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  1. Automated Learning of Subcellular Variation among Punctate Protein Patterns and a Generative Model of Their Relation to Microtubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R Johnson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the spatial distribution of proteins directly from microscopy images is a difficult problem with numerous applications in cell biology (e.g. identifying motor-related proteins and clinical research (e.g. identification of cancer biomarkers. Here we describe the design of a system that provides automated analysis of punctate protein patterns in microscope images, including quantification of their relationships to microtubules. We constructed the system using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy images from the Human Protein Atlas project for 11 punctate proteins in three cultured cell lines. These proteins have previously been characterized as being primarily located in punctate structures, but their images had all been annotated by visual examination as being simply "vesicular". We were able to show that these patterns could be distinguished from each other with high accuracy, and we were able to assign to one of these subclasses hundreds of proteins whose subcellular localization had not previously been well defined. In addition to providing these novel annotations, we built a generative approach to modeling of punctate distributions that captures the essential characteristics of the distinct patterns. Such models are expected to be valuable for representing and summarizing each pattern and for constructing systems biology simulations of cell behaviors.

  2. Automated Learning of Subcellular Variation among Punctate Protein Patterns and a Generative Model of Their Relation to Microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gregory R; Li, Jieyue; Shariff, Aabid; Rohde, Gustavo K; Murphy, Robert F

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing the spatial distribution of proteins directly from microscopy images is a difficult problem with numerous applications in cell biology (e.g. identifying motor-related proteins) and clinical research (e.g. identification of cancer biomarkers). Here we describe the design of a system that provides automated analysis of punctate protein patterns in microscope images, including quantification of their relationships to microtubules. We constructed the system using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy images from the Human Protein Atlas project for 11 punctate proteins in three cultured cell lines. These proteins have previously been characterized as being primarily located in punctate structures, but their images had all been annotated by visual examination as being simply "vesicular". We were able to show that these patterns could be distinguished from each other with high accuracy, and we were able to assign to one of these subclasses hundreds of proteins whose subcellular localization had not previously been well defined. In addition to providing these novel annotations, we built a generative approach to modeling of punctate distributions that captures the essential characteristics of the distinct patterns. Such models are expected to be valuable for representing and summarizing each pattern and for constructing systems biology simulations of cell behaviors.

  3. Combined treatment in punctate inner choroidopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terelak-Borys B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Barbara Terelak-Borys, Katarzyna Zagajewska, Irmina Jankowska-Lech, Piotr Tesla, Iwona Grabska-Liberek Department of Ophthalmology, Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Prof W Orlowski Clinical Hospital, Warsaw, Poland Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe a combination treatment for choroidal neovascular (CNV membrane, secondary to punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC.Patient and methods: A 44-year-old female patient was diagnosed with PIC complicated by the development of recurrent juxtafoveal neovascular membrane. The treatment included a sequence of monotherapy regimens: systemic steroid therapy, photodynamic therapy, and intravitreal injections of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitor (anti-VEGF. Owing to the CNV membrane resistance to various types of monotherapy, a combination treatment consisting of local injections of steroid underneath the Tenon’s capsule and intravitreal anti-VEGF injections was used.Results: Systemic steroid therapy resulted in rapid local improvement with a very short remission period. No positive effects of photodynamic therapy were observed. Sequential anti-VEGF injections led to remission periods of several months. Permanent regression of CNV membrane was achieved following combined local application of steroid and intravitreal anti-VEGF injections.Conclusion: A combination treatment including steroid and anti-VEGF medication characterized by anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic effects may be a very beneficial option for the treatment of recurrent CNV membrane as a complication of PIC. Keywords: punctate inner choroidopathy, neovascular membrane, anti-VEGF injections, photodynamic therapy, steroids

  4. Punctate white matter lesions in infants: new insights using susceptibility-weighted imaging

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    Niwa, Tetsu [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Departments of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Vries, Linda S. de; Benders, Manon J.N.L.; Groenendaal, Floris [Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital/University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neonatology, KE 04.123.1, PO Box 85090, Utrecht (Netherlands); Takahara, Taro [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nikkels, Peter G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Heidelberglaan 100, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    Punctate white matter lesions (PWML) are recognized with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as hypersignal on T1-weighted imaging and hyposignal on T2-weighted imaging. Our aim was to assess how often a hemorrhagic component was present in PWML using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Seventeen preterm (gestational age, 25-34 weeks) and seven full-term infants (age at MRI, 37-42 weeks) with PWML were included. Seven preterm infants had sequential MRIs. PWML were diagnosed with conventional MRI and compared with SWI, where signal loss is suggestive of hemorrhage. The pattern of associated brain lesions was taken into account, and the percentage of lesions with signal loss on SWI was calculated for each infant. A significantly higher percentage of signal loss on SWI (median, 93.9%) was found among infants with germinal matrix and intraventricular hemorrhage as the primary diagnosis (n = 8) compared to those with a primary diagnosis of white matter injury (n = 14; median, 14.2%; p < 0.01). In the infants with serial MRIs, a reduction in the number of PWML and/or signal loss on SWI was noted at term equivalent age. In the patient who died, cystic lesions, associated with hemorrhage and gliosis, were demonstrated on histology. SWI can distinguish hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic PWML. Signal loss on SWI was more common when PWML were associated with an intraventricular hemorrhage. Longitudinal imaging showed a decrease in the number of PWML over time, with some PWML no longer showing signal loss on SWI, suggesting early gliosis. (orig.)

  5. Flare up of choroiditis and choroidal neovasculazation associated with punctate inner choroidopathy during early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Vinita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 28-year-old, healthy female, who had a recent repeated history of miscarriage, presented with bilateral choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVM, for which she received photodynamic therapy with three doses of lucentis, at intervals of one month each, to which she responded. After five months, the patient again presented with complaints of diminution of vision since 15 days. She had a history of miscarriage two days before presenting to our clinic. CNVM was scarred at this time and the fundus picture showed multiple small punctate spots around the fovea at the level of the choroid, which showed early hyperfluroscence on fundus fluorescein angiography, suggestive of punctate inner choroidopathy. She was advised systemic steroids, to which she responded dramatically.

  6. Haploinsufficiency for AAGAB causes clinically heterogeneous forms of punctate palmoplantar keratoderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohler, Elizabeth; Mamai, Ons; Hirst, Jennifer; Zamiri, Mozheh; Horn, Helen; Nomura, Toshifumi; Irvine, Alan D.; Moran, Benvon E.; Wilson, Neil J.; Smith, Frances J. D.; Goh, Christabelle S. M; Sandilands, Aileen; Cole, Christian; Barton, Geoffrey J.; Evans, Alan T.; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Masashi; Suehiro, Akihiro; Konohana, Izumi; Shboul, Mohammad; Teissier, Sebastien; Boussofara, Lobna; Denguezli, Mohamed; Saad, Ali; Gribaa, Moez; Dopping-Hepenstal, Patricia J.; McGrath, John A; Brown, Sara J.; Goudie, David R.; Reversade, Bruno; Munro, Colin S.; McLean, W. H. Irwin

    2012-01-01

    Palmoplantar keratodermas (PPKs) are a group of disorders that are diagnostically and therapeutically problematic in dermatogenetics1-3. Punctate PPKs are characterized by circumscribed hyperkeratotic lesions on palms and soles with considerable heterogeneity. In 18 families with autosomal dominant punctate PPK (OMIM #148600), we report heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in AAGAB, encoding alpha- and gamma-adaptin binding protein p34, at a previously linked locus on 15q22. p34, a cytosolic protein with a Rab-like GTPase domain, was shown to bind both clathrin adaptor protein complexes, indicative of a role in membrane traffic. Ultrastucturally, lesional epidermis showed abnormalities in intracellular vesicle biology. Immunohistochemistry showed hyperproliferation within the punctate lesions. Knockdown of p34 in keratinocytes led to increased cell division, which was linked to greatly increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein expression and tyrosine phosphorylation. We hypothesize that p34 deficiency may impair endocytic recycling of growth factor receptors such as EGFR, leading to increased signaling and proliferation. PMID:23064416

  7. Choroidal neovascularisation on optical coherence tomography angiography in punctate inner choroidopathy and multifocal choroiditis.

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    Levison, Ashleigh L; Baynes, Kimberly M; Lowder, Careen Y; Kaiser, Peter K; Srivastava, Sunil K

    2017-05-01

    To describe the findings seen on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients with punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) and multifocal choroiditis and panuveitis (MCP) complicated by choroidal neovascular membranes. This was an Institutional Review Board-approved prospective, descriptive case series. 12 patients with PIC and MCP complicated by choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) were included. Each patient underwent slit-lamp examination by a uveitis specialist followed by conventional spectral domain OCT imaging of the macula. OCTA images of the macula were then obtained. 12 patients were enrolled in the study, out of which 9 patients were followed longitudinally. CNV was identified in 11 of the 12 patients. In all patients where fluorescein angiography (FA) was inconclusive for presence of CNV, OCTA identified CNV. Various lesions on OCT suggestive of activity correlated with changes in the vascular structure of OCTA to confirm suspicion of clinical activity. In patients with PIC and MCP complicated by CNV, OCTA successfully identified underlying CNV. Given the difficulty of differentiating inflammatory lesions from early CNV on OCT and FA, OCTA may provide a valuable method of monitoring patients with posterior uveitis highly correlated with development of CNV. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of brain maturation in preterm neonates with punctate white matter lesions

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    Ramenghi, Luca A.; Fumagalli, Monica; Bassi, Laura; Groppo, Michela; Mosca, Fabio [University of Milan, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, IRCCS, Milan (Italy); Righini, Andrea; Parazzini, Cecilia; Bianchini, Elena; Triulzi, Fabio [Ospedale Pediatrico ' ' Buzzi' ' -ICP, Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy)

    2007-02-15

    Early white matter (WM) injury affects brain maturation in preterm infants as revealed by diffusion tensor imaging and volumetric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at term postmenstrual age (PMA). The aim of the study was to assess quantitatively brain maturation in preterm infants with and without milder forms of WM damage (punctate WM lesions, PWML) using conventional MRI. Brain development was quantitatively assessed using a previously validated scoring system (total maturation score, TMS) which utilizes four parameters (progressive myelination and cortical infolding, progressive involution of glial cell migration bands and germinal matrix tissue). PWML were defined as foci of increased signal on T1-weighted images and decreased signal on T2-weighted images with no evidence of cystic degeneration. A group of 22 preterm infants with PWML at term PMA (PWML group) were compared with 22 matched controls with a normal MR appearance. The two groups were comparable concerning gestational age, birth weight and PMA. TMS was significantly lower in the PWML group than in the control group (mean TMS 12.44 {+-} 2.31 vs 14.00 {+-} 1.44; P = 0.011). Myelination (mean 2.76 {+-} 0.42 PWML group vs 3.32 {+-} 0.55 control group, P = 0.003) and cortical folding (3.64 {+-} 0.79 vs 4.09 {+-} 0.43, P = 0.027) appeared to be significantly delayed in babies with PWML. Conventional MRI appears able to quantify morphological changes in brain maturation of preterm babies with PWML; delayed myelination and reduced cortical infolding seem to be the most significant aspects. (orig.)

  9. Automated Grading System for Evaluation of Corneal Superficial Punctate Keratitis Associated with Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, John D; Lane, Keith; Ousler, George W; Angjeli, Endri; Smith, Lisa; Abelson, Mark

    2015-03-03

    Purpose. To develop an automated method of grading fluorescein staining that accurately reproduces the clinical grading system currently in use. Methods. From the slit lamp photograph of the fluorescein-stained cornea, the region of interest was selected and punctate dot number calculated using software developed with the Opencv computer vision library. Images (N=229) were then divided into six incremental severity categories based on computed scores. The final selection of fifty-four photographs represented the full range of scores: nine images from each of six categories. These were then evaluated by three investigators using a clinical 0-4 corneal staining scale. Pearson correlations were calculated to compare investigator scores, and mean investigator and automated scores. Lin's Concordance Correlations (CCC) and Bland Altman plots were used to assess agreement between methods and between investigators. Results. Pearson's correlation between investigators was 0.914; mean CCC between investigators was 0.882. Bland-Altman analysis indicated that scores assessed by Investigator 3 were significantly higher than those of Investigators 1 and 2 (paired t-test). The predicted grade was calculated to be: Gpred=1.48log(Ndots) - 0.206. The two-point Pearson's correlation coefficient between the methods was 0.927 (p<0.0001). CCC between predicted automated score Gpred and mean investigator score was 0.929, 95% C.I. (0.884, 0.957). Bland-Altman analysis did not indicate bias. The difference in standard deviation between clinical and automated methods was 0.398. Conclusion. An objective, automated analysis of corneal staining provides a quality assurance tool to be used to substantiate clinical grading of key corneal staining endpoints in multi-centered clinical trials of dry eye.

  10. Loss-of-function mutations in CAST cause peeling skin, leukonychia, acral punctate keratoses, cheilitis, and knuckle pads.

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    Lin, Zhimiao; Zhao, Jiahui; Nitoiu, Daniela; Scott, Claire A; Plagnol, Vincent; Smith, Frances J D; Wilson, Neil J; Cole, Christian; Schwartz, Mary E; McLean, W H Irwin; Wang, Huijun; Feng, Cheng; Duo, Lina; Zhou, Eray Yihui; Ren, Yali; Dai, Lanlan; Chen, Yulan; Zhang, Jianguo; Xu, Xun; O'Toole, Edel A; Kelsell, David P; Yang, Yong

    2015-03-05

    Calpastatin is an endogenous specific inhibitor of calpain, a calcium-dependent cysteine protease. Here we show that loss-of-function mutations in calpastatin (CAST) are the genetic causes of an autosomal-recessive condition characterized by generalized peeling skin, leukonychia, acral punctate keratoses, cheilitis, and knuckle pads, which we propose to be given the acronym PLACK syndrome. In affected individuals with PLACK syndrome from three families of different ethnicities, we identified homozygous mutations (c.607dup, c.424A>T, and c.1750delG) in CAST, all of which were predicted to encode truncated proteins (p.Ile203Asnfs∗8, p.Lys142∗, and p.Val584Trpfs∗37). Immunohistochemistry shows that staining of calpastatin is reduced in skin from affected individuals. Transmission electron microscopy revealed widening of intercellular spaces with chromatin condensation and margination in the upper stratum spinosum in lesional skin, suggesting impaired intercellular adhesion as well as keratinocyte apoptosis. A significant increase of apoptotic keratinocytes was also observed in TUNEL assays. In vitro studies utilizing siRNA-mediated CAST knockdown revealed a role for calpastatin in keratinocyte adhesion. In summary, we describe PLACK syndrome, as a clinical entity of defective epidermal adhesion, caused by loss-of-function mutations in CAST.

  11. Evaluation of the progression rate of atrophy lesions in punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) based on autofluorescence analysis.

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    Hua, Rui; Liu, Limin; Chen, Lei

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the autofluorescence (AF) characteristics of punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) and to evaluate the progression rate of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy lesions in PIC using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Twenty-two eyes of 14 PIC cases and 21 eyes of 21 non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) cases which received retinal coagulation as a control group were enrolled in this study. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) and AF were recorded from all patients at 18 months follow-up. The RPE atrophy areas of PIC and laser scars in NPDR were analyzed using the Region Finder software of the Heidelberg Eye Explorer. This software allows direct export of AF images from the database and semi-automated detection of atrophic areas by shadow correction, vessel detection, and selection of seed points. At baseline, both hyperfluorescence and hypofluorescence were observed in the lesions of PIC eyes with a focal elevation of RPE and corresponding disruption of the ellipsoid region of the inner segment ellipsoid zone (EZ). In contrast, hypo-AF was detected when there was a lack of RPE. The mean progression rate of RPE atrophy in PIC and NPDR were 3.735 mm(2)/year (0.056-0.545) and 0.127 mm(2)/year (0.015-0.466), respectively. Compared with the atrophy area in the last visit, the progression rate in PIC was significantly greater than that in NPDR (Z=5.615, P<0.0001). The results of AF reflect the status of PIC and the progression rate of RPE atrophy in PIC, which can be used to predict the progress of PIC noninvasively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Current advances in punctate inner choroidopathy%点状内层脉络膜病变研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田蓉; 陈有信

    2012-01-01

    Punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) is a rare inflammatory multifocal choroidopathy,which belongs to the white dot syndrome.The pathogenesis of PIC is still not clear.It may result from an immunogenetic predisposition and the development of an inappropriately directed immune response.PIC affects predominantly young moderately myopic women and is characterized by the presence of multiple,small,yellow-white fundus lesions frequently limited to the posterior pole in the absence of signs for anterior uveitis or hyalitis.Most patients with PIC do not require treatment because of its favorable prognosis.However,choroidal neovascularization (CNV),the primary complication of PIC,sometimes causes permanent severe vision loss.Treatment modalities that have been used to manage patients with PIC and CNV include corticosteroids,other immunosuppressant agents,photodynamic therapy,submacular surgery and,most recently,anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy.In this article,the definition,historical background,pathogenesis,pathology,clinical features,diagnosis and differential diagnosis,management and prognosis of PIC are reviewed.%点状内层脉络膜病变(PIC)是一种罕见的炎症性多灶性脉络膜病变,归类于白点综合征.目前病因不清,可能与免疫遗传易感性和异常的免疫反应相关.主要发生于中度近视青年女性,以眼底后极部多发的黄白色小点状病灶为特征,缺乏前葡萄膜炎和玻璃体炎体征.大多数患者视力预后较好,无需治疗,但其主要并发症——脉络膜新生血管可引起永久、严重的视力损害.PIC的治疗方法主要有皮质类固醇类药物,其他的有免疫抑制剂、光动力疗法、黄斑下手术及最近兴起的抗血管内皮生长因子疗法.现就点状内层脉络膜病变的定义、研究背景、病因及发病机制、病理、临床表现、诊断和鉴别诊断、治疗以及预后做一综述.

  13. Analysis of the Clinical Effect of Punctate Stripping in the Treatment of Great Saphenous Varicose Veins%分析点状抽剥在大隐静脉曲张治疗中的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖连平

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of punctate stripping in the treatment of great saphenous varicose veins. Methods 50 cases with great saphenous varicose veins admitted in Department of Varicose Veins of our hospital from March 2013 to March 2015 were selected as the subjects and randomly divided into two groups with 25 cases in each. Pa-tients in the control group were treated by cutting and stripping surgery, while those in the observation group were treated by punctate stripping surgery. And the treatment effect of two groups was compared. Results The operation time of the ob-servation group was (43.0±7.8) min, and that of the control group was (60.0±13) min; the amount of intraoperative blood transfusion of the observation group was (53.1±15.1)mL, and that of the control group was (135.0±33.8) mL; the length of hospital stay of the observation group was (7.1±2.1)d, and that of the control group was (9.5±2.5)d, the differences between the two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Punctate stripping for great saphenous varicose veins can effectively improve the treatment effect, so it is worthy of promotion and application.%目的:探讨在大隐静脉曲张中使用下段点状抽剥治疗的临床效果。方法整群选取该院2013年3月—2015年3月静脉曲张专科中大隐静脉曲张50例患者为研究对象,随机分为2组,每组25例。对照组应用切开剥除技术,观察组应用点状抽剥技术,对比两组的治疗效果。结果观察观察组手术时间为(43.0±7.8) min,对照组手术时间为(60.0±13)min;对照组术中输血量为(135.0±33.8) ml,观察组术中输血量为(53.1±15.1) ml;对照组住院时间为(9.5±2.5) d,观察组住院时间为(7.1±2.1) d,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论应用点状抽剥技术能有效提高病症治疗量,值得在临床进行推广使用。

  14. Punctate clinical application of modified composite graft to autologous skin with irradiated xenogeneic skin%点状自体皮与辐照异种皮改良复合移植的临床应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高伟; 陈为艳; 张宝泉; 杨新刚; 王守峰

    2013-01-01

    Objective Clinical effects of dot from body skin irradiated xenogeneic skin improved composite graft.Methods Selected 80 patients with severe burn patients randomized after admission on the basis of conventional treatment,3-5 days line Crust treatment group transplanted autologous point-like skin irradiation pigskin coverage.Results Treatment of patients in group one week dressing see irradiated pigskin Tiefu full two weeks the pigskin was dry scab-like.Wound healing treatment group (29 ± 5) days (P < 0.01) was significantly shorter than the control group(39 ±4) days.Wound healing rate of treatment is significantly higher than the control group (P <0.01).Wound infection rate reduced greatly reduce labor intensity and dressing,and reduce pain.1 year after scar formation in patients with good flexibility and functionality.Conclusions Punctate since improved composite body skin irradiated xenogeneic skin transplantation can improve skin graft survival rate,promote wound healing,treatment of a large area of the burn wound repair is feasible and effective.%目的 探讨点状自体皮与辐照异种皮改良复合移植的临床效果.方法 对入选的80例大面积烧伤患者,采用分层随机分组的方法分为治疗组及对照组,每组40例,治疗组在常规治疗的基础上,入院后第3~5天行切削痂,点状自体皮移植后辐照异种皮覆盖;对照组40例,其中20例行点状自体皮移植网眼油纱覆盖后加压包扎,20例行点状自体皮移植新鲜猪皮覆盖.观察比较两组患者点状自体皮成活情况、辐照异种皮排斥、创面愈合时间及愈合率、换药工作量、患者疼痛度及1年后患者瘢痕及功能恢复情况.结果 治疗组术后1周换药见辐照异种皮贴服完整,2周辐照异种皮呈干痂状.4~5周干痂逐渐分离,创面愈合.创面愈合时间治疗组(29.5±5)d较对照组(39.6±4)d明显缩短(P<0.01).创面愈合率治疗组(86.8±3.8)%较对照组(34.2±2.1)

  15. 点状内层脉络膜炎光相干断层扫描图像特征分析%Image features of punctate inner choroiditis on optical coherence tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昊; 孔丹丹; 裴勇; 柳维艳

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察分析不同时期点状内层脉络膜炎( PIC )光相干断层扫描图像特征。  方法:回顾性分析点状内层脉络膜炎患者24例33眼,其中女19例(79.2%)、双眼发病9例(37.5%)、年龄中位数29(16~47)岁、近视19例(79.2%)。所有患者均行眼底荧光素钠血管造影( FFA )和光相干断层扫描( OCT )检查,观察不同时期点状内层脉络膜炎OCT检查中OPL(外丛状层)和ONL (外核层)形态、IS/OS (视细胞内外节连接)层完整性、RPE(视网膜色素上皮)层反光带完整性和形态、脉络膜和巩膜反光的强度。  结果:点状内层脉络膜炎活动期和萎缩期可以表现为外丛状层和外核层向脉络膜方向凹陷、IS/OS层反光带减弱或局部消失、RPE反光带中断或模糊、RPE反光带向外核层小丘样隆起或外核层下的中等偏高反射团、病灶下局部脉络膜或巩膜反光增强。其中活动期出现上述表现的比率分别是9.1%,100%,100%,86.4%,77.3%,恢复期分别是81.8%,90.1%,81.8%,45.5%,90.1%。外核层下隆起的中等偏高的反射团在活动期更常见(P   结论:点状内层脉络膜炎活动期和萎缩期OCT表现有共同点但也有不同之处,提示了活动期和萎缩期外层神经上皮、视网膜色素上皮以及内层脉络膜炎症损伤再修复的病理过程。%AIM: To observe the image features of punctate inner choroiditis (PIC) at different stages by optical coherence tomography ( OCT) . METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 24 PIC patients (33 eyes) with the median age of 29 years old ( range: 16 - 47 ) , where 19 cases were female ( 79.2%) . Among the 24 cases, 9 cases were bilateral onset (37. 5%) and 19 cases were with myopia (79. 2%). All of the patients were given fundus fluorescein angiography ( FFA ) and optical coherence tomography ( OCT ) . Through OCT, patients with PIC at different stages were observed for morphology of outer plexiform layer (OPL) and outer

  16. Pattern matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hak (Tony); J. Dul (Jan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPattern matching is comparing two patterns in order to determine whether they match (i.e., that they are the same) or do not match (i.e., that they differ). Pattern matching is the core procedure of theory-testing with cases. Testing consists of matching an “observed pattern” (a pattern

  17. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2015-10-27

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical tiling patterns on the plane must take on various shapes in order to faithfully and feasibly approximate curved surfaces. We define and analyze the deformations these tiles must undertake to account for curvature, and discover the symmetries that remain invariant under such deformations. We propose a novel method to regularize polyhedral patterns while maintaining these symmetries into a plethora of aesthetic and feasible patterns.

  18. Specialization Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  19. Pattern matching

    OpenAIRE

    Hak, Tony; Dul, Jan

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPattern matching is comparing two patterns in order to determine whether they match (i.e., that they are the same) or do not match (i.e., that they differ). Pattern matching is the core procedure of theory-testing with cases. Testing consists of matching an “observed pattern” (a pattern of measured values) with an “expected pattern” (a hypothesis), and deciding whether these patterns match (resulting in a confirmation of the hypothesis) or do not match (resulting in a disconfirmat...

  20. Early Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Diffusion Weighted Imaging In Premature Infants With Punctate White Matter Damage%扩散加权成像在早期诊断早产儿局灶性脑白质损伤及其预后的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁英; 王晓明

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨扩散加权成像(DWI)在早期诊断早产儿局灶性脑白质损伤(punctate white matter damage,PWMD)及其预后的价值.资料与方法 搜集PWMD早产儿39例资料.息儿均在生后两周内进行头部MR、DWI(b=1000 s/mm~2)扫描且被确诊为PWMD.随访患儿头部MRI及生长发育情况.观察患儿早期DWI上病灶的数量、形状、分布;观察随访期病灶演变及对临床预后的影响.结果 早期DWI上PWMD病灶数量10个16例;早期DWI上病灶呈"簇"状22例("簇"状病灶组),呈"线"状11例(线状病灶组),呈混合型6例(混合型病灶组).病灶分布只位于侧脑室旁者9例,只位于侧脑室后角旁者13例,位于半卵圆中心、侧脑室旁、后角、前角旁等部位者17例.随访0.6~22个月后,簇状病灶组22例头部MRI示病灶吸收消失,未见异常信号灶.20例智力发育指数(mental development index,MDI)>80,神经运动发育指数(psychomotor devel-opment index,PDI)>80,2例语言发育障碍,MDI80;线状病灶组7例头部MRI出现侧脑室旁白质软化灶(periventricular leukomalacia,PVL),2例出现侧脑室后角变方、中央脑白质变薄等PVL后遗改变,2例轻度脑积水.MDI10,病灶易演变成PVL及其后遗改变,临床多出现运动发育迟缓、认知障碍改变.DWI应作为筛查早产儿脑损伤的常用序列,并能帮助判断PWMD的预后.

  1. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  2. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-07-26

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  3. Foam patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis

    2013-11-26

    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  4. Search Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Morville, Peter

    2010-01-01

    What people are saying about Search Patterns "Search Patterns is a delight to read -- very thoughtful and thought provoking. It's the most comprehensive survey of designing effective search experiences I've seen." --Irene Au, Director of User Experience, Google "I love this book! Thanks to Peter and Jeffery, I now know that search (yes, boring old yucky who cares search) is one of the coolest ways around of looking at the world." --Dan Roam, author, The Back of the Napkin (Portfolio Hardcover) "Search Patterns is a playful guide to the practical concerns of search interface design. It cont

  5. Chladni Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Wence

    2010-01-01

    The report aimed at mathematically describing the Chladni Pattern for a plate based on the equation of motion in two dimensions. It began with deriving the equation of motion of a single point from Newton’s laws, and later derived the equation of motion for the vibration in two dimension, and gave the normal modes through the method of separation of variables. The next was deriving the nodal pattern when the initial conditions and bound- ary conditions were given. At t...

  6. Pattern Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Rebecca

    2006-03-01

    From the stripes of a zebra and the spots on a leopard's back to the ripples on a sandy beach or desert dune, regular patterns arise everywhere in nature. The appearance and evolution of these phenomena has been a focus of recent research activity across several disciplines. This book provides an introduction to the range of mathematical theory and methods used to analyse and explain these often intricate and beautiful patterns. Bringing together several different approaches, from group theoretic methods to envelope equations and theory of patterns in large-aspect ratio-systems, the book also provides insight behind the selection of one pattern over another. Suitable as an upper-undergraduate textbook for mathematics students or as a fascinating, engaging, and fully illustrated resource for readers in physics and biology, Rebecca Hoyle's book, using a non-partisan approach, unifies a range of techniques used by active researchers in this growing field. Accessible description of the mathematical theory behind fascinating pattern formation in areas such as biology, physics and materials science Collects recent research for the first time in an upper level textbook Features a number of exercises - with solutions online - and worked examples

  7. Proof patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This innovative textbook introduces a new pattern-based approach to learning proof methods in the mathematical sciences. Readers will discover techniques that will enable them to learn new proofs across different areas of pure mathematics with ease. The patterns in proofs from diverse fields such as algebra, analysis, topology and number theory are explored. Specific topics examined include game theory, combinatorics, and Euclidean geometry, enabling a broad familiarity. The author, an experienced lecturer and researcher renowned for his innovative view and intuitive style, illuminates a wide range of techniques and examples from duplicating the cube to triangulating polygons to the infinitude of primes to the fundamental theorem of algebra. Intended as a companion for undergraduate students, this text is an essential addition to every aspiring mathematician’s toolkit.

  8. Pattern classification

    CERN Document Server

    Duda, Richard O; Stork, David G

    2001-01-01

    The first edition, published in 1973, has become a classic reference in the field. Now with the second edition, readers will find information on key new topics such as neural networks and statistical pattern recognition, the theory of machine learning, and the theory of invariances. Also included are worked examples, comparisons between different methods, extensive graphics, expanded exercises and computer project topics. An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is available from the Wiley editorial department.

  9. Nucleic acid distribution pattern in avian erythrocytes and mammalian lymphocytes: comparative studies by fluorescence microscopy and digital imaging analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isitor, G N; Asgarali, Z; Pouching, K

    2008-12-01

    Nucleated erythrocytes of healthy domestic chicken and ducks, and lymphocytes of healthy Sprague Dawley rats were evaluated for nucleic acid distribution pattern, employing light and fluorescence microscopy procedures, as well as digital imaging analytical methods. The results demonstrate a unique organization of nuclear DNA of mature chicken and duck erythrocytes, as well as immature duck erythrocytes, as delineated spherical nuclear bodies that mostly corresponded with euchromatin zones of the cells in routine Wright-stain blood smears. The nuclear DNA of the rat lymphocytes, on the other hand, was observed as a more diffuse green fluorescing nuclear areas, with punctate variably-sized diffuse areas of RNA red fluorescence. RNA red color fluorescence was also evident in the narrow cytoplasm of the lymphocytes, especially in large lymphocytes, in comparison with the cytoplasm of the mature avian erythrocytes that completely lacked any nucleic acid fluorescence. Nuclear RNA fluorescence was lacking in the mature chicken erythrocytes, compared with those of the mature and immature duck erythrocytes as well as lymphocytes of both avian and rats blood. The significance of these findings lies in the establishment of normal benchmarks for the nuclear and cytoplasmic nucleic acid pattern in eukaryotic cells. These normal benchmarks become valuable in rapid diagnostic situations associated with pathologies, such as the presence of viral nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies that can alter the nucleic acid pattern of the host cells, and in conditions of cellular abnormal protein aggregations. Variability of cellular nucleic acid pattern can also aid in prognostic assessments of neoplastic conditions.

  10. Java enterprise design patterns patterns in Java

    CERN Document Server

    Grand, Mark

    2002-01-01

    A how-to guide for Java programmers who want to use design patterns when developing real-world enterprise applicationsThis practical book explores the subject of design patterns, or patterns that occur in the design phase of a project''s life cycle. With an emphasis on Java for the enterprise, Mark Grand guides Java programmers on how to apply traditional and new patterns when designing a large enterprise application. The author clearly explains how existing patterns work with the new enterprise design patterns and demonstrates through case studies how to use design patterns in the real world.

  11. Privacy transparency patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siljee B.I.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two privacy patterns for creating privacy transparency: the Personal Data Table pattern and the Privacy Policy Icons pattern, as well as a full overview of privacy transparency patterns. It is a first step in creating a full set of privacy design patterns, which will aid

  12. Privacy transparency patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siljee B.I.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two privacy patterns for creating privacy transparency: the Personal Data Table pattern and the Privacy Policy Icons pattern, as well as a full overview of privacy transparency patterns. It is a first step in creating a full set of privacy design patterns, which will aid softwar

  13. Design Verifikation Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, John; Ravn, Anders Peter; Skou, Arne

    2007-01-01

    Design Verification Patterns are formal specifications that define the semantics of design patterns. For each design pattern, the corresponding verification pattern give a set of proof obligations. They must be discharged for a correct implementation of the pattern. Additionally there is a set...... of properties that may be used in the design and verification of applications that employ the pattern. The concept is illustrated by examples from general software engineering and more specialised properties for embedded software....

  14. Design Verifikation Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, John; Ravn, Anders Peter; Skou, Arne

    2007-01-01

    Design Verification Patterns are formal specifications that define the semantics of design patterns. For each design pattern, the corresponding verification pattern give a set of proof obligations. They must be discharged for a correct implementation of the pattern. Additionally there is a set of...... of properties that may be used in the design and verification of applications that employ the pattern. The concept is illustrated by examples from general software engineering and more specialised properties for embedded software.......Design Verification Patterns are formal specifications that define the semantics of design patterns. For each design pattern, the corresponding verification pattern give a set of proof obligations. They must be discharged for a correct implementation of the pattern. Additionally there is a set...

  15. Derivative Sign Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the patterns of signs of infinitely differentiable real functions shows that only four patterns are possible if the function is required to exhibit the pattern at all points in its domain and that domain is the set of all real numbers. On the other hand all patterns are possible if the domain is a bounded open interval.

  16. Patterns for agility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iacob, M.E.; Lankhorst, M.M.; Schrier, A.; Lankhorst, M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of patterns is an important practice in the agile software development community. There are many sources for patterns. In this chapter, we will examine several pattern collections and explore their potential contribution to system agility. We illustrate our pattern approach by a detailed exa

  17. Derivative Sign Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the patterns of signs of infinitely differentiable real functions shows that only four patterns are possible if the function is required to exhibit the pattern at all points in its domain and that domain is the set of all real numbers. On the other hand all patterns are possible if the domain is a bounded open interval.

  18. Polytypic pattern matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    The pattern matching problem can be informally specified as follows: given a pattern and a text, find all occurrences of the pattern in the text. The pattern and the text may both be lists, or they may both be trees, or they may both be multi-dimensional arrays, etc. This paper describes a general p

  19. Patterns that matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Pattern mining is one of the best-known concepts in Data Mining. A big problem in pattern mining is that humongous amounts of patterns can be mined even from small datasets. This makes it hard for domain experts to discover knowledge using pattern mining, for example in the field of Bioinformatics.

  20. Pattern evaporation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Żółkiewicz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the process of thermal evaporation of a foundry pattern. At several research-development centres, studies have been carried out to examine the physico-chemical phenomena that take place in foundry mould filled with polystyrene pattern when it is poured with molten metal. In the technique of evaporative patterns, the process of mould filling with molten metal (the said mould holding inside a polystyrene pattern is interrelated with the process of thermal decomposition of this pattern. The transformation of an evaporative pattern (e.g. made from foamed polystyrene from the solid into liquid and then gaseous state occurs as a result of the thermal effect that the liquid metal exerts onto this pattern. Consequently, at the liquid metal-pattern-mould phase boundary some physico-chemical phenomena take place, which until now have not been fully explained. When the pattern is evaporating, some solid and gaseous products are evolved, e.g. CO, CO2, H2, N2, and hydrocarbons, e.g. styrene, toluene, ethane, methane, benzene [16, 23]. The process of polystyrene pattern evaporation in foundry mould under the effect of molten metal is of a very complex nature and depends on many different factors, still not fully investigated. The kinetics of pattern evaporation is also affected by the technological properties of foundry mould, e.g. permeability, thermophysical properties, parameters of the gating system, temperature of pouring, properties of pattern material, and the size of pattern-liquid metal contact surface.

  1. Male pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  2. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  3. Four integration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygstad, Bendik; Nielsen, Peter Axel; Munkvold, Bjørn Erik

    2010-01-01

    . Expanding the perspective of traditional project management research, we draw extensively on central insights from IS research. Building on socio-technical IS research and Software Engineering research we suggest four generic patterns of integration: Big Bang, Stakeholder Integration, Technical Integration...... and Socio-Technical Integration. We analyze and describe the advantages and disadvantages of each pattern. The four patterns are ideal types. To explore the forces and challenges in these patterns three longitudinal case studies were conducted. In particular we investigate the management challenges for each...... pattern. We find that the patterns are context sensitive, and describe the different contexts where the patterns are applicable. For IS project management the four integration patterns is a contribution to the management of integration risks, extending the vocabulary for assessing and mitigating...

  4. Pattern polynomial graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, A Satyanarayana

    2011-01-01

    A graph $X$ is said to be a pattern polynomial graph if its adjacency algebra is a coherent algebra. In this study we will find a necessary and sufficient condition for a graph to be a pattern polynomial graph. Some of the properties of the graphs which are polynomials in the pattern polynomial graph have been studied. We also identify known graph classes which are pattern polynomial graphs.

  5. Mathematical Pattern Hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitin, Phyllis; Whitin, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The habit of looking for patterns, the skills to find them, and the expectation that patterns have explanations is an essential mathematical habit of mind for young children (Goldenberg, Shteingold, & Feurzeig 2003, 23). Work with patterns leads to the ability to form generalizations, the bedrock of algebraic thinking, and teachers must nurture…

  6. Temporal Pattern of the Repeated Bout Effect of Eccentric Exercise on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle A.; Kimura, Iris F.; Sitler, Michael R.; Kendrick, Zebulon V.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the temporal pattern of the repeated bout effect of eccentric exercise on perceived pain and muscular tenderness associated with delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Design and Setting: Subjects completed 2 identical eccentric exercise bouts separated by 6, 7, 8, or 9 weeks. The experiment was conducted in a biokinetics research laboratory. Subjects: Sixteen male and 15 female untrained subjects (age = 24.59 ± 4.42 years, height = 171.71 ± 7.81 cm, weight = 73.00 ± 11.20 kg). Measurements: Two physiologic characteristics of DOMS were measured immediately before and 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after each eccentric exercise bout. Perceived pain was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS), and muscular tenderness was measured using a punctate tenderness gauge (PTG). Results: Two 4 × 2 × 5 (group × bout × time) analyses of variance with repeated measures on the bout and time factors were performed on the VAS and PTG data. Significant (P < .05) main effects were found for group, bout, and time for the VAS and the PTG data. No significant interactions were detected. Post hoc analysis revealed significantly less perceived pain for the 9-week group than the 8-week group. The 7-week group had significantly less and the 8-week group had significantly more muscular tenderness than any other group. Perceived pain and muscular tenderness were significantly less after exercise bout 2 than after exercise bout 1. All subjects had significantly less perceived pain and muscular tenderness pre-exercise than 0 and 24 hours after the eccentric exercise bouts. Conclusions: An effective prophylaxis for perceived pain and muscular tenderness associated with DOMS is the performance of an eccentric exercise bout 6 to 9 weeks before a similar exercise bout. PMID:12937441

  7. Applied MVC Patterns. A pattern language

    OpenAIRE

    Alpaev, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    How to get advantages of MVC model without making applications unnecessarily complex? The full-featured MVC implementation is on the top end of ladder of complexity. The other end is meant for simple cases that do not call for such complex designs, however still in need of the advantages of MVC patterns, such as ability to change the look-and-feel. This paper presents patterns of MVC implementation that help to benefit from the paradigm and keep the right balance between flexibility and imple...

  8. Ramadan major dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest.

  9. Enhanced sensitivity to punctate painful stimuli in female patients with chronic low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puta Christian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic low back pain (CLBP has been shown to be associated with various pathophysiological changes at several level of the sensorimotor system, pointing to a general hypersensitivity in CLBP patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate signs of generalized mechanical pain hypersensitivity in CLBP patients on the hand and on the painful site of the back. Methods Pinprick stimulation according to a validated standardized quantitative sensory testing protocol was used in 14 female CLBP patients and 14 healthy controls (HC matched for sex and age. Stimulus response functions to pinprick stimulation on the skin were examined at the affected back and reference sites (hand palmar and hand dorsum. Data from CLBP patients were compared with HC and with reference data from the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain. Results We found significant differences in the stimulus response functions between CLBP patients and HC. Pain ratings to the pinpricks were increased for low and moderate pinprick stimuli in CLBP patients. Importantly, this kind of specific pinprick hyperalgesia was found not only for the affected body site (back, but also for the remote reference sites (hand dorsum and hand palmar. Conclusions We interpret our results as pointing to changes in the nociceptive processing in CLBP at higher levels of the neuraxis, possibly thalamus and/or attentional control, rather than changes of spinal processing. Alternatively, there might be a higher vulnerability to noxious stimulation in CLBP patients.

  10. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  11. Learning Python design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Zlobin, Gennadiy

    2013-01-01

    This book takes a tutorial-based and user-friendly approach to covering Python design patterns. Its concise presentation means that in a short space of time, you will get a good introduction to various design patterns.If you are an intermediate level Python user, this book is for you. Prior knowledge of Python programming is essential. Some knowledge of UML is also required to understand the UML diagrams which are used to describe some design patterns.

  12. Professional ASPNET Design Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Millett, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Professional ASP.NET Design Patterns will show you how to implement design patterns in real ASP.NET applications by introducing you to the basic OOP skills needed to understand and interpret design patterns. A sample application used throughout the book is an enterprise level ASP.NET website with multi-tiered, SOA design techniques that can be applied to your future ASP.NET projects. Read about each design pattern in detail, including how to interpret the UML design, how to implement it in ASP.NET, its importance for ASP.NET development, and how it's integrated into the final project.

  13. Patterns - "A crime solver"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nagasupriya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is intended to analyze the predominant pattern of lip and finger prints in males and females and to correlate lip print and finger print for gender identity. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised of 200 students of Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, 100 males and 100 females aged between 18 to 27 years. Brown/pink colored lip stick was applied on the lips and the subject was asked to spread it uniformly over the lips. Lip prints were traced in the normal rest position of the lips with the help of cellophane tape. The imprint of the left thumb was taken on a white chart sheet and visualized using magnifying lens. While three main types of finger prints are identified, the classification of lip prints is simplified into branched, reticular, and vertical types. Association between lip prints and finger prints was statistically tested using Chi-square test. Results: This study showed that lip and finger patterns did not reveal statistically significant results within the gender. The correlation between lip and finger patterns for gender identification, was statistically significant. In males, branched type of lip pattern associated with arch, loop, and whorl type of finger pattern was most significant. In females, vertical lip pattern associated with arch finger pattern and reticular lip pattern associated with whorl finger patterns were most significant. Conclusion: We conclude that a correlative study between the lip print and finger print will be very useful in forensic science for gender identification.

  14. Wavelengths of Bioconvection Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bees, Martin Alan; Hill, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    Bioconvection occurs as the result of the collective behaviour of many micro-organisms swimming in a fluid and is realised as patterns similar to those of thermal convection which occur when a layer of water is heated from below. A methodology is developed to record the bioconvection patterns...

