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Sample records for pumpless interventional lung

  1. Experimental investigation on a small pumpless ORC (organic rankine cycle) system driven by the low temperature heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, P.; Wang, L.W.; Wang, R.Z.; Jiang, L.; Zhou, Z.S.

    2015-01-01

    A small pumpless ORC (organic rankine cycle) system with different scroll expanders modified from compressors of the automobile air-conditioner is established, and the refrigerant R245fa is chosen as the working fluid. Different hot water temperatures of 80, 85, 90 and 95 °C are employed to drive the pumpless ORC system. Experimental results show that a maximum shaft power of 361.0 W is obtained under the hot water temperature of 95 °C, whereas the average shaft power is 155.8 W. The maximum energy efficiency of 2.3% and the maximum exergy efficiency of 12.8% are obtained at the hot water temperature of 90 °C. Meanwhile a test rig for investigating the mechanical loss of the scroll expander is established. The torque caused by the internal mechanical friction of the expander is about 0.4 N m. Additionally, another scroll expander with a displacement of 86 ml/r is also employed to investigate how scroll expander displacement influences the performance of the pumpless ORC system. Finally, the performance of the pumpless ORC system is compared with that of the conventional ORC system, and experimental results show that the small pumpless ORC system has more advantages for the low-grade heat recovery. - Highlights: • A small pumpless ORC (organic rankine cycle) system is established, and different scroll expanders are tested. • The maximum energy and exergy efficiency are 2.3% and 12.8% respectively. • A maximum shaft power of 361.0 W is obtained under the heat source temperature of 95 °C. • The small pumpless ORC system has characteristics of the high efficiency.

  2. Apneic oxygenation combined with extracorporeal arteriovenous carbon dioxide removal provides sufficient gas exchange in experimental lung injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Kjærgaard, Benedict; Nielsen, Jakob Koefoed

    In this porcine lung injury model, apneic oxygenation with arteriovenous CO2 removal provided sufficient gas exchange and stable hemodynamics, indicating that the method might have a potential in the treatment of severe ARDS.   Acknowledgements The membrane lungs were kindly provided by Novalung GmbH, Germany.......Background and aim of study We hypothesized that continuous high airway pressure without ventilatory movements (apneic oxygenation), using an open lung approach, combined with extracorporeal, pumpless, arterio-venous, carbon dioxide (CO2) removal would provide adequate gas exchange in acute lung...

  3. The interventional therapy of lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Changcen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of chronic lung abscess by interventional therapy under CT guidance. Methods: The group consisted of 12 patients. Firstly, the positions of abscess were localized by CT, secondly under CT guidance puncturing into the abscess with a needle and then thirdly, drain aging through the abscess and injecting some antibiotics through the needle. The treatment consisted by 16 times with an average drawing volume out 10-100 ml, during 18-28 days as a course. All patients were cured. Conclusion: The interventional therapy under CT guidance for chronic lung abscess can increase the therapeutic effect, decrease the course of treatment and avoid the operation. Therefore, it is a safe, simple and convenient method

  4. Interventional Analgesic Management of Lung Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Uri; Elgueta, Maria Francisca; Perez, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the four most prevalent cancers worldwide. Comprehensive patient care includes not only adherence to clinical guidelines to control and when possible cure the disease but also appropriate symptom control. Pain is one of the most prevalent symptoms in patients diagnosed with lung cancer; it can arise from local invasion of chest structures or metastatic disease invading bones, nerves, or other anatomical structures potentially painful. Pain can also be a consequence of therapeutic approaches like surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy. Conventional medical management of cancer pain includes prescription of opioids and coadjuvants at doses sufficient to control the symptoms without causing severe drug effects. When an adequate pharmacological medical management fails to provide satisfactory analgesia or when it causes limiting side effects, interventional cancer pain techniques may be considered. Interventional pain management is devoted to the use of invasive techniques such as joint injections, nerve blocks and/or neurolysis, neuromodulation, and cement augmentation techniques to provide diagnosis and treatment of pain syndromes resistant to conventional medical management. Advantages of interventional approaches include better analgesic outcomes without experiencing drug-related side effects and potential for opioid reduction thus avoiding central side effects. This review will describe various pain syndromes frequently described in lung cancer patients and those interventional techniques potentially indicated for those cases.

  5. Nutrition support and dietary interventions for patients with lung cancer: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicole Kiss1,2 1Nutrition and Speech Pathology Department, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Cancer Experiences Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Malnutrition and weight loss are prevalent in patients with lung cancer. The impact of malnutrition on patients with cancer, and specifically in patients with lung cancer, has been demonstrated in a large number of studies. Malnutrition has been shown to negatively affect treatment completion, survival, quality of life, physical function, and health care costs. Emerging evidence is providing some insight into which lung cancer patients are at higher nutritional risk. In lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy, stage III or more disease, treatment with concurrent chemotherapy and the extent of radiotherapy delivered to the esophagus appear to confer a higher risk of weight loss during and post-treatment. Studies investigating nutrition interventions for lung cancer patients have examined intensive dietary counseling, supplementation with fish oils, and interdisciplinary models of nutrition and exercise interventions and show promise for improved outcomes from these interventions. However, further research utilizing these interventions in large clinical trials is required to definitively establish effective interventions in this patient group. Keywords: lung cancer, nutrition, malnutrition

  6. Exercise and relaxation intervention for patients with advanced lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Stage, M; Laursen, J

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer patients experience loss of physical capacity, dyspnea, pain, reduced energy and psychological distress. The aim of this study was to explore feasibility, health benefits and barriers of exercise in former sedentary patients with advanced stage lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer...... (NSCLC) (III-IV) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (ED), undergoing chemotherapy. The intervention consisted of a hospital-based, supervised, group exercise and relaxation program comprising resistance-, cardiovascular- and relaxation training 4 h weekly, 6 weeks, and a concurrent unsupervised home......-based exercise program. An explorative study using individual semi-structured interviews (n=15) and one focus group interview (n=8) was conducted among the participants. Throughout the intervention the patients experienced increased muscle strength, improvement in wellbeing, breathlessness and energy. The group...

  7. Chapter 7: Description of miscan-lung, the erasmus mc lung cancer microsimulation model for evaluating cancer control interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.W. Schultz (Frank); R. Boer (Rob); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe MISCAN-lung model was designed to simulate population trends in lung cancer (LC) for comprehensive surveillance of the disease, to relate past exposure to risk factors to (observed) LC incidence and mortality, and to estimate the impact of cancer-control interventions. MISCAN-lung

  8. The percutaneous interventional therapy of lung abscess and pyothorax under the CT guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xinghan; Zhu Zhenfang; Lv Fanzhen; Yan Dejun; Su Baomin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the indication, the procedure, the necessity and feasibility of the percutaneous interventional therapy of lung abscess and pyothorax under the CT guidance. Methods: The group included 18 patients who received percutaneous interventional therapy of lung abscess and pyothorax. Results: 13 patients were cured by a single procedure, 3 patients received twice intervention. Triple therapies were done in 2 patients. 2 cases out of 18 were eventually diagnosed as peripheral lung cancer. The body temperature and the WBC count returned to normal range after the procedures. 16 patients completely recovered in 1-5 weeks after the therapies. Conclusion: The interventional therapy under CT guidance not only helps the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of chronic or acute lung abscess and pyothorax, but also shortens the course of treatment and avoids the open surgery. It is a safe, simple and convenient method

  9. The Role of Interventional Oncology in the Management of Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duka, Ejona, E-mail: ejonaduka@hotmail.com; Ierardi, Anna Maria, E-mail: amierardi@yahoo.it; Floridi, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.floridi@gmail.com; Terrana, Alberto, E-mail: albertoterrana@libero.it; Fontana, Federico, E-mail: fede.fontana@libero.it [Insubria University, Radiology Department (Italy); Carrafiello, Gianpaolo, E-mail: gcarraf@gmail.com [University of Milan, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Department (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    Interventional radiological procedures for diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer have become increasingly important. Imaging-guided percutaneous biopsy has become the modality of choice for diagnosing lung cancer, and in the era of target therapies, it is an useful tool to define earlier patient-specific tumor phenotypes. In functionally inoperable patients, especially the ablative procedures are potentially curative alternatives to surgery. In addition to thermally ablative treatment, selective chemoembolization by a vascular access allows localized therapy. These treatments are considered for patients in a reduced general condition which does not allow systemic chemotherapy. The present article reviews the role of interventional oncology in the management of primary lung cancer, focusing on the state of the art for each procedure.

  10. Lower tidal volume strategy (?3?ml/kg) combined with extracorporeal CO2 removal versus ?conventional? protective ventilation (6?ml/kg) in severe ARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Bein, Thomas; Weber-Carstens, Steffen; Goldmann, Anton; M?ller, Thomas; Staudinger, Thomas; Brederlau, J?rg; Muellenbach, Ralf; Dembinski, Rolf; Graf, Bernhard M.; Wewalka, Marlene; Philipp, Alois; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Lubnow, Matthias; Slutsky, Arthur S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by damage to the lung caused by various insults, including ventilation itself, and tidal hyperinflation can lead to ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). We investigated the effects of a low tidal volume (V T) strategy (V T???3?ml/kg/predicted body weight [PBW]) using pumpless extracorporeal lung assist in established ARDS. Methods Seventy-nine patients were enrolled after a ?stabilization period? (24?h with optimized therapy an...

  11. Physiotherapeutic Intervention in the lung transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro C, Carolyn; Gonzalez M Sonia

    2001-01-01

    The physical therapist just as other health professionals must know, how to detect and control the risk factors that affect the welfare of his patients, this is done by evaluation, education and assistance in order to benefit the biological, psychological, emotional, social and environmental conditions that contribute to their development as human beings. The physical therapist in the lung transplant area can create strategies to promotion, prevent and rehabilitate in the pre and post surgical phases of the intervention, to facilitate the required conditions that allow optimal adaptation of the receiver to the new organ

  12. A cost-utility analysis of lung cancer screening and the additional benefits of incorporating smoking cessation interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C Villanti

    Full Text Available A 2011 report from the National Lung Screening Trial indicates that three annual low-dose computed tomography (LDCT screenings for lung cancer reduced lung cancer mortality by 20% compared to chest X-ray among older individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Discussion has shifted from clinical proof to financial feasibility. The goal of this study was to determine whether LDCT screening for lung cancer in a commercially-insured population (aged 50-64 at high risk for lung cancer is cost-effective and to quantify the additional benefits of incorporating smoking cessation interventions in a lung cancer screening program.The current study builds upon a previous simulation model to estimate the cost-utility of annual, repeated LDCT screenings over 15 years in a high risk hypothetical cohort of 18 million adults between age 50 and 64 with 30+ pack-years of smoking history. In the base case, the lung cancer screening intervention cost $27.8 billion over 15 years and yielded 985,284 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained for a cost-utility ratio of $28,240 per QALY gained. Adding smoking cessation to these annual screenings resulted in increases in both the costs and QALYs saved, reflected in cost-utility ratios ranging from $16,198 per QALY gained to $23,185 per QALY gained. Annual LDCT lung cancer screening in this high risk population remained cost-effective across all sensitivity analyses.The findings of this study indicate that repeat annual lung cancer screening in a high risk cohort of adults aged 50-64 is highly cost-effective. Offering smoking cessation interventions with the annual screening program improved the cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening between 20% and 45%. The cost-utility ratios estimated in this study were in line with other accepted cancer screening interventions and support inclusion of annual LDCT screening for lung cancer in a high risk population in clinical recommendations.

  13. Preemptive hemodynamic intervention restricting the administration of fluids attenuates lung edema progression in oleic acid-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Cano, A; Gracia Romero, M; Monge García, M I; Guijo González, P; Ruiz Campos, J

    2017-04-01

    A study is made of the influence of preemptive hemodynamic intervention restricting fluid administration upon the development of oleic acid-induced lung injury. A randomized in vivo study in rabbits was carried out. University research laboratory. Sixteen anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rabbits. Hemodynamic measurements obtained by transesophageal Doppler signal. Respiratory mechanics computed by a least square fitting method. Lung edema assessed by the ratio of wet weight to dry weight of the right lung. Histological examination of the left lung. Animals were randomly assigned to either the early protective lung strategy (EPLS) (n=8) or the early protective hemodynamic strategy (EPHS) (n=8). In both groups, lung injury was induced by the intravenous infusion of oleic acid (OA) (0.133mlkg -1 h -1 for 2h). At the same time, the EPLS group received 15mlkg -1 h -1 of Ringer lactate solution, while the EPHS group received 30mlkg -1 h -1 . Measurements were obtained at baseline and 1 and 2h after starting OA infusion. After 2h, the cardiac index decreased in the EPLS group (p<0.05), whereas in the EPHS group it remained unchanged. Lung compliance decreased significantly only in the EPHS group (p<0.05). Lung edema was greater in the EPHS group (p<0.05). Histological damage proved similar in both groups (p=0.4). In this experimental model of early lung injury, lung edema progression was attenuated by preemptively restricting the administration of fluids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  14. A small-scale, rolled-membrane microfluidic artificial lung designed towards future large area manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A J; Marks, L H; Goudie, M J; Rojas-Pena, A; Handa, H; Potkay, J A

    2017-03-01

    Artificial lungs have been used in the clinic for multiple decades to supplement patient pulmonary function. Recently, small-scale microfluidic artificial lungs (μAL) have been demonstrated with large surface area to blood volume ratios, biomimetic blood flow paths, and pressure drops compatible with pumpless operation. Initial small-scale microfluidic devices with blood flow rates in the μ l/min to ml/min range have exhibited excellent gas transfer efficiencies; however, current manufacturing techniques may not be suitable for scaling up to human applications. Here, we present a new manufacturing technology for a microfluidic artificial lung in which the structure is assembled via a continuous "rolling" and bonding procedure from a single, patterned layer of polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS). This method is demonstrated in a small-scale four-layer device, but is expected to easily scale to larger area devices. The presented devices have a biomimetic branching blood flow network, 10  μ m tall artificial capillaries, and a 66  μ m thick gas transfer membrane. Gas transfer efficiency in blood was evaluated over a range of blood flow rates (0.1-1.25 ml/min) for two different sweep gases (pure O 2 , atmospheric air). The achieved gas transfer data closely follow predicted theoretical values for oxygenation and CO 2 removal, while pressure drop is marginally higher than predicted. This work is the first step in developing a scalable method for creating large area microfluidic artificial lungs. Although designed for microfluidic artificial lungs, the presented technique is expected to result in the first manufacturing method capable of simply and easily creating large area microfluidic devices from PDMS.

  15. Exercise intervention for patients diagnosed with operable non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missel, Malene; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Hendriksen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose was to explore operable lung cancer patient experiences with an exercise intervention from a longitudinal perspective according to patient motivation and patient perceived benefits and barriers of exercise. METHODS: Nineteen patients enrolled in an exercise intervention 2 weeks...... study dropped out of the intervention due to side effects of chemotherapy (n = 3) and external circumstances (n = 5). The mean attendance rate for the eleven participants who completed the intervention was 82 %. No patients experienced severe adverse events. Motivation for participation included...... patients' expectations of physical benefits and the security of having professionals present. Patients experienced physical and emotional benefits and affirmed their social identity. Barriers were primarily related to side effects of chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: The exercise intervention was undertaken safely...

  16. "EXHALE": exercise as a strategy for rehabilitation in advanced stage lung cancer patients: a randomized clinical trial comparing the effects of 12 weeks supervised exercise intervention versus usual care for advanced stage lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist, Morten; Langer, SW; Rørth, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in North America and Western Europe. Patients with lung cancer in general have reduced physical capacity, functional capacity, poor quality of life and increased levels of anxiety and depression. Intervention studies indicate that physi......BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in North America and Western Europe. Patients with lung cancer in general have reduced physical capacity, functional capacity, poor quality of life and increased levels of anxiety and depression. Intervention studies indicate...... that physical training can address these issues. However, there is a lack of decisive evidence regarding the effect of physical exercise in patients with advanced lung cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of a twelve weeks, twice weekly program consisting of: supervised, structured training...... in a group of advanced lung cancer patients (cardiovascular and strength training, relaxation). METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial will test the effects of the exercise intervention in 216 patients with advanced lung cancer (non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stage IIIb-IV and small cell lung...

  17. The clinical evaluation of double intervention therapy for advanced lung carcinoma by bronchial and pulmonary arterial approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yue; Gao Congjing

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Seeking a better way of PAI and BAI double intervention therapy for mid and advanced lung carcinoma, to observe the clinical effect. Methods: 60 patients with double intervention therapy through bronchial and pulmonary arterial (BAI and PAI) approaches were analyzed. Results: The effective rates of BAI and PAI as CR, PR and NC were 9 cases (15%), 45% cases (75%), 6 cases (10%) with mean survival spans of 10.8 and 12.4 months respectively. Conclusions: The combined treatment effects of BAI and PAI were better than BAI alone in advanced lung carcinoma with operation

  18. Antioxidant intervention of smoking-induced lung tumor in mice by vitamin E and quercetin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jie; Li, Jun-Wen; Wang, Lu; Chen, Zhaoli; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Jin, Min; Wang, Xin-Wei; Zheng, Yufei; Qiu, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Jing-feng

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological and in vitro studies suggest that antioxidants such as quercetin and vitamin E (VE) can prevent lung tumor caused by smoking; however, there is limited evidence from animal studies. In the present study, Swiss mouse was used to examine the potential of quercetin and VE for prevention lung tumor induced by smoking. Our results suggest that the incidence of lung tumor and tumor multiplicity were 43.5% and 1.00 ± 0.29 in smoking group; Quercetin has limited effects on lung tumor prevention in this in vivo model, as measured by assays for free radical scavenging, reduction of smoke-induced DNA damage and inhibition of apoptosis. On the other hand, vitamin E drastically decreased the incidence of lung tumor and tumor multiplicity which were 17.0% and 0.32 ± 0.16, respectively (p < 0.05); and demonstrated prominent antioxidant effects, reduction of DNA damage and decreased cell apoptosis (p < 0.05). Combined treatment with quercetin and VE in this animal model did not demonstrate any effect greater than that due to vitamin E alone. In addition, gender differences in the occurrence of smoke induced-lung tumor and antioxidant intervention were also observed. We conclude that VE might prevent lung tumor induced by smoking in Swiss mice

  19. Primary Care Provider-Delivered Smoking Cessation Interventions and Smoking Cessation Among Participants in the National Lung Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Elyse R; Gareen, Ilana F; Japuntich, Sandra; Lennes, Inga; Hyland, Kelly; DeMello, Sarah; Sicks, JoRean D; Rigotti, Nancy A

    2015-09-01

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) found a reduction in lung cancer mortality among participants screened with low-dose computed tomography vs chest radiography. In February 2015, Medicare announced its decision to cover annual lung screening for patients with a significant smoking history. These guidelines promote smoking cessation treatment as an adjunct to screening, but the frequency and effectiveness of clinician-delivered smoking cessation interventions delivered after lung screening are unknown. To determine the association between the reported clinician-delivered 5As (ask, advise, assess, assist [talk about quitting or recommend stop-smoking medications or recommend counseling], and arrange follow-up) after lung screening and smoking behavior changes. A matched case-control study (cases were quitters and controls were continued smokers) of 3336 NLST participants who were smokers at enrollment examined participants' rates and patterns of 5A delivery after a lung screen and reported smoking cessation behaviors. Prevalence of the clinician-delivered 5As and associated smoking cessation after lung screening. Delivery of the 5As 1 year after screening were as follows: ask, 77.2%; advise, 75.6%; assess, 63.4%; assist, 56.4%; and arrange follow-up, 10.4%. Receipt of ask, advise, and assess was not significantly associated with quitting in multivariate models that adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, screening results, nicotine dependence, and motivation to quit. Assist was associated with a 40% increase in the odds of quitting (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.21-1.63), and arrange was associated with a 46% increase in the odds of quitting (odds ratio, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.19-1.79). Assist and arrange follow-up delivered by primary care providers to smokers who were participating in the NLST were associated with increased quitting; less intensive interventions (ask, advise, and assess) were not. However, rates of assist and arrange

  20. Non-invasive interventions for improving well-being and quality of life in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solà, I; Thompson, E; Subirana, M; López, C; Pascual, A

    2004-10-18

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death globally. Despite advances in treatment, outlook for the majority of patients remains grim and most face a pessimistic outlook accompanied by sometimes devastating effects on emotional and psychological health. Although chemotherapy is accepted as an effective treatment for advanced lung cancer, the high prevalence of treatment-related side effects as well the symptoms of disease progression highlight the need for high quality palliative and supportive care to minimise symptom distress and to promote quality of life. To assess the effectiveness of non-invasive interventions delivered by healthcare professionals in improving symptoms, psychological functioning and quality of life in patients with lung cancer. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2003), MEDLINE (1966-March 2003), EMBASE (1974-March 2003), CINAHL (1982-September 2002), CancerLit (1975-October 2002), PsycINFO (1873-March 2003), reference lists of relevant articles and contact with authors. Randomised or quasi-randomised clinical trials assessing the effects of non-invasive interventions in improving well-being and quality of life in patients diagnosed with lung cancer. Two reviewers independently assessed relevant studies for inclusion. Data extraction and quality assessment of relevant studies was performed by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer. Nine trials were included and categorised into six groups. Two trials of a nursing intervention to manage breathlessness showed benefit on symptom experience, performance status and emotional functioning. Three trials assessed structured nursing programmes and found positive effects on delay in clinical deterioration, dependency and symptom distress, and improvements in emotional functioning and satisfaction with care. One trial assessing counselling showed benefit on some emotional components of the illness but findings were not conclusive. One trial

  1. Control of Respiratory Motion by Hypnosis Intervention during Radiotherapy of Lung Cancer I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongmao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The uncertain position of lung tumor during radiotherapy compromises the treatment effect. To effectively control respiratory motion during radiotherapy of lung cancer without any side effects, a novel control scheme, hypnosis, has been introduced in lung cancer treatment. In order to verify the suggested method, six volunteers were selected with a wide range of distribution of age, weight, and chest circumference. A set of experiments have been conducted for each volunteer, under the guidance of the professional hypnotist. All the experiments were repeated in the same environmental condition. The amplitude of respiration has been recorded under the normal state and hypnosis, respectively. Experimental results show that the respiration motion of volunteers in hypnosis has smaller and more stable amplitudes than in normal state. That implies that the hypnosis intervention can be an alternative way for respiratory control, which can effectively reduce the respiratory amplitude and increase the stability of respiratory cycle. The proposed method will find useful application in image-guided radiotherapy.

  2. Control of Respiratory Motion by Hypnosis Intervention during Radiotherapy of Lung Cancer I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Xie, Yaoqin

    2013-01-01

    The uncertain position of lung tumor during radiotherapy compromises the treatment effect. To effectively control respiratory motion during radiotherapy of lung cancer without any side effects, a novel control scheme, hypnosis, has been introduced in lung cancer treatment. In order to verify the suggested method, six volunteers were selected with a wide range of distribution of age, weight, and chest circumference. A set of experiments have been conducted for each volunteer, under the guidance of the professional hypnotist. All the experiments were repeated in the same environmental condition. The amplitude of respiration has been recorded under the normal state and hypnosis, respectively. Experimental results show that the respiration motion of volunteers in hypnosis has smaller and more stable amplitudes than in normal state. That implies that the hypnosis intervention can be an alternative way for respiratory control, which can effectively reduce the respiratory amplitude and increase the stability of respiratory cycle. The proposed method will find useful application in image-guided radiotherapy. PMID:24093100

  3. [Joint application of 7 interventional pulmonology methods in early diagnosis of lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fa-Guang; Li, Wang-Ping; Mu, De-Guang; Chu, Dong-Ling; Fu, En-Qing; Xie, Yong-Hong; Lu, Jing-Li; Sun, Ya-Ni

    2009-06-23

    To evaluate the combination of 7 interventional pulmonology methods in early diagnosis of lung cancer. A total of 467 patients with thoracic and pulmonary lesions (include hilum pulmonis lymphadenectasis, mediastinal lymphadenectasis, pulmonary scobination, lump, lamellar infiltration, small amount of pleural fluid and pleural scobination) had negative results via exfoliative cytology, bacteriology and routine bronchoscopy. All these patients had ultrathin bronchoscopy with biopsy and brushing. For those 155 cases whose foci were located at porta pulmonis, inner zone or median zone, the authors applied ultrathin bronchoscopy with biopsy and brushing guided by X-ray. For those 95 cases whose foci were located at median zone or outer zone and unconnected with chest wall, per cutem lung puncture needle aspiration was employed under the guidance of X-ray. For those 102 cases whose foci were tightly connected with pleural membrane, per cutem lung puncture biopsy was employed under the guidance of type-B ultrasonic. For those 59 cases with suspected central airway foci, auto-fluorescence bronchoscopic biopsy and brushing were employed. For those 67 cases with hilum pulmonis or mediastinal lymphadenectasis, endobronchial ultrasonic transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) was employed. For those 23 cases with small amount of pleural fluid or pleural scobination, electronic thoracoscopic biopsy and brushing were employed. It was found that 118 cases were diagnosed by ultrathin bronchoscopic biopsy and brushing with a positive rate of 25.3% (118/467), 105 cases by ultrathin bronchoscopy with biopsy and brushing guided by X-ray with a positive rate of 67.7% (105/155), 63 cases by per cutem lung puncture needle aspiration under the guidance of X-ray with a positive rate of 66.3% (63/95), 69 cases by per cutem lung puncture biopsy under the guidance of type-B ultrasound with a positive rate of 67.6% (69/102), 18 cases by auto-fluorescence bronchoscopic biopsy and brushing

  4. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Carla F

    2017-06-30

    The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  5. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla F. Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials.

  6. Radiation Exposure of Interventional Radiologists During Computed Tomography Fluoroscopy-Guided Renal Cryoablation and Lung Radiofrequency Ablation: Direct Measurement in a Clinical Setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Yusuke, E-mail: wckyh140@yahoo.co.jp; Hiraki, Takao, E-mail: takaoh@tc4.so-net.ne.jp; Gobara, Hideo, E-mail: gobara@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp; Iguchi, Toshihiro, E-mail: i10476@yahoo.co.jp; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu, E-mail: hirofujiwar@gmail.com; Kawabata, Takahiro, E-mail: tkhr-kwbt@yahoo.co.jp [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan); Yamauchi, Takatsugu, E-mail: me9248@hp.okayama-u.ac.jp; Yamaguchi, Takuya, E-mail: me8738@hp.okayama-u.ac.jp [Okayama University Hospital, Central Division of Radiology (Japan); Kanazawa, Susumu, E-mail: susumu@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    IntroductionComputed tomography (CT) fluoroscopy-guided renal cryoablation and lung radiofrequency ablation (RFA) have received increasing attention as promising cancer therapies. Although radiation exposure of interventional radiologists during these procedures is an important concern, data on operator exposure are lacking.Materials and MethodsRadiation dose to interventional radiologists during CT fluoroscopy-guided renal cryoablation (n = 20) and lung RFA (n = 20) was measured prospectively in a clinical setting. Effective dose to the operator was calculated from the 1-cm dose equivalent measured on the neck outside the lead apron, and on the left chest inside the lead apron, using electronic dosimeters. Equivalent dose to the operator’s finger skin was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeter rings.ResultsThe mean (median) effective dose to the operator per procedure was 6.05 (4.52) μSv during renal cryoablation and 0.74 (0.55) μSv during lung RFA. The mean (median) equivalent dose to the operator’s finger skin per procedure was 2.1 (2.1) mSv during renal cryoablation, and 0.3 (0.3) mSv during lung RFA.ConclusionRadiation dose to interventional radiologists during renal cryoablation and lung RFA were at an acceptable level, and in line with recommended dose limits for occupational radiation exposure.

  7. Radiation Exposure of Interventional Radiologists During Computed Tomography Fluoroscopy-Guided Renal Cryoablation and Lung Radiofrequency Ablation: Direct Measurement in a Clinical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yusuke; Hiraki, Takao; Gobara, Hideo; Iguchi, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Kawabata, Takahiro; Yamauchi, Takatsugu; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2016-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopy-guided renal cryoablation and lung radiofrequency ablation (RFA) have received increasing attention as promising cancer therapies. Although radiation exposure of interventional radiologists during these procedures is an important concern, data on operator exposure are lacking. Radiation dose to interventional radiologists during CT fluoroscopy-guided renal cryoablation (n = 20) and lung RFA (n = 20) was measured prospectively in a clinical setting. Effective dose to the operator was calculated from the 1-cm dose equivalent measured on the neck outside the lead apron, and on the left chest inside the lead apron, using electronic dosimeters. Equivalent dose to the operator's finger skin was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeter rings. The mean (median) effective dose to the operator per procedure was 6.05 (4.52) μSv during renal cryoablation and 0.74 (0.55) μSv during lung RFA. The mean (median) equivalent dose to the operator's finger skin per procedure was 2.1 (2.1) mSv during renal cryoablation, and 0.3 (0.3) mSv during lung RFA. Radiation dose to interventional radiologists during renal cryoablation and lung RFA were at an acceptable level, and in line with recommended dose limits for occupational radiation exposure.

  8. Available Interventions for Prevention of Cotton Dust-Associated Lung Diseases Among Textile Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafees, Asaad Ahmed; Fatmi, Zafar

    2016-08-01

    The authors reviewed literature on interventions for cotton dust-associated lung diseases among textile workers. Internet sources (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google and Google Scholar) were accessed and interventions were categorized into: Engineering or administrative controls, or personal protective equipment (PPE). Ten relevant articles were shortlisted, five related to engineering controls (pre-processing, bactericidal treatment of cotton, improved workplace design, machinery and dust control measures). Administrative controls may involve setting standards, environmental surveillance, periodic medical examinations, and workers training. Although specific guidelines are available regarding the use of PPEs, but there was little literature on their effectiveness. It was concluded that there is a dearth of literature regarding field-based assessment of interventions for control of cotton dust associated respiratory diseases and the available studies primarily focus on pre-processing of cotton. This review highlights the uncertainties that remain; and recommends several areas for future research on respiratory health of textile workers.

  9. Influence of interventional chemotherapy combined with traditional Chinese medicine on the immune function of elderly patients with advanced lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Tinghui; Wu Shiyan; Chen Yue; Zhang Qingquan; Zhang Weiwei; Shen Xubo; Wang Qianyao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of interventional chemotherapy combined with traditional Chinese medicine on the immune function in elderly patients with advanced lung cancer and to establish a comprehensive therapeutic pattern which is effective and economical with lower side-effects. Methods: A total of 60 aged patients with lung cancer were randomly and equally divided into two groups with 30 patients in each group. Patients in group A were purely treated with traditional Chinese medicine and patients in group B were treated with a combination of interventional chemotherapy and traditional Chinese medicine. And two therapeutic courses (6-8 weeks) were conducted in both groups. The serum T-lymphocyte subsets levels of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8, NK cells and CD4 + CD25 + Treg cell levels were estimated with flow cytometry. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: No significant difference in serum levels of T cell subsets and CD4 + CD25 + Treg cell levels existed between the two groups, both before and after the treatment (P > 0.05). However, after the treatment the CD4 + CD25 + Treg cell level in group B was significantly lower than that in group A (P < 0.05). The short-term effective rate and the total clinical benefit rate in group B were 40% and 73.3% respectively, which were much better than those in group A (20% and 63.3% respectively). Conclusion: Interventional chemotherapy combined with traditional Chinese medicine will not damage the immune function of elderly patients with advanced lung cancer, on the contrary, the combination therapy, through effectively reducing the suppressor T cell level,shows excellent short-term effect. It indicates that interventional chemotherapy combined with Chinese medicine is an effective comprehensive therapeutic mode for elderly patients with advanced lung cancer. (authors)

  10. A qualitative study exploring the views, attitudes and beliefs of patients and health professionals towards exercise intervention for people who are surgically treated for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, K; Maguire, R; Campbell, A; Kearney, N

    2018-03-01

    Surgical removal remains the best curative option for patients diagnosed with early-stage lung cancer. However, it is also associated with significant morbidity and reduced quality of life. Interventions to improve patient outcomes are required. This study aimed to explore the views, attitudes and beliefs of key stakeholders on exercise intervention for people who are surgically treated for lung cancer to inform the development of future interventions. Focus groups and individual interviews were carried out at two Scottish sites. The study was guided by the Health Action Process Approach behaviour change model. A total of 23 (12 patients and 11 health professionals) participated in the study. The data analysis resulted in three main themes: attitudes and beliefs, external factors and intervention design. The results highlighted certain key elements that should be included in an exercise intervention, such as the need for supervised sessions, an element of individualisation and the perceived social benefits of exercising with others. This study emphasises the importance of including key stakeholders in the development of complex interventions such as exercise and provides important information for the development of future exercise intervention trials for people who are surgically treated for lung cancer. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A randomized phase II feasibility trial of a multimodal intervention for the management of cachexia in lung and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Tora S; Laird, Barry J A; Balstad, Trude Rakel; Stene, Guro B; Bye, Asta; Johns, Neil; Pettersen, Caroline H; Fallon, Marie; Fayers, Peter; Fearon, Kenneth; Kaasa, Stein

    2017-10-01

    Cancer cachexia is a syndrome of weight loss (including muscle and fat), anorexia, and decreased physical function. It has been suggested that the optimal treatment for cachexia should be a multimodal intervention. The primary aim of this study was to examine the feasibility and safety of a multimodal intervention (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid nutritional supplements, exercise, and anti-inflammatory medication: celecoxib) for cancer cachexia in patients with incurable lung or pancreatic cancer, undergoing chemotherapy. Patients receiving two cycles of standard chemotherapy were randomized to either the multimodal cachexia intervention or standard care. Primary outcome measures were feasibility assessed by recruitment, attrition, and compliance with intervention (>50% of components in >50% of patients). Key secondary outcomes were change in weight, muscle mass, physical activity, safety, and survival. Three hundred and ninety-nine were screened resulting in 46 patients recruited (11.5%). Twenty five patients were randomized to the treatment and 21 as controls. Forty-one completed the study (attrition rate 11%). Compliance to the individual components of the intervention was 76% for celecoxib, 60% for exercise, and 48% for nutritional supplements. As expected from the sample size, there was no statistically significant effect on physical activity or muscle mass. There were no intervention-related Serious Adverse Events and survival was similar between the groups. A multimodal cachexia intervention is feasible and safe in patients with incurable lung or pancreatic cancer; however, compliance to nutritional supplements was suboptimal. A phase III study is now underway to assess fully the effect of the intervention. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  12. The non-occupational environment and the lung: opportunities for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurmi, O P; Ayres, J G

    2007-01-01

    Many environmental factors, both indoors and outdoors, can cause or worsen respiratory disease. Although in many cases individuals have little influence over environmental exposures (e.g., weather conditions), there are many (such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and outdoor air pollution) where interventions can improve health. While for environmental exposures such as air pollution, remediation largely devolves to the government, for exposures such as ETS advice to individuals in these settings will confer benefit. Climate change has begun to feature more and more in the context of health but how this may affect pulmonary disease remains debatable. It is possible that heat associated changes in allergen exposures may be more than counterbalanced by potential reductions in cold related exacerbations of diseases such as COPD. An improved assessment of environmental exposures is key in how we approach the effects of the environment on lung disease which would allow better understanding of gene-environment interactions and how remediation might influence population health for the better.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of early intervention: comparison between intraluminal bronchoscopic treatment and surgical resection for T1N0 lung cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasic, A.; Brokx, HA; Vonk Noordegraaf, A.; Paul, RM; Postmus, P.E.; Sutedja, G.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For patients with early-stage lung cancer (ESLC) and severe comorbidities, the cost-effectiveness of early intervention may be reduced by screening and treatment-related morbidity and mortality in addition to the risk for non-cancer-related deaths. OBJECTIVES: The use of bronchoscopic

  14. Analysis of intervention strategies for inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and associated lung cancer risk based on a Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Zhao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to evaluate and compare interventions for reducing exposure to air pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a widely found air pollutant in both indoor and outdoor air. This study presents the first application of the Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model to quantify the effects of different intervention strategies on inhalation exposure to PAHs and the associated lung cancer risk. The method was applied to the population in Beijing, China, in the year 2006. Several intervention strategies were designed and studied, including atmospheric cleaning, smoking prohibition indoors, use of clean fuel for cooking, enhancing ventilation while cooking and use of indoor cleaners. Their performances were quantified by population attributable fraction (PAF) and potential impact fraction (PIF) of lung cancer risk, and the changes in indoor PAH concentrations and annual inhalation doses were also calculated and compared. The results showed that atmospheric cleaning and use of indoor cleaners were the two most effective interventions. The sensitivity analysis showed that several input parameters had major influence on the modeled PAH inhalation exposure and the rankings of different interventions. The ranking was reasonably robust for the remaining majority of parameters. The method itself can be extended to other pollutants and in different places. It enables the quantitative comparison of different intervention strategies and would benefit intervention design and relevant policy making.

