associated with child depression and reduced quality of life.

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    Al-Zaben, Faten Nabeel; Sehlo, Mohammad Gamal

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed the relationship between parental punishment and depression as well as quality of life in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE). A consecutive sample of 65 children (7-13 years) with PMNE and 40 healthy children, selected as controls (Group III), were included in the study. The children with PMNE were further sub-classified into two groups: Group I, which included children who received parental punishment for enuresis and Group II, which comprised children who were not punished for bedwetting. Depression and health-related quality of life (HRQL) were assessed among the three groups. The number of wet nights per week was significantly increased in Group I compared with Group II (Ppunishment (B=0.55, P=.008), as well as the frequency (B=0.73, Ppunishment (B=0.33, P=.02) were strong predictors of increased depressive symptom severity. It was also found that prior punishment (B=-0.42, P=.01) and the frequency (B=-0.62, Ppunishment (B=-0.34, P=.02) were strong predictors for poor psychosocial HRQL. Overall, parental punishment has a poor outcome in children with PMNE.

  17. Antisocial behavior, psychopathic features and abnormalities in reward and punishment processing in youth.

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    Byrd, Amy L; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A

    2014-06-01

    A better understanding of what leads youth to initially engage in antisocial behavior (ASB) and more importantly persist with such behaviors into adulthood has significant implications for prevention and intervention efforts. A considerable number of studies using behavioral and neuroimaging techniques have investigated abnormalities in reward and punishment processing as potential causal mechanisms underlying ASB. However, this literature has yet to be critically evaluated, and there are no comprehensive reviews that systematically examine and synthesize these findings. The goal of the present review is twofold. The first aim is to examine the extent to which youth with ASB are characterized by abnormalities in (1) reward processing; (2) punishment processing; or (3) both reward and punishment processing. The second aim is to evaluate whether aberrant reward and/or punishment processing is specific to or most pronounced in a subgroup of antisocial youth with psychopathic features. Studies utilizing behavioral methods are first reviewed, followed by studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging. An integration of theory and research across multiple levels of analysis is presented in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of reward and punishment processing in antisocial youth. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental and contextual considerations, proposed future directions and implications for intervention.

  18. Sex offender punishment and the persistence of penal harm in the U.S.

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    Leon, Chrysanthi S

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. has dramatically revised its approach to punishment in the last several decades. In particular, people convicted of sex crimes have experienced a remarkable expansion in social control through a wide-range of post-conviction interventions. While this expansion may be largely explained by general punishment trends, there appear to be unique factors that have prevented other penal reforms from similarly modulating sex offender punishment. In part, this continuation of a "penal harm" approach to sex offenders relates to the past under-valuing of sexual victimization. In the "bad old days," the law and its agents sent mixed messages about sexual violence and sexual offending. Some sexual offending was mere nuisance, some was treatable, and a fraction "deserved" punishment equivalent to other serious criminal offending. In contrast, today's sex offender punishment schemes rarely distinguish formally among gradations of harm or dangerousness. After examining incarceration trends, this article explores the historical context of the current broad brush approach and reviews the unintended consequences. Altogether, this article reinforces the need to return to differentiation among sex offenders, but differentiation based on science and on the experience-based, guided discretion of experts in law enforcement, corrections, and treatment.

  19. Prison break: Karl Menninger's The Crime of Punishment and its reception in U.S. psychology.

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    Devonis, David C; Triggs, Jessica

    2017-02-01

    In 1968, Karl Menninger, a highly visible and vocal U.S. psychiatrist, published a call to action on prison reform, The Crime of Punishment (Menninger, 1966/1968). This widely circulated book's central idea is that punishment as practiced in penal settings is an injustice amounting to a crime. At the outset, The Crime of Punishment quickly achieved national attention. Within mainstream psychology, its antipunishment message encountered a changed climate in which punishment, thought ineffective during the period 1930 through 1960, was redefined as an effective component in learning. It also met competition from the contemporaneous Stanford Prison Experiment (Haney, Banks, & Zimbardo, 1973), which quickly rose to equivalent media presence and superior disciplinary prominence. Both the Stanford Prison Experiment and The Crime of Punishment survived in the antireform era of hyperincarceration after 1974 as parallel examples of reform activism, one secular and one religious in character, illustrating some convergences of aim between psychology and psychiatry outside of specifically clinical issues. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. A double-edged sword: Benefits and pitfalls of heterogeneous punishment in evolutionary inspection games

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    Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila

    2015-06-01

    As a simple model for criminal behavior, the traditional two-strategy inspection game yields counterintuitive results that fail to describe empirical data. The latter shows that crime is often recurrent, and that crime rates do not respond linearly to mitigation attempts. A more apt model entails ordinary people who neither commit nor sanction crime as the third strategy besides the criminals and punishers. Since ordinary people free-ride on the sanctioning efforts of punishers, they may introduce cyclic dominance that enables the coexistence of all three competing strategies. In this setup ordinary individuals become the biggest impediment to crime abatement. We therefore also consider heterogeneous punisher strategies, which seek to reduce their investment into fighting crime in order to attain a more competitive payoff. We show that this diversity of punishment leads to an explosion of complexity in the system, where the benefits and pitfalls of criminal behavior are revealed in the most unexpected ways. Due to the raise and fall of different alliances no less than six consecutive phase transitions occur in dependence on solely the temptation to succumb to criminal behavior, leading the population from ordinary people-dominated across punisher-dominated to crime-dominated phases, yet always failing to abolish crime completely.