  15. Is It a Pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Lynn M.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how in early mathematics learning, young children are often asked to recognize and describe visual patterns in their environment--perhaps on their clothing, a toy, or the carpet; around a picture frame; or in the playground equipment. Exploring patterns in the early years is seen as an important introduction to algebraic…

  16. Patterning roadmap: 2017 prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neisser, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Road mapping of semiconductor chips has been underway for over 20 years, first with the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) roadmap and now with the International Roadmap for Devices and Systems (IRDS) roadmap. The original roadmap was mostly driven bottom up and was developed to ensure that the large numbers of semiconductor producers and suppliers had good information to base their research and development on. The current roadmap is generated more top-down, where the customers of semiconductor chips anticipate what will be needed in the future and the roadmap projects what will be needed to fulfill that demand. The More Moore section of the roadmap projects that advanced logic will drive higher-resolution patterning, rather than memory chips. Potential solutions for patterning future logic nodes can be derived as extensions of `next-generation' patterning technologies currently under development. Advanced patterning has made great progress, and two `next-generation' patterning technologies, EUV and nanoimprint lithography, have potential to be in production as early as 2018. The potential adoption of two different next-generation patterning technologies suggests that patterning technology is becoming more specialized. This is good for the industry in that it lowers overall costs, but may lead to slower progress in extending any one patterning technology in the future.

  17. Is It a Pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Lynn M.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how in early mathematics learning, young children are often asked to recognize and describe visual patterns in their environment--perhaps on their clothing, a toy, or the carpet; around a picture frame; or in the playground equipment. Exploring patterns in the early years is seen as an important introduction to algebraic…

  18. Parallel Algorithms and Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robey, Robert W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-16

    This is a powerpoint presentation on parallel algorithms and patterns. A parallel algorithm is a well-defined, step-by-step computational procedure that emphasizes concurrency to solve a problem. Examples of problems include: Sorting, searching, optimization, matrix operations. A parallel pattern is a computational step in a sequence of independent, potentially concurrent operations that occurs in diverse scenarios with some frequency. Examples are: Reductions, prefix scans, ghost cell updates. We only touch on parallel patterns in this presentation. It really deserves its own detailed discussion which Gabe Rockefeller would like to develop.

  19. Statistical Pattern Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    Statistical pattern recognition relates to the use of statistical techniques for analysing data measurements in order to extract information and make justified decisions.  It is a very active area of study and research, which has seen many advances in recent years. Applications such as data mining, web searching, multimedia data retrieval, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, all require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. This third edition provides an introduction to statistical pattern theory and techniques, with material drawn from a wide range of fields,

  20. PATTERN MATCHING IN MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian GEORGESCU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to investigate how such a pattern matching could be performed on models,including the definition of the input language as well as the elaboration of efficient matchingalgorithms. Design patterns can be considered reusable micro-architectures that contribute to anoverall system architecture. Frameworks are also closely related to design patterns. Componentsoffer the possibility to radically change the behaviors and services offered by an application bysubstitution or addition of new components, even a long time after deployment. Software testing isanother aspect of reliable development. Testing activities mainly consist in ensuring that a systemimplementation conforms to its specifications.

  1. Pattern Formation in Hydrozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berking, Stefan

    The fresh water polyp Hydra is famous for its ability to regenerate missing structures. Even aggregates of single cells transform eventually into normally shaped animals. This indicates a communication within the tissue and within the aggregates which determines the spatial pattern of gene expression. Such pattern-forming systems are thought to play a decisive role in the control of self-organization during embryogenesis. Marine and fresh water hydrozoa appear to allow an access to such a system. Although the molecular components are still mostly unknown, the regulatory properties of the pattern-forming system are increasingly well understood, and this may help eventually to identify the components involved.

  2. Pattern based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Pohl, Kilian; Davatzikos, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Voxel based morphometry (VBM) is widely used in the neuroimaging community to infer group differences in brain morphology. VBM is effective in quantifying group differences highly localized in space. However it is not equally effective when group differences might be based on interactions between multiple brain networks. We address this by proposing a new framework called pattern based morphometry (PBM). PBM is a data driven technique. It uses a dictionary learning algorithm to extract global patterns that characterize group differences. We test this approach on simulated and real data obtained from ADNI. In both cases PBM is able to uncover complex global patterns effectively.

  3. Multiscale conformal pattern transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodewijks, Kristof; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Massiot, Inès; Mekonnen, Addis; Verre, Ruggero; Olsson, Eva; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a method for seamless transfer from a parent flat substrate of basically any lithographic top-down or bottom-up pattern onto essentially any kind of surface. The nano- or microscale patterns, spanning macroscopic surface areas, can be transferred with high conformity onto a large variety of surfaces when such patterns are produced on a thin carbon film, grown on top of a sacrificial layer. The latter allows lifting the patterns from the flat parent substrate onto a water-air interface to be picked up by the host surface of choice. We illustrate the power of this technique by functionalizing broad range of materials including glass, plastics, metals, rough semiconductors and polymers, highlighting the potential applications in in situ colorimetry of the chemistry of materials, anti-counterfeit technologies, biomolecular and biomedical studies, light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, conformal photovoltaics and flexible electronics.

  4. The Optimal Fishing Pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolding, J.; Law, R.; Plank, M.; Zwieten, van P.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional fisheries management encourages highly selective fishing patterns for various purposes, such as increase relative yield, reduce unwanted bycatch, protect various species or sizes and rebuild ecosystems. Recent empirical and theoretical studies, however, show increasing evidence that

  5. Antenna Pattern Range (APR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TheAntenna Pattern Range (APR)features a non-metallic arch with a trolley to move the transmit antenna from the horizon to zenith. At the center of the ground plane,...

  6. Hyponymy Patterns in Romanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verginica Barbu Mititelu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyponymy is a lexical-semantic relation that has been studied in Romanian linguistics only occasionally and almost exclusively in connection to other relations. However, for computational engineers it offers a very effective way of organizing the lexical material useful in many applications involving Natural Language Processing. In this paper we present two methods of identifying Romanian hyponymy patterns, their results and evaluation; we also envisage the applicability of these patterns and future work

  7. Dynamic association with donor cell filopodia and lipid-modification are essential features of Wnt8a during patterning of the zebrafish neuroectoderm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Luz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wnt proteins are conserved signaling molecules that regulate pattern formation during animal development. Many Wnt proteins are post-translationally modified by addition of lipid adducts. Wnt8a provides a crucial signal for patterning the anteroposterior axis of the developing neural plate in vertebrates. However, it is not clear how this protein propagates from its source, the blastoderm margin, to the target cells in the prospective neural plate, and how lipid-modifications might influence Wnt8a propagation and activity. RESULTS: We have dynamically imaged biologically active, fluorescently tagged Wnt8a in living zebrafish embryos. We find that Wnt8a localizes to membrane-associated, punctate structures in live tissue. In Wnt8a expressing cells, these puncta are found on filopodial cellular processes, from where the protein can be released. In addition, Wnt8a is found colocalized with Frizzled receptor-containing clusters on signal receiving cells. Combining in vitro and in vivo assays, we compare the roles of conserved Wnt8a residues in cell and non-cell-autonomous signaling activity and secretion. Non-signaling Wnt8 variants show these residues can regulate Wnt8a distribution in producing cell membranes and filopodia as well as in the receiving tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Together, our results show that Wnt8a forms dynamic clusters found on filopodial donor cell and on signal receiving cell membranes. Moreover, they demonstrate a differential requirement of conserved residues in Wnt8a protein for distribution in producing cells and receiving tissue and signaling activity during neuroectoderm patterning.

  8. Pattern recognition of quantum information based on pattern-distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Daoyi; Chen Zonghai; Jiang Shengxiang

    2005-01-01

    Looking upon every encoding state of quantum information systems as a quantum information pattern, A kind of pattern-distance between different patterns as a measurement of comparability of quantum information patterns is defined, and two kinds of recognition algorithms based on pattern-distance for quantum information are proposed. They can respectively recognize quantum information with known objective pattern and unknown objective pattern. In the two algorithms, the phases and occurrence probabilities of different eigenpatterns of quantum information are sufficiently considered. Two examples demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the two recognition methods. These algorithms point out a new and important path for applications of quantum information and pattern recognition.

  9. Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Pattern Conversion Ability: Generating Figural Patterns Based on Number Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Çigdem

    2017-01-01

    In that current study, pattern conversion ability of 25 pre-service mathematics teachers (producing figural patterns following number patterns) was investigated. During the study participants were asked to generate figural patterns based on those number patterns. The results of the study indicate that many participants could generate different…

  10. Understanding Exhaustive Pattern Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Libin

    2011-01-01

    Pattern learning in an important problem in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Some exhaustive pattern learning (EPL) methods (Bod, 1992) were proved to be flawed (Johnson, 2002), while similar algorithms (Och and Ney, 2004) showed great advantages on other tasks, such as machine translation. In this article, we first formalize EPL, and then show that the probability given by an EPL model is constant-factor approximation of the probability given by an ensemble method that integrates exponential number of models obtained with various segmentations of the training data. This work for the first time provides theoretical justification for the widely used EPL algorithm in NLP, which was previously viewed as a flawed heuristic method. Better understanding of EPL may lead to improved pattern learning algorithms in future.

  11. General human activity patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Mollgaard, Anders; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics and interplay between human communication, movement, and social proximity by analyzing data collected from smartphones distributed among 638 individuals. The main question we consider is: to what extent do individuals act according to patterns shared across an entire population? Based on statistics of the entire population, we successfully predict 71\\% of the activity and 85\\% of the inactivity involved in communication, movement, and social proximity. We find that individual level statistics only result in marginally better predictions, indicating a high degree of shared activity patterns across the population. Finally, we predict short-term activity patterns using a generalized linear model, which suggests that a simple linear description might be sufficient to explain a wide range of actions, whether they be of social or of physical character.

  12. Patterns of Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prockl, Günter; Kotzab, Herbert; Kinra, Aseem

    2013-01-01

    , and infact show different patterns to their international development. However, there are other important transactional and market-oriented considerations, and overall dynamics that need to be examined before concluding on the internationalization levels of container shipping companies, and the industry....... The purpose of this paper is to further investigate the patterns of internationalisation by the examination of the more demand-oriented considerations. Design/methodology/approach - In order to answer the research question, the paper focusses on the examination of the front-end activities and structures like...... for the worldwide presence of a company. Research limitations/implications (if applicable) - The paper adds yet another piece to the interesting puzzle on internationalization patterns of container shipping companies. However, for a complete picture on the internationalization process further work will be required...

  13. G ∘ F Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The book of design patterns known as Gang of Four has been a kind of Bible for all the developers of my generation. Its main pro has been giving us a common vocabulary: when a programmer says “here I used a strategy pattern” all colleagues know of what he is speaking about. Nevertheless the biggest issue with this is that almost all patterns listed in that book, especially the behavioural ones, are a only workaround for a missing abstraction: higher order functions. The introduction of lambda expressions in Java 8 finally allows all Java developers to remove this no longer necessary and cumbersome object oriented infrastructure from their code. The purpose of this talk is showing, through a series of live coding examples, how the most common GoF patterns can be rethought and reimplemented in a simpler and more concise functional way leveraging Java 8 lambdas.

  14. Enzymatic pattern processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauner, Klaus-Peter; Conrad, M.

    A table-top prototype has been constructed that uses the enzyme malate dehydrogenase to recognize input signal patterns. The device is controlled by the enzyme in response to injection of Mg2+ used as a signaling substance. Output is monitored spectroscopically. If Mg2+ is injected along either of two signal lines (i.e., if the input signal pattern is 10 or 01) the device emits an output of 1. Injection along neither or both lines results in an output of 0. The enzyme in effect is used as a transform that converts the linearly inseparable exclusive-or problem into a linearly separable problem.

  15. Workflow User Interfaces Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Vanderdonckt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una colección de patrones de diseño de interfaces de usuario para sistemas de información para el flujo de trabajo; la colección incluye cuarenta y tres patrones clasificados en siete categorías identificados a partir de la lógica del ciclo de vida de la tarea sobre la base de la oferta y la asignación de tareas a los responsables de realizarlas (i. e. recursos humanos durante el flujo de trabajo. Cada patrón de la interfaz de usuario de flujo de trabajo (WUIP, por sus siglas en inglés se caracteriza por las propiedades expresadas en el lenguaje PLML para expresar patrones y complementado por otros atributos y modelos que se adjuntan a dicho modelo: la interfaz de usuario abstracta y el modelo de tareas correspondiente. Estos modelos se especifican en un lenguaje de descripción de interfaces de usuario. Todos los WUIPs se almacenan en una biblioteca y se pueden recuperar a través de un editor de flujo de trabajo que vincula a cada patrón de asignación de trabajo a su WUIP correspondiente.A collection of user interface design patterns for workflow information systems is presented that contains forty three resource patterns classified in seven categories. These categories and their corresponding patterns have been logically identified from the task life cycle based on offering and allocation operations. Each Workflow User Interface Pattern (WUIP is characterized by properties expressed in the PLML markup language for expressing patterns and augmented by additional attributes and models attached to the pattern: the abstract user interface and the corresponding task model. These models are specified in a User Interface Description Language. All WUIPs are stored in a library and can be retrieved within a workflow editor that links each workflow pattern to its corresponding WUIP, thus giving rise to a user interface for each workflow pattern.

  16. Structural patterns in nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture

    2003-01-01

    It seemens that some very basic randomly produced geometric/topological patterns are commonly found in Nature and have often very distinctive structural qualities. In Nature we find the same pattern in all scales from the universe to molecules, from solar systems to packing of cells, from glaciers...... to sea shells, from river systems to trees etc. Sometimes this seeming archetypical morphology involve structrual action and sometimes not-but the fact that it often posses efficient structural action opens a tool for evaluation and analysis of structures in nature and at the same time might...

  17. Structural patterns in nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture

    2004-01-01

    It seems that some very basic randomly produced geometric/topological patterns are commonly found in Nature and have often very distinctive structural qualities. In nature we find the same pattern in all scales from the universe to molecules, from solar systems to packing of cells, from glaciers...... to sea shells, from river systems to trees etc. Sometimes this seeming archetypical morphology involve structural action and sometimes not - but the fact that it often posses efficient structural action opens a tool for evaluation and analyses of structures in nature and at the same time might...

  18. Phyllotactic Patterns on Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Patrick D.; Newell, Alan C.

    2004-04-01

    We demonstrate how phyllotaxis (the arrangement of leaves on plants) and the deformation configurations seen on plant surfaces may be understood as the energy-minimizing buckling pattern of a compressed shell (the plant's tunica) on an elastic foundation. The key new idea is that the strain energy is minimized by configurations consisting of special triads of almost periodic deformations. We reproduce a wide spectrum of plant patterns, all with the divergence angles observed in nature, and show how the occurrences of Fibonacci-like sequences and the golden angle are natural consequences.

  19. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YOR037W, YCL056C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm in a punctate pattern; null mutant displays decreased thermo...e pattern; null mutant displays decreased thermotolerance Rows with this prey as prey Rows with this prey as... of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm in a punctat

  20. Patterns of orbital disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses various patterns of presentations of orbital lesions. Since this article has been authored by an otolaryngologist, the entire concept has been viewed from otolaryngologist's angle. With the advent of nasal endoscope trans nasal access to orbit is becoming the order of the day. Major advantage being that external skin incision is avoided.

  1. Understanding taxi travel patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Taxis play important roles in modern urban transportation systems, especially in mega cities. While providing necessary amenities, taxis also significantly contribute to traffic congestion, urban energy consumption, and air pollution. Understanding the travel patterns of taxis is thus important for addressing many urban sustainability challenges. Previous research has primarily focused on examining the statistical properties of passenger trips, which include only taxi trips occupied with passengers. However, unoccupied trips are also important for urban sustainability issues because they represent potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. Therefore, we need to understand the travel patterns of taxis as an integrated system, instead of focusing only on the occupied trips. In this study we examine GPS trajectory data of 11,880 taxis in Beijing, China for a period of three weeks. Our results show that taxi travel patterns share similar traits with travel patterns of individuals but also exhibit differences. Trip displacement distribution of taxi travels is statistically greater than the exponential distribution and smaller than the truncated power-law distribution. The distribution of short trips (less than 30 miles) can be best fitted with power-law while long trips follow exponential decay. We use radius of gyration to characterize individual taxi's travel distance and find that it does not follow a truncated power-law as observed in previous studies. Spatial and temporal regularities exist in taxi travels. However, with increasing spatial coverage, taxi trips can exhibit dual high probability density centers.

  2. Patterning of somatosympathetic reflexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerman, I. A.; Yates, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    In a previous study, we reported that vestibular nerve stimulation in the cat elicits a specific pattern of sympathetic nerve activation, such that responses are particularly large in the renal nerve. This patterning of vestibulosympathetic reflexes was the same in anesthetized and decerebrate preparations. In the present study, we report that inputs from skin and muscle also elicit a specific patterning of sympathetic outflow, which is distinct from that produced by vestibular stimulation. Renal, superior mesenteric, and lumbar colonic nerves respond most strongly to forelimb and hindlimb nerve stimulation (approximately 60% of maximal nerve activation), whereas external carotid and hypogastric nerves were least sensitive to these inputs (approximately 20% of maximal nerve activation). In contrast to vestibulosympathetic reflexes, the expression of responses to skin and muscle afferent activation differs in decerebrate and anesthetized animals. In baroreceptor-intact animals, somatosympathetic responses were strongly attenuated (to 150 mmHg. These findings demonstrate that different types of somatic inputs elicit specific patterns of sympathetic nerve activation, presumably generated through distinct neural circuits.

  3. Mastering Python design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Kasampalis, Sakis

    2015-01-01

    This book is for Python programmers with an intermediate background and an interest in design patterns implemented in idiomatic Python. Programmers of other languages who are interested in Python can also benefit from this book, but it would be better if they first read some introductory materials that explain how things are done in Python.

  4. A Pattern Measure

    CERN Document Server

    Klinger, Allen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose numerical measures for evaluating the aesthetic interest of simple patterns. The patterns consist of elements (symbols, pixels, etc.) in regular square arrays. The measures depend on two characteristics of the patterns: the number of different types of element, and the number of symmetries in their arrangement. We define two complementary composite measures L and C for the degree of pattern in a design, and compute them here for 2x2 and 6x6 arrays. The results distinguish simple from high-variation cases. We suspect that the measure L corresponds to the degree that human beings intuitively feel a design to be "interesting", so this model would aid in quantifying the visual connection of two- dimensional designs with viewers. The other composite measure C based on these numerical properties characterizes the extent of randomness of an array. Combining symbol variety with symmetry calculations allows us to employ hierarchical scaling to count the relative impact of different levels of s...

  5. Life History Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Maximum longevity varies hugely across species, ranging from days to millennia. Reproductive output also varies by orders of magnitude. These patterns result from demographic age-trajectories of mortality and fertility, which show comparable diversity. The familiar demographic trajectories of hum...

  6. Exploring pedestrian movement patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a n

  7. Calculating cellulose diffraction patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although powder diffraction of cellulose is a common experiment, the patterns are not widely understood. The theory is mathematical, there are numerous different crystal forms, and the conventions are not standardized. Experience with IR spectroscopy is not directly transferable. An awful error, tha...

  8. Storyboards for Meaningful Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubon, Lucille P.; Shafer, Kathryn G.

    2010-01-01

    The initial focus of this kindergarten-level action research project was on identifying which students could create a pattern. The focus then shifted to helping all students successfully achieve this goal. The intervention uses a storyboard where students select colored cubes to represent objects and then snap the cubes together as indicated on…

  9. Computational Thinking Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidou, Andri; Bennett, Vicki; Repenning, Alexander; Koh, Kyu Han; Basawapatna, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    The iDREAMS project aims to reinvent Computer Science education in K-12 schools, by using game design and computational science for motivating and educating students through an approach we call Scalable Game Design, starting at the middle school level. In this paper we discuss the use of Computational Thinking Patterns as the basis for our…

  10. Subsidiary Linkage Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ulf; Perri, Alessandra; Nell, Phillip C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the pattern of subsidiaries' local vertical linkages under varying levels of competition and subsidiary capabilities. Contrary to most previous literature, we explicitly account for the double role of such linkages as conduits of learning prospects as well as potential...

  11. Exploring pedestrian movement patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a n

  12. Spider Web Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A delicate pattern, like that of a spider web, appears on top of the Mars residual polar cap, after the seasonal carbon-dioxide ice slab has disappeared. Next spring, these will likely mark the sites of vents when the carbon-dioxide ice cap returns. This Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Orbiter Camera image is about 3-kilometers wide (2-miles).

  13. Reconfigurable antenna pattern verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Jerome P. (Inventor); Becker, Robert C. (Inventor); Meyers, David W. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of verifying programmable antenna configurations is disclosed. The method comprises selecting a desired antenna configuration from a plurality of antenna configuration patterns, with the selected antenna configuration forming at least one reconfigurable antenna from reconfigurable antenna array elements. The method validates the formation of the selected antenna configuration to determine antenna performance of the at least one reconfigurable antenna.

  14. Pattern recognition in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ridder, Dick; de Ridder, Jeroen; Reinders, Marcel J T

    2013-09-01

    Pattern recognition is concerned with the development of systems that learn to solve a given problem using a set of example instances, each represented by a number of features. These problems include clustering, the grouping of similar instances; classification, the task of assigning a discrete label to a given instance; and dimensionality reduction, combining or selecting features to arrive at a more useful representation. The use of statistical pattern recognition algorithms in bioinformatics is pervasive. Classification and clustering are often applied to high-throughput measurement data arising from microarray, mass spectrometry and next-generation sequencing experiments for selecting markers, predicting phenotype and grouping objects or genes. Less explicitly, classification is at the core of a wide range of tools such as predictors of genes, protein function, functional or genetic interactions, etc., and used extensively in systems biology. A course on pattern recognition (or machine learning) should therefore be at the core of any bioinformatics education program. In this review, we discuss the main elements of a pattern recognition course, based on material developed for courses taught at the BSc, MSc and PhD levels to an audience of bioinformaticians, computer scientists and life scientists. We pay attention to common problems and pitfalls encountered in applications and in interpretation of the results obtained.

  15. Travel patterns in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tini Garske

    Full Text Available The spread of infectious disease epidemics is mediated by human travel. Yet human mobility patterns vary substantially between countries and regions. Quantifying the frequency of travel and length of journeys in well-defined population is therefore critical for predicting the likely speed and pattern of spread of emerging infectious diseases, such as a new influenza pandemic. Here we present the results of a large population survey undertaken in 2007 in two areas of China: Shenzhen city in Guangdong province, and Huangshan city in Anhui province. In each area, 10,000 randomly selected individuals were interviewed, and data on regular and occasional journeys collected. Travel behaviour was examined as a function of age, sex, economic status and home location. Women and children were generally found to travel shorter distances than men. Travel patterns in the economically developed Shenzhen region are shown to resemble those in developed and economically advanced middle income countries with a significant fraction of the population commuting over distances in excess of 50 km. Conversely, in the less developed rural region of Anhui, travel was much more local, with very few journeys over 30 km. Travel patterns in both populations were well-fitted by a gravity model with a lognormal kernel function. The results provide the first quantitative information on human travel patterns in modern China, and suggest that a pandemic emerging in a less developed area of rural China might spread geographically sufficiently slowly for containment to be feasible, while spatial spread in the more economically developed areas might be expected to be much more rapid, making containment more difficult.

  16. Double-pattern associative memory neural network with pattern loop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian WANG; Zongyuan MAO

    2004-01-01

    A double-patrern associative memory neural network with "pattern loop" is proposed. It can store 2N bit bipolar binary Patterns up to the order of 22N, retrieve part or all of the stored patrems which all have the minimum Hamming distance with input Pattern, completely eliminate spurious Patterns, and has higher storing efficiency and reliability than conventional associative memory. The length of a Pattern stored in this associative memory can be easily extended from 2N to kN.

  17. Break the Pattern!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine; Trentemøller, Stine

    Break the Pattern! A critical enquiry into three scientific workplace cultures: Hercules, Caretakers and Worker Bees is the third publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM). By contrasting empirical findings from academic...... workplaces in the five UPGEM-countries (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Italy and Poland) we identify three clusters of cultural patterns in physics as culture. We call these Hercules, Caretakers and Worker Bees. We also consider the influence of national cultural historical processes on the scientific culture...... (physics in culture) and discuss how physics as and in culture influence the perception of science, of work and family life, of the interplay between religion and science as well as how physics as culture can either hinder or promote the career of female scientists....

  18. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... nutrients. However, little is known about the development of dietary patterns in childhood both in relation to possible indicators and to obesity related outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this PhD thesis was to make exploratory analyses of dietary patterns in childhood using the method principal component...... analysis (PCA) and to investigate associations to possible indicators and outcomes related to growth and obesity. This was based on two observational cohort studies (SKOT I, SKOT II) and one intervention study (MoMS). The research showed that PCA is a suitable method for understanding some...

  19. Patterns of Flux Emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Title, A.; Cheung, M.

    2008-05-01

    The high spatial resolution and high cadence of the Solar Optical Telescope on the JAXA Hinode spacecraft have allowed capturing many examples of magnetic flux emergence from the scale of granulation to active regions. The observed patterns of emergence are quite similar. Flux emerges as a array of small bipoles on scales from 1 to 5 arc seconds throughout the region that the flux eventually condenses. Because the fields emerging from the underlying flux rope my appear many in small segments and the total flux (absolute sum) is not a conserved quantity the amount of total flux on the surface may vary significantly during the emergence process. Numerical simulations of flux emergence exhibit patterns similar to observations. Movies of both observations and numerical simulations will be presented.

  20. Settlement patterns and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre

    This paper discusses settlement patterns and sustainability. Generally urbanization is recognised as an inevitable development driven by job opportunities, better service supply, education, and health services, and it is argued that this is the main driver for centralisation. Research based...... of utilization of local resources and trade opportunities. Furthermore the growing towns are struggling with an un-sustainable economic situation manly based on public financed jobs or welfare payments and with limited export oriented value creation....... on economic and demographic studies and a large series of interviews problematize this. In Greenland the historical correlation between settlement pattern and livelihood has been decoupled, so that distributions of jobs and potential earnings to a growing extend is a consequence of political and...

  1. Patterns of ESS's. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannings, C; Vickers, G T

    1988-06-22

    For symmetric matrix conflicts with aij = +/- 1 and aii = 0, an ESS corresponds to a clique in an associated graph. This result is proved and exploited to yield results on the attainable patterns for this class of conflicts and bounds for the number of ESS's which may coexist. Randomly generated matrices in this class are considered, and some results on the size of the support of a typical ESS given.

  2. Pattern Based Morphometry

    OpenAIRE

    Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Pohl, Kilian; Davatzikos, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Voxel based morphometry (VBM) is widely used in the neuroimaging community to infer group differences in brain morphology. VBM is effective in quantifying group differences highly localized in space. However it is not equally effective when group differences might be based on interactions between multiple brain networks. We address this by proposing a new framework called pattern based morphometry (PBM). PBM is a data driven technique. It uses a dictionary learning algorithm to extract global...

  3. Secure Design Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    administering a system or debugging a new system. In addition, the information contained in a system log may contain information that could be used by an...puts. The presented solution is programmed in PHP . • “Client/Server Input Validation Using MS ATL Server Libraries” [MSDN 2009c]. This pro- vides an...www.devshed.com/c/a/ PHP /Validating-User-Input-with-the-Strategy-Pattern/ [Kernighan 1999] Kernighan, Brian W. & Pike, Rob. The Practice of

  4. Clustering by Pattern Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-xun Wang; Jian Pei

    2008-01-01

    The task of clustering is to identify classes of similar objects among a set of objects. The definition of similarity varies from one clustering model to another. However, in most of these models the concept of similarity is often based on such metrics as Manhattan distance, Euclidean distance or other Lp distances. In other words, similar objects must have close values in at least a set of dimensions. In this paper, we explore a more general type of similarity. Under the pCluster model we proposed, two objects are similar if they exhibit a coherent pattern on a subset of dimensions. The new similarity concept models a wide range of applications. For instance, in DNA microarray analysis, the expression levels of two genes may rise and fall synchronously in response to a set of environmental stimuli. Although the magnitude of their expression levels may not be close, the patterns they exhibit can be very much alike. Discovery of such clusters of genes is essential in revealing significant connections in gene regulatory networks. E-commerce applications, such as collaborative filtering, can also benefit from the new model, because it is able to capture not only the closeness of values of certain leading indicators but also the closeness of (purchasing, browsing, etc.) patterns exhibited by the customers. In addition to the novel similarity model, this paper also introduces an effective and efficient algorithm to detect such clusters, and we perform tests on several real and synthetic data sets to show its performance.

  5. Pattern Recognition Control Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambone, Elisabeth A.

    2018-01-01

    Spacecraft control algorithms must know the expected vehicle response to any command to the available control effectors, such as reaction thrusters or torque devices. Spacecraft control system design approaches have traditionally relied on the estimated vehicle mass properties to determine the desired force and moment, as well as knowledge of the effector performance to efficiently control the spacecraft. A pattern recognition approach was used to investigate the relationship between the control effector commands and spacecraft responses. Instead of supplying the approximated vehicle properties and the thruster performance characteristics, a database of information relating the thruster ring commands and the desired vehicle response was used for closed-loop control. A Monte Carlo simulation data set of the spacecraft dynamic response to effector commands was analyzed to establish the influence a command has on the behavior of the spacecraft. A tool developed at NASA Johnson Space Center to analyze flight dynamics Monte Carlo data sets through pattern recognition methods was used to perform this analysis. Once a comprehensive data set relating spacecraft responses with commands was established, it was used in place of traditional control methods and gains set. This pattern recognition approach was compared with traditional control algorithms to determine the potential benefits and uses.

  6. Blood stain pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, O; Kunz, S N; Rothschild, M A; Mützel, E

    2011-09-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) refers to the collection, categorization and interpretation of the shape and distribution of bloodstains connected with a crime. These kinds of stains occur in a considerable proportion of homicide cases. They offer extensive information and are an important part of a functional, medically and scientifically based reconstruction of a crime. The following groups of patterns can essentially be distinguished: dripped and splashed blood, projected blood, impact patterns, cast-off stains, expirated and transferred bloodstains. A highly qualified analysis can help to estimate facts concerning the location, quality and intensity of an external force. A sequence of events may be recognized, and detailed questions connected with the reconstruction of the crime might be answered. In some cases, BPA helps to distinguish between accident, homicide and suicide or to identify bloodstains originating from a perpetrator. BPA is based on systematic training, a visit to the crime scene or alternatively good photographic documentation, and an understanding and knowledge of autopsy findings or statements made by the perpetrator and/or victim. A BPA working group has been established within the German Society of Legal Medicine aiming to put the knowledge and practical applications of this subdiscipline of forensic science on a wider basis.

  7. Pattern Driven Stress Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Andrew; Crosby, Alfred

    2010-03-01

    The self-assembly of patterns from isotropic initial states is a major driver of modern soft-matter research. This avenue of study is directed by the desire to understand the complex physics of the varied structures found in Nature, and by technological interest in functional materials that may be derived through biomimicry. In this work we show how a simple striped phase can respond with significant complexity to an appropriately chosen perturbation. In particular, we show how a buckled elastic plate transitions into a state of stress localization using a simple, self-assembled variation in surface topography. The collection of topographic boundaries act in concert to change the state from isotropic sinusoidal wrinkles, to sharp folds or creases separated by relatively flat regions. By varying the size of the imposed topographic pattern or the wavelength of the wrinkles, we construct a state diagram of the system. The localized state has implications for both biological systems, and for the control of non-linear pattern formation.

  8. Gardosian Patterns in Tribology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The following paper is a memorial retrospective on selected research of Dr. Michael N. Gardos. Dr. Gardos spent his professional career engaged in tribological research which often extended the scientific boundaries of the field. Several of the concepts he put forth into the tribology community were initially met with grave skepticism but over time his views have been largely embraced but not widely acknowledged. His approach to new research topics was often characterized by these qualities: 1) pioneering points of view, 2) the use of the model experiment, and 3) the presence of multiple research agendas for each single experiment. I have chosen to name his research approach as "Gardosian Patterns" in honor of his contributions to Tribology. Three specific examples of these patterns will be reviewed. One is the concept of atomic level tailoring of materials to control macroscopic properties. A second is the use of a model ball polishing experiment to identify high fracture toughness ceramics for use in rolling element bearings. A third Gardosian Pattern example is his pioneering work with the tribology of diamond and diamond films in which he proposed controlling friction via surface bond tailoring. In these examples, Gardos utilized conventional research tools in unconventional ways and, at times, even developed new tools which have become part of the mainstream. His remarkable career has left a positive and lasting mark on Tribology.

  9. Pig design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pasupuleti, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Pig makes Hadoop programming simple, intuitive, and fun to work with. It removes the complexity from Map Reduce programming by giving the programmer immense power through its flexibility. What used to be extremely lengthy and intricate code written in other high level languages can now be written in almost one tenth of the size using its easy to understand constructs. Pig has proven to be the easiest way to learn how to program Hadoop clusters, as evidenced by its widespread adoption. This comprehensive guide enables readers to readily use design patterns to simplify the creation of complex da

  10. Imaging patterns in melioidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, A.P.A.; Pui, M.H.; Tan, L.K.A. [National Univ. of Singapore (Senegal). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1995-08-01

    Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by Pseudomonas pseudomallei. It is seldom diagnosed promptly and, if untreated, can lead to an 80-100% mortality rate. Twenty-eight patients with melioidosis were identified over a 6 year period, and their imaging patterns were analysed. Respiratory infections were the commonest form of presentation, frequently shown as diffuse airspace consolidation, and accounted for the highest mortality. Visceral and musculoskeletal infections were associated with chronicity and a high relapse rate. Multifocal splenic abscesses were a common occurence. Septic arthritis of the knee was frequently seen. The majority of patients had diabetes mellitus and chronic ill health. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  11. JavaScript Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanov, Stoyan

    2010-01-01

    What's the best approach for developing an application with JavaScript? This book helps you answer that question with numerous JavaScript coding patterns and best practices. If you're an experienced developer looking to solve problems related to objects, functions, inheritance, and other language-specific categories, the abstractions and code templates in this guide are ideal -- whether you're writing a client-side, server-side, or desktop application with JavaScript. Written by JavaScript expert Stoyan Stefanov -- Senior Yahoo! Technical and architect of YSlow 2.0, the web page performance

  12. Outsourced pattern matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faust, Sebastian; Hazay, Carmit; Venturi, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    on concrete and important functionalities and give the first protocol for the pattern matching problem in the cloud. Loosely speaking, this problem considers a text T that is outsourced to the cloud S by a client C T . In a query phase, clients C 1, …, C l run an efficient protocol with the server S...... that contain confidential data (e.g., health related data about patient history). Our constructions offer simulation-based security in the presence of semi-honest and malicious adversaries (in the random oracle model) and limit the communication in the query phase to O(m) bits plus the number of occurrences...

  13. Different patterns of confabulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Barba, G

    1993-12-01

    In this study we investigated the amnesic-confabulatory condition of two patients, M.B. and S.D., exhibiting different patterns of confabulation. Neuropsychological examination showed in M.B. a normal intellectual efficiency and a selective deficit of episodic memory, whereas S.D. was impaired in tests of intellectual efficiency, episodic memory, semantic knowledge and frontal functions. The relation of confabulation to retrieval conditions and the degree of impairment of the semantic memory system was investigated with a set of questions involving the retrieval of various kinds of information. In M.B. confabulation was restricted to episodic memory tasks, whereas in S.D. it also affected the retrieval of semantic information. S.D.'s confabulatory reports were 'semantically anomalous', whereas the semantic structure of M.B.'s confabulations was appropriate. Further investigation using the encoding specificity paradigm showed an interaction of encoding/retrieval conditions in M.B. but not in S.D. This pattern of results is discussed in terms of a different level of disruption of processes that normally monitor the retrieval of information. It is further argued that the confabulation content must be considered in terms of its semantic structure and relies on the level of integrity of semantic knowledge.

  14. Patterns of Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Suresh; Pattinson, Hugh

    Traditionally, face-to-face negotiations in the real world have not been looked at as a complex systems interaction of actors resulting in a dynamic and potentially emergent system. If indeed negotiations are an outcome of a dynamic interaction of simpler behavior just as with a complex system, we should be able to see the patterns contributing to the complexities of a negotiation under study. This paper and the supporting research sets out to show B2B (business-to-business) negotiations as complex systems of interacting actors exhibiting dynamic and emergent behavior. This paper discusses the exploratory research based on negotiation simulations in which a large number of business students participate as buyers and sellers. The student interactions are captured on video and a purpose built research method attempts to look for patterns of interactions between actors using visualization techniques traditionally reserved to observe the algorithmic complexity of complex systems. Students are videoed negotiating with partners. Each video is tagged according to a recognized classification and coding scheme for negotiations. The classification relates to the phases through which any particular negotiation might pass, such as laughter, aggression, compromise, and so forth — through some 30 possible categories. Were negotiations more or less successful if they progressed through the categories in different ways? Furthermore, does the data depict emergent pathway segments considered to be more or less successful? This focus on emergence within the data provides further strong support for face-to-face (F2F) negotiations to be construed as complex systems.

  15. Archetypes as action patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenson, George B

    2009-06-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons by researchers at the University of Parma promises to radically alter our understanding of fundamental cognitive and affective states. This paper explores the relationship of mirror neurons to Jung's theory of archetypes and proposes that archetypes may be viewed as elementary action patterns. The paper begins with a review of a proposed interpretation of the fainting spells of S. Freud in his relationship with Jung as an example of an action pattern that also defines an archetypal image. The challenge that mirror neurons present to traditional views in analytical psychology and psychoanalysis, however, is that they operate without recourse to a cognitive processing element. This is a position that is gaining increasing acceptance in other fields as well. The paper therefore reviews the most recent claims made by the Boston Process of Change Study Group as well as conclusions drawn from dynamic systems views of development and theoretical robotics to underline the conclusion that unconscious agency is not a requirement for coherent action. It concludes with the suggestion that this entire body of research may lead to the conclusion that the dynamic unconscious is an unnecessary hypothesis in psychoanalysis and analytical psychology.

  16. Patterns and Costs of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Alan Jay

    1984-01-01

    Presents results of the Library Crime Research Project, a three-year study of crime and disruption patterns in public libraries in all 50 states. Patterns of crime, costs of crime (direct, indirect), losses due to crime, patterns of security use, and effects of victimization are covered. Three references are listed. (EJS)

  17. Pattern Based Graph Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Shuai, Hong-Han; Yu, Philip S; Shen, Chih-Ya; Chen, Ming-Syan

    2013-01-01

    The importance of graph mining has been widely recognized thanks to a large variety of applications in many areas, while real datasets always play important roles to examine the solution quality and efficiency of a graph mining algorithm. Nevertheless, the size of a real dataset is usually fixed and constrained according to the available resources, such as the efforts to crawl an on-line social network. In this case, employing a synthetic graph generator is a possible way to generate a massive graph (e.g., billions nodes) for evaluating the scalability of an algorithm, and current popular statistical graph generators are properly designed to maintain statistical metrics such as total node degree, degree distribution, diameter, and clustering coefficient of the original social graphs. Nevertheless, in addition to the above metrics, recent studies on graph mining point out that graph frequent patterns are also important to provide useful implications for the corresponding social networking applications, but thi...

  18. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  19. Information Demand Pattern for Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Stamer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern organizations face the challenge of having to manage an increasing amount of information. The resulting information overload leads more and more to problems in decision making with potentially negative economic consequences. Decision-makers and knowledge intensive workers are especially affected. To address this problem, information demand patterns were proposed which capture organizational knowledge about the information demand of single roles. This work extends the concept of information demand patterns from single roles to teams. Using the knowledge intensive field of project management, the paper shows how to apply the concept of information demand patterns for a whole team. The contributions of this work are (1 the methodical approach to develop information demand patterns for teams, (2 an actual information demand pattern for a steering committee in the context of project management, (3 reflections on the differences between role patterns and team patterns.

  20. Personal continuous route pattern mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian YE; Ling CHEN; Gen-cai CHEN

    2009-01-01

    In the daily life, people often repeat regular routes in certain periods. In this paper, a mining system is developed to find the continuous route patterns of personal past trips. In order to count the diversity of personal moving status, the mining system employs the adaptive GPS data recording and five data filters to guarantee the clean trips data. The mining system uses a client/server architecture to protect personal privacy and to reduce the computational load. The server conducts the main mining procedure but with insufficient information to recover real personal routes. In order to improve the scalability of sequential pattern mining, a novel pattern mining algorithm, continuous route pattern mining (CRPM), is proposed. This algorithm can tolerate the different disturbances in real routes and extract the frequent patterns. Experimental results based on nine persons' trips show that CRPM can extract more than two times longer route patterns than the traditional route pattern mining algorithms.

  1. Varianish: Jamming with Pattern Repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jort Band

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In music, patterns and pattern repetition are often regarded as a machine-like task, indeed often delegated to drum Machines and sequencers. Nevertheless, human players add subtle differences and variations to repeated patterns that are musically interesting and often unique. Especially when looking at minimal music, pattern repetitions create hypnotic effects and the human mind blends out the actual pattern to focus on variation and tiny differences over time. Varianish is a musical instrument that aims at turning this phenomenon into a new musical experience for musician and audience: Musical pattern repetitions are found in live music and Varianish generates additional (musical output accordingly that adds substantially to the overall musical expression. Apart from the theory behind the pattern finding and matching and the conceptual design, a demonstrator implementation of Varianish is presented and evaluated.

  2. From Sequential Pattern Mining to Structured Pattern Mining:A Pattern-Growth Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Wei Han; Jian Pei; Xi-Feng Yan

    2004-01-01

    Sequential pattern mining is an important data mining problem with broad applications. However,it is also a challenging problem since the mining may have to generate or examine a combinatorially explosive number of intermediate subsequences. Recent studies have developed two major classes of sequential pattern mining methods: (1) a candidate generation-and-test approach, represented by (i) GSP, a horizontal format-based sequential pattern mining method, and (ii) SPADE, a vertical format-based method; and (2) a pattern-growth method, represented by PrefixSpan and its further extensions, such as gSpan for mining structured patterns. In this study, we perform a systematic introduction and presentation of the pattern-growth methodology and study its principles and extensions. We first introduce two interesting pattern-growth algorithms, FreeSpan and PrefixSpan, for efficient sequential pattern mining. Then we introduce gSpan for mining structured patterns using the same methodology. Their relative performance in large databases is presented and analyzed. Several extensions of these methods are also discussed in the paper, including mining multi-level, multi-dimensional patterns and mining constraint-based patterns.

  3. From Sequential Pattern Mining to Structured Pattern Mining: A Pattern-Growth Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-WeiHan; JianPei; Xi-FengYan

    2004-01-01

    Sequential pattern mining is an important data mining problem with broad applications. However, it is also a challenging problem since the mining may have to generate or examine a combinatorially explosive number of intermediate subsequences. Recent studies have developed two major classes of sequential pattern mining methods: (1) a candidate generation-and-test approach, represented by (i) GSP, a horizontal format-based sequential pattern mining method, and (ii) SPADE, a vertical format-based method; and (2) a pattern-growth method, represented by PrefixSpan and its further extensions, such as gSpan for mining structured patterns. In this study, we perform a systematic introduction and presentation of the pattern-growth methodology and study its principles and extensions. We first introduce two interesting pattern-growth algorithms, FreeSpan and PrefixSpan, for efficient sequential pattern mining. Then we introduce gSpan for mining structured patterns using the same methodology. Their relative performance in large databases is presented and analyzed. Several extensions of these methods are also discussed in the paper, including mining multi-level, multi-dimensional patterns and mining constraint-based patterns.