  15. Analysis of intervention strategies for inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and associated lung cancer risk based on a Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhou

    Full Text Available It is difficult to evaluate and compare interventions for reducing exposure to air pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, a widely found air pollutant in both indoor and outdoor air. This study presents the first application of the Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model to quantify the effects of different intervention strategies on inhalation exposure to PAHs and the associated lung cancer risk. The method was applied to the population in Beijing, China, in the year 2006. Several intervention strategies were designed and studied, including atmospheric cleaning, smoking prohibition indoors, use of clean fuel for cooking, enhancing ventilation while cooking and use of indoor cleaners. Their performances were quantified by population attributable fraction (PAF and potential impact fraction (PIF of lung cancer risk, and the changes in indoor PAH concentrations and annual inhalation doses were also calculated and compared. The results showed that atmospheric cleaning and use of indoor cleaners were the two most effective interventions. The sensitivity analysis showed that several input parameters had major influence on the modeled PAH inhalation exposure and the rankings of different interventions. The ranking was reasonably robust for the remaining majority of parameters. The method itself can be extended to other pollutants and in different places. It enables the quantitative comparison of different intervention strategies and would benefit intervention design and relevant policy making.

  16. Impact of a smoking and alcohol intervention programme on lung and breast cancer incidence in Denmark: An example of dynamic modelling with Prevent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soerjomataram, Isabelle; de Vries, Esther; Engholm, Gerda; Paludan-Müller, Georg; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Storm, Hans H; Barendregt, Jan J

    2010-09-01

    Among the known risk factors, smoking is clearly related to the incidence of lung cancer and alcohol consumption is to breast cancer. In this manuscript we modelled the potential benefits of reductions in smoking or alcohol prevalence for the burden of these cancers. We used Prevent v.3.01 to assess the changes in incidence as a result of risk factor changes. Incidence of lung and breast cancer until 2050 was predicted under two scenarios: ideal (total elimination of smoking and reduction of alcohol intake to maximum 1 units/d for women) and optimistic (decreasing prevalence of risk factors because of a 10% increase in cigarette and alcohol beverage price, repeated every 5 years). Danish data from the household surveys, cancer registration and Eurostat were used. Up to 49% less new lung cancer cases can be expected in 2050 if smoking were to be completely eliminated. Five-yearly 10% price increases may prevent 521 new lung cancer cases in 2050 (21% less cases). An intervention that immediately reduces population alcohol consumption to the recommended level (below 12 g/d) may lower breast cancer by 7%, preventing 445 out of the 6060 expected new cases in 2050. Five-yearly 10% price increases in alcoholic beverages achieved a reduction of half as expected by the ideal scenario, i.e. 4% (262) preventable cases in 2050. The future burden of lung and breast cancer could be markedly reduced by intervening in their risk factors. Prevent illustrates the benefit of interventions and may serve as guidance in political decision-making. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  18. Protocol for the CHEST Australia Trial: a phase II randomised controlled trial of an intervention to reduce time-to-consult with symptoms of lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Sonya R; Murchie, Peter; Campbell, Neil; Walter, Fiona M; Mazza, Danielle; Habgood, Emily; Kutzer, Yvonne; Martin, Andrew; Goodall, Stephen; Barnes, David J; Emery, Jon D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide, with 1.3 million new cases diagnosed every year. It has one of the lowest survival outcomes of any cancer because over two-thirds of patients are diagnosed when curative treatment is not possible. International research has focused on screening and community interventions to promote earlier presentation to a healthcare provider to improve early lung cancer detection. This paper describes the protocol for a phase II, multisite, rand...

  19. Protocol for the CHEST Australia Trial: a phase II randomised controlled trial of an intervention to reduce time-to-consult with symptoms of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sonya R; Murchie, Peter; Campbell, Neil; Walter, Fiona M; Mazza, Danielle; Habgood, Emily; Kutzer, Yvonne; Martin, Andrew; Goodall, Stephen; Barnes, David J; Emery, Jon D

    2015-05-18

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide, with 1.3 million new cases diagnosed every year. It has one of the lowest survival outcomes of any cancer because over two-thirds of patients are diagnosed when curative treatment is not possible. International research has focused on screening and community interventions to promote earlier presentation to a healthcare provider to improve early lung cancer detection. This paper describes the protocol for a phase II, multisite, randomised controlled trial, for patients at increased risk of lung cancer in the primary care setting, to facilitate early presentation with symptoms of lung cancer. The intervention is based on a previous Scottish CHEST Trial that comprised of a primary-care nurse consultation to discuss and implement a self-help manual, followed by self-monitoring reminders to improve symptom appraisal and encourage help-seeking in patients at increased risk of lung cancer. We aim to recruit 550 patients from two Australian states: Western Australia and Victoria. Patients will be randomised to the Intervention (a health consultation involving a self-help manual, monthly prompts and spirometry) or Control (spirometry followed by usual care). Eligible participants are long-term smokers with at least 20 pack years, aged 55 and over, including ex-smokers if their cessation date was less than 15 years ago. The primary outcome is consultation rate for respiratory symptoms. Ethical approval has been obtained from The University of Western Australia's Human Research Ethics Committee (RA/4/1/6018) and The University of Melbourne Human Research Committee (1 441 433). A summary of the results will be disseminated to participants and we plan to publish the main trial outcomes in a single paper. Further publications are anticipated after further data analysis. Findings will be presented at national and international conferences from late 2016. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN 1261300039 3752

  20. Using Chest Vibration Nursing Intervention to Improve Expectoration of Airway Secretions and Prevent Lung Collapse in Ventilated ICU Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chih Chen

    2009-06-01

    Conclusion: The results suggest that chest vibration may contribute to expectoration and thus improve lung collapse among ventilated patients in an ICU. Chest vibration nursing intervention is a safe and effective alternative pulmonary clearance method and can be used on patients who are on ventilators in ICUs.

  1. Lung Function Profiles among Individuals with Nonmalignant Asbestos-related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Kee Park

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Lung function measurement differs in individuals with different ARDs. Monitoring of lung function among asbestos-exposed populations is a simple means of facilitating earlier interventions.

  2. Pain management in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Syahruddin, Elisna; Yunus, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Not only burdened by the limited overall survival, lung cancer patient also suffer from various symptoms, such as pain, that implicated in the quality of life. Cancer pain is a complicated and transiently dynamic symptom that results from multiple mechanisms. This review will describe the pathophysiology of cancer pain and general approach in managing a patient with lung cancer pain. The use of opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and adjuvant analgesia, as part of the pharmacology therapy along with interventional strategy, will also be discussed.

  3. Nutritional state and lung disease in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, W

    1992-10-01

    The life expectancy of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is largely dependent on the severity and progress of the pulmonary involvement associated with the disease. Many data support the view that malnutrition and deterioration of lung function are closely interrelated and interdependent, with each affecting the other, leading to a spiral decline in both. The occurrence of malnutrition appears to be associated with poor lung function and poor survival, and conversely prevention of malnutrition appears to be associated with better lung function and improved survival. Nutritional intervention may lead to an improvement in body weight, lung function and exercise tolerance, provided that the intervention is combined with exercise training in order to increase both respiratory and other muscle mass. These improvements can be preserved when patients have the stamina to continue with a high-energy, high-fat diet and daily exercise training at home.

  4. Multilevel Opportunities to Address Lung Cancer Stigma across the Cancer Control Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Heidi A; Ver Hoeve, Elizabeth S; Carter-Harris, Lisa; Studts, Jamie L; Ostroff, Jamie S

    2018-05-22

    The public health imperative to reduce the burden of lung cancer has seen unprecedented progress in recent years. Realizing fully the advances in lung cancer treatment and control requires attention to potential barriers in their momentum and implementation. In this analysis, we present and evaluate the argument that stigma is a highly significant barrier to fulfilling the clinical promise of advanced care and reduced lung cancer burden. This evaluation of lung cancer stigma is based on a multilevel perspective that incorporates the individual, persons in their immediate environment, the healthcare system, and the larger societal structure which shapes perceptions and decisions. We also consider current interventions and interventional needs within and across aspects of the lung cancer continuum, including prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. Current evidence suggests that stigma detrimentally impacts psychosocial, communication, and behavioral outcomes over the entire lung cancer control continuum and across multiple levels. Interventional efforts to alleviate stigma in the context of lung cancer show promise, yet more work is needed to evaluate their impact. Understanding and addressing the multi-level role of stigma is a crucial area for future study in order to realize the full benefits offered by lung cancer prevention, control, and treatment. Coordinated, interdisciplinary, and well-conceptualized efforts have the potential to reduce the barrier of stigma in the context of lung cancer and facilitate demonstrable improvements in clinical care and quality of life. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Combination of docetaxel and cisplatin in the interventional treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhijiang; Liu Yunjun; Li Ezhen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of the combination of docetaxel and cisplatin in the interventional treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Thirty patients with locally advanced (stage III) or metastatic (stage IV) NSCLC were enrolled into the study. The patients received docetaxel 75 mg/m 2 per day by bronchial artery and vein, and cisplatin 40 mg 2 on day 1-3 of a 21-day cycle. Each patient should complete two cycles. Results: An objective response rate was obtained in 46.7% of 30 patients (one complete and 13 partial response), whereas 10 patients had stable disease and 6 patients were progressive. The response rate was 60% (9/15) in the initial patients, and 33.3% (5/15) in the retreated patients. The main toxicities were leukopenia (26.7% in grade III + IV) and thrombocytopenia (10% in grade III + IV). Conclusion: The combination of docetaxel and cisplatin by interventional treatment is a feasible, well-tolerated and active scheme in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. (authors)

  6. Gastroesophageal reflux and lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Keith C

    2015-08-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) can cause respiratory symptoms and may trigger, drive and/or worsen airway disorders, interstitial lung diseases and lung allograft dysfunction. Whether lifestyle changes and acid suppression alone can counter and prevent the adverse effects of GER on the respiratory tract remains unclear. Recent data suggest that antireflux surgery may be more effective in preventing lung disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or lung transplant recipients who have evidence of allograft dysfunction associated with the presence of excessive GER. Additional research and clinical trials are needed to determine the role of GER in various lung disorders and identify which interventions are most efficacious in preventing the respiratory consequences of gastroesophageal reflux disease. In addition, measuring biomarkers that indicate that gastric refluxate has been aspirated into the lower respiratory tract (e.g., pepsin and bile acid concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) may prove helpful in both diagnosis and therapeutic decision making.

  7. Design and validation of a clinical-scale bioreactor for long-term isolated lung culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charest, Jonathan M; Okamoto, Tatsuya; Kitano, Kentaro; Yasuda, Atsushi; Gilpin, Sarah E; Mathisen, Douglas J; Ott, Harald C

    2015-06-01

    The primary treatment for end-stage lung disease is lung transplantation. However, donor organ shortage remains a major barrier for many patients. In recent years, techniques for maintaining lungs ex vivo for evaluation and short-term (advance to more complex interventions for lung repair and regeneration, the need for a long-term organ culture system becomes apparent. Herein we describe a novel clinical scale bioreactor capable of maintaining functional porcine and human lungs for at least 72 h in isolated lung culture (ILC). The fully automated, computer controlled, sterile, closed circuit system enables physiologic pulsatile perfusion and negative pressure ventilation, while gas exchange function, and metabolism can be evaluated. Creation of this stable, biomimetic long-term culture environment will enable advanced interventions in both donor lungs and engineered grafts of human scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A research protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial designed to examine the feasibility of a couple-based mind-body intervention for patients with metastatic lung cancer and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbury, Kathrin; Tsao, Anne S; Liao, Zhongxing; Owns, April; Engle, Rosalinda; Gonzalez, Edrea A; Bruera, Eduardo; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    Given the generally incurable nature of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC), patients and their romantic partners are at risk for existential/spiritual distress. Although a handful of dyadic psychosocial interventions for lung cancer patients and their caregivers exist, none of them target spiritual well-being. Informed by the mindfulness-based intervention literature and our pilot work in couples affected by lung cancer, we developed a brief couple-based mind-body (CBMB) intervention. The primary aim of this research protocol is to determine the feasibility of implementing the CBMB intervention versus an active control (AC) or wait list control (WLC) group in patients with mNSCLC and their partners using a randomized controlled trial design. Seventy-five patients with mNSCLC receiving treatment and their partners are randomized to the CBMB intervention, an AC or a WLC group. Those in the CBMB intervention and AC groups receive four intervention sessions of 60 min each over 4 weeks and complete weekly homework assignments. The first session is delivered in person, and the remaining sessions are delivered via videoconference. The dyads in the AC group discuss cancer-related and personal growth concerns with the interventionist but are not taught coping skills. Patients and partners in all groups complete baseline assessments of quality of life (QOL) prior to randomization. Follow-up assessments are performed 4 weeks and then again 3 months later. The primary outcome is feasibility (i.e., ≥ 30% of eligible couples consent, ≥ 70% of enrolled couples are retained, and ≥ 50% of all CBMB and AC sessions are attended). We will also perform primarily descriptive analyses of the self-reported outcomes (e.g., spiritual well-being and psychological distress) and explore potential intervention mediators (i.e., compassion, communication, mindfulness, and closeness) to inform a larger, future trial. This trial will provide important information

  9. Bronchoscopic drainage of a malignant lung abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsenos, Stamatis; Psathakis, Konstantinos; Chatzivasiloglou, Fotini; Antonogiannaki, Elvira-Markela; Psara, Anthoula; Tsintiris, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Bronchoscopic drainage of a pyogenic lung abscess is an established therapeutic approach in selected patients in whom conventional antibiotic therapy fails. This intervention has also been undertaken in patients with abscess owing to underlying lung cancer and prior combined radiochemotherapy. However, this procedure has rarely been performed in cavitary lesions of advanced tumor origin before initiating any chemotherapy/radiotherapy scheme. Herein, we describe a case of a 68-year-old woman with lung adenocarcinoma stage IIIB, who underwent bronchoscopic drainage of necrotizing tumor lesion, thus improving her initial poor clinical condition and rendering other treatment modalities, such as radiotherapy, more effective and beneficial. Bronchoscopic drainage of a symptomatic cancerous lung abscess should be considered as an alternative and palliative treatment approach in patients with advanced inoperable non-small cell lung cancer.

  10. The Impact of a Multidimensional Exercise Intervention on Physical and Functional Capacity, Anxiety, and Depression in Patients With Advanced-Stage Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist, Morten; Adamsen, Lis; Rørth, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    of the present study was to investigate the benefits of a 6-week supervised group exercise intervention and to outline the effect on aerobic capacity, strength, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), anxiety, and depression. METHODS: VO2peak was assessed using an incremental exercise test. Muscle strength......INTRODUCTION: Patients with advanced-stage lung cancer face poor survival and experience co-occurring chronic physical and psychosocial symptoms. Despite several years of research in exercise oncology, few exercise studies have targeted advanced lung cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The aim....... Forty-three patients dropped out. No serious adverse events were reported. Exercise adherence in the group training was 68%. Improvements in VO2peak (P

  11. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Adopt Lung Cell Phenotype in Normal and Radiation-induced Lung Injury Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Ola M; Maria, Ahmed M; Ybarra, Norma; Jeyaseelan, Krishinima; Lee, Sangkyu; Perez, Jessica; Shalaby, Mostafa Y; Lehnert, Shirley; Faria, Sergio; Serban, Monica; Seuntjens, Jan; El Naqa, Issam

    2016-04-01

    Lung tissue exposure to ionizing irradiation can invariably occur during the treatment of a variety of cancers leading to increased risk of radiation-induced lung disease (RILD). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess the potential to differentiate into epithelial cells. However, cell culture methods of primary type II pneumocytes are slow and cannot provide a sufficient number of cells to regenerate damaged lungs. Moreover, effects of ablative radiation doses on the ability of MSCs to differentiate in vitro into lung cells have not been investigated yet. Therefore, an in vitro coculture system was used, where MSCs were physically separated from dissociated lung tissue obtained from either healthy or high ablative doses of 16 or 20 Gy whole thorax irradiated rats. Around 10±5% and 20±3% of cocultured MSCs demonstrated a change into lung-specific Clara and type II pneumocyte cells when MSCs were cocultured with healthy lung tissue. Interestingly, in cocultures with irradiated lung biopsies, the percentage of MSCs changed into Clara and type II pneumocytes cells increased to 40±7% and 50±6% at 16 Gy irradiation dose and 30±5% and 40±8% at 20 Gy irradiation dose, respectively. These data suggest that MSCs to lung cell differentiation is possible without cell fusion. In addition, 16 and 20 Gy whole thorax irradiation doses that can cause varying levels of RILD, induced different percentages of MSCs to adopt lung cell phenotype compared with healthy lung tissue, providing encouraging outlook for RILD therapeutic intervention for ablative radiotherapy prescriptions.

  12. Occupational lung diseases in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Ryan F; Brims, Fraser

    2017-11-20

    Occupational exposures are an important determinant of respiratory health. International estimates note that about 15% of adult-onset asthma, 15% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 10-30% of lung cancer may be attributable to hazardous occupational exposures. One-quarter of working asthmatics either have had their asthma caused by work or adversely affected by workplace conditions. Recently, cases of historical occupational lung diseases have been noted to occur with new exposures, such as cases of silicosis in workers fabricating kitchen benchtops from artificial stone products. Identification of an occupational cause of a lung disease can be difficult and requires maintaining a high index of suspicion. When an occupational lung disease is identified, this may facilitate a cure and help to protect coworkers. Currently, very little information is collected regarding actual cases of occupational lung diseases in Australia. Most assumptions about many occupational lung diseases are based on extrapolation from overseas data. This lack of information is a major impediment to development of targeted interventions and timely identification of new hazardous exposures. All employers, governments and health care providers in Australia have a responsibility to ensure that the highest possible standards are in place to protect workers' respiratory health.

  13. Current and new challenges in occupational lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara De Matteis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Occupational lung diseases are an important public health issue and are avoidable through preventive interventions in the workplace. Up-to-date knowledge about changes in exposure to occupational hazards as a result of technological and industrial developments is essential to the design and implementation of efficient and effective workplace preventive measures. New occupational agents with unknown respiratory health effects are constantly introduced to the market and require periodic health surveillance among exposed workers to detect early signs of adverse respiratory effects. In addition, the ageing workforce, many of whom have pre-existing respiratory conditions, poses new challenges in terms of the diagnosis and management of occupational lung diseases. Primary preventive interventions aimed to reduce exposure levels in the workplace remain pivotal for elimination of the occupational lung disease burden. To achieve this goal there is still a clear need for setting standard occupational exposure limits based on transparent evidence-based methodology, in particular for carcinogens and sensitising agents that expose large working populations to risk. The present overview, focused on the occupational lung disease burden in Europe, proposes directions for all parties involved in the prevention of occupational lung disease, from researchers and occupational and respiratory health professionals to workers and employers.

  14. Why does the lung hyperinflate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gary T

    2006-04-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often have some degree of hyperinflation of the lungs. Hyperinflated lungs can produce significant detrimental effects on breathing, as highlighted by improvements in patient symptoms after lung volume reduction surgery. Measures of lung volumes correlate better with impairment of patient functional capabilities than do measures of airflow. Understanding the mechanisms by which hyperinflation occurs in COPD provides better insight into how treatments can improve patients' health. Both static and dynamic processes can contribute to lung hyperinflation in COPD. Static hyperinflation is caused by a decrease in elasticity of the lung due to emphysema. The lungs exert less recoil pressure to counter the recoil pressure of the chest wall, resulting in an equilibrium of recoil forces at a higher resting volume than normal. Dynamic hyperinflation is more common and can occur independent of or in addition to static hyperinflation. It results from air being trapped within the lungs after each breath due to a disequilibrium between the volumes inhaled and exhaled. The ability to fully exhale depends on the degree of airflow limitation and the time available for exhalation. These can both vary, causing greater hyperinflation during exacerbations or increased respiratory demand, such as during exercise. Reversibility of dynamic hyperinflation offers the possibility for intervention. Use of bronchodilators with prolonged durations of action, such as tiotropium, can sustain significant reductions in lung inflation similar in effect to lung volume reduction surgery. How efficacy of bronchodilators is assessed may, therefore, need to be reevaluated.

  15. Clinical analysis of the therapy for recurrent and intractable non-small cell lung cancer with combination of cryoablation and intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Futong; Li Xiuli; Li Huijie; An Yonghui

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the re-treatment approach for nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC )in clinic with therapeutic alliance of cryotherapy and interventional chemotherapy. Methods: Sixty two patients with uncontrolled NSCLC after common radiotherapy and (or)chemotherapy were re-treated with therapeutic alliance of cryotherapy and interventional chemotherapy, and their serum tumor markers of NSE, CEA, CY21- 1 and the value (I.S%,I.O.D%)of correlative protein in nucleolus region-Ag-NORs were tested before and after the re-treatment. Meanwhile, patients one year survival and therapeutic effect to NSCLC were recorded during the follow up. Results: After the re-treatment, distinguished decline of the serum tumor markers was observed (P<0.01)and values of Ag-NORs(I.S% and I.O.D%)were obviously lowered down. The therapeutic effect and one year survival were 79.03%(49/62)and 80.63%(50/62)respectively. Conclusion: Therapeutic alliance of cryotherapy and interventional chemotherapy is a kind of effective re-treatment for NSCLC and also as a new approach for the refractory NSCLC. (authors)

  16. Recruiting newly referred lung cancer patients to a patient navigator intervention (PACO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Trille Kristina; Mellemgaard, Anders; Stensøe Oksen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The incidence of and survival from lung cancer are associated with socioeconomic position, and disparities have been observed in both curative and palliative treatment for lung cancer. 'Patient navigation' is valuable in addressing health disparity, with timely treatment and transitio...... of internal and external obstacles to patients' recruitment. The study provides insight into the barriers to recruitment of socially disadvantaged cancer patients to clinical trials and will inform future trial designs....... to care. We conducted a pilot study to test the feasibility of a patient navigator program (PAtient COach) for newly diagnosed lung cancer. We present the trial, the findings from the pilot study and discuss factors that might have affected recruitment rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We invited 24 lung...... of 1 or 2 or be over 65 years of age. The patient navigators targeted four phases of treatment: planning, initiation, compliance and end of treatment. RESULTS: Six months after the start of the study, we had recruited only six patients, due mainly to inherent patient resistance and because only 50...

  17. Closed-loop mechanical ventilation for lung injury: a novel physiological-feedback mode following the principles of the open lung concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiberger, David; Pickerodt, Philipp A; Pomprapa, Anake; Tjarks, Onno; Kork, Felix; Boemke, Willehad; Francis, Roland C E; Leonhardt, Steffen; Lachmann, Burkhard

    2018-06-01

    Adherence to low tidal volume (V T ) ventilation and selected positive end-expiratory pressures are low during mechanical ventilation for treatment of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Using a pig model of severe lung injury, we tested the feasibility and physiological responses to a novel fully closed-loop mechanical ventilation algorithm based on the "open lung" concept. Lung injury was induced by surfactant washout in pigs (n = 8). Animals were ventilated following the principles of the "open lung approach" (OLA) using a fully closed-loop physiological feedback algorithm for mechanical ventilation. Standard gas exchange, respiratory- and hemodynamic parameters were measured. Electrical impedance tomography was used to quantify regional ventilation distribution during mechanical ventilation. Automatized mechanical ventilation provided strict adherence to low V T -ventilation for 6 h in severely lung injured pigs. Using the "open lung" approach, tidal volume delivery required low lung distending pressures, increased recruitment and ventilation of dorsal lung regions and improved arterial blood oxygenation. Physiological feedback closed-loop mechanical ventilation according to the principles of the open lung concept is feasible and provides low tidal volume ventilation without human intervention. Of importance, the "open lung approach"-ventilation improved gas exchange and reduced lung driving pressures by opening atelectasis and shifting of ventilation to dorsal lung regions.

  18. Design and synthesis of new hybrids from 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana- 9-dien-28-oic acid and O2-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) diazeniumdiolate for intervention of drug-resistant lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Fenghua; Ai, Yong; Zhang, Yihua; Huang, Zhangjian

    2018-04-10

    To search for new drugs for intervention of drug-resistant lung cancer, a series of hybrids 4-15 from 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO) and O 2 -(2,4-dinitrophenyl) diazeniumdiolate were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated. The most active compound 7 produced relatively high levels of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in drug-resistant lung cancer A549/Taxol cells which over-express glutathione S-transferase π (GSTπ), and significantly inhibited the cells' proliferation (IC 50  = 0.349 ± 0.051 μM), superior to the positive controls CDDO-Me, JS-K and Taxol. The inhibitory activity of 7 could be attenuated by an NO scavenger, ROS scavenger or GSTπ inhibitor. In addition, 7 suppressed the Lon protease expression as well as induced cell apoptosis and cycle arrest in A549/Taxol cells more strongly than CDDO-Me or JS-K. Together, our findings suggest that 7 may be worth studying further for intervention of drug-resistant lung cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Contemporary management of voice and swallowing disorders in patients with advanced lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Grainne C; Carding, Paul N; Bhosle, Jaishree; Roe, Justin W G

    2015-06-01

    Advanced lung cancer can cause changes to swallowing and communication function. Direct tumour invasion, dyspnoea and deconditioning can all impact on swallowing function and communication. Cancer treatment, if administered, may cause or compound symptoms. In this study, the nature of swallowing and communication difficulties in patients with advanced lung cancer will be discussed, and management options including medical management, speech and language therapy (SLT) intervention, and surgical interventions will be considered. Advanced lung cancer can result in voice and swallowing difficulties, which can increase symptom burden and significantly impact on quality of life (QOL). There is a growing evidence base to support the use of injection laryngoplasty under local anaesthetic to offer immediate improvement in voice, swallowing and overall QOL. There is limited literature on the nature and extent of voice and swallowing impairment in patients with lung cancer. Well designed studies with robust and sensitive multidimensional dysphagia and dysphonia assessments are required. Outcome studies examining interventions with clearly defined treatment goals are required. These studies should include both functional and patient-reported outcome measures to develop the evidence base and to ensure that interventions are both timely and appropriate.

  20. Lung injury in acute pancreatitis: mechanisms, prevention, and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, Conor J

    2012-02-03

    Lung injury is the most pertinent manifestation of extra-abdominal organ dysfunction in pancreatitis. The propensity of this retroperitoneal inflammatory condition to engender a diffuse and life-threatening lung injury is significant. Approximately one third of patients will develop acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which account for 60% of all deaths within the first week. The variability in the clinical course of pancreatitis renders it a vexing entity and makes demonstration of the efficacy of any specific intervention difficult. The distinct pathologic entity of pancreatitis-associated lung injury is reviewed with a focus on etiology and potential therapeutic maneuvers.

  1. Prognosis of phrenic nerve injury following thoracic interventions: four new cases and a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowska, Monika; de Carvalho, Mamede

    2012-04-01

    Phrenic nerve lesion is a known complication of thoracic surgical intervention, but it is rarely described following thymectomy and lung surgery. To review the literature on thoracic intervention and phrenic nerve lesion and to describe four new cases, in which regular neurophysiological studies were performed. We reviewed the literature concerning phrenic nerve lesion after cardiac, lung and thymus surgical interventions. We described four cases of phrenic nerve lesion, three associated with thymectomy and one in lung surgery. The review shows that cryogenic or thermal injuries during cardiac surgeries are associated with good prognosis. The information on the outcome of phrenic nerve lesion in thymectomy or lung surgery is insufficient. Our cases and this review suggest that phrenic lesion in the last two interventions are associated with a poor recovery. Our data suggests that the prognosis of phrenic nerve lesion following thoracic intervention depends on the nature of the damage. Probably, in thymectomy and lung surgery, nerve stretch or laceration are involved, consequently the outcome is poorer in comparison with cardiac surgery, where cold lesion is more frequent. Neurophysiological tests give a direct, quantified and reliable assessment of nerve regeneration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of a telephone-based smoking cessation intervention in the lung cancer screening setting: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kathryn L; Hagerman, Charlotte J; Luta, George; Bellini, Paula G; Stanton, Cassandra; Abrams, David B; Kramer, Jenna A; Anderson, Eric; Regis, Shawn; McKee, Andrea; McKee, Brady; Niaura, Ray; Harper, Harry; Ramsaier, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Incorporating effective smoking cessation interventions into lung cancer screening (LCS) programs will be essential to realizing the full benefit of screening. We conducted a pilot randomized trial to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a telephone-counseling (TC) smoking cessation intervention vs. usual care (UC) in the LCS setting. In collaboration with 3 geographically diverse LCS programs, we enrolled current smokers (61.5% participation rate) who were: registered to undergo LCS, 50-77 years old, and had a 20+ pack-year smoking history. Eligibility was not based on readiness to quit. Participants completed pre-LCS (T0) and post-LCS (T1) telephone assessments, were randomized to TC (N=46) vs. UC (N=46), and completed a final 3-month telephone assessment (T2). Both study arms received a list of evidence-based cessation resources. TC participants also received up to 6 brief counseling calls with a trained cessation counselor. Counseling calls incorporated motivational interviewing and utilized the screening result as a motivator for quitting. The outcome was biochemically verified 7-day point prevalence cessation at 3-months post-randomization. Participants (56.5% female) were 60.2 (SD=5.4) years old and reported 47.1 (SD=22.2) pack years; 30% were ready to stop smoking in the next 30 days. TC participants completed an average of 4.4 (SD=2.3) sessions. Using intent-to-treat analyses, biochemically verified quit rates were 17.4% (TC) vs. 4.3% (UC), p<.05. This study provides preliminary evidence that telephone-based cessation counseling is feasible and efficacious in the LCS setting. As millions of current smokers are now eligible for lung cancer screening, this setting represents an important opportunity to exert a large public health impact on cessation among smokers who are at very high risk for multiple tobacco-related diseases. If this evidence-based, brief, and scalable intervention is replicated, TC could help to improve the overall cost

  3. Interventional radiology and undesirable effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benderitter, M.

    2009-01-01

    As some procedures of interventional radiology are complex and long, doses received by patients can be high and cause undesired effects, notably on the skin or in underlying tissues (particularly in the brain as far as interventional neuroradiology is concerned and in lungs in the case of interventional cardiology). The author briefly discusses some deterministic effects in interventional radiology (influence of dose level, delay of appearance of effects, number of accidents). He briefly comments the diagnosis and treatment of severe radiological burns

  4. Radiation exposure in CT-guided interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeckner, Roman, E-mail: Roman.Kloeckner@unimedizin-mainz.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Santos, Daniel Pinto dos; Schneider, Jens [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Kara, Levent [Department of Radiology, Inselspital Bern, Freiburgstraße 18, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Dueber, Christoph; Pitton, Michael B. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT)-guided interventions, to establish reference levels for exposure, and to discuss strategies for dose reduction. Materials and methods: We analyzed 1576 consecutive CT-guided procedures in 1284 patients performed over 4.5 years, including drainage placements; biopsies of different organs; radiofrequency and microwave ablations (RFA/MWA) of liver, bone, and lung tumors; pain blockages, and vertebroplasties. Data were analyzed with respect to scanner settings, overall radiation doses, and individual doses of planning CT series, CT intervention, and control CT series. Results: Eighy-five percent of the total radiation dose was applied during the pre- and post-interventional CT series, leaving only 15% applied by the CT-guided intervention itself. Single slice acquisition was associated with lower doses than continuous CT-fluoroscopy (37 mGy cm vs. 153 mGy cm, p < 0.001). The third quartile of radiation doses varied considerably for different interventions. The highest doses were observed in complex interventions like RFA/MWA of the liver, followed by vertebroplasty and RFA/MWA of the lung. Conclusions: This paper suggests preliminary reference levels for various intervention types and discusses strategies for dose reduction. A multicenter registry of radiation exposure including a broader spectrum of scanners and intervention types is needed to develop definitive reference levels.