  4. Central pattern generation underlying Limulus rhythmic behavior patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon A. Wyse

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many behavioral activities of the horseshoe crab Limulus are rhythmic, and most of these are produced in large part by central pattern generators within the CNS. The chain of opisthosomal (‘abdominal’ ganglia controls gill movements of ventilation and gill cleaning, and the prosomal ring of fused ganglia (brain and segmental ‘thoracic’ ganglia controls generation of feeding and locomotor movements of the legs. Both the opisthosomal CNS and the prosomal CNS can generate behaviorally appropriate patterns of motor output in isolation, without movements or sensory input. Preparations of the isolated opisthosomal CNS generate rhythmic output patterns of motor activity characterized as fictive ventilatory and gill cleaning rhythms. Moreover, CNS preparations also express longer-term patterns, such as intermittent ventilation or sequential bouts of ventilation and gill cleaning. Such longer-term patterns are commonly observed in intact animals. The isolated prosomal CNS does not spontaneously generate the activity patterns characteristic of walking, swimming, and feeding. However, perfusion of octopamine in the isolated prosomal CNS activates central pattern generators underlying rhythmic chewing movements, and injection of octopamine into intact Limulus promotes the chewing pattern of feeding, whether or not food is presented. Our understanding of the ability of neuromodulators such as octopamine to elicit or alter central motor programs may help to clarify the central neural circuits of pattern generation that produce and coordinate these rhythmic behaviors [Current Zoology 56 (5: 537–549, 2010].

  5. Patterns in the mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta Alejandro

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available

     A mediados de la década de los noventa, el lingüista estadounidense Ray Jackendoff, meditando acerca de la situación de los avances en su campo de trabajo, publicó el libro Patterns in the Mind con el objetivo de poner al alcance del público no especializado los avances de la psicología cognitiva a partir de los postulados básicos de la revolución lingüística y cognitiva que
    floreció gracias a los trabajos del también lingüista norteamericano Noam Chomsky, a finales de la década de los cincuenta y principios de la de los sesenta. Su presencia en el desarrollo de esta nueva etapa del estudio del lenguaje y sus intereses en las nuevas teorías psicológicas 10 ubicaron en un marco teórico que comprende postulados acerca de la organización modular de las estructuras y procesos mentales, el innatismo de este tipo de organización y la existencia de una serie de patrones que rigen la construcción de gramáticas mentalesinconscientes para diversos dominios de la naturaleza humana.

  6. Aggression patterns and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, E; Naftali, G; Guttman, R

    1975-01-01

    The evolutionary significance of interspecific aggression as a factor in speciation was tested among three chromosome forms of the actively speciating fossorial rodent Spalax ehrenbergi in Israel. Laboratory experiments testing intra- and interspecific aggression were conducted on 48 adult animals from 10 populations comprising three chromosome forms with 2n = 52, 58, and 60. Twelve agonistic, motivational-conflict, and territorial behavioral variables were recorded during 72 combats involving homo- and heter-ogametic encounters between opponents. Analysis of the data matrix was carried out by the nonmetric multivariate Smallest Space Analysis (SSA-II). The results indicate that (a) aggression patterns, involving agonistic conflict and territorial variables, are higher in heterogametic encounters than in homogametic ones; and (b) aggression is higher between contiguous chromosome forms (2n = 58-60, and 2n = 52-58) than between noncontiguous ones (2n = 52-60). Both a and b suggest that high interspecific aggression appears to be adaptively selected at final stages of speciation in mole rats as a premating isolating mechanism which reinforces species identification and establishes parapatric distributions between the evolving species. PMID:1059109

  7. Brugada ECG patterns in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eugene H

    2015-01-01

    Brugada syndrome is responsible for up to 4% of all sudden cardiac deaths worldwide and up to 20% of sudden cardiac deaths in patients with structurally normal hearts. Heterogeneity of repolarization and depolarization, particularly over the right ventricle and the outflow tract, is responsible for the arrhythmogenic substrate. The coved Type I ECG pattern is considered diagnostic of the syndrome but its prevalence is very low. Distinguishing between a saddle back Type 2 Brugada pattern and one of many "Brugada-like" patterns presents challenges especially in athletes. A number of criteria have been proposed to assess Brugada ECG patterns. Proper precordial ECG lead placement is paramount. This paper reviews Brugada syndrome, Brugada ECG patterns, and recently proposed criteria. Recommendations for evaluating a Brugada ECG pattern are provided.

  8. Parental dietary patterns and social determinants of children's dietary patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana SALLES-COSTA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To identify dietary patterns in children up to thirty months of age and verify whether they are associated with parental dietary patterns, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Methods This is a cross-sectional study with baseline data from a population-based study composed of 1,085 households from a representative sample of a metropolitan region in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The children's food intake was evaluated by two 24-hour recalls, and the dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis stratified into two groups according to the children's age: 6 to 17 months; and 18 to 30 months. The explanatory variables collected by a structured questionnaire were socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, age at introduction of complementary foods, and parental dietary pattern. A Food Frequency Questionnaire was administered to assess parental dietary pattern, which was determined by principal component analysis. Multivariate linear regression estimated the effect of each explanatory variable on the children's dietary patterns. Results Three dietary patterns were identified in children aged 6-17 months (basic-mixed; mixed-plus; and milk-flours and two dietary patterns were identified in children aged 18-30 months: basic-mixed and mixed-plus. Multivariate linear regression showed that complementary feeding (b=0.108; p=0.004 was positively associated with the basic-mixed dietary pattern, and family income (b=0.002; p£0.01, with the mixed-plus dietary pattern. A negative association was found between the traditional parental dietary pattern and children's mixed-plus pattern in children aged 6-17 months (b=0.152; p=0.006 and in children aged 18-30 months (b=0.152; p=0.016. In children aged up to 18 months, parental education level (b=0.368; p£0.01 was positively associated with the mixed-plus dietary pattern. Conclusion Family income, parental education level, and parental dietary patterns are

  9. Review og pattern matching approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfaat, D.; Duffy, Alex; Lee, B. S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a review of pattern matching techniques. The application areas for pattern matching are extensive, ranging from CAD systems to chemical analysis and from manufacturing to image processing. Published techniques and methods are classified and assessed within the context of three...... key issues: pattern classes, similiarity types and mathing methods. It has been shown that the techniques and approaches are as diverse and varied as the applications....

  10. Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    I propose that pattern recognition, memorization and processing are key concepts that can be a principle set for the theoretical modeling of the mind function. Most of the questions about the mind functioning can be answered by a descriptive modeling and definitions from these principles. An understandable consciousness definition can be drawn based on the assumption that a pattern recognition system can recognize its own patterns of activity. The principles, descriptive modeling and definiti...

  11. Lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Chengxiang

    Lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition (LPNE) is a new method for fabricating polycrystalline metal nanowires using electrodeposition. In LPNE, a sacrificial metal (M1 = silver or nickel) layer, 5 - 100 nm in thickness, is first vapor deposited onto a glass, oxidized silicon, or Kapton polymer film. A photoresist (PR) layer is then deposited, photopatterned, and the exposed Ag or Ni is removed by wet etching. The etching duration is adjusted to produce an undercut ≈300 nm in width at the edges of the exposed PR. This undercut produces a horizontal trench with a precisely defined height equal to the thickness of theM1 layer. Within this trench, a nanowire of metal M2 is electrodeposited (M2 = gold, platinum, palladium, or bismuth). Finally the PR layer and M1 layer are removed. The nanowire height and width can be independently controlled down to minimum dimensions of 5 nm (h) and 11 nm (w), for example, in the case of platinum. These nanowires can be 1 cm in total length. We measure the temperature-dependent resistance of 100 um sections of Au and Pd wires in order to estimate an electrical grain size for comparison with measurements by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Nanowire arrays can be postpatterned to produce two-dimensional arrays of nanorods. Nanowire patterns can also be overlaid one on top of another by repeating the LPNE process twice in succession to produce, for example, arrays of low-impedance, nanowirenanowire junctions. The resistance, R, of single gold nanowires was measured in situ during electrooxidation in aqueous 0.10 M sulfuric acid. Electrooxidation caused the formation of a gold oxide that is approximately 0.8 monolayers (ML) in thickness at +1.1 V vs saturated mercurous sulfate reference electrode (MSE) based upon coulometry and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. As the gold nanowires were electrooxidized, R increased by an amount that depended on the wire thickness, ranging from

  12. Pattern Avoidance in Ternary Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Gabriel, Nathan; Pudwell, Lara; Tay, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the enumeration of ternary trees (i.e. rooted ordered trees in which each vertex has 0 or 3 children) avoiding a contiguous ternary tree pattern. We begin by finding recurrence relations for several simple tree patterns; then, for more complex trees, we compute generating functions by extending a known algorithm for pattern-avoiding binary trees. Next, we present an alternate one-dimensional notation for trees which we use to find bijections that explain why certain pairs of tree patterns yield the same avoidance generating function. Finally, we compare our bijections to known "replacement rules" for binary trees and generalize these bijections to a larger class of trees.

  13. PHP Objects, Patterns, and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Zandstra, Matt

    2010-01-01

    This book takes you beyond the PHP basics to the enterprise development practices used by professional programmers. Updated for PHP 5.3 with new sections on closures, namespaces, and continuous integration, this edition will teach you about object features such as abstract classes, reflection, interfaces, and error handling. You'll also discover object tools to help you learn more about your classes, objects, and methods. Then you'll move into design patterns and the principles that make patterns powerful. You'll learn both classic design patterns and enterprise and database patterns with easy

  14. Professional Java EE design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Yener, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Master Java EE design pattern implementation to improve your design skills and your application's architecture Professional Java EE Design Patterns is the perfect companion for anyone who wants to work more effectively with Java EE, and the only resource that covers both the theory and application of design patterns in solving real-world problems. The authors guide readers through both the fundamental and advanced features of Java EE 7, presenting patterns throughout, and demonstrating how they are used in day-to-day problem solving. As the most popular programming language in community-dri

  15. Chemical patterning in biointerface science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Ogaki

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Patterning of surfaces with different chemistries provides novel insights into how proteins, cells and tissues interact with materials. New materials, and the properties that their surfaces impart, are highly desirable for the next generation of implants, regenerative medicine and tissue engineering devices, and biosensors and drug delivery devices for disease diagnosis and treatment. Patterning is thus seen as a key technology driver for these materials. We provide an overview of state-of-the-art fabrication tools for creating chemical patterns over length scales ranging from millimeters to micrometers to nanometers. The importance of highly sensitive surface analytical tools in the development of new chemically patterned surfaces is highlighted.

  16. Dietary Patterns: Challenges and Opportunities in Dietary Patterns Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, increasing numbers of researchers have used dietary patterns to characterize the population’s diet and to examine associations between diet and disease outcomes. Many methods, primarily data-driven and index-based approaches, are available for characterizing dietary patterns in a p...

  17. Patterning nanocrystals using DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Shara Carol

    2003-09-01

    One of the goals of nanotechnology is to enable programmed self-assembly of patterns made of various materials with nanometer-sized control. This dissertation describes the results of experiments templating arrangements of gold and semiconductor nanocrystals using 2'-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Previously, simple DNA-templated linear arrangements of two and three nanocrystals structures have been made.[1] Here, we have sought to assemble larger and more complex nanostructures. Gold-DNA conjugates with 50 to 100 bases self-assembled into planned arrangements using strands of DNA containing complementary base sequences. We used two methods to increase the complexity of the arrangements: using branched synthetic doublers within the DNA covalent backbone to create discrete nanocrystal groupings, and incorporating the nanocrystals into a previously developed DNA lattice structure [2][3] that self-assembles from tiles made of DNA double-crossover molecules to create ordered nanoparticle arrays. In the first project, the introduction of a covalently-branched synthetic doubler reagent into the backbone of DNA strands created a branched DNA ''trimer.'' This DNA trimer templated various structures that contained groupings of three and four gold nanoparticles, giving promising, but inconclusive transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. Due to the presence of a variety of possible structures in the reaction mixtures, and due to the difficulty of isolating the desired structures, the TEM and gel electrophoresis results for larger structures having four particles, and for structures containing both 5 and 10 nm gold nanoparticles were inconclusive. Better results may come from using optical detection methods, or from improved sample preparation. In the second project, we worked toward making two-dimensional ordered arrays of nanocrystals. We replicated and improved upon previous results for making DNA lattices, increasing the size of the lattices

  18. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik;

    1999-01-01

    To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss.......To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss....

  19. Injury Patterns in Youth Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Presents statistics on injury patterns in youth sports, recommending that physicians who care for young athletes understand the kinds of injuries likely to be sustained. Awareness of injury patterns helps medical professionals identify variables associated with injury, anticipate or prevent injuries, plan medical coverage, and compare individual…

  20. Research applications of ecosystem patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Bailey

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the origins of natural ecosystem patterns from global to local scales. It describes how understanding these patterns can help scientists and managers in two ways. First, the local systems are shown within the context of larger systems. This perspective can be applied in assessing the connections between action at one scale and effect at another,...

  1. Hand aperture patterns in prehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Raoul M.; Zaal, Frank T. J. M.; Jeannerod, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Although variations in the standard prehensile pattern can be found in the literature, these alternative patterns have never been studied systematically. This was the goal of the current paper. Ten participants picked up objects with a pincer grip. Objects (3, 5, or 7 cm in diameter) were placed at

  2. Growing Patterns: Seeing beyond Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, mathematical patterns have been acknowledged as important early components of children's development of algebraic reasoning (NCTM 2000). In particular, growing patterns have attracted significant attention as a context that helps students develop an understanding of functional relationships (Lee and Freiman 2006; Moss et…

  3. Patterns of Personal Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    The use of design patterns is now well established as an approach within the field of software systems as well as within the field of architecture. An initial effort was made to harness patterns as a tool for elaborating the design of the elements of personal learning environments as part of the University of Bolton's Personal Learning Environment…

  4. Linear Patterns and Their Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A linear pattern,the points plotted all lie on the same straight line.In this section we will be looking further into such linear patterns. In this figure,by plotting the points B to F and joining them,

  5. Pigments, patterns, and fish behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Anna C; Weadick, Cameron J; Shim, Janet; Rodd, F Helen

    2008-12-01

    Color patterns in fish are often multicomponent signals, composed of pigment-based and structural color patches that can be used to communicate within species, in both inter- and intrasexual interactions, and between species. In this review, we discuss some of the roles played by pigment-based elements of color pattern. We begin by discussing general forms of coloration, classifying them by appearance (e.g., cryptic vs. conspicuous) and apparent function (e.g., conspicuous coloration and mating displays, stripes and cooperation, and bars and aggression). We then briefly discuss the roles pigments play in the perception of these color patterns via their presence in the eye. In the last section, we look at the relative importance of carotenoid versus melanic coloration in situations where honest signals to potential rivals and potential mates might be required. In this survey, we have highlighted some recent research, especially studies that consider both the physiological and behavioral processes underlying the evolution and expression of pigment-based color patterns in fish. The nature of pigmented color patterns depends not just on the dynamics of pattern development and physiological regulation, but also on the behavioral roles played by these patterns, both now and in the past. As such, advances in particular fields of study on pigment patterns (physiology, developmental biology, behavioral ecology, evolutionary biology, etc.) will increasingly depend on insights from other fields.

  6. Dynamical electron backscatter diffraction patterns. Part I: pattern simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Patrick G; De Graef, Marc

    2013-10-01

    A new approach for the simulation of dynamic electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) patterns is introduced. The computational approach merges deterministic dynamic electron-scattering computations based on Bloch waves with a stochastic Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of the energy, depth, and directional distributions of the backscattered electrons (BSEs). An efficient numerical scheme is introduced, based on a modified Lambert projection, for the computation of the scintillator electron count as a function of the position and orientation of the EBSD detector; the approach allows for the rapid computation of an individual EBSD pattern by bi-linear interpolation of a master EBSD pattern. The master pattern stores the BSE yield as a function of the electron exit direction and exit energy and is used along with weight factors extracted from the MC simulation to obtain energy-weighted simulated EBSD patterns. Example simulations for nickel yield realistic patterns and energy-dependent trends in pattern blurring versus filter window energies are in agreement with experimental energy-filtered EBSD observations reported in the literature.

  7. Patterning and templating for nanoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatsis, Kosmas; Wang, Kang L; Ozkan, Mihri; Ozkan, Cengiz S; Huang, Yu; Chang, Jane P; Monbouquette, Harold G; Chen, Yong; Nealey, Paul; Botros, Youssry

    2010-02-09

    The semiconductor industry will soon be launching 32 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology node using 193 nm lithography patterning technology to fabricate microprocessors with more than 2 billion transistors. To ensure the survival of Moore's law, alternative patterning techniques that offer advantages beyond conventional top-down patterning are aggressively being explored. It is evident that most alternative patterning techniques may not offer compelling advantages to succeed conventional top-down lithography for silicon integrated circuits, but alternative approaches may well indeed offer functional advantages in realising next-generation information processing nanoarchitectures such as those based on cellular, bioinsipired, magnetic dot logic, and crossbar schemes. This paper highlights and evaluates some patterning methods from the Center on Functional Engineered Nano Architectonics in Los Angeles and discusses key benchmarking criteria with respect to CMOS scaling.

  8. Method of patterning an aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Scott T.

    2012-07-24

    A method for producing a pattern in an aerogel disposed as a coating on a substrate comprises exposing the aerogel coating to the vapors of a hydrophobic silane compound, masking the aerogel coating with a shadow photomask and irradiating the aerogel coating with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The exposure to UV through the shadow mask creates a pattern of hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions in the aerogel coating. Etching away the hydrophilic regions of the aerogel coating, preferably with a 1 molar solution of sodium hydroxide, leaves the unwetted and unetched hydrophobic regions of the aerogel layer on the substrate, replicating the pattern of the photomask. The hydrophobic aerogel pattern can be further exposed to UV irradiation if desired, to create a hydrophilic aerogel pattern.

  9. Mobile Design Pattern Gallery UI Patterns for Mobile Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Neil, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    When you're under pressure to produce a well designed, easy-to-navigate mobile app, there's no time to reinvent the wheel. This concise book provides a handy reference to 70 mobile app design patterns, illustrated by more than 400 screenshots from current iOS, Android, BlackBerry, WebOS, Windows Mobile, and Symbian apps. User experience professional Theresa Neil (Designing Web Interfaces) walks you through design patterns in 10 separate categories, including anti-patterns. Whether you're designing a simple iPhone application or one that's meant to work for every popular mobile OS on the mark

  10. Security patterns in practice designing secure architectures using software patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Buglioni, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Learn to combine security theory and code to produce secure systems Security is clearly a crucial issue to consider during the design and implementation of any distributed software architecture. Security patterns are increasingly being used by developers who take security into serious consideration from the creation of their work. Written by the authority on security patterns, this unique book examines the structure and purpose of security patterns, illustrating their use with the help of detailed implementation advice, numerous code samples, and descriptions in UML. Provides

  11. Punctate Radiation Dermatitis of the Foot and Ankle Caused by Distal Embolization of 90Y Microspheres During Liver Directed Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, Benjamin B; Nia, Emily S; Avery, Ryan J; Kuo, Phillip H; Hennemeyer, Charles T

    2017-09-01

    A 41-year-old man with gastric adenocarcinoma presented with hepatic metastases. The metastases were refractory to systemic chemotherapy, so radioembolization with Y microspheres was performed. Because of stasis or saturation of the tumor with embolic particles, 79% of the microspheres were injected. At follow-up, the patient complained of "red bumps" that had developed on his right foot/ankle the day after the radioembolization. Because a portion of the dose was still in the catheter when withdrawn from the right femoral artery, the interventional radiologist used a Geiger counter to confirm radioactivity in the cutaneous lesions and thus the distal embolization of the microspheres.

  12. Resolution of choroidal neovascularization secondary to punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) with intravitreal anti-VEGF agents: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangat, Simran S; Ramasamy, B; Prasad, Som; Walters, Gavin; Mohammed, Moin; Mckibbin, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Case series of four patients with CNVM secondary to PIC treated solely with anti VEGF in three cases and in combination with PDT in the other. This series reveals long term follow up (3 months to 28 months) which is currently not described in the literature.

  13. Pattern Classification in Kampo Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yakubo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern classification is very unique in traditional medicine. Kampo medical patterns have transformed over time during Japan’s history. In the 17th to 18th centuries, Japanese doctors advocated elimination of the Ming medical theory and followed the basic concepts put forth by Shang Han Lun and Jin Gui Yao Lue in the later Han dynasty (25–220 AD. The physician Todo Yoshimasu (1702–1773 emphasized that an appropriate treatment could be administered if a set of patterns could be identified. This principle is still referred to as “matching of pattern and formula” and is the basic concept underlying Kampo medicine today. In 1868, the Meiji restoration occurred, and the new government changed its policies to follow that of the European countries, adopting only Western medicine. Physicians trained in Western medicine played an important role in the revival of Kampo medicine, modernizing Kampo patterns to avoid confusion with Western biomedical terminology. In order to understand the Japanese version of traditional disorders and patterns, background information on the history of Kampo and its role in the current health care system in Japan is important. In this paper we overviewed the formation of Kampo patterns.

  14. Analysis Of Overlay Distortion Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, John D.; Kirk, Joseph P.

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive geometrical approach is presented for the least-squares analysis of overlay distortion patterns into useful, physically meaningful systematic distortion subpatterns and an essentially non-systematic residue. A scheme of generally useful distortion sub-patterns is presented in graphic and algorithmic form; some of these sub-patterns are additions to those already in widespread use. A graphic and geometric approach is emphasized rather than an algebraic or statistical approach, and an example illustrates the value in utilizing the pattern-detecting ability of the eye-brain system. The conditions are described under which different distortion sub-patterns may interact, possibly leading to misleading or erroneous conclusions about the types and amounts of different distortions present. Examples of typical interaction situations are given, and recommendations are made for analytic procedures to avoid misinterpretation. It is noted that the lower-order distortion patterns preserve straight-line linearity, but that higher-order distortion may result in straight lines becoming curved. The principle of least-squares analysis is outlined and a simple polynomial data-fitting example is used to illustrate the method. Algorithms are presented for least-squares distortion analysis of overlay patterns, and an APL2 program is given to show how this may easily be implemented on a digital computer. The appendix extends the treatment to cases where small-angle approximation is not permissible.

  15. Pattern Discovery Using Association Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms Kiruthika M,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The explosive growth of Internet has given rise to many websites which maintain large amount of user information. To utilize this information, identifying usage pattern of users is very important. Web usage mining is one of the processes of finding out this usage pattern and has many practical applications. Our paper discusses how association rules can be used to discover patterns in web usage mining. Our discussion starts with preprocessing of the given weblog, followed by clustering them and finding association rules. These rules provide knowledge that helps to improve website design, in advertising, web personalization etc.

  16. Thermography pattern analysis and separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bin; Bai, Libing; Woo, W. L.; Tian, Guiyun

    2014-06-01

    Analysis of thermography spatial-transient patterns has considerable potential to enable automatic identification and quantification of defects in non-destructive testing and evaluation. This Letter proposes a non-negative pattern separation model for eddy current pulsed thermography to automatically extract important spatial and time patterns according to the transient thermal sequences without any pre-training or prior knowledge. In particular, the method is scale-invariant, such that large differences in surface emissivity, hot spots, and cool areas with dynamic range of thermal contrast can be extracted. Finally, an artificial slot in a steel sample with shining, black strip on the surface is tested to validate the proposed method.

  17. Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind

    CERN Document Server

    de Paiva, Gilberto

    2009-01-01

    I propose that pattern recognition, memorization and processing are key concepts that can be a principle set for the theoretical modeling of the mind function. Most of the questions about the mind functioning can be answered by a descriptive modeling and definitions from these principles. An understandable consciousness definition can be drawn based on the assumption that a pattern recognition system can recognize its own patterns of activity. The principles, descriptive modeling and definitions can be a basis for theoretical and applied research on cognitive sciences, particularly at artificial intelligence studies.

  18. Pattern recognition and string matching

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Xiuzhen

    2002-01-01

    The research and development of pattern recognition have proven to be of importance in science, technology, and human activity. Many useful concepts and tools from different disciplines have been employed in pattern recognition. Among them is string matching, which receives much theoretical and practical attention. String matching is also an important topic in combinatorial optimization. This book is devoted to recent advances in pattern recognition and string matching. It consists of twenty eight chapters written by different authors, addressing a broad range of topics such as those from classifica­ tion, matching, mining, feature selection, and applications. Each chapter is self-contained, and presents either novel methodological approaches or applications of existing theories and techniques. The aim, intent, and motivation for publishing this book is to pro­ vide a reference tool for the increasing number of readers who depend upon pattern recognition or string matching in some way. This includes student...

  19. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  20. Learning Smooth Pattern Transformation Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Vural, Elif

    2011-01-01

    Manifold models provide low-dimensional representations that are useful for processing and analyzing data in a transformation-invariant way. In this paper, we study the problem of learning smooth pattern transformation manifolds from image sets that represent observations of geometrically transformed signals. In order to construct a manifold, we build a representative pattern whose transformations accurately fit various input images. We examine two objectives of the manifold building problem, namely, approximation and classification. For the approximation problem, we propose a greedy method that constructs a representative pattern by selecting analytic atoms from a continuous dictionary manifold. We present a DC (Difference-of-Convex) optimization scheme that is applicable to a wide range of transformation and dictionary models, and demonstrate its application to transformation manifolds generated by rotation, translation and anisotropic scaling of a reference pattern. Then, we generalize this approach to a s...

  1. Aging patterns in different environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel; Steiner, Ulrich

    Environmental and genetic variability shape demographic patterns, but in most studies these factors are not controlled. We can therefore only make indirect inferences on the demographic effect of such environmental and genetic drivers. Here, we show for isogenic individual E. coli bacteria, under...... highly controlled environments of a microfluidic device, how diverse demographic patterns arise. We reveal patterns from classical mortality plateaus to non-senescence, simply by changing the temperature or the nutrient source. Such strong environmental influences revealed within a single strain...... of bacteria challenges our fundamental theories about the evolutionary shaping of aging patterns. Further, this mature technology now allows to test other mechanisms shaping aging such as antibiotic resistance, stress response pathways, or genotype....

  2. Casting Using A Polystyrene Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Peter; Guenther, Bengamin; Vranas, Thomas; Veneris, Peter; Joyner, Michael

    1993-01-01

    New technique for making metal aircraft models saves significant amount of time and effort in comparison with conventional lost-wax method. Produces inexpensive, effective wind-tunnel models. Metal wind-tunnel model cast by use of polystyrene pattern.

  3. Pattern languages in HCI: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Dearden, A.; Finlay, J

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a critical review of patterns and pattern languages in human-computer interaction (HCI). In recent years, patterns and pattern languages have received considerable attention in HCI for their potential as a means for developing and communicating information and knowledge to support good design. This review examines the background to patterns and pattern languages in HCI, and seeks to locate pattern languages in relation to other approaches to interaction design. The revie...

  4. Pattern languages in HCI: a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Dearden, Andy; Finlay, J

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a critical review of patterns and pattern languages in human-computer interaction (HCI). In recent years, patterns and pattern languages have received considerable attention in HCI for their potential as a means for developing and communicating information and knowledge to support good design. This review examines the background to patterns and pattern languages in HCI, and seeks to locate pattern languages in relation to other approaches to interaction design. The review ...

  5. Pattern Recognition Using Associative Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Burles, Nathan John

    2014-01-01

    The human brain is extremely effective at performing pattern recognition, even in the presence of noisy or distorted inputs. Artificial neural networks attempt to imitate the structure of the brain, often with a view to mimicking its success. The binary correlation matrix memory (CMM) is a particular type of neural network that is capable of learning and recalling associations extremely quickly, as well as displaying a high storage capacity and having the ability to generalise from patterns a...

  6. Capacitance enhancement via electrode patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tuan A.; Striolo, Alberto

    2013-11-01

    The necessity of increasing the energy density in electric double layer capacitors to meet current demand is fueling fundamental and applied research alike. We report here molecular dynamics simulation results for aqueous electrolytes near model electrodes. Particular focus is on the effect of electrode patterning on the structure of interfacial electrolytes, and on the potential drop between the solid electrodes and the bulk electrolytes. The latter is estimated by numerically integrating the Poisson equation using the charge densities due to water and ions accumulated near the interface as input. We considered uniform and patterned electrodes, both positively and negatively charged. The uniformly charged electrodes are modeled as graphite. The patterned ones are obtained by removing carbon atoms from the top-most graphene layer, yielding nanoscopic squares and stripes patterns. For simplicity, the patterned electrodes are effectively simulated as insulators (the charge remains localized on the top-most layer of carbon atoms). Our simulations show that the patterns alter the structure of water and the accumulation of ions at the liquid-solid interfaces. Using aqueous NaCl solutions, we found that while the capacitance calculated for three positively charged electrodes did not change much, that calculated for the negatively charged electrodes significantly increased upon patterning. We find that both water structure and orientation, as well as ion accumulation affect the capacitance. As electrode patterning affects differently water structure and ion accumulation, it might be possible to observe ion-specific effects. These results could be useful for advancing our understanding of electric double layer capacitors, capacitive desalination processes, as well as of fundamental interfacial electrolytes properties.

  7. Capacitance enhancement via electrode patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Tuan A.; Striolo, Alberto, E-mail: a.striolo@ucl.ac.uk [School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-28

    The necessity of increasing the energy density in electric double layer capacitors to meet current demand is fueling fundamental and applied research alike. We report here molecular dynamics simulation results for aqueous electrolytes near model electrodes. Particular focus is on the effect of electrode patterning on the structure of interfacial electrolytes, and on the potential drop between the solid electrodes and the bulk electrolytes. The latter is estimated by numerically integrating the Poisson equation using the charge densities due to water and ions accumulated near the interface as input. We considered uniform and patterned electrodes, both positively and negatively charged. The uniformly charged electrodes are modeled as graphite. The patterned ones are obtained by removing carbon atoms from the top-most graphene layer, yielding nanoscopic squares and stripes patterns. For simplicity, the patterned electrodes are effectively simulated as insulators (the charge remains localized on the top-most layer of carbon atoms). Our simulations show that the patterns alter the structure of water and the accumulation of ions at the liquid-solid interfaces. Using aqueous NaCl solutions, we found that while the capacitance calculated for three positively charged electrodes did not change much, that calculated for the negatively charged electrodes significantly increased upon patterning. We find that both water structure and orientation, as well as ion accumulation affect the capacitance. As electrode patterning affects differently water structure and ion accumulation, it might be possible to observe ion-specific effects. These results could be useful for advancing our understanding of electric double layer capacitors, capacitive desalination processes, as well as of fundamental interfacial electrolytes properties.

  8. Visualizing Data Patterns with Micromaps

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    After more than 15 years of development drawing on research in cognitive psychology, statistical graphics, computer science, and cartography, micromap designs are becoming part of mainstream statistical visualizations. Bringing together the research of two leaders in this field, "Visualizing Data Patterns with Micromaps" presents the many design variations and applications of micromaps, which link statistical information to an organized set of small maps. This full-color book helps readers simultaneously explore the statistical and geographic patterns in their data. After illustratin

  9. Streaming patterns in Faraday waves

    CERN Document Server

    Périnet, Nicolas; Urra, Héctor; Mujica, Nicolás; Gordillo, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Waves patterns in the Faraday instability have been studied for decades. Besides the rich dynamics that can be observed on the waves at the interface, Faraday waves hide beneath them an elusive range of flow patterns --or streaming patterns-- which have not been studied in detail until now. The streaming patterns are responsible for a net circulation in the flow which are reminiscent of convection cells. In this article, we analyse these streaming flows by conducting experiments in a Faraday-wave setup. To visualize the flows, tracers are used to generate both trajectory maps and to probe the streaming velocity field via Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). We identify three types of patterns and experimentally show that identical Faraday waves can mask streaming patterns that are qualitatively very different. Next we propose a three-dimensional model that explains streaming flows in quasi-inviscid fluids. We show that the streaming inside the fluid arises from a complex coupling between the bulk and the boundar...

  10. Gastric siderosis: patterns and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginean, Esmeralda C; Bennick, Michael; Cyczk, Jan; Robert, Marie E; Jain, Dhanpat

    2006-04-01

    Recently, we encountered 2 cases of diffuse iron deposition in gastric antral and fundic glandular epithelium, which in 1 patient eventually led to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. Gastric mucosal siderosis (GS) has previously been described in hemochromatosis patients, alcoholics, and in association with iron medications. However, the prevalence of various patterns of iron deposition in the gastric mucosa and their clinical significance have not been studied in detail. The 2 index cases mentioned above and 500 additional consecutive gastric biopsies examined over a period of 8 months at our institution were stained for iron by the Prussian blue method. In addition, all patients with genetic hemochromatosis diagnosed by liver biopsy in our department between 1998 and 2003 who also had gastric biopsies were identified from the surgical pathology files and included in the study (n = 3). The location of iron deposition [stromal cells (endothelium, fibroblasts, macrophages), glandular epithelium, or extracellular] was recorded and subjectively graded as 1+ to 3+ according to the severity of deposition within the mucosa. Relevant histologic changes (inflammation, presence of H. pylori, ulceration) and clinical features were reviewed. Three patterns of GS were identified: A) "nonspecific GS" with predominant iron deposition in the stromal cells including macrophages, and focally in epithelium; B) "iron-pill gastritis" with often mild gastritis and reactive gastropathy type changes, and mostly extracellular deposition with focal stromal cells and epithelial deposition; and C) predominant deposition in antral and fundic glandular epithelium. Of the 500 cases studied, a total of 18 (3.6%) cases were found to have GS. Of these 18 cases, 11 (2.2%) showed pattern A, 4 (0.8%) showed pattern B, and 3 (0.6%) showed pattern C. The GS in patterns A and B was always focal or patchy (1+ to 2+), whereas in pattern C it was generally diffuse and strong (2+ to 3+). A history of oral

  11. Monolayer patterning using ketone dipoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Xue, Yi; Pašková, Tereza; Zimmt, Matthew B

    2013-08-14

    The self-assembly of multi-component monolayers with designed patterns requires molecular recognition among components. Dipolar interactions have been found to influence morphologies of self-assembled monolayers and can affect molecular recognition functions. Ketone groups have large dipole moments (2.6 D) and are easily incorporated into molecules. The potential of ketone groups for dipolar patterning has been evaluated through synthesis of two 1,5-disubstituted anthracenes bearing mono-ketone side chains, STM characterization of monolayers self-assembled from their single and two component solutions and molecular mechanics simulations to determine their self-assembly energetics. The results reveal that (i) anthracenes bearing self-repulsive mono-ketone side chains assemble in an atypical monolayer morphology that establishes dipolar attraction, instead of repulsion, between ketones in adjacent side chains; (ii) pairs of anthracene molecules whose self-repulsive ketone side chains are dipolar complementary spontaneously assemble compositionally patterned monolayers, in which the two components segregate into neighboring, single component columns, driven by side chain dipolar interactions; (iii) compositionally patterned monolayers also assemble from dipolar complementary anthracene pairs that employ different dipolar groups (ketones or CF2 groups) in their side chains; (iv) the ketone group, with its larger dipole moment and size, provides comparable driving force for patterned monolayer formation to that of the smaller dipole, and smaller size, CF2 group.

  12. Interesting Multi-Relational Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Spyropoulou, Eirini

    2011-01-01

    Mining patterns from multi-relational data is a problem attracting increasing interest within the data mining community. Traditional data mining approaches are typically developed for highly simplified types of data, such as an attribute-value table or a binary database, such that those methods are not directly applicable to multi-relational data. Nevertheless, multi-relational data is a more truthful and therefore often also a more powerful representation of reality. Mining patterns of a suitably expressive syntax directly from this representation, is thus a research problem of great importance. In this paper we introduce a novel approach to mining patterns in multi-relational data. We propose a new syntax for multi-relational patterns as complete connected subgraphs in a representation of the database as a K-partite graph. We show how this pattern syntax is generally applicable to multirelational data, while it reduces to well-known tiles [7] when the data is a simple binary or attribute-value table. We pro...

  13. EUV patterning successes and frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Nelson; Corliss, Dan; Petrillo, Karen; Saulnier, Nicole; Xu, Yongan; Meli, Luciana; Tang, Hao; De Silva, Anuja; Hamieh, Bassem; Burkhardt, Martin; Mignot, Yann; Johnson, Richard; Robinson, Chris; Breton, Mary; Seshadri, Indira; Dunn, Derren; Sieg, Stuart; Miller, Eric; Beique, Genevieve; Labonte, Andre; Sun, Lei; Han, Geng; Verduijn, Erik; Han, Eunshoo; Kim, Bong Cheol; Kim, Jongsu; Hontake, Koichi; Huli, Lior; Lemley, Corey; Hetzer, Dave; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Matsunaga, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    The feature scaling and patterning control required for the 7nm node has introduced EUV as a candidate lithography technology for enablement. To be established as a front-up lithography solution for those requirements, all the associated aspects with yielding a technology are also in the process of being demonstrated, such as defectivity process window through patterning transfer and electrical yield. This paper will review the current status of those metrics for 7nm at IBM, but also focus on the challenges therein as the industry begins to look beyond 7nm. To address these challenges, some of the fundamental process aspects of holistic EUV patterning are explored and characterized. This includes detailing the contrast entitlement enabled by EUV, and subsequently characterizing state-of-the-art resist printing limits to realize that entitlement. Because of the small features being considered, the limits of film thinness need to be characterized, both for the resist and underlying SiARC or inorganic hardmask, and the subsequent defectivity, both of the native films and after pattern transfer. Also, as we prepare for the next node, multipatterning techniques will be validated in light of the above, in a way that employs the enabling aspects of EUV as well. This will thus demonstrate EUV not just as a technology that can print small features, but one where all aspects of the patterning are understood and enabling of a manufacturing-worthy technology.

  14. Techniques for Specifying Bug Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, D J; Vuduc, R W; Misherghi, G

    2007-04-30

    We present our on-going work to develop techniques for specifying source code signatures of bug patterns. Specifically, we discuss two approaches. The first approach directly analyzes a program in the intermediate representation (IR) of the ROSE compiler infrastructure using ROSE's API. The second analyzes the program using the bddbddb system of Lam, Whaley, et al.. In this approach, we store the IR produced by ROSE as a relational database, express patterns as declarative inference rules on relations in the language Datalog, and bddbddb implements the Datalog programs using binary decision diagram (BDD) techniques. Both approaches readily apply to large-scale applications, since ROSE provides full type analysis, control flow, and other available analysis information. In this paper, we primarily consider bug patterns expressed with respect to the structure of the source code or the control flow, or both. More complex techniques to specify patterns that are functions of data flow properties may be addressed by either of the above approaches, but are not directly treated here. Our Datalog-based work includes explicit support for expressing patterns on the use of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) in parallel distributed memory programs. We show examples of this on-going work as well.

  15. Vertebrate Embryonic Cleavage Pattern Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasley, Andrew; Chavez, Shawn; Danilchik, Michael; Wühr, Martin; Pelegri, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The pattern of the earliest cell divisions in a vertebrate embryo lays the groundwork for later developmental events such as gastrulation, organogenesis, and overall body plan establishment. Understanding these early cleavage patterns and the mechanisms that create them is thus crucial for the study of vertebrate development. This chapter describes the early cleavage stages for species representing ray-finned fish, amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals, and proto-vertebrate ascidians and summarizes current understanding of the mechanisms that govern these patterns. The nearly universal influence of cell shape on orientation and positioning of spindles and cleavage furrows and the mechanisms that mediate this influence are discussed. We discuss in particular models of aster and spindle centering and orientation in large embryonic blastomeres that rely on asymmetric internal pulling forces generated by the cleavage furrow for the previous cell cycle. Also explored are mechanisms that integrate cell division given the limited supply of cellular building blocks in the egg and several-fold changes of cell size during early development, as well as cytoskeletal specializations specific to early blastomeres including processes leading to blastomere cohesion. Finally, we discuss evolutionary conclusions beginning to emerge from the contemporary analysis of the phylogenetic distributions of cleavage patterns. In sum, this chapter seeks to summarize our current understanding of vertebrate early embryonic cleavage patterns and their control and evolution.

  16. Patterns of Apoplectic Dysarthria and Acupuncture Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-bin; HUANG Guo-qi

    2003-01-01

    In accordance with the feature of apoplectic dysarthria, it is divided into three types of labial pattern, lingual pattern and laryngeal pattern.The therapeutic methods are respectively explained with case examples.

  17. Separation vortices and pattern formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Schnipper, Teis

    2010-01-01

    In this paper examples are given of the importance of flow separation for fluid patterns at moderate Reynolds numbers—both in the stationary and in the time-dependent domain. In the case of circular hydraulic jumps, it has been shown recently that it is possible to generalise the Prandtl–Kármán–P...... results for the vortex patterns behind a flapping foil in a flowing soap film, which shows the interaction and competition between the vortices shed from the round leading edge (like the von Kármán vortex street) and those created at the sharp trailing edge.......-time evolution of the sand ripple pattern, which has the surprising features that it breaks the local sand conservation and has long-range interaction, features that can be underpinned by experiments. Very similar vortex dynamics takes place around oscillating structures such as wings and fins. Here, we present...

  18. Efficient Frequent Pattern Tree Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Bujji Babu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Association rule learning is a popular and well researched technique for discovering interesting relations between variables in large databases in the area of data mining. The association rules are a part of intelligent systems. Association rules are usually required to satisfy a user-specified minimum support and a user-specified minimum confidence at the same time. Apriori and FP-Growth algorithms are very familiar algorithms for association rule mining. In this paper we are more concentrated on the Construction of efficient frequent pattern trees. Here, we present the novel frequent pattern trees and the performance issues. The proposed trees are fast and efficient trees helps to extract the frequent patterns. This paper provides the major advantages in the FP-Growth algorithm for association rule mining with using the newly proposed approach.

  19. Classic ballet dancers postural patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseani Paulini Neves Simas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate classic ballet practice and its influence on postural patterns and (a identify the most frequent postural changes; (b determine the postural pattern; (c verify the existence of association of practice time and postural changes. The investigation was carried out in two stages: one, description in which 106 dancers participated; the other, causal comparative in which 50 dancers participated; and (a questionnaire; (b a checkerboard; (c postural chart; (d measure tape; (e camera and (f pedoscope were used as instrument. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used for analysis. The results revealed the most frequent postural changes such as hyperlordosis, unleveled shoulders and pronated ankles. Ballet seems to have negative implications in the postural development , affecting especially the vertebral spine, trunk and feet. The practice time was not a parameter to indicate the increase in postural changes. In conclusion, ballet may be associated with postural changes and determining a characteristic postural pattern.

  20. Patterning mechanisms controlling digit development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Vertebrate digits are essential structures for movement,feeding and communication.Specialized regions of the developing limb bud including the zone of polarizing activity(ZPA),the apical ectodermal ridge(AER),and the non-ridge ectoderm regulate the patterning of digits.Although a series of signaling molecules have been characterized as patterning signals from the organizing centers,the delicate cellular and molecular mechanisms that interpret how these patterning signals control the detailed digit anatomy remain unclear.Recent studies from model organisms and human hand malformations provide new insights into the mechanisms regulating this process.Here,we review the current understanding of the genetic networks governing digit morphogenesis.

  1. Pattern Recognition by Combined Invariants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaohong; ZHAO Rongchun

    2001-01-01

    A feature-based recognition of objectsor patterns independent of their position, size, orien-tation and other variations has been the goal of muchrecent research. The existing approaches to invarianttwo-dimensional pattern recognition are useless whenpattern is blurred. In this paper, we present a novelpattern recognition system which can solve the prob-lem by using combined invariants as image features.The classification technique we choose for our systemis weighted normalized cross correlation. The mean ofthe intraclass standard deviations of the kth featureover the total number of prototypes for each class isused as a weighting factor during the classification pro-cess to improve recognition accuracy. The feasibilityof our pattern recognition system and the invarianceof the combined features with respect to translation,scaling, rotation and blurring are approved by numer-ical experiments on head images.

  2. Workflow patterns the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Nick; ter Hofstede, Arthur H M

    2016-01-01

    The study of business processes has emerged as a highly effective approach to coordinating an organization's complex service- and knowledge-based activities. The growing field of business process management (BPM) focuses on methods and tools for designing, enacting, and analyzing business processes. This volume offers a definitive guide to the use of patterns, which synthesize the wide range of approaches to modeling business processes. It provides a unique and comprehensive introduction to the well-known workflow patterns collection -- recurrent, generic constructs describing common business process modeling and execution scenarios, presented in the form of problem-solution dialectics. The underlying principles of the patterns approach ensure that they are independent of any specific enabling technology, representational formalism, or modeling approach, and thus broadly applicable across the business process modeling and business process technology domains. The authors, drawing on extensive research done by...

  3. Turing patterns and biological explanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Turing patterns are a class of minimal mathematical models that have been used to discover and conceptualize certain abstract features of early biological development. This paper examines a range of these minimal models in order to articulate and elaborate a philosophical analysis of their episte......Turing patterns are a class of minimal mathematical models that have been used to discover and conceptualize certain abstract features of early biological development. This paper examines a range of these minimal models in order to articulate and elaborate a philosophical analysis......, promoting theory exploration, and acting as constitutive parts of empirically adequate explanations of naturally occurring phenomena, such as biological pattern formation. Focusing on the roles that minimal model explanations play in science motivates the adoption of a broader diachronic view of scientific...

  4. Participation patterns in adult education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard; Rubenson, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    of investment in the development and maintenance of skills over the lifespan of individuals is to a large extent interconnected with a high-level of non-market coordination via institutional arrangements and/or specific public policy measures. Such arrangements and measures are seen to alleviate coordination......This article focuses on evidence regarding cross-national patterns of participation in adult education and an interpretation of these patterns from an institutional and public policy perspective. The interpretation follows from the perspective that sustaining high and widely distributed levels...... problems that otherwise lead to underinvestment in skills and/or inequity in the distribution of access to education and training and hence skills. Hence, it is argued that institutional contexts and public policy measures condition participation patterns in adult education, and are thus worthwhile...

  5. Patterns of Software Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Javier Bolaños Castro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">This article presents a set of patterns that can be found to perform best practices in software processes that are directly related to the problem of implementing the activities of the process, the roles involved, the knowledge generated and the inputs and outputs belonging to the process. In this work, a definition of the architecture is encouraged by using different recurrent configurations that strengthen the process and yield efficient results for the development of a software project. The patterns presented constitute a catalog, which serves as a vocabulary for communication among project participants [1], [2], and also can be implemented through software tools, thus facilitating patterns implementation [3]. Additionally, a tool that can be obtained under GPL (General Public license is provided for this purpose

  6. Pattern Formation on Networks: from Localised Activity to Turing Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullen, Nick; Wagenknecht, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Networks of interactions between competing species are used to model many complex systems, such as in genetics, evolutionary biology or sociology and knowledge of the patterns of activity they can exhibit is important for understanding their behaviour. The emergence of patterns on complex networks with reaction-diffusion dynamics is studied here, where node dynamics interact via diffusion via the network edges. Through the application of a generalisation of dynamical systems analysis this work reveals a fundamental connection between small-scale modes of activity on networks and localised pattern formation seen throughout science, such as solitons, breathers and localised buckling. The connection between solutions with a single and small numbers of activated nodes and the fully developed system-scale patterns are investigated computationally using numerical continuation methods. These techniques are also used to help reveal a much larger portion of of the full number of solutions that exist in the system at different parameter values. The importance of network structure is also highlighted, with a key role being played by nodes with a certain so-called optimal degree, on which the interaction between the reaction kinetics and the network structure organise the behaviour of the system.

  7. Parametric Transverse Patterns in Broad Aperture Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigorieva, E.V.; Kashchenko, S.A.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1998-01-01

    Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence on the geo......Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence...

  8. Wilf classification of doubly generalized permutation patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Parviainen, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We classify all doubly generalized patterns of length two and three according to the number of permutations avoiding them. These patterns were recently defined by Bousquet-Melou et. al., and are natural generalizations of Babson and Steingrimsson's generalized patterns. The patterns are divided into seven and 24 Wilf classes, for lengths two and three, respectively. For most of the patterns an explicit form for the number of permutations avoiding the pattern is given.

  9. Spatiotemporal Wave Patterns: Information Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhail Rabinovich; Lev Tsimring

    2006-01-20

    Pattern formation has traditionally been studied in non-equilibrium physics from the viewpoint of describing the basic structures and their interactions. While this is still an important area of research, the emphasis in the last few years has shifted towards analysis of specific properties of patterns in various complex media. For example, diverse and unexpected phenomena occur in neuro-like media that are characterized by highly non-trivial local dynamics. We carried out an active research program on analysis of spatio-temporal patterns in various physical systems (convection, oscillating fluid layer, soap film), as well as in neuro-like media, with an emphasis on informational aspects of the dynamics. Nonlinear nonequilibrium media and their discrete analogs have a unique ability to represent, memorize, and process the information contained in spatio-temporal patterns. Recent neurophysiological experiments demonstrated a certain universality of spatio-temporal representation of information by neural ensembles. Information processing is also revealed in the spatio-temporal dynamics of cellular patterns in nonequilibrium media. It is extremely important for many applications to study the informational aspects of these dynamics, including the origins and mechanisms of information generation, propagation and storage. Some of our results are: the discovery of self-organization of periodically oscillatory patterns in chaotic heterogeneous media; the analysis of the propagation of the information along a chaotic media as function of the entropy of the signal; the analysis of wave propagation in discrete non-equilibrium media with autocatalytic properties, which simulates the calcium dynamics in cellular membranes. Based on biological experiments we suggest the mechanism by which the spatial sensory information is transferred into the spatio-temporal code in the neural media. We also found a new mechanism of self-pinning in cellular structures and the related phenomenon

  10. Type-safe pattern combinators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Macros still haven't made their way into typed higher-order programming languages such as Haskell and Standard ML. Therefore, to extend the expressiveness of Haskell or Standard ML, one must express new linguistic features in terms of functions that fit within the static type systems of these lan...... of these languages. This is particularly challenging when introducing features that span across multiple types and that bind variables. We address this challenge by developing, in a step by step manner, mechanisms for encoding patterns and pattern matching in Haskell in a type-safe way....

  11. Glass strengthening and patterning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David C; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Duty, Chad E

    2015-01-27

    High intensity plasma-arc heat sources, such as a plasma-arc lamp, are used to irradiate glass, glass ceramics and/or ceramic materials to strengthen the glass. The same high intensity plasma-arc heat source may also be used to form a permanent pattern on the glass surface--the pattern being raised above the glass surface and integral with the glass (formed of the same material) by use of, for example, a screen-printed ink composition having been irradiated by the heat source.

  12. Patterns in Permutations and Words

    CERN Document Server

    Kitaev, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    There has been considerable interest recently in the subject of patterns in permutations and words, a new branch of combinatorics with its roots in the works of Rotem, Rogers, and Knuth in the 1970s. Consideration of the patterns in question has been extremely interesting from the combinatorial point of view, and it has proved to be a useful language in a variety of seemingly unrelated problems, including the theory of Kazhdan--Lusztig polynomials, singularities of Schubert varieties, interval orders, Chebyshev polynomials, models in statistical mechanics, and various sorting algorithms, inclu

  13. Separation vortices and pattern formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Schnipper, Teis

    2010-01-01

    In this paper examples are given of the importance of flow separation for fluid patterns at moderate Reynolds numbers—both in the stationary and in the time-dependent domain. In the case of circular hydraulic jumps, it has been shown recently that it is possible to generalise the Prandtl–Kármán–P...... results for the vortex patterns behind a flapping foil in a flowing soap film, which shows the interaction and competition between the vortices shed from the round leading edge (like the von Kármán vortex street) and those created at the sharp trailing edge....

  14. Noise and dynamical pattern selection

    CERN Document Server

    Kurtze, D A

    1995-01-01

    In pattern forming systems such as Rayleigh-Benard convection or directional solidification, a large number of linearly stable, patterned steady states exist when the basic, simple steady state is unstable. Which of these steady states will be realized in a given experiment appears to depend on unobservable details of the system's initial conditions. We show, however, that weak, Gaussian white noise drives such a system toward a preferred wave number which depends only on the system parameters and is independent of initial conditions. We give a prescription for calculating this wave number, analytically near the onset of instability and numerically otherwise.

  15. Micro-pattern gaseous detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Shekhtman, L I

    2002-01-01

    Introduced at the end of 1980s micro-pattern gas detectors perform much better than classic wire chambers. They allow to achieve both excellent localization accuracy and high rate capability that make this technology attractive for charged particle tracking at high luminosity colliders. During its evolution micro-pattern gas technology gave raise to many different types of devices such as micro-strip gas chambers, MicroMEGAS, CAT and gas electron multipliers. Essential improvements in the performance of the detectors were achieved especially in what concerned long-term performance: aging and resistance to accidental discharges.

  16. Pattern formations and oscillatory phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kinoshita, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    Patterns and their formations appear throughout nature, and are studied to analyze different problems in science and make predictions across a wide range of disciplines including biology, physics, mathematics, chemistry, material science, and nanoscience. With the emergence of nanoscience and the ability for researchers and scientists to study living systems at the biological level, pattern formation research has become even more essential. This book is an accessible first of its kind guide for scientists, researchers, engineers, and students who require a general introduction to thi

  17. Memristor-based pattern matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimo, Martin; Such, Ondrej; Skvarek, Ondrej; Fratrik, Milan

    2014-10-01

    Pattern matching is a machine learning area that requires high-performance hardware. It has been hypothesized that massively parallel designs, which avoid von Neumann architecture, could provide a significant performance boost. Such designs can advantageously use memristive switches. This paper discusses a two-stage design that implements the induced ordered weighted average (IOWA) method for pattern matching. We outline the circuit structure and discuss how a functioning circuit can be achieved using metal oxide devices. We describe our simulations of memristive circuits and illustrate their performance on a vowel classification task.

  18. Afrikaans Syllabification Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilla Fick

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to English, automatic hyphenation by computer of Afrikaans words is a problem that still needs to be addressed, since errors are still often encountered in printed text. An initial step in this task is the ability to automatically syllabify words. Since new words are created continuously by joining words, it is necessary to develop an “intelligent” technique for syllabification. As a first phase of the research, we consider only the orthographic information of words, and disregard both syntactic and morphological information. This approach allows us to use machine-learning techniques such as artificial neural networks and decision trees that are known for their pattern recognition abilities. Both these techniques are trained with isolated patterns consisting of input patterns and corresponding outputs (or targets that indicate whether the input pattern should be split at a certain position, or not. In the process of compiling a list of syllabified words from which to generate training data for the  syllabification problem, irregular patterns were identified. The same letter patterns are split differently in different words and complete words that are spelled identically are split differently due to meaning. We also identified irregularities in and between  the different dictionaries that we used. We examined the influence range of letters that are involved in irregularities. For example, for their in agter-ente and vaste-rente we have to consider three letters to the left of r to be certain where the hyphen should be inserted. The influence range of the k in verstek-waarde and kleinste-kwadrate is four to the left and three to the right. In an analysis of letter patterns in Afrikaans words we found that the letter e has the highest frequency overall (16,2% of all letters in the word list. The frequency of words starting with s is the highest, while the frequency of words ending with e is the highest. It is important to

  19. Pattern Matching in Multiple Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Clifford, Raphael; Porat, Ely; Sach, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the problem of deterministic pattern matching in multiple streams. In this model, one symbol arrives at a time and is associated with one of s streaming texts. The task at each time step is to report if there is a new match between a fixed pattern of length m and a newly updated stream. As is usual in the streaming context, the goal is to use as little space as possible while still reporting matches quickly. We give almost matching upper and lower space bounds for three distinct pattern matching problems. For exact matching we show that the problem can be solved in constant time per arriving symbol and O(m+s) words of space. For the k-mismatch and k-differences problems we give O(k) time solutions that require O(m+ks) words of space. In all three cases we also give space lower bounds which show our methods are optimal up to a single logarithmic factor. Finally we set out a number of open problems related to this new model for pattern matching.

  20. Patterns of Propaganda and Persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Hugh

    Because children are exposed to highly professional sales pitches on television and because the old material produced by the Institute of Propaganda Analysis is outdated and in error, a new tool for the analysis of propaganda and persuasion is called for. Such a tool is the intensify/downplay pattern analysis chart, which includes the basic…

  1. A Lesson in Number Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a guided investigation into the spacial relationships between the centres of the squares in a Fibonacci tiling. It is essentially a lesson in number pattern, but includes work with surds, coordinate geometry, and some elementary use of complex numbers. The investigation could be presented to students in a number of ways…

  2. SNP interaction pattern identifier (SIPI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Hui-Yi; Chen, Dung-Tsa; Huang, Po-Yu

    2016-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Testing SNP-SNP interactions is considered as a key for overcoming bottlenecks of genetic association studies. However, related statistical methods for testing SNP-SNP interactions are underdeveloped. RESULTS: We propose the SNP Interaction Pattern Identifier (SIPI), which tests 45...

  3. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy LL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lauren L Levy, Jason J Emer Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification. Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride, prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost, and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, female pattern hair loss, minoxidil, finasteride, antiandrogens, spironolactone

  4. Space Biology: Patterns of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Frank B.

    1971-01-01

    Present knowledge about Mars is compared with past beliefs about the planet. Biological experiments that indicate life may exist on Mars are interpreted. Life patterns or biological features that might be postulated for extraterrestrial life are presented at the molecular, cellular, organism, and ecosystem levels. (DS)

  5. Patterns of Wildlife Value Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry C. Zinn; Michael J. Manfredo; Susan C. Barro

    2002-01-01

    Public value orientations toward wildlife may be growing less utilitarian and more protectionist. To better understand one aspect of this trend, we investigated patterns of wildlife value orientations within families. Using a mail survey, we sampled Pennsylvania and Colorado hunting license holders 50 or older; obtaining a 54% response rate (n = 599). Males (94% of...

  6. Dyadic Patterns in Multiple Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostoic, Antonio Rivero

    Seven dyadic configuration classes for the analysis of multiple networks are introduced in this paper. Each configuration is a relational bundle pattern resulting from the mixture of the direction and the types of tie between a pair of actors. Then a bundle census is performed to an empirical...

  7. Solution Patterns Predicting Pythagorean Triples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenweani, Ugwunna Louis

    2013-01-01

    Pythagoras Theorem is an old mathematical treatise that has traversed the school curricula from secondary to tertiary levels. The patterns it produced are quite interesting that many researchers have tried to generate a kind of predictive approach to identifying triples. Two attempts, namely Diophantine equation and Brahmagupta trapezium presented…

  8. Dietary Patterns and Human Reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Vujkovic (Marijana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPart 1 of the thesis focuses on dietary patterns and fatty acid intake in couples undergoing IVF/ICSI fertility treatment. The studies described in Chapter 2, 3 and 4 are based on the FOod Lifestyle and Fertility Outcome study (FOLFO), a prospective cohort study examining the influence o

  9. Patterns of International Capital Raisings

    OpenAIRE

    Gozzi, Juan Carlos; Levine, Ross; Schmukler, Sergio L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper documents several new patterns associated with firms issuing securities in foreign markets that motivate the need for and help guide future research. Besides noting that these international capital raisings grew almost four-fold from 1991 to 2005, accounting for 35 percent of all capital raised through security issuances, the paper has three main findings. First, a large and gro...

  10. Data complexity in pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Kam Ho Tin

    2006-01-01

    Machines capable of automatic pattern recognition have many fascinating uses. Algorithms for supervised classification, where one infers a decision boundary from a set of training examples, are at the core of this capability. This book looks at data complexity and its role in shaping the theories and techniques in different disciplines

  11. Exponential Growth through Pattern Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Betty

    2005-01-01

    Participants at the Summer Institute Pattern Exploration: Integration Math and Science in the Middle Grades used and developed a method treat arithmetic, algebra and geometry as one entity. The use of iterative geometric constructions is seen to reinforce the concepts of exponents, ratios and algebraic expressions for the nth stage of the…

  12. Design Patterns for Complex Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohse, Shanta; Anderson, Terry

    2006-01-01

    A complex view of learning recognises that learning cannot be pre-determined by teaching, but is as much defined by circumstances and context as pre-defined learning objectives. Learning designs that accept uncertainty help us to envision classrooms and curricula that are open, dynamic and innovative. Architect Christopher Alexander's patterns and…

  13. Computers, pattern, chaos and beauty

    CERN Document Server

    Pickover, Clifford A

    1980-01-01

    Combining fractal theory with computer art, this book introduces a creative use of computers. It describes graphic methods for detecting patterns in complicated data and illustrates simple techniques for visualizing chaotic behavior. ""Beautiful."" - Martin Gardner, Scientific American. Over 275 illustrations, 29 in color.

  14. Erosion patterns on dissolving blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courrech du Pont, Sylvain; Cohen, Caroline; Derr, Julien; Berhanu, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Patterns in nature are shaped under water flows and wind action, and the understanding of their morphodynamics goes through the identification of the physical mechanisms at play. When a dissoluble body is exposed to a water flow, typical patterns with scallop-like shapes may appear [1,2]. These shapes are observed on the walls of underground rivers or icebergs. We experimentally study the erosion of dissolving bodies made of salt, caramel or ice into water solutions without external flow. The dissolving mixture, which is created at the solid/liquid interface, undergoes a buoyancy-driven instability comparable to a Rayleigh-Bénard instability so that the dissolving front destabilizes into filaments. This mechanism yields to spatial variations of solute concentration and to differential dissolution of the dissolving block. We first observe longitudinal stripes with a well defined wavelength, which evolve towards chevrons and scallops that interact and move again the dissolving current. Thanks to a careful analysis of the competing physical mechanisms, we propose scaling laws, which account for the characteristic lengths and times of the early regime in experiments. The long-term evolution of patterns is understood qualitatively. A close related mechanism has been proposed to explain structures observed on the basal boundary of ice cover on brakish lakes [3] and we suggest that our experiments are analogous and explain the scallop-like patterns on iceberg walls. [1] P. Meakin and B. Jamtveit, Geological pattern formation by growth and dissolution in aqueous systems, Proc. R. Soc. A 466, 659-694 (2010). [2] P.N. Blumberg and R.L. Curl, Experimental and theoretical studies of dissolution roughness, J. Fluid Mech. 65, 735-751 (1974). [3] L. Solari and G. Parker, Morphodynamic modelling of the basal boundary of ice cover on brakish lakes, J.G.R. 118, 1432-1442 (2013).

  15. Quantitative computation of RHEED patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordi, Scott Andrew

    This thesis is concerned with the general problem of performing quantitative RHEED computations for both flat and rough surfaces using the multislice method. Modifications to the RHEED multislice method which make it into a practical technique for performing RHEED computations are described. Computation of convergent-beam RHEED patterns using the RHEED multislice method is demonstrated by application to the case of MgO (001). Computed patterns are compared (based on the overall pattern geometry) to energy-filtered Tanaka and convergent-beam patterns recorded in a transmission electron microscope. The validity of the RHEED multislice method for convergent-beam computations is demonstrated by the level of agreement achieved. The application of the RHEED multislice method combined with the edge patching algorithm to the computation of RHEED streaks from rough surfaces is demonstrated by applying it to the case of rough Fe (001) surfaces. The computations are done using the column approximation and by neglecting the scattering from steps parallel to the incident beam. The computations are set up using STM images of the surfaces from which the experimental RHEED patterns were recorded. The shapes of the diffuse parts of the computed and experimental streaks agree well. There is a discrepancy between experiment and theory in the magnitudes of the flat surface spot position peaks relative to the diffuse parts of the streaks. The shapes of the diffuse parts of the computed streaks are shown to be insensitive to the computational and potential parameters. The magnitudes of the flat surface spot position peaks are at least weakly dependent on the potential parameters and the long range height variations of the surface. This agreement conclusively demonstrates that the RHEED multislice method can be used to perform quantitative computations of RHEED streaks from real rough surfaces. An approximation method (the patchwork approximation) for doing RHEED computations, exact in

  16. Metacommunity patterns in larval odonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Shannon J; Davis, Christopher J; Relyea, Rick A; Yurewicz, Kerry L; Skelly, David K; Werner, Earl E

    2008-11-01

    The growth of metacommunity ecology as a subdiscipline has increased interest in how processes at different spatial scales structure communities. However, there is still a significant knowledge gap with respect to relating the action of niche- and dispersal-assembly mechanisms to observed species distributions across gradients. Surveys of the larval dragonfly community (Odonata: Anisoptera) in 57 lakes and ponds in southeast Michigan were used to evaluate hypotheses about the processes regulating community structure in this system. We considered the roles of both niche- and dispersal-assembly processes in determining patterns of species richness and composition across a habitat gradient involving changes in the extent of habitat permanence, canopy cover, area, and top predator type. We compared observed richness patterns and species distributions in this system to patterns predicted by four general community models: species sorting related to adaptive trade-offs, a developmental constraints hypothesis, dispersal assembly, and a neutral community assemblage. Our results supported neither the developmental constraints nor the neutral-assemblage models. Observed patterns of richness and species distributions were consistent with patterns expected when adaptive tradeoffs and dispersal-assembly mechanisms affect community structure. Adaptive trade-offs appeared to be important in limiting the distributions of species which segregate across the habitat gradient. However, dispersal was important in shaping the distributions of species that utilize habitats with a broad range of hydroperiods and alternative top predator types. Our results also suggest that the relative importance of these mechanisms may change across this habitat gradient and that a metacommunity perspective which incorporates both niche- and dispersal-assembly processes is necessary to understand how communities are organized.

  17. Quantification of variability in trichome patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greese, B.; Huelskamp, M.; Fleck, C.

    2014-01-01

    While pattern formation is studied in various areas of biology, little is known about the intrinsic noise leading to variations between individual realizations of the pattern. One prominent example for de novo pattern formation in plants is the patterning of trichomes on Arabidopsis leaves, which

  18. Geometric Growing Patterns: What's the Rule?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourigan, Mairéad; Leavy, Aisling

    2015-01-01

    While within a geometric repeating pattern, there is an identifiable core which is made up of objects that repeat in a predictable manner, a geometric growing pattern (also called visual or pictorial growing patterns in other curricula) "is a pattern that is made from a sequence of figures [or objects] that change from one term to the next in…

  19. Modeling Architectural Patterns Using Architectural Primitives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zdun, Uwe; Avgeriou, Paris

    2005-01-01

    Architectural patterns are a key point in architectural documentation. Regrettably, there is poor support for modeling architectural patterns, because the pattern elements are not directly matched by elements in modeling languages, and, at the same time, patterns support an inherent variability that

  20. Modeling Architectural Patterns Using Architectural Primitives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zdun, Uwe; Avgeriou, Paris

    2005-01-01

    Architectural patterns are a key point in architectural documentation. Regrettably, there is poor support for modeling architectural patterns, because the pattern elements are not directly matched by elements in modeling languages, and, at the same time, patterns support an inherent variability that

  1. Magnetic Assisted Colloidal Pattern Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye

    Pattern formation is a mysterious phenomenon occurring at all scales in nature. The beauty of the resulting structures and myriad of resulting properties occurring in naturally forming patterns have attracted great interest from scientists and engineers. One of the most convenient experimental models for studying pattern formation are colloidal particle suspensions, which can be used both to explore condensed matter phenomena and as a powerful fabrication technique for forming advanced materials. In my thesis, I have focused on the study of colloidal patterns, which can be conveniently tracked in an optical microscope yet can also be thermally equilibrated on experimentally relevant time scales, allowing for ground states and transitions between them to be studied with optical tracking algorithms. In particular, I have focused on systems that spontaneously organize due to particle-surface and particle-particle interactions, paying close attention to systems that can be dynamically adjusted with an externally applied magnetic or acoustic field. In the early stages of my doctoral studies, I developed a magnetic field manipulation technique to quantify the adhesion force between particles and surfaces. This manipulation technique is based on the magnetic dipolar interactions between colloidal particles and their "image dipoles" that appear within planar substrate. Since the particles interact with their own images, this system enables massively parallel surface force measurements (>100 measurements) in a single experiment, and allows statistical properties of particle-surface adhesion energies to be extracted as a function of loading rate. With this approach, I was able to probe sub-picoNewton surface interactions between colloidal particles and several substrates at the lowest force loading rates ever achieved. In the later stages of my doctoral studies, I focused on studying patterns formed from particle-particle interaction, which serve as an experimental model of

  2. Speckle pattern processing by digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubarev Fedor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Testing the method of speckle pattern processing based on the digital image correlation is carried out in the current work. Three the most widely used formulas of the correlation coefficient are tested. To determine the accuracy of the speckle pattern processing, test speckle patterns with known displacement are used. The optimal size of a speckle pattern template used for determination of correlation and corresponding the speckle pattern displacement is also considered in the work.

  3. Aggregation Patterns in Stressed Bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Tsimring, L S; Aranson, I S; Ben-Jacob, E; Cohen, I; Shochet, O; Tsimring, Lev; Levine, Herbert; Aranson, Igor; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Cohen, Inon; Shochet, Ofer

    1995-01-01

    We study the formation of spot patterns seen in a variety of bacterial species when the bacteria are subjected to oxidative stress due to hazardous byproducts of respiration. Our approach consists of coupling the cell density field to a chemoattractant concentration as well as to nutrient and waste fields. The latter serves as a triggering field for emission of chemoattractant. Important elements in the proposed model include the propagation of a front of motile bacteria radially outward form an initial site, a Turing instability of the uniformly dense state and a reduction of motility for cells sufficiently far behind the front. The wide variety of patterns seen in the experiments is explained as being due the variation of the details of the initiation of the chemoattractant emission as well as the transition to a non-motile phase.

  4. Global Patterns of Human Synchronization

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, Alfredo J; Benito, Rosa M; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2016-01-01

    Social media are transforming global communication and coordination and provide unprecedented opportunities for studying socio-technical domains. Here we study global dynamical patterns of communication on Twitter across many scales. Underlying the observed patterns is both the diurnal rotation of the earth, day and night, and the synchrony required for contingency of actions between individuals. We find that urban areas show a cyclic contraction and expansion that resembles heartbeats linked to social rather than natural cycles. Different urban areas have characteristic signatures of daily collective activities. We show that the differences detected are consistent with a new emergent global synchrony that couples behavior in distant regions across the world. Although local synchrony is the major force that shapes the collective behavior in cities, a larger-scale synchronization is beginning to occur.

  5. Intraatrial conduction disturbances: vectorcardiographic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoneraich, O; Zoneraich, S

    1976-04-01

    Frank P loop vectorcardiograms were recorded in 30 normal subjects and in 40 patients who had intraatrial conduction disturbances alone or in association with cardiac disease. High magnification of the P loop (0.1 mv = 3 cm) permitted accurate measurement of the P loop duration, magnitude and direction. High-frequency recordings allowed optimal evaluation of the notches, bites and conduction delays in the PsE loop. Four vectorcardiographic patterns have been selected as counterparts of the four types of enlarged P waves seen in electrocardiograms of patients with atrial conduction disturbances. When intraatrial conduction disturbances coexisted with left atrial enlargment, the PsE loop was larger and smoother. The role of partial or complete block in the specific internodal or interatrial pathways is discussed. High magnification, high-frequency vectorcardiography of the P loop seems to be the best available method for determing a specific pattern of intraatrial conduction disturbance.

  6. Spatial Patterns in Urban Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Huynh, Hoai Nguyen; Legara, Erika Fille; Monterola, Christopher; Chew, Lock Yue

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the morphology of an urban system is an important step toward unveiling the dynamical processes of its growth and development. At the foundation of every urban system, transportation system is undeniably a crucial component in powering the life of the entire urban system. In this work, we study the spatial pattern of $73$ cities across the globe by analysing the distribution of public transport points within the cities. The analysis reveals that different spatial distributions of points could be classified into four groups with distinct features, indicating whether the points are clustered, dispersed or regularly distributed. From visual inspection, we observe that the cities with regularly distributed patterns do not have apparent centre in contrast to the other two types in which star-node structure, i.e. monocentric, can be clearly observed. Furthermore, the results provide evidence for the existence of two different types of urban system: well-planned and organically grown. We also study the...

  7. Patterns of Pediatric Maxillofacial Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bede, Salwan Yousif Hanna; Ismael, Waleed Khaleel; Al-Assaf, Dhuha

    2016-05-01

    Facial trauma in children and adolescents is reported to range from 1% to 30%. Because of many anatomical, physiological, and psychological characteristics of the pediatric population, maxillofacial injuries in children should be treated with special consideration that is attributable to certain features inherent in facial growth patterns of children. This study evaluated maxillofacial injuries in 726 children in terms of incidence, patterns of injury, causes, and treatment modalities and compared these parameters among 3 pediatric age groups. Intergroup differences were analyzed using Z test for 2 populations' proportion. The results showed that the incidence of pediatric maxillofacial injuries and fractures is higher than that reported elsewhere with male predominance. Soft tissue injuries are more frequently encountered in younger individuals, whereas the incidence of skeletal injuries increases with age. This study also revealed that certain etiologies, namely road traffic accidents, violence, bicycle, missiles, and industrial injures, increase with age; on the other hand, falls and puncture wounds are more common in younger children.

  8. Gene Insertion Patterns and Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vain, Philippe; Thole, Vera

    During the past 25 years, the molecular analysis of transgene insertion patterns and sites in plants has greatly contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying transgene integration, expression, and stability in the nuclear genome. Molecular characterization is also an essential step in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops. This chapter describes the standard experimental procedures used to analyze transgene insertion patterns and loci in cereals and grasses transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens or direct transfer of DNA. Methods and protocols enabling the determination of the number and configuration of transgenic loci via a combination of inheritance studies, polymerase chain reaction, and Southern analyses are presented. The complete characterization of transgenic inserts in plants is, however, a holistic process relying on a wide variety of experimental approaches. In this chapter, these additional approaches are not detailed but references to relevant bibliographic records are provided.

  9. Strain Pattern in Supercooled Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Bernd; Fritschi, Sebastian; Hajnal, David; Klix, Christian; Keim, Peter; Fuchs, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    Investigations of strain correlations at the glass transition reveal unexpected phenomena. The shear strain fluctuations show an Eshelby-strain pattern [˜cos (4 θ ) /r2 ], characteristic of elastic response, even in liquids, at long times. We address this using a mode-coupling theory for the strain fluctuations in supercooled liquids and data from both video microscopy of a two-dimensional colloidal glass former and simulations of Brownian hard disks. We show that the long-ranged and long-lived strain signatures follow a scaling law valid close to the glass transition. For large enough viscosities, the Eshelby-strain pattern is visible even on time scales longer than the structural relaxation time τ and after the shear modulus has relaxed to zero.

  10. Diversity of Individual Mobility Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zhou, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Uncovering human mobility patterns is of fundamental importance to the understanding of epidemic spreading, urban transportation and other socioeconomic dynamics embodying spatiality and human travel. The observed scaling laws for aggregated data require a theoretical explanation of their underlying mechanism. According to the direct travel diaries of volunteers, we show the absence of scaling properties in the displacement distribution at the individual level, which unfortunately provides a complete contrast to most inferences and assumptions in the literature. The aggregated displacement distribution follows a power law with an exponential cutoff, which is analytically explained by the mixture nature of human travel under Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. Our analysis provides an alternative way to bridge diverse patterns at the individual level and scaling laws at the population level.

  11. Information Demand Pattern for Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Stamer; Kurt Sandkuhl; Veronika Zeiner

    2016-01-01

    Modern organizations face the challenge of having to manage an increasing amount of information. The resulting information overload leads more and more to problems in decision making with potentially negative economic consequences. Decision-makers and knowledge intensive workers are especially affected. To address this problem, information demand patterns were proposed which capture organizational knowledge about the information demand of single roles. This work extends the concept of informa...

  12. An Efficient Pattern Matching Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleit, Azzam; Almobaideen, Wesam; Baarah, Aladdin H.; Abusitta, Adel H.

    In this study, we present an efficient algorithm for pattern matching based on the combination of hashing and search trees. The proposed solution is classified as an offline algorithm. Although, this study demonstrates the merits of the technique for text matching, it can be utilized for various forms of digital data including images, audio and video. The performance superiority of the proposed solution is validated analytically and experimentally.

  13. Dynamic Pattern Based Image Steganography

    OpenAIRE

    Thiyagarajan, P.; G. Aghila; Venkatesan, V. Prasanna

    2012-01-01

    Steganography is the art of hiding secret information in media such as image, audio and video. The purpose of steganography is to conceal the existence of the secret information in any given medium. This work aims at strengthening the security in steganography algorithm by generating dynamic pattern in selection of indicator sequence. In addition to this dynamicity is also encompassed in number of bits embedded in data channel. This technique has been implemented and the results have been com...

  14. Dynamics of evaporative colloidal patterning

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Cihan Nadir; Wu, Ning; Mandre, Shreyas; Aizenberg, Joanna; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-01-01

    Drying suspensions often leave behind complex patterns of particulates, as might be seen in the coffee stains on a table. Here, we consider the dynamics of periodic band or uniform solid film formation on a vertical plate suspended partially in a drying colloidal solution. Direct observations allow us to visualize the dynamics of band and film deposition, where both are made of multiple layers of close packed particles. We further see that there is a transition between banding and filming whe...

  15. Dense pattern multiple pass cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Joel A.; Bomse, David S.

    2010-09-21

    An optical cell and a method of operating an optical cell comprising employing a first mirror comprising a first hole therein at approximately a center of the first mirror and through which laser light enters the cell, employing a second mirror comprising a second hole therein at approximately a center of the second mirror and through which laser light exits the cell, and forming a Lissajous pattern of spots on the mirrors by repeated reflection of laser light entering the cell.

  16. Arteriovenous Patterns in Beaked Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Arteriovenous patterns in beaked whales Alexander M...picture of the vascular anatomy in beaked whale heads that will enhance our understanding of the basic biology of beaked whales and act as a baseline...The objective was to describe and better understand the gross morphology of the blood vessels in the heads of beaked whales . Gross anatomical

  17. Patterns in clinical chemistry requests

    OpenAIRE

    Hemel, Jan B.; Hindriks, Frans R.; van der Voet, Hilko; Rijnveld, Leo R.

    1989-01-01

    For each patient sample that is presented to the clinical chemistry laboratory a combination of various tests can be requested. This combination or profile will depend on the condition of the patient, and hence also on the requesting hospital department. Several techniques were applied to detect and describe patterns in tests requested by the cardiology, hepatology and nephrology sections of the out-patient's Department for Internal Medicine. Comparison of the frequencies of ordering the test...

  18. Advanced tufted carpet patterning technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    After a review of the tufting industry's development, and a brief introduction to available systems for producing patterned tufted carpets, the principle of ICN (Individually Controlled Needle) and the related advanced tufting technology Colortec are presented. Finally, Colortec machine, Axminster weaving machine, and Wilton loom are compared. It is believed that the Cobble Colortec machine is a significant jump forward in the tufted carpets industry as it now allows access to all major carpet markets in a competitive fashion.

  19. Generation Y Online Buying Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Katija Vojvodić; Matea Matić

    2015-01-01

    The advantages of electronic retailing can, among other things, result in uncontrolled buying by online consumers, i.e. in extreme buying behavior. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze and determine the buying patterns of Generation Y online consumers in order to explore the existence of different types of behavior based on the characteristics of online buying. The paper also aims at exploring the relationship between extracted factors and Generation Y consumers’ buying intentions. Em...

  20. Generation Y Online Buying Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Katija Vojvodić; Matea Matić

    2015-01-01

    The advantages of electronic retailing can, among other things, result in uncontrolled buying by online consumers, i.e. in extreme buying behavior. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze and determine the buying patterns of Generation Y online consumers in order to explore the existence of different types of behavior based on the characteristics of online buying. The paper also aims at exploring the relationship between extracted factors and Generation Y consumers’ buying intentions. Em...

  1. Three-Dimensional Moire Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D.

    1991-01-01

    Use of moire patterns to determine positions extended to three dimensions. Concept requires two moire templates or grids, separated from each other. Template on side closer to observer contains alternating black and transparent areas. Template farther from observer contains alternating black and white areas. Observer determines position of center of perspective, also receiving indication of depth even without stereoscopic view. Used in rangefinding applications in which precision not required. Also used to gauge location of mobile robot in environment hostile to humans.

  2. The Reliability of Pattern Classification in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, Part 1: Bloodstain Patterns on Rigid Non-absorbent Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael C; Laber, Terry L; Kish, Paul E; Owens, Glynn; Osborne, Nikola K P

    2016-07-01

    This study was designed to produce the first baseline measure of reliability in bloodstain pattern classification. A panel of experienced bloodstain pattern analysts examined over 400 spatter patterns on three rigid non-absorbent surfaces. The patterns varied in spatter type and extent. A case summary accompanied each pattern that either contained neutral information, information to suggest the correct pattern (i.e., was positively biasing), or information to suggest an incorrect pattern (i.e., was negatively biasing). Across the variables under examination, 13% of classifications were erroneous. Generally speaking, where the pattern was more difficult to recognize (e.g., limited staining extent or a patterned substrate), analysts became more conservative in their judgment, opting to be inconclusive. Incorrect classifications increased as a function of the negatively biasing contextual information. The implications of the findings for practice are discussed.

  3. Dietary Patterns and CKD Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tanushree; Liu, Yang; Crews, Deidra C

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and their clinicians seek ways to mitigate the risk of CKD progression and its associated complications. Emerging data suggest that dietary modifications may be beneficial adjuvant approaches to reducing the risk of adverse CKD outcomes. This review focuses on several different dietary patterns, including the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension and Mediterranean diets, and their kidney health benefits. We discuss how healthful dietary patterns are lower in dietary acid load and how improving diet quality may slow the progression of CKD. We also discuss some barriers that may impede socially disadvantaged individuals from following healthful diets. Dietary patterns low in dietary acid load might slow the progression of CKD. Current evidence suggests that a reduction in dietary acid load could be beneficial in patients with CKD, but the supremacy of any particular diet is yet to be established. Additional randomized controlled dietary interventions among CKD patients are needed to inform evidence-based recommendations, which can be tailored to an individual's preferences and ability to access healthful foods. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Visualizing Dynamic Bitcoin Transaction Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Dan; Birch, David; Akroyd, David; Molina-Solana, Miguel; Guo, Yike; Knottenbelt, William J

    2016-06-01

    This work presents a systemic top-down visualization of Bitcoin transaction activity to explore dynamically generated patterns of algorithmic behavior. Bitcoin dominates the cryptocurrency markets and presents researchers with a rich source of real-time transactional data. The pseudonymous yet public nature of the data presents opportunities for the discovery of human and algorithmic behavioral patterns of interest to many parties such as financial regulators, protocol designers, and security analysts. However, retaining visual fidelity to the underlying data to retain a fuller understanding of activity within the network remains challenging, particularly in real time. We expose an effective force-directed graph visualization employed in our large-scale data observation facility to accelerate this data exploration and derive useful insight among domain experts and the general public alike. The high-fidelity visualizations demonstrated in this article allowed for collaborative discovery of unexpected high frequency transaction patterns, including automated laundering operations, and the evolution of multiple distinct algorithmic denial of service attacks on the Bitcoin network.

  5. Pattern formations and optimal packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mityushev, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Patterns of different symmetries may arise after solution to reaction-diffusion equations. Hexagonal arrays, layers and their perturbations are observed in different models after numerical solution to the corresponding initial-boundary value problems. We demonstrate an intimate connection between pattern formations and optimal random packing on the plane. The main study is based on the following two points. First, the diffusive flux in reaction-diffusion systems is approximated by piecewise linear functions in the framework of structural approximations. This leads to a discrete network approximation of the considered continuous problem. Second, the discrete energy minimization yields optimal random packing of the domains (disks) in the representative cell. Therefore, the general problem of pattern formations based on the reaction-diffusion equations is reduced to the geometric problem of random packing. It is demonstrated that all random packings can be divided onto classes associated with classes of isomorphic graphs obtained from the Delaunay triangulation. The unique optimal solution is constructed in each class of the random packings. If the number of disks per representative cell is finite, the number of classes of isomorphic graphs, hence, the number of optimal packings is also finite.

  6. Dermatoglyphic pattern in male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontakke, B R; Talhar, S; Ingole, I V; Shende, M R; Pal, A K; Bhattacharaya, T

    2013-06-01

    Dermatoglyphics in infertile male patients were studied and compared with that of age matched controls to see whether any specific dermatoglyphic pattern exists in infertile male patients. Infertile male patients with abnormal semen profile were referred to Cytogenetic Laboratory for karyotyping. We selected twenty-four infertile male patients with abnormal semen profile. Out of twenty-four infertile male patients, nineteen were with normal Karyotype and five patients were with abnormal Karyotype. Loop was the commonest pattern observed in the infertile male patients. All these fingertip and palmar dermatoglyphic findings were compared with that of result on finger and palmar dermatoglyphics of equal number of age matched controls. Statistical evaluation was done with software "EPI- info, version-6.04 d". Infertile males had reduced number of loops as compared to that of controls which was statistically significant. Total whorls were increased in infertile male patients as compared to that of controls which was statistically insignificant. Percentage of true palmar pattern in I 3 and I 4 areas was reduced in infertile male patients as compared to that of controls which was statistically insignificant.

  7. Understanding individual human mobility patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Marta C.; Hidalgo, César A.; Barabási, Albert-László

    2008-06-01

    Despite their importance for urban planning, traffic forecasting and the spread of biological and mobile viruses, our understanding of the basic laws governing human motion remains limited owing to the lack of tools to monitor the time-resolved location of individuals. Here we study the trajectory of 100,000 anonymized mobile phone users whose position is tracked for a six-month period. We find that, in contrast with the random trajectories predicted by the prevailing Lévy flight and random walk models, human trajectories show a high degree of temporal and spatial regularity, each individual being characterized by a time-independent characteristic travel distance and a significant probability to return to a few highly frequented locations. After correcting for differences in travel distances and the inherent anisotropy of each trajectory, the individual travel patterns collapse into a single spatial probability distribution, indicating that, despite the diversity of their travel history, humans follow simple reproducible patterns. This inherent similarity in travel patterns could impact all phenomena driven by human mobility, from epidemic prevention to emergency response, urban planning and agent-based modelling.

  8. Pattern formation in rotating fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Karl

    2009-06-01

    Flows in nature and technology are often associated with specific structures and pattern. This paper deals with the development and behaviour of such flow pattern. Flow structures are important for the mass, momentum and energy transport. The behaviour of different flow pattern is used by engineers to obtain an efficient mass and energy consumption. Mechanical power is transmitted via the momentum of rotating machine parts. Therefore the physical and mathematical knowledge of these basic concepts is important. Theoretical and experimental investigations of principle experiments are described in the following. We start with the classical problem of the flow between two concentric cylinders where the inner cylinder rotates. Periodic instabilities occur which are called Taylor vortices. The analogy between the cylindrical gap flow, the heat transfer in a horizontal fluid layer exposed to the gravity field and the boundary layer flow along concave boundaries concerning their stability behaviour is addressed. The vortex breakdown phenomenon in a cylinder with rotating cover is also described. A generalization to spherical sectors leads then to investigations with different boundary conditions. The spherical gap flow exhibits interesting phenomena concerning the nonlinear character of the Navier-Stokes equations. Multiple solutions in the nonlinear regime give rise to different routes during the laminar-turbulent transition. The interaction of two rotating spheres results in flow structures with separation and stagnation lines. Experimental results are confirmed by numerical simulations.