  5. Lung protection: an intervention for tidal volume reduction in a teaching intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briva, Arturo; Gaiero, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of feedback and education regarding the use of predicted body weight to adjust tidal volume in a lung-protective mechanical ventilation strategy. Methods The study was performed from October 2014 to November 2015 (12 months) in a single university polyvalent intensive care unit. We developed a combined intervention (education and feedback), placing particular attention on the importance of adjusting tidal volumes to predicted body weight bedside. In parallel, predicted body weight was estimated from knee height and included in clinical charts. Results One hundred fifty-nine patients were included. Predicted body weight assessed by knee height instead of visual evaluation revealed that the delivered tidal volume was significantly higher than predicted. After the inclusion of predicted body weight, we observed a sustained reduction in delivered tidal volume from a mean (standard error) of 8.97 ± 0.32 to 7.49 ± 0.19mL/kg (p < 0.002). Furthermore, the protocol adherence was subsequently sustained for 12 months (delivered tidal volume 7.49 ± 0.54 versus 7.62 ± 0.20mL/kg; p = 0.103). Conclusion The lack of a reliable method to estimate the predicted body weight is a significant impairment for the application of a worldwide standard of care during mechanical ventilation. A combined intervention based on education and repeated feedbacks promoted sustained tidal volume education during the study period (12 months). PMID:27925055

  6. Management of Pleural Effusion, Empyema, and Lung Abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hyeon

    2011-01-01

    Pleural effusion is an accumulation of fluid in the pleural space that is classified as transudate or exudate according to its composition and underlying pathophysiology. Empyema is defined by purulent fluid collection in the pleural space, which is most commonly caused by pneumonia. A lung abscess, on the other hand, is a parenchymal necrosis with confined cavitation that results from a pulmonary infection. Pleural effusion, empyema, and lung abscess are commonly encountered clinical problems that increase mortality. These conditions have traditionally been managed by antibiotics or surgical placement of a large drainage tube. However, as the efficacy of minimally invasive interventional procedures has been well established, image-guided small percutaneous drainage tubes have been considered as the mainstay of treatment for patients with pleural fluid collections or a lung abscess. In this article, the technical aspects of image-guided interventions, indications, expected benefits, and complications are discussed and the published literature is reviewed. PMID:22379278

  7. Symptom clusters and quality of life in China patients with lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identifying symptom clusters helped clarify possible inter-relationships which may lead to the establishment of more effective symptom management interventions for patients with lung cancer in order to improve the quality of life. Keywords: symptom clusters, lung cancer, factor analysis, symptom management, quality of life

  8. A 10-year retrospective review of pediatric lung abscesses from a single center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhani, Kavi; McGrath, Eric; Guglani, Lokesh

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pediatric lung abscesses can be primary or secondary, and there is limited data regarding response to treatments and patient outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical and microbiologic profile of pediatric patients with lung abscess and assess the differences in outcomes for patients treated with medical therapy or medical plus surgical therapy. METHODS: A retrospective review of all pediatric patients ≤ 18 years of age that were treated as an inpatient for lung abscess between the dates of August 2004 and August 2014 was conducted. Patients were divided into two subgroups based on the need for surgical intervention. RESULTS: A total of 39 patients with lung abscess (30 treated with medical therapy alone, 9 also required surgical interventions) were included. Fever, cough, and emesis were the most common presenting symptoms, and most of the patients had underlying respiratory (31%) or neurologic disorders (15%). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism in those that had culture results available, and ceftriaxone with clindamycin was the most common combination of antibiotics used for treatment. Comparison of medical and surgical subgroups identified the duration of fever and abscess size as risk factors for surgical intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric lung abscesses can be managed with medical therapy alone in most cases. Presence of prolonged duration of fever and larger abscess size may be predictive of the need for surgical intervention. Good clinical response to prolonged therapy with ceftriaxone and clindamycin was noted. PMID:27512508

  9. Lung abscess caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhei Ito

    Full Text Available Lung abscess has been considered to be a rare complication of pneumococcal infection, and most cases are reported to be Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3. A 67-year-old man presented with fever and was diagnosed to have lung abscess caused by S. pneumoniae serotype 6B. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of penicillin for the isolate was 1 μg/mL. He was treated with high-dose intravenous sulbactam/ampicillin as definitive therapy based on susceptibility testing for S. pneumoniae and recovered successfully without surgical intervention. S. pneumoniae serotype 6B can cause lung abscess. Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Lung abscess, Serotype 6B, Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae

  10. Nutrition support and dietary interventions for patients with lung cancer: current insights

    OpenAIRE

    Kiss, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Nicole Kiss1,2 1Nutrition and Speech Pathology Department, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Cancer Experiences Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Malnutrition and weight loss are prevalent in patients with lung cancer. The impact of malnutrition on patients with cancer, and specifically in patients with lung cancer, has been demonstrated in a large number of studies. Malnutrition has been shown to neg...

  11. Current questions in HIV-associated lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherba, Marina; Shuter, Jonathan; Haigentz, Missak

    2013-09-01

    In this review, we explore current questions regarding risk factors contributing to frequent and early onset of lung cancer among populations with HIV infection, treatment, and outcomes of lung cancer in HIV-infected patients as well as challenges in a newly evolving era of lung cancer screening. Lung cancer, seen in three-fold excess in HIV-infected populations, has become the most common non-AIDS defining malignancy in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. HIV-associated lung cancer appears to be associated with young age at diagnosis, cigarette smoking, advanced stage at presentation, and a more aggressive clinical course. There is no unified explanation for these observations, and aside from traditional risk factors, HIV-related immunosuppression and biological differences might play a role. In addition to smoking cessation interventions, screening and early cancer detection in HIV-infected populations are of high clinical importance, although evidence supporting lung cancer screening in this particularly high-risk subset is currently lacking, as are prospective studies of lung cancer therapy. There is an urgent need for prospective clinical trials in HIV-associated lung cancer to improve understanding of lung cancer pathogenesis and to optimize patient care. Several clinical trials are in progress to address questions in cancer biology, screening, and treatment for this significant cause of mortality in persons with HIV infection.

  12. Pulmonary rehabilitation programs in lung transplant: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria de Sousa Pinto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze, using a literature review, Pulmonary Rehabilitation (RP Programs in lung transplant. Methods: A literature review in July 2014 in Ebsco Host, Periódicos Capes, BVS and Science Direct data bases using descriptors in English (“lung transplantation”, “lung transplant” AND/OR “rehabilitation” and Portuguese (“reabilitação” AND/OR “transplante pulmonar”. The eligibility criterions were interventional studies of PR before and/or after lung transplant; participants who were candidates to lung transplant or lung transplant recipients; studies that applied any kind of PR program (hospital-based, homebased or outpatient and articles published in English, Spanish or Portuguese. Literature reviews, guidelines and case reports were excluded. The search process yielded 46 articles of which two were duplicated. After title and abstract screening 13 articles remained for full text reading. Six studies met the inclusion eligibility and were included in the review. Results: The studies involved patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Cystic Fibrosis, Pulmonary Hypertension, Interstitial Lung Disease and Pulmonary Fibrosis. Pulmonary function, exercise capacity, quality of life (QoL and quadriceps force were evaluated. Most interventions were outpatient programs with three months duration, three times a week and session with at least one hour. Protocols included physical training, educational approach and just one included nutritional, psychiatric and social assistant follow-up. The studies presented significant change in the six-minute walking distance, QoL and quadriceps force after PR programs. Conclusion: This review showed the benefits of the PR in the QoL and exercise capacity contributing to the Health Promotion of the patients.

  13. A Pilot Study on the Feasibility of Interventional Lung Volume Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wansheng; Dong Yonghua; Liu Bin; Zhu Chi; Yu Yongqiang

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of lung volume reduction by transbronchial alcohol and lipiodol suspension infusion with the aid of balloon-tipped catheter occlusion. Twenty-six healthy adult rabbits were divided into four treatment groups: alcohol and lipiodol suspension infusion (n = 8), lipiodol infusion (n = 8), alcohol infusion (n = 5), or bronchial lumen occlusion (n = 5). After selective lobar or segmental bronchial catheterization using a balloon-tipped occlusion catheter, the corresponding drug infusion was performed. Bone cement was used to occlude the bronchial lumen in the occlusion group. The animals were followed up for 10 weeks by chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT), and then the whole lungs were harvested for histological examination. Alcohol and lipiodol suspension or lipiodol could be stably retained in alveoli in the first two groups based on chest X-ray and CT, but obvious collapse only occurred in the group receiving alcohol and lipiodol suspension or the bronchial lumen occlusion group. Histological examination revealed damage and disruption of the alveolar epithelium and fibrosis in related lung tissue in the group receiving alcohol and lipiodol suspension. Similar changes were seen in the bronchial lumen occlusion group, apart from obvious marginal emphysema of the target areas in two animals. Interstitial pneumonia and dilated alveoli existed in some tissue in target areas in the lipiodol group, in which pulmonary fibrosis obliterating alveoli also occurred. Chronic alveolitis and pleural adhesion in target areas occurred in the group infused with alcohol alone, whereas visceral pleura of the other three groups was regular and no pleural effusion or adhesion was found. Alcohol and lipiodol suspension that is stably retained in alveoli can result in significant lung volume reduction. Through alcohol and lipiodol suspension infusion, obstructive emphysema or pneumonia arising from bronchial lumen

  14. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukotynski, Katherine A; Gerbaudo, Victor H

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine allows tailoring of preventive or therapeutic interventions to avoid the expense and toxicity of futile treatment given to those who will not respond. Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease functionally and morphologically. PET is a sensitive molecular imaging technique with a major role in the precision medicine algorithm of patients with lung cancer. It contributes to the precision medicine of lung neoplasia by interrogating tumor heterogeneity throughout the body. It provides anatomofunctional insight during diagnosis, staging, and restaging of the disease. It is a biomarker of tumoral heterogeneity that helps direct selection of the most appropriate treatment, the prediction of early response to cytotoxic and cytostatic therapies, and is a prognostic biomarker in patients with lung cancer. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diagnostic yield of preoperative computed tomography imaging and the importance of a clinical decision for lung cancer surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shuichi; Koike, Teruaki; Yamato, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic yield of preoperative computed tomography (CT) imaging and the validity of surgical intervention based on the clinical decision to perform surgery for lung cancer or suspected lung cancer. We retrospectively evaluated 1755 patients who had undergone pulmonary resection for lung cancer or suspected lung cancer. CT scans were performed on all patients. Surgical intervention to diagnose and treat was based on a medical staff conference evaluation for the suspected lung cancer patients who were pathologically undiagnosed. We evaluated the relation between resected specimens and preoperative CT imaging in detail. A total of 1289 patients were diagnosed with lung cancer by preoperative pathology examination; another 466 were not pathologically diagnosed preoperatively. Among the 1289 patients preoperatively diagnosed with lung cancer, the diagnoses were confirmed postoperatively in 1282. Among the 466 patients preoperatively undiagnosed, 435 were definitively diagnosed with lung cancer, and there were 383 p-stage I disease patients. There were 38 noncancerous patients who underwent surgery with a diagnosis of confirmed or suspected lung cancer. Among the 1755 patients who underwent surgery, 1717 were pathologically confirmed with lung cancer, and the diagnostic yield of preoperative CT imaging was 97.8%. Among the 466 patients who were preoperatively undiagnosed, 435 were compatible with the predicted findings of lung cancer. Diagnostic yields of preoperative CT imaging based on clinical evaluation are sufficiently reliable. Diagnostic surgical intervention was acceptable when the clinical probability of malignancy was high and the malignancy was pathologically undiagnosed. (author)

  16. Characterizing the lung tissue mechanical properties using a micromechanical model of alveolar sac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Elham; Seify, Behzad; Moghadas, Hadi; Sabsalinejad, Masoomeh; Lee, Ting-Yim; Samani, Abbas

    2017-03-01

    According to statistics, lung disease is among the leading causes of death worldwide. As such, many research groups are developing powerful tools for understanding, diagnosis and treatment of various lung diseases. Recently, biomechanical modeling has emerged as an effective tool for better understanding of human physiology, disease diagnosis and computer assisted medical intervention. Mechanical properties of lung tissue are important requirements for methods developed for lung disease diagnosis and medical intervention. As such, the main objective of this study is to develop an effective tool for estimating the mechanical properties of normal and pathological lung parenchyma tissue based on its microstructure. For this purpose, a micromechanical model of the lung tissue was developed using finite element (FE) method, and the model was demonstrated to have application in estimating the mechanical properties of lung alveolar wall. The proposed model was developed by assembling truncated octahedron tissue units resembling the alveoli. A compression test was simulated using finite element method on the created geometry and the hyper-elastic parameters of the alveoli wall were calculated using reported alveolar wall stress-strain data and an inverse optimization framework. Preliminary results indicate that the proposed model can be potentially used to reconstruct microstructural images of lung tissue using macro-scale tissue response for normal and different pathological conditions. Such images can be used for effective diagnosis of lung diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

  17. Lung abscess caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuhei; Toyoshima, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Takehiro; Iwamoto, Keisuke; Sasano, Hajime; Itani, Hidetoshi; Kondo, Shigeto; Tanigawa, Motoaki

    2018-01-01

    Lung abscess has been considered to be a rare complication of pneumococcal infection, and most cases are reported to be Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3. A 67-year-old man presented with fever and was diagnosed to have lung abscess caused by S. pneumoniae serotype 6B. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of penicillin for the isolate was 1 μg/mL. He was treated with high-dose intravenous sulbactam/ampicillin as definitive therapy based on susceptibility testing for S. pneumoniae and recovered successfully without surgical intervention. S. pneumoniae serotype 6B can cause lung abscess.

  18. Role of heme in bromine-induced lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Adam; Vetal, Nilam; Matalon, Sadis; Aggarwal, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Bromine (Br2) gas inhalation poses an environmental and occupational hazard resulting in high morbidity and mortality. In this review, we underline the acute lung pathology (within 24 hours of exposure) and potential therapeutic interventions that may be utilized to mitigate Br2-induced human toxicity. We will discuss our latest published data, which suggests that an increase in heme-dependent tissue injury underlies the pathogenesis of Br2 toxicity. Our study was based on previous findings that demonstrated that Br2 upregulates the heme-degrading enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which converts toxic heme into billiverdin. Interestingly, following Br2 inhalation, heme levels were indeed elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, plasma, and whole lung tissue in C57BL/6 mice. High heme levels correlated with increased lung oxidative stress, lung inflammation, respiratory acidosis, lung edema, higher airway resistance, and mortality. However, therapeutic reduction of heme levels, by either scavenging with hemopexin or degradation by HO-1, improved lung function and survival. Therefore, heme attenuation may prove a useful adjuvant therapy to treat patients after Br2 exposure. PMID:27244263

  19. A guided self-help intervention targeting psychological distress among head and neck cancer and lung cancer patients: motivation to start, experiences and perceived outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebber, Anne-Marie H; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Melissant, Heleen C; Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, Annemieke; Becker-Commissaris, Annemarie; Leemans, C René; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2017-01-01

    Recent results of a randomized clinical trial showed that a guided self-help intervention (based on problem-solving therapy) targeting psychological distress among head and neck cancer and lung cancer patients is effective. This study qualitatively explored motivation to start, experiences with and perceived outcomes of this intervention. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews of 16 patients. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed individually by two coders and coded into key issues and themes. Patients participated in the intervention for intrinsic (e.g. to help oneself) and for extrinsic reasons (e.g. being asked by a care professional or to help improve health care). Participants indicated positive and negative experiences with the intervention. Several participants appreciated participating as being a pleasant way to work on oneself, while others described participating as too confrontational. Some expressed their disappointment as they felt the intervention had brought them nothing or indicated that they felt worse temporarily, but most participants perceived positive outcomes of the intervention (e.g. feeling less distressed and having learned what matters in life). Cancer patients have various reasons to start a guided self-help intervention. Participants appreciated the guided self-help as intervention to address psychological distress, but there were also concerns. Most participants reported the intervention to be beneficial. The results suggest the need to identify patients who might benefit most from guided self-help targeting psychological distress and that interventions should be further tailored to individual cancer patients' requirements.

  20. A qualitative study of lung cancer risk perceptions and smoking beliefs among national lung screening trial participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Elyse R; Streck, Joanna M; Gareen, Ilana F; Ostroff, Jamie S; Hyland, Kelly A; Rigotti, Nancy A; Pajolek, Hannah; Nichter, Mark

    2014-02-01

    The National Comprehensive Cancer Network and the American Cancer Society recently released lung screening guidelines that include smoking cessation counseling for smokers undergoing screening. Previous work indicates that smoking behaviors and risk perceptions of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) participants were relatively unchanged. We explored American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN)/NLST former and current smokers' risk perceptions specifically to (a) determine whether lung screening is a cue for behavior change, (b) elucidate risk perceptions for lung cancer and smoking-related diseases, and (c) explore postscreening behavioral intentions and changes. A random sample of 35 participants from 4 ACRIN sites were qualitatively interviewed 1-2 years postscreen. We used a structured interview guide based on Health Belief Model and Self-Regulation Model constructs. Content analyses were conducted with NVivo 8. Most participants endorsed high-risk perceptions for lung cancer and smoking-related diseases, but heightened concern about these risks did not appear to motivate participants to seek screening. Risk perceptions were mostly attributed to participants' heavy smoking histories; former smokers expressed greatly reduced risk. Lung cancer and smoking-related diseases were perceived as very severe although participants endorsed low worry. Current smokers had low confidence in their ability to quit, and none reported quitting following their initial screen. Lung screening did not appear to be a behavior change cue to action, and high-risk perceptions did not translate into quitting behaviors. Cognitive and emotional dissonance and avoidance strategies may deter engagement in smoking behavior change. Smoking cessation and prevention interventions during lung screening should explore risk perceptions, emotions, and quit confidence.

  1. Lung Nodule Detection in CT Images using Neuro Fuzzy Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Usman Akram

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Automated lung cancer detection using computer aided diagnosis (CAD is an important area in clinical applications. As the manual nodule detection is very time consuming and costly so computerized systems can be helpful for this purpose. In this paper, we propose a computerized system for lung nodule detection in CT scan images. The automated system consists of two stages i.e. lung segmentation and enhancement, feature extraction and classification. The segmentation process will result in separating lung tissue from rest of the image, and only the lung tissues under examination are considered as candidate regions for detecting malignant nodules in lung portion. A feature vector for possible abnormal regions is calculated and regions are classified using neuro fuzzy classifier. It is a fully automatic system that does not require any manual intervention and experimental results show the validity of our system.

  2. Host lung immunity is severely compromised during tropical pulmonary eosinophilia: role of lung eosinophils and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Sharma, Aditi; Vishwakarma, Achchhe Lal; Agnihotri, Promod Kumar; Sharma, Sharad; Srivastava, Mrigank

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophils play a central role in the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, a rare, but fatal, manifestation of filariasis. However, no exhaustive study has been done to identify the genes and proteins of eosinophils involved in the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. In the present study, we established a mouse model of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia that mimicked filarial manifestations of human tropical pulmonary eosinophilia pathogenesis and used flow cytometry-assisted cell sorting and real-time RT-PCR to study the gene expression profile of flow-sorted, lung eosinophils and lung macrophages during tropical pulmonary eosinophilia pathogenesis. Our results show that tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice exhibited increased levels of IL-4, IL-5, CCL5, and CCL11 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung parenchyma along with elevated titers of IgE and IgG subtypes in the serum. Alveolar macrophages from tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice displayed decreased phagocytosis, attenuated nitric oxide production, and reduced T-cell proliferation capacity, and FACS-sorted lung eosinophils from tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice upregulated transcript levels of ficolin A and anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2,but proapoptotic genes Bim and Bax were downregulated. Similarly, flow-sorted lung macrophages upregulated transcript levels of TLR-2, TLR-6, arginase-1, Ym-1, and FIZZ-1 but downregulated nitric oxide synthase-2 levels, signifying their alternative activation. Taken together, we show that the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia is marked by functional impairment of alveolar macrophages, alternative activation of lung macrophages, and upregulation of anti-apoptotic genes by eosinophils. These events combine together to cause severe lung inflammation and compromised lung immunity. Therapeutic interventions that can boost host immune response in the lungs might thus provide relief to patients with tropical pulmonary eosinophilia.

  3. Inflammatory Pseudotumors of the Lung in Children: Aggressive Types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, J.; Guzman de Villoria, J. A.; Casonava, A.; Zabalza, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumors are tumorations which can present themselves very aggressively in children. Three patients were studied as illustration. Each was diagnosed with inflammatory pseudotumors of the lung after surgical intervention and open lung biopsy, which each case being very different in terms of clinical and radiological manifestations and evolution. Basic Radiological procedures and CT were performed in all three cases and MR in two. While the results were not specific, they did provide some means for arriving at a diagnosis, the common trait among them being the manifestation of primarily aggressive behavior. In conclusion, although inflammatory pseudotumor of the lung general y presents itself as a solitary peripheral mass of benign character which generally evolves favorable after surgery, it sometimes behaves in a primarily aggressive way which could hinder, or render impossible, any forthcoming surgical intervention. Imaging techniques tend to provide findings which are varied and unspecific. In this regard, MR is more advantageous than CT for determining not only the relationship between the mass and its adjacent structures, but also for the detection and follow up of relapses. (Author) 40 refs

  4. Reducing barriers to consulting a General Practitioner in patients at increased risk of lung cancer: a qualitative evaluation of the CHEST Australia intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sonya R; Kutzer, Yvonne; Habgood, Emily; Murchie, Peter; Walter, Fiona M; Mazza, Danielle; Shahid, Shaouli; Emery, Jon D

    2017-11-16

    Lung cancer has one of the lowest survival outcomes of any cancer because over two-thirds of patients are diagnosed when curative treatment is no longer possible, partly due to later presentation with symptoms to a healthcare provider. To explore the theoretical underpinning of the Scottish CHEST intervention in participants randomized to the intervention group within the CHEST Australia trial. A purposive maximum variation sample of participants who received the intervention in the CHEST trial in Perth, Western Australia (N = 13) and Melbourne, Victoria, (N = 7) were interviewed. Patients were asked about their experience of the CHEST consultation, their recall of the main messages, their symptom appraisal and issues relating to help seeking when they develop symptoms. Thematic analysis was conducted to draw common themes between the participants. We identified themes consistent with the theoretical basis of the CHEST intervention. Barriers to consultation identified in the CHEST Australia trial participants were smoker stigmatization, guilt, fatalism and symptom normalization. We identified a general perceived mistrust of GPs based on previous negative experiences of visiting their GP in relation to their smoking. The intervention tackled barriers around lecturing and feelings of guilt and stigma related to smoking. We identified expected effects on salience and personal relevance of symptoms. Participants reported a clearer understanding of what to look out for and when to take action after the CHEST intervention. These findings suggest that the CHEST Australia intervention is achieving the desired objectives at the qualitative level through the proposed theoretical mechanisms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Computed Tomography Screening Workshop 2011 report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, John K; Smith, Robert A; Aberle, Denise R

    2011-01-01

    national screening programs; (iii) develop guidelines for the clinical work-up of "indeterminate nodules" resulting from CT screening programmers; (iv) guidelines for pathology reporting of nodules from lung cancer CT screening programs; (v) recommendations for surgical and therapeutic interventions...... of suspicious nodules identified through lung cancer CT screening programs; and (vi) integration of smoking cessation practices into future national lung cancer CT screening programs....

  6. Tracking Genomic Cancer Evolution for Precision Medicine: The Lung TRACERx Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal-Hanjani, Mariam; Hackshaw, Alan; Ngai, Yenting

    2014-01-01

    . TRACERx (TRAcking non-small cell lung Cancer Evolution through therapy [Rx]), a prospective study of patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), aims to define the evolutionary trajectories of lung cancer in both space and time through multiregion and longitudinal tumour sampling and genetic...... analysis. By following cancers from diagnosis to relapse, tracking the evolutionary trajectories of tumours in relation to therapeutic interventions, and determining the impact of clonal heterogeneity on clinical outcomes, TRACERx may help to identify novel therapeutic targets for NSCLC and may also serve...

  7. [Management of Lung Abscess].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, A; Hillejan, L; Ukena, D

    2015-10-01

    A lung abscess is an infectious pulmonary disease characterised by the presence of a pus-filled cavity within the lung parenchyma. The content of an abscess often drains into the airways spontaneously, leading to an air-fluid level visible on chest X-rays and CT scans. Primary lung abscesses occur in patients who are prone to aspiration or in otherwise healthy individuals; secondary lung abscesses typically develop in association with a stenosing lung neoplasm or a systemic disease that compromises immune defences, such as AIDS, or after organ transplantation. The organisms found in abscesses caused by aspiration pneumonia reflect the resident flora of the oropharynx. The most commonly isolated organisms are anaerobic bacteria (Prevotella, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Peptostreptococcus) or streptococci; in alcoholics with poor oral hygiene, the spectrum of pathogens includes Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Actinomyces. Chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) are mandatory procedures in the diagnostic algorithm. Standard treatment for a lung abscess consists of systemic antibiotic therapy, which is based on the anticipated or proven bacterial spectrum of the abscess. In most cases, primary abscesses are successfully treated by calculated empiric antibiotic therapy, with an estimated lethality rate of less than 10 %. Secondary abscesses, despite targeted antimicrobial therapy, are associated with a poor prognosis, which depends on the patient's general condition and underlying disease; lethality is as high as 75 %. Negative prognostic factors are old age, severe comorbidities, immunosuppression, bronchial obstruction, and neoplasms. Surgical intervention due to failure of conservative treatment is required in only 10 % of patients, with a success rate of up to 90 % and postoperative mortality rates ranging between 0 and 33 %. Treatment success after endoscopic or percutaneous drainage is achieved in 73 to 100 % of cases, with an

  8. Intratracheal IL-6 protects against lung inflammation in direct, but not indirect, causes of acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Rhea; Janssen, William; Altmann, Christopher; Andrés-Hernando, Ana; Okamura, Kayo; Vandivier, R William; Ahuja, Nilesh; Faubel, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Serum and bronchoalveolar fluid IL-6 are increased in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and predict prolonged mechanical ventilation and poor outcomes, although the role of intra-alveolar IL-6 in indirect lung injury is unknown. We investigated the role of endogenous and exogenous intra-alveolar IL-6 in AKI-mediated lung injury (indirect lung injury), intraperitoneal (IP) endotoxin administration (indirect lung injury) and, for comparison, intratracheal (IT) endotoxin administration (direct lung injury) with the hypothesis that IL-6 would exert a pro-inflammatory effect in these causes of acute lung inflammation. Bronchoalveolar cytokines (IL-6, CXCL1, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10), BAL fluid neutrophils, lung inflammation (lung cytokines, MPO activity [a biochemical marker of neutrophil infiltration]), and serum cytokines were determined in adult male C57Bl/6 mice with no intervention or 4 hours after ischemic AKI (22 minutes of renal pedicle clamping), IP endotoxin (10 µg), or IT endotoxin (80 µg) with and without intratracheal (IT) IL-6 (25 ng or 200 ng) treatment. Lung inflammation was similar after AKI, IP endotoxin, and IT endotoxin. BAL fluid IL-6 was markedly increased after IT endotoxin, and not increased after AKI or IP endotoxin. Unexpectedly, IT IL-6 exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in healthy mice characterized by reduced BAL fluid cytokines. IT IL-6 also exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in IT endotoxin characterized by reduced BAL fluid cytokines and lung inflammation; IT IL-6 had no effect on lung inflammation in AKI or IP endotoxin. IL-6 exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in direct lung injury from IT endotoxin, yet has no role in the pathogenesis or treatment of indirect lung injury from AKI or IP endotoxin. Since intra-alveolar inflammation is important in the pathogenesis of direct, but not indirect, causes of lung inflammation, IT anti-inflammatory treatments may have a role in direct, but not indirect, causes of ARDS.

  9. Intratracheal IL-6 protects against lung inflammation in direct, but not indirect, causes of acute lung injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea Bhargava

    Full Text Available Serum and bronchoalveolar fluid IL-6 are increased in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS and predict prolonged mechanical ventilation and poor outcomes, although the role of intra-alveolar IL-6 in indirect lung injury is unknown. We investigated the role of endogenous and exogenous intra-alveolar IL-6 in AKI-mediated lung injury (indirect lung injury, intraperitoneal (IP endotoxin administration (indirect lung injury and, for comparison, intratracheal (IT endotoxin administration (direct lung injury with the hypothesis that IL-6 would exert a pro-inflammatory effect in these causes of acute lung inflammation.Bronchoalveolar cytokines (IL-6, CXCL1, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10, BAL fluid neutrophils, lung inflammation (lung cytokines, MPO activity [a biochemical marker of neutrophil infiltration], and serum cytokines were determined in adult male C57Bl/6 mice with no intervention or 4 hours after ischemic AKI (22 minutes of renal pedicle clamping, IP endotoxin (10 µg, or IT endotoxin (80 µg with and without intratracheal (IT IL-6 (25 ng or 200 ng treatment.Lung inflammation was similar after AKI, IP endotoxin, and IT endotoxin. BAL fluid IL-6 was markedly increased after IT endotoxin, and not increased after AKI or IP endotoxin. Unexpectedly, IT IL-6 exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in healthy mice characterized by reduced BAL fluid cytokines. IT IL-6 also exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in IT endotoxin characterized by reduced BAL fluid cytokines and lung inflammation; IT IL-6 had no effect on lung inflammation in AKI or IP endotoxin.IL-6 exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in direct lung injury from IT endotoxin, yet has no role in the pathogenesis or treatment of indirect lung injury from AKI or IP endotoxin. Since intra-alveolar inflammation is important in the pathogenesis of direct, but not indirect, causes of lung inflammation, IT anti-inflammatory treatments may have a role in direct, but not indirect, causes of

  10. Retrospective review of thoracic neural damage during lung ablation - what the interventional radiologist needs to know about neural thoracic anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palussiere, Jean, E-mail: j.palussiere@bordeaux.unicancer.fr [Institut Bergonie, Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Canella, Mathieu [Centre Hospitalier Pau, Department of Radiology (France); Cornelis, Francois; Catena, Vittorio; Descat, Edouard [Institut Bergonie, Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Brouste, Veronique [Institut Bergonie, Clinical and Epidemiological Research Unit (France); Montaudon, Michel [CHU Haut Leveque, Department of Radiology (France)

    2013-12-15

    Background and Purpose: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is associated with low neural morbidity compared with surgery, which commonly causes debilitating long-term pain. The purpose was to review the thoracic neural anatomy relevant to percutaneous RFA and to retrospectively review symptomatic nerve injury after lung RFA at our institution. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively examined all symptomatic nerve injuries occurring after computed tomography (CT)-guided RFA treatment of lung tumors for 462 patients/509 procedures/708 lesions treated at our large tertiary referral centre during 10 years. Results: Eight patients experienced neurological complications after heating during the RFA procedure. These complications occurred in the phrenic (n = 1), brachial (n = 3), left recurrent (n = 1), and intercostal nerves (n = 2) and the stellate ganglion (n = 1). Three were grade 2, four grade 3 and one grade 4 injuries (CTCAE v3). Conclusion: Although rare, neurological complications can occur after RFA, and they can occasionally be severe. To prevent these complications, it is important for the interventional radiologist to be aware of the anatomy of nervous structures and to attempt to identify nerves on CT scans during the RFA procedure. Creating a pneumothorax can be useful to avoid nerve damage and related clinical complications.

  11. Quantification of lung fibrosis and emphysema in mice using automated micro-computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen De Langhe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In vivo high-resolution micro-computed tomography allows for longitudinal image-based measurements in animal models of lung disease. The combination of repetitive high resolution imaging with fully automated quantitative image analysis in mouse models of lung fibrosis lung benefits preclinical research. This study aimed to develop and validate such an automated micro-computed tomography analysis algorithm for quantification of aerated lung volume in mice; an indicator of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema severity. METHODOLOGY: Mice received an intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (n = 8, elastase (0.25 U elastase n = 9, 0.5 U elastase n = 8 or saline control (n = 6 for fibrosis, n = 5 for emphysema. A subset of mice was scanned without intervention, to evaluate potential radiation-induced toxicity (n = 4. Some bleomycin-instilled mice were treated with imatinib for proof of concept (n = 8. Mice were scanned weekly, until four weeks after induction, when they underwent pulmonary function testing, lung histology and collagen quantification. Aerated lung volumes were calculated with our automated algorithm. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our automated image-based aerated lung volume quantification method is reproducible with low intra-subject variability. Bleomycin-treated mice had significantly lower scan-derived aerated lung volumes, compared to controls. Aerated lung volume correlated with the histopathological fibrosis score and total lung collagen content. Inversely, a dose-dependent increase in lung volume was observed in elastase-treated mice. Serial scanning of individual mice is feasible and visualized dynamic disease progression. No radiation-induced toxicity was observed. Three-dimensional images provided critical topographical information. CONCLUSIONS: We report on a high resolution in vivo micro-computed tomography image analysis algorithm that runs fully automated and allows quantification of aerated lung volume in mice. This

  12. Virtual reality bringing a new reality to postthoracotomy lung cancer patients via a home-based exercise intervention targeting fatigue while undergoing adjuvant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Amy J; Brintnall, Ruth Ann; Brown, Jean K; von Eye, Alexander; Jones, Lee W; Alderink, Gordon; Ritz-Holland, Deborah; Enter, Mark; Patzelt, Lawrence H; VanOtteren, Glenn M

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about rehabilitation for postthoracotomy non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. This research uses a perceived self-efficacy-enhancing light-intensity exercise intervention targeting a priority symptom, cancer-related fatigue (CRF), for postthoracotomy NSCLC patients. This article reports on phase II of a 2-phase study. Phase I focused on initiation and tolerance of exercise during the 6 weeks immediately after thoracotomy, whereas phase II addressed maintenance of exercise for an additional 10 weeks including participants initiating and completing chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of an exercise intervention for postthoracotomy NSCLC patients to include those initiating and completing adjuvant therapy. A single-arm design composed of 7 participants postthoracotomy for NSCLC performed light-intensity exercises using an efficacy-enhancing virtual-reality approach using the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus. Despite most participants undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, participants adhered to the intervention at a rate of 88% with no adverse events while giving the intervention high acceptability scores on conclusion. Likewise, participants' CRF scores improved from initiation through the conclusion of the intervention with perceived self-efficacy for walking at a light intensity continuously for 60 minutes, improving significantly upon conclusion over presurgery values. Postthoracotomy NSCLC patients maintained exercise for an additional 10 weeks while undergoing adjuvant therapy showing rehabilitation potential because the exercise intervention was feasible, safe, well tolerated, and highly acceptable showing positive changes in CRF self-management. A randomized controlled trial is needed to further investigate these relationships.