  9. Visualizing Dynamic Bitcoin Transaction Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Dan; Birch, David; Akroyd, David; Molina-Solana, Miguel; Guo, Yike; Knottenbelt, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This work presents a systemic top-down visualization of Bitcoin transaction activity to explore dynamically generated patterns of algorithmic behavior. Bitcoin dominates the cryptocurrency markets and presents researchers with a rich source of real-time transactional data. The pseudonymous yet public nature of the data presents opportunities for the discovery of human and algorithmic behavioral patterns of interest to many parties such as financial regulators, protocol designers, and security analysts. However, retaining visual fidelity to the underlying data to retain a fuller understanding of activity within the network remains challenging, particularly in real time. We expose an effective force-directed graph visualization employed in our large-scale data observation facility to accelerate this data exploration and derive useful insight among domain experts and the general public alike. The high-fidelity visualizations demonstrated in this article allowed for collaborative discovery of unexpected high frequency transaction patterns, including automated laundering operations, and the evolution of multiple distinct algorithmic denial of service attacks on the Bitcoin network. PMID:27441715

  10. Intrinsic Patterns of Human Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kun; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Chen, Zhi; Hilton, Michael; Stanley, H. Eugene; Shea, Steven

    2003-03-01

    Activity is one of the defining features of life. Control of human activity is complex, being influenced by many factors both extrinsic and intrinsic to the body. The most obvious extrinsic factors that affect activity are the daily schedule of planned events, such as work and recreation, as well as reactions to unforeseen or random events. These extrinsic factors may account for the apparently random fluctuations in human motion observed over short time scales. The most obvious intrinsic factors are the body clocks including the circadian pacemaker that influences our sleep/wake cycle and ultradian oscillators with shorter time scales [2, 3]. These intrinsic rhythms may account for the underlying regularity in average activity level over longer periods of up to 24 h. Here we ask if the known extrinsic and intrinsic factors fully account for all complex features observed in recordings of human activity. To this end, we measure activity over two weeks from forearm motion in subjects undergoing their regular daily routine. Utilizing concepts from statistical physics, we demonstrate that during wakefulness human activity possesses previously unrecognized complex dynamic patterns. These patterns of activity are characterized by robust fractal and nonlinear dynamics including a universal probability distribution and long-range power-law correlations that are stable over a wide range of time scales (from minutes to hours). Surprisingly, we find that these dynamic patterns are unaffected by changes in the average activity level that occur within individual subjects throughout the day and on different days of the week, and between subjects. Moreover, we find that these patterns persist when the same subjects undergo time-isolation laboratory experiments designed to account for the phase of the circadian pacemaker, and control the known extrinsic factors by restricting behaviors and manipulating scheduled events including the sleep/wake cycle. We attribute these newly

  11. Field Patterns: A New Mathematical Object

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Graeme W

    2016-01-01

    Field patterns occur in space-time microstructures such that a disturbance propagating along a characteristic line, does not evolve into a cascade of disturbances, but rather concentrates on a pattern of characteristic lines. This pattern is the field pattern. In one spatial direction plus time, the field patterns occur when the slope of the characteristics is, in a sense, commensurate with the space-time microstructure. Field patterns with different spatial shifts do not generally interact, but rather evolve as if they live in separate dimensions, as many dimensions as the number of field patterns. Alternatively one can view a collection as a multicomponent potential, with as many components as the number of field patterns. Presumably if one added a tiny nonlinear term to the wave equation one would then see interactions between these field patterns in the multidimensional space that one can consider them to live, or between the different field components of the multicomponent potential if one views them tha...

  12. Hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzik G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of making hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears for investment casting process are presented. Rapid prototyping of gears with complex tooth forms is possible with the use of modern methods. One of such methods is the stereo-lithography, where a pattern is obtained as a result of resin curing with laser beam. Patterns of that type are applicable in precision casting. Removing of stereo-lithographic pattern from foundry mould requires use of high temperatures. Resin burning would generate significant amounts of harmful gases. In case of a solid stereo-lithographic pattern, the pressure created during gas burning may cause the mould to crack. A gas volume reduction may be achieved by using patterns of honeycomb structure. However, this technique causes a significant worsening of accuracy of stereo-lithographic patterns in respect of their dimensions and shape. In cooperation with WSK PZL Rzeszów, the Machine Design Department of Rzeszow University of Technology carried out research on the design of hybrid stereo-lithographic patterns. Hybrid pattern consists of a section made by stereo-lithographic process and a section made of casting wax. The latter material is used for stereo-lithographic pattern filling and for mould gating system. The hybrid pattern process consists of two stages: wax melting and then the burn-out of stereolithographic pattern. Use of hybrid patterns reduces the costs of production of stereolithographic patterns. High dimensional accuracy remains preserved in this process.

  13. Reflective State Pattern with Dynamic Constructiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    After discussing the reflective method of structure and behaviorin th e State design pattern based on Role Object pattern and the Reflective pattern o f software architecture, this paper proposes a reflective state pattern with dyn amic constructiveness. This paper explains the meta level and the base level, wh ich are two levels of this pattern, and specifies the relation of two levels by using Meta Object Protocol (MOP). Then it discusses mechanism of interception an d reification for reflecting base object from Meta object. Finally this paper g ives an example of network server for applying the Reflective State pattern

  14. Unitary pattern: a review of theoretical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musker, Kathleen M

    2012-07-01

    It is the purpose of this article to illuminate the phenomenon of unitary pattern through a review of theoretical literature. Unitary pattern is a phenomenon of significance to the discipline of nursing because it is manifested in and informs all person-environment health experiences. Unitary pattern was illuminated by: addressing the barriers to understanding the phenomenon, presenting a definition of unitary pattern, and exploring Eastern and Western theoretical literature which address unitary pattern in a way that is congruent with the definition presented. This illumination of unitary pattern will expand nursing knowledge and contribute to the discipline of nursing.

  15. Sequence Patterns of Identity Authentication Protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Hongcai; He Dake

    2006-01-01

    From the viewpoint of protocol sequence, analyses are made of the sequence patterns of possible identity authentication protocol under two cases: with or without the trusted third party (TTP). Ten feasible sequence patterns of authentication protocol with TTP and 5 sequence patterns without TTP are gained. These gained sequence patterns meet the requirements for identity authentication,and basically cover almost all the authentication protocols with TTP and without TTP at present. All of the sequence patterns gained are classified into unilateral or bilateral authentication. Then , according to the sequence symmetry, several good sequence patterns with TTP are evaluated. The accompolished results can provide a reference to design of new identity authentication protocols.

  16. Food Patterns, Lifestyle, and Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Arjmand

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High blood pressure (BP is considered as a strong predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD Environmental and genetic factors may have a role in high blood pressures. Nutrition has a potential role in the prevention of hypertension and its sequelae. Effect of lowering blood pressure by modification of complex dietary patterns may be the result of synergism between the various components of certain foods or food combinations rather than of the specific effect of a particular nutrient. Vegetarian Diet, Mediterranean Diet, and Dash Diet are three food patterns which have been associated with lowering BP. Vegetarian Diet are characterized by high intake of legumes, nuts, vegetables, and fruits. A relatively high polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio will make by this kind of diet. Low fat content and high potassium, magnesium, and fiber content of this diet, all factors possibly cooperating to the reduction of blood pressure. Mediterranean Diet has low animal and dairy products as well as saturated fatty acids and cholesterol; it is rich in plant food, legumes, fiber, and antioxidant vitamins with olive oil as the main source of fat. The dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH is a success process in control of hypertension, which emphasizes vegetables and fruits and dairy foods with low-fat, it also includes more nuts, poultry, fish, and, whole grains and lower amounts of red meat, fats, sweets, and sugar-containing beverages. DASH diet is poorer in total and saturated fat and cholesterol and richer in potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber in comparison to the habitual Western diet. In conclusion, although multiple dietary factors can influence on BP and each factor has a modest effect; the combined effects of those factors can be substantial. In the current study, we review food patterns, lifestyle, and their relationship with hypertension and the possible mechanisms involved.

  17. Invarient patterns in articulatory movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Patrizia

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of the reported study is to discover an effective method of characterizing movement patterns of the crucial articulator as the function of an abstract syllable magnitude and the adjacent boundary, and at the same time to investigate effects of prosodic control on utterance organization. In particular, the speed of movement when a flesh point on the tongue blade or the lower lip crosses a selected position relative to the occlusion plane is examined. The time of such crossing provides an effective measure of syllable timing and syllable duration according to previous work. In the present work, using a very limited vocabulary with only a few consonants and one vowel as the key speech materials, effects of contrastive emphasis on demisyllabic movement patterns were studied. The theoretical framework for this analysis is the C/D model of speech production in relation to the concept of an invariant part of selected articulatory movements. The results show evidence in favor of the existence of ``iceberg'' patterns, but a linear dependence of slope on the total excursion of the demisyllabic movement, instead of the approximate constancy of the threshold crossing speed as suggested in the original proposal of the iceberg, has been found. Accordingly, a revision of the original concept of iceberg, seems necessary. This refinement is consistent with the C/D model assumption on ``prominence control'' that the syllable magnitude determines the movement amplitude, accompanying directly related syllable duration change. In this assumption, the movement of a consonantal component should also be proportional to syllable magnitude. The results suggests, however, systematic outliers deviating from the linear dependence of movement speed on excursion. This deviation may be caused by the effect of the immediately following boundary, often referred to as phrase-final elongation. Thesis advisor: Osamu Fujimura Copies of this thesis written in English can be obtained from

  18. Site Effects and Damage Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Assimaki, Dominic; Ledezma, Christian; Montalva, Gonzalo A.; Tassara,Andrés; Mylonakis, George; Boroschekf, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    A set of observations on site effects and damage patterns from the M_w 8.8 Maule, Chile, earthquake is presented, focusing on identification of structural damage variability associated with nonuniform soil conditions and subsurface geology. Observations are reported from: (1) the City of Santiago de Chile (Américo Vespucio Norte Ring Highway, Ciudad Empresarial business park), (2) the Municipality of Viña del Mar, and (3) the City of Concepción, extending over 600 km along the Chilean coast. ...

  19. Droplet dynamics on patterned substrates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Dupuis; J M Yeomans

    2005-06-01

    We present a lattice Boltzmann algorithm which can be used to explore the spreading of droplets on chemically and topologically patterned substrates. As an example we use the method to show that the final configuration of a drop on a substrate comprising hydrophobic and hydrophilic stripes can depend sensitively on the dynamical pathway by which the state is reached. We also consider a substrate covered with micron-scale posts and investigate how this can lead to superhydrophobic behaviour. Finally we model how a Namibian desert beetle collects water from the wind.

  20. Convergence Patterns in Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quiroga, Paola Andrea Barrientos

    Literature on convergence among Latin American countries is still scarce compared to other regions. Moreover, almost none of the research connects convergence to the economic history of Latin America and the usual finding is one speed of convergence. In this paper I analyze 32 countries and 108...... years, more observations than any other study. This long span of data allows me to use economic history to explain, analyze, validate, and understand the results of convergence patterns in the region. I find more than one speed of convergence (clubs) related to the known historical background, country...

  1. Pattern formation with trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Tony E

    2010-01-01

    We propose an experiment to study collective behavior in a nonlinear medium of trapped ions. Using laser cooling and heating and an anharmonic trap potential, one can turn an ion into a nonlinear van der Pol-Duffing oscillator. A chain of ions interacting electrostatically has stable plane waves for all parameters. The system also behaves like an excitable medium, since a sufficiently large perturbation generates a travelling pulse. Small chains exhibit multistability and limit cycles. We account for noise from spontaneous emission in the amplitude equation and find that the patterns are observable for realistic experimental parameters. The tunability of ion traps makes them an exciting setting to study nonequilibrium statistical physics.

  2. Patterns of Individual Shopping Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Krumme, Coco; Pentland, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Much of economic theory is built on observations of aggregate, rather than individual, behavior. Here, we present novel findings on human shopping patterns at the resolution of a single purchase. Our results suggest that much of our seemingly elective activity is actually driven by simple routines. While the interleaving of shopping events creates randomness at the small scale, on the whole consumer behavior is largely predictable. We also examine income-dependent differences in how people shop, and find that wealthy individuals are more likely to bundle shopping trips. These results validate previous work on mobility from cell phone data, while describing the unpredictability of behavior at higher resolution.

  3. Business Patterns for Software Developers

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Allan

    2012-01-01

    A must-have recipe book for building software Perhaps you can relate to this all-too common scenario: you know all about your software product?but could do with some help in understanding the strategic side of things. If so, this book is the one-stop resource you'll need in order to become a successful software entrepreneur. Patterns expert Allan Kelly provides you with the step-by-step route that needs to be followed in order to understand business strategy and operations. Each chapter starts out with a solid introduction and theoretical overview, which is then further illustrated with patter

  4. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik;

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Healthy couples recruited throughout Denmark. PATI...... 0.09-0.68). When the combined effect of cycle variation and cycle length was assessed, cycle variation was a persistent strong predictor of fecundity. CONCLUSION(S): The mechanisms of the present findings probably are female functional disturbances in ovulation, conception, implantation...

  5. Graph Embedding for Pattern Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yunqian

    2013-01-01

    Graph Embedding for Pattern Analysis covers theory methods, computation, and applications widely used in statistics, machine learning, image processing, and computer vision. This book presents the latest advances in graph embedding theories, such as nonlinear manifold graph, linearization method, graph based subspace analysis, L1 graph, hypergraph, undirected graph, and graph in vector spaces. Real-world applications of these theories are spanned broadly in dimensionality reduction, subspace learning, manifold learning, clustering, classification, and feature selection. A selective group of experts contribute to different chapters of this book which provides a comprehensive perspective of this field.

  6. Chaotic Patterns in Aeroelastic Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. Marques

    2009-01-01

    patterns. With the reconstructed state spaces, qualitative analyses may be done, and the attractors evolutions with parametric variation are presented. Overall results reveal complex system dynamics associated with highly separated flow effects together with nonlinear coupling between aeroelastic modes. Bifurcations to the nonlinear aeroelastic system are observed for two investigations, that is, considering oscillations-induced aeroelastic evolutions with varying freestream speed, and aeroelastic evolutions at constant freestream speed and varying oscillations. Finally, Lyapunov exponent calculation is proceeded in order to infer on chaotic behavior. Poincaré mappings also suggest bifurcations and chaos, reinforced by the attainment of maximum positive Lyapunov exponents.

  7. Metastatic patterns of bladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, W S; Mehio, A R

    1984-01-01

    The authors reviewed 227 new bladder cancers from two main hospitals in Beirut Lebanon. They analyzed the morphologic features of these tumours, insisting particularly on the number, the size, the site, the grade, the stage, the mode of spread and the vascular permeation. The latter four factors appear to be directly related to the metastatic spread of these tumours. The metastatic patterns are summarized, regional lymph node metastases being the main problem because of therapeutic implications (radical surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy). The problems of generalized carcinoma, unusual lymph node metastases and solitary distant metastases are also considered.

  8. Cancer patterns in Inuit populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melbye, M.; Friborg, Jeppe Tang

    2008-01-01

    Inuit people inhabit the circumpolar region, with most living in Alaska, northwest Canada, and Greenland. Although malignant diseases were believed to be almost non-existent in Inuit populations during the beginning of the 20th century, the increasing life expectancy within these populations showed...... to be responsible for this pattern. During the second half of the 20th century, Inuit societies underwent major changes in lifestyle and living conditions, and the risk of lifestyle-associated tumours, especially cancers of the lung, colon, and breast, increased considerably after changes in smoking, diet...

  9. Crowding by a repeating pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sarah; Pelli, Denis G

    2015-01-01

    Theinability to recognize a peripheral target among flankers is called crowding. For a foveal target, crowding can be distinguished from overlap masking by its sparing of detection, linear scaling with eccentricity, and invariance with target size.Crowding depends on the proximity and similarity of the flankers to the target. Flankers that are far from or dissimilar to the target do not crowd it. On a gray page, text whose neighboring letters have different colors, alternately black and white, has enough dissimilarity that it might escape crowding. Since reading speed is normally limited by crowding, escape from crowding should allow faster reading. Yet reading speed is unchanged (Chung & Mansfield, 2009). Why? A recent vernier study found that using alternating-color flankers produces strong crowding (Manassi, Sayim, & Herzog, 2012). Might that effect occur with letters and reading? Critical spacing is the minimum center-to-center target-flanker spacing needed to correctly identify the target. We measure it for a target letter surrounded by several equidistant flanker letters of the same polarity, opposite polarity, or mixed polarity: alternately white and black. We find strong crowding in the alternating condition, even though each flanker letter is beyond its own critical spacing (as measured in a separate condition). Thus a periodic repeating pattern can produce crowding even when the individual elements do not. Further, in all conditions we find that, once a periodic pattern repeats (two cycles), further repetition does not affect critical spacing of the innermost flanker.

  10. Spatial patterns of tidal heating

    CERN Document Server

    Beuthe, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    In a body periodically strained by tides, heating produced by viscous friction is far from homogeneous. I show here that the distribution of the dissipated power within a spherically stratified body is a linear combination of three angular functions. These angular functions depend only on the tidal potential whereas the radial weights are specified by the internal structure of the body. The 3D problem of predicting spatial patterns of dissipation at all radii is thus reduced to the 1D problem of computing weight functions. I compute spatial patterns in various toy models without assuming a specific rheology: a viscoelastic thin shell stratified in conductive and convective layers, an incompressible homogeneous body and a two-layer model of uniform density with a liquid or rigid core. For a body in synchronous rotation undergoing eccentricity tides, dissipation in a mantle surrounding a liquid core is highest at the poles. Within a softer layer (asthenosphere or icy layer), the same tides generate maximum heat...

  11. Fault Tolerant Frequent Pattern Mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shohdy, Sameh; Vishnu, Abhinav; Agrawal, Gagan

    2016-12-19

    FP-Growth algorithm is a Frequent Pattern Mining (FPM) algorithm that has been extensively used to study correlations and patterns in large scale datasets. While several researchers have designed distributed memory FP-Growth algorithms, it is pivotal to consider fault tolerant FP-Growth, which can address the increasing fault rates in large scale systems. In this work, we propose a novel parallel, algorithm-level fault-tolerant FP-Growth algorithm. We leverage algorithmic properties and MPI advanced features to guarantee an O(1) space complexity, achieved by using the dataset memory space itself for checkpointing. We also propose a recovery algorithm that can use in-memory and disk-based checkpointing, though in many cases the recovery can be completed without any disk access, and incurring no memory overhead for checkpointing. We evaluate our FT algorithm on a large scale InfiniBand cluster with several large datasets using up to 2K cores. Our evaluation demonstrates excellent efficiency for checkpointing and recovery in comparison to the disk-based approach. We have also observed 20x average speed-up in comparison to Spark, establishing that a well designed algorithm can easily outperform a solution based on a general fault-tolerant programming model.

  12. Pattern-Driven Automatic Parallelization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph W. Kessler

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a knowledge-based system for automatic parallelization of a wide class of sequential numerical codes operating on vectors and dense matrices, and for execution on distributed memory message-passing multiprocessors. Its main feature is a fast and powerful pattern recognition tool that locally identifies frequently occurring computations and programming concepts in the source code. This tool also works for dusty deck codes that have been "encrypted" by former machine-specific code transformations. Successful pattern recognition guides sophisticated code transformations including local algorithm replacement such that the parallelized code need not emerge from the sequential program structure by just parallelizing the loops. It allows access to an expert's knowledge on useful parallel algorithms, available machine-specific library routines, and powerful program transformations. The partially restored program semantics also supports local array alignment, distribution, and redistribution, and allows for faster and more exact prediction of the performance of the parallelized target code than is usually possible.

  13. Pattern Formation and Complexity Emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2001-03-01

    Success of nonlinear modelling of pattern formation and self-organization encourages speculations on informational and number theoretical foundations of complexity emergence. Pythagorean "unreasonable effectiveness of integers" in natural processes is perhaps extrapolatable even to universal emergence "out-of-nothing" (Leibniz, Wheeler). Because rational numbers (R = M/N) are everywhere dense on real axis, any digital string (hence any "book" from "Library of Babel" of J.L.Borges) is "recorded" infinitely many times in arbitrary many rationals. Furthermore, within any arbitrary small interval there are infinitely many Rs for which (either or both) integers (Ms and Ns) "carry" any given string of any given length. Because any iterational process (such as generation of fractal features of Mandelbrot Set) is arbitrary closely approximatable with rational numbers, the infinite pattern of integers expresses itself in generation of complexity of the world, as well as in emergence of the world itself. This "tunnelling" from Platonic World ("Platonia" of J.Barbour) to a real (physical) world is modern recast of Leibniz's motto ("for deriving all from nothing there suffices a single principle").

  14. Prolegomenon to patterns in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Stuart A

    2014-09-01

    Despite Darwin, we remain children of Newton and dream of a grand theory that is epistemologically complete and would allow prediction of the evolution of the biosphere. The main purpose of this article is to show that this dream is false, and bears on studying patterns of evolution. To do so, I must justify the use of the word "function" in biology, when physics has only happenings. The concept of "function" lifts biology irreducibly above physics, for as we shall see, we cannot prestate the ever new biological functions that arise and constitute the very phase space of evolution. Hence, we cannot mathematize the detailed becoming of the biosphere, nor write differential equations for functional variables we do not know ahead of time, nor integrate those equations, so no laws "entail" evolution. The dream of a grand theory fails. In place of entailing laws, I propose a post-entailing law explanatory framework in which Actuals arise in evolution that constitute new boundary conditions that are enabling constraints that create new, typically unprestatable, adjacent possible opportunities for further evolution, in which new Actuals arise, in a persistent becoming. Evolution flows into a typically unprestatable succession of adjacent possibles. Given the concept of function, the concept of functional closure of an organism making a living in its world becomes central. Implications for patterns in evolution include historical reconstruction, and statistical laws such as the distribution of extinction events, or species per genus, and the use of formal cause, not efficient cause, laws.

  15. Pattern Analysis On Banking Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amritpal Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Everyday refinement and development of technology has led to an increase in the competition between the Tech companies and their going out of way to crack the system andbreak down. Thus providing Data mining a strategically and security-wise important area for many business organizations including banking sector. It allows the analyzes of important information in the data warehouse and assists the banks to look for obscure patterns in a group and discover unknown relationship in the data.Banking systems needs to process ample amount of data on daily basis related to customer information their credit card details limit and collateral details transaction details risk profiles Anti Money Laundering related information trade finance data. Thousands of decisionsbased on the related data are taken in a bank daily. This paper analyzes the banking dataset in the weka environment for the detection of interesting patterns based on its applications ofcustomer acquisition customer retention management and marketing and management of risk fraudulence detections.

  16. Follicular-patterned thyroid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fulya KÖYBAŞIOĞLU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim is to determine the minimal cytopathologic criteria needed to make differential diagnosis in follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid gland.Materials and Methods: We reviewed 56 fine needle aspiration cytology specimens which were reported as “suspicious for follicular-patterned lesions of thyroid” between years 2001 and 2005 in our hospital and their histological slides. Parameters for cytopathologic assesment are cellularity, colloid formation, multilayered rosette formation, follicular cell rings, monolayered sheets, intact follicles, hyperplastic papillae, hyaline stromal fragments, intranuclear inclusions, nuclear grooves, angulated nuclei, nucleoli, cerebriform nuclei, nuclear size, macrophages, flame cells and Hurthle cells. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2 and Fisher's-exact tests and Kolmogorov-Simirnov test.Results: Four cytopathologic features–cerebriform nuclei, angulated nuclei, nuclear grooves and intranuclear inclusion- were constantly observed in the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (p< 0.05. Diluted colloid, monolayered sheet, nuclear size, macrophage and nucleoli were frequently seen in nodular hyperplasia (p< 0.05. The nuclear size was the sole differential cytopathologic criteria between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma (p<0.05.Conclusion: Detailed cytopathologic examination was found to be important in differentiating follicular variant of papillary carcinoma from nodular hyperplasia. On the other hand, none of the cytopathologic findings were sufficient to distinguish follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma. Therefore, cytopathologists should report such lesions as “follicular neoplasms”.

  17. Urban biodiversity: patterns and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, Stanley H; Bang, Christofer; Saari, Susanna

    2011-03-01

    The patterns of biodiversity changes in cities are now fairly well established, although diversity changes in temperate cities are much better studied than cities in other climate zones. Generally, plant species richness often increases in cities due to importation of exotic species, whereas animal species richness declines. Abundances of some groups, especially birds and arthropods, often increase in urban areas despite declines in species richness. Although several models have been proposed for biodiversity change, the processes underlying the patterns of biodiversity in cities are poorly understood. We argue that humans directly control plants but relatively few animals and microbes-the remaining biological community is determined by this plant "template" upon which natural ecological and evolutionary processes act. As a result, conserving or reconstructing natural habitats defined by vegetation within urban areas is no guarantee that other components of the biological community will follow suit. Understanding the human-controlled and natural processes that alter biodiversity is essential for conserving urban biodiversity. This urban biodiversity will comprise a growing fraction of the world's repository of biodiversity in the future.

  18. Cultural Patterns of Soil Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzel, Nikola; Feller, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Living soil supports all terrestrial ecosystems. The only global threat to earth's soils comes from human societies' land use and resource consuming activities. Soil perception and understanding by soil scientists are mainly drawn from biophysical parameters and found within Cartesian rationality, and not, or much less consciously from its rather intangible cultural dimension. But nevertheless, human soil perception, soil awareness, and soil relation are a cultural phenomenon, too. Aiming at soil awareness and education, it is of first order importance for the soil science community and the IUSS to study, discuss and communicate also about the cultural perceptions and representations of soil. For any society, cultural patterns in their relation to soil encompass: (i) General culturally underlying structures like (religious or 'secular') myths and belief systems. (ii) The personal, individual relation to/with and behaviour towards soil. This includes implicit concepts of soil being part integral concepts of landscape because the large majority of humans don't see soil as a distinct object. This communication would be to make evident: (i) the importance of cultural patterns and psychic/psychological background concerning soil, by case studies and overviews on different cultural areas, (ii) the necessity to develop reflections on this topic as well to communicate about soil with large public, as to raise awareness soil scientists to the cultural dimension of soils. A working group was recently founded at IUSS (Division 4) on this topic.

  19. Vegetation patterns and environmental gradients in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adomou, A.

    2005-01-01

    Key words: West Africa, Benin, vegetation patterns, floristic areas, phytogeography, chorology, floristic gradients, climatic factors, water availability, Dahomey Gap, threatened plants, biodiversity, conservation.Understanding plant species distribution patterns and the underlying factors is a cruc

  20. Optimal temporal patterns for dynamical cellular signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiko

    2016-11-01

    Cells use temporal dynamical patterns to transmit information via signaling pathways. As optimality with respect to the environment plays a fundamental role in biological systems, organisms have evolved optimal ways to transmit information. Here, we use optimal control theory to obtain the dynamical signal patterns for the optimal transmission of information, in terms of efficiency (low energy) and reliability (low uncertainty). Adopting an activation-deactivation decoding network, we reproduce several dynamical patterns found in actual signals, such as steep, gradual, and overshooting dynamics. Notably, when minimizing the energy of the input signal, the optimal signals exhibit overshooting, which is a biphasic pattern with transient and steady phases; this pattern is prevalent in actual dynamical patterns. We also identify conditions in which these three patterns (steep, gradual, and overshooting) confer advantages. Our study shows that cellular signal transduction is governed by the principle of minimizing free energy dissipation and uncertainty; these constraints serve as selective pressures when designing dynamical signaling patterns.

  1. Optimizing Grid Patterns on Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    CELCAL computer program helps in optimizing grid patterns for different photovoltaic cell geometries and metalization processes. Five different powerloss phenomena associated with front-surface metal grid pattern on photovoltaic cells.

  2. Optimal signal patterns for dynamical cellular communication

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Cells transmit information via signaling pathways, using temporal dynamical patterns. As optimality with respect to environments is the universal principle in biological systems, organisms have acquired an optimal way of transmitting information. Here we obtain optimal dynamical signal patterns which can transmit information efficiently (low power) and reliably (high accuracy) using the optimal control theory. Adopting an activation-inactivation decoding network, we reproduced several dynamical patterns found in actual signals, such as steep, gradual and overshooting dynamics. Notably, when minimizing the power of the input signal, optimal signals exhibit the overshooting pattern, which is a biphasic pattern with transient and steady phases; this pattern is prevalent in actual dynamical patterns as it can be generated by an incoherent feed-forward loop (FFL), a common motif in biochemical networks. We also identified conditions when the three patterns, steep, gradual and overshooting, confer advantages.

  3. The Fuzzy Sets Approach to Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T.

    1972-01-01

    The fuzzy set concept is defined and its application to pattern recognition is illustrated. An iterative procedure for learning the equi-membership surfaces and for generating a set of discriminate functions for two pattern classes is given.

  4. Design Pattern Mining Using Graph Matching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-hua; ZHANG Zhi-xiang; BEN Ke-rong

    2004-01-01

    The identification of design pattern instances is important for program understanding and software maintenance. Aiming at the mining of design patterns in existing systems, this paper proposes a sub-graph isomorphism approach to discover several design patterns in a legacy system at a time. The attributed relational graph is used to describe design patterns and legacy systems. The sub-graph isomorphism approach consists of decomposition and composition process. During the decomposition process, graphs corresponding to the design patterns are decomposed into sub-graphs, some of which are graphs corresponding to the elemental design patterns. The composition process tries to get sub-graph isomorphism of the matched graph if sub-graph isomorphism of each sub-graph is obtained. Due to the common structures between design patterns, the proposed approach can reduce the matching times of entities and relations. Compared with the existing methods, the proposed algorithm is not linearly dependent on the number of design pattern graphs.

  5. On the Implementation of Dynamic Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Balabonski, Thibaut

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation mechanism of pattern matching with dynamic patterns is modelled in the Pure Pattern Calculus by one single meta-rule. This contribution presents a refinement which narrows the gap between the abstract calculus and its implementation. A calculus is designed to allow reasoning on matching algorithms. The new calculus is proved to be confluent, and to simulate the original Pure Pattern Calculus. A family of new, matching-driven, reduction strategies is proposed.

  6. Data structures, computer graphics, and pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Klinger, A; Kunii, T L

    1977-01-01

    Data Structures, Computer Graphics, and Pattern Recognition focuses on the computer graphics and pattern recognition applications of data structures methodology.This book presents design related principles and research aspects of the computer graphics, system design, data management, and pattern recognition tasks. The topics include the data structure design, concise structuring of geometric data for computer aided design, and data structures for pattern recognition algorithms. The survey of data structures for computer graphics systems, application of relational data structures in computer gr

  7. Thought Patterns and English Teaching of Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Weining

    2015-01-01

    Because of the difference of geography , history, culture and humane studies of different countries , Chinese people and English -speaking people have dif-ferent thought patterns .In fact, the effect of differences between English and Chinese thought patterns on teaching English as a foreign language has drawn our in -creasing attention .This paper discusses the differences between Chinese thought pattern and English thought pattern , and provides some suggestion for English teach-ing of writing .

  8. Aggregation Operator Based Fuzzy Pattern Classifier Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mönks, Uwe; Larsen, Henrik Legind

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel modular fuzzy pattern classifier design framework for intelligent automation systems, developed on the base of the established Modified Fuzzy Pattern Classifier (MFPC) and allows designing novel classifier models which are hardware-efficiently implementable. The perfor......This paper presents a novel modular fuzzy pattern classifier design framework for intelligent automation systems, developed on the base of the established Modified Fuzzy Pattern Classifier (MFPC) and allows designing novel classifier models which are hardware-efficiently implementable...

  9. Inuit dietary patterns in modern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions.......The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions....

  10. Antenna with Dielectric Having Geometric Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Elliott, Holly A. (Inventor); Cravey, Robin L. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Ghose, Sayata (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Smith, Jr., Joseph G. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An antenna includes a ground plane, a dielectric disposed on the ground plane, and an electrically-conductive radiator disposed on the dielectric. The dielectric includes at least one layer of a first dielectric material and a second dielectric material that collectively define a dielectric geometric pattern, which may comprise a fractal geometry. The radiator defines a radiator geometric pattern, and the dielectric geometric pattern is geometrically identical, or substantially geometrically identical, to the radiator geometric pattern.

  11. Frameworks: Putting Design Patterns into Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2004-01-01

    Design patterns have made a strong impact on how object-oriented software is designed, implemented, and communicated in industrial projects. Teaching patterns is therefore of great importance. Patterns, however, have a natural catalogue-like nature, that easily misleads us into to lecturing them ...

  12. Teaching Design Patterns through Computer Game Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestwicki, Paul; Sun, Fu-Shing

    2008-01-01

    We present an approach for teaching design patterns that emphasizes object-orientation and patterns integration. The context of computer game development is used to engage and motivate students, and it is additionally rich with design patterns. A case study is presented based on "EEClone," an arcade-style computer game implemented in Java. Our…

  13. Demonstrations of Beats as Moving Interference Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T. S.; Dishman, L. G.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a ripple tank demonstration that displays interference patterns responsible for producing beats and provides photographs of computer simulations of various beat interference patterns. Includes programs for the computer simulation and equations of constructive interference paths in beat interference patterns. (Author/SK)

  14. Discursive Hierarchical Patterning in Economics Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to apply Lung's (2008) model of the discursive hierarchical patterning of cases to a closer and more specific study of Economics cases and proposes a model of the distinct discursive hierarchical patterning of the same. It examines a corpus of 150 Economics cases with a view to uncovering the patterns of discourse construction.…

  15. Detection and recognition of angular frequency patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hugh R; Propp, Roni

    2015-05-01

    Previous research has extensively explored visual encoding of smoothly curved, closed contours described by sinusoidal variation of pattern radius as a function of polar angle (RF patterns). Although the contours of many biologically significant objects are curved, we also confront shapes with a more jagged and angular appearance. To study these, we introduce here a novel class of visual stimuli that deform smoothly from a circle to an equilateral polygon with N sides (AF patterns). Threshold measurements reveal that both AF and RF patterns can be discriminated from circles at the same deformation amplitude, approximately 18.0arcsec, which is in the hyperacuity range. Thresholds were slightly higher for patterns with 3.0 cycles than for those with 5.0 cycles. Discrimination between AF and RF patterns was 75% correct at an amplitude that was approximately 3.0 times the threshold amplitude, which implies that AF and RF patterns activate different neural populations. Experiments with jittered patterns in which the contour was broken into several pieces and shifted inward or outward had much less effect on AF patterns than on RF patterns. Similarly, thresholds for single angles of AF patterns showed no significant difference from thresholds for the entire AF pattern. Taken together, these results imply that the visual system incorporates angles explicitly in the representation of closed object contours, but it suggests that angular contours are represented more locally than are curved contours.

  16. Incremental pattern matching for regular expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalali, Arash; Ghamarian, Amir Hossein; Rensink, Arend; Fish, Andrew; Lambers, Leen

    2012-01-01

    Graph pattern matching lies at the heart of any graph transformation-based system. Incremental pattern matching is one approach proposed for reducingthe overall cost of pattern matching over successive transformations by preserving the matches that stay relevant after a rule application. An importan

  17. Oblique patterned etching of vertical silicon sidewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Burckel, D.; Finnegan, Patrick S.; David Henry, M.; Resnick, Paul J.; Jarecki, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    A method for patterning on vertical silicon surfaces in high aspect ratio silicon topography is presented. A Faraday cage is used to direct energetic reactive ions obliquely through a patterned suspended membrane positioned over the topography. The technique is capable of forming high-fidelity pattern (100 nm) features, adding an additional fabrication capability to standard top-down fabrication approaches.

  18. Semantic description and recognition of patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立; 戴汝为

    1996-01-01

    An algebraic semantic approach for the description and recognition of patterns is presented.Specifically,patterns are assumed as algebraic structures,and semantic constraints are given in the form of equational specifications.By such an idea,to recogniz a pattern is to check the validity of an equational conjecture by term rewriting.Such an approach is demonstrated through examples.

  19. Modeling Architectural Patterns' Behavior Using Architectural Primitives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamal, Ahmad Waqas; Avgeriou, Paris; Morrison, R; Balasubramaniam, D; Falkner, K

    2008-01-01

    Architectural patterns have an impact on both the structure and the behavior of a system at the architecture design level. However, it is challenging to model patterns' behavior in a systematic way because modeling languages do not provide the appropriate abstractions and because each pattern

  20. Analyzing Sequential Patterns in Retail Databases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Unil Yun

    2007-01-01

    Finding correlated sequential patterns in large sequence databases is one of the essential tasks in data miningsince a huge number of sequential patterns are usually mined, but it is hard to find sequential patterns with the correlation.According to the requirement of real applications, the needed data analysis should be different. In previous mining approaches,after mining the sequential patterns, sequential patterns with the weak affinity are found even with a high minimum support.In this paper, a new framework is suggested for mining weighted support affinity patterns in which an objective measure,sequential ws-confidence is developed to detect correlated sequential patterns with weighted support affinity patterns. Toefficiently prune the weak affinity patterns, it is proved that ws-confidence measure satisfies the anti-monotone and crossweighted support properties which can be applied to eliminate sequential patterns with dissimilar weighted support levels.Based on the framework, a weighted support affinity pattern mining algorithm (WSMiner) is suggested. The performancestudy shows that WSMiner is efficient and scalable for mining weighted support affinity patterns.

  1. Teaching Design Patterns through Computer Game Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestwicki, Paul; Sun, Fu-Shing

    2008-01-01

    We present an approach for teaching design patterns that emphasizes object-orientation and patterns integration. The context of computer game development is used to engage and motivate students, and it is additionally rich with design patterns. A case study is presented based on "EEClone," an arcade-style computer game implemented in Java. Our…

  2. DPAL: Deductive Language for Embroidery Pattern Assembling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟波; 郭磊; 陈世福

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of DPA: a deductive language for embroidery pattern assembling. DPAL is similar to SQL and generates the embroidery pattern by matching the operators of space relation with the rule in rule database. It improves the production efficiency of embroidery drafts and increases the variety of colors and patterns.

  3. Parametric Transverse Patterns in Broad Aperture Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigorieva, E.V.; Kashchenko, S.A.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1998-01-01

    Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence...... on the geometrical size of the system is demonstrated even in the case of large-scale systems....

  4. Morphological patterns and their colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadam, James; Albertazzi, Liliana; Da Pos, Osvaldo; Canal, Luisa; Micciolo, Rocco

    2012-04-01

    This study analyzed qualitative aspects in perception, particularly the relationship between morphological aspects of biological shapes and colour. The experiment reported by the study assessed the functional relation between shape and colour and, in particular, the relations among the patterns of shapes appearing in perceptual configurations, as well as certain characteristics of colour. Participants were shown 32 natural images and were asked to match them with a colour. The results indicated that some figures were more frequently associated (positively or negatively) with some colours instead of others. Type of shape, texture, and three-dimensionality were important elements in the participants' choices. Rounded figures and non-holed figures had positive matches with red; elongated figures were associated with colours between blue and green; and holed figures showed positive matches with colours between green and yellow. Type of shape and texture also exhibited a relationship with the warmth of the colour.

  5. Quantitative patterns in drone wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Bernardo, Javier; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Johnson, Neil F.

    2016-02-01

    Attacks by drones (i.e., unmanned combat air vehicles) continue to generate heated political and ethical debates. Here we examine the quantitative nature of drone attacks, focusing on how their intensity and frequency compare with that of other forms of human conflict. Instead of the power-law distribution found recently for insurgent and terrorist attacks, the severity of attacks is more akin to lognormal and exponential distributions, suggesting that the dynamics underlying drone attacks lie beyond these other forms of human conflict. We find that the pattern in the timing of attacks is consistent with one side having almost complete control, an important if expected result. We show that these novel features can be reproduced and understood using a generative mathematical model in which resource allocation to the dominant side is regulated through a feedback loop.

  6. Eating pattern of vegetarian diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Couceiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This literature review examines several studies that evaluated the factors that influences the adoption of vegetarianism, as well as the eating pattern and recommendations of the vegetarian food guide. A search on databases such as Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA and Lilacs (Bireme, Brazil allowed us to find scientific studies published in Portuguese and/or English that had the following keywords: vegetarian, vegetarian diet and vegetarianism. Vegetarianism has been disseminated for centuries and many respected physicians, scientists and philosophers followed this practice based on different reasons. The increasing number of individuals that adopt the vegetarian diet impute to Health professionals, particularly nutritionists, the responsibility of knowing the principles of vegetarianism, in expectation of their proper management and adjustment of the vegetarian feeding behavior to the nutritional requirements of the individual.

  7. Can topology reshape segregation patterns?

    CERN Document Server

    Gandica, Yerali; Carletti, Timoteo

    2015-01-01

    We consider a metapopulation version of the Schelling model of segregation over several complex networks and lattice. We show that the segregation process is topology independent and hence it is intrinsic to the individual tolerance. The role of the topology is to fix the places where the segregation patterns emerge. In addition we address the question of the time evolution of the segregation clusters, resulting from different dynamical regimes of a coarsening process, as a function of the tolerance parameter. We show that the underlying topology may alter the early stage of the coarsening process, once large values of the tolerance are used, while for lower ones a different mechanism is at work and it results to be topology independent.

  8. Antibiotic resistance pattern in uropathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta V

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Uropathogenic strains from inpatient and outpatient departments were studied from April 1997 to March 1999 for their susceptibility profiles. The various isolates were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumanii and Enterococcus faecalis. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of these isolates revealed that for outpatients, first generation cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, norfloxacin/ciprofloxacin were effective for treatment of urinary tract infection but for inpatients, parenteral therapy with newer aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporins need to be advocated as the organisms for nosocomial UTI exhibit a high degree of drug resistance. Trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole combination was not found to be effective for the treatment of urinary tract infections as all the uropathogens from inpatients and outpatients showed high degree of resistance to co-trimoxazole. Culture and sensitivity of the isolates from urine samples should be done as a routine before advocating the therapy.

  9. Generation Y Online Buying Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katija Vojvodić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of electronic retailing can, among other things, result in uncontrolled buying by online consumers, i.e. in extreme buying behavior. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze and determine the buying patterns of Generation Y online consumers in order to explore the existence of different types of behavior based on the characteristics of online buying. The paper also aims at exploring the relationship between extracted factors and Generation Y consumers’ buying intentions. Empirical research was conducted on a sample of 515 consumers in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County. Based on the factor analysis, research results indicate that Generation Y online consumers are influenced by three factors: compulsivity, impulsivity, and functionality. The analysis of variance reveals that significant differences exist between the extracted factors and Generation Y’s online buying characteristics. In addition, correlation analysis shows a statistically significant correlation between the extracted factors and Generation Y’s buying intentions.

  10. Fuzzy automata and pattern matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzer, C. B.; Warsi, N. A.

    1986-01-01

    A wide-ranging search for articles and books concerned with fuzzy automata and syntactic pattern recognition is presented. A number of survey articles on image processing and feature detection were included. Hough's algorithm is presented to illustrate the way in which knowledge about an image can be used to interpret the details of the image. It was found that in hand generated pictures, the algorithm worked well on following the straight lines, but had great difficulty turning corners. An algorithm was developed which produces a minimal finite automaton recognizing a given finite set of strings. One difficulty of the construction is that, in some cases, this minimal automaton is not unique for a given set of strings and a given maximum length. This algorithm compares favorably with other inference algorithms. More importantly, the algorithm produces an automaton with a rigorously described relationship to the original set of strings that does not depend on the algorithm itself.