  13. POSITIVE study: physical exercise program in non-operable lung cancer patients undergoing palliative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskemann, Joachim; Hummler, Simone; Diepold, Christina; Keil, Melanie; Abel, Ulrich; Steindorf, Karen; Beckhove, Philipp; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Steins, Martin; Thomas, Michael

    2016-07-19

    Patients with advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or small cell lung cancer (SCLC) often experience multidimensional impairments, affecting quality of life during their course of disease. In lung cancer patients with operable disease, several studies have shown that exercise has a positive impact on quality of life and physical functioning. There is limited evidence regarding efficacy for advanced lung cancer patients undergoing palliative treatment. Therefore, the POSITIVE study aims to evaluate the benefit of a 24-week exercise intervention during palliative treatment in a randomized controlled setting. The POSITIVE study is a randomized, controlled trial investigating the effects of a 24-week exercise intervention during palliative treatment on quality of life, physical performance and immune function in advanced, non-operable lung cancer patients. 250 patients will be recruited in the Clinic for Thoracic Diseases in Heidelberg, enrolment begun in November 2013. Main inclusion criterion is histologically confirmed NSCLC (stage IIIa, IIIb, IV) or SCLC (Limited Disease-SCLC, Extensive Disease-SCLC) not amenable to surgery. Patients are randomized into two groups. Both groups receive weekly care management phone calls (CMPCs) with the goal to assess symptoms and side effects. Additionally, one group receives a combined resistance and endurance training (3x/week). Primary endpoints are quality of life assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for patients with lung cancer (FACT-L, subcategory Physical Well-Being) and General Fatigue measured by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20). Secondary endpoints are physical performance (maximal voluntary isometric contraction, 6-min walk distance), psychosocial (depression and anxiety) and immunological parameters and overall survival. The aim of the POSITIVE trial is the evaluation of effects of a 24-week structured and guided exercise intervention during palliative treatment stages

  14. The UK Lung Cancer Screening Trial: a pilot randomised controlled trial of low-dose computed tomography screening for the early detection of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John K; Duffy, Stephen W; Baldwin, David R; Brain, Kate E; Devaraj, Anand; Eisen, Tim; Green, Beverley A; Holemans, John A; Kavanagh, Terry; Kerr, Keith M; Ledson, Martin; Lifford, Kate J; McRonald, Fiona E; Nair, Arjun; Page, Richard D; Parmar, Mahesh Kb; Rintoul, Robert C; Screaton, Nicholas; Wald, Nicholas J; Weller, David; Whynes, David K; Williamson, Paula R; Yadegarfar, Ghasem; Hansell, David M

    2016-05-01

    Lung cancer kills more people than any other cancer in the UK (5-year survival high-risk UK population, determine optimum recruitment, screening, reading and care pathway strategies; and (2) assess the psychological consequences and the health-economic implications of screening. A pilot randomised controlled trial comparing intervention with usual care. A population-based risk questionnaire identified individuals who were at high risk of developing lung cancer (≥ 5% over 5 years). Thoracic centres with expertise in lung cancer imaging, respiratory medicine, pathology and surgery: Liverpool Heart & Chest Hospital, Merseyside, and Papworth Hospital, Cambridgeshire. Individuals aged 50-75 years, at high risk of lung cancer, in the primary care trusts adjacent to the centres. A thoracic LDCT scan. Follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans as per protocol. Referral to multidisciplinary team clinics was determined by nodule size criteria. Population-based recruitment based on risk stratification; management of the trial through web-based database; optimal characteristics of CT scan readers (radiologists vs. radiographers); characterisation of CT-detected nodules utilising volumetric analysis; prevalence of lung cancer at baseline; sociodemographic factors affecting participation; psychosocial measures (cancer distress, anxiety, depression, decision satisfaction); and cost-effectiveness modelling. A total of 247,354 individuals were approached to take part in the trial; 30.7% responded positively to the screening invitation. Recruitment of participants resulted in 2028 in the CT arm and 2027 in the control arm. A total of 1994 participants underwent CT scanning: 42 participants (2.1%) were diagnosed with lung cancer; 36 out of 42 (85.7%) of the screen-detected cancers were identified as stage 1 or 2, and 35 (83.3%) underwent surgical resection as their primary treatment. Lung cancer was more common in the lowest socioeconomic group. Short-term adverse psychosocial

  15. Experimental study of sucralfate intervention for paraquat poisoning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junbo, Zhu; Yongtao, Yu; Hongbo, Li; Fenshuang, Zheng; Ruyun, Lin; Chun'ai, Yang

    2017-07-01

    This study explored the effects of sucralfate intervention as a novel treatment for paraquat (PQ) poisoning in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. After PQ poisoning, the SD rats were randomly divided into the PQ control group (treated with normal saline), the sodium bicarbonate (SB) treatment group, and the sucralfate (LTL) treatment group. Then, the rats were administered normal saline, sodium bicarbonate solution, or sucralfate suspension as an intervention by gastric lavage. At 1, 3, 6, and 10days after poisoning, the left lungs of some rats were removed to determine the lung wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio. Additionally, the serum cytokine levels were measured, and the lung and kidney tissues were pathologically examined. After treatment, the signs and symptoms of the rats were improved, the mortality rate was reduced, the W/D weight ratio of the lung was lower, the cytokine levels [transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, interleukin (IL)-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] were decreased, and the pathological injuries of the lungs and kidneys were improved. Moreover, sucralfate was significantly more effective than the control (normal saline) group and the SB treatment group. The results showed that early gastrointestinal lavage with sucralfate effectively reduced the inflammatory response and lung and kidney injuries and improved the survival of the SD rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of indacaterol on lung deflation improves cardiac performance in hyperinflated COPD patients: an interventional, randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santus, Pierachille; Radovanovic, Dejan; Di Marco, Silvia; Valenti, Vincenzo; Raccanelli, Rita; Blasi, Francesco; Centanni, Stefano; Bussotti, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    COPD is often associated with cardiovascular comorbidity. Treatment guidelines recommend therapy with bronchodilators as first choice. We investigated the acute effect of single-dose indacaterol on lung hyperinflation in COPD subjects, for the first time evaluating the potential effects on right heart performance. In this Phase IV, randomized, interventional, double-blind, crossover clinical study, we recruited 40 patients (50-85 years of age) with stable COPD. Patients were treated with 150 μg indacaterol or placebo and after 60 minutes (T60) and 180 minutes (T180) the following tests were performed: trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE), plethysmography, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, saturation of peripheral oxygen, and visual analog scale dyspnea score. Patients underwent a crossover re-challenge after a further 72 hours of pharmacological washout. All TTE measurements were conducted blindly by the same operator and further interpreted by two different blinded operators. Consensus decisions were taken on every value and parameter. The primary outcome was the effect of the reduction of residual volume and functional residual capacity on right heart systolic and diastolic function indexes evaluated by TTE in patients treated with indacaterol, as compared to placebo. Vital capacity, inspiratory capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were significantly increased by indacaterol, when compared with placebo, while residual volume, intrathoracic gas volume, and specific airway resistance were significantly reduced in patients treated with indacaterol. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was significantly increased versus placebo, paralleled by an increase of tricuspid E-wave deceleration time. The cardiac frequency was also significantly reduced in indacaterol-treated patients. Indacaterol significantly reduces lung hyperinflation in acute conditions, with a clinically relevant improvement of dyspnea. These modifications are

  17. Development of an intervention to support patients and clinicians with advanced lung cancer when considering systematic anticancer therapy: protocol for the PACT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Despina; Sivell, Stephanie; Noble, Simon; Lester, Jason; Byrne, Anthony; Sampson, Catherine; Longo, Mirella; Nelson, Annmarie

    2017-07-12

    Patient-centred care is essential to the delivery of healthcare; however, this necessitates direct patient involvement in clinical decision-making and can be challenging for patients diagnosed with advanced non-small cell lung cancer where there may be misunderstanding of the extent of disease, prognosis and aims of treatment. In this context, decisions are complex and there is a need to balance the risks and benefits, including treatment with palliative intent. The aim of the PACT study is to identify the information and decision support needs of patients, leading to the development of an intervention to support patients with advanced lung cancer when considering treatment options. PACT is a five-stage, multimethod and multicentre study. Participants : Patients and health professionals will be recruited from three health boards. Methods : Non-participant observation of multidisciplinary team meetings (n=12) will be used to determine patients' allocation to treatment pathways (stage I). Non-participant observation of patient-clinician consultations (n=20-30) will be used to explore communication of treatment options and decision-making. Extent of participation in decision-making will be assessed using the Observing Patient Involvement in Shared Decision-Making tool. Interviews with patients (stage III) and their clinicians (stage IV) will explore the perception of treatment options and involvement in decision-making. Based on stages I-IV, an expert consensus meeting will finalise the content and format of the intervention. Cognitive interviews with patients will then determine the face validity of the intervention (stage V). Analysis : analysis will be according to data type and research question and will include mediated discourse analysis, thematic analysis, framework analysis and interpretative phenomenological analysis. Ethical approval has been granted. The study findings will contribute to and promote shared and informed decision-making in the best interest

  18. Text Messaging Interventions on Cancer Screening Rates: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, Catherine; Lopez, Jennifer; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C; Sherman, Scott E; Liang, Peter S

    2017-08-24

    Despite high-quality evidence demonstrating that screening reduces mortality from breast, cervical, colorectal, and lung cancers, a substantial portion of the population remains inadequately screened. There is a critical need to identify interventions that increase the uptake and adoption of evidence-based screening guidelines for preventable cancers at the community practice level. Text messaging (short message service, SMS) has been effective in promoting behavioral change in various clinical settings, but the overall impact and reach of text messaging interventions on cancer screening are unknown. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effect of text messaging interventions on screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, and lung cancers. We searched multiple databases for studies published between the years 2000 and 2017, including PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, to identify controlled trials that measured the effect of text messaging on screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, or lung cancers. Study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Our search yielded 2238 citations, of which 31 underwent full review and 9 met inclusion criteria. Five studies examined screening for breast cancer, one for cervical cancer, and three for colorectal cancer. No studies were found for lung cancer screening. Absolute screening rates for individuals who received text message interventions were 0.6% to 15.0% higher than for controls. Unadjusted relative screening rates for text message recipients were 4% to 63% higher compared with controls. Text messaging interventions appear to moderately increase screening rates for breast and cervical cancer and may have a small effect on colorectal cancer screening. Benefit was observed in various countries, including resource-poor and non-English-speaking populations. Given the paucity of data, additional research is needed to better quantify the effectiveness of this promising intervention

  19. MMP-10 Is Overexpressed, Proteolytically Active, and a Potential Target for Therapeutic Intervention in Human Lung Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason H. Gill

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-mediated degradation of the extracellular matrix is a major factor for tumor development and expansion. This study analysed MMP-10 protein expression and activity in human lung tumors of various grade, stage, and type to address the relationship between MMP-10 and tumor characteristics and to evaluate MMP-10 as a therapeutic target in non small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC. Unlike the majority of MMPs, MMP-10 was located in the tumor mass as opposed to tumor stroma. MMP-10 protein was observed at low levels in normal human lung tissues and at significantly higher levels in all types of NSCLC. No correlation was observed between MMP-10 protein expression and tumor type, stage, or lymph node invasion. To discriminate between active and inactive forms of MMP-10 in samples of human NSCLC, we have developed an ex vivo fluorescent assay. Measurable MMP-10 activity was detected in 42 of 50 specimens of lung cancer and only 2 of 10 specimens of histologically normal lung tissue. No relationship was observed between MMP-10 activity levels and clinicopathologic characteristics. Our results suggest that MMP-10 is expressed and active at high levels in human NSCLC compared to normal lung tissues, and, as such, is a potential target for the development of novel therapeutics for lung cancer treatment.

  20. Congenital cystic lung malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoever, B.; Scheer, I.; Bassir, C.; Chaoui, R.; Henrich, W.; Schwabe, M.; Wauer, R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study concerning congenital cystic lung malformations was to evaluate prenatal diagnoses postnatally to determine prognostic factors as well as to define optimized perinatal management. Materials and Methods: The study is based on 45 prenatal ultrasound examinations depicting fetal cystic lung lesions. 32 of the mothers had follow-up examinations. 5 pregnancies were terminated due to CCAM and additional malformations. Complete regression of the lesions was seen prenatally in 8 cases and postnatally in 5 children. Results: Surgical intervention due to respiratory insufficiency was necessary in 4 neonates. According to the imaging results, CCAM was present in 4 cases and sequestration in 7 patients. No correlation between the imaging findings and the surgical results was found in 3 children: One child suffered from rhadomyoid dysplasia, and in the case of the second child, a left-sided hernia of the diaphragm and additional sequestration were detected. The third child showed AV malformation. The cystic lesions of the 14 children operated upon were proven histologically. The degree of accuracy in the present study was high. Conclusion: Precise perinatal management is warranted in order to determine according to the clinical relevance surgical intervention and to prevent complications after the first year of life. This is performed during the neonatal period for respiratory insufficient neonates and within the first year of life for clinically stable children. (orig.)

  1. Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and lung cancer by histological type: a pooled analysis of the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Claire H; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hung, Rayjean J; McNallan, Sheila R; Cote, Michele L; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chang, Shen-Chih; Kim, Jin Hee; Ugolini, Donatella; Chen, Ying; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Andrew, Angeline S; Onega, Tracy; Duell, Eric J; Field, John K; Lazarus, Philip; Le Marchand, Loic; Neri, Monica; Vineis, Paolo; Kiyohara, Chikako; Hong, Yun-Chul; Morgenstern, Hal; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tajima, Kazuo; Christiani, David C; McLaughlin, John R; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Fabianova, Eleonora; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Rudnai, Peter; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mukeria, Anush; Zaridze, David; Seow, Adeline; Schwartz, Ann G; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    While the association between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer risk is well established, few studies with sufficient power have examined the association by histological type. In this study, we evaluated the secondhand smoke-lung cancer relationship by histological type based on pooled data from 18 case-control studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), including 2,504 cases and 7,276 controls who were never smokers and 10,184 cases and 7,176 controls who were ever smokers. We used multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and study. Among never smokers, the odds ratios (OR) comparing those ever exposed to secondhand smoke with those never exposed were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.17–1.45) for all histological types combined, 1.26 (95% CI: 1.10–1.44) for adenocarcinoma, 1.41 (95% CI: 0.99–1.99) for squamous cell carcinoma, 1.48 (95% CI: 0.89–2.45) for large cell lung cancer, and 3.09 (95% CI: 1.62–5.89) for small cell lung cancer. The estimated association with secondhand smoke exposure was greater for small cell lung cancer than for non-small cell lung cancers (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.11–4.04). This analysis is the largest to date investigating the relation between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer. Our study provides more precise estimates of the impact of secondhand smoke on the major histological types of lung cancer, indicates the association with secondhand smoke is stronger for small cell lung cancer than for the other histological types, and suggests the importance of intervention against exposure to secondhand smoke in lung cancer prevention. PMID:24615328

  2. Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and lung cancer by histological type: a pooled analysis of the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Claire H; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hung, Rayjean J; McNallan, Sheila R; Cote, Michele L; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chang, Shen-Chih; Kim, Jin Hee; Ugolini, Donatella; Chen, Ying; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Andrew, Angeline S; Onega, Tracy; Duell, Eric J; Field, John K; Lazarus, Philip; Le Marchand, Loic; Neri, Monica; Vineis, Paolo; Kiyohara, Chikako; Hong, Yun-Chul; Morgenstern, Hal; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tajima, Kazuo; Christiani, David C; McLaughlin, John R; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Fabianova, Eleonora; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Rudnai, Peter; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mukeria, Anush; Zaridze, David; Seow, Adeline; Schwartz, Ann G; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-10-15

    While the association between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer risk is well established, few studies with sufficient power have examined the association by histological type. In this study, we evaluated the secondhand smoke-lung cancer relationship by histological type based on pooled data from 18 case-control studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), including 2,504 cases and 7,276 control who were never smokers and 10,184 cases and 7,176 controls who were ever smokers. We used multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and study. Among never smokers, the odds ratios (OR) comparing those ever exposed to secondhand smoke with those never exposed were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.17-1.45) for all histological types combined, 1.26 (95% CI: 1.10-1.44) for adenocarcinoma, 1.41 (95% CI: 0.99-1.99) for squamous cell carcinoma, 1.48 (95% CI: 0.89-2.45) for large cell lung cancer, and 3.09 (95% CI: 1.62-5.89) for small cell lung cancer. The estimated association with secondhand smoke exposure was greater for small cell lung cancer than for nonsmall cell lung cancers (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.11-4.04). This analysis is the largest to date investigating the relation between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer. Our study provides more precise estimates of the impact of secondhand smoke on the major histological types of lung cancer, indicates the association with secondhand smoke is stronger for small cell lung cancer than for the other histological types, and suggests the importance of intervention against exposure to secondhand smoke in lung cancer prevention. © 2014 UICC.

  3. Retrospective review of thoracic neural damage during lung ablation – what the interventional radiologist needs to know about neural thoracic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palussière, Jean; Canella, Mathieu; Cornelis, François; Catena, Vittorio; Descat, Edouard; Brouste, Véronique; Montaudon, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is associated with low neural morbidity compared with surgery, which commonly causes debilitating long-term pain. The purpose was to review the thoracic neural anatomy relevant to percutaneous RFA and to retrospectively review symptomatic nerve injury after lung RFA at our institution. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively examined all symptomatic nerve injuries occurring after computed tomography (CT)-guided RFA treatment of lung tumors for 462 patients/509 procedures/708 lesions treated at our large tertiary referral centre during 10 years. Results: Eight patients experienced neurological complications after heating during the RFA procedure. These complications occurred in the phrenic (n = 1), brachial (n = 3), left recurrent (n = 1), and intercostal nerves (n = 2) and the stellate ganglion (n = 1). Three were grade 2, four grade 3 and one grade 4 injuries (CTCAE v3). Conclusion: Although rare, neurological complications can occur after RFA, and they can occasionally be severe. To prevent these complications, it is important for the interventional radiologist to be aware of the anatomy of nervous structures and to attempt to identify nerves on CT scans during the RFA procedure. Creating a pneumothorax can be useful to avoid nerve damage and related clinical complications

  4. Cooperative regulation of non-small cell lung carcinoma by nicotinic and beta-adrenergic receptors: a novel target for intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein A N Al-Wadei

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death; 80-85% of lung cancer cases are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Smoking is a documented risk factor for the development of this cancer. Although nicotine does not have the ability to initiate carcinogenic events, recent studies have implicated nicotine in growth stimulation of NSCLC. Using three NSCLC cell lines (NCI-H322, NCI-H441 and NCI-H1299, we identified the cooperation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs and β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs as principal regulators of these effects. Proliferation was measured by thymidine incorporation and MTT assays, and Western blots were used to monitor the upregulation of the nAChRs and activation of signaling molecules. Noradrenaline and GABA were measured by immunoassays. Nicotine-treated NSCLC cells showed significant induction of the α7nAChR and α4nAChR, along with significant inductions of p-CREB and p-ERK1/2 accompanied by increases in the stress neurotransmitter noradrenaline, which in turn led to the observed increase in DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. Effects on cell proliferation and signaling proteins were reversed by the α7nAChR antagonist α-BTX or the β-blocker propranolol. Nicotine treatment also down-regulated expression of the GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD 65 and the level of endogenous GABA, while treatment of NSCLC cells with GABA inhibited cell proliferation. Interestingly, GABA acts by reducing β-adrenergic activated cAMP signaling. Our findings suggest that nicotine-induced activation of this autocrine noradrenaline-initiated signaling cascade and concomitant deficiency in inhibitory GABA, similar to modulation of these neurotransmitters in the nicotine-addicted brain, may contribute to the development of NSCLC in smokers. Our data suggest that exposure to nicotine either by tobacco smoke or nicotine supplements facilitates growth and progression of NSCLC and that pharmacological intervention by β blocker may

  5. SHORT TERM EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE-TENS ON LUNG FUNCTIONS AND DYSPNEA FOR SUBJECTS WITH MODERATE COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Babu. K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acupuncture TENS is used to improve pain instead of invasive acupuncture. Acupuncture shown to improve dyspnoea and lung functions in COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients. The purpose of the study is to determine Short term effectiveness of Acupuncture-TENS in reducing dyspnea and improving lung functions for subjects with moderate COPD. Method: An experimental study design, selected 30 geriatric subjects with COPD randomized 15 subjects into each Study and Control group. Study group received Acu-TENS for 45 minutes for total 5 sessions, while control group received placebo TENS. Outcome measurements such as breathlessness using Modified Borg Scale (MBS, Lung functions using Pulmonary Function Test (PFT was measured before and after intervention. Results: Analysis from pre-intervention to post-intervention within study group found that there is statistically significant change in means of MBS, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and within control group there is a statistically significant change in means of MBS, but there is no statistically significant change in means of FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio. When post-intervention means were compared between the groups there is no statistically significant difference in means of MBS and FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio. Conclusion: It is concluded that one week of Acu-TENS on EXL1 point found no significant effect on improving dyspnea and lung functions in subjects with moderate COPD in geriatric populations.

  6. Lung cancer brain metastases – the role of neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Aleshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is mostly common occurring oncological disease in the developed countries. Currently lung cancers are subdivided into nonsmall-cell (adenocarcinoma, large-cell, squamous cell and small-cell. The difference in the clinical and morphological picture leads to the necessity of choosing therapeutic approaches to patients of various groups.Lung cancer should be referred to encephalotropic diseases since metastatic lesion of the central nervous system is sufficiently common complication. Successes of complex treatment of primary tumor result in increase of total longlivety currently ther is ageing of patients suffering lung cancer. These factors increase the risk of metastatic lesions of the brain.Interest to the problem of neurosurgical treatment of patients suffering lung cancer is determined by frequency of lesion, varicosity of morphological variants of the disease, requiring various algorithms of treatment and diagnosis.The main role of neurosurgical intervention in cerebral metastases of lung cancer consist in creation of the paled of carrying out combined therapy. Ideally, a neurosurgical operation should be carried out with clearcut observance of oncological principles of ablasty.Adequate comprehensive approach to treatment or patients with cerebral metastases of various forms of lung cancer with the developed of optimal tactics of and stages of treatment would make it possible to increase duration and quality of life of patients.

  7. Factors Associated with Life Expectancy in Patients with Metastatic Spine Disease from Adenocarcinoma of the Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, C. Rory; Khattab, Mohamed H.; Sankey, Eric W.; Elder, Benjamin D.; Kosztowski, Thomas A.; Sarabia-Estrada, Rachel; Bydon, Ali; Witham, Timothy F.; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Sciubba, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Objective Our objective was to identify preoperative prognostic factors associated with survival in patients with spinal metastasis from lung carcinoma. Methods A retrospective analysis of 26 patients diagnosed with lung carcinoma metastatic to the spinal column was performed to determine factors associated with survival. We used 3 months survival as the clinical cutoff for whether surgical intervention should be performed. We analyzed patients who survived less than 3 months compared with those who survived more than 3 months. Demographic, preoperative, operative, and postoperative factors including functional scores were collected for analysis. Results The median survival for all patients in our study was 3.5 months. We found a statistically significant difference between the group that survived less than 3 months and the group that survived greater than 3 months in terms of extrathoracic metastasis, visceral metastasis, and average postoperative modified Rankin score. Conclusion Determining which patients with lung cancer spinal metastases will benefit from surgical intervention is often dictated by the patient's predicted life expectancy. Factors associated with poorer prognosis include age, functional status, visceral metastases, and extrathoracic metastases. Although the prognosis for patients with lung cancer spinal metastases is poor, some patients may experience long-term benefit from surgical intervention. PMID:26430597

  8. Lung perfusion scintigraphy in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary stenosis in patients after repair of Fallot tetralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabiniewicz, R.; Chojnicki, M.; Alszewicz-Baranowska, J.; Erecinski, J.; Romanowicz, G.; Lass, P.; Bandurski, T.

    2002-01-01

    The frequency of peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in patients after surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) ranges from 20 to 40%. This can be either primary or secondary to the surgical intervention. The influence of resulting lung perfusion alterations on the life quality of patients is difficult to predict. The aim of this study was to compare the utility of the diagnostic procedures in this group of patients, with particular focus on lung perfusion scintigraphy. This study comprised 104 patients who underwent repair of TOF at ages from 5 months to 25 years. The patients have been followed up for from 4.2 to 25 years. On the basis of chest X-ray peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis was suspected in 11 patients, in 12 on the basis of echocardiography examination. Lung perfusion scintigraphy has been performed on 87 patients. The disturbances in lung perfusion (mostly in the left lung) were show by means of lung perfusion scintigraphy in 43 (49%) of patients. In 27 of them heart catheterisation has been performed. Angiography revealed stenosis of the lung artery branch in 15/43 (34.9%) patients with abnormal perfusion lung scan and in 4/44 (9%) in patients with normal perfusion lung scan. Intervention procedures were carried out on 10 patients. Lung perfusion scintigraphy may prove a valuable, non-invasive screening tool in the assessment of patients after TOF repair, although both false-negative and false positive results may happen. Therefore, it should play an auxiliary role together with other diagnostic modalities. (author)

  9. Acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome in the injured patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakowitz Magdalena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome are clinical entities of multi-factorial origin frequently seen in traumatically injured patients requiring intensive care. We performed an unsystematic search using PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews up to January 2012. The purpose of this article is to review recent evidence for the pathophysiology and the management of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome in the critically injured patient. Lung protective ventilation remains the most beneficial therapy. Future trials should compare intervention groups to controls receiving lung protective ventilation, and focus on relevant outcome measures such as duration of mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit stay, and mortality.

  10. Novel use of pleural ultrasound can identify malignant entrapped lung prior to effusion drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamonsen, Matthew R; Lo, Ada K C; Ng, Arnold C T; Bashirzadeh, Farzad; Wang, William Y S; Fielding, David I K

    2014-11-01

    The presence of entrapped lung changes the appropriate management of malignant pleural effusion from pleurodesis to insertion of an indwelling pleural catheter. No methods currently exist to identify entrapped lung prior to effusion drainage. Our objectives were to develop a method to identify entrapped lung using tissue movement and deformation (strain) analysis with ultrasonography and compare it to the existing technique of pleural elastance (PEL). Prior to drainage, 81 patients with suspected malignant pleural effusion underwent thoracic ultrasound using an echocardiogram machine. Images of the atelectatic lower lobe were acquired during breath hold, allowing motion and strain related to the cardiac impulse to be analyzed using motion mode (M mode) and speckle-tracking imaging, respectively. PEL was measured during effusion drainage. The gold-standard diagnosis of entrapped lung was the consensus opinion of two interventional pulmonologists according to postdrainage imaging. Participants were randomly divided into development and validation sets. Both total movement and strain were significantly reduced in entrapped lung. Using data from the development set, the area under the receiver-operating curves for the diagnosis of entrapped lung was 0.86 (speckle tracking), 0.79 (M mode), and 0.69 (PEL). Using respective cutoffs of 6%, 1 mm, and 19 cm H2O on the validation set, the sensitivity/specificity was 71%/85% (speckle tracking), 50%/85% (M mode), and 40%/100% (PEL). This novel ultrasound technique can identify entrapped lung prior to effusion drainage, which could allow appropriate choice of definitive management (pleurodesis vs indwelling catheter), reducing the number of interventions required to treat malignant pleural effusion.

  11. Obesity Paradox in Lung Cancer Prognosis: Evolving Biological Insights and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueli; Liu, Yamin; Shao, Hua; Zheng, Xiao

    2017-10-01

    The survival rate of lung cancer remains low despite the progress of surgery and chemotherapy. With the increasing comorbidity of obesity in patients with lung cancer, new challenges are emerging in the management of this patient population. A key issue of interest is the prognostic effect of obesity on surgical and chemotherapeutic outcomes in patients with lung cancer, which is fueled by the growing observation of survival benefits in overweight or obese patients. This unexpected inverse relationship between obesity and lung cancer mortality, called the obesity paradox, remains poorly understood. The evolving insights into the heterogeneity of obesity phenotypes and associated biological connections with lung cancer progression in recent years may help explain some of the seemingly paradoxical relationship, and well-designed clinical studies looking at the causal role of obesity-associated molecules are expected. Here, we examine potential biological mechanisms behind the protective effects of obesity in lung cancer. We highlight the need to clarify the clinical implications of this relationship toward an updated intervention strategy in the clinical care of patients with lung cancer and obesity. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relaxation and Guided Imagery: A School-Based Intervention for Children with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Heather L.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    This investigation analyzed the effect of relaxation and guided imagery on lung function and anxiety by employing a multiple baseline design across four middle school students with asthma. With the introduction of the intervention, it was found that lung function improved and anxiety decreased in all students. (Contains 63 references, 1 table, and…

  13. Non-vascular interventional therapy for respiratory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Hongjian; Chen Liping; Wang Hui; Cheng Yongde

    2009-01-01

    To review the recent literature relating to non-vascular interventional therapy of respiratory diseases. Metal airway stent insertion can immediately relieve tracheobronchial obstruction and improve pulmonary function. However, as there is a high occurrence of the restenosis after stent insertion, it should be very careful to use metal stenting to treat the benign airway obstruction. Compared with traditional lung volume reduction surgery in treating severe emphysema, bronchoscopic lung volume reduction appears to be effective, safe and less invasive, although its clinical usefullness need to be further proved. Endoscopic occlusion of bronchial fistula represents an effective alternative to surgical treatment. Percutaneous lung biopsy under ultrasound or CT guidance has been applied successfully in the management of both benign and malignant lesions. (authors)

  14. Haemorrhagic Complications and Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism in Interventional Tumour Ablations: The Impact of Peri-interventional Thrombosis Prophylaxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohnike, Konrad, E-mail: konrad.mohnike@med.ovgu.de; Sauerland, Hanna; Seidensticker, Max [Universitätsklinikum Magdeburg A.ö.R., Otto-von-Guericke-Universität, Klinik für Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin (Germany); Hass, Peter [Universitätsklinikum Magdeburg A.ö.R., Otto-von-Guericke-Universität, Klinik für Strahlentherapie (Germany); Kropf, Siegfried [Universitätsklinikum Magdeburg A.ö.R., Otto-von-Guericke-Universität, Institut für Biometrie (Germany); Seidensticker, Ricarda; Friebe, Björn; Fischbach, Frank; Fischbach, Katharina; Powerski, Maciej; Pech, Maciej; Grosser, O. S.; Kettner, Erika; Ricke, Jens [Universitätsklinikum Magdeburg A.ö.R., Otto-von-Guericke-Universität, Klinik für Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    AimThe aim of this study was to assess the rates of haemorrhagic and thrombotic complications in patients undergoing interventional tumour ablation with and without peri-interventional low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) thrombosis prophylaxis.MethodsPatients presented with primary and secondary neoplastic lesions in the liver, lung, kidney, lymph nodes and other locations. A total of 781 tumour ablations (radiofrequency ablation, n = 112; interstitial brachytherapy, n = 669) were performed in 446 patients over 22 months; 260 were conducted under peri-interventional thrombosis prophylaxis with LMWH (H-group;) and 521 without this (NH-group, in 143 of these, LMWH was given post-interventionally).ResultsSixty-three bleeding events occurred. There were significantly more bleedings in the H-group than in the NH-group (all interventions, 11.66 and 6.26 %, p = 0.0127; liver ablations, 12.73 and 7.1 %, p = 0.0416). The rate of bleeding events Grade ≥ III in all procedures was greater by a factor of >2.6 in the H-group than in the NH-group (4.64 and 1.73 %, p = 0.0243). In liver tumour ablations, the corresponding factor was about 3.3 (5.23 and 1.54 %, p = 0.028). In uni- and multivariate analyses including covariates, the only factor constantly and significantly associated with the rate of haemorrhage events was peri-interventional LMWH prophylaxis. Only one symptomatic lung embolism occurred in the entire cohort (NH-group). The 30- and 90-day mortalities were significantly greater in the H-group than in the NH-group.ConclusionsPeri-interventional LMWH thrombosis prophylaxis should be considered with caution. The rate of clinically relevant thrombotic events was extremely low.

  15. The role of the occupational therapist in the care of people living with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kahren M

    2016-06-01

    This paper aims to explore the vital role occupational therapists play in enabling people living with lung cancer to continue to actively live. Core assessments and interventions employed by occupational therapists are described in a case study. It will demonstrate how people living with lung cancer can continue to participate in meaningful and chosen life roles, even in the face of functional decline. Skilled management by the occupational therapist of the refractory symptoms of advanced lung cancer supports this participation.

  16. Ground reaction forces and knee kinetics during single and repeated badminton lunges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wing Kai; Ding, Rui; Qu, Yi

    2017-03-01

    Repeated movement (RM) lunge that frequently executed in badminton might be used for footwear evaluation. This study examined the influence of single movement (SM) and RM lunges on the ground reaction forces (GRFs) and knee kinetics during the braking phase of a badminton lunge step. Thirteen male university badminton players performed left-forward lunges in both SM and RM sessions. Force platform and motion capturing system were used to measure GRFs and knee kinetics variables. Paired t-test was performed to determine any significant differences between SM and RM lunges regarding mean and coefficient of variation (CV) in each variable. The kinetics results indicated that compared to SM lunges, the RM lunges had shorter contact time and generated smaller maximum loading rate of impact force, peak knee anterior-posterior force, and peak knee sagittal moment but generated larger peak horizontal resultant forces (Ps < 0.05). Additionally, the RM lunges had lower CV for peak knee medial-lateral and vertical forces (Ps < 0.05). These results suggested that the RM testing protocols had a distinct loading response and adaptation pattern during lunge and that the RM protocol showed higher within-trial reliability, which may be beneficial for the knee joint loading evaluation under different interventions.

  17. A cost-effect analysis of an intervention against radon in homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Stigum

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background  Key words  : Radon exposure, lung cancer, cost-effect analysis, attributable risk, models-mathematical: Radon is a radioactive gas that may leak into buildings from the ground. Radon exposure is a risk factor for lung cancer. An intervention against radon exposure in homes may consist of locating homes with high radon exposure (above 200 Bq m-3 and improving these, and of protecting future houses. The purpose of this paper is to calculate the costs and the effects of this intervention. Methods: We performed a cost-effect analysis from the perspective of the society, followed by an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. The distribution of radon levels in Norwegian homes is lognormal with mean=74.5 Bq/m3, and 7.6% above 200 Bq/m3. Results: The preventable attributable fraction of radon on lung cancer was 3.8% (95% uncertainty interval: 0.6%, 8.3%. In cumulative present values the intervention would cost $238 (145, 310 million and save 892 (133, 1981 lives, each life saved costs $0.27 (0.09, 0.9 million. The cost-effect ratio was sensitive to the radon risk, the radon exposure distribution, and the latency period of lung cancer. Together these three parameters explained 90% of the variation in the cost-effect ratio. Conclusions: Reducing the radon concentration in present and future homes to below 200 Bq/m3 will cost $0.27 (0.09, 0.9 million per life saved. The uncertainty in the estimated cost per life is large, mainly due to uncertainty in the risk of lung cancer from radon. Based on estimates from road construction, the Norwegian society has been willing to pay $1 million to save a life. We therefore conclude that the intervention against radon in homes is justifiable. The willingness to pay is also larger that the upper uncertainty limit of the cost per life. Our conclusion is therefore robust against the uncertainties in the parameters.

  18. Occipital condyle metastasis: an unusual clinical presentation in carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasricha, R.; Mohanty, P.P.; Madan, R.C.; Datta, N.R.

    2005-01-01

    Metastases to the base of the skull and occipital condyle metastases are uncommon as a presenting feature of malignancy. Lung cancers are known for their metastatic potential to various sites, some of which could be the only presenting feature of the underlying malignancy. However, occipital condyle metastases are very rare and to the best of our knowledge, metastases to this site from carcinoma of the lung, as a presenting feature, have never been reported in the literature. The present case report describes the clinical, radiological and the therapeutic interventions that were undertaken in a patient presenting with lung cancer who had solely the features of occipital condyle metastasis

  19. Lung parenchymal analysis on dynamic MRI in thoracic insufficiency syndrome to assess changes following surgical intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadale, Basavaraj N.; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Tong, Yubing; Wu, Caiyun; McDonough, Joseph; Torigian, Drew A.; Campbell, Robert M.