  11. Patterning of the turtle shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E; Cebra-Thomas, Judith; Gilbert, Scott F

    2017-08-01

    Interest in the origin and evolution of the turtle shell has resulted in a most unlikely clade becoming an important research group for investigating morphological diversity in developmental biology. Many turtles generate a two-component shell that nearly surrounds the body in a bony exoskeleton. The ectoderm covering the shell produces epidermal scutes that form a phylogenetically stable pattern. In some lineages, the bones of the shell and their ectodermal covering become reduced or lost, and this is generally associated with different ecological habits. The similarity and diversity of turtles allows research into how changes in development create evolutionary novelty, interacting modules, and adaptive physiology and anatomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Container with Pig Pattern Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Unearthed from Hemudu ruins of the New Stone Age in Yuyao, Zhejiang Province in 1977, this rectangular-mouthed container belongs to the Hemudu culture. It is carved with a pig pattern on both sides in realist style. A complete piece, the container has a flat bottom and slightly sloped belly, with a mouth 21.7 cm long and 17.5 cm wide. Most of the artifacts from Hemudu culture are charcoal black pottery. The stem and leaves of the pottery can be seen clearly. The walls of the artifacts are usually thick but porous. The carving lines are rough and the designs are simple and natural, reflecting the ancient people’s love of nature and life. The pig’s four strong feet and backward bristles carved on the container are vivid, with ears sticking out and mouth

  13. Patterning of Perovskite Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Corzo, Daniel

    2017-06-12

    As the internet-of-things hardware integration continues to develop and the requirements for electronics keep diversifying and expanding, the necessity for specialized properties other than the classical semiconductor performance becomes apparent. The success of emerging semiconductor materials depends on the manufacturability and cost as much as on the properties and performance they offer. Solution-based semiconductors are an emerging concept that offers the advantage of being compatible with large-scale manufacturing techniques and have the potential to yield high-quality electronic devices at a lower cost than currently available solutions. In this work, patterns of high-quality MAPbBr3 perovskite single crystals in specific locations are achieved through the modification of the substrate properties and solvent engineering. The fabrication of the substrates involved modifying the surface adhesion forces through functionalization with self-assembled monolayers and patterning them by photolithography processes. Spin coating and blade coating were used to deposit the perovskite solution on the modified silicon substrates. While single crystal perovskites were obtained with the modification of substrates alone, solvent engineering helped with improving the Marangoni flows in the deposited droplets by increasing the contact angle and lowering the evaporation rate, therefore controlling and improving the shape of the grown perovskite crystals. The methodology is extended to other types of perovskites such as the transparent MAPbCl3 and the lead-free MABi2I9, demonstrating the adaptability of the process. Adapting the process to electrode arrays opened up the path towards the fabrication of optoelectronic devices including photodetectors and field-effect transistors, for which the first iterations are demonstrated. Overall, manufacturing and integration techniques permitting the fabrication of single crystalline devices, such as the method in this thesis work, are

  14. Enhanced double patterning decomposition using lines encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M. Soradi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Double patterning photolithography (DPL is considered one of the best solutions used for enabling 32 nm/22 nm technology. In this paper, we propose a new technique for double patterning post decomposition conflict resolution. The algorithm is based on lines positions encoding followed by code pattern matching. Experimental results show that the usage of encoded patterns decreases the time needed for pattern matching and increases the matching accuracy. The overall manual problem solution time is reduced to about 1%.

  15. Discovering Patterns in Mathematics and Poetry

    CERN Document Server

    Birken, Marcia

    2008-01-01

    You are invited to join a fascinating journey of discovery, as Marcia Birken and Anne C. Coon explore the intersecting patterns of mathematics and poetry — bringing the two fields together in a new way.Setting the tone with humor and illustrating each chapter with countless examples, Birken and Coon begin with patterns we can see, hear, and feel and then move to more complex patterns. Number systems and nursery rhymes lead to the Golden Mean and sestinas. Simple patterns of shape introduce tessellations and concrete poetry. Fractal geometry makes fractal poetry possible. Ultimately, patterns f

  16. General aviation air traffic pattern safety analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    A concept is described for evaluating the general aviation mid-air collision hazard in uncontrolled terminal airspace. Three-dimensional traffic pattern measurements were conducted at uncontrolled and controlled airports. Computer programs for data reduction, storage retrieval and statistical analysis have been developed. Initial general aviation air traffic pattern characteristics are presented. These preliminary results indicate that patterns are highly divergent from the expected standard pattern, and that pattern procedures observed can affect the ability of pilots to see and avoid each other.

  17. Pattern Specialization Based on Partial Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Design pattern enables software architecture generality and reusability, but which depresses the high performance. The pattern specialization was built on partial evaluation technology to reduce the overheads of design pattern. The design patterns were classified to extract the common features, and the corresponding pattern specializations were constructed. In the pattern specialization, the optimization opportunities were identified, and the specialization methods and conditions were described. The syntax of binding time analysis was defined, and the semantic depicted the invariant of usage context. The virtual invocation and dispatch were eliminated, which enhances the running efficiency. This pattern specialization is a high-level specialization for improving the performance of software aimed at design level that is orthogonal with the low-level code optimization.

  18. INERTIA SETS OF SYMMETRIC SIGN PATTERN MATRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A sign pattern matrix is a matrixwhose entries are from the set {+ ,- ,0}. The symmetric sign pattern matrices that require unique inertia have recently been characterized. The purpose of this paper is to more generally investigate the inertia sets of symmetric sign pattern matrices. In particular, nonnegative fri-diagonal sign patterns and the square sign pattern with all + entries are examined. An algorithm is given for generating nonnegative real symmetric Toeplitz matrices with zero diagonal of orders n≥3 which have exactly two negative eigenvalues. The inertia set of the square pattern with all + off-diagonal entries and zero diagonal entries is then analyzed. The types of inertias which can be in the inertia set of any sign pattern are also obtained in the paper. Specifically, certain compatibility and consecutiveness properties are established.

  19. Finding Sequential Patterns from Large Sequence Data

    CERN Document Server

    Esmaeili, Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    Data mining is the task of discovering interesting patterns from large amounts of data. There are many data mining tasks, such as classification, clustering, association rule mining, and sequential pattern mining. Sequential pattern mining finds sets of data items that occur together frequently in some sequences. Sequential pattern mining, which extracts frequent subsequences from a sequence database, has attracted a great deal of interest during the recent data mining research because it is the basis of many applications, such as: web user analysis, stock trend prediction, DNA sequence analysis, finding language or linguistic patterns from natural language texts, and using the history of symptoms to predict certain kind of disease. The diversity of the applications may not be possible to apply a single sequential pattern model to all these problems. Each application may require a unique model and solution. A number of research projects were established in recent years to develop meaningful sequential pattern...

  20. A Formal Basis for Safety Case Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    By capturing common structures of successful arguments, safety case patterns provide an approach for reusing strategies for reasoning about safety. In the current state of the practice, patterns exist as descriptive specifications with informal semantics, which not only offer little opportunity for more sophisticated usage such as automated instantiation, composition and manipulation, but also impede standardization efforts and tool interoperability. To address these concerns, this paper gives (i) a formal definition for safety case patterns, clarifying both restrictions on the usage of multiplicity and well-founded recursion in structural abstraction, (ii) formal semantics to patterns, and (iii) a generic data model and algorithm for pattern instantiation. We illustrate our contributions by application to a new pattern, the requirements breakdown pattern, which builds upon our previous work

  1. Mechanically patterning the embryonic airway epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D.; Gleghorn, Jason P.; Miller, Erin; Radisky, Derek C.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2015-01-01

    Collections of cells must be patterned spatially during embryonic development to generate the intricate architectures of mature tissues. In several cases, including the formation of the branched airways of the lung, reciprocal signaling between an epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme helps generate these spatial patterns. Several molecular signals are thought to interact via reaction-diffusion kinetics to create distinct biochemical patterns, which act as molecular precursors to actual, physical patterns of biological structure and function. Here, however, we show that purely physical mechanisms can drive spatial patterning within embryonic epithelia. Specifically, we find that a growth-induced physical instability defines the relative locations of branches within the developing murine airway epithelium in the absence of mesenchyme. The dominant wavelength of this instability determines the branching pattern and is controlled by epithelial growth rates. These data suggest that physical mechanisms can create the biological patterns that underlie tissue morphogenesis in the embryo. PMID:26170292

  2. The use of pattern participants relationships for integrating patterns : a controlled experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamal, Ahmad Waqas; Avgeriou, Paris; Zdun, Uwe

    Architectural patterns are often applied in combination with related patterns within software architectures. The relationships among architectural patterns must be considered when applying a combination of patterns into a system; for example the way the Model-View-Controller uses the Observer

  3. The use of pattern participants relationships for integrating patterns : a controlled experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamal, Ahmad Waqas; Avgeriou, Paris; Zdun, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Architectural patterns are often applied in combination with related patterns within software architectures. The relationships among architectural patterns must be considered when applying a combination of patterns into a system; for example the way the Model-View-Controller uses the Observer patter

  4. Pattern activation/recognition theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Castel, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a "Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind" that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call "Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind." While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation.

  5. Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand edu Castel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind. While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation.

  6. Sequential Pattern Mining Using Formal Language Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Jadon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In present scenario almost every system and working is computerized and hence all information and data are being stored in Computers. Huge collections of data are emerging. Retrieval of untouched, hidden and important information from this huge data is quite tedious work. Data Mining is a great technological solution which extracts untouched, hidden and important information from vast databases to investigate noteworthy knowledge in the data warehouse. An important problem in data mining is to discover patterns in various fields like medical science, world wide web, telecommunication etc. In the field of Data Mining, Sequential pattern mining is one of the method in which we retrieve hidden pattern linked with instant or other sequences. In sequential pattern mining we extract those sequential patterns whose support count are greater than or equal to given minimum support threshold value. In current scenario users are interested in only specific and interesting pattern instead of entire probable sequential pattern. To control the exploration space users can use many heuristics which can be represented as constraints. Many algorithms have been developed in the fields of constraint mining which generate patterns as per user expectation. In the present work we will be exploring and enhancing the regular expression constraints .Regular expression is one of the constraint and number of algorithm developed for sequential pattern mining which uses regular expression as a constraint. Some constraints are neither regular nor context free like cross-serial pattern anbmcndm used in Swiss German Data. We cannot construct equivalent deterministic finite automata (DFA or Push down automata (PDA for such type of patterns. We have proposed a new algorithm PMFLT (Pattern Mining using Formal Language Tools for sequential pattern mining using formal language tools as constraints. The proposed algorithm finds only user specific frequent sequence in efficient

  7. Suction patterns in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, M; Martínez, G; González, M; Díaz Rosselló, J L

    1993-01-01

    The suction pattern for breast and bottle feeding in two groups of preterm infants is described. The time elapsed between birth and the moment of suction was longer in preterm neonates born at lower gestational ages for both groups studied, breast and bottle fed (figure 1). The evolution of suckling in breastfeeding was analyzed in a composite study (longitudinal and transverse) in a group of 16 neonates starting from 32 weeks of gestation. The velocity of milk extraction during suckling varied with gestational age. It was uniform at lower gestational ages, then it became faster in the first minutes and at the 36th week, it was very similar to that of mature neonates (figure 2 and table I). The evaluation of bottle feeding was performed in a transverse study in 46 preterm neonates which had been exclusively bottle fed during 1 or 2 weeks. All of them had previously been fed using an orogastric tube. Nourishing time was shorter than in breastfeeding; the average duration was 3.7 minutes (table II). The greatest volume was ingested in the first minute, 40% (range between 44 and 25%) (figure 3). The frequency of suction did not change the duration of feeding, but it was found that the efficiency of suction (number of suctions to ingest 1 cc) was significantly lower in the first minute (Anova, p < 0.05) (figure 4).

  8. Last news on zebra pattern

    CERN Document Server

    Chernov, Gennady

    2015-01-01

    The publications of the last three years concerning to studying of the most intriguing fine structure in type IV solar radio bursts - zebra pattern (ZP), are surveyed. The main attention is paid to new observations, irrespective of whether a paper does include detailed interpretation of an event or simply reports about the beginning of operation of a new tool. The radiation mechanism of the ZP on a double plasma resonance (DPR) remains the most widespread and standard, though ten alternative mechanisms were offered. However, in a number of works difficulties with the explanation of a complex zebra are noted, especially in a combination with fiber bursts and spikes. Therefore, several papers in which the radiation mechanism of a zebra on the DPR is improved, are considered in more detail. Without positional observations we have a great opportunity to follow the dynamics of flare processes using SDO / AIA images in several EUV lines. In the discussion, the debatable questions with the comparison of mechanism on...

  9. Cell patterning with mucin biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzier, T.; Jang, H.; Ahn, J.; Stocker, R.; Ribbeck, K.

    2014-01-01

    The precise spatial control of cell adhesion to surfaces is an endeavor that has enabled discoveries in cell biology and new possibilities in tissue engineering. The generation of cell-repellent surfaces currently requires advanced chemistry techniques and could be simplified. Here we show that mucins, glycoproteins of high structural and chemical complexity, spontaneously adsorb on hydrophobic substrates to form coatings that prevent the surface adhesion of mammalian epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and myoblasts. These mucin coatings can be patterned with micrometer precision using a microfluidic device, and are stable enough to support myoblast differentiation over seven days. Moreover, our data indicate that the cell-repellent effect is dependent on mucin-associated glycans because their removal results in a loss of effective cell-repulsion. Last, we show that a critical surface density of mucins, which is required to achieve cell-repulsion, is efficiently obtained on hydrophobic surfaces, but not on hydrophilic glass surfaces. However, this limitation can be overcome by coating glass with hydrophobic fluorosilane. We conclude that mucin biopolymers are attractive candidates to control cell adhesion on surfaces. PMID:23980712

  10. Vasculitis: determinants of disease patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Gary S; Calabrese, Leonard H

    2014-08-01

    The vasculitides are a large group of heterogeneous diseases for which it has been assumed that pathogenesis is largely autoimmune. As clinicians, we distinguish one form of vasculitis from another on the basis of observed patterns of organ injury, the size of the vessels affected and histopathological findings. The terms 'small-vessel', 'medium-vessel' and 'large-vessel' vasculitis are useful clinical descriptors, but fail to inform us about why vessels of a certain calibre are favoured by one disease and not another. Classification based on vessel size also fails to consider that vessels of a specific calibre are not equally prone to injury. Distinct vulnerabilities undoubtedly relate to the fact that same-size vessels in different tissues may not be identical conduits. In fact, vessels become specialized, from the earliest stages of embryonic development, to suit the needs of different anatomical locations. Vessels of the same calibre in different locations and organs are as different as the organ parenchymal cells through which they travel. The dialogue between developing vessels and the tissues they perfuse is designed to meet special local needs. Added to the story of vascular diversity and vulnerability are changes that occur during growth, development and ageing. An improved understanding of the unique territorial vulnerabilities of vessels could form the basis of new hypotheses for the aetiopathogenesis of the vasculitides. This Review considers how certain antigens, including infectious agents, might become disease-relevant and how vascular diversity could influence disease phenotypes and the spectrum of vascular inflammatory diseases.

  11. Pattern Formation in Driven Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymko, Katherine

    Model colloidal particles of two types, driven in opposite directions, will in two dimensions segregate into lanes, a phenomenon studied extensively by Lowen and co-workers [Dzubiella et al. Phys. Rev. E 65, 021402 (2002)]. We have simulated mixtures of oppositely-driven particles using three numerical protocols. We find that laning results from enhanced diffusion, in the direction perpendicular to the drive, of particles surrounded by particles of the opposite type, consistent with the observation of Vissers et al. [Soft Matter 7, 6, 2352 (2011)]. By comparing protocols we find that enhanced diffusion follows from a simple geometrical constraint: oppositely-driven particles must, in the time taken to encounter each other in the direction of the drive, diffuse in the perpendicular direction by about one particle diameter. This constraint implies that the effective lateral diffusion constant grows linearly with drive speed and as the square root of the packing fraction, a prediction supported by our numerics. By invoking an analogy between hard particles with environment-dependent mobilities and mutually attractive particles we argue that there exists an equilibrium system whose pattern-forming properties are similar to those of the driven system. Katherine Klymko acknowledges support from the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship.

  12. Longitudinal patterning of twisted light

    CERN Document Server

    Dorrah, Ahmed H; Mojahedi, Mo

    2016-01-01

    Light beams with azimuthal phase dependence [$exp(i \\ell\\phi)$] carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) which differs fundamentally from spin angular momentum (SAM) associated with polarization. Striking difference between the two momenta is manifested in the allowable values: where SAM is limited to $\\hbar k_0$ per photon, the OAM has unbounded value of $\\ell\\hbar$ per photon ($\\ell$ is integer), thus dramatically exceeding the value of SAM \\cite{Ref1,Ref2, Ref3}. OAM has thus been utilized in optical trapping \\cite{Ref4}, imaging\\cite{Ref2}, and material processing \\cite{Ref5}. Furthermore, the unbounded degrees-of-freedom in OAM states have been deployed in data communications \\cite{Ref6}. Here, we report an \\textit{exceptional} behavior for a class of light beams---known as Frozen Waves (FWs)---whose intensity and azimuthal phase profiles can be controlled along the propagation direction, at will. Accordingly, we generate rotating light patterns that can change their sense of rotation and order of phase twis...

  13. Global patterns of drought recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Anderegg, William; Michalak, A. M.; Fisher, J.B.; Biondi, Franco; Koch, George; Litvak, Marcy; Ogle, Kiona; Shaw, John D.; Wolf, Adam; Huntzinger, Deborah; Schaefer, Kevin; Cook, R. B.; Wei, Yaxing; Fang, Yuanyuan; Hayes, Daniel J.; Huang, Maoyi; Jain, Atul K.; Tian, Hanqin

    2017-08-09

    Drought is a recurring multi-factor phenomenon with major impacts on natural and human systems1-3. Drought is especially important for land carbon sink variability, influencing climate regulation of the terrestrial biosphere4. While 20th Century trends in drought regime are ambiguous, “more extreme extremes” as well as more frequent and severe droughts3,7 are expected in the 21st Century. Recovery time, the length of time an ecosystem requires to revert to its pre-drought functional state, is a critical metric of drought impact. Yet the spatiotemporal patterning and controls of drought recovery are largely unknown. Here we use three distinct global datasets of gross primary productivity to show that across diverse terrestrial ecosystems drought recovery times are driven by biological productivity and biodiversity, with drought length and severity of secondary importance. Recovery time, especially for extreme droughts, and the areal extent of ecosystems in recovery from drought generally increase over the 20th Century, supporting an increase globally in drought impact8. Our results indicate that if future Anthropocene droughts become more widespread as expected, that droughts will become more frequent relative to recovery time. This increases the risk of entering a new regime where vegetation never recovers to its original state and widespread degradation of the land carbon sink ensues.

  14. The Informational Patterns of Laughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro C. Marijuán

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Laughter is one of the most characteristic -and enigmatic- communicational traits of human individuals. Its analysis has to take into account a variety of emotional, social, cognitive, and communicational factors densely interconnected. In this article we study laughter just as an auditive signal (as a 'neutral' information carrier, and we compare its structure with the regular traits of linguistic signals. In the experimental records of human laughter that we have performed, the most noticeable trait is the disorder content of frequencies. In comparison with the sonograms of vowels, the information content of which appears as a characteristic, regular function of the first vibration modes of the dynamic system formed, for each vowel, by the vocal cords and the accompanying resonance of the vocalization apparatus, the sonograms of laughter are highly irregular. In the episodes of laughter, a highly random content in frequencies appears, reason why it cannot be considered as a genuine codification of patterned information like in linguistic signals. In order to numerically gauge the disorder content of laughter frequencies, we have performed several "entropy" measures of the spectra -trying to unambiguously identify spontaneous laughter from "faked", articulated laughter. Interestingly, Shannon's entropy (the most natural candidate performs rather poorly.

  15. Explicit pattern matching assignment algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levedahl, Mark

    2002-08-01

    Sharing data between two tracking systems frequently involves use of an object map: the transmitting system sends a frame of data with multiple observations, and the receiving system uses an assignment algorithm to correlate the information with its local observation data base. The usual prescription for this problem is an optimal assignment algorithm (such as JVC or auction) using a cost matrix based upon chi-squared distances between the local and remote observation data. The optimal assignment algorithm does not actually perform pattern matching, so this approach is not robust to large registration errors between the two systems when there exist differences in the number of observations held by both systems. Performance of a new assignment algorithm that uses a cost function including terms for both registration errors and track to track random errors is presented: the cost function explicitly includes a bias between the two observation sets and thus provides a maximum likelihood solution to the assignment problem. In practice, this assignment approach provides near perfect assignment accuracy in cases where the bias errors exceed the dimension of the transmitted object map and there exist mismatches in the numbers of observations made by the two systems. This performance extends to many cases where the optimal assignment algorithm methodology produces errors nearly 100% of the time. The paper includes the theoretical foundation of the assignment problem solved and comparison of achieved accuracy with existing optimal assignment approaches.

  16. Anisotropic assembly and pattern formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Brecht, James H.; Uminsky, David T.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the role of anisotropy in two classes of individual-based models for self-organization, collective behavior and self-assembly. We accomplish this via first-order dynamical systems of pairwise interacting particles that incorporate anisotropic interactions. At a continuum level, these models represent the natural anisotropic variants of the well-known aggregation equation. We leverage this framework to analyze the impact of anisotropic effects upon the self-assembly of co-dimension one equilibrium structures, such as micelles and vesicles. Our analytical results reveal the regularizing effect of anisotropy, and isolate the contexts in which anisotropic effects are necessary to achieve dynamical stability of co-dimension one structures. Our results therefore place theoretical limits on when anisotropic effects can be safely neglected. We also explore whether anisotropic effects suffice to induce pattern formation in such particle systems. We conclude with brief numerical studies that highlight various aspects of the models we introduce, elucidate their phase structure and partially validate the analysis we provide.

  17. Minimal perceptrons for memorizing complex patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Marissa; Song, Juyong; Hoang, Danh-Tai; Jo, Junghyo

    2016-11-01

    Feedforward neural networks have been investigated to understand learning and memory, as well as applied to numerous practical problems in pattern classification. It is a rule of thumb that more complex tasks require larger networks. However, the design of optimal network architectures for specific tasks is still an unsolved fundamental problem. In this study, we consider three-layered neural networks for memorizing binary patterns. We developed a new complexity measure of binary patterns, and estimated the minimal network size for memorizing them as a function of their complexity. We formulated the minimal network size for regular, random, and complex patterns. In particular, the minimal size for complex patterns, which are neither ordered nor disordered, was predicted by measuring their Hamming distances from known ordered patterns. Our predictions agree with simulations based on the back-propagation algorithm.

  18. Excitation and Characterization of Chladni Plate Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Shannon; Behringer, Ernest

    2011-04-01

    When a thin metal plate with a small amount of sand on it is made to vibrate, aesthetically pleasing sand patterns can form along the nodal lines of the plate. These symmetric patterns are called Chladni Patterns. Students taking PHY 101 Physical Science in the Arts at Eastern Michigan University create these patterns by pulling a violin bow across the edge of a plate, or by using a mechanical oscillator to drive the center of a plate. These two methods only allow a small subset of all possible points on the plate to be excited. We designed and built an electronic device that allows its user to excite the plate at any point. We present patterns created with this electronic device and other methods, and describe ways to model the observed patterns.

  19. The patterns speeds of NGC 6946

    CERN Document Server

    Toonen, Silvia; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Beckman, John; de Zeeuw, Tim

    2007-01-01

    We study the kinematics of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 6946 by investigating the velocity field from H-alpha Fabry-Perot observations, determined the pattern speed of the bar by using the Tremaine-Weinberg method, and find a main pattern speed of 21.7 (+4.0,-0.8) km/s/kpc. Our data clearly suggest the presence of an additional pattern with a pattern speed more than twice that of the large pattern in this galaxy. We use the epicycle approximation to deduce the location of the resonance radii and subsequently determine the pattern speed between the radii, and find that inside the Inner Inner Lindblad Resonance radius, a bar-like system has evolved.

  20. The Pattern Speeds of NGC 6946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, S.; Fathi, K.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Beckman, J. E.; de Zeeuw, P. T.

    2008-06-01

    We study the kinematics of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 6946 by investigating the velocity field from Hα Fabry-Perot observations, determine the pattern speed of the bar by using the Tremaine-Weinberg method, and find a main pattern speed of 21.7+4.0-0.8 km-1 s-1 kpc-1. Our data clearly suggest the presence of an additional pattern with a pattern speed more than twice that of the large pattern in this galaxy. We use the epicycle approximation to deduce the location of the resonance radii and subsequently determine the pattern speed between the radii, and find that inside the inner inner Lindblad resonance radius a bar-like system has evolved.

  1. Formalization of Learning Patterns Through SNKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr Rajesh D

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Learning patterns found among the learners community is steadily progressing towards the digitalized world. The learning patterns arise from acquiring and sharing knowledge. More impact is found on the usage of knowledge sharing tools such as facebook, linkedin, weblogs, etc that are dominating the traditional means of learning. Since the knowledge patterns acquired through web unstructured data is insecure, it leads to poor decision making or decision making without a root cause. These acquired patterns are also shared to others which indirectly affect the trust patterns between users. In this paper, In order to streamline the knowledge acquisition patterns and their sharing means a new framework is defined as Social Networking based Knowledge Acquisition (SNKA to formalize the observed data and the Dynamic Itemset Count (DIC algorithm is tried for predicting the users about the usage of web content before and after the knowledge is acquired. Finally the rough idea in building a tool is also suggested.

  2. Mining usage patterns for the Android API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson S. Borges

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available API methods are not used alone, but in groups and following patterns. However, despite being a key information for API users, most usage patterns are not described in official API documents. In this article, we report a study that evaluates the feasibility of automatically enriching API documents with information on usage patterns. For this purpose, we mine and analyze 1,952 usage patterns, from a set of 396 Android applications. As part of our findings, we report that the Android API has many undocumented and non-trivial usage patterns, which can be inferred using association rule mining algorithms. We also describe a field study where a version of the original Android documentation is instrumented with the extracted usage patterns. During 17 months, this documentation received 77,863 visits from professional Android developers.

  3. Statically checked documentation with design patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornils, Aino; Hedin, Görel

    2000-01-01

    Over the past years, along with the increase in popularity of design patterns, some problems with the use of design patterns have been identified. The so-called tracing problem describes the difficulty in documenting software systems using design patterns. Initial approaches to solving the tracing...... problem have focused on guidelines for documenting design pattern roles and rules within a system, but experience has shown that both in the initial design, and especially in later code revisions, it is all too easy for code and documentation to diverge, rendering the documentation misleading. The authors...... present a flexible and extensible tool which enables designers to use design patterns in a safe and efficient way, which checks the design pattern rules, and which semi-automatically documents, and maintains the documentation of a software system...

  4. Advanced precision expendable pattern casting technology. 1994 Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Casting technology is described. The following areas are reported on: precision pattern production; pattern coating; sand fill and compaction; pattern gating; mechanical properties; and technology transfer efforts.

  5. A Survey on Design Pattern Recovery Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Rasool; Detlef Streitfdert

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of design pattern recovery techniques and tools is significant as numbers of emergent techniques are presented and used in the past to recover patterns from source code of legacy applications. The problem of very diverse precision and recall values extracted by different pattern recovery techniques and tools on the same examined applications is not investigated thoroughly. It is very desirable to compare features of existing techniques as abundance of techniques supplemented wi...

  6. MEMBRAIN NEURAL NETWORK FOR VISUAL PATTERN RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Popko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of visual patterns is one of significant applications of Artificial Neural Networks, which partially emulate human thinking in the domain of artificial intelligence. In the paper, a simplified neural approach to recognition of visual patterns is portrayed and discussed. This paper is dedicated for investigators in visual patterns recognition, Artificial Neural Networking and related disciplines. The document describes also MemBrain application environment as a powerful and easy to use neural networks’ editor and simulator supporting ANN.

  7. Surface Patterning and Nanowire Biosensor Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the preparation and characterization of three systems where surfaces of solid matter are interfaced with organic and biomolecular components, with the aim of creating (I) Patterned surfaces and (II) Functional nanowire sensor platforms for bionanotechnological applications...... assembled monolayer on gold, a technique useful for creating diverse monolayer patterns in a direct-write fashion. Addition of a second alkanethiol forms a topologically ultra flat but chemically patterned surface, which by inspection with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed...

  8. Weather pattern climatology of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchet, W.R.; Davis, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    In this study the geographic domain covered the 48 conterminous states of the United States. The daily synoptic weather pattern was classified into nine types for the 10-year period January 1, 1969 to December 31, 1978. Weather pattern types were defined relative to the classical polar front model of a mid-latitude cyclonic storm system and its associated air masses. Guidelines for classifying weather patterns on an operational basis were developed. These were applied to 3652 daily surface weather maps to produce a time series of weather pattern type at 120 grid points of a 160 point, 3/sup 0/ latitude by 4/sup 0/ longitude array over the United States. Statistics on the frequency of occurrence, persistence and alternation of weather patterns were calculated for each grid point. Summary statistics for the entire grid and for six regions were also presented. Frequency of occurrence and persistence were found to depend on the size and speed of movement of the weather pattern. Large, slow moving air masses had higher frequency of occurrence and longer persistence than small (fronts) or rapidly moving (or changing) features (fronts, storm centers). Some types showed distinct regional preferences. The subtropical maritime high occurred mainly in the south central and southeast. An indeterminate weather pattern type accounted for those weather patterns that did not fit the polar front model or were too disorganized to be classified. The intermountain thermal low of the desert southwest was one such feature that dominated both frequency of occurrence and persistence in this region. Alternation from one weather pattern to another followed the polar front model of a moving cyclonic storm. The tendency for anticyclonic weather patterns to become disorganized as they weakened was seen in the high percentage of these patterns that changed to an indeterminate pattern as they aged.

  9. Automatic Fringe Detection Of Dynamic Moire Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jing; Su, Xian-ji; Shi, Hong-ming

    1989-10-01

    Fringe-carrier method is used in automatic fringe-order numbering of dynamic in-plane moire patterns. In experiment both static carrier and dynamic moire patterns are recorded. The image files corresponding to instants are set up to assign fringe orders automatically. Subtracting the carrier image from the modulated ones, the moire patterns due to the dynamic deformations are restored with fringe-order variation displayed by different grey levels.

  10. Respond to “Dietary Pattern Analysis”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Dahm, Christina C.; Dethlefsen, Claus;

    2011-01-01

    We thank Imamura and Jacques (1) for their insightful commentary on our article (2), in which they go beyond the treelet transform (TT) to critically discuss the relevance of sparsity in dietary pattern analysis. ... (1) Imamura F, Jacques PF. Invited commentary: dietary pattern analysis. Am J...... Epidemiol 2011;173(0):000-000. (2) Gorst-Rasmussen A, Dahm CC, Dethlefsen C, et al. Exploring dietary patterns by using the treelet transform. Am J Epidemiol 2011;173(0):000-000....

  11. Mining Sequential Patterns In Multidimensional Data

    OpenAIRE

    Plantevit, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Sequential pattern mining is a key technique of data mining with broad applications (user behavior analysis, bioinformatic, security, music, etc.). Sequential pattern mining aims at discovering correlations among events through time. There exist many algorithms to discover such patterns. However, these approaches only take one dimension into account (e.g. product dimension in customer market basket problem analysis) whereas data are multidimensional in nature. In this thesis, we define multid...

  12. Environmental Problems and Reform of Consumption Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With the continuous improvement of population and people's living standard,traditional consumption pattern at the cost of great consumption of resources and energy brought more serious damages to environment and development,and became the core of constant deterioration of environmental problems in present world.Therefore,the reform from current traditional consumption pattern to environment-friendly consumption pattern beneficial to sustainable development has become the important theoretical and practical ...

  13. Pattern Based Term Extraction Using ACABIT System

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Koichi; Koyama, Teruo; Daille, Béatrice; Romary, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pattern-based term extraction approach for Japanese, applying ACABIT system originally developed for French. The proposed approach evaluates termhood using morphological patterns of basic terms and term variants. After extracting term candidates, ACABIT system filters out non-terms from the candidates based on log-likelihood. This approach is suitable for Japanese term extraction because most of Japanese terms are compound nouns or simple phrasal patterns.

  14. Generating Weighted Test Patterns for VLSI Chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siavoshi, Fardad

    1990-01-01

    Improved built-in self-testing circuitry for very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) digital circuits based on version of weighted-test-pattern-generation concept, in which ones and zeros in pseudorandom test patterns occur with probabilities weighted to enhance detection of certain kinds of faults. Requires fewer test patterns and less computation time and occupies less area on circuit chips. Easy to relate switching activity in outputs with fault-detection activity by use of probabilistic fault-detection techniques.

  15. Colonic urticaria pattern due to early ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, H.M.; Goldberg, H.I.; Axel, L.

    1981-05-15

    The unusual radiographic pattern of bleb-like mounds on the surface of the colon mucosa, previously described as colonic urticaria, was seen in 3 patients in whom no allergic state was present. This urticaria-like pattern was due to colonic distention in all 3, and represented only submucosal edema on the gross and microscopic specimens. We hypothesize that this pattern is due to early changes of ischemia caused by colon distention.

  16. A novel method to obtain electronic speckle pattern interferometry fringe patterns with high contrast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengwei Li; Chen Tang; Gao Wang; Hongwei Ren; Ke Tang; Tianyu Ye

    2009-01-01

    Traditional speckle fringe patterns of electronic speckle pattern interferometry(ESPI)are obtained by adding,subtracting,or multiplying the speckle patterns recorded before and after the deformation.However,these speckle fringe patterns are of limited visibility,especially for addition and multiplication fringe patterns.We propose a novel method to obtain speckle fringe patterns of ESPI from undeformed and deformed speckle patterns.The fringe pattern generated by our method is of high contrast and has better quality than subtraction fringe.The new method is simple and does not require more computational effort.The proposed method is tested on the experimentally obtained undeformed and deformed speckle patterns.The experimental results illustrate the performance of this approach.

  17. Prescribing patterns in premenstrual syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Paul W

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 300 therapies have been proposed for premenstrual syndrome. To date there has been only one survey conducted in the UK of PMS treatments prescribed by GPs, a questionnaire-based study by the National Association of Premenstrual Syndrome in 1989. Since then, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors have been licensed for severe PMS/PMDD, and governmental recommendations to reduce the dosage of vitamin B6 (the first choice over-the-counter treatment for many women with PMS have been made. This study investigates the annual rates of diagnoses and prescribing patterns for premenstrual syndrome (1993–1998 within a computerised general practitioner database. Methods Retrospective survey of prescribing data for premenstrual syndrome between 1993–1998 using the General Practice Research Database for the West Midlands Region which contains information on 282,600 female patients Results Overall the proportion of women with a prescription-linked diagnosis of premenstrual syndrome has halved over the five years. Progestogens including progesterone were the most commonly recorded treatment for premenstrual syndrome during the whole study period accounting for over 40% of all prescriptions. Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors accounted for only 2% of the prescriptions in 1993 but rose to over 16% by 1998, becoming the second most commonly recorded treatment. Vitamin B6 accounted for 22% of the prescriptions in 1993 but dropped markedly between 1997 and 1998 to 11%. Conclusions This study shows a yearly decrease in the number of prescriptions linked to diagnoses for premenstrual syndrome. Progestogens including progesterone, is the most widely prescribed treatment for premenstrual syndrome despite the lack of evidence demonstrating their efficacy.

  18. Associative Pattern Recognition In Analog VLSI Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1995-01-01

    Winner-take-all circuit selects best-match stored pattern. Prototype cascadable very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit chips built and tested to demonstrate concept of electronic associative pattern recognition. Based on low-power, sub-threshold analog complementary oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) VLSI circuitry, each chip can store 128 sets (vectors) of 16 analog values (vector components), vectors representing known patterns as diverse as spectra, histograms, graphs, or brightnesses of pixels in images. Chips exploit parallel nature of vector quantization architecture to implement highly parallel processing in relatively simple computational cells. Through collective action, cells classify input pattern in fraction of microsecond while consuming power of few microwatts.

  19. Word recognition using ideal word patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sheila X.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1994-03-01

    The word shape analysis approach to text recognition is motivated by discoveries in psychological studies of the human reading process. It attempts to describe and compare the shape of the word as a whole object without trying to segment and recognize the individual characters, so it bypasses the errors committed in character segmentation and classification. However, the large number of classes and large variation and distortion expected in all patterns belonging to the same class make it difficult for conventional, accurate, pattern recognition approaches. A word shape analysis approach using ideal word patterns to overcome the difficulty and improve recognition performance is described in this paper. A special word pattern which characterizes a word class is extracted from different sample patterns of the word class and stored in memory. Recognition of a new word pattern is achieved by comparing it with the special pattern of each word class called ideal word pattern. The process of generating the ideal word pattern of each word class is proposed. The algorithm was tested on a set of machine printed gray scale word images which included a wide range of print types and qualities.

  20. A standardisation proof for algebraic pattern calculi

    CERN Document Server

    Kesner, Delia; Ríos, Alejandro; 10.4204/EPTCS.49.5

    2011-01-01

    This work gives some insights and results on standardisation for call-by-name pattern calculi. More precisely, we define standard reductions for a pattern calculus with constructor-based data terms and patterns. This notion is based on reduction steps that are needed to match an argument with respect to a given pattern. We prove the Standardisation Theorem by using the technique developed by Takahashi and Crary for lambda-calculus. The proof is based on the fact that any development can be specified as a sequence of head steps followed by internal reductions, i.e. reductions in which no head steps are involved.

  1. Do Rules and Patterns Affect Design Maintainability?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier Garzás; Félix García; Mario Piattini

    2009-01-01

    At the present time, best rules and patterns have reached a zenith in popularity and diffusion, thanks to the software community's efforts to discover, classify and spread knowledge concerning all types of rules and patterns. Rules and patterns are useful elements, but many features remain to be studied if we wish to apply them in a rational manner.The improvement in quality that rules and patterns can inject into design is a key issue to be analyzed, so a complete body of empirical knowledge dealing with this is therefore necessary. This paper tackles the question of whether design rules and patterns can help to improve the extent to which designs are easy to understand and modify. An empirical study, composed of one experiment and a replica, was conducted with the aim of validating our conjecture. The results suggest that the use of rules and patterns affect the understandability and modifiability of the design, as the diagrams with rules and patterns are more difficult to understand than non-rule/pattern versions and more effort is required to carry out modifications to designs with rules and patterns.

  2. Youth spare time: Typical patterns of behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanović Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have tried to identify typical patterns of young people's behavior in their spare time and to use these patterns in order to group our subjects regarding their interests and preferences. Main-component analysis showed that it was possible to find different patterns of secondary school students' behavior in spare time as well as that the identified models could be the criteria for grouping them. Five patterns have been identified describing youth orientations towards their free time: academic orientation, orientation towards sports, orientation towards entertainment, orientation towards spending time going out and orientation towards music and computers.

  3. Patterns of interhemispheric correlation during human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg-Zylberbaum, J; Ramos, J

    1987-09-01

    Correlation patterns between the electroencephalographic activity of both hemispheres in adult subjects were obtained. The morphology of these patterns for one subject was compared with another subject's patterns during control situations without communication, and during sessions in which direct communication was stimulated. Neither verbalization nor visual or physical contact are necessary for direct communication to occur. The interhemispheric correlation patterns for each subject were observed to become similar during the communication sessions as compared to the control situations. These effects are not due to nonspecific factors such as habituation or fatigue. The results support the syntergic theory proposed by one of the authors (Grinberg-Zylberbaum).

  4. Field patterns: a new mathematical object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Graeme W; Mattei, Ornella

    2017-02-01

    Field patterns occur in space-time microstructures such that a disturbance propagating along a characteristic line does not evolve into a cascade of disturbances, but rather concentrates on a pattern of characteristic lines. This pattern is the field pattern. In one spatial direction plus time, the field patterns occur when the slope of the characteristics is, in a sense, commensurate with the space-time microstructure. Field patterns with different spatial shifts do not generally interact, but rather evolve as if they live in separate dimensions, as many dimensions as the number of field patterns. Alternatively one can view a collection as a multi-component potential, with as many components as the number of field patterns. Presumably, if one added a tiny nonlinear term to the wave equation one would then see interactions between these field patterns in the multi-dimensional space that one can consider them to live, or between the different field components of the multi-component potential if one views them that way. As a result of [Formula: see text]-symmetry many of the complex eigenvalues of an appropriately defined transfer matrix have unit norm and hence the corresponding eigenvectors correspond to propagating modes. There are also modes that blow up exponentially with time.

  5. Finding Sequential Patterns from Large Sequence Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazekas Gabor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is the task of discovering interesting patterns from large amounts of data. There are many data mining tasks, such as classification, clustering, association rule mining, and sequential pattern mining. Sequential pattern mining finds sets of data items that occur together frequently in some sequences. Sequential pattern mining, which extracts frequent subsequences from a sequence database, has attracted a great deal of interest during the recent data mining research because it is the basis of many applications, such as: web user analysis, stock trend prediction, DNA sequence analysis, finding language or linguistic patterns from natural language texts, and using the history of symptoms to predict certain kind of disease. The diversity of the applications may not be possible to apply a single sequential pattern model to all these problems. Each application may require a unique model and solution. A number of research projects were established in recent years to develop meaningful sequential pattern models and efficient algorithms for mining these patterns. In this paper, we theoretically provided a brief overview three types of sequential patterns model.

  6. Software architecture design patterns in Java

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchana, Partha

    2004-01-01

    AN INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN PATTERNSDesign Patterns: Origin and HistoryArchitectural to Software Design PatternsWhat is a Design Pattern?More about Design PatternsAbout This BookUNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE (UML)UML: A Quick ReferenceClass DiagramsSequence diagramsBASIC PATTERNSInterfaceDescriptionExamplePractice QuestionsAbstract Parent ClassDescriptionExamplePractice QuestionsPrivate MethodsDescriptionExamplePractice QuestionsAccessor MethodsDescriptionAccessor Method NomenclatureExampleDirect Reference versus Accessor MethodsPractice QuestionsConstant Data ManagerDescriptionExamplePractice Quest

  7. The impact of study design on pattern estimation for single-trial multivariate pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Jeanette A; Davis, Tyler; Poldrack, Russell A

    2014-12-01

    A prerequisite for a pattern analysis using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data is estimating the patterns from time series data, which then are input into the pattern analysis. Here we focus on how the combination of study design (order and spacing of trials) with pattern estimator impacts the Type I error rate of the subsequent pattern analysis. When Type I errors are inflated, the results are no longer valid, so this work serves as a guide for designing and analyzing MVPA studies with controlled false positive rates. The MVPA strategies examined are pattern classification and similarity, utilizing single trial activation patterns from the same functional run. Primarily focusing on the Least Squares Single and Least Square All pattern estimators, we show that collinearities in the models, along with temporal autocorrelation, can cause false positive correlations between activation pattern estimates that adversely impact the false positive rates of pattern similarity and classification analyses. It may seem intuitive that increasing the interstimulus interval (ISI) would alleviate this issue, but remaining weak correlations between activation patterns persist and have a strong influence in pattern similarity analyses. Pattern similarity analyses using only activation patterns estimated from the same functional run of data are susceptible to inflated false positives unless trials are randomly ordered, with a different randomization for each subject. In other cases, where there is any structure to trial order, valid pattern similarity analysis results can only be obtained if similarity computations are restricted to pairs of activation patterns from independent runs. Likewise, for pattern classification, false positives are minimized when the testing and training sets in cross validation do not contain patterns estimated from the same run.

  8. A Case of Porokeratosis Showing Different Clinical Patterns of the Disease with Anogenital Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Karabudak

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Porokeratosis (PK is a group of cutaneous entities characterized by marginate scaling lesions, histologically showing a column of parakeratotic keratinocytes (cornoid lamella. Various forms are recognized such as porokeratosis of Mibelli (PM, linear porokeratosis, disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis, punctate parakeratosis. PM should be treated because of the possibility of developing malignant epithelial tumors. We are presenting a 21 year old male patient suffering from PM on the back of the hands, foot, scrotum, oral mucosa and anal region. The histological biopsy specimens showed the characteristic features of porokeratosis. We destroyed the lesions by cryotherapy sessions. Here, we present a case of PM since it is rarely seen as multiple lesions with oral, anal and scrotal involvements altogether. (Turkderm 2008; 42: 97-9

  9. Urban DNA: Morphogenetic Analysis of Urban Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Serdar Kaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban pattern is the result of a dynamic transformation process, which can follow two different trajectories: planned interventions generally produces clear geometrical patterns in large areas, however, unplanned transformation process needs more time and has relatively smaller and partial effects on the urban pattern but creates more complex urban patterns. Highly complex spatial structure of urban pattern governed by local and global forces should be analyzed via advanced methods that corresponds the complexity of the pattern. Analyses of the dynamic structure of the multidimensional urban system shows the necessity of using advanced methods and several parameters together. The aim of this paper is developing a new method to analyze and represent highly complex urban pattern via evaluating geometrical, topological, and mathematical parameters to evaluate essential characteristics of cities. Physical space is analyzed by ‘geometrical parameters’, ‘topological parameters’, ‘parameters related to use and perception’ and ‘parameters related to complexity’. Calculation results gives two main information about urban structure: Firstly, values gives information about spatial characteristics and diversity of urban pattern. Secondly, the spatial distribution map of changing urban pattern reflects the unique structure of settlements, which resembles DNA of living creatures. In this paper, Istanbul was selected as case study area because of the rich historical background and dynamic urban growth process resulting various types of settlements including historical settlements, old villages, unplanned development, squatter areas and gated communities with different densities. As the proposed model shows essential morphological characteristics of urban pattern as a morphological DNA, outputs of this model has a potential to be used in different areas such as comparative analysis of geometrically different cities, analyzing irregularities in

  10. Practical DTCO through design/patterning exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Neal; Meiring, Jason; Bahnas, Mohamed; O'Neill, Joseph; Endo, Toshikazu; Schumacher, Dan; Culp, James; Wawrzynski, Glenn; Lamba, Gurpreet S.; Adam, Kostas; Sturtevant, John; McGinty, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Design Technology Co-Optimization (DTCO) becomes more important with every new technology node. Complex patterning issues can no longer wait to be detected experimentally using test sites because of compressed technology development schedules. Simulation must be used to discover complex interactions between an iteration of the design rules, and a simultaneous iteration of an intended patterning technology. The problem is often further complicated by an incomplete definition of the patterning space. The DTCO process must be efficient and thoroughly interrogate the legal design space for a technology to be successful. In this paper we present our view of DTCO, called Design and Patterning Exploration. Three emphasis areas are identified and explained with examples: Technology Definition, Technology Learning, and Technology Refinement. The Design and Patterning Exploration flows are applied to a logic 1.3x metal routing layer. Using these flows, yield limiting patterns are identified faster using random layout generation, and can be ruled out or tracked using a database of problem patterns. At the same time, a pattern no longer in the set of rules should not be considered during OPC tuning. The OPC recipe may then be adjusted for better performance on the legal set of pattern constructs. The entire system is dynamic, and users must be able to access related teams output for faster more accurate understanding of design and patterning interactions. In the discussed example, the design rules and OPC recipe are tuned at the same time, leading to faster design rule revisions, as well as improved patterning through more customized OPC and RET.

  11. Algorithms for adaptive nonlinear pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Mark S.; Ritter, Gerhard X.; Hayden, Eric; Key, Gary

    2011-09-01

    In Bayesian pattern recognition research, static classifiers have featured prominently in the literature. A static classifier is essentially based on a static model of input statistics, thereby assuming input ergodicity that is not realistic in practice. Classical Bayesian approaches attempt to circumvent the limitations of static classifiers, which can include brittleness and narrow coverage, by training extensively on a data set that is assumed to cover more than the subtense of expected input. Such assumptions are not realistic for more complex pattern classification tasks, for example, object detection using pattern classification applied to the output of computer vision filters. In contrast, we have developed a two step process, that can render the majority of static classifiers adaptive, such that the tracking of input nonergodicities is supported. Firstly, we developed operations that dynamically insert (or resp. delete) training patterns into (resp. from) the classifier's pattern database, without requiring that the classifier's internal representation of its training database be completely recomputed. Secondly, we developed and applied a pattern replacement algorithm that uses the aforementioned pattern insertion/deletion operations. This algorithm is designed to optimize the pattern database for a given set of performance measures, thereby supporting closed-loop, performance-directed optimization. This paper presents theory and algorithmic approaches for the efficient computation of adaptive linear and nonlinear pattern recognition operators that use our pattern insertion/deletion technology - in particular, tabular nearest-neighbor encoding (TNE) and lattice associative memories (LAMs). Of particular interest is the classification of nonergodic datastreams that have noise corruption with time-varying statistics. The TNE and LAM based classifiers discussed herein have been successfully applied to the computation of object classification in hyperspectral

  12. Ambulance demand: random events or predicable patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, Kate; Dietze, Paul; Morgans, Amee E; Smith, Karen

    2013-11-01

    Occupational, social and recreational routines follow temporal patterns, as does the onset of certain acute medical diseases and injuries. It is not known if the temporal nature of injury and disease transfers into patterns that can be observed in ambulance demand. This review examines eligible study findings that reported temporal (time of day, day of week and seasonal) patterns in ambulance demand. Electronic searches of Medline and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature were conducted for papers published between 1980 and 2011. In addition, hand searching was conducted for unpublished government and ambulance service documents and reports for the same period. 38 studies examined temporal patterns in ambulance demand. Six studies reported trends in overall workload and 32 studies reported trends in a subset of ambulance demand, either as a specific case type or demographic group. Temporal patterns in overall demand were consistent between jurisdictions for time of day but varied for day of week and season. When analysed by case type, all jurisdictions reported similar time of day patterns, most jurisdictions had similar day of week patterns except for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and similar seasonal patterns, except for trauma. Temporal patterns in case types were influenced by age and gender. Temporal patterns are present in ambulance demand and importantly these populations are distinct from those found in hospital datasets suggesting that variation in ambulance demand should not be inferred from hospital data alone. Case types seem to have similar temporal patterns across jurisdictions; thus, research where demand is broken down into case types would be generalisable to many ambulance services. This type of research can lead to improvements in ambulance service deliverables.

  13. Novel Patterning Approaches for Continued Device Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gstrein, Florian

    2015-03-01

    Top-down patterning techniques based on optical lithography have made semiconductor products ever more powerful, ubiquitous and affordable. This is largely due to the ability of conventional lithographic techniques to transfer trillions of mask features to wafers at defect densities approaching virtually zero in high-volume manufacturing. As features continue to shrink, the ability to print and to correctly place tight-pitch patterns have quickly emerged as two of the greatest challenges to scaling. Given the fundamental physical limitations of conventional optical lithography, complimentary patterning techniques and bottom-up patterning approaches are needed to overcome shortcomings in resolution and pattern placement accuracy. This presentation will focus on the enabling role novel materials can play in achieving both critical dimension scaling and reduced pattern placement errors. The talk will first outline how extreme UV lithography (EUV) and directed self-assembly (DSA) can simplify patterning and improve multilayer pattern placement by reducing the number of masks and associated overlay steps required to achieve the desired resolution. Novel EUV resist materials require amplification mechanisms that overcome acid blur and new strategies to improve shot noise limitations and mechanical stability. For DSA, novel block co-polymers are needed with a higher chi parameter to yield tighter pitch and improved roughness. The second part of the talk will highlight opportunities for self-aligned patterning with a special emphasis on the emerging field of selective deposition. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is derived from the chemical nature of precursors and co-reactants. The ability of these molecules to recognize chemical functionalities of surfaces, results in the deposition of thin films only where they are desired. Selective deposition is a powerful and so far unexploited patterning tool capable of further reducing or even eliminating pattern placement errors.

  14. Death patterns among Nigerian leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A.‎ Nzegwu ‎

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND:The aim of this study is to establish the patterns of death amongst Nigerian leaders since independence, thus providing a feasible avenue to avoid their recurrence if possible especially amongst the political elite who currently hold power. METHODS: Using available unclassified authentic public information, all leaders who had ruled Nigeria since her independence on 1 October, 1960 until her 45th birthday on 1 October 2005, irrespective of whether they are dead or alive were included. Data was extracted and analyzed. RESULTS: On 1 October 2005, Nigeria celebrated 45 years as a sovereign nation. Within this period, the country has had eleven leaders, all of whom were men. Only three (27.3% were civilians, while eight (72.7% were army generals. Of the eleven leaders, four (36.4% had died before Nigeria reached its 45th birthday and all of these four (100% died while still in office. Three of the dead leaders (75% were assassinated, while one (25% died suddenly in mysterious circumstances, believed to be the result of poisoning by unknown external powerful interest groups. Three of the deaths (75% occurred during violent periods of Nigeria’s checkered history (1966-1970 and 1993-1999, showing that periods of national and international strife appeared to be the weakest link in chains of events that led to their death while in office. Autopsies were neither requested nor performed on any of the dead leaders, signifying an entrenched culture of nonchalance, a lack of a coordinated national coroner’s law and contempt for accurate and detailed death records. Worse still, no valid tenable death certificate has ever been issued. In other words, no attempt has been made to determine the cause of death of four of the nation’s former leaders. Only hurried national burials were accorded two (50% of them while the other two (50%, who died in the coup and revenge coup of 1966, were completely neglected, and not even given a decent national

  15. The aesthetic of dragon pattern elements in modern clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任倩慧

    2015-01-01

    Dragon pattern with a long history of traditional patterns,contains profound cultural connotation.This passage illustrate the aesthetic analysis of dragon pattern in modern clothing, analyze the aesthetic expression of dragon pattern with modern costume designer.

  16. Mining Relationships between the Participants of Architectural Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamal, Ahmad Waqas; Avgeriou, Paris; Babar, MA; Gorton,

    2010-01-01

    Architectural patterns are often combined with other, relevant architectural patterns during software architecture design. However, combining patterns effectively remains a challenging task: first because the integration of any two architectural patterns can take several forms; second because existi

  17. Nexus network journal patterns in architecture

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    This issue is dedicated to various kinds of patterns in architecture. Buthayna Eilouti and Amer Al-Jokhadar address patterns in shape grammars in the ground plans of Mamluk madrasas, religious schools. Giulio Magli goes back further in history, to the age of Greek colonies in Italy before they were conquered by the Romans, to examine patterns in urban design. In Traditional Patterns in Pyrgi of Chios: Mathematics and Community Charoula Stathopoulou examines the geometric patterns that decorate the buildings of the town of Pyrgi, on the Greek island of Chios. Curve Fitting is a study of ways to construct a function so that its graph most closely approximates the pattern given by a set of points. Dirk Huylebrouck’s paper examines how a pattern of points extracted from an arch might be associated to a precise mathematical curve. James Harris looks at the designs of Frank Lloyd Wright and Piet Mondrian to extract the rules of their pattern generation and propose possible applications.

  18. Invisible Surface Charge Pattern on Inorganic Electrets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    We propose an easy method to pattern the surface charge of ${\\rm SiO}_{2}$ electrets without patterning the dielectric layer. By eliminating the use of metal guard electrodes, both the charge efficiency and the surface charge stability in humid environments improve. We apply the concept to a vibr...

  19. Multifractal Simulation of Geochemical Map Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using a simple multifractal model based on the model De Wijs, various geochemical map patterns for element concentration values are being simulated. Each pattern is self-similar on the average in that a similar pattern can be derived by application of the multiplicative cascade model used to any small subarea on the pattern. In other experiments, the original, self-similar pattern is distorted by superimposing a 2-dimensional trend pattern and by mixing it with a constant concentration value model. It is investigated how such distortions change the multifractal spectrum estimated by means of the 3-step method of moments. Discrete and continuous frequency distribution models are derived for patterns that satisfy the model of De Wijs. These simulated patterns satisfy a discrete frequency distribution model that as upper bound has a continuous frequency distribution to which it approaches in form when the subdivisions of the multiplicative cascade model are repeated indefinitely. This limiting distribution is lognormal in the center and has Pareto tails. Potentially, this approach has important implications in mineral and oil resource evaluation.

  20. Output-Sensitive Pattern Extraction in Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Roberto; Menconi, Giulia; Pisanti, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Genomic Analysis, Plagiarism Detection, Data Mining, Intrusion Detection, Spam Fighting and Time Series Analysis are just some examples of applications where extraction of recurring patterns in sequences of objects is one of the main computational challenges. Several notions of patterns exist...

  1. The pattern-richness of graphical passwords

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vorster, JS

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional (text-based) passwords have shown patterns such as variations on the username, or known passwords such as ”password”, ”admin” or ”12345”. Patterns may similarly be detected in the use of Graphical passwords (GPs). The most significant...

  2. Assessing the Development of Preschoolers' Mathematical Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchelmore, Michael C.; Papic, Marina M.; Mulligan, Joanne T.

    2011-01-01

    The development of patterning strategies during the year prior to formal schooling was studied in 53 children from 2 similar preschools. One preschool implemented a 6-month intervention focusing on repeating and spatial patterns. Children from the intervention group demonstrated greater understanding of unit of repeat and spatial structuring, and…

  3. Acoustic Pattern Recognition on Android Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Maiken Bjerg; Gaarsdal, Jesper; Steen, Kim Arild

    2013-01-01

    an Android application developed for acoustic pattern recognition of bird species. The acoustic data is recorded using a built-in microphone, and pattern recognition is performed on the device, requiring no network connection. The algorithm is implemented in C++ as a native Android module and the Open...

  4. Quantitative texture analysis of electrodeposited line patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Free-standing line patterns of Cu and Ni were manufactured by electrochemical deposition into lithographically prepared patterns. Electrodeposition was carried out on top of a highly oriented Au-layer physically vapor deposited on glass. Quantitative texture analysis carried out by means of x...

  5. Pattern Electrodes for Studying SOFC Electrochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, H.C.; Biradar, N.; Venkataraman, V.; Aravind, P.V.

    2013-01-01

    Pattern anodes can be used to localize reactions and study individual processes like charge transfer, adsorption, diffusion etc. Ceria and Nickel (Ni) pattern anodes were fabricated with the same dimensions with Triple phase boundary (TPB) lengths of 0.2707 m/cm2. Electrochemical Impedance Spectrosc

  6. Airflow Pattern Genereated by Three Air Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés; Nielsen, Peter V.; de Adana, Manuel Ruiz

    The correct description of air diffusers plays a crucial role in the CFD predictions of the airflow pattern into a room. The numerical simulation of air distribution in an indoor space is challenging because of the complicated airflow pattern generated. An experimental study has been carried out ...

  7. Applying and Developing Patterns in Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Eriksen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    enriches the notion of pedagogical patterns. Inspired by conditions for learning we identify three values in teaching in the field of engineering-related educations. Further we present a value-based template for guidelines in teaching, causing a better understanding of the patterns and help teachers...

  8. Air-induced inverse Chladni patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerner, van Henk Jan; Weele, van der Ko; Hoef, van der Martin A.; Meer, van der Devaraj

    2011-01-01

    When very light particles are sprinkled on a resonating horizontal plate, inverse Chladni patterns are formed. Instead of going to the nodal lines of the plate, where they would form a standard Chladni pattern, the particles are dragged to the antinodes by the air currents induced by the vibration o

  9. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  10. Airflow Pattern Generated by Three Air Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés; Nielsen, Peter V.; Ruiz de Adana, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The correct description of air diffusers plays a crucial role in the CFD predictions of the airflow pattern into a room. The numerical simulation of air distribution in an indoor space is challenging because of the complicated airflow pattern generated. Many authors have developed simplified geom...

  11. Quantitative texture analysis of electrodeposited line patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Free-standing line patterns of Cu and Ni were manufactured by electrochemical deposition into lithographically prepared patterns. Electrodeposition was carried out on top of a highly oriented Au-layer physically vapor deposited on glass. Quantitative texture analysis carried out by means of x...

  12. A Framework for Analyzing Geometric Pattern Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Susan N.; Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2009-01-01

    Teachers can use geometric patterns to promote students' understanding of functional relationships. In this article, the authors first look at a problem-solving process that supports the use of figural reasoning to explore and interpret geometric pattern tasks and generalize function rules. Second, the authors discuss a framework for…

  13. Some unusual electronic patterns on graphite surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shyam K Choudhury; Anjan K Gupta

    2008-02-01

    We report on the observation of some unusual electronic patterns on a graphite surface using scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STM). We attribute these patterns to different types of strain near the surface. One such pattern seen on a particular layer comprises of two-dimensional spatially varying super-lattice and one-dimensional fringes. This pattern is present in a finite region of a layer on the surface confined between two carbon fibers. We attribute this spatially varying super-lattice structure to the shear strain generated in the top layer due to the restraining fibers. We have also developed a model with the Moirµe rotation hypothesis that gives us a better insight into such large-scale spatially varying patterns. We have been able to model the above-observed pattern. We also report another pattern near a defect, which we attribute to the change in density of states due to the physical buckling of the top graphite layer. Part of this buckled layer is found to be buried under another layer and this region shows a reversed contrast and thus supporting our idea of buckling. We also performed tunneling spectroscopy measurements on various regions of these patterns which show significant variations in the density of states.

  14. Rhythmic Patterns in Ragtime and Jazz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odekerken, Daphne; Volk, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304842117; Koops, Hendrik Vincent

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a corpus-based study on rhythmic patterns in ragtime and jazz. Ragtime and jazz are related genres, but there are open questions on what specifies the two genres. Earlier studies revealed that variations of a particular syncopation pattern, referred to as 121, are among the most

  15. An 'Oedipus pattern' in the Old Testament?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Jørgen Lundager

    2007-01-01

    The Oedipus myth and a scapegoat pattern have been central issues in both Walter Burkert's and René Girard's writings about ancient Greek religion. This article proposes the existence of a comparable pattern in the Old Testament legend about the Ark (1-2 Samuel). Together with other Old Testament...

  16. Patterns and clinical outcomes of lithium treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, I.

    2008-01-01

    Patterns and consequences of lithium use’. In chapter 2.1 we studied lithium use patterns in out-patients within the last decade. In line with the increase in alternatives and the Dutch guidelines, we observed an increase in use of atypical antipsychotics and valproic acid and a decrease in use tric

  17. Analyzing highway flow patterns using cluster analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, Wendy; van Berkum, Eric C.; Pfliegl, R.

    2005-01-01

    Historical traffic patterns can be used for the prediction of traffic flows, as input for macroscopic traffic models, for the imputation of missing or erroneous data and as a basis for traffic management scenarios. This paper investigates the determination of historical traffic patterns by means of

  18. Quantification of variability in trichome patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina eGreese

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While pattern formation is studied in various areas of biology, little is known about the intrinsic noise leading to variations between individual realizations of the pattern. One prominent example for de novo pattern formation in plants is the patterning of trichomes on Arabidopsis leaves, which involves genetic regulation and cell-to-cell communication. These processes are potentially variable due to , e.g., the abundance of cell components or environmental conditions. To elevate the understanding of the regulatory processes underlying the pattern formation it is crucial to quantitatively analyze the variability in naturally occurring patterns. Here, we review recent approaches towards characterization of noise on trichome initiation. We present methods for the quantification of spatial patterns, which are the basis for data-driven mathematical modeling and enable the analysis of noise from different sources. Besides the insight gained on trichome formation, the examination of observed trichome patterns also shows that highly regulated biological processes can be substantially affected by variability.

  19. Airflow Pattern Generated by Three Air Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés; Nielsen, Peter V.; Ruiz de Adana, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The correct description of air diffusers plays a crucial role in the CFD predictions of the airflow pattern into a room. The numerical simulation of air distribution in an indoor space is challenging because of the complicated airflow pattern generated. Many authors have developed simplified geom...

  20. Vascular distribution patterns in monochorionic twin placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paepe, M E; DeKoninck, P; Friedman, R M

    2005-07-01

    Several recent publications have focused on the association between the occurrence of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in diamniotic-monochorionic twins and the presence of a number of selected anatomic placental characteristics (distribution of vascular territory, cord insertion, type and number of inter-twin anastomoses). In contrast, the potential importance of the vascular distribution patterns of the individual twins remains to be elucidated. Based on its gross architectural distribution pattern, chorionic vasculature is traditionally described as disperse, magistral or mixed. The aim of this study was (1) to determine the relative prevalence of these vascular distribution patterns in monochorionic twin placentas, and (2) to correlate these patterns with the presence of TTTS and known anatomic placental features linked to TTTS. The placentas of 89 consecutive diamniotic-monochorionic twins (15 with TTTS, 74 without TTTS), examined at Women and Infants Hospital, were studied. Disperse vascular patterns were seen in 53% of twins, and magistral or mixed patterns in 47%. The prevalence of magistral/mixed vascular patterns was significantly higher in TTTS gestations than in non-TTTS gestations (60% versus 44%, Ppatterns and marginal/velamentous cord insertion, low number of inter-twin anastomoses, and uneven distribution of the vascular territories. These findings suggest that the magistral/mixed vascular distribution pattern may represent an important placental architectural feature contributing to the complex pathophysiology of TTTS.

  1. Pattern Matching, Searching, and Heuristics in Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Antonio M.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a methodology designed to strengthen the cognitive effects of using graphing calculators to solve polynomial equations using pattern matching, searching, and heuristics. Discusses pattern matching as a problem-solving strategy useful in the physical, social, political, and economic worlds of today's students. (DDR)

  2. 18 CFR 701.5 - Organization pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Organization pattern... ORGANIZATION Introduction § 701.5 Organization pattern. (a) The Office of the Water Resources Council is... Council Staff headed by a Director, and Field Organizations within its jurisdiction. (b) The...

  3. Chemically patterned flat stamps for microcontact printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpe, Ruben B.A.; Burdinski, Dirk; Huskens, Jurriaan; Zandvliet, Harold J.W.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Poelsema, Bene

    2005-01-01

    Locally oxidized patterns on flat poly(dimethylsiloxane) stamps for microcontact printing were used as a platform for the transfer of a hydrophilic fluorescent ink to a glass substrate. The contrast was found to be limited. These locally oxidized patterns were conversely used as barriers for the tra

  4. The Aesthetics of Lattice Pattern in Clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪虹

    2011-01-01

    The lattice pattern has been applied widely in the field of textiles as a geometric decorative pattern,which is not only because of its technological characteristics but more due to the aesthetic features and unique cultural connotation.The depth of color

  5. Adolescents' Contributions to Family Communication Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saphir, Melissa Nichols; Chaffee, Steven H.

    2002-01-01

    Notes that early explications of family communication patterns (FCP) suggested a family's communication pattern arises from interactions in which parents and adolescents influence each other. Revisits the assumption that adolescents influence FCP, using data from a longitudinal quasi-experimental evaluation of a school-based civics curriculum…

  6. Software Architecture Patterns for System Administration Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijvank, Ronald; Wiersema, Wiebe; Köppe, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Many quality aspects of software systems are addressed in the existing literature on software architecture patterns. But the aspect of system administration seems to be a bit overlooked, even though it is an important aspect too. In this work we present three software architecture patterns that, whe

  7. International Business Research: Coauthorship Patterns and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kam C; Fung, Hung-Gay; Leung, Wai K.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigate published international business research in four international business journals over a 10-year period, 1995-2004: (a) patterns of coauthorship across regions, and (b) the relation between coauthorship patterns and the quality of international business (IB) articles. A cross-region coauthorship enhances the quality of an…

  8. Ontology Design Patterns as Interfaces (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowicz, K.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years ontology design patterns (ODP) have gained popularity among knowledge engineers. ODPs are modular but self-contained building blocks that are reusable and extendible. They minimize the amount of ontological commitments and thereby are easier to integrate than large monolithic ontologies. Typically, patterns are not directly used to annotate data or to model certain domain problems but are combined and extended to form data and purpose-driven local ontologies that serve the needs of specific applications or communities. By relying on a common set of patterns these local ontologies can be aligned to improve interoperability and enable federated queries without enforcing a top-down model of the domain. In previous work, we introduced ontological views as layer on top of ontology design patterns to ease the reuse, combination, and integration of patterns. While the literature distinguishes multiple types of patterns, e.g., content patterns or logical patterns, we propose to use them as interfaces here to guide the development of ontology-driven systems.

  9. Acoustic Pattern Recognition on Android Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Maiken Bjerg; Gaarsdal, Jesper; Steen, Kim Arild

    2013-01-01

    an Android application developed for acoustic pattern recognition of bird species. The acoustic data is recorded using a built-in microphone, and pattern recognition is performed on the device, requiring no network connection. The algorithm is implemented in C++ as a native Android module and the Open...

  10. Generalisation of Regular and Irregular Morphological Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasada, Sandeep; and Pinker, Steven

    1993-01-01

    When it comes to explaining English verbs' patterns of regular and irregular generalization, single-network theories have difficulty with the former, rule-only theories with the latter process. Linguistic and psycholinguistic evidence, based on observation during experiments and simulations in morphological pattern generation, independently call…

  11. From pattern to practice: evaluation of a design pattern fostering trust in Virtual teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Van Bruggen, Jan; Cörvers, Ron; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Rusman, E., Van Bruggen, J., Cörvers, R., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2009). From pattern to practice: evaluation of a design pattern fostering trust in Virtual teams. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(5), 1010-1019.

  12. Database Transposition for Constrained (Closed) Pattern Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Jeudy, Baptiste

    2009-01-01

    Recently, different works proposed a new way to mine patterns in databases with pathological size. For example, experiments in genome biology usually provide databases with thousands of attributes (genes) but only tens of objects (experiments). In this case, mining the "transposed" database runs through a smaller search space, and the Galois connection allows to infer the closed patterns of the original database. We focus here on constrained pattern mining for those unusual databases and give a theoretical framework for database and constraint transposition. We discuss the properties of constraint transposition and look into classical constraints. We then address the problem of generating the closed patterns of the original database satisfying the constraint, starting from those mined in the "transposed" database. Finally, we show how to generate all the patterns satisfying the constraint from the closed ones.

  13. Frequent Pattern Mining Algorithms for Data Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimek, Arthur; Assent, Ira; Vreeken, Jilles

    2014-01-01

    that frequent pattern mining was at the cradle of subspace clustering—yet, it quickly developed into an independent research field. In this chapter, we discuss how frequent pattern mining algorithms have been extended and generalized towards the discovery of local clusters in high-dimensional data......Discovering clusters in subspaces, or subspace clustering and related clustering paradigms, is a research field where we find many frequent pattern mining related influences. In fact, as the first algorithms for subspace clustering were based on frequent pattern mining algorithms, it is fair to say....... In particular, we discuss several example algorithms for subspace clustering or projected clustering as well as point out recent research questions and open topics in this area relevant to researchers in either clustering or pattern mining...

  14. Lacking control increases illusory pattern perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Jennifer A; Galinsky, Adam D

    2008-10-03

    We present six experiments that tested whether lacking control increases illusory pattern perception, which we define as the identification of a coherent and meaningful interrelationship among a set of random or unrelated stimuli. Participants who lacked control were more likely to perceive a variety of illusory patterns, including seeing images in noise, forming illusory correlations in stock market information, perceiving conspiracies, and developing superstitions. Additionally, we demonstrated that increased pattern perception has a motivational basis by measuring the need for structure directly and showing that the causal link between lack of control and illusory pattern perception is reduced by affirming the self. Although these many disparate forms of pattern perception are typically discussed as separate phenomena, the current results suggest that there is a common motive underlying them.

  15. Adaptive associative memories capable of pattern segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive type of associative memory (AAM) that can separate patterns from composite inputs which might be degraded by deficiency or noise and that can recover incomplete or noisy single patterns. The behavior of AAM is analyzed in terms of stability, giving the stable solutions (results of recall), and the recall of spurious memories (the undesired solutions) is shown to be greatly reduced compared with earlier types of associative memory that can perform pattern segmentation. Two conditions that guarantee the nonexistence of undesired solutions are also given. Results of computer experiments show that the performance of AAM is much better than that of the earlier types of associative memory in terms of pattern segmentation and pattern recovery.

  16. Climatology of local flow patterns around Basel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R.O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Recently a method has been developed to classify local-scale flow patterns from the wind measurements at a dense network of stations. It was found that in the MISTRAL area around Basel a dozen characteristic flow patterns occur. However, as the dense network of stations ran only during one year, no reliable climatology can be inferred from these data, especially the annual cycle of the flow patterns is not well determined from a single year of observations. As there exist several routinely operated stations in and near the MISTRAL area, a method was searched to identify the local flow patterns from the observations at the few routine stations. A linear discriminant analysis turned out to be the best method. Based of data from 11 stations which were simultaneously operated during 1990-1995 a six-year climatology of the flow patterns could be obtained. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  17. Output-Sensitive Pattern Extraction in Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Roberto; Menconi, Giulia; Pisanti, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Genomic Analysis, Plagiarism Detection, Data Mining, Intrusion Detection, Spam Fighting and Time Series Analysis are just some examples of applications where extraction of recurring patterns in sequences of objects is one of the main computational challenges. Several notions of patterns exist...... n. We address the problem of extracting maximal patterns with at most k don’t care symbols and at least q occurrences. Our contribution is to give the first algorithm that attains a stronger notion of output-sensitivity, borrowed from the analysis of data structures: the cost is proportional...... to the actual number of occurrences of each pattern, which is at most n and practically much smaller than n in real applications, thus avoiding the aforementioned cost of O(nc) per pattern....

  18. Optimization of horizontal well staggered patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Chunsen; Li Peijing; Guan Dan; Liu Qingjuan

    2008-01-01

    Staggered line-drive patterns are widely used in oilfields. In this paper, to optimize a staggered pattern of horizontal wells, a 3D problem was divided into two 2D (x-y plane and y-z plane) problems with the pseudo-3D method, conformal transformation and superposition principle. A productivity equation for a horizontal well was deduced, which can be used to optimize the well pattern. A relationship between the length of horizontal wells and the shape factor of well patterns was established. The result shows that optimized well patterns can improve oil production from horizontal wells. This provides a theoretical basis for horizontal well applications to the development of oilfieids, especially for overall development of oilfields by horizontal wells.

  19. Modeling the radiation pattern of LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ivan; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2008-02-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) come in many varieties and with a wide range of radiation patterns. We propose a general, simple but accurate analytic representation for the radiation pattern of the light emitted from an LED. To accurately render both the angular intensity distribution and the irradiance spatial pattern, a simple phenomenological model takes into account the emitting surfaces (chip, chip array, or phosphor surface), and the light redirected by both the reflecting cup and the encapsulating lens. Mathematically, the pattern is described as the sum of a maximum of two or three Gaussian or cosine-power functions. The resulting equation is widely applicable for any kind of LED of practical interest. We accurately model a wide variety of radiation patterns from several world-class manufacturers.

  20. Contributions of iridescence to floral patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Heather M; Kolle, Mathias; Alvarez-Fernandez, Ruben; Steiner, Ullrich; Glover, Beverley J

    2009-05-01

    The Hibiscus trionum flower is distinctly patterned, with white petals each with a patch of red pigment at the base, producing a 'bulls-eye' pattern on the whole flower. The red pigmented patches are also iridescent, due to the presence of a series of overlying cuticular striations that act as a diffraction grating. We have previously reported that scanning electron microscopy revealed a sharply defined difference between the surface structure overlying the pigmented patch and that over the rest of the petal, with the diffraction grating only present over the pigmented region. Here we show that differences in petal surface structure overlie differences in pigment color in three other species, in a range of different patterns. Floral patterns have previously been shown to be advantageous in pollinator attraction, and we discuss whether emphasis of pigment patterns by structural color may increase floral recognition by pollinators.

  1. Killer "Killer Examples" for Design Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Alphonce, Carl; Decker, Adrienne

    2007-01-01

    Giving students an appreciation of the benefits of using design patterns and an ability to use them effectively in developing code presents several interesting pedagogical challenges. This paper discusses pedagogical lessons learned at the "Killer Examples" for Design Patterns and Objects First s...... series of workshops held at the Object Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages and Applications (OOPSLA) conference over the past four years. It also showcases three "killer examples" which can be used to support the teaching of design patterns.......Giving students an appreciation of the benefits of using design patterns and an ability to use them effectively in developing code presents several interesting pedagogical challenges. This paper discusses pedagogical lessons learned at the "Killer Examples" for Design Patterns and Objects First...

  2. Pattern Generation by Bubble Packing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel V.K.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new computational method forornamental Pattern design. The work is a concerted effort ofevaluation of various methods and the comparatively betterprocess is used for designing keeping in mind the accuracyrequirement for such Indian traditional ethnic designs. The firststep in the process to apply the CAD tools to design the patterns.Small semantics (profile are made using the mathematicalmodelling to make different pattern. Geometric constraints suchas scaling, rotation, transformation etc. are applied to make andmodify the profiles. To create patterns, obtains node locationsthrough a physically based particle simulation, which we call'bubble packing. Bubbles are closely packed on the corners,edges and on the surface domain, and nodes are placed at thecenters of the bubbles. Experimental results show that ourmethod can create high quality ornamental patterns. Thefabrication of the ornaments is on rapid prototype machine.

  3. Chaotic Turing pattern formation in spatiotemporal systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jing-hua; LI Hai-hong; YANG Jun-zhong; HU Gang

    2006-01-01

    The problem of Turing pattern formation has attracted much attention in nonlinear science as well as physics,chemistry and biology.So far spatially ordered Turing patterns have been observed in stationary and oscillatory media only.In this paper we find that spatially ordered Turing patterns exist in chaotic extended systems.And chaotic Turing patterns are strikingly rich and surprisingly beautiful with their space structures.These findings are in sharp contrast with the intuition of pseudo-randomness of chaos.The richness and beauty of the chaotic Turing patterns are attributed to a large variety of symmetry properties realized by various types of self-organizations of partial chaos synchronizations.

  4. Fractal Beauty in Xinjiang Folk Art Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Hong; ZHAO Hai-ying

    2014-01-01

    Xinjiang folk art patterns and designs are the art treasures of Chinese cultural treasure-house as well as the precious humanistic resources of Western China. In the process of collecting, sorting out and studying Xinjiang folk art patterns, the elegant simplicity as well as the good taste stands out impressively, and the pattern shape as well as the layout composition shows a distinctive national trait and a strong local color. As “The Geometry of Nature”, fractal geometry brings about a new performing method. Various fractal graphs are created by different generators. Their dynamic pictures contain visual information of great magnitude and their artistic effect is similar to Xinjiang folk art patterns, which fully proves the fractal beauty in Xinjiang folk art patterns.

  5. DNA pattern recognition using canonical correlation algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B K Sarkar; Chiranjib Chakraborty

    2015-10-01

    We performed canonical correlation analysis as an unsupervised statistical tool to describe related views of the same semantic object for identifying patterns. A pattern recognition technique based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was proposed for finding required genetic code in the DNA sequence. Two related but different objects were considered: one was a particular pattern, and other was test DNA sequence. CCA found correlations between two observations of the same semantic pattern and test sequence. It is concluded that the relationship possesses maximum value in the position where the pattern exists. As a case study, the potential of CCA was demonstrated on the sequence found from HIV-1 preferred integration sites. The subsequences on the left and right flanking from the integration site were considered as the two views, and statistically significant relationships were established between these two views to elucidate the viral preference as an important factor for the correlation.

  6. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1 prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver, which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2 traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3 Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg, which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4 snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix, which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04 in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight.

  7. Dietary patterns in India: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rosemary; Milner, James; Joy, Edward J M; Agrawal, Sutapa; Dangour, Alan D

    2016-07-01

    Dietary patterns analysis is an emerging area of research. Identifying distinct patterns within a large dietary survey can give a more accurate representation of what people are eating. Furthermore, it allows researchers to analyse relationships between non-communicable diseases (NCD) and complete diets rather than individual food items or nutrients. However, few such studies have been conducted in developing countries including India, where the population has a high burden of diabetes and CVD. We undertook a systematic review of published and grey literature exploring dietary patterns and relationships with diet-related NCD in India. We identified eight studies, including eleven separate models of dietary patterns. Most dietary patterns were vegetarian with a predominance of fruit, vegetables and pulses, as well as cereals; dietary patterns based on high-fat, high-sugar foods and more meat were also identified. There was large variability between regions in dietary patterns, and there was some evidence of change in diets over time, although no evidence of different diets by sex or age was found. Consumers of high-fat dietary patterns were more likely to have greater BMI, and a dietary pattern high in sweets and snacks was associated with greater risk of diabetes compared with a traditional diet high in rice and pulses, but other relationships with NCD risk factors were less clear. This review shows that dietary pattern analyses can be highly valuable in assessing variability in national diets and diet-disease relationships. However, to date, most studies in India are limited by data and methodological shortcomings.

  8. Blood drop patterns: Formation and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruoyang; Zhang, Liyuan; Zang, Duyang; Shen, Wei

    2016-05-01

    The drying of a drop of blood or plasma on a solid substrate leads to the formation of interesting and complex patterns. Inter- and intra-cellular and macromolecular interactions in the drying plasma or blood drop are responsible for the final morphologies of the dried patterns. Changes in these cellular and macromolecular components in blood caused by diseases have been suspected to cause changes in the dried drop patterns of plasma and whole blood, which could be used as simple diagnostic tools to identify the health of humans and livestock. However, complex physicochemical driving forces involved in the pattern formation are not fully understood. This review focuses on the scientific development in microscopic observations and pattern interpretation of dried plasma and whole blood samples, as well as the diagnostic applications of pattern analysis. Dried drop patterns of plasma consist of intricate visible cracks in the outer region and fine structures in the central region, which are mainly influenced by the presence and concentration of inorganic salts and proteins during drying. The shrinkage of macromolecular gel and its adhesion to the substrate surface have been thought to be responsible for the formation of the cracks. Dried drop patterns of whole blood have three characteristic zones; their formation as functions of drying time has been reported in the literature. Some research works have applied engineering treatment to the evaporation process of whole blood samples. The sensitivities of the resultant patterns to the relative humidity of the environment, the wettability of the substrates, and the size of the drop have been reported. These research works shed light on the mechanisms of spreading, evaporation, gelation, and crack formation of the blood drops on solid substrates, as well as on the potential applications of dried drop patterns of plasma and whole blood in diagnosis.

  9. Lexical patterns or dependency patterns: which is better for hypernym extraction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Tjong Kim Sang; K. Hofmann

    2009-01-01

    We compare two different types of extraction patterns for automatically deriving semantic information from text: lexical patterns, built from words and word class information, and dependency patterns with syntactic information obtained from a full parser. We are particularly interested in whether th

  10. Lexical patterns or dependency patterns: which is better for hypernym extraction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.; Hofmann, K.; Stevenson, S.; Carreras, X.

    2009-01-01

    We compare two different types of extraction patterns for automatically deriving semantic information from text: lexical patterns, built from words and word class information, and dependency patterns with syntactic information obtained from a full parser. We are particularly interested in whether

  11. From pattern to practice: evaluation of a design pattern fostering trust in Virtual teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Van Bruggen, Jan; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Rusman, E., Van Bruggen, J., & Koper, R. (2007). From pattern to practice: evaluation of a design pattern fostering trust in Virtual teams. Paper at conference workshop ‘Linking CSCL design patterns to authentic educational case studies’ at Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2007, (CSCL 2007)

  12. Heart rate patterns in trisomic fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariniemi, V; Aula, P

    1982-01-01

    A survey of the clinical records of fifteen fetuses with trisomy 21, six fetuses with trisomy 18, and two fetuses with trisomy 13 was made in order to find out typical patterns of fetal heart rate (FHR) possibly associated with these conditions. Antepartal FHR patterns of 55 normal pregnancies and intrapartal FHR patterns of 14 normal labors were used as a control material. Trisomic fetuses showed significantly fewer FHR accelerations than did the controls. Fetuses with trisomy 18 and 13 had more antepartal decelerations than fetuses with trisomy 21. Trisomic fetuses also showed more intrapartal late decelerations and epochs of silent FHR pattern than did the controls. The abnormal FHR patterns of the trisomic fetuses thus were similar to those in placental insufficiency. Cesarean section was performed for both fetuses with trisomy 13, for five of the six fetuses with trisomy 18 and for nine of fifteen fetuses with trisomy 21. In eleven of sixteen cesarean sections the main indication was abnormal cardiotocogram. Fetal karyotyping from an amniotic fluid sample should perhaps be considered when decelerations and silent patterns of FHR in a growth-retarded, late second or early third trimester fetus are seen. In most cases, however, the decision for optimal management o labor must be based on FHR patterns solely.

  13. Distributed pattern detection in cyber networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffenroth, Randy C.; Du Toit, Philip C.; Scharf, Louis L.; Jayasumana, Anura P.; Banadara, Vidarshana W.; Nong, Ryan

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we describe an approach for the detection and classication of weak, distributed patterns in sensor networks. Of course, before one can begin development of a pattern detection algorithm, one must rst dene the term "pattern", which by nature is a broad and inclusive term. One of the key aspects of our work is a denition of pattern that has already proven eective in detecting anomalies in real world data. While designing detection algorithms for all classes of patterns in all types of networks sounds appealing, this approach would almost certainly require heuristic methods and only cursory statements of performance. Rather, we have specically studied the problem of intrusion detection in computer networks in which a pattern is an abnormal or unexpected spatio-temporal dependence in the data collected across the nodes. We do not attempt to match an a priori template, but instead have developed algorithms that allow the pattern to reveal itself in the data by way of dependence or independence of observed time series. Although the problem is complex and challenging, recent advances in l1 techniques for robust matrix completion, compressed sensing, and correlation detection provide promising opportunities for progress. Our key contribution to this body of work is the development of methods that make an accounting of uncertainty in the measurements on which the inferences are based. The performance of our methods will be demonstrated on real world data, including measured data from the Abilene Internet2 network.

  14. Adaptive pattern for autonomous UAV guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Chen-Ko; Segor, Florian

    2013-09-01

    The research done at the Fraunhofer IOSB in Karlsruhe within the AMFIS project is focusing on a mobile system to support rescue forces in accidents or disasters. The system consists of a ground control station which has the capability to communicate with a large number of heterogeneous sensors and sensor carriers and provides several open interfaces to allow easy integration of additional sensors into the system. Within this research we focus mainly on UAV such as VTOL (Vertical takeoff and Landing) systems because of their ease of use and their high maneuverability. To increase the positioning capability of the UAV, different onboard processing chains of image exploitation for real time detection of patterns on the ground and the interfacing technology for controlling the UAV from the payload during flight were examined. The earlier proposed static ground pattern was extended by an adaptive component which admits an additional visual communication channel to the aircraft. For this purpose different components were conceived to transfer additive information using changeable patterns on the ground. The adaptive ground pattern and their application suitability had to be tested under external influence. Beside the adaptive ground pattern, the onboard process chains and the adaptations to the demands of changing patterns are introduced in this paper. The tracking of the guiding points, the UAV navigation and the conversion of the guiding point positions from the images to real world co-ordinates in video sequences, as well as use limits and the possibilities of an adaptable pattern are examined.

  15. A review on compressed pattern matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Prakash Mishra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Compressed pattern matching (CPM refers to the task of locating all the occurrences of a pattern (or set of patterns inside the body of compressed text. In this type of matching, pattern may or may not be compressed. CPM is very useful in handling large volume of data especially over the network. It has many applications in computational biology, where it is useful in finding similar trends in DNA sequences; intrusion detection over the networks, big data analytics etc. Various solutions have been provided by researchers where pattern is matched directly over the uncompressed text. Such solution requires lot of space and consumes lot of time when handling the big data. Various researchers have proposed the efficient solutions for compression but very few exist for pattern matching over the compressed text. Considering the future trend where data size is increasing exponentially day-by-day, CPM has become a desirable task. This paper presents a critical review on the recent techniques on the compressed pattern matching. The covered techniques includes: Word based Huffman codes, Word Based Tagged Codes; Wavelet Tree Based Indexing. We have presented a comparative analysis of all the techniques mentioned above and highlighted their advantages and disadvantages.