    2018-02-01

    General surgeons, orthopedists, and pulmonologists individually treat patients with thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS). The benefits of growth-sparing procedures such as Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib (VEPTR)insertionfor treating patients with TIS have been demonstrated. However, at present there is no objective assessment metricto examine different thoracic structural components individually as to their roles in the syndrome, in contributing to dynamics and function, and in influencing treatment outcome. Using thoracic dynamic MRI (dMRI), we have been developing a methodology to overcome this problem. In this paper, we extend this methodology from our previous structural analysis approaches to examining lung tissue properties. We process the T2-weighted dMRI images through a series of steps involving 4D image construction of the acquired dMRI images, intensity non-uniformity correction and standardization of the 4D image, lung segmentation, and estimation of the parameters describing lung tissue intensity distributions in the 4D image. Based on pre- and post-operative dMRI data sets from 25 TIS patients (predominantly neuromuscular and congenital conditions), we demonstrate how lung tissue can be characterized by the estimated distribution parameters. Our results show that standardized T2-weighted image intensity values decrease from the pre- to post-operative condition, likely reflecting improved lung aeration post-operatively. In both pre- and post-operative conditions, the intensity values decrease also from end-expiration to end-inspiration, supporting the basic premise of our results.

  20. A role for cell adhesion in beryllium-mediated lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong-geller, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a debilitating lung disorder in which exposure to the lightweight metal beryllium (Be) causes the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in the lung and formation of noncaseating pulmonary granulomas. Treatment for CBD patients who exhibit progressive pulmonary decline is limited to systemic corticosteroids, which suppress the severe host inflammatory response. Studies in the past several years have begun to highlight cell-cell adhesion interactions in the development of Be hypersensitivity and CBD. In particular, the high binding affinity between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (I-CAM1) on lung epithelial cells and the {beta}{sub 2} integrin LFA-1 on migrating lymphocytes and macrophages regulates the concerted rolling of immune cells to sites of inflammation in the lung. In this review, we discuss the evidence that implicates cell adhesion processes in onset of Be disease and the potential of cell adhesion as an intervention point for development of novel therapies.

  1. Extravascular Lung Water and Acute Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Maharaj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury carries a high burden of morbidity and mortality and is characterised by nonhydrostatic pulmonary oedema. The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of accurate quantification of extravascular lung water in diagnosis, management, and prognosis in “acute lung injury” and “acute respiratory distress syndrome”. Several studies have verified the accuracy of both the single and the double transpulmonary thermal indicator techniques. Both experimental and clinical studies were searched in PUBMED using the term “extravascular lung water” and “acute lung injury”. Extravascular lung water measurement offers information not otherwise available by other methods such as chest radiography, arterial blood gas, and chest auscultation at the bedside. Recent data have highlighted the role of extravascular lung water in response to treatment to guide fluid therapy and ventilator strategies. The quantification of extravascular lung water may predict mortality and multiorgan dysfunction. The limitations of the dilution method are also discussed.

  2. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer

  3. June 2015 Phoenix critical care journal club: interventions in ARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Mortality has been declining in the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS (1. However, the cause of the decline in mortality is unclear. The only intervention shown to improve survival has been low tidal volume ventilation but the mortality was improving before this intervention was widely used (2. Nevertheless, it was suggested that we look at system performance regarding ARDS management from a critical appraisal standpoint. This journal club was hoped to help as a starting point in that regard. Four potential beneficial interventions were discussed: 1. Conservative fluid management; 2. Optimal PEEP as determined by esophageal pressure; 3. Prone positioning; and 4. Mechanical ventilation driving pressure. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS Clinical Trials Network, Wiedemann HP, Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, Thompson BT, Hayden D, deBoisblanc B, Connors AF Jr, Hite RD, Harabin AL. Comparison of two fluid-management strategies in acute lung injury. N Engl ...

  4. Clinical characteristics of lung abscess in children: 15-year experience at two university hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi Suk; Chun, Ji Hye; Lee, Kyung Suk; Rha, Yeong Ho; Choi, Sun Hee

    2015-12-01

    Information on the clinical features of lung abscess, which is uncommon in children, at hospitalizationis helpful to anticipate the disease course and management. There is no report concerning lung abscess in Korean children. We aimed to identify the clinical characteristics of pediatric lung abscess and compare the difference between primary and secondary abscess groups. The medical records of 11 lung abscess patients (7 males and 4 females) from March 1998 to August 2011 at two university hospitals were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical characteristics, symptoms, underlying disease, laboratory and radiologic findings, microbiological results, and treatments were examined. Six patients had underlying structural-related problems (e.g., skeletal anomalies). No immunologic or hematologic problem was recorded. The mean ages of the primary and secondary groups were 2.4 and 5.3 years, respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant. The mean length of hospital stay was similar in both groups (22.8 days vs. 21.4 days). Immunologic studies were performed in 3 patients; the results were within the normal range. Most patients had prominent leukocytosis. Seven and 4 patients had right and left lung abscess, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and antimycoplasma antibodies were detected in both groups. Two patients with primary lung abscess were administered antibiotics in the absence of other procedures, while 8 underwent interventional procedures, including 5 with secondary abscess. The most common symptoms were fever and cough. All patients in the primary group were younger than 3 years. Structural problems were dominant. Most patients required interventional procedures and antibiotics.

  5. Lung Cancer Screening Participation: Developing a Conceptual Model to Guide Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Harris, Lisa; Davis, Lorie L; Rawl, Susan M

    2016-11-01

    To describe the development of a conceptual model to guide research focused on lung cancer screening participation from the perspective of the individual in the decision-making process. Based on a comprehensive review of empirical and theoretical literature, a conceptual model was developed linking key psychological variables (stigma, medical mistrust, fatalism, worry, and fear) to the health belief model and precaution adoption process model. Proposed model concepts have been examined in prior research of either lung or other cancer screening behavior. To date, a few studies have explored a limited number of variables that influence screening behavior in lung cancer specifically. Therefore, relationships among concepts in the model have been proposed and future research directions presented. This proposed model is an initial step to support theoretically based research. As lung cancer screening becomes more widely implemented, it is critical to theoretically guide research to understand variables that may be associated with lung cancer screening participation. Findings from future research guided by the proposed conceptual model can be used to refine the model and inform tailored intervention development.

  6. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the lung in a coal miner with pneumoconiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, T.K.; Hsu, C.J.; Chiang, C.Y.; Bai, K.J.; Huang, T.W. [Dept. of Health Executive of Yuan, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2001-12-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumors of the lung are uncommon and etiologically diverse lesions that often present as solitary masses in the lung. It may be difficult to distinguish these lesions from more commonly encountered lung neoplasms. Inflammatory pseudotumors can also occur in other organs, but the lung is most commonly involved. The authors describe a 63-year-old male coal miner with a 40-year history of dust exposure, who had a large right middle lobe mass on chest roentgenograms, with slow growth over the 7 years prior to admission. Repeated transthoracic echo-guided biopsies of the mass were indicative of an inflammatory and reactive process. The radiographic, histologic, and clinical findings indicated a diagnosis of inflammatory pseudotumor. The patient refused surgical intervention and was regularly followed at the outpatient clinic. Follow-up chest roentgenograms for 1 year revealed that the tumor site was stable. This case suggested that inflammatory, pseudotumor, although uncommon, should be included in the differential diagnosis in a patient with pneumoconiosis and a solitary mass in the lung.

  7. Role of gastroesophageal reflux disease in lung transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathorn, Kelly E; Chan, Walter W; Lo, Wai-Kit

    2017-01-01

    Lung transplantation is one of the highest risk solid organ transplant modalities. Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and lung transplant outcomes, including acute and chronic rejection. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology, evaluation, and management of GERD in lung transplantation, as informed by the most recent publications in the field. The pathophysiology of reflux-induced lung injury includes the effects of aspiration and local immunomodulation in the development of pulmonary decline and histologic rejection, as reflective of allograft injury. Modalities of reflux and esophageal assessment, including ambulatory pH testing, impedance, and esophageal manometry, are discussed, as well as timing of these evaluations relative to transplantation. Finally, antireflux treatments are reviewed, including medical acid suppression and surgical fundoplication, as well as the safety, efficacy, and timing of such treatments relative to transplantation. Our review of the data supports an association between GERD and allograft injury, encouraging a strategy of early diagnosis and aggressive reflux management in lung transplant recipients to improve transplant outcomes. Further studies are needed to explore additional objective measures of reflux and aspiration, better compare medical and surgical antireflux treatment options, extend follow-up times to capture longer-term clinical outcomes, and investigate newer interventions including minimally invasive surgery and advanced endoscopic techniques. PMID:28507913

  8. Psychological interventions for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasscoe, C A; Quittner, A L

    2003-01-01

    during the chronic phase. No completed studies concentrating on complex treatment approaches were found. There is some evidence that behavioural interventions can improve emotional outcomes in people with CF and their carers. There was no consistent effect on lung function although one small study showed that biofeedback assisted breathing re-training was associated with improvement in some measures of spirometric lung function. Insufficient evidence is available at this point for interventions aimed at other aspects of the disease process. Multicentre approaches are required to increase the sample sizes of studies in the psychosocial field and to enhance the power and precision of the findings. This has consequent implications for funding.

  9. Three-center feasibility of lung clearance index in infants and preschool children with cystic fibrosis and other lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Mirjam; Graeber, Simon Y; Joachim, Cornelia; Barth, Sandra; Ricklefs, Isabell; Diekmann, Gesa; Kopp, Matthias V; Naehrlich, Lutz; Mall, Marcus A

    2018-03-01

    Lung clearance index (LCI) detects early ventilation inhomogeneity and has been suggested as sensitive endpoint in multicenter intervention trials in infants and preschoolers with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the feasibility of multicenter LCI in this age group has not been determined. We, therefore, investigated the feasibility of LCI in infants and preschoolers with and without CF in a three-center setting. Following central training, standardized SF 6 -MBW measurements were performed in 73 sedated children (10 controls, 49 with CF and 14 with other lung diseases), mean age 2.3±1.2years across three centers, and data were analyzed centrally. Overall success rate of LCI measurements was 91.8% ranging from 78.9% to 100% across study sites. LCI was increased in patients with CF (P<0.05) and with other lung diseases (P<0.05) compared to controls. Our results support feasibility of LCI as multicenter endpoint in clinical trials in infants and preschoolers with CF. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of birth weight on the level of lung function and lung function decline in the general adult population. The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Sophie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported an association between low birth weight and low adult lung function, but findings have not been consistent. The aim of this study was to investigate whether birth weight is associated with both the level and the decline in adult lung function in general...... population. METHODS: The Danish Inter99 study is a population-based intervention study in adults aged 30-60 years, providing information on birth weight and lung function on 4428 participants. Of these, 2931 participants performed spirometry at baseline and at five-year follow-up. Multiple linear regression...... models were used to examine the association between birth weight and forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) and age-related decline in these variables. Analyses were conducted stepwise including sex, age, adult height, abdominal circumference, birth height, mother...

  11. HDR brachytherapy. An option for preventing nonmalignant obstruction in patients after lung transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, A.; Karstens, J.H.; Christiansen, H. [Medical School Hannover (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Warszawski-Baumann, A.; Baumann, R. [Medical School Hannover (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Medical Practice for Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Hannover (Germany); Gottlieb, J.; Welte, T. [Medical School Hannover (Germany). Dept. of Respiratory Medicine

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Interventional bronchoscopy is the main treatment modality in managing benign airway obstructions following lung transplantation. We analyzed the effect of intraluminal brachytherapy on preventing recurrence of hyperplastic tissue. Patients and methods: From September 2002 to September 2004, a total of 24 intraluminal brachytherapy applications were carried out on 12 lung transplant patients in 15 different locations. A single dose of 3 Gy was calculated at a 5-mm distance from the catheter surface; the target volume included a stenosis plus safety interval of 0.5-1.0 cm. Results: All patients had a mean 10.6 local interventions (Argon plasma coagulation, balloon dilatations, stenting) over 4.4 months before the first application of endobronchial brachytherapy, with a mean amount of 2.4 applications per month. The mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) was 2,219 ml in the 3 months before application of brachytherapy. After endobronchial brachytherapy, all patients experienced improvement in clinical status and respiratory function. The mean level of FEV1 in the 3 months after application was 2,435 ml (p = 0.02), and the number of invasive interventions dropped to a mean rate of 5.2 interventions in the 5.1 months after the first intervention, with an amount of 1 application per month. No treatment-related complications were seen. Four patients were treated twice, 1 patient three times, and 1 patient four times at the same localization. Conclusions: Recurrent symptomatic benign airway obstruction from hyperplastic tissue in the bronchus after lung transplantation can be successfully treated with intraluminal high-dose-rate brachytherapy with a dose of 3 Gy at a 5-mm distance from the catheter surface and a longitudinal safety margin of 1 cm. (orig.)

  12. HDR brachytherapy. An option for preventing nonmalignant obstruction in patients after lung transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, A.; Karstens, J.H.; Christiansen, H.; Gottlieb, J.; Welte, T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Interventional bronchoscopy is the main treatment modality in managing benign airway obstructions following lung transplantation. We analyzed the effect of intraluminal brachytherapy on preventing recurrence of hyperplastic tissue. Patients and methods: From September 2002 to September 2004, a total of 24 intraluminal brachytherapy applications were carried out on 12 lung transplant patients in 15 different locations. A single dose of 3 Gy was calculated at a 5-mm distance from the catheter surface; the target volume included a stenosis plus safety interval of 0.5-1.0 cm. Results: All patients had a mean 10.6 local interventions (Argon plasma coagulation, balloon dilatations, stenting) over 4.4 months before the first application of endobronchial brachytherapy, with a mean amount of 2.4 applications per month. The mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) was 2,219 ml in the 3 months before application of brachytherapy. After endobronchial brachytherapy, all patients experienced improvement in clinical status and respiratory function. The mean level of FEV1 in the 3 months after application was 2,435 ml (p = 0.02), and the number of invasive interventions dropped to a mean rate of 5.2 interventions in the 5.1 months after the first intervention, with an amount of 1 application per month. No treatment-related complications were seen. Four patients were treated twice, 1 patient three times, and 1 patient four times at the same localization. Conclusions: Recurrent symptomatic benign airway obstruction from hyperplastic tissue in the bronchus after lung transplantation can be successfully treated with intraluminal high-dose-rate brachytherapy with a dose of 3 Gy at a 5-mm distance from the catheter surface and a longitudinal safety margin of 1 cm. (orig.)

  13. Interplay between the lung microbiome and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qixing; Jiang, Feng; Yin, Rong; Wang, Jie; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Gaochao; Ma, Weidong; Yang, Yao; Xu, Lin; Hu, Jianzhong

    2018-02-28

    The human microbiome confers benefits or disease susceptibility to the human body through multiple pathways. Disruption of the symbiotic balance of the human microbiome is commonly found in systematic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and chronic gastric diseases. Emerging evidence has suggested that dysbiosis of the microbiota may also play vital roles in carcinogenesis at multiple levels, e.g., by affecting metabolic, inflammatory, or immune pathways. Although the impact of the gut microbiome on the digestive cancer has been widely explored, few studies have investigated the interplay between the microbiome and lung cancer. Some recent studies have shown that certain microbes and microbiota dysbiosis are correlated with development of lung cancer. In this mini-review, we briefly summarize current research findings describing the relationship between the lung microbiome and lung cancer. We further discuss the potential mechanisms through which the lung microbiome may play a role in lung carcinogenesis and impact lung cancer treatment. A better knowledge of the interplay between the lung microbiome and lung cancer may promote the development of innovative strategies for early prevention and personalized treatment in lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical and radiological outcome following pneumothorax after endoscopic lung volume reduction with valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gompelmann D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available D Gompelmann,1,2 N Benjamin,1 K Kontogianni,1 FJF Herth,1,2 CP Heussel,2–4 H Hoffmann,2,5 R Eberhardt1,2 1Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik at University of Heidelberg, 2German Center for Lung Research, 3Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Thoraxklinik at University of Heidelberg, 4Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, 5Thoracic Surgery, Thoraxklinik at University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Introduction: Valve implantation has evolved as a therapy for patients with advanced emphysema. Although it is a minimally invasive treatment, it is associated with complications, the most common being pneumothorax. Pneumothorax occurs due to the rapid target lobe volume reduction and may be a predictor of clinical benefit despite this complication. Objective: The objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory data analysis of patients who developed a pneumothorax following endoscopic valve therapy for emphysema. Materials and methods: This study performed a retrospective evaluation of pneumothorax management and the impact of pneumothorax on clinical outcomes in 70 patients following valve therapy in 381 consecutive patients. Results: Pneumothorax rate following valve therapy was 18%. Pneumothorax management consisted of chest tube insertion, valve removal, and surgical intervention in 87% (61/70, 44% (31/70, and 19% (13/70 of the patients, respectively. Despite pneumothorax, patients experienced modest but significant improvements in lung function parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 55±148 mL, residual volume: -390±964 mL, total lung capacity: -348±876; all P<0.05. Persistent lobar atelectasis 3 months after recovering from pneumothorax, which was associated with relevant clinical improvement, was observed in only 21% (15/70 of the patients. Conclusion: Pneumothorax is a frequent severe complication following valve therapy that requires further intervention

  15. A quality improvement project sustainably decreased time to onset of active physical therapy intervention in patients with acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinglas, Victor D; Parker, Ann M; Reddy, Dereddi Raja S; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Zanni, Jennifer M; Turnbull, Alison E; Nelliot, Archana; Ciesla, Nancy; Needham, Dale M

    2014-10-01

    Rehabilitation started early during an intensive care unit (ICU) stay is associated with improved outcomes and is the basis for many quality improvement (QI) projects showing important changes in practice. However, little evidence exists regarding whether such changes are sustainable in real-world practice. To evaluate the sustained effect of a quality improvement project on the timing of initiation of active physical therapy intervention in patients with acute lung injury (ALI). This was a pre-post evaluation using prospectively collected data involving consecutive patients with ALI admitted pre-quality improvement (October 2004-April 2007, n = 120) versus post-quality improvement (July 2009-July 2012, n = 123) from a single medical ICU. The primary outcome was time to first active physical therapy intervention, defined as strengthening, mobility, or cycle ergometry exercises. Among ICU survivors, more patients in the post-quality improvement versus pre-quality improvement group received physical therapy in the ICU (89% vs. 24%, P quality improvement versus pre-quality improvement group, there was a shorter median (interquartile range) time to first physical therapy (4 [2, 6] vs. 11 d [6, 29], P quality improvement period was associated with shorter time to physical therapy (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 8.38 [4.98, 14.11], P quality improvement period. The following variables were independently associated with a longer time to physical therapy: higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (0.93 [0.89, 0.97]), higher FiO2 (0.86 [0.75, 0.99] for each 10% increase), use of an opioid infusion (0.47 [0.25, 0.89]), and deep sedation (0.24 [0.12, 0.46]). In this single-site, pre-post analysis of patients with ALI, an early rehabilitation quality improvement project was independently associated with a substantial decrease in the time to initiation of active physical therapy intervention that was sustained over 5 years. Over the entire pre

  16. Lung Cancer Messages on Twitter: Content Analysis and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jeannette; Vos, Sarah C; Olson, Michele K; Woods, Chelsea; Cohen, Elisia; Gibson, C Ben; Phillips, Nolan Edward; Studts, Jamie L; Eberth, Jan M; Butts, Carter T

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this project was to describe and evaluate the levels of lung cancer communication across the cancer prevention and control continuum for content posted to Twitter during a 10-day period (September 30 to October 9) in 2016. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to identify relationships between tweet characteristics in lung cancer communication on Twitter and user-level data. Overall, 3,000 tweets published between September 30 and October 9 were assessed by a team of three coders. Lung cancer-specific tweets by user type (individuals, media, and organizations) were examined to identify content and structural message features. The study also assessed differences by user type in the use of hashtags, directed messages, health topic focus, and lung cancer-specific focus across the cancer control continuum. Across the universe of lung cancer tweets, the majority of tweets focused on treatment and the use of pharmaceutical and research interventions, followed by awareness and prevention and risk topics. Among all lung cancer tweets, messages were most consistently tweeted by individual users, and personal behavioral mobilizing cues to action were rare. Lung cancer advocates, as well as patient and medical advocacy organizations, with an interest in expanding the reach and effectiveness of social media efforts should monitor the topical nature of public tweets across the cancer continuum and consider integrating cues to action as a strategy to increase engagement and behavioral activation pertaining to lung cancer reduction efforts. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lung abscess combined with chronic osteomyelitis of the mandible successfully treated with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Hiromasa; Inui, Kenji; Watanabe, Keisuke; Watanuki, Kei; Okudela, Koji; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Masuda, Munetaka

    2015-04-01

    With the progress of antibiotic therapy, the mortality of lung abscess has been improved, and surgical intervention has declined. However, surgery is still required in selected cases that are intractable to antibiotic treatment. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is beneficial for treatment and/or diagnosis of pulmonary disease as it provides a less invasive surgical technique and reduces prolongation of post-operative recovery. However, the indication of VATS lobectomy for lung abscess is controversial as a result of particular complications, i.e. wet lung, intrapleural adhesion and ease of bleeding. We herein report a rare combination of lung abscess and osteomyelitis of mandible resulting from the same pathogen successfully treated with VATS lobectomy. We propose VATS lobectomy for lung abscess. This procedure might be the best treatment candidate for selected cases of lung abscess. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Lung-Protective Ventilation Initiated in the Emergency Department (LOV-ED): A Quasi-Experimental, Before-After Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Brian M; Ferguson, Ian T; Mohr, Nicholas M; Drewry, Anne M; Palmer, Christopher; Wessman, Brian T; Ablordeppey, Enyo; Keeperman, Jacob; Stephens, Robert J; Briscoe, Cristopher C; Kolomiets, Angelina A; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Kollef, Marin H

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of an emergency department (ED)-based lung-protective mechanical ventilation protocol for the prevention of pulmonary complications. This was a quasi-experimental, before-after study that consisted of a preintervention period, a run-in period of approximately 6 months, and a prospective intervention period. The intervention was a multifaceted ED-based mechanical ventilator protocol targeting lung-protective tidal volume, appropriate setting of positive end-expiratory pressure, rapid oxygen weaning, and head-of-bed elevation. A propensity score-matched analysis was used to evaluate the primary outcome, which was the composite incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome and ventilator-associated conditions. A total of 1,192 patients in the preintervention group and 513 patients in the intervention group were included. Lung-protective ventilation increased by 48.4% in the intervention group. In the propensity score-matched analysis (n=490 in each group), the primary outcome occurred in 71 patients (14.5%) in the preintervention group compared with 36 patients (7.4%) in the intervention group (adjusted odds ratio 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31 to 0.71). There was an increase in ventilator-free days (mean difference 3.7; 95% CI 2.3 to 5.1), ICU-free days (mean difference 2.4; 95% CI 1.0 to 3.7), and hospital-free days (mean difference 2.4; 95% CI 1.2 to 3.6) associated with the intervention. The mortality rate was 34.1% in the preintervention group and 19.6% in the intervention group (adjusted odds ratio 0.47; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.63). Implementing a mechanical ventilator protocol in the ED is feasible and is associated with significant improvements in the delivery of safe mechanical ventilation and clinical outcome. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lung Abscess Remains a Life-Threatening Condition in Pediatrics – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirteș Ioana Raluca

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary abscess or lung abscess is a lung infection which destroys the lung parenchyma leading to cavitations and central necrosis in localised areas formed by thick-walled purulent material. It can be primary or secondary. Lung abscesses can occur at any age, but it seems that paediatric pulmonary abscess morbidity is lower than in adults. We present the case of a one year and 5-month-old male child admitted to our clinic for fever, loss of appetite and an overall altered general status. Laboratory tests revealed elevated inflammatory biomarkers, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, anaemia, thrombocytosis, low serum iron concentration and increased lactate dehydrogenase level. Despite wide-spectrum antibiotic therapy, the patient’s progress remained poor after seven days of treatment and a CT scan established the diagnosis of a large lung abscess. Despite changing the antibiotic therapy, surgical intervention was eventually needed. There was a slow but steady improvment and eventually, the patient was discharged after approximately five weeks.

  20. Application of C-arm CT-guided targeted puncturing technique in performing non-vascular interventional biopsy or interventional therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhen; Han Xinwei; Jiao Dechao; Ren Jianzhuang; Su Yu; Ye Hui

    2011-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the clinical value of C-arm CT-guided targeted puncturing technique in performing non, vascular interventional biopsy or interventional therapy. Methods: Thirty, one patients, who were encountered in authors' hospital during the period from July 2010 to September 2010, were involved in this study. C-arm CT-guided percutaneous targeted puncturing biopsy or interventional therapy was performed in all 31 patients. All patients had complete clinical data. The complications and positive rate of biopsy were recorded and analyzed. Results: Under C-arm CT-guidance, percutaneous interventional therapy was carried out in 13 patients. The interventional procedures included radiofrequency ablation therapy for hepatic cellular carcinoma (n=2), pelvic abscess draining (n=1), hepatic abscess draining (n=1), ethanol injection for liver cancer (n=4), sclerotic therapy with ethanol injection for renal cyst (n=2), sclerotic therapy with ethanol injection for liver cyst (n=2) and catheter-indwelling drainage for pancreatic pseudocyst (n=1). percutaneous interventional biopsy was performed in the remaining 18 cases, including liver (n=4), lung (n=7), mediastinum (n=2), bone and soft tissue (n=4) and neck mass (n=1). All the procedures were successfully accomplished, no technique, related complications occurred during the operation. For biopsy examination in 18 cases, the positive rate was 94.4% (17/18) and false, negative results was seen in one case with lung lesion. Conclusion: The percutaneous targeted puncturing technique with C, arm CT-guidance combines the advantages of both CT scanning and fluoroscopy. The use of real, time road, mapping function can effectively guide the puncturing and therapeutic management, which can not only optimize the workflow, save the operation time, but also improve the success rate and technical safety. Therefore, it is of great value to popularize this targeted puncturing technique. (authors)

  1. The effects of foot reflexology on anxiety and pain in patients with breast and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N L; Weinrich, S P; Tavakoli, A S

    2000-01-01

    To test the effects of foot reflexology on anxiety and pain in patients with breast and lung cancer. Quasi-experimental, pre/post, crossover. A medical/oncology unit in a 314-bed hospital in the southeastern United States. Twenty-three inpatients with breast or lung cancer. The majority of the sample were female, Caucasian, and 65 years or older; had 12 or fewer years of education and an annual income of $20,000 or more; and were receiving regularly scheduled opioids and adjuvant medications on the control and intervention day. Procedures included an intervention condition (foot reflexology to both feet for 30 minutes total by a certified reflexologist) and a control condition for each patient (with at least a two-day break). No changes were made in patients' regular schedule or medications. Anxiety and pain. Following the foot reflexology intervention, patients with breast and lung cancer experienced a significant decrease in anxiety. One of three pain measures showed that patients with breast cancer experienced a significant decrease in pain. The significant decrease in anxiety observed in this sample of patients with breast and lung cancer following foot reflexology suggests that this may be a self-care approach to decrease anxiety in this patient population. Professionals and lay people can be taught reflexology. Foot reflexology is an avenue for human touch, can be performed anywhere, requires no special equipment, is noninvasive, and does not interfere with patients' privacy.

  2. The experiment of interventional pulmonary lobectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Yufeng; Gan Wanchong; Ke Wei; Ying Wenhua

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the feasibility of interventional pulmonary lobectomy by animal experiment. Methods: Twelve healthy dogs were divided into three groups randomly, with 4 in each. Group A: the target bronchus and alveoli were filled with emulsion of lipiodol and alveolar cells damage liquors and then the target bronchus was occluded with Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) . Group B: The target bronchus was only occluded with PMMA. Group C: Pulmonary lobe was resected surgically. Arterial blood gases were measured at the time of pre-procedure and post-procedure and then 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th week after the procedure respectively. Chest radiography histology and bacterial culture of tissue of target lung lobe were made after 4 weeks. Results: There was a significant difference in arterial blood-gas among 3 groups pre-procedure in comparison with those of post-procedure immediately (P 0.05) in comparing with 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th week after the procedure. Atelectasis was shown radiologically with histological formation of fibrosis of target lung lobe but no bacteria grew in target tissue 4th week after the procedure. There were two cases of lung atelectasis but no pulmonary fibrosis occluded in group B. Conclusions: Interventional pulmonary lobectomy might be obtained after the target bronchus and pulmonary alveoli were filled with emulsion of lipiodol and alveolar cells damage liquors and then the target bronchus was occluded with PMMA. (authors)

  3. LungMAP: The Molecular Atlas of Lung Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardini-Poleske, Maryanne E; Clark, Robert F; Ansong, Charles; Carson, James P; Corley, Richard A; Deutsch, Gail H; Hagood, James S; Kaminski, Naftali; Mariani, Thomas J; Potter, Steven S; Pryhuber, Gloria S; Warburton, David; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Palmer, Scott M; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2017-11-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute is funding an effort to create a molecular atlas of the developing lung (LungMAP) to serve as a research resource and public education tool. The lung is a complex organ with lengthy development time driven by interactive gene networks and dynamic cross talk among multiple cell types to control and coordinate lineage specification, cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, morphogenesis, and injury repair. A better understanding of the processes that regulate lung development, particularly alveologenesis, will have a significant impact on survival rates for premature infants born with incomplete lung development and will facilitate lung injury repair and regeneration in adults. A consortium of four research centers, a data coordinating center, and a human tissue repository provides high-quality molecular data of developing human and mouse lungs. LungMAP includes mouse and human data for cross correlation of developmental processes across species. LungMAP is generating foundational data and analysis, creating a web portal for presentation of results and public sharing of data sets, establishing a repository of young human lung tissues obtained through organ donor organizations, and developing a comprehensive lung ontology that incorporates the latest findings of the consortium. The LungMAP website (www.lungmap.net) currently contains more than 6,000 high-resolution lung images and transcriptomic, proteomic, and lipidomic human and mouse data and provides scientific information to stimulate interest in research careers for young audiences. This paper presents a brief description of research conducted by the consortium, database, and portal development and upcoming features that will enhance the LungMAP experience for a community of users. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Physical rehabilitation for lung transplant candidates and recipients: An evidence-informed clinical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickerson, Lisa; Rozenberg, Dmitry; Janaudis-Ferreira, Tania; Deliva, Robin; Lo, Vincent; Beauchamp, Gary; Helm, Denise; Gottesman, Chaya; Mendes, Polyana; Vieira, Luciana; Herridge, Margaret; Singer, Lianne G; Mathur, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Physical rehabilitation of lung transplant candidates and recipients plays an important in optimizing physical function prior to transplant and facilitating recovery of function post-transplant. As medical and surgical interventions in lung transplantation have evolved over time, there has been a demographic shift of individuals undergoing lung transplantation including older individuals, those with multiple co-morbidites, and candidates with respiratory failure requiring bridging to transplantation. These changes have an impact on the rehabilitation needs of lung transplant candidates and recipients. This review provides a practical approach to rehabilitation based on research and clinical practice at our transplant centre. It focuses on functional assessment and exercise prescription during an uncomplicated and complicated clinical course in the pre-transplant, early and late post-transplant periods. The target audience includes clinicians involved in pre- and post-transplant patient care and rehabilitation researchers. PMID:27683630

  5. Aspiration-related organizing pneumonia complicating laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding: A lung cancer mimicker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A Aljohaney

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several described pulmonary complications due to laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. We report a rare case of a 32-year-old male who presented with pulmonary symptoms and a solitary lung mass 12 years after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. A bronchoscopic lung biopsy showed organizing pneumonia that was induced by aspiration pneumonia. The atypical radiological appearance of the aspiration pneumonia may pose a diagnostic challenge, and clinicians' awareness regarding such an entity is needed to avoid unnecessary intervention.

  6. Lung volumes and emphysema in smokers with interstitial lung abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washko, George R; Hunninghake, Gary M; Fernandez, Isis E; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Ross, James C; Estépar, Raúl San José; Lynch, David A; Brehm, John M; Andriole, Katherine P; Diaz, Alejandro A; Khorasani, Ramin; D'Aco, Katherine; Sciurba, Frank C; Silverman, Edwin K; Hatabu, Hiroto; Rosas, Ivan O

    2011-03-10

    Cigarette smoking is associated with emphysema and radiographic interstitial lung abnormalities. The degree to which interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with reduced total lung capacity and the extent of emphysema is not known. We looked for interstitial lung abnormalities in 2416 (96%) of 2508 high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans of the lung obtained from a cohort of smokers. We used linear and logistic regression to evaluate the associations between interstitial lung abnormalities and HRCT measurements of total lung capacity and emphysema. Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 194 (8%) of the 2416 HRCT scans evaluated. In statistical models adjusting for relevant covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with reduced total lung capacity (-0.444 liters; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.596 to -0.292; Ppulmonary disease (COPD) (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.76; P<0.001). The effect of interstitial lung abnormalities on total lung capacity and emphysema was dependent on COPD status (P<0.02 for the interactions). Interstitial lung abnormalities were positively associated with both greater exposure to tobacco smoke and current smoking. In smokers, interstitial lung abnormalities--which were present on about 1 of every 12 HRCT scans--were associated with reduced total lung capacity and a lesser amount of emphysema. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Parker B. Francis Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00608764.).

  7. Lung Volume Reduction in Pulmonary Emphysema from the Radiologist's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doellinger, F; Huebner, R H; Kuhnigk, J M; Poellinger, A

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary emphysema causes decrease in lung function due to irreversible dilatation of intrapulmonary air spaces, which is linked to high morbidity and mortality. Lung volume reduction (LVR) is an invasive therapeutical option for pulmonary emphysema in order to improve ventilation mechanics. LVR can be carried out by lung resection surgery or different minimally invasive endoscopical procedures. All LVR-options require mandatory preinterventional evaluation to detect hyperinflated dysfunctional lung areas as target structures for treatment. Quantitative computed tomography can determine the volume percentage of emphysematous lung and its topographical distribution based on the lung's radiodensity. Modern techniques allow for lobebased quantification that facilitates treatment planning. Clinical tests still play the most important role in post-interventional therapy monitoring, but CT is crucial in the detection of postoperative complications and foreshadows the method's high potential in sophisticated experimental studies. Within the last ten years, LVR with endobronchial valves has become an extensively researched minimally-invasive treatment option. However, this therapy is considerably complicated by the frequent occurrence of functional interlobar shunts. The presence of "collateral ventilation" has to be ruled out prior to valve implantations, as the presence of these extraanatomical connections between different lobes may jeopardize the success of therapy. Recent experimental studies evaluated the automatic detection of incomplete lobar fissures from CT scans, because they are considered to be a predictor for the existence of shunts. To date, these methods are yet to show acceptable results. Today, surgical and various minimal invasive methods of lung volume reduction are in use. Radiological and nuclear medical examinations are helpful in the evaluation of an appropriate lung area. Imaging can detect periinterventional complications. Reduction of lung

  8. Human models of acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair G. Proudfoot

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is a syndrome that is characterised by acute inflammation and tissue injury that affects normal gas exchange in the lungs. Hallmarks of ALI include dysfunction of the alveolar-capillary membrane resulting in increased vascular permeability, an influx of inflammatory cells into the lung and a local pro-coagulant state. Patients with ALI present with severe hypoxaemia and radiological evidence of bilateral pulmonary oedema. The syndrome has a mortality rate of approximately 35% and usually requires invasive mechanical ventilation. ALI can follow direct pulmonary insults, such as pneumonia, or occur indirectly as a result of blood-borne insults, commonly severe bacterial sepsis. Although animal models of ALI have been developed, none of them fully recapitulate the human disease. The differences between the human syndrome and the phenotype observed in animal models might, in part, explain why interventions that are successful in models have failed to translate into novel therapies. Improved animal models and the development of human in vivo and ex vivo models are therefore required. In this article, we consider the clinical features of ALI, discuss the limitations of current animal models and highlight how emerging human models of ALI might help to answer outstanding questions about this syndrome.

  9. Lung cancer mimicking lung abscess formation on CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Naohiro; Kawabata, Tsutomu; Gabe, Atsushi; Ichi, Takaharu; Kushi, Kazuaki; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawasaki, Hidenori; Yamashiro, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Male, 64 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Lung pleomorphic carcinoma Symptoms: Cough • fever - Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: Oncology. Unusual clinical course. The diagnosis of lung cancer is often made based on computed tomography (CT) image findings if it cannot be confirmed on pathological examinations, such as bronchoscopy. However, the CT image findings of cancerous lesions are similar to those of abscesses.We herein report a case of lung cancer that resembled a lung abscess on CT. We herein describe the case of 64-year-old male who was diagnosed with lung cancer using surgery. In this case, it was quite difficult to distinguish between the lung cancer and a lung abscess on CT images, and a lung abscess was initially suspected due to symptoms, such as fever and coughing, contrast-enhanced CT image findings showing a ring-enhancing mass in the right upper lobe and the patient's laboratory test results. However, a pathological diagnosis of lung cancer was confirmed according to the results of a rapid frozen section biopsy of the lesion. This case suggests that physicians should not suspect both a lung abscesses and malignancy in cases involving masses presenting as ring-enhancing lesions on contrast-enhanced CT.

  10. Coping Skills Practice and Symptom Change: A Secondary Analysis of a Pilot Telephone Symptom Management Intervention for Lung Cancer Patients and Their Family Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, Joseph G; Rand, Kevin L; Hanna, Nasser; Jalal, Shadia I; Einhorn, Lawrence H; Birdas, Thomas J; Ceppa, DuyKhanh P; Kesler, Kenneth A; Champion, Victoria L; Mosher, Catherine E

    2018-05-01

    Little research has explored coping skills practice in relation to symptom outcomes in psychosocial interventions for cancer patients and their family caregivers. To examine associations of coping skills practice to symptom change in a telephone symptom management (TSM) intervention delivered concurrently to lung cancer patients and their caregivers. This study was a secondary analysis of a randomized pilot trial. Data were examined from patient-caregiver dyads (n = 51 dyads) that were randomized to the TSM intervention. Guided by social cognitive theory, TSM involved four weekly sessions where dyads were taught coping skills including a mindfulness exercise, guided imagery, pursed lips breathing, cognitive restructuring, problem solving, emotion-focused coping, and assertive communication. Symptoms were assessed, including patients' and caregivers' psychological distress and patients' pain interference, fatigue interference, and distress related to breathlessness. Multiple regression analyses examined associations of coping skills practice during the intervention to symptoms at six weeks after the intervention. For patients, greater practice of assertive communication was associated with less pain interference (β = -0.45, P = 0.02) and psychological distress (β = -0.36, P = 0.047); for caregivers, greater practice of guided imagery was associated with less psychological distress (β = -0.30, P = 0.01). Unexpectedly, for patients, greater practice of a mindfulness exercise was associated with higher pain (β = 0.47, P = 0.07) and fatigue interference (β = 0.49, P = 0.04); greater practice of problem solving was associated with higher distress related to breathlessness (β = 0.56, P = 0.01) and psychological distress (β = 0.36, P = 0.08). Findings suggest that the effectiveness of TSM may have been reduced by competing effects of certain coping skills. Future interventions should consider focusing on assertive communication

  11. Lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G

    1977-01-01

    The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...... breathing in the sitting position ranged from 0.25 to 0.37 g.cm-3. Subnormal values were found in patients with emphsema. In patients with pulmonary congestion and edema, lung density values ranged from 0.33 to 0.93 g.cm-3. The lung density measurement correlated well with the findings in chest radiographs...... but the lung density values were more sensitive indices. This was particularly evident in serial observations of individual patients....

  12. Lung Structure and the Intrinsic Challenges of Gas Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Connie C W; Hyde, Dallas M; Weibel, Ewald R

    2016-03-15

    Structural and functional complexities of the mammalian lung evolved to meet a unique set of challenges, namely, the provision of efficient delivery of inspired air to all lung units within a confined thoracic space, to build a large gas exchange surface associated with minimal barrier thickness and a microvascular network to accommodate the entire right ventricular cardiac output while withstanding cyclic mechanical stresses that increase several folds from rest to exercise. Intricate regulatory mechanisms at every level ensure that the dynamic capacities of ventilation, perfusion, diffusion, and chemical binding to hemoglobin are commensurate with usual metabolic demands and periodic extreme needs for activity and survival. This article reviews the structural design of mammalian and human lung, its functional challenges, limitations, and potential for adaptation. We discuss (i) the evolutionary origin of alveolar lungs and its advantages and compromises, (ii) structural determinants of alveolar gas exchange, including architecture of conducting bronchovascular trees that converge in gas exchange units, (iii) the challenges of matching ventilation, perfusion, and diffusion and tissue-erythrocyte and thoracopulmonary interactions. The notion of erythrocytes as an integral component of the gas exchanger is emphasized. We further discuss the signals, sources, and limits of structural plasticity of the lung in alveolar hypoxia and following a loss of lung units, and the promise and caveats of interventions aimed at augmenting endogenous adaptive responses. Our objective is to understand how individual components are matched at multiple levels to optimize organ function in the face of physiological demands or pathological constraints. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Lung Structure and the Intrinsic Challenges of Gas Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Connie C.W.; Hyde, Dallas M.; Weibel, Ewald R.

    2016-01-01

    Structural and functional complexities of the mammalian lung evolved to meet a unique set of challenges, namely, the provision of efficient delivery of inspired air to all lung units within a confined thoracic space, to build a large gas exchange surface associated with minimal barrier thickness and a microvascular network to accommodate the entire right ventricular cardiac output while withstanding cyclic mechanical stresses that increase several folds from rest to exercise. Intricate regulatory mechanisms at every level ensure that the dynamic capacities of ventilation, perfusion, diffusion, and chemical binding to hemoglobin are commensurate with usual metabolic demands and periodic extreme needs for activity and survival. This article reviews the structural design of mammalian and human lung, its functional challenges, limitations, and potential for adaptation. We discuss (i) the evolutionary origin of alveolar lungs and its advantages and compromises, (ii) structural determinants of alveolar gas exchange, including architecture of conducting bronchovascular trees that converge in gas exchange units, (iii) the challenges of matching ventilation, perfusion, and diffusion and tissue-erythrocyte and thoracopulmonary interactions. The notion of erythrocytes as an integral component of the gas exchanger is emphasized. We further discuss the signals, sources, and limits of structural plasticity of the lung in alveolar hypoxia and following a loss of lung units, and the promise and caveats of interventions aimed at augmenting endogenous adaptive responses. Our objective is to understand how individual components are matched at multiple levels to optimize organ function in the face of physiological demands or pathological constraints. PMID:27065169

  14. A targetable HB-EGF-CITED4 axis controls oncogenesis in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, C-H; Chou, Y-T; Kuo, M-H; Tsai, H-P; Chang, J-L; Wu, C-W

    2017-05-25

    Aberrant epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) signaling contributes to neoplastic initiation and progression in lung. Mutated EGFR has become as an important therapeutic target in lung cancer, whereas targeted treatment is not available for wild-type EGFR or its ligands. In this study, we found that heparin-binding (HB)-EGF, a member of the EGF family, was highly expressed in a subset of lung cancer, proliferation of which was dependent on HB-EGF signaling. Silencing of HB-EGF with RNA interference inhibited cell cycle progression in lung cancer cells. We observed that, upon HB-EGF induction, CITED4 was induced through a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent pathway, regulating cell proliferation. CITED4 interacted with MYC and potentiated MYC-mediated transactivation of the CCND1 promoter, leading to cell cycle progression. Correlation analysis revealed that HB-EGF and CITED4 were significantly positively associated in primary lung tumors, and expression of HB-EGF predicted a poor survival outcome in patients. In vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that pharmacological inhibition of HB-EGF with CRM197 significantly attenuated tumor cell growth. Thus, CITED4 functions as a molecular switch in HB-EGF-induced growth control, and HB-EGF provides a novel therapeutic target for lung cancer intervention.

  15. Adaptive intervention design in mobile health: Intervention design and development in the Cell Phone Intervention for You trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Intille, Stephen; Bennett, Gary; Bosworth, Hayden B; Corsino, Leonor; Voils, Corrine; Grambow, Steven; Lazenka, Tony; Batch, Bryan C; Tyson, Crystal; Svetkey, Laura P

    2015-12-01

    The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, and obesity is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The prominence and increasing functionality of mobile phones may provide an opportunity to deliver longitudinal and scalable weight management interventions in young adults. The aim of this article is to describe the design and development of the intervention tested in the Cell Phone Intervention for You study and to highlight the importance of adaptive intervention design that made it possible. The Cell Phone Intervention for You study was a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored, controlled, 24-month randomized clinical trial comparing two active interventions to a usual-care control group. Participants were 365 overweight or obese (body mass index≥25 kg/m2) young adults. Both active interventions were designed based on social cognitive theory and incorporated techniques for behavioral self-management and motivational enhancement. Initial intervention development occurred during a 1-year formative phase utilizing focus groups and iterative, participatory design. During the intervention testing, adaptive intervention design, where an intervention is updated or extended throughout a trial while assuring the delivery of exactly the same intervention to each cohort, was employed. The adaptive intervention design strategy distributed technical work and allowed introduction of novel components in phases intended to help promote and sustain participant engagement. Adaptive intervention design was made possible by exploiting the mobile phone's remote data capabilities so that adoption of particular application components could be continuously monitored and components subsequently added or updated remotely. The cell phone intervention was delivered almost entirely via cell phone and was always-present, proactive, and interactive-providing passive and active reminders, frequent opportunities for knowledge dissemination, and multiple tools

  16. Written Emotional Expression as an Intervention for Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Melissa A.; Theodore, Lea A.; Patwa, Shamim S.; Margiano, Suzanne G.; Alric, Jolie M.; Peck, Heather L.

    2003-01-01

    This investigation employed a multiple baseline design across five participants to examine written emotional expression as an intervention to improve lung function in high school-aged students, college students, and adults with asthma. The predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV[subscript 1] measure of large airway functioning) and…

  17. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Prevention Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  18. Effect of indacaterol on lung deflation improves cardiac performance in hyperinflated COPD patients: an interventional, randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santus P

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pierachille Santus,1,2 Dejan Radovanovic,1,2 Silvia Di Marco,3 Vincenzo Valenti,4,5 Rita Raccanelli,1,2 Francesco Blasi,6,7 Stefano Centanni,8,9 Maurizio Bussotti31Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, 2Pulmonary Rehabilitation Unit, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri Scientific Institute of Milan-IRCCS, 3Cardiological Rehabilitation Unit, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri Rehabilitation Institute of Milan-IRCCS, 4Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, 5Respiratory Unit, Policlinico San Donato-IRCCS, San Donato Milanese, 6Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, 7IRCCS Fondazione Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico Cà Granda Milan, 8Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, 9Respiratory Unit, Ospedale San Paolo, Milan, ItalyBackground: COPD is often associated with cardiovascular comorbidity. Treatment guidelines recommend therapy with bronchodilators as first choice. We investigated the acute effect of single-dose indacaterol on lung hyperinflation in COPD subjects, for the first time evaluating the potential effects on right heart performance.Methods: In this Phase IV, randomized, interventional, double-blind, crossover clinical study, we recruited 40 patients (50–85 years of age with stable COPD. Patients were treated with 150 µg indacaterol or placebo and after 60 minutes (T60 and 180 minutes (T180 the following tests were performed: trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE, plethysmography, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, saturation of peripheral oxygen, and visual analog scale dyspnea score. Patients underwent a crossover re-challenge after a further 72 hours of pharmacological washout. All TTE measurements were conducted blindly by the same operator and further interpreted by two different blinded operators. Consensus decisions were taken on every value and parameter. The primary outcome was the effect of the reduction of residual volume and functional

  19. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Become An Advocate Volunteer Ways To Give Lung Cancer www.lung.org > Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > ... Cancer Learn About Lung Cancer What Is Lung Cancer Lung Cancer Basics Causes & Risk Factors Lung Cancer Staging ...

  20. Management of penetrating heart and accompanying lung injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekim, H.; Basel, H.; Odabasi, D.; Tuncer, M.; Gumrukcuoglu, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Penetrating heart injury is potentially a life threatening condition due to cardiac tamponade or exsanguinating hemorrhage. The aim of this study was to evaluate victims who were referred to our hospital with penetrating heart and accompanying lung injuries and to review our overall outcome with this type of combined injuries. Methodology: Twenty patients with combined penetrating heart and lung injuries were operated at Yuzuncu Yil University Research Hospital, between May 1999 and January 2010. The diagnosis of combined heart and lung injuries was proved by surgical exploration in all cases. The surgical procedures mainly included the relief of cardiac tamponade, control of bleeding, repair of cardiac and pulmonary lacerations, and coronary artery bypass grafting if required. Results: In this series of 20 patients; there were 18 males and two females between the age of 14 to 60 years, with a mean age of 34.8+-13.5 years. Seventeen victims sustained stab wounds, and the remaining three were injured by a gunshot wounds. In 20 patients there were 22 cardiac chamber injuries. The most commonly injured cardiac chamber was the right ventricle followed by the left ventricle. In addition to the injuries to heart muscle, injuries to the coronary arteries were found in two patients. The most commonly injured lung lobe was the left upper lobe. Conclusion: Our experience shows that early diagnosis and immediate surgical intervention are the main factors affecting patient survival after penetrating heart and lung injuries. Therefore, heart injury should always be kept in mind in victims with penetrating thoracic injuries. (author)

  1. Asthma: NHLBI Workshop on the Primary Prevention of Chronic Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartert, Tina V.; Martinez, Fernando D.; Weiss, Scott T.; Fahy, John V.

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease with enormous public health costs, and its primary prevention is an ambitious and important goal. Understanding of how host and environmental factors interact to cause asthma is incomplete, but persistent questions about mechanisms should not stop clinical research efforts aimed at reducing the prevalence of childhood asthma. Achieving the goal of primary prevention of asthma will involve integrated and parallel sets of research activities in which mechanism-oriented studies of asthma inception proceed alongside clinical intervention studies to test biologically plausible prevention ideas. For example, continued research is needed, particularly in young children, to uncover biomarkers that identify asthma risk and provide potential targets of intervention, and to improve understanding of the role of microbial factors in asthma risk and disease initiation. In terms of clinical trials that could be initiated now or in the near future, we recommend three interventions for testing: (1) preventing asthma through prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus infections of the airway; (2) immune modulation, using prebiotics, probiotics, and bacterial lysates; and (3) prevention of allergen sensitization and allergic inflammation, using anti-IgE. These interventions should be tested while other, more universal prevention measures that may promote lung health are also investigated. These potential universal lung health measures include prevention of preterm delivery; reduced exposure of the fetus and young infant to environmental pollutants, including tobacco smoke; prevention of maternal and child obesity; and management of psychosocial stress. PMID:24754822

  2. Congenital cystic lung malformations; Konnatale zystische Lungenfehlbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoever, B.; Scheer, I.; Bassir, C. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Berlin (Germany). Abt. Paediatrische Radiologie, Charite; Mau, H. [Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Klinik fuer Kinderchirurgie, Berlin (Germany); Chaoui, R. [Campus Mitte, Klinik fuer Geburtsmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Henrich, W. [Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Klinik fuer Geburtsmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Schwabe, M. [Campus Mitte, Inst. fuer Pathologie, Berlin (Germany); Wauer, R. [Campus Mitte, Klinik fuer Neonatologie, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study concerning congenital cystic lung malformations was to evaluate prenatal diagnoses postnatally to determine prognostic factors as well as to define optimized perinatal management. Materials and Methods: The study is based on 45 prenatal ultrasound examinations depicting fetal cystic lung lesions. 32 of the mothers had follow-up examinations. 5 pregnancies were terminated due to CCAM and additional malformations. Complete regression of the lesions was seen prenatally in 8 cases and postnatally in 5 children. Results: Surgical intervention due to respiratory insufficiency was necessary in 4 neonates. According to the imaging results, CCAM was present in 4 cases and sequestration in 7 patients. No correlation between the imaging findings and the surgical results was found in 3 children: One child suffered from rhadomyoid dysplasia, and in the case of the second child, a left-sided hernia of the diaphragm and additional sequestration were detected. The third child showed AV malformation. The cystic lesions of the 14 children operated upon were proven histologically. The degree of accuracy in the present study was high. Conclusion: Precise perinatal management is warranted in order to determine according to the clinical relevance surgical intervention and to prevent complications after the first year of life. This is performed during the neonatal period for respiratory insufficient neonates and within the first year of life for clinically stable children. (orig.)

  3. Cardiovascular and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.I. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A symposium of eight short but complete papers giving an overview of interventional radiology is presented. Organized by Dr. William Casarella, this symposium is certainly the most current review of the subject available. This year's cardiovascular section is again heavily weighted toward interventional radiology. Abrams and Doubilet's article on the underutilization of angioplasty is important because it describes the cost effectiveness of this method. Most health planners, right or wrong, have complained about overutilization of diagnostic radiology procedures. In general, the opposite is true for interventional procedures - they are underutilized. If the authors draw the attention of their hospital administrators to these approaches and also produce the data on long-term follow-up for our medical colleagues, interventional radiology may realize its full potential. Articles on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging are beginning to appear and this technique seems to have great potential. An important article, which is the first prospective study comparing lung scintigraphy and pulmonary angiography in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, supports the increased use of pulmonary angiography. Finally, an article on complications of percutaneous biliary drainage provokes some discussion of its value for routine preoperative use

  4. Single-Lung Ventilation with Contralateral Lung Deflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallan, Luís Alberto O.; Lisboa, Luiz Augusto F.; Platania, Fernando; Oliveira, Sérgio A.; Stolf, Noedir A.

    2007-01-01

    There are many new alternative methods of minimally invasive myocardial revascularization that can be applied in selected patients who have multivessel coronary artery disease. However, these techniques often require new and expensive equipment. Most multivessel myocardial revascularization is performed via median sternotomy and involves the use of a conventional endotracheal tube. Both lungs are ventilated, and frequently the left pleural cavity is opened. In contrast, single-lung deflation naturally moves the mediastinum within the thorax toward the collapsed lung, without the need to open the pleural cavities. Herein, we describe a simple alternative procedure that facilitates off-pump multivessel coronary artery bypass grafting via complete median sternotomy: single-lung ventilation with contralateral lung deflation. This technique better exposes the more distal right and circumflex coronary artery branches with or without the opening of the pleural cavities. PMID:17622364

  5. Practical approach to lung health in Nepal: better prescribing and reduction of cost.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, N.; Samir, K.C.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.; Kafle, K.K.; Bishai, D.; Niessen, L.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of Practical Approach to Lung Health (PAL) guidelines on prescription behaviour and the total cost of prescription for patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumonia. METHODS: Pre- and post-intervention comparison in a cluster randomized

  6. Protein kinase D is increased and activated in lung epithelial cells and macrophages in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Huachen; McKenzie, Raymond; Hao, Qin; Idell, Steven; Tang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a relentlessly progressive and usually fatal lung disease of unknown etiology for which no effective treatments currently exist. Hence, there is a profound need for the identification of novel drugable targets to develop more specific and efficacious therapeutic intervention in IPF. In this study, we performed immunohistochemical analyses to assess the cell type-specific expression and activation of protein kinase D (PKD) family kinases in normal and IPF lung tissue sections. We also analyzed PKD activation and function in human lung epithelial cells. We found that PKD family kinases (PKD1, PKD2 and PKD3) were increased and activated in the hyperplastic and regenerative alveolar epithelial cells lining remodeled fibrotic alveolar septa and/or fibroblast foci in IPF lungs compared with normal controls. We also found that PKD family kinases were increased and activated in alveolar macrophages, bronchiolar epithelium, and honeycomb cysts in IPF lungs. Interestingly, PKD1 was highly expressed and activated in the cilia of IPF bronchiolar epithelial cells, while PKD2 and PKD3 were expressed in the cell cytoplasm and nuclei. In contrast, PKD family kinases were not apparently increased and activated in IPF fibroblasts or myofibroblasts. We lastly found that PKD was predominantly activated by poly-L-arginine, lysophosphatidic acid and thrombin in human lung epithelial cells and that PKD promoted epithelial barrier dysfunction. These findings suggest that PKD may participate in the pathogenesis of IPF and may be a novel target for therapeutic intervention in this disease.

  7. Establishment and bronchial arteriography of the models of canine lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xicai; Wang Xiaodong; Li Bin; Shi Jianguang; Liu Yong; Xu Nanxun; Ma Weijun; Yang Haixian; Bai Jingwen; Li Weidong; Liu Shuping; Liu Anpu

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the establishment and bronchial arteriography of the models of canine lung cancer, and to facilitate further diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Methods: Twenty-two dogs were respectively administrated with 3 ml suspension of lipiodol-ultrafluid mixed with 3- methylcholanthrene (MCA) and diethylnitrosamine (DEN). The suspension was injected into the diaphragmic lobe of right lung with the co-axial catheter through endotracheal intubation. The dogs were randomly divided into 5 groups, group A (4 dogs), B (4), C (4), D (5), and E (5), which were sacrificed after observation for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. Then the image analysis and histopathologic examinations were carried out at different period. 5 dogs in group E were examined by bronchial arteriography. Results: Peribronchiolitis and atelectasis appeared at early stage (one month). Chronic granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis of lung tissue were gradually formed after 3 months. Proliferation of stem cells in bronchioles and atypical hyperplasia were found from 6 to 12 months. At last, the squamous carcinoma and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma were induced after 18 months. The lung cancer and precancerous lesion were found in 4 of 5 dogs at the 18 th month. The bronchial arteriography in the 5 dogs showed that 3 bronchial arteries were found as the supplying blood artery to the tumor. Conclusion: The suspension of lipiodol-ultrafluid mixed with MCA and DEN was exactly injected with the co-axial catheter through endotracheal intubation to establish the models of canine lung cancer. The inducible rate of the method was high and the location of lung cancer was accurate. It was affirmed that the blood supply artery of canine lung cancer was bronchial artery. Bronchial arteriography was of momentous significance to the diagnosis of early lung cancer. The establishment of the models of canine lung cancer was significant in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. The models

  8. Prospective evaluation of the radiologist's hand dose in CT-guided interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogits, B.; Jungnickel, K.; Loewenthal, D.; Dudeck, O.; Pech, M.; Ricke, J.; Kropf, S.; Nekolla, E.A.; Wieners, G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Assessment of radiologist's hand dose in CT-guided interventions and determination of influencing factors. Materials and Methods: The following CT-guided interventions were included: Core biopsy, drainage, periradicular therapy, and celiac plexus neurolysis. The hand dose was measured with an immediately readable dosimeter, the EDD-30 (Unfors, Sweden). The default parameters for CT fluoroscopy were 120 kV, 90 mA and a 4 mm slice thickness. All interventions were performed on a 16-slice CT unit (Aquilion 16 Toshiba, Japan). The tumor size, degree of difficulty (1 - 3), level of experience and device parameters (mAs, dose-length product, scan time) were documented. Results: 138 CT-guided interventions (biopsy n = 99, drainage n = 23, pain therapy n = 16) at different locations (lung n = 41, retroperitoneum n = 53, liver n = 25, spine n = 19) were included. The lesion size was 4 - 240 mm (median: 23 mm). The fluoroscopy time per intervention was 4.6 - 140.2 s (median: 24.2 s). The measured hand dose ranged from 0.001 - 3.02 mSv (median: 0.22 mSv). The median hand dose for lung puncture (n = 41) was slightly higher (median: 0.32 mSv, p = 0.01) compared to that for the liver, retroperitoneum and other. Besides physical influencing factors, the degree of difficulty (p = 0.001) and summed puncture depth (p = 0.004) correlated significantly with the hand dose. Conclusion: The median hand dose for different CT-guided interventions was 0.22 mSv. Therefore, the annual hand dose limit would normally only be reached with about 2000 interventions. (orig.)

  9. Two cases with giant lung abscess originating in the irradiated lung field following the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Takeshi; Inui, Hiroyuki; Yukawa, Susumu; Nomoto, Hiroshi (Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan)); Minakata, Yoshiaki; Yamagata, Toshiyuki

    1992-05-01

    Two patients with giant lung abscess originating in the irradiated lung field are reported. Lung abscesses occurred during the term of leukopenia following the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy of lung cancer. Both patients were diagnosed as small cell lung cancer, and were treated concurrently with chemotherapy (Cisplatin + Etoposide) and radiotherapy (total 40-50 Gy). Case 1 was a 59 years old male. Seven weeks after the first irradiation, a giant lung abscess was caused by methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) originated in the lung field with radiation pneumonitis, and giant bronchial fistula was formed, that showed the specific bronchofiberscopic findings. Case 2 was a 67 years old male. Twelve weeks after the first irradiation, a giant lung abscess was caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa originated in the irradiated lung field following the formation of a pneumatocele. MRSA and pseudomonas aeruginosa are important as cause of hospital infection, and both can cause lung abscess. However, in our cases, lung abscess were formed just in the irradiated lung field and rapidly enlarged. These clinical findings suggested that myelosuppression and radiation injury of lung tissue might cause such giant lung abscess. (author).

  10. Two cases with giant lung abscess originating in the irradiated lung field following the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takeshi; Inui, Hiroyuki; Yukawa, Susumu; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Minakata, Yoshiaki; Yamagata, Toshiyuki.

    1992-01-01

    Two patients with giant lung abscess originating in the irradiated lung field are reported. Lung abscesses occurred during the term of leukopenia following the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy of lung cancer. Both patients were diagnosed as small cell lung cancer, and were treated concurrently with chemotherapy (Cisplatin + Etoposide) and radiotherapy (total 40-50 Gy). Case 1 was a 59 years old male. Seven weeks after the first irradiation, a giant lung abscess was caused by methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) originated in the lung field with radiation pneumonitis, and giant bronchial fistula was formed, that showed the specific bronchofiberscopic findings. Case 2 was a 67 years old male. Twelve weeks after the first irradiation, a giant lung abscess was caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa originated in the irradiated lung field following the formation of a pneumatocele. MRSA and pseudomonas aeruginosa are important as cause of hospital infection, and both can cause lung abscess. However, in our cases, lung abscess were formed just in the irradiated lung field and rapidly enlarged. These clinical findings suggested that myelosuppression and radiation injury of lung tissue might cause such giant lung abscess. (author)

  11. Intratumoral chemotherapy for lung cancer: re-challenge current targeted therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohenforst-Schmidt W

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt,1 Paul Zarogoulidis,2,3 Kaid Darwiche,3 Thomas Vogl,4 Eugene P Goldberg,5 Haidong Huang,6 Michael Simoff,7 Qiang Li,6 Robert Browning,8 J Francis Turner,9 Patrick Le Pivert,10 Dionysios Spyratos,2 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis,2 Seyhan I Celikoglu,11 Firuz Celikoglu,11 Johannes Brachmann11II Medical Clinic, Coburg Hospital, University of Wuerzburg, Coburg, Germany; 2Pulmonary Department-Oncology Unit, G Papanikolaou General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Department of Interventional Pneumology, Ruhrlandklinik, West German Lung Center, University Hospital, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 4Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Goethe University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; 5Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, FL, USA; 6Department of Respiratory Diseases, Changhai Hospital/First Affiliated Hospital of the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 7Bronchoscopy and Interventional Pulmonology, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Henry Ford Hospital, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, MI, USA; 8Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Interventional Pulmonology, National Naval Medical Center, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Bethesda, USA; 9Pulmonary Medicine, University of Nevada School of Medicine, National Supercomputing Center for Energy and the Environment University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA; 10Interventional Drug Delivery Systems and Strategies (ID2S2, Medical Cryogenics, Jupiter, FL, USA; 11Pulmonary Department, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul, Istanbul, TurkeyAbstract: Strategies to enhance the already established doublet chemotherapy regimen for lung cancer have been investigated for more than 20 years. Initially, the concept was to administer chemotherapy drugs locally to the tumor site for efficient diffusion

  12. A 10-year retrospective review of pediatric lung abscesses from a single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavi Madhani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Pediatric lung abscesses can be managed with medical therapy alone in most cases. Presence of prolonged duration of fever and larger abscess size may be predictive of the need for surgical intervention. Good clinical response to prolonged therapy with ceftriaxone and clindamycin was noted.

  13. Lung Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at increased risk of sudden lung ...

  14. HIV infection is associated with preservation of MAIT cells in the lungs but alteration of their phenotype and T cell receptor repertoire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, E. B.; Xulu, B.; Prakadan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death in HIV-positive people. A better understanding of the impact of HIV on lung immunity may lead to novel immunotherapeutic interventions. MAIT cells are tissue-homing donor-unrestricted T cells with broad anti-microbial activity. HIV infection causes ...... to determine the mechanisms underlying the altered phenotypes of lung-resident MAITs and whether these can be targeted to improve anti-microbial lung immunity in people living with HIV....

  15. Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghfoor, Irfan; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Since tobacco smoking is the cause in vast majority of cases, the incidence of lung cancer is expected to rise in those countries with high or rising incidence of tobacco smoking. Even though population at a risk of developing lung cancer are easily identified, mass screening for lung cancer is not supported by currently available evidence. In case of non-small cell lung cancer, a cure may be possible with surgical resection followed by post-operative chemotherapy in those diagnosed at an early stage. A small minority of patients who present with locally advanced disease may also benefit from preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to down stage the tumor to render it potentially operable. In a vast majority of patients, however, lung cancer presents at an advanced stage and a cure is not possible with currently available therapeutic strategies. Similarly small cell lung cancer confined to one hemi-thorax may be curable with a combination of chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation, if complete remission is achieved at the primary site. Small cell lung cancer that is spread beyond the confines of one hemi-thorax is however, considered incurable. In this era of molecular targeted therapies, new agents are constantly undergoing pre-clinical and clinical testing with the aim of targeting the molecular pathways thought to involved in etiology and pathogenesis of lung cancer. (author)

  16. A randomized study of contingency management and spirometric lung age for motivating smoking cessation among injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Michael B; Astemborski, Jacquie; Lambert, Allison A; Goldberg, Scott; Stitzer, Maxine L; Merlo, Christian A; Rand, Cynthia S; Wise, Robert A; Kirk, Gregory D

    2014-07-28

    Even after quitting illicit drugs, tobacco abuse remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in former injection drug users. An important unmet need in this population is to have effective interventions that can be used in the context of community based care. Contingency management, where a patient receives a monetary incentive for healthy behavior choices, and incorporation of individual counseling regarding spirometric "lung age" (the age of an average healthy individual with similar spirometry) have been shown to improve cessation rates in some populations. The efficacy of these interventions on improving smoking cessation rates has not been studied among current and former injection drug users. In a randomized, factorial design study, we recruited 100 active smokers from an ongoing cohort study of current and former injection drug users to assess the impact of contingency management and spirometric lung age on smoking cessation. The primary outcome was 6-month biologically-confirmed smoking cessation comparing contingency management, spirometric lung age or both to usual care. Secondary outcomes included differences in self-reported and biologically-confirmed cessation at interim visits, number of visits attended and quit attempts, smoking rates at interim visits, and changes in Fagerstrom score and self-efficacy. Six-month biologically-confirmed smoking cessations rates were 4% usual care, 0% lung age, 14% contingency management and 0% for combined lung age and contingency management (p = 0.13). There were no differences in secondary endpoints comparing the four interventions or when pooling the lung age groups. Comparing contingency management to non-contingency management, 6-month cessation rates were not different (7% vs. 2%; p = 0.36), but total number of visits with exhaled carbon monoxide-confirmed abstinence were higher for contingency management than non-contingency management participants (0.38 vs. 0.06; p = 0.03), and more contingency management

  17. Lung Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two main types of lung cancer are non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Smoking causes most lung cancers, but nonsmokers can also develop lung cancer. Start here to find information on lung cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics on lung cancer.

  18. Enhanced tumor growth in the remaining lung after major lung resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Fumiho; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Junichi; Hayashi, Masataro; Nishimoto, Arata; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-05-01

    Pneumonectomy induces active growth of the remaining lung in order to compensate for lost lung tissue. We hypothesized that tumor progression is enhanced in the activated local environment. We examined the effects of mechanical strain on the activation of lung growth and tumor progression in mice. The mechanical strain imposed on the right lung after left pneumonectomy was neutralized by filling the empty space that remained after pneumonectomy with a polypropylene prosthesis. The neutralization of the strain prevented active lung growth. According to an angiogenesis array, stronger monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression was found in the strain-induced growing lung. The neutralization of the strain attenuated the release of MCP-1 from the lung cells. The intravenous injection of Lewis lung cancer cells resulted in the enhanced development of metastatic foci in the strain-induced growing lung, but the enhanced development was canceled by the neutralization of the strain. An immunohistochemical analysis revealed the prominent accumulation of tumor-associated macrophages in tumors arising in the strain-induced growing lung, and that there was a relationship between the accumulation and the MCP-1 expression status. Our results suggested that mechanical lung strain, induced by pulmonary resection, triggers active lung growth, thereby creating a tumor-friendly environment. The modification of that environment, as well as the minimizing of surgical stress, may be a meaningful strategy to improve the therapeutic outcome after lung cancer surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Screening Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  20. Abscess in the Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Lung and Airway Disorders Abscess in the Lungs Abscess in the Lungs Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Resources ... here for the Professional Version Abscess in the Lungs Abscess in the Lungs A lung abscess is a ...