  16. Light-Induced Surface Patterning of Silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong Suk; Lee, Seungwoo; Choi, Jaeho; Lee, Hongkyung; Park, Jung-Ki; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2015-10-27

    Manipulating the size and shape of silica precursor patterns using simple far-field light irradiation and transforming such reconfigured structures into inorganic silica patterns by pyrolytic conversion are demonstrated. The key concept of our work is the use of an azobenzene incorporated silica precursor (herein, we refer to this material as azo-silane composite) as ink in a micromolding process. The moving direction of azo-silane composite is parallel to light polarization direction; in addition, the amount of azo-silane composite movement can be precisely determined by controlling light irradiation time. By exploiting this peculiar phenomenon, azo-silane composite patterns produced using the micromolding technique are arbitrarily manipulated to obtain various structural features including high-resolution size or sophisticated shape. The photoreconfigured patterns formed with azo-silane composites are then converted into pure silica patterns through pyrolytic conversion. The pyrolytic converted silica patterns are uniformly formed over a large area, ensuring crack-free formation and providing high structural fidelity. Therefore, this optical manipulation technique, in conjunction with the pyrolytic conversion process, opens a promising route to the design of silica patterns with finely tuned structural features in terms of size and shape. This platform for designing silica structures has significant value in various nanotechnology fields including micro/nanofluidic channel for lab-on-a-chip devices, transparent superhydrophobic surfaces, and optoelectronic devices.

  17. Injection molding of micro patterned PMMA plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeong-Eun YOO; Tae-Hoon KIM; Tae-Jin JE; Doo-Sun CHOI; Chang-Wan KIM; Sun-Kyung KIM

    2011-01-01

    A plastic plate with surface micro features was injection molded to investigate the effect of pressure rise of melt on the replication of the micro structures. Prism pattern, which is used in many optical applications, was selected as a model pattern. The prism pattern is 50 μm in pitch and 108° in the vertical angle. The overall size of the plate was 335 mm×213 mm and the thickness of the plate varied linearly from 2.6 mm to 0.7 mm. The prism pattern was firstly machined on the nickel plated core block using micro diamond tool and this machined pattern core was installed in a mold for injection molding of prism patterned plate. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was used as a molding material. The pressure and temperature of the melt in the cavity were measured at different positions in the cavity and the replication of the pattern was also measured at the same positions. The results show that the pressure or temperature profile through the process depends on the shape and the size of the plate. The replication is affected by the temperature and pressure profiles at the early stage of filling, which is right after the melt reaches the position to be measured.

  18. CD bias control on hole pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Kyohei; Hara, Arisa; Natori, Sakurako; Yamauchi, Shohei; Yamato, Masatoshi; Oyama, Kenichi; Yaegashi, Hidetami

    2016-03-01

    Gridded design rules[1] is major process in configuring logic circuit used 193-immersion lithography. In the scaling of grid patterning, we can make 10nm order line and space pattern by using multiple patterning techniques such as self-aligned multiple patterning (SAMP) and litho-etch- litho-etch (LELE)[2][3][5] . On the other hand, Line cut process has some error parameters such as pattern defect, placement error, roughness and X-Y CD bias with the decreasing scale. Especially roughness and X-Y CD bias are paid attention because it cause cut error and pattern defect. In this case, we applied some smoothing process to care hole roughness[4]. Each smoothing process showed different effect on X-Y CD bias. In this paper, we will report the pattern controllability comparison of trench and block + inverse. It include X-Y CD bias, roughness and process usability. Furthermore we will discuss optimum method focused on X-Y CD bias when we use additional process such as smoothing and shrink etching .

  19. Discriminative Chemical Patterns: Automatic and Interactive Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietz, Stefan; Schomburg, Karen T; Hilbig, Matthias; Rarey, Matthias

    2015-08-24

    The classification of molecules with respect to their inhibiting, activating, or toxicological potential constitutes a central aspect in the field of cheminformatics. Often, a discriminative feature is needed to distinguish two different molecule sets. Besides physicochemical properties, substructures and chemical patterns belong to the descriptors most frequently applied for this purpose. As a commonly used example of this descriptor class, SMARTS strings represent a powerful concept for the representation and processing of abstract chemical patterns. While their usage facilitates a convenient way to apply previously derived classification rules on new molecule sets, the manual generation of useful SMARTS patterns remains a complex and time-consuming process. Here, we introduce SMARTSminer, a new algorithm for the automatic derivation of discriminative SMARTS patterns from preclassified molecule sets. Based on a specially adapted subgraph mining algorithm, SMARTSminer identifies structural features that are frequent in only one of the given molecule classes. In comparison to elemental substructures, it also supports the consideration of general and specific SMARTS features. Furthermore, SMARTSminer is integrated into an interactive pattern editor named SMARTSeditor. This allows for an intuitive visualization on the basis of the SMARTSviewer concept as well as interactive adaption and further improvement of the generated patterns. Additionally, a new molecular matching feature provides an immediate feedback on a pattern's matching behavior across the molecule sets. We demonstrate the utility of the SMARTSminer functionality and its integration into the SMARTSeditor software in several different classification scenarios.

  20. Food patterns and the prevention of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel A; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena

    2016-05-01

    An emerging field of research in nutritional epidemiology is the assessment of several links between nutritional quality and mental health. Specifically, some studies have pointed out that several food patterns could be associated with a reduced risk of depression among adults. This association seems to be consistent across countries, cultures and populations according to several systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies. Some previously described food patterns, specifically the Mediterranean Food Pattern, the Alternative Healthy Eating Index, the Prudent diet or the Provegetarian Food Pattern may be effective to reduce the future risk of depression. Among them, only the Mediterranean Food Pattern has been tested for primary prevention in a large randomised trial, but the inverse association found was not statistically significant. The scientific report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Advisory Committee concluded that current evidence is still limited. Notwithstanding, this field is promising and, according to large and well-conducted observational studies, food patterns potentially associated with reduced risk of depression are those emphasising seafood, vegetables, fruits and nuts. There is a need to assess whether differences in the intake of some micro or macronutrients between these dietary patterns can make a difference in their association with a lower risk of depression. Moreover, the shape of the dose-response curve and the potential existence of a nonlinear threshold effect have not yet been established.

  1. Ultraviolet laser patterning of porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Fidel, E-mail: fvega@oo.upc.edu [Departament d' Òptica i Optometria, UPC, Violinista Vellsolà 37, 08222 Terrasa (Spain); Peláez, Ramón J.; Kuhn, Timo; Afonso, Carmen N. [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Óptica, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Recio-Sánchez, Gonzalo; Martín-Palma, Raúl J. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, UAM, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-05-14

    This work reports on the fabrication of 1D fringed patterns on nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS) layers (563, 372, and 290 nm thick). The patterns are fabricated by phase-mask laser interference using single pulses of an UV excimer laser (193 nm, 20 ns pulse duration). The method is a single-step and flexible approach to produce a large variety of patterns formed by alternate regions of almost untransformed nanoPS and regions where its surface has melted and transformed into Si nanoparticles (NPs). The role of laser fluence (5–80 mJ cm{sup −2}), and pattern period (6.3–16 μm) on pattern features and surface structuring are discussed. The results show that the diameter of Si NPs increases with fluence up to a saturation value of 75 nm for a fluence ≈40 mJ cm{sup −2}. In addition, the percentage of transformed to non-transformed region normalized to the pattern period follows similar fluence dependence regardless the period and thus becomes an excellent control parameter. This dependence is fitted within a thermal model that allows for predicting the in-depth profile of the pattern. The model assumes that transformation occurs whenever the laser-induced temperature increase reaches the melting temperature of nanoPS that has been found to be 0.7 of that of crystalline silicon for a porosity of around 79%. The role of thermal gradients across the pattern is discussed in the light of the experimental results and the calculated temperature profiles, and shows that the contribution of lateral thermal flow to melting is not significant for pattern periods ≥6.3 μm.

  2. Compositional symbol grounding for motor patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eGreco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed a new experimental and simulative paradigm to study the establishing of compositional grounded representations for motor patterns. Participants learned to associate nonsense arm motor patterns, performed in three different hand postures, with nonsense words. There were two group conditions: in the first (compositional, each pattern was associated with a two-word (verb-adverb sentence; in the second (holistic, each same pattern was associated with a unique word. Two experiments were performed. In the first, motor pattern recognition and naming were tested in the two conditions. Results showed that verbal compositionality had no role in recognition and that the main source of confusability in this task came from discriminating hand postures. As the naming task resulted too difficult, some changes in the learning procedure were implemented in the second experiment. In this experiment, the compositional group achieved better results in naming motor patterns especially for patterns where hand postures discrimination was relevant. In order to ascertain the differential effect, upon this result, of memory load and of systematic grounding, neural network simulations were also made. After a basic simulation that worked as a good model of subjects performance, in following simulations the number of stimuli (motor patterns and words was increased and the systematic association between words and patterns was disrupted, while keeping the same number of words and syntax. Results showed that in both conditions the advantage for the compositional condition significantly increased. These simulations showed that the advantage for this condition may be more related to the systematicity rather than to the mere informational gain. All results are discussed in connection to the possible support of the hypothesis of a compositional motor representation and towards a more precise explanation of the factors that make compositional representations working.

  3. Compositional symbol grounding for motor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Alberto; Caneva, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    We developed a new experimental and simulative paradigm to study the establishing of compositional grounded representations for motor patterns. Participants learned to associate non-sense arm motor patterns, performed in three different hand postures, with non-sense words. There were two group conditions: in the first (compositional), each pattern was associated with a two-word (verb-adverb) sentence; in the second (holistic), each same pattern was associated with a unique word. Two experiments were performed. In the first, motor pattern recognition and naming were tested in the two conditions. Results showed that verbal compositionality had no role in recognition and that the main source of confusability in this task came from discriminating hand postures. As the naming task resulted too difficult, some changes in the learning procedure were implemented in the second experiment. In this experiment, the compositional group achieved better results in naming motor patterns especially for patterns where hand postures discrimination was relevant. In order to ascertain the differential effect, upon this result, of memory load and of systematic grounding, neural network simulations were also made. After a basic simulation that worked as a good model of subjects performance, in following simulations the number of stimuli (motor patterns and words) was increased and the systematic association between words and patterns was disrupted, while keeping the same number of words and syntax. Results showed that in both conditions the advantage for the compositional condition significantly increased. These simulations showed that the advantage for this condition may be more related to the systematicity rather than to the mere informational gain. All results are discussed in connection to the possible support of the hypothesis of a compositional motor representation and toward a more precise explanation of the factors that make compositional representations working.

  4. Nonequilibrium Chemical Patterns and Their Bifurcations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Jin

    Stationary and dynamic patterns that arise in reaction-diffusion systems are investigated in laboratory experiments. Our study reveals several new types of pattern that have not been observed in previous studies. The new patterns are observed in a ferrocyanide-iodate-sulfite (FIS) system, and they include stationary lamellae, self -replicating spots, and repulsive waves. All are large amplitude patterns that are initiated by a finite amplitude perturbation. Our simulation results on a four-species FIS reaction diffusion model as well as several recent studies on other models by other researchers reveal similar patterns and pattern forming instabilities. The stationary lamellae form through transverse front instability and front repulsion, whereas the much studied small amplitude Turing structures form spontaneously at the onset of the Turing instability. The mechanism of self-replicating spots, which undergo a life-like process of birth through replication and death through overcrowding, is explained heuristically and rigorously by the Ising-Bloch front bifurcation recently studied by Meron and co-workers. The repulsive excitable waves are different from conventional excitable waves in that they do not collide and annihilate. Our earlier study investigates Turing patterns in chlorite-iodide-malonic acid (CIMA) system. We demonstrate that Turing patterns can form in a CIMA system even without the presence of a large molecule, the starch color indicator, which in a popular model plays a crucial role in Turing pattern formation. We speculate that the polyacrylamide gel used in our study plays a similar role to that of the starch indicator. The morphological transition of a Turing structure in a CIMA system was also investigated by changing the thickness of the gel medium.

  5. Groundwork for True XML-based Security Pattern Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAWFIQ S.M.Barhoom; ZHANG Shen-sheng

    2005-01-01

    A pattern is used to describe best practices and principles. Patterns have been used successfully in architecture and in software design. We propose to apply the pattern method to XML-based security engineering. Organized collections of interrelated patterns (called pattern languages) can embody whole bodies of knowledge on specific topics. We will discuss patterns and security pattern, pattern languages and the requirements of the pattern languages proposing its essential requirement (the template), and lays the groundwork for our future development of a true XML-based security pattern language.

  6. Spatial patterns of mortality in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, A H; Huq, S M; Mesbah-us-Saleheen

    1993-05-01

    This paper depicts the spatial patterns of mortality of the administrative upazilas of Bangladesh. Due to the absence of adequate data on mortality rates from across the country, the mortality rates of the upazilas are calculated from the age sex structure of the population of the respective upazilas employing the standardized mortality rates of divisional headquarters. Crude death rates are used to determine spatial patterns of mortality in Bangladesh. The patterns portray strong regional differences. Such differentiation is accounted for by traditional differences in demographic and socio-economic factors. Also, regression analysis is used to assist in explaining spatial variations.

  7. Reiki and changes in pattern manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Marcia E

    2009-07-01

    The purposes of this qualitative research study were to describe the changes in pattern manifestations that individuals experienced associated with receiving Reiki, and to present the theoretical understanding of these changes. The unitary field pattern portrait research method was utilized because it was ontologically, epistemologically, and methodologically consistent with the science of unitary human beings. Reiki was found to be associated with changes in awareness from dissonance and turbulence to harmony and well-being by helping individuals knowingly participate in actualizing their own capacities for healing. Reiki was found to be an appropriate voluntary mutual patterning nursing modality.

  8. Fuzzy Logic-Based Audio Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcangi, M.

    2008-11-01

    Audio and audio-pattern recognition is becoming one of the most important technologies to automatically control embedded systems. Fuzzy logic may be the most important enabling methodology due to its ability to rapidly and economically model such application. An audio and audio-pattern recognition engine based on fuzzy logic has been developed for use in very low-cost and deeply embedded systems to automate human-to-machine and machine-to-machine interaction. This engine consists of simple digital signal-processing algorithms for feature extraction and normalization, and a set of pattern-recognition rules manually tuned or automatically tuned by a self-learning process.

  9. Photovoltaic cell with nano-patterned substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Zhou, Xiaowang; Zubia, David

    2016-10-18

    A photovoltaic solar cell comprises a nano-patterned substrate layer. A plurality of nano-windows are etched into an intermediate substrate layer to form the nano-patterned substrate layer. The nano-patterned substrate layer is positioned between an n-type semiconductor layer composed of an n-type semiconductor material and a p-type semiconductor layer composed of a p-type semiconductor material. Semiconductor material accumulates in the plurality of nano-windows, causing a plurality of heterojunctions to form between the n-type semiconductor layer and the p-type semiconductor layer.

  10. Intelligence in Clothing Pattern CAD System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xu; ZHANG Zu-fang

    2007-01-01

    It analyzes three recognition methods for fiveelements, i.e. dot, line, loop, dothing pattern as well ascharacters, and also appfies intelligent points and tangentialcurve in the CAD system to solve the problem complained byCAD users. It indicates that recognition of five elements is afoundational technique of intelligence in clothing patternCAD system. Common functions in operation state such asmove, rotation, flip, measure, should precede ones inelement state as dot, line, and pattern. Moreover, it isrealized that the less skill the CAD user needs, the more theCAD software is high-tech.

  11. On Injective Embeddings of Tree Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Michaliszyn, Jakub; Staworko, Sławek; Wieczorek, Piotr; Wu, Zhilin

    2012-01-01

    We study three different kinds of embeddings of tree patterns: weakly-injective, ancestor-preserving, and lca-preserving. While each of them is often referred to as injective embedding, they form a proper hierarchy and their computational properties vary (from P to NP-complete). We present a thorough study of the complexity of the model checking problem i.e., is there an embedding of a given tree pattern in a given tree, and we investigate the impact of various restrictions imposed on the tree pattern: bound on the degree of a node, bound on the height, and type of allowed labels and edges.

  12. Understanding Patterns for System of Systems Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazman, Rick; Schmid, Klaus; Nielsen, Claus Ballegård

    2013-01-01

    of systems integration patterns. These characteristics at the same time support the architecting process by highlighting important issues a SoS architect needs to consider. We discuss the consolidated template and illustrate it with an example pattern. We also discuss the integration of this novel pattern......Architecting systems of systems is well known to be a formidable challenge. A major aspect in this is defining the integration among the systems that constitute the system of systems. In this paper, we aim to support the SoS architect by systematically developing a way to characterize system...

  13. Patterns In Debris Disks: No Planets Required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Debris disks like those around Fomalhaut and Beta Pictoris show striking dust patterns often attributed to hidden exoplanets. These patterns have been crucial for constraining the masses and orbits of these planets. But adding a bit of gas to our models of debris disks--too little gas to detect--seems to alter this interpretation. Small amounts of gas lead to new dynamical instabilities that may mimic the narrow eccentric rings and other structures planets would create in a gas-free disk. Can we still use dust patterns to find hidden exoplanets?

  14. Pattern recognition and classification an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    The use of pattern recognition and classification is fundamental to many of the automated electronic systems in use today. However, despite the existence of a number of notable books in the field, the subject remains very challenging, especially for the beginner. Pattern Recognition and Classification presents a comprehensive introduction to the core concepts involved in automated pattern recognition. It is designed to be accessible to newcomers from varied backgrounds, but it will also be useful to researchers and professionals in image and signal processing and analysis, and in computer visi

  15. Temperature and Polarization Patterns in Anisotropic Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sung, Rockhee

    2010-01-01

    We study the coherent temperature and polarization patterns produced in homogeneous but anisotropic cosmological models. We show results for all Bianchi types with a Friedman-Robertson-Walker limit (i.e. Types I, V, VII$_{0}$, VII$_{h}$ and IX) to illustrate the range of possible behaviour. We discuss the role of spatial curvature, shear and rotation in the geodesic equations for each model and establish some basic results concerning the symmetries of the patterns produced. We also give examples of the time-evolution of these patterns in terms of the Stokes parameters $I$, $Q$ and $U$.

  16. Coauthorship networks and patterns of scientific collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M E J

    2004-04-01

    By using data from three bibliographic databases in biology, physics, and mathematics, respectively, networks are constructed in which the nodes are scientists, and two scientists are connected if they have coauthored a paper. We use these networks to answer a broad variety of questions about collaboration patterns, such as the numbers of papers authors write, how many people they write them with, what the typical distance between scientists is through the network, and how patterns of collaboration vary between subjects and over time. We also summarize a number of recent results by other authors on coauthorship patterns.

  17. Protein patterning by a DNA origami framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Hüsnü; Krissanaprasit, Abhichart; Besenbacher, Flemming; Gothelf, Kurt V; Dong, Mingdong

    2016-08-18

    A spatial arrangement of proteins provides structural and functional advantages in vast technological applications as well as fundamental research. Most protein patterning procedures employ complicated, time consuming and very costly nanofabrication techniques. As an alternative route, we developed a fully biomolecular self-assembly method using DNA Origami Frames (DOF) as a template for both small and large scale protein patterning. We employed a triangular DOF (tDOF) to arrange the Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) protein. Our in situ protein patterning strategy provides a novel, fully organic platform using a fast and low-cost surface approach with possible utilization in fundamental science and technological applications.

  18. Hybrid strategies for nanolithography and chemical patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Charan

    Remarkable technological advances in photolithography have extended patterning to the sub-50-nm regime. However, because photolithography is a top-down approach, it faces substantial technological and economic challenges in maintaining the downward scaling trends of feature sizes below 30 nm. Concurrently, fundamental research on chemical self-assembly has enabled the path to access molecular length scales. The key to the success of photolithography is its inherent economies of scale, which justify the large capital investment for its implementation. In this thesis research, top-down and bottom-up approaches have been combined synergistically, and these hybrid strategies have been employed in applications that do not have the economies of scale found in semiconductor chip manufacturing. The specific instances of techniques developed here include molecular-ruler lithography and a series of nanoscale chemical patterning methods. Molecular-ruler lithography utilizes self-assembled multilayered films as a sidewall spacer on initial photolithographically patterned gold features (parent) to place a second-generation feature (daughter) in precise proximity to the parent. The parent-daughter separation, which is on the nanometer length scale, is defined by the thickness of the molecular-ruler resist. Analogous to protocols followed in industry to evaluate lithographic performance, electrical test-pad structures were designed to interrogate the nanostructures patterned by molecular-ruler nanolithography, failure modes creating electrical shorts were mapped to each lithographic step, and subsequent lithographic optimization was performed to pattern nanoscale devices with excellent electrical performance. The optimized lithographic processes were applied to generate nanoscale devices such as nanowires and thin-film transistors (TFTs). Metallic nanowires were patterned by depositing a tertiary generation material in the nanogap and surrounding micron-scale regions, and then

  19. Using pattern analysis methods to do fast detection of manufacturing pattern failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Evan; Wang, Jessie; Sun, Mason; Wang, Jeff; Zhang, Yifan; Sweis, Jason; Lai, Ya-Chieh; Ding, Hua

    2016-03-01

    At the advanced technology node, logic design has become extremely complex and is getting more challenging as the pattern geometry size decreases. The small sizes of layout patterns are becoming very sensitive to process variations. Meanwhile, the high pressure of yield ramp is always there due to time-to-market competition. The company that achieves patterning maturity earlier than others will have a great advantage and a better chance to realize maximum profit margins. For debugging silicon failures, DFT diagnostics can identify which nets or cells caused the yield loss. But normally, a long time period is needed with many resources to identify which failures are due to one common layout pattern or structure. This paper will present a new yield diagnostic flow, based on preliminary EFA results, to show how pattern analysis can more efficiently detect pattern related systematic defects. Increased visibility on design pattern related failures also allows more precise yield loss estimation.

  20. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Extended Spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of various bacterial pathogens including ... tests including, ESBL screening and confirmation, were carried out by disc diffusion technique ... MacConkey agar, Blood agar base, Mueller.

  1. Pattern formation during C. elegans vulval induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Sternberg, P W

    2001-01-01

    Studies of C. elegans vulval development provide insights into the process of pattern formation during animal development. The invariant pattern of vulval precursor cell fates is specified by the integration of at least two signaling systems. Recent findings suggest that multiple, partially redundant mechanisms are involved in patterning the vulval precursor cells. The inductive signal activates the LET-60/RAS signaling pathway and induces the 1 degree fate, whereas the lateral signal mediated by LIN-12/Notch is required for specification of the 2 degrees fate. Several regulatory pathways antagonize the RAS signaling pathway and specify the non-vulval 3 degrees fate in the absence of induction. The temporal and spatial regulation of VPC competence and production of the inductive and the lateral signal are precisely coordinated to ensure the wild-type vulval pattern.

  2. Regular pattern formation in real ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietkerk, Max; Koppel, Johan van de

    2008-01-01

    Localized ecological interactions can generate striking large-scale spatial patterns in ecosystems through spatial self-organization. Possible mechanisms include oscillating consumer–resource interactions, localized disturbance-recovery processes and scale-dependent feedback. Despite abundant theore

  3. Pattern formation in superdiffusion Oregonator model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fan; Yan, Jia; Liu, Fu-Cheng; He, Ya-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Pattern formations in an Oregonator model with superdiffusion are studied in two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulations. Stability analyses are performed by applying Fourier and Laplace transforms to the space fractional reaction-diffusion systems. Antispiral, stable turing patterns, and travelling patterns are observed by changing the diffusion index of the activator. Analyses of Floquet multipliers show that the limit cycle solution loses stability at the wave number of the primitive vector of the travelling hexagonal pattern. We also observed a transition between antispiral and spiral by changing the diffusion index of the inhibitor. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11205044 and 11405042), the Research Foundation of Education Bureau of Hebei Province, China (Grant Nos. Y2012009 and ZD2015025), the Program for Young Principal Investigators of Hebei Province, China, and the Midwest Universities Comprehensive Strength Promotion Project.

  4. Segmental mode of neural patterning in sipuncula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristof, Alen; Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    sipunculan, Phascolosoma agassizii, we found that neurogenesis initially follows a segmental pattern similar to that of annelids. Starting out with paired FMRFamidergic and serotonergic axons, four pairs of associated serotonergic perikarya and interconnecting commissures form one after another...

  5. Microscale metallization on conducting polyaniline patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uh, Kyung Chan; Lee, Joosub; Kim, Tae Geun; Lee, Chan Woo; Kim, Jong Man [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Fabrication of metallic nanomaterial patterns is very important in the electronic industry. A variety of techniques for producing these metallic nanoparticle patterns have been developed, such as ink-jet printing, 2 direct writing, 3,4 electroplati ng, 5,6 screen printing, 7 and soft lithography including micro-contact printing (μCP) 8–10 and we developed a simple and facile strategy for the fabrication of silver micropatterns on the surface of PANI patterns which were prepared by employing a photo- lithographic method. The silver was metallized along the PANI pattern through the oxidation-reduction reaction without requiring any reducing agent. The straightforward approach described above could open new avenues for the fabrication of metal micropatterns.

  6. Nasopharyngeal carriage and susceptibility patterns of Streptococcu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nasopharyngeal carriage and susceptibility patterns of Streptococcu ... poses an increasing problem in paediatrics, particularly in less developed countries. ... An effort to curtail the misuse of anitibiotics, by prescription and otherwise, may ...

  7. Facial attractiveness: General patterns of facial preferences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    This review covers universal patterns in facial preferences. Facial attractiveness has fascinated thinkers since antiquity, but has been the subject of intense scientific study for only the last quarter of a century...

  8. Physical Activity and Pattern of Blood Pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... This study investigated physical activity (PA) and pattern of blood pressure (BP) in ..... determinants of high blood pressure in a group of urban Nigerians. J. Hum. ... Endurance exercise effects on quality of life and menopausal ...

  9. Scenario Based Worm Trace Pattern Identification Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Rahayu, S Siti; Shahrin, S; Zaki, Mohd M; Irda, R; Faizal, M A

    2010-01-01

    The number of malware variants is growing tremendously and the study of malware attacks on the Internet is still a demanding research domain. In this research, various logs from different OSI layer are explore to identify the traces leave on the attacker and victim logs, and the attack worm trace pattern are establish in order to reveal true attacker or victim. For the purpose of this paper, it will only concentrate on cybercrime that caused by malware network intrusion and used the traditional worm namely blaster worm variants. This research creates the concept of trace pattern by fusing the attackers and victims perspective. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to propose on attackers, victims and multistep, attacker or victim, trace patterns by combining both perspectives. These three proposed worm trace patterns can be extended into research areas in alert correlation and computer forensic investigation.

  10. Fabrication of patterned polymer nanowire arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hao; Yuan, Dajun; Guo, Rui; Zhang, Su; Han, Ray P S; Das, Suman; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2011-02-22

    A method for the large-scale fabrication of patterned organic nanowire (NW) arrays is demonstrated by the use of laser interference patterning (LIP) in conjunction with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching. The NW arrays can be fabricated after a short ICP etching of periodic patterns produced through LIP. Arrays of NWs have been fabricated in UV-absorbent polymers, such as PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and Dura film (76% polyethylene and 24% polycarbonate), through laser interference photon ablation and in UV transparent polymers such as PVA (polyvinyl acetate) and PP (polypropylene) through laser interference lithography of a thin layer of photoresist coated atop the polymer surface. The dependence of the structure and morphology of NWs as a function of initial pattern created by LIP and the laser energy dose in LIP is discussed. The absence of residual photoresist atop the NWs in UV-transparent polymers is confirmed through Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Sequential pattern formation governed by signaling gradients

    CERN Document Server

    Jörg, David J; Jülicher, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Rhythmic and sequential segmentation of the embryonic body plan is a vital developmental patterning process in all vertebrate species. However, a theoretical framework capturing the emergence of dynamic patterns of gene expression from the interplay of cell oscillations with tissue elongation and shortening and with signaling gradients, is still missing. Here we show that a set of coupled genetic oscillators in an elongating tissue that is regulated by diffusing and advected signaling molecules can account for segmentation as a self-organized patterning process. This system can form a finite number of segments and the dynamics of segmentation and the total number of segments formed depend strongly on kinetic parameters describing tissue elongation and signaling molecules. The model accounts for existing experimental perturbations to signaling gradients, and makes testable predictions about novel perturbations. The variety of different patterns formed in our model can account for the variability of segmentatio...

  12. Sequential pattern formation governed by signaling gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jörg, David J.; Oates, Andrew C.; Jülicher, Frank

    2016-10-01

    Rhythmic and sequential segmentation of the embryonic body plan is a vital developmental patterning process in all vertebrate species. However, a theoretical framework capturing the emergence of dynamic patterns of gene expression from the interplay of cell oscillations with tissue elongation and shortening and with signaling gradients, is still missing. Here we show that a set of coupled genetic oscillators in an elongating tissue that is regulated by diffusing and advected signaling molecules can account for segmentation as a self-organized patterning process. This system can form a finite number of segments and the dynamics of segmentation and the total number of segments formed depend strongly on kinetic parameters describing tissue elongation and signaling molecules. The model accounts for existing experimental perturbations to signaling gradients, and makes testable predictions about novel perturbations. The variety of different patterns formed in our model can account for the variability of segmentation between different animal species.

  13. Consumers' dietary patterns and desires for change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Birgit

    explain how Ziehe's work can be linked to changes in food consumption. 5. The in-depth interviews were analysed across the twelve families around eleven focus points: * division of labour in the family and the time available * economic resources * consumers' perception of quality * ecological products......1. The objective of this working paper is to analyse consumers' dietary patterns as reflected in shopping, meal patterns, eating habits, traditions, cooking and the content of the diet itself. These dietary patterns were analysed with regard to th connection to consumers' ways of life, family form...... and living conditions, in as much as cooking and eating food play an extremely important role in the structuring of everyday life. 2. The consumer analyses are based on 12 qualitative interviews concerning consumers' ways of life, daily life and dietary patterns. The consumers were selected on the basis...

  14. 1990 Kansas Land Cover Patterns Update

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — In 2008, an update of the 1990 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) database was undertaken. The 1990 KLCP database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State...

  15. Patterned self-assembled film guided electrodeposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Feng; LI; Bin; XU; Tao; CHEN; Miao; HAO; Jingcheng; LI

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the fabrication of polypyrrole (PPy) microstructures through patterned self-assembled film guided electrodeposition. Thus the patterned self-assembled monolayer is prepared by microcontact printing (μCP) and used as the template in the electrodeposition of PPy. It has been found that the self-assembled monolayer plays completely different roles on different substrates in directing the deposition of the PPy. Namely, the electrodeposition mainly occurs on the exposed area of the gold substrates patterned with dodecanethiol (DDT) and octadecanelthiol (ODT) and on the indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate patterned with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS), while PPy nucleates on the OTS covered area and no deposition is found on the exposed area of a semiconductor substrate (silicon). This is attributed to the cooperative effect between the substrate conductivity and the compatibility of the PPy oligomer with the covered or exposed area of the substrate surface.

  16. pattern and clinical characteristics of firearm injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-03-03

    Mar 3, 2008 ... Objective: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with ... h decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The.

  17. Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Photoresists for EUV Patterning

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    © 2014SPST. Previous studies of methacrylate based nanoparticle have demonstrated the excellent pattern forming capability of these hybrid materials when used as photoresists under 13.5 nm EUV exposure. HfO2 and ZrO2 methacrylate resists have achieved high resolution (∼22 nm) at a very high EUV sensitivity (4.2 mJ/cm2). Further investigations into the patterning process suggests a ligand displacement mechanism, wherein, any combination of a metal oxide with the correct ligand could generate patterns in the presence of the suitable photoactive compound. The current investigation extends this study by developing new nanoparticle compositions with transdimethylacrylic acid and o-toluic acid ligands. This study describes their synthesis and patterning performance under 248 nm KrF laser (DUV) and also under 13.5 nm EUV exposures (dimethylacrylate nanoparticles) for the new resist compositions.

  18. Feeding patterns and diet -- babies and infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000712.htm Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants To use ... prevent childhood obesity Alternative names Babies and infants - feeding; Diet - age appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies ...

  19. Pattern Formation in a Dusty Plasma System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄峰; 叶茂福; 王龙; 江南

    2004-01-01

    A rich variety of dust patterns have been observed in a capacitively coupled rf discharge dusty plasma system. Dust particles are synthesized through chemical reaction of the filled gas mixture during discharge. Different patterns are formed in different stages of particle growth. In the early stage of particle growth, dust cloud can be formed by a large number of small particles, and its behavior appears to be fluid-like. Such interesting nonlinear phenomena as dust void and complex dust cloud patterns are observed in this stage. As dust particles grow, the particle size and structure can be controlled to follow two different routes. In one of the routes, the particles grow up in a ball-like shape and can be formed into regular lattice and cluster patterns.In the other, the particles grow up in a fractal shape.

  20. A new pattern of the periodic table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajendra Nath Tripathi

    1962-07-01

    Full Text Available A new pattern of the Periodic Table is described which incorporates all the points for which various models of two or three dimensional tables have been proposed from time to time.

  1. AN EVEN ODD MULTIPLE PATTERN MATCHING ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Bhukya,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pattern matching plays an important role in various applications ranging from text searching in word processors to identification of functional and structural behavior in proteins and genes. Pattern matching is one of the fundamental areas in the field of computational biology. Currently research in life science area is producing large amount of genetic data. Due to this large and use full information can be gained by finding valuable information available from the genomic sequences. Many algorithms have been proposed but more efficient and robust methods are needed for the multiple pattern matching algorithms for better use. We introduce a new indexing technique called an Index based even odd multiple pattern matching, which gives very good performance when compared with some of the existing popular algorithms. The current technique avoids unnecessary DNA comparisons as a result the number of comparisons and CPC ratio gradually decreases and overall performance increases accordingly.

  2. Universal Predictability of Mobility Patterns in Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2013-01-01

    Despite the long history towards modeling human mobility, we continue to lack a highly accurate but low data requirement approach to predicting mobility patterns in cities. Here, we present a conduction-like stochastic process without adjustable parameter to capture the underlying driving force accounting for human mobility patterns at the city scale. We use various mobility data collected from a number of cities with different characteristics to demonstrate the predictive power of our model, finding that insofar as the spatial distribution of population is available, our model offers universal prediction of mobility patterns in good agreement with real observations, including distance distribution, destination travel constraints and flux. In contrast, the models quite successful in modeling mobility patterns in countries are not applicable in cities, suggesting the diversity of human mobility at different spatial scales. Our model has potential applications in many fields relevant to mobility behavior in cit...

  3. Fast algorithm on string cross pattern matching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Gongshen; Li Jianhua; Li Shenghong

    2005-01-01

    Given a set U which is consisted of strings defined on alphabet ∑ , string cross pattern matching is to find all the matches between every two strings in U. It is utilized in text processing like removing the duplication of strings.This paper presents a fast string cross pattern matching algorithm based on extracting high frequency strings. Compared with existing algorithms including single-pattern algorithms and multi-pattern matching algorithms, this algorithm is featured by both low time complexityand low space complexity. Because Chinese alphabet is large and the average length of Chinese words is much short, this algorithm is more suitable to process the text written by Chinese, especially when the size of ∑ is large and the number of strings is far more than the maximum length of strings of set U.

  4. Fuzzy Neural Model for Flatness Pattern Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Chun-yu; SHAN Xiu-ying; LIU Hong-min; NIU Zhao-ping

    2008-01-01

    For the problems occurring in a least square method model,a fuzzy model,and a neural network model for flatness pattern recognition,a fuzzy neural network model for flatness pattern recognition with only three-input and three-output signals was proposed with Legendre orthodoxy polynomial as basic pattern,based on fuzzy logic expert experiential knowledge and genetic-BP hybrid optimization algorithm.The model not only had definite physical meanings in its inner nodes,but also had strong self-adaptability,anti-interference ability,high recognition precision,and high velocity,thereby meeting the demand of high-precision flatness control for cold strip mill and providing a convenient,practical,and novel method for flatness pattern recognition.

  5. Food patterns of Polish older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadolowska, L.; Danowska-Oziewicz, M.; Niedzwiedzka, E.

    2006-01-01

    (living alone or living with other people). Respondents were asked questions about consumption of 55 food products. The factor analysis allowed for separating 21 food patterns. They included from 1 to 3 groups of products, intake of which was mutually dependant. Big number of separated food patterns......Food patterns of Polish older people were separated and described. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years, living in 5 geographical locations. Participants of the study were selected in quota sampling. Criteria for recruitment included sex, age (65-^74 or 75+ years) and family status...... and small number of products fonning joint food patterns speak in advocacy of relatively small reciprocal relationship between different food items consumed by the seniors in Poland....

  6. The relationship between landscape planting patterns and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ahmad

    Key words: Urban parks, landscape content and perceived safety. INTRODUCTION .... gested not only vegetation type, size, and location are important but the .... they were asked to rank the top five related photos at each planting pattern (1= ...

  7. Estimating shot distance from limited pellets pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebe, Alessio; Compagnini, Domenico

    2012-10-10

    Several methods are available for shooting range estimation based on pellets pattern on the target that have a remarkable degree of accuracy. The task is usually approached working under the assumption that the entire distribution of pellets is available for examination. These methods fail, however, when the victim has been hit by a portion of the pattern only. The problem can be solved with reasonable accuracy when there are areas of void in the victim that are adjacent to the area struck by pellets. This study presents a method that can be used in precisely this type of situation, allowing the estimation of shot distance in cases of partial pellet patterns. It is based on collecting distributions in test shots at several distances, and taking samples in the targets, constrained by the shape of the void and the pellet hit areas. Statistical descriptors of patterns are extracted from such samples, and fed into a neural network classifier, estimating shot ranges of distance.

  8. Cellular Automaton Modeling of Pattern Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlijst, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Book review Andreas Deutsch and Sabine Dormann, Cellular Automaton Modeling of Biological Pattern Formation, Characterization, Applications, and Analysis, Birkhäuser (2005) ISBN 0-8176-4281-1 331pp..

  9. Using texture synthesis in fractal pattern design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Traditional fractal pattern design has some disadvantages such as inability to effectively reflect the characteristics of real scenery and texture. We propose a novel pattern design technique combining fractal geometry and image texture synthesis to solve these problems. We have improved Wei and Levoy (2000)'s texture synthesis algorithm by first using two-dimensional autocorrelation function to analyze the structure and distribution of textures, and then determining the size of L neighborhood.Several special fractal sets were adopted and HSL (Hue, Saturation, and Light) color space was chosen. The fractal structure was used to manipulate the texture synthesis in HSL color space where the pattern's color can be adjusted conveniently. Experiments showed that patterns with different styles and different color characteristics can be more efficiently generated using the new technique.

  10. Patterns of store patronage in urban China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uncles, Mark D; Kwok, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Reported is a formal investigation of store patronage in urban China. Using consumer panel data for sales of packaged goods through store types and named store chains, patterns of sales, loyalty and duplication are examined...

  11. Patterns of Regression in Rett Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Patterns and features of regression in a case series of 53 girls and women with Rett syndrome were studied at the Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Children’s Hospital, London, UK.

  12. Spatiotemporal patterns and predictability of cyberattacks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yu-Zhong; Xu, Shouhuai; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    A relatively unexplored issue in cybersecurity science and engineering is whether there exist intrinsic patterns of cyberattacks. Conventional wisdom favors absence of such patterns due to the overwhelming complexity of the modern cyberspace. Surprisingly, through a detailed analysis of an extensive data set that records the time-dependent frequencies of attacks over a relatively wide range of consecutive IP addresses, we successfully uncover intrinsic spatiotemporal patterns underlying cyberattacks, where the term "spatio" refers to the IP address space. In particular, we focus on analyzing {\\em macroscopic} properties of the attack traffic flows and identify two main patterns with distinct spatiotemporal characteristics: deterministic and stochastic. Strikingly, there are very few sets of major attackers committing almost all the attacks, since their attack "fingerprints" and target selection scheme can be unequivocally identified according to the very limited number of unique spatiotemporal characteristics...

  13. Discovering More Accurate Frequent Web Usage Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Bayir, Murat Ali; Cosar, Ahmet; Fidan, Guven

    2008-01-01

    Web usage mining is a type of web mining, which exploits data mining techniques to discover valuable information from navigation behavior of World Wide Web users. As in classical data mining, data preparation and pattern discovery are the main issues in web usage mining. The first phase of web usage mining is the data processing phase, which includes the session reconstruction operation from server logs. Session reconstruction success directly affects the quality of the frequent patterns discovered in the next phase. In reactive web usage mining techniques, the source data is web server logs and the topology of the web pages served by the web server domain. Other kinds of information collected during the interactive browsing of web site by user, such as cookies or web logs containing similar information, are not used. The next phase of web usage mining is discovering frequent user navigation patterns. In this phase, pattern discovery methods are applied on the reconstructed sessions obtained in the first phas...

  14. Contact patterns among high school students

    CERN Document Server

    Fournet, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Face-to-face contacts between individuals contribute to shape social networks and play an important role in determining how infectious diseases can spread within a population. It is thus important to obtain accurate and reliable descriptions of human contact patterns occurring in various day-to-day life contexts. Recent technological advances and the development of wearable sensors able to sense proximity patterns have made it possible to gather data giving access to time-varying contact networks of individuals in specific environments. Here we present and analyze two such data sets describing with high temporal resolution the contact patterns of students in a high school. We define contact matrices describing the contact patterns between students of different classes and show the importance of the class structure. We take advantage of the fact that the two data sets were collected in the same setting during several days in two successive years to perform a longitudinal analysis on two very different timescal...

  15. Career Development and Emerging Managerial Career Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeda, Maurice

    1999-01-01

    Career-motivation theory provides a new framework for managerial careers in the context of contemporary career patterns. The framework includes the concepts of career resilience, career insight, and career identity. (SK)

  16. Regular pattern formation in real ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietkerk, M.; Van de Koppel, J.

    2008-01-01

    Localized ecological interactions can generate striking large-scale spatial patterns in ecosystems through spatial self-organization. Possible mechanisms include oscillating consumer–resource interactions, localized disturbance-recovery processes and scale-dependent feedback. Despite abundant

  17. Growth patterns of adolescents in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mater, A M; Alekri, S A; Mahdi, A R; Musaiger, A O

    1990-10-01

    Weight and height of adolescents in Bahrain (15.5-19.5 years) was measured to evaluate their growth patterns. A cross-sectional survey was done on 825 students that represented 5% of total secondary students. The results showed that median height and weight of Bahraini adolescents were below the 50th percentiles of the Western standard. However, when compared with earlier surveys in Bahrain, the growth pattern has improved. This is because of improvement in health and in the environment.

  18. Software patterns, knowledge maps, and domain analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fayad, Mohamed E; Hegde, Srikanth GK; Basia, Anshu; Vakil, Ashka

    2014-01-01

    Preface AcknowledgmentsAuthors INTRODUCTIONAn Overview of Knowledge MapsIntroduction: Key Concepts-Software Stable Models, Knowledge Maps, Pattern Language, Goals, Capabilities (Enduring Business Themes + Business Objects) The Motivation The Problem The Objectives Overview of Software Stability Concepts Overview of Knowledge Maps Pattern Languages versus Knowledge Maps: A Brief ComparisonThe Solution Knowledge Maps Methodology or Concurrent Software Development ModelWhy Knowledge Maps? Research Methodology Undertaken Research Verification and Validation The Stratification of This Book Summary

  19. Pattern recognition using linguistic fuzzy logic predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiballa, Hashim

    2016-06-01

    The problem of pattern recognition has been solved with numerous methods in the Artificial Intelligence field. We present an unconventional method based on Lingustic Fuzzy Logic Forecaster which is primarily used for the task of time series analysis and prediction through logical deduction wtih linguistic variables. This method should be used not only to the time series prediction itself, but also for recognition of patterns in a signal with seasonal component.

  20. Pattern Formation in a Bacterial Colony Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinze Lian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of a bacterial colony model. Based on the stability analysis, we derive the conditions for Hopf and Turing bifurcations. Furthermore, we present novel numerical evidence of time evolution of patterns controlled by parameters in the model and find that the model dynamics exhibit a diffusion controlled formation growth to spots, holes and stripes pattern replication, which show that the bacterial colony model is useful in revealing the spatial predation dynamics in the real world.