  1. Efficacy of Interventions to Improve Respiratory Function After Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Kênia Kp; Nascimento, Lucas R; Avelino, Patrick R; Alvarenga, Maria Tereza Mota; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review all current interventions that have been utilized to improve respiratory function and activity after stroke. Specific searches were conducted. The experimental intervention had to be planned, structured, repetitive, purposive, and delivered with the aim of improving respiratory function. Outcomes included respiratory strength (maximum inspiratory pressure [P Imax ], maximum expiratory pressure [P Emax ]) and endurance, lung function (FVC, FEV 1 , and peak expiratory flow [PEF]), dyspnea, and activity. The quality of the randomized trials was assessed by the PEDro scale using scores from the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (www.pedro.org.au), and risk of bias was assessed in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The 17 included trials had a mean PEDro score of 5.7 (range 4-8) and involved 616 participants. Meta-analyses showed that respiratory muscle training significantly improved all outcomes of interest: P Imax (weighted mean difference 11 cm H 2 O, 95% CI 7-15, I 2 = 0%), P Emax (8 cm H 2 O, 95% CI 2-15, I 2 = 65%), FVC (0.25 L, 95% CI 0.12-0.37, I 2 = 29%), FEV 1 (0.24 L, 95% CI 0.17-0.30, I 2 = 0%), PEF (0.51 L/s, 95% CI 0.10-0.92, I 2 = 0%), dyspnea (standardized mean difference -1.6 points, 95% CI -2.2 to -0.9; I 2 = 0%), and activity (standardized mean difference 0.78, 95% CI 0.22-1.35, I 2 = 0%). Meta-analyses found no significant results for the effects of breathing exercises on lung function. For the remaining interventions (ie, aerobic and postural exercises) and the addition of electrical stimulation, meta-analyses could not be performed. This systematic review reports 5 possible interventions used to improve respiratory function after stroke. Respiratory muscle training proved to be effective for improving inspiratory and expiratory strength, lung function, and dyspnea, and benefits were carried over to activity. However, there is still no evidence to accept or

  2. Lung nodules after whole lung radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.D.; Mirkin, D.L.; Provisor, A.; Hornback, N.B.; Smith, J.A.; Slabaugh, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    It is essential to recognize radiation pneumonitis after whole lung irradiation, or nodular changes in response to chemotherapy, so that such conditions are not mistaken for tumor metastases, causing grave error in patient management and the possibility of further lung damage

  3. Increased mean lung density: Another independent predictor of lung cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverzellati, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.sverzellati@unipr.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Randi, Giorgia, E-mail: giorgia.randi@marionegri.it [Department of Epidemiology, Mario Negri Institute, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Spagnolo, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.spagnolo@unimore.it [Respiratory Disease Unit, Center for Rare Lung Disease, Department of Oncology, Hematology and Respiratory Disease, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, 44124 Modena (Italy); Marchianò, Alfonso, E-mail: alfonso.marchiano@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Radiology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Silva, Mario, E-mail: mac.mario@hotmail.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin, E-mail: Jan-Martin.Kuhnigk@mevis.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Universitaetsallee 29, 28359 Bremen (Germany); La Vecchia, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.lavecchia@marionegri.it [Department of Occupational Health, University of Milan, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Zompatori, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.zompatori@unibo.it [Department of Radiology, Cardio-Thoracic Section, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Via Albertoni 15, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Pastorino, Ugo, E-mail: ugo.pastorino@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Surgery, Section of Thoracic Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between emphysema phenotype, mean lung density (MLD), lung function and lung cancer by using an automated multiple feature analysis tool on thin-section computed tomography (CT) data. Methods: Both emphysema phenotype and MLD evaluated by automated quantitative CT analysis were compared between outpatients and screening participants with lung cancer (n = 119) and controls (n = 989). Emphysema phenotype was defined by assessing features such as extent, distribution on core/peel of the lung and hole size. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate independent associations of CT densitometric measurements and pulmonary function test (PFT) with lung cancer risk. Results: No emphysema feature was associated with lung cancer. Lung cancer risk increased with decreasing values of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) independently of MLD (OR 5.37, 95% CI: 2.63–10.97 for FEV{sub 1} < 60% vs. FEV{sub 1} ≥ 90%), and with increasing MLD independently of FEV{sub 1} (OR 3.00, 95% CI: 1.60–5.63 for MLD > −823 vs. MLD < −857 Hounsfield units). Conclusion: Emphysema per se was not associated with lung cancer whereas decreased FEV{sub 1} was confirmed as being a strong and independent risk factor. The cross-sectional association between increased MLD and lung cancer requires future validations.

  4. What Is Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shareable Graphics Infographics “African-American Men and Lung Cancer” “Lung Cancer Is the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ...

  5. Lung Cancer: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional support team today. Learn More . Find more lung cancer resources. Learn More Donate Today! What is Lung ... to Give How Your Support Helps Events Lung Cancer Awareness © Lung Cancer Alliance. The information presented in this website ...

  6. Open lung biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - open lung ... An open lung biopsy is done in the hospital using general anesthesia . This means you will be asleep and ... The open lung biopsy is done to evaluate lung problems seen on x-ray or CT scan .

  7. Percutaneous drainage of lung abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ri, Jong Min; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duk Sik [Kyung-Pook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-05-15

    Medical treatment using antibiotics and postural drainage has been widely adopted as a treatment method of pulmonary abscess, accompanied by surgical methods in cases intractable to drug therapy. However long-term therapy may be required, and the tolerance of organisms to antibiotics or other complications are apt to be encountered, during medical treatment. To shorten the convalescent period or to decrease the risk of invasive procedures, rather simple and relatively easy interventional techniques such as transbronchial or percutaneous catheter drainage have been successfully tried. We have performed 12 cases of percutaneous drainages of lung abscesses under fluoroscope guidance. This report is on the results of this procedure.

  8. Percutaneous drainage of lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ri, Jong Min; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duk Sik

    1992-01-01

    Medical treatment using antibiotics and postural drainage has been widely adopted as a treatment method of pulmonary abscess, accompanied by surgical methods in cases intractable to drug therapy. However long-term therapy may be required, and the tolerance of organisms to antibiotics or other complications are apt to be encountered, during medical treatment. To shorten the convalescent period or to decrease the risk of invasive procedures, rather simple and relatively easy interventional techniques such as transbronchial or percutaneous catheter drainage have been successfully tried. We have performed 12 cases of percutaneous drainages of lung abscesses under fluoroscope guidance. This report is on the results of this procedure

  9. Combining deep learning and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging for automated differential diagnosis of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Sheng; Xu, Xiaoyun; Li, Jiasong; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is capable of providing cellular-level images and resolving pathologically related features on human lung tissues. However, conventional means of analyzing CARS images requires extensive image processing, feature engineering, and human intervention. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a deep learning algorithm to automatically differentiate normal and cancerous lung tissue images acquired by CARS. We leverage the features learned by pretrained deep neural networks and retrain the model using CARS images as the input. We achieve 89.2% accuracy in classifying normal, small-cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma lung images. This computational method is a step toward on-the-spot diagnosis of lung cancer and can be further strengthened by the efforts aimed at miniaturizing the CARS technique for fiber-based microendoscopic imaging.

  10. Palliative Care Intervention in Improving Symptom Control and Quality of Life in Patients With Stage II-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and Their Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-16

    Caregiver; Psychological Impact of Cancer and Its Treatment; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  11. Lower tidal volume strategy (≈3 ml/kg) combined with extracorporeal CO2 removal versus 'conventional' protective ventilation (6 ml/kg) in severe ARDS: the prospective randomized Xtravent-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bein, Thomas; Weber-Carstens, Steffen; Goldmann, Anton; Müller, Thomas; Staudinger, Thomas; Brederlau, Jörg; Muellenbach, Ralf; Dembinski, Rolf; Graf, Bernhard M; Wewalka, Marlene; Philipp, Alois; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Lubnow, Matthias; Slutsky, Arthur S

    2013-05-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by damage to the lung caused by various insults, including ventilation itself, and tidal hyperinflation can lead to ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). We investigated the effects of a low tidal volume (V(T)) strategy (V(T) ≈ 3 ml/kg/predicted body weight [PBW]) using pumpless extracorporeal lung assist in established ARDS. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled after a 'stabilization period' (24 h with optimized therapy and high PEEP). They were randomly assigned to receive a low V(T) ventilation (≈3 ml/kg) combined with extracorporeal CO2 elimination, or to a ARDSNet strategy (≈6 ml/kg) without the extracorporeal device. The primary outcome was the 28-days and 60-days ventilator-free days (VFD). Secondary outcome parameters were respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, analgesic/sedation use, complications and hospital mortality. Ventilation with very low V(T)'s was easy to implement with extracorporeal CO2-removal. VFD's within 60 days were not different between the study group (33.2 ± 20) and the control group (29.2 ± 21, p = 0.469), but in more hypoxemic patients (PaO2/FIO2 ≤150) a post hoc analysis demonstrated significant improved VFD-60 in study patients (40.9 ± 12.8) compared to control (28.2 ± 16.4, p = 0.033). The mortality rate was low (16.5%) and did not differ between groups. The use of very low V(T) combined with extracorporeal CO2 removal has the potential to further reduce VILI compared with a 'normal' lung protective management. Whether this strategy will improve survival in ARDS patients remains to be determined (Clinical trials NCT 00538928).

  12. Extracorporeal circulatory systems in the interhospital transfer of critically ill patients: experience of a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haneya, Assad; Philipp, Alois; Foltan, Maik; Camboni, Daniele; Rupprecht, Leopold; Puehler, Thomas; Hirt, Stephan; Hilker, Michael; Kobuch, Reinhard; Schmid, Christof; Arlt, Matthias; Mueller, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Critically ill patients with acute circulatory failure cannot be moved to other institutions unless stabilized by mechanical support systems. Extracorporeal heart and lung assist systems are increasingly used as a bridge to end-organ recovery or transplantation, and as an ultimate rescue tool in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. From July 2001 to April 2008, we had 38 requests for extracorporeal support for interhospital transfer carried out by the air medical service. Respiratory failure was present in 29 patients, who were provided with pumpless extracorporeal lung assist (PECLA) or veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Cardiac failure dominated in 9 patients, who underwent implantation of extracorporeal life support (ECLS). Underlying diseases were acute respiratory distress syndrome in 15 patients, pneumonia in 7, prior lung transplant status in 4, cardiogenic shock in 7, and septic shock in 4. All assist systems were connected via peripheral vessels by the Seldinger technique. Transport was uneventful in all cases with no technical failures. On arrival at the specialized care hospital, two patients had leg ischemia and underwent relocation of the arterial cannula. After a mean (SD) support of 5.1 (3.0) days for PECLA, 3.5 (2.9) days for ECLS, and 7.3 (5.8) days for ECMO, 60%, 66%, and 66% of patients, respectively, could be successfully weaned from the systems. Discharge rates were 45% for PECLA, 44% for ECLS, and 56% for ECMO. Our experience proves that minimized extracorporeal assist devices allow safe assistance of patients with isolated or combined heart and lung failure in need of interhospital transfer. Critically ill patients get a chance to reach a center of maximum medical care. (author)

  13. Glucose utilisation in the lungs of septic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, L.; Jeppsson, B.; Ohlsson, T.; Sandell, A.; Valind, S.; Luts, A.; Wollmer, P.

    1999-01-01

    Sequestration and degranulation of leucocytes in the pulmonary microcirculation is considered to be a key event in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with sepsis. Glucose serves as the main source of energy in activated leucocytes. The aim of this study was to assess whether glucose utilisation in the lungs can be used as an indicator of pulmonary leucocyte accumulation in an experimental model of sepsis of intra-abdominal origin. Sepsis was induced in rats by abdominal implantation of a gelatine capsule containing bacteria and rat colonic contents. Empty gelatine capsules were implanted in control animals. Animals were studied 6 and 12 h after sepsis induction. Glucose utilisation was measured as the tissue uptake of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) 1 h after intravenous injection of the tracer. Micro-autoradiography was also performed after injection of tritiated deoxyglucose. We found increased uptake of 18 FDG in the lungs of septic animals. The uptake also increased with time after sepsis induction. 18 FDG uptake in circulating leucocytes was increased in septic animals compared with controls, and micro-autoradiography showed intense accumulation of deoxyglucose in leucocytes in the lungs of septic animals. We conclude that glucose utilisation is increased in the lungs of septic rats. Measurements of pulmonary glucose utilisation as an index of leucocyte metabolic activity may open new possibilities for studies of the pathophysiology of sepsis and for evaluation of therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

  14. Bacterial lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groskin, S.A.; Panicek, D.M.; Ewing, D.K.; Rivera, F.; Math, K.; Teixeira, J.; Heitzman, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective review of patients with bacterial lung abscess was carried out. Demographic, clinical, and radiographical features of this patient group are compared with similar data from patients with empyema and/or cavitated lung carcinoma; differential diagnostic points are stressed. The entity of radiographically occult lung abscess is discussed. Complications associated with bacterial lung abscess are discussed. Current therapeutic options and treatment philosophy for patients with bacterial lung abscess are noted

  15. The Agreement between Auscultation and Lung Ultrasound in Hemodialysis Patients: The LUST Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torino, Claudia; Gargani, Luna; Sicari, Rosa; Letachowicz, Krzysztof; Ekart, Robert; Fliser, Danilo; Covic, Adrian; Siamopoulos, Kostas; Stavroulopoulos, Aristeidis; Massy, Ziad A; Fiaccadori, Enrico; Caiazza, Alberto; Bachelet, Thomas; Slotki, Itzchak; Martinez-Castelao, Alberto; Coudert-Krier, Marie-Jeanne; Rossignol, Patrick; Gueler, Faikah; Hannedouche, Thierry; Panichi, Vincenzo; Wiecek, Andrzej; Pontoriero, Giuseppe; Sarafidis, Pantelis; Klinger, Marian; Hojs, Radovan; Seiler-Mussler, Sarah; Lizzi, Fabio; Siriopol, Dimitrie; Balafa, Olga; Shavit, Linda; Tripepi, Rocco; Mallamaci, Francesca; Tripepi, Giovanni; Picano, Eugenio; London, Gérard Michel; Zoccali, Carmine

    2016-11-07

    Accumulation of fluid in the lung is the most concerning sequela of volume expansion in patients with ESRD. Lung auscultation is recommended to detect and monitor pulmonary congestion, but its reliability in ESRD is unknown. In a subproject of the ongoing Lung Water by Ultra-Sound Guided Treatment to Prevent Death and Cardiovascular Complications in High Risk ESRD Patients with Cardiomyopathy Trial, we compared a lung ultrasound-guided ultrafiltration prescription policy versus standard care in high-risk patients on hemodialysis. The reliability of peripheral edema was tested as well. This study was on the basis of 1106 pre- and postdialysis lung ultrasound studies (in 79 patients) simultaneous with standardized lung auscultation (crackles at the lung bases) and quantification of peripheral edema. Lung congestion by crackles, edema, or a combination thereof poorly reflected the severity of congestion as detected by ultrasound B lines in various analyses, including standard regression analysis weighting for repeated measures in individual patients (shared variance of 12% and 4% for crackles and edema, respectively) and κ-statistics (κ ranging from 0.00 to 0.16). In general, auscultation had very low discriminatory power for the diagnosis of mild (area under the receiver operating curve =0.61), moderate (area under the receiver operating curve =0.65), and severe (area under the receiver operating curve =0.68) lung congestion, and the same was true for peripheral edema (receiver operating curve =0.56 or lower) and the combination of the two physical signs. Lung crackles, either alone or combined with peripheral edema, very poorly reflect interstitial lung edema in patients with ESRD. These findings reinforce the rationale underlying the Lung Water by Ultra-Sound Guided Treatment to Prevent Death and Cardiovascular Complications in High Risk ESRD Patients with Cardiomyopathy Trial, a trial adopting ultrasound B lines as an instrument to guide interventions aimed at

  16. The Murine Lung Microbiome Changes During Lung Inflammation and Intranasal Vancomycin Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfod, Kenneth Klingenberg; Vrankx, Katleen; Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Hengameh Chloé; Hansen, Jitka Stilund; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Larsen, Søren Thor; Ouwenhand, Arthur C.; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki

    2015-01-01

    Most microbiome research related to airway diseases has focused on the gut microbiome. This is despite advances in culture independent microbial identification techniques revealing that even healthy lungs possess a unique dynamic microbiome. This conceptual change raises the question; if lung diseases could be causally linked to local dysbiosis of the local lung microbiota. Here, we manipulate the murine lung and gut microbiome, in order to show that the lung microbiota can be changed experimentally. We have used four different approaches: lung inflammation by exposure to carbon nano-tube particles, oral probiotics and oral or intranasal exposure to the antibiotic vancomycin. Bacterial DNA was extracted from broncho-alveolar and nasal lavage fluids, caecum samples and compared by DGGE. Our results show that: the lung microbiota is sex dependent and not just a reflection of the gut microbiota, and that induced inflammation can change lung microbiota. This change is not transferred to offspring. Oral probiotics in adult mice do not change lung microbiome detectible by DGGE. Nasal vancomycin can change the lung microbiome preferentially, while oral exposure does not. These observations should be considered in future studies of the causal relationship between lung microbiota and lung diseases. PMID:26668669

  17. The third Symptom Management Research Trial in Oncology (SMaRT Oncology-3: a randomised trial to determine the efficacy of adding a complex intervention for major depressive disorder (Depression Care for People with Lung Cancer to usual care, compared to usual care alone in patients with lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharpe Michael

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression Care for People with Lung Cancer is a complex intervention delivered by specially trained cancer nurses, under the supervision of a psychiatrist. It is given as a supplement to the usual care for depression, which patients receive from their general practitioner and cancer service. The third Symptom Management Research Trial in Oncology (SMaRT Oncology-3 Trial will test its efficacy when compared to usual care alone. Design A two arm parallel group multi-centre randomised controlled trial. 200 patients will be recruited through established systematic Symptom Monitoring Services, which screen patients for depression. Patients will have: a diagnosis of lung cancer; an estimated life expectancy of three months or more and a diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder. Patients will be randomised to usual care or usual care plus Depression Care for People with Lung Cancer. Randomisation will be carried out by telephoning a secure computerised central randomisation system or by using a secure web interface. The primary outcome measure is average depression severity. This will be assessed using scores on the 20-item Symptom Hopkins Checklist (SCL-20D, collected every four weeks over 32 weeks. Secondary outcomes include severity of anxiety, pain and fatigue; self-rated improvement of depression; quality of life and satisfaction with depression care. Trial Registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN75905964

  18. Lung needle biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have certain lung diseases such as emphysema. Usually, a collapsed lung after a biopsy does not need treatment. But ... any type Bullae (enlarged alveoli that occur with emphysema) Cor pulmonale (condition ... of the lung High blood pressure in the lung arteries Severe ...

  19. Investigation on an innovative cascading cycle for power and refrigeration cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Long; Lu, Huitong; Wang, Ruzhu; Wang, Liwei; Gong, Lixia; Lu, Yiji; Roskilly, Anthony Paul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel cascading cycle for power and refrigeration cogeneration is proposed and investigated. • Pumpless ORC and sorption refrigeration cycle act as the first and second stage. • The highest power and refrigeration output are able to reach 232 W and 4.94 kW, respectively. • The exergy efficiency of heat utilization ranges from 30.1% to 41.8%. - Abstract: In order to further realize efficient utilization of low grade heat, an innovative cascading cycle for power and refrigeration cogeneration is proposed. Pumpless Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) acts as the first stage, and the refrigerant R245fa is selected as the working fluid. Sorption refrigeration cycle serves as the second stage in which silica-gel/LiCl composite sorbent is developed for the improved sorption characteristic. The concerning experimental system is established, and different hot water inlet temperatures from 75 °C to 95 °C are adopted to investigate the cogeneration performance. It is indicated that the highest power and refrigeration output are able to reach 232 W and 4.94 kW, respectively under the condition of 95 °C hot water inlet temperature, 25 °C cooling water temperature and 10 °C chilled water outlet temperature. For different working conditions, the total energy and exergy efficiency of the cascading system range from 0.236 to 0.277 and 0.101 to 0.132, respectively. For cascading system the exergy efficiency of heat utilization ranges from 30.1% to 41.8%, which is 144% and 60% higher than that of pumpless ORC and sorption chiller when the hot water inlet temperature is 95 °C.

  20. Transbronchial drainage using endobronchial ultrasonography with guide sheath for lung abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Daizo; Ichikawa, Motoshi; Inoue, Noriko; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Shizu, Masato; Imai, Naoyuki

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Lung abscess was previously treated surgically, but is now mainly treated with antibiotics and ideally with direct drainage, although postural drainage canalso be used. Patient concerns: A chest abnormal shadow was detected in an 82-year-old man and he was referred to our department in November 2017. On chest computed tomography (CT), a low-density mass shadow was present in the left S8 segment. Lung abscess and lung cancer were considered as differential diagnoses, and treatment with sulbactam sodium/ampicillin sodium (SBT/ABPC) was first initiated for lung abscess. The etiologic agent could not be identified by sputum examination, and the abscess shadow remained. Diagnoses: Lung abscess. Interventions: Endobronchial ultrasonography with a guide sheath (EBUS-GS)-guided bronchoscopy was performed on hospital day 21 to diagnose the lesion, identify the etiologic agent if the lesion was a lung abscess, and attempt drainage. Vacuum aspiration performed in the guide sheath after the probe was placed within the lesion produced 4-5 ml of gray turbid pus, and the abscess was judged to have been drained. Outcomes: A subsequent pathological examination did not detect malignant cells. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Prevotella spp. was identified as the etiologic agent in bacteriological tests. Antibiotics were changed based on sensitivity test results, and drainage was similarly performed on hospital day 28. The shadow gradually improved and disappeared. Therefore, this procedure and treatment led to identification of the etiologic agent and helped with cure of the disease. Lessons: Based on the basic principle of treatment for abscess using as much drainage as possible, EBUS-GS-guided transbronchial drainage may be considered to be a “new procedure” for lung abscess. PMID:29768382

  1. Clinical implications for Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in the lung: friend or foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgoulianis Konstantinos I

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a potent mediator of angiogenesis which has multiple effects in lung development and physiology. VEGF is expressed in several parts of the lung and the pleura while it has been shown that changes in its expression play a significant role in the pathophysiology of some of the most common respiratory disorders, such as acute lung injury, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnea, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, pleural disease, and lung cancer. However, the exact role of VEGF in the lung is not clear yet, as there is contradictory evidence that suggests either a protective or a harmful role. VEGF seems to interfere in a different manner, depending on its amount, the location, and the underlying pathologic process in lung tissue. The lack of VEGF in some disease entities may provide implications for its substitution, whereas its overexpression in other lung disorders has led to interventions for the attenuation of its action. Many efforts have been made in order to regulate the expression of VEGF and anti-VEGF antibodies are already in use for the management of lung cancer. Further research is still needed for the complete understanding of the exact role of VEGF in health and disease, in order to take advantage of its benefits and avoid its adverse effects. The scope of the present review is to summarize from a clinical point of view the changes in VEGF expression in several disorders of the respiratory system and focus on its diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  2. Exploring the uncertainties of early detection results: model-based interpretation of mayo lung project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Barbara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mayo Lung Project (MLP, a randomized controlled clinical trial of lung cancer screening conducted between 1971 and 1986 among male smokers aged 45 or above, demonstrated an increase in lung cancer survival since the time of diagnosis, but no reduction in lung cancer mortality. Whether this result necessarily indicates a lack of mortality benefit for screening remains controversial. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed outcome, including over-diagnosis, screening sensitivity, and population heterogeneity (initial difference in lung cancer risks between the two trial arms. This study is intended to provide model-based testing for some of these important arguments. Method Using a micro-simulation model, the MISCAN-lung model, we explore the possible influence of screening sensitivity, systematic error, over-diagnosis and population heterogeneity. Results Calibrating screening sensitivity, systematic error, or over-diagnosis does not noticeably improve the fit of the model, whereas calibrating population heterogeneity helps the model predict lung cancer incidence better. Conclusions Our conclusion is that the hypothesized imperfection in screening sensitivity, systematic error, and over-diagnosis do not in themselves explain the observed trial results. Model fit improvement achieved by accounting for population heterogeneity suggests a higher risk of cancer incidence in the intervention group as compared with the control group.

  3. Bayesian networks for clinical decision support in lung cancer care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Berkan Sesen

    Full Text Available Survival prediction and treatment selection in lung cancer care are characterised by high levels of uncertainty. Bayesian Networks (BNs, which naturally reason with uncertain domain knowledge, can be applied to aid lung cancer experts by providing personalised survival estimates and treatment selection recommendations. Based on the English Lung Cancer Database (LUCADA, we evaluate the feasibility of BNs for these two tasks, while comparing the performances of various causal discovery approaches to uncover the most feasible network structure from expert knowledge and data. We show first that the BN structure elicited from clinicians achieves a disappointing area under the ROC curve of 0.75 (± 0.03, whereas a structure learned by the CAMML hybrid causal discovery algorithm, which adheres with the temporal restrictions, achieves 0.81 (± 0.03. Second, our causal intervention results reveal that BN treatment recommendations, based on prescribing the treatment plan that maximises survival, can only predict the recorded treatment plan 29% of the time. However, this percentage rises to 76% when partial matches are included.

  4. Lung scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalenz, Roberto.

    1994-01-01

    A review of lung scintigraphy, perfusion scintigraphy with SPECT, lung ventilation SPECT, blood pool SPECT. The procedure of lung perfusion studies, radiopharmaceutical, administration and clinical applications, imaging processing .Results encountered and evaluation criteria after Biello and Pioped. Recommendations and general considerations have been studied about relation of this radiopharmaceutical with other pathologies

  5. Unevenness on aerosol inhalation lung images and lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Takeo; Isawa, Toyoharu; Hirano, Tomio; Ebina, Akio; Shiraishi, Koichiro; Konno, Kiyoshi

    1985-01-01

    The unevenness or inhomogeneity of aerosol deposition patterns on radioaerosol inhalation lung images has been interpreted rather qualitatively in the clinical practice. We have reported our approach to quantitatively analyze the radioactive count distribution on radioaerosol inhalation lung images in relation to the actual lung function data. We have defined multiple indexes to express the shape and the unevenness of the count distribution of the lung images. To reduce as much as possible the number of indexes to be used in the regression functions, the method of selection of variables was introduced to the multiple regression analysis. Because some variables showed greater coefficients of simple correlation, while others did not, multicollinearity of variables had to be taken into consideration. For this reason, we chose a principal components regression analysis. The multiple regression function for each item of pulmonary function data thus established from analysis of 67 subjects appeared usable as a predictor of the actual lung function: for example, % VC (vital capacity) could be estimated by using four indexes out of the multiple ones with a coefficient of multiple correlation (R) of 0.753, and FEVsub(1.0) % (forced expiratory volume in one second divided by forced expiratory volume), by 7 indexes with R = 0.921. Pulmonary function data regarding lung volumes and lung mechanics were estimated more accurately with greater R's than those for lung diffusion, but even in the latter the prediction was still statistically significant at p less than 0.01. We believe the multiple regression functions thus obtained are useful for estimating not only the overall but also the regional function of the lungs. (author)

  6. A Centrifugal Microfluidic Platform Using SLM Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Sune Zoëga; Burger, Robert; Emnéus, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Here we present a pump-less microfluidic pla>orm which performs sample clean-up and enrichment in a single step, by integraAng Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM) extracAon. Our pla>orm offers a simple, yet very efficient, method for achieving sample pre-treatment and enrichment of rare analytes, in ...

  7. Introduction of cryobiopsies in the diagnostics of interstitial lung diseases - experiences in a referral center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg-White, Sissel; Folkersen, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Torben Riis

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Transbronchial cryobiopsies (cTBB) has emerged as a new method for obtaining lung tissue biopsies in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Until now, it has been used in a few highly specialized interventional centers and has shown promising results in obtaining a defi...... bleeding occurred during the procedure and was easily controlled by a Fogarty catheter balloon and in some cases tranexamic acid. Conclusion: Performing cTBB in the diagnostics of ILDs is a safe and feasible procedure. cTBB resulted in a confident diagnosis in 74% of cases....

  8. A simultaneous minimally invasive approach to treat a patient with coronary artery disease and metastatic lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuanhao; Zhang, Lufeng; Ji, Ling; Xu, Chenyang

    2016-01-01

    Concurrent lung cancer and coronary artery disease requiring treatment with percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting is not rare. An individualized perioperative anticoagulation regimen and minimal surgical trauma will benefit the patient's postoperative recovery. We successfully treated a 68-year-old female patient with a lesion in the left anterior descending artery and metastatic right lung carcinoma by simultaneous minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting via a small left thoracotomy and thoracoscopic wedge resection of the lung lesion. She recovered and was discharged on the eighth postoperative day. The patient showed no symptoms of myocardial ischemia postoperatively. Computed tomography scan did not indicate metastatic lesion of lung carcinoma at 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting combined with thoracoscopic wedge resection is an effective minimally invasive treatment for concurrent lung cancer and coronary artery disease. This technique eliminates the risk of perioperative bleeding and provides satisfactory mid-term follow-up results.

  9. Psychological interventions for individuals with cystic fibrosis and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbeck, Lutz; Fidika, Astrid; Herle, Marion; Quittner, Alexandra L

    2014-06-18

    cover interventions with generic approaches, as well as interventions developed specifically to target disease-specific symptoms and problems in people with cystic fibrosis. These include cognitive behavioural interventions to improve adherence to nutrition or psychosocial adjustment, cognitive interventions to improve adherence or those associated with decision making in lung transplantation, a community-based support intervention and other interventions, such as self-hypnosis, respiratory muscle biofeedback, music therapy, dance and movement therapy, and a tele-medicine intervention to support patients awaiting transplantation.A substantial proportion of outcomes relate to adherence, changes in physical status or other specific treatment concerns during the chronic phase of the disease.There is some evidence that behavioural interventions targeting nutrition and growth in children (4 to 12 years) with cystic fibrosis are effective in the short term. Evidence was found that providing a structured decision-making tool for patients considering lung transplantation improves patients' knowledge of and expectations about the transplant, and reduces decisional conflict in the short term. One study about training in biofeedback-assisted breathing demonstrated some evidence that it improved some lung function measurements. Currently there is insufficient evidence for interventions aimed at other aspects of the disease process. Currently, insufficient evidence exists on psychological interventions or approaches to support people with cystic fibrosis and their caregivers, although some of the studies were promising. Due to the heterogeneity between studies, more of each type of intervention are needed to support preliminary evidence. Multicentre studies, with consequent funding implications, are needed to increase the sample size of these studies and enhance the statistical power and precision to detect important findings. In addition, multicentre studies could improve the

  10. Successful Recanalization of a Complete Lobar Bronchial Stenosis in a Lung Transplant Patient Using a Combined Percutaneous and Bronchoscopic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miraglia, Roberto; Vitulo, Patrizio; Maruzzelli, Luigi; Burgio, Gaetano; Caruso, Settimo; Bertani, Alessandro; Callari, Adriana; Luca, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Airway stenosis is a major complication after lung transplantation that is usually managed with a combination of interventional endoscopic techniques, including endobronchial debridement, balloon dilation, and stent placement. Herein, we report a successful case of recanalization of a complete stenosis of the right middle lobe bronchus in a lung transplant patient, by using a combined percutaneous–bronchoscopic approach after the failure of endobronchial debridement

  11. Successful Recanalization of a Complete Lobar Bronchial Stenosis in a Lung Transplant Patient Using a Combined Percutaneous and Bronchoscopic Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miraglia, Roberto, E-mail: rmiraglia@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Radiology Service, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services (Italy); Vitulo, Patrizio, E-mail: pvitulo@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Pulmonology Unit, Department for the Treatment and Study of Cardiothoracic Diseases and Cardiothoracic Transplantation (Italy); Maruzzelli, Luigi, E-mail: lmaruzzelli@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Radiology Service, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services (Italy); Burgio, Gaetano, E-mail: gburgio@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Operating Room Service, Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care (Italy); Caruso, Settimo, E-mail: secaruso@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Radiology Service, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services (Italy); Bertani, Alessandro, E-mail: abertani@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Thoracic Surgery and Lung Transplantation Unit, Department for the Treatment and Study of Cardiothoracic Diseases and Cardiothoracic Transplantation (Italy); Callari, Adriana, E-mail: acallari@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Pulmonology Unit, Department for the Treatment and Study of Cardiothoracic Diseases and Cardiothoracic Transplantation (Italy); Luca, Angelo, E-mail: aluca@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Radiology Service, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Airway stenosis is a major complication after lung transplantation that is usually managed with a combination of interventional endoscopic techniques, including endobronchial debridement, balloon dilation, and stent placement. Herein, we report a successful case of recanalization of a complete stenosis of the right middle lobe bronchus in a lung transplant patient, by using a combined percutaneous–bronchoscopic approach after the failure of endobronchial debridement.

  12. Estimation of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine lung uptake in heart and lung diseases. With reference to lung uptake ratio and decrease of lung uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Yazaki, Yoshikazu; Kitabayashi, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Tomonori; Sekiguchi, Morie; Gomi, Tsutomu; Yano, Kesato; Itoh, Atsuko.

    1997-01-01

    123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 64 patients with heart and lung diseases. Distribution of MIBG in the chest was evaluated by planar images, using counts ratios of the heart to the mediastinum (H/M) and the unilateral lung to the mediastinum (Lu/M). Most of patients with heart diseases showed obvious lung uptake of MIBG. The ratios of H/M were 1.75±0.20 in the group without heart failure and 1.55±0.19 in the group with heart failure. The ratios of Lu/M in the right and left lung were 1.56±0.16 and 1.28±0.16 in the group without heart failure. And those were 1.45±0.16 and 1.19±0.15 in the group with heart failure. But 3 patients complicated with chronic pulmonary emphysema and one patient with interstitial pneumonia due to dermatomyositis showed markedly decreased lung uptake. The ratios of Lu/M in the right and left lung of these patients were 1.20, 1.17; 1.17, 1.13; 1.01, 0.97 and 1.27, 0.94, respectively. These results suggest that the lung uptake of MIBG may reflect the state of pulmonary endothelial cell function in clinical situations, considering that it has been demonstrated that MIBG may be useful as a marker of pulmonary endothelial cell function in the isolated rat lung. (author)

  13. The immediate effect of soft tissue manual therapy intervention on lung function in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Montecinos C

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Cruz-Montecinos,1–3 Diego Godoy-Olave,4 Felipe A Contreras-Briceño,5 Paulina Gutiérrez,4 Rodrigo Torres-Castro,2 Leandro Miret-Venegas,3 Roger M Engel6 1Laboratory of Biomechanics and Kinesiology, San José Hospital, Santiago, Chile; 2Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; 3Unit of Kinesiology and Physical Therapy, San José Hospital, Santiago, Chile; 4Departamento de Kinesiología, Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación, Santiago, Chile; 5Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; 6Department of Chiropractic, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia Background and objective: In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, accessory respiratory muscles are recruited as a compensatory adaptation to changes in respiratory mechanics. This results in shortening and overactivation of these and other muscles. Manual therapy is increasingly being investigated as a way to alleviate these changes. The aim of this study was to measure the immediate effect on lung function of a soft tissue manual therapy protocol (STMTP designed to address changes in the accessory respiratory muscles and their associated structures in patients with severe COPD.Methods: Twelve medically stable patients (n=12 with an existing diagnosis of severe COPD (ten: GOLD Stage III and two: GOLD Stage IV were included. Residual volume, inspiratory capacity and oxygen saturation (SpO2 were recorded immediately before and after administration of the STMTP. A Student’s t-test was used to determine the effect of the manual therapy intervention (P<0.05.Results: The mean age of the patients was 62.4 years (range 46–77. Nine were male. Residual volume decreased from 4.5 to 3.9 L (P=0.002, inspiratory capacity increased from 2.0 to 2.1 L (P=0.039 and SpO2 increased from 93% to 96% (P=0.001.Conclusion: A single application of an STMTP appears to have the potential to produce

  14. Nonrespiratory lung function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isawa, Toyoharu [Tohoku University Research Institute for Chest Disease and Cancer, Sendai (Japan)

    1994-07-01

    The function of the lungs is primarily the function as a gas exchanger: the venous blood returning to the lungs is arterialized with oxygen in the lungs and the arterialized blood is sent back again to the peripheral tissues of the whole body to be utilized for metabolic oxygenation. Besides the gas exchanging function which we call ''respiratory lung function'' the lungs have functions that have little to do with gas exchange itself. We categorically call the latter function of the lungs as ''nonrespiratory lung function''. The lungs consist of the conductive airways, the gas exchanging units like the alveoli, and the interstitial space that surrounds the former two compartments. The interstitial space contains the blood and lymphatic capillaries, collagen and elastic fibers and cement substances. The conductive airways and the gas exchanging units are directly exposed to the atmosphere that contains various toxic and nontoxic gases, fume and biological or nonbiological particles. Because the conductive airways are equipped with defense mechanisms like mucociliary clearance or coughs to get rid of these toxic gases, particles or locally produced biological debris, we are usually free from being succumbed to ill effects of inhaled materials. By use of nuclear medicine techniques, we can now evaluate mucociliary clearance function, and other nonrespiratory lung functions as well in vivo.

  15. Nonrespiratory lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isawa, Toyoharu

    1994-01-01

    The function of the lungs is primarily the function as a gas exchanger: the venous blood returning to the lungs is arterialized with oxygen in the lungs and the arterialized blood is sent back again to the peripheral tissues of the whole body to be utilized for metabolic oxygenation. Besides the gas exchanging function which we call ''respiratory lung function'' the lungs have functions that have little to do with gas exchange itself. We categorically call the latter function of the lungs as ''nonrespiratory lung function''. The lungs consist of the conductive airways, the gas exchanging units like the alveoli, and the interstitial space that surrounds the former two compartments. The interstitial space contains the blood and lymphatic capillaries, collagen and elastic fibers and cement substances. The conductive airways and the gas exchanging units are directly exposed to the atmosphere that contains various toxic and nontoxic gases, fume and biological or nonbiological particles. Because the conductive airways are equipped with defense mechanisms like mucociliary clearance or coughs to get rid of these toxic gases, particles or locally produced biological debris, we are usually free from being succumbed to ill effects of inhaled materials. By use of nuclear medicine techniques, we can now evaluate mucociliary clearance function, and other nonrespiratory lung functions as well in vivo

  16. Study of the ventilatory lung motion imaging in primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Yazaki, Yosikazu; Kitabayashi, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Morie.

    1996-01-01

    Using perfusion lung scintigrams with Tc-99m macroaggregated alubumin at maximal inspiration (I) and expiration (E), images of the ventilatory lung motion, which was calculated and delineated by an expression as (E-I)/I, were obtained in 84 cases with primary lung cancer, and its clinical significance in the diagnosis of primary lung cancer was studied. The image of (E-I)/I consisted of positive and negative components. The former visualized the motion of the regional intrapulmonary areas and the latter showed the motion of the lung border. The sum of positive (E-I)/I in the lung with the primary lesion which was lower than that in the contralateral lung, was significantly low in cases with hilar mass, pleural effusion and TNM classification of T3+T4. The sum of positive (E-I)/I in both lungs and vital capacity was relatively low in cases with hilar mass, pleural effusion, TNM classification of T3+T4 and M1. The distribution pattern of pulmonary perfusion and positive (E-I)/I was fairly matched in 48 cases, but mismatch was observed in 36 cases. In the image of negative (E-I)/I, decreased motion of the lung border including the diaphragm was shown in cases with pleural adhesion and thickening, pleural effusion, phrenic nerve palsy and other conditions with hypoventilation. This technique seems to be useful for the estimation of regional pulmonary function of pulmonary perfusion and lung motion, the extent and pathophysiology of primary lung cancer. (author)

  17. Study of the ventilatory lung motion imaging in primary lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tadashige [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Shool of Allied Medical Sciences; Tanaka, Masao; Yazaki, Yosikazu; Kitabayashi, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Morie

    1996-12-01

    Using perfusion lung scintigrams with Tc-99m macroaggregated alubumin at maximal inspiration (I) and expiration (E), images of the ventilatory lung motion, which was calculated and delineated by an expression as (E-I)/I, were obtained in 84 cases with primary lung cancer, and its clinical significance in the diagnosis of primary lung cancer was studied. The image of (E-I)/I consisted of positive and negative components. The former visualized the motion of the regional intrapulmonary areas and the latter showed the motion of the lung border. The sum of positive (E-I)/I in the lung with the primary lesion which was lower than that in the contralateral lung, was significantly low in cases with hilar mass, pleural effusion and TNM classification of T3+T4. The sum of positive (E-I)/I in both lungs and vital capacity was relatively low in cases with hilar mass, pleural effusion, TNM classification of T3+T4 and M1. The distribution pattern of pulmonary perfusion and positive (E-I)/I was fairly matched in 48 cases, but mismatch was observed in 36 cases. In the image of negative (E-I)/I, decreased motion of the lung border including the diaphragm was shown in cases with pleural adhesion and thickening, pleural effusion, phrenic nerve palsy and other conditions with hypoventilation. This technique seems to be useful for the estimation of regional pulmonary function of pulmonary perfusion and lung motion, the extent and pathophysiology of primary lung cancer. (author)

  18. Comparison of lung preservation solutions in human lungs using an ex vivo lung perfusion experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel L. Medeiros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Experimental studies on lung preservation have always been performed using animal models. We present ex vivo lung perfusion as a new model for the study of lung preservation. Using human lungs instead of animal models may bring the results of experimental studies closer to what could be expected in clinical practice. METHOD: Brain-dead donors whose lungs had been declined by transplantation teams were used. The cases were randomized into two groups. In Group 1, Perfadex®was used for pulmonary preservation, and in Group 2, LPDnac, a solution manufactured in Brazil, was used. An ex vivo lung perfusion system was used, and the lungs were ventilated and perfused after 10 hours of cold ischemia. The extent of ischemic-reperfusion injury was measured using functional and histological parameters. RESULTS: After reperfusion, the mean oxygenation capacity was 405.3 mmHg in Group 1 and 406.0 mmHg in Group 2 (p = 0.98. The mean pulmonary vascular resistance values were 697.6 and 378.3 dyn·s·cm-5, respectively (p =0.035. The mean pulmonary compliance was 46.8 cm H20 in Group 1 and 49.3 ml/cm H20 in Group 2 (p =0.816. The mean wet/dry weight ratios were 2.06 and 2.02, respectively (p=0.87. The mean Lung Injury Scores for the biopsy performed after reperfusion were 4.37 and 4.37 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 1.0, and the apoptotic cell counts were 118.75/mm² and 137.50/mm², respectively (p=0.71. CONCLUSION: The locally produced preservation solution proved to be as good as Perfadex®. The clinical use of LPDnac may reduce costs in our centers. Therefore, it is important to develop new models to study lung preservation.

  19. Treatment and technical intervention time analysis of a robotic stereotactic radiotherapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop, F; Lacornerie, T; Szymczak, H; Felin, A; Bailleux, C; Mirabel, X; Lartigau, E

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain a better operational knowledge of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) treatments with CyberKnife(r). An analysis of both In-room Times (IRT) and technical interventions of 5 years of treatments was performed, during which more than 1600 patients were treated for various indications, including liver (21%), lung (29%), intracranial (13%), head and neck (11%) and prostate (7%). Technical interventions were recorded along with the time of the failure, time to the intervention, and the complexity and duration of the repair. Analyses of Time Between Failures (TBF) and Service Disrupting TBF(disr) were performed. Treatment time data and variability per indication and following different system upgrades were evaluated. Large variations of IRTs were found between indications, but also large variations for each indication. The combination of the time reduction Tool (using Iris(r)) and Improved Stop Handling was of major impact to shortening of treatment times. The first implementation of the Iris collimator alone did not lead to significantly shorter IRTs for us except during prostate treatments. This was mostly due to the addition at the same time of larger rotational compensation for prostate treatments (58 instead of 1.58). Significant differences of duration between the first fraction and following fractions of a treatment, representing the necessity of defining imaging parameters and explanation to patients, were found for liver (12 min) and lung treatments using Xsight(r) Spine (5 min). Liver and lung treatments represent the longest IRT's and involve the largest variability's in IRT. The malfunction rate of the system followed a Weibull distribution with the shape and scale parameters of 0.8 and 39.7. Mean TBF(disr) was 68 work hours. 60 to 80% of the service disrupting interventions were resolved within 30-60 min, 5% required external intervention and 30% occurred in the morning. The presented results can be applied in the

  20. Lung function in 6 years old children born very preterm and fed different diets post discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Agertoft, Lone; Halken, Susanne

    Background: Research has shown that being born preterm may affect lung capacity later in childhood. It is though unknown if type of early nutrition influences lung capacity and the risk of developing asthma in childhood. Aim: The aim was to investigate if type of early nutrition has an impact...... on lung function and the possible risk of developing asthma among 6 year old children born very preterm. Method: A prospective, randomized, interventional multicentre study on nutrition of a preterm birth cohort has been established and described previously. The inclusion criteria were gestational age...... ≤ 32 weeks. From hospital discharge to 4 month corrected age, the children received three different types of nutrition: A: Human milk (HM) B: HM enriched with fortifier (HMF) C: Preterm formula (PF). At the age of 6 years, the children performed an occlusion test (Rocc) and a lung resistance test...

  1. Proteases and antiproteases in chronic neutrophilic lung disease - relevance to drug discovery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greene, Catherine M

    2009-10-01

    Chronic inflammatory lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis and emphysema are characterized by higher-than-normal levels of pulmonary proteases. While these enzymes play important roles such as bacterial killing, their dysregulated expression or activity can adversely impact on the inflammatory process. The existence of efficient endogenous control mechanisms that can dampen or halt this overexuberant protease activity in vivo is essential for the effective resolution of inflammatory lung disease. The function of pulmonary antiproteases is to fulfil this role. Interestingly, in addition to their antiprotease activity, protease inhibitors in the lung also often possess other intrinsic properties that contribute to microbial killing or termination of the inflammatory process. This review will outline important features of chronic inflammation that are regulated by pulmonary proteases and will describe the various mechanisms by which antiproteases attempt to counterbalance exaggerated protease-mediated inflammatory events. These proteases, antiproteases and their modifiers represent interesting targets for therapeutic intervention.

  2. Frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets (B-lines) using a regionally based lung ultrasound examination named vet BLUE (veterinary bedside lung ultrasound exam) in dogs with radiographically normal lung findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisciandro, Gregory R; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Fulton, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Lung ultrasound is superior to lung auscultation and supine chest radiography for many respiratory conditions in human patients. Ultrasound diagnoses are based on easily learned patterns of sonographic findings and artifacts in standardized images. By applying the wet lung (ultrasound lung rockets or B-lines, representing interstitial edema) versus dry lung (A-lines with a glide sign) concept many respiratory conditions can be diagnosed or excluded. The ultrasound probe can be used as a visual stethoscope for the evaluation of human lungs because dry artifacts (A-lines with a glide sign) predominate over wet artifacts (ultrasound lung rockets or B-lines). However, the frequency and number of wet lung ultrasound artifacts in dogs with radiographically normal lungs is unknown. Thus, the primary objective was to determine the baseline frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets in dogs without clinical signs of respiratory disease and with radiographically normal lung findings using an 8-view novel regionally based lung ultrasound examination called Vet BLUE. Frequency of ultrasound lung rockets were statistically compared based on signalment, body condition score, investigator, and reasons for radiography. Ten left-sided heart failure dogs were similarly enrolled. Overall frequency of ultrasound lung rockets was 11% (95% confidence interval, 6-19%) in dogs without respiratory disease versus 100% (95% confidence interval, 74-100%) in those with left-sided heart failure. The low frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets observed in dogs without respiratory disease and with radiographically normal lungs suggests that Vet BLUE will be clinically useful for the identification of canine respiratory conditions. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  3. Spirometry utilisation among Danish adults initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koefoed, Mette Marie

    2015-02-01

    This PhD thesis was written during my employment at the Research Unit of General Practice in Odense, University of Southern Denmark. It comprises an overview and three papers, all published or submitted for publication in international peer-reviewed scientific journals.   Non-infectious dyspnoea, chronic cough and wheezing are common symptoms in the population. Patients often present with these symptoms in general practice and have a high probability of having obstructive lung diseases. However, there is an indication that the majority of these patients are treated empirically with pharmacotherapy targeting obstructive lung disease and only few have additional tests conducted, although the predictive value of respiratory symptoms for diagnosing obstructive lung disease has proven to be low. Spirometry is recommended as the gold standard for confirming obstructive lung disease, and testing can also rule out airway obstruction in patients with respiratory symptoms caused by other illnesses, such as heart failure or lung cancer. Initiating medication for obstructive lung disease without spirometry entails the risk of these patients experiencing unnecessary delay in the diagnostic process and being exposed to unnecessary economic costs and medication risks. The literature has indicated that many users of medication targeting obstructive lung medication have not had spirometry performed and do not actually have obstructive lung disease. This potential quality gap needs to be assessed. Also, in order to target interventions enhancing earlier spirometry utilisation among patients initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease, improved knowledge on patient and practice factors associated with spirometry testing is needed.   Among first time users of obstructive lung medication we aimed: - To assess to what extent spirometry was performed within the first year of medication use (Study I) - To assess if patient characteristics like socioeconomic and demographic

  4. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  5. Computer tomographic diagnosis of lung abscesses and pleural empyemas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetgemeier, J.; Wunschik, F.

    1983-06-01

    Lung abscesses are characterised by irregular air spaces with non-homogeneous necrosis. Pleural empyemas often assume a sickle shape up against the thoracic wall and tend to be homogeneous. Problems in differential diagnosis may occur if the process is not confined to an exact anatomic position. A peripheral perforating abscess is isolated from the tracheobronchial system by thickened pleura and by its capsule; even if computer tomography does not show clear-cut findings, operative intervention is indicated.

  6. Singing for Lung Health: a qualitative assessment of a British Lung Foundation programme for group leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Adam; Cave, Phoene; Hopkinson, Nicholas S

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Singing for Lung Health (SLH) groups are an increasingly popular intervention for people with respiratory disease. There are limited data as to how these groups should be developed and run. We aimed to evaluate the experience of singing leaders both to assess the training provided by the British Lung Foundation (BLF) and to provide information to guide future development of programmes. Methods A convenience sample of 15 leaders who had received BLF SLH training participated in the BLF service evaluation. Fifteen singing groups were observed, and singing leader interviews and questionnaires were collected. Inductive themes from the qualitative data were the primary outcome. The content of observed singing groups was also rated against the training leaders had received. Results Singing leaders valued the BLF training but felt that a significant level of expertise is required before joining. Singing leaders often found setting up groups challenging and some found clinician support beneficial. There were important technical aspects of running a lung health group including issues around content, for example, choice of repertoire to suit breathing pattern, and delivery, for example, pace, rhythm and management of group dynamics. Leaders said that group participants reported physical health improvements such as reduced breathlessness on activity. The content and delivery of singing classes observed displayed a good level of fidelity, suggesting that SLH training is effective. Conclusion The experience of the leaders highlights the requirements, support and technical skills needed to run SLH groups, which have features distinct from generic community singing groups. PMID:29071079

  7. Hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension augments lung injury and airway reactivity caused by ozone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zychowski, Katherine E.; Lucas, Selita N.; Sanchez, Bethany; Herbert, Guy; Campen, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Ozone (O 3 )-related cardiorespiratory effects are a growing public health concern. Ground level O 3 can exacerbate pre-existing respiratory conditions; however, research regarding therapeutic interventions to reduce O 3 -induced lung injury is limited. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypoxia-associated pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a frequent comorbidity that is difficult to treat clinically, yet associated with increased mortality and frequency of exacerbations. In this study, we hypothesized that established HPH would confer vulnerability to acute O 3 pulmonary toxicity. Additionally, we tested whether improvement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity via rho-kinase inhibition could mitigate pulmonary inflammation and injury. To determine if O 3 exacerbated HPH, male C57BL/6 mice were subject to either 3 weeks continuous normoxia (20.9% O 2 ) or hypoxia (10.0% O 2 ), followed by a 4-h exposure to either 1 ppm O 3 or filtered air (FA). As an additional experimental intervention fasudil (20 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally prior to and after O 3 exposures. As expected, hypoxia significantly increased right ventricular pressure and hypertrophy. O 3 exposure in normoxic mice caused lung inflammation but not injury, as indicated by increased cellularity and edema in the lung. However, in hypoxic mice, O 3 exposure led to increased inflammation and edema, along with a profound increase in airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Fasudil administration resulted in reduced O 3 -induced lung injury via the enhancement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity. These results indicate that increased pulmonary vascular pressure may enhance lung injury, inflammation and edema when exposed to pollutants, and that enhancement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity may alleviate such vulnerability. - Highlights: • Environmental exposures can exacerbate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). • It is unknown if comorbid

  8. RANK rewires energy homeostasis in lung cancer cells and drives primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shuan; Sigl, Verena; Wimmer, Reiner Alois; Novatchkova, Maria; Jais, Alexander; Wagner, Gabriel; Handschuh, Stephan; Uribesalgo, Iris; Hagelkruys, Astrid; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Tortola, Luigi; Nitsch, Roberto; Cronin, Shane J; Orthofer, Michael; Branstetter, Daniel; Canon, Jude; Rossi, John; D'Arcangelo, Manolo; Botling, Johan; Micke, Patrick; Fleur, Linnea La; Edlund, Karolina; Bergqvist, Michael; Ekman, Simon; Lendl, Thomas; Popper, Helmut; Takayanagi, Hiroshi; Kenner, Lukas; Hirsch, Fred R; Dougall, William; Penninger, Josef M

    2017-10-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Besides smoking, epidemiological studies have linked female sex hormones to lung cancer in women; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK), the key regulator of osteoclastogenesis, is frequently expressed in primary lung tumors, an active RANK pathway correlates with decreased survival, and pharmacologic RANK inhibition reduces tumor growth in patient-derived lung cancer xenografts. Clonal genetic inactivation of KRas G12D in mouse lung epithelial cells markedly impairs the progression of KRas G12D -driven lung cancer, resulting in a significant survival advantage. Mechanistically, RANK rewires energy homeostasis in human and murine lung cancer cells and promotes expansion of lung cancer stem-like cells, which is blocked by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. Our data also indicate survival differences in KRas G12D -driven lung cancer between male and female mice, and we show that female sex hormones can promote lung cancer progression via the RANK pathway. These data uncover a direct role for RANK in lung cancer and may explain why female sex hormones accelerate lung cancer development. Inhibition of RANK using the approved drug denosumab may be a therapeutic drug candidate for primary lung cancer. © 2017 Rao et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. Expression of lung vascular and airway ICAM-1 after exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Schimmer, B; Schimmer, R C; Warner, R L

    1997-01-01

    model. This increase was reduced by 81% after treatment of animals with anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) antibody and by 37% after treatment with anti-interleukin-1 (IL-1) antibody. The same interventions reduced whole-lung ICAM-1 protein by 85% and 25%, respectively. The studies were...... extended to assess the locale in lung of ICAM-I upregulation. Lung vascular ICAM-1 content, which was assessed by vascular fixation of [125I]anti-ICAM-1, rose 4-fold after airway instillation of LPS. This rise was also TNF-alpha-dependent. Under the same experimental conditions, fixation of [125I...... lavage fluids (BALFs) of animals after intratracheal instillation of LPS. Retrieved alveolar macrophages showed a small, significant, and transient increase in surface expression of ICAM-1. These data indicate, at the very least, a dual compartmentalized (vascular and airway) upregulation of ICAM-1 after...

  10. Lung growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suchita; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2007-12-01

    Human lung growth starts as a primitive lung bud in early embryonic life and undergoes several morphological stages which continue into postnatal life. Each stage of lung growth is a result of complex and tightly regulated events governed by physical, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors. Fetal lung liquid and fetal breathing movements are by far the most important determinants of lung growth. Although timing of the stages of lung growth in animals do not mimic that of human, numerous animal studies, mainly on sheep and rat, have given us a better understanding of the regulators of lung growth. Insight into the genetic basis of lung growth has helped us understand and improve management of complex life threatening congenital abnormalities such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia and pulmonary hypoplasia. Although advances in perinatal medicine have improved survival of preterm infants, premature birth is perhaps still the most important factor for adverse lung growth.

  11. Chest ultrasound and hidden lung congestion in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuccio, Vincenzo; Enia, Giuseppe; Tripepi, Rocco; Torino, Claudia; Garozzo, Maurizio; Battaglia, Giovanni Giorgio; Marcantoni, Carmelita; Infantone, Lorena; Giordano, Guido; De Giorgi, Maria Loreta; Lupia, Mario; Bruzzese, Vincenzo; Zoccali, Carmine

    2012-09-01

    Chest ultrasound (US) is a non-invasive well-validated technique for estimating extravascular lung water (LW) in patients with heart diseases and in end-stage renal disease. We systematically applied this technique to the whole peritoneal dialysis (PD) population of five dialysis units. We studied the cross-sectional association between LW, echocardiographic parameters, clinical [pedal oedema, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class] and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) markers of volume status in 88 PD patients. Moderate to severe lung congestion was evident in 41 (46%) patients. Ejection fraction was the echocardiographic parameter with the strongest independent association with LW (r = -0.40 P = 0.002). Oedema did not associate with LW on univariate and multivariate analysis. NYHA class was slightly associated with LW (r = 0.21 P = 0.05). Among patients with severe lung congestion, only 27% had pedal oedema and the majority (57%) had no dyspnoea (NYHA Class I). Similarly, the prevalence of patients with BIA, evidence of volume excess was small (11%) and not significantly different (P = 0.79) from that observed in patients with mild or no congestion (9%). In PD patients, LW by chest US reveals moderate to severe lung congestion in a significant proportion of asymptomatic patients. Intervention studies are necessary to prove the usefulness of chest US for optimizing the control of fluid excess in PD patients.

  12. How Lungs Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > How Lungs Work How Lungs Work The Respiratory System Your lungs are part of the respiratory system, ... your sense of smell. The Parts of the Respiratory System and How They Work Airways SINUSES are hollow ...

  13. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G., E-mail: kng@cardio-tomsk.ru [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Efimova, Nataliya Y., E-mail: efimova@cardio-tomsk.ru; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B. [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  14. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G.; Efimova, Nataliya Y.; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B.

    2016-08-01

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  15. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  16. Surgical and survival outcomes of lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Keiji; Okumura, Norihito; Takahashi, Ayuko; Nakashima, Takashi; Matsuoka, Tomoaki

    2017-05-26

    Intratumoral lung abscess is a secondary lung abscess that is considered to be fatal. Therefore, surgical procedures, although high-risk, have sometimes been performed for intratumoral lung abscesses. However, no studies have examined the surgical outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses. The aim of this study was to investigate the surgical and survival outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses. Eleven consecutive non-small cell lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses, who had undergone pulmonary resection at our institution between January 2007 and December 2015, were retrospectively analysed. The post-operative prognoses were investigated and prognostic factors were evaluated. Ten of 11 patients were male and one patient was female. The median age was 64 (range, 52-80) years. Histopathologically, 4 patients had Stage IIA, 2 patients had Stage IIB, 2 patients had Stage IIIA, and 3 patients had Stage IV tumors. The median operative time was 346 min and the median amount of bleeding was 1327 mL. The post-operative morbidity and mortality rates were 63.6% and 0.0%, respectively. Recurrence of respiratory infections, including lung abscesses, was not observed in all patients. The median post-operative observation period was 16.1 (range, 1.3-114.5) months. The 5-year overall survival rate was 43.3%. No pre-operative, intra-operative, or post-operative prognostic factors were identified in the univariate analyses. Surgical procedures for advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses, although high-risk, led to satisfactory post-operative mortality rates and acceptable prognoses.

  17. Life after a lung transplant: a balance of joy and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graarup, Jytte; Mogensen, Elin Lindberg; Missel, Malene; Berg, Selina Kikkenborg

    2017-11-01

    psychological challenges after lung transplantation. Several areas call for interventions from healthcare professionals during the early post-transplant period. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Protecting Your Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung capacity. Specific breathing exercises can also help improve your lung function if you have certain lung diseases, like COPD. Exercise and breathing techniques are also great for improving your mood and helping you relax. Public Health and Your ...

  19. Heliox Improves Carbon Dioxide Removal during Lung Protective Mechanical Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Beurskens, Charlotte J; Brevoord, Daniel; Lagrand, Wim K; van den Bergh, Walter M; Vroom, Margreeth B; Preckel, Benedikt; Horn, Janneke; Juffermans, Nicole P

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Helium is a noble gas with low density and increased carbon dioxide (CO2) diffusion capacity. This allows lower driving pressures in mechanical ventilation and increased CO2 diffusion. We hypothesized that heliox facilitates ventilation in patients during lung-protective mechanical ventilation using low tidal volumes. Methods. This is an observational cohort substudy of a single arm intervention study. Twenty-four ICU patients were included, who were admitted after a cardiac arr...

  20. Raising Awareness for Lung Cancer Prevention and Healthy Lifestyles in Female Scholars from a Low-Income Area in Bogota, Colombia: Evaluation of a National Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses-Echávez, J F; Alba-Ramírez, P A; Correa-Bautista, J E

    2017-07-06

    This study aims to determine the effects of an educational intervention, based on the Colombian guidelines for educational communication in the framework of cancer control, for raising lung cancer prevention-related awareness, and improving healthy lifestyles in female scholars from a low-income area in Bogota, Colombia. Uncontrolled trial conducted in 243 female scholars (mean age 14 years ± 1.5 SD). Two 90 min educational sessions were carried out in March 2015 according to the Colombian guidelines for educational communication in the framework of cancer control. Posters and other educational materials were created by scholars after the intervention. All participants completed a self-reported questionnaire-The Cancer Awareness Measure-at pre and post-intervention, as well as 1, 3, and 6 months after the intervention. Smoking prevalence (8.2% at baseline) was reduced by 3.7% at 6 months follow-up (p risk factors for lung cancer at baseline. These variables showed statistically significant improvements at 6 months follow-up (p communication in the framework of cancer control raised awareness towards lung cancer prevention, reduced smoking, and improved other healthy-lifestyle-related factors in a group of female scholars from a low-income area in Bogota, Colombia. Further randomized controlled studies are needed.

  1. Lung regeneration by fetal lung tissue implantation in a mouse pulmonary emphysema model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyama, Koh; Sakiyama, Shoji; Yoshida, Mitsuteru; Kenzaki, Koichiro; Toba, Hiroaki; Kawakami, Yukikiyo; Okumura, Kazumasa; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Kondo, Kazuya; Tangoku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The mortality and morbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are high. However, no radical therapy has been developed to date. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether fetal mouse lung tissue can grow and differentiate in the emphysematous lung. Fetal lung tissue from green fluorescent protein C57BL/6 mice at 16 days' gestation was used as donor material. Twelve-month-old pallid mice were used as recipients. Donor lungs were cut into small pieces and implanted into the recipient left lung by performing thoracotomy under anesthesia. The recipient mice were sacrificed at day 7, 14, and 28 after implantation and used for histological examination. Well-developed spontaneous pulmonary emphysema was seen in 12-month-old pallid mice. Smooth and continuous connection between implanted fetal lung tissue and recipient lung was recognized. Air space expansion and donor tissue differentiation were observed over time. We could clearly distinguish the border zones between injected tissue and native tissue by the green fluorescence of grafts. Fetal mouse lung fragments survived and differentiated in the emphysematous lung of pallid mice. Implantation of fetal lung tissue in pallid mice might lead to further lung regeneration research from the perspective of respiratory and exercise function. J. Med. Invest. 63: 182-186, August, 2016.

  2. Effects of symptom clusters and depression on the quality of life in patients with advanced lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S; Ryu, E

    2018-01-01

    People with advanced lung cancer experience later symptoms after treatment that is related to poorer psychosocial and quality of life (QOL) outcomes. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of symptom clusters and depression on the QOL of patients with advanced lung cancer. A sample of 178 patients with advanced lung cancer at the National Cancer Center in Korea completed a demographic questionnaire, the M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory-Lung Cancer, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General scale. The most frequently experienced symptom was fatigue, anguish was the most severe symptom-associated distress, and 28.9% of participants were clinically depressed. Factor analysis was used to identify symptom clusters based on the severity of patients' symptom experiences. Three symptom clusters were identified: treatment-associated, lung cancer and psychological symptom clusters. The regression model found a significant negative impact on QOL for depression and lung cancer symptom cluster. Age as the control variable was found to be significant impact on QOL. Therefore, psychological screening and appropriate intervention is an essential part of advanced cancer care. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches for alleviating depression may help to improve the QOL of lung cancer patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Psychosocial and financial aspects of lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, T L; Aguiar, L J

    1996-09-01

    This article summarizes the many psychosocial phases a patient will encounter during his or her transplantation experience and the ways the social worker can assist during this time. These include supportive services such as facilitating support groups and orientation programs, counseling, and crisis intervention. Also of importance is the financing of lung transplantation and its many associated costs, such as immunosuppressive medications and temporary housing. With the rise in managed care, the role of the transplant financial coordinator is of increasing importance from both a fiscal perspective and customer service standpoint for both the patient and the institution.

  4. Serial perfusion in native lungs in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other interstitial lung diseases after single lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokai, Akihiko; Handa, Tomohiro; Chen, Fengshi; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Aoyama, Akihiro; Kubo, Takeshi; Ikezoe, Kohei; Nakatsuka, Yoshinari; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Hirai, Toyohiro; Nagai, Sonoko; Chin, Kazuo; Date, Hiroshi; Mishima, Michiaki

    2016-04-01

    Lung perfusions after single lung transplantation (SLT) have not been fully clarified in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). The present study aimed to investigate temporal changes in native lung perfusion and their associated clinical factors in patients with ILD who have undergone SLT. Eleven patients were enrolled. Perfusion scintigraphy was serially performed up to 12 months after SLT. Correlations between the post-operative perfusion ratio in the native lung and clinical parameters, including pre-operative perfusion ratio and computed tomography (CT) volumetric parameters, were evaluated. On average, the perfusion ratio of the native lung was maintained at approximately 30% until 12 months after SLT. However, the ratio declined more significantly in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) than in other ILDs (p = 0.014). The perfusion ratio before SLT was significantly correlated with that at three months after SLT (ρ = 0.64, p = 0.048). The temporal change of the perfusion ratio in the native lung did not correlate with those of the CT parameters. The pre-operative perfusion ratio may predict the post-operative perfusion ratio of the native lung shortly after SLT in ILD. Perfusion of the native lung may decline faster in IPF compared with other ILDs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Psychological interventions for people with cystic fibrosis and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasscoe, Claire A; Quittner, Alexandra L

    2008-07-16

    psychoeducational interventions improve knowledge in the short term. There was no consistent effect on lung function, although one small study showed that biofeedback-assisted breathing re-training helped improve some lung function measurements. Some studies point to educational and behavioural interventions aiding nutrition and growth in people with CF. Currently there is insufficient evidence for interventions aimed at other aspects of the disease process. Currently no clear evidence exists on the best psychological interventions to help people with CF and their carers manage the disease. Trials of interventions to improve adherence to treatment are needed. Multicentre approaches, with consequent funding implications, will increase the sample size of trials and enhance the power and precision of their findings.

  6. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LUNG CANCER MINI-SERIES #2 Staging of Lung Cancer Once your lung cancer is diagnosed, staging tells you and your health care provider about ... at it under a microscope. The stages of lung cancer are listed as I, II, III, and IV ...

  7. Clinical and radiological outcome following pneumothorax after endoscopic lung volume reduction with valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompelmann, D; Benjamin, N; Kontogianni, K; Herth, Fjf; Heussel, C P; Hoffmann, H; Eberhardt, R

    2016-01-01

    Valve implantation has evolved as a therapy for patients with advanced emphysema. Although it is a minimally invasive treatment, it is associated with complications, the most common being pneumothorax. Pneumothorax occurs due to the rapid target lobe volume reduction and may be a predictor of clinical benefit despite this complication. The objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory data analysis of patients who developed a pneumothorax following endoscopic valve therapy for emphysema. This study performed a retrospective evaluation of pneumothorax management and the impact of pneumothorax on clinical outcomes in 70 patients following valve therapy in 381 consecutive patients. Pneumothorax rate following valve therapy was 18%. Pneumothorax management consisted of chest tube insertion, valve removal, and surgical intervention in 87% (61/70), 44% (31/70), and 19% (13/70) of the patients, respectively. Despite pneumothorax, patients experienced modest but significant improvements in lung function parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 55±148 mL, residual volume: -390±964 mL, total lung capacity: -348±876; all P pneumothorax, which was associated with relevant clinical improvement, was observed in only 21% (15/70) of the patients. Pneumothorax is a frequent severe complication following valve therapy that requires further intervention. Nevertheless, the pneumothorax does not impair the clinical status in the majority of patients. Patients with lobar atelectasis benefit after recovering from pneumothorax in terms of lung function parameters.

  8. Neonatal Pneumothorax Pressures Surpass Higher Threshold in Lung Recruitment Maneuvers: An In Vivo Interventional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pizarro, Patricio; García-Fernández, Javier; Canfrán, Susana; Gilsanz, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    Causing pneumothorax is one of the main concerns of lung recruitment maneuvers in pediatric patients, especially newborns. Therefore, these maneuvers are not performed routinely during anesthesia. Our objective was to determine the pressures that cause pneumothorax in healthy newborns by a prospective experimental study of 10 newborn piglets (pneumothorax. Animals under anesthesia and bilateral chest tube catheterization were randomly allocated to 2 groups: one with PEEP and fixed inspiratory driving pressure of 15 cm H2O (PEEP group) and the second one with PEEP = 0 cm H2O and non-fixed inspiratory driving pressure (zero PEEP group). In both groups, the ventilation mode was pressure-controlled, and PIP was raised at 2-min intervals, with steps of 5 cm H2O until air leak was observed through the chest tubes. The PEEP group raised PIP through 5-cm H2O PEEP increments, and the zero PEEP group raised PIP through 5-cm H2O inspiratory driving pressure increments. Pneumothorax was observed with a PIP of 90.5 ± 15.7 cm H2O with no statistically significant differences between the PEEP group (92 ± 14.8 cm H2O) and the zero PEEP group (89 ± 18.2 cm H2O). The zero PEEP group had hypotension, with a PIP of 35 cm H2O; the PEEP group had hypotension, with a PIP of 60 cm H2O (P = .01). The zero PEEP group presented bradycardia, with PIP of 40 cm H2O; the PEEP group presented bradycardia, with PIP of 70 cm H2O (P = .002). Performing recruitment maneuvers in newborns without lung disease is a safe procedure in terms of pneumothorax. Pneumothorax does not seem to occur in the clinically relevant PIPs of pneumothorax PIP in poorly compliant lungs. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  9. MRI and CT lung biomarkers: Towards an in vivo understanding of lung biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Heather M; Eddy, Rachel L; Parraga, Grace

    2017-09-29

    The biomechanical properties of the lung are necessarily dependent on its structure and function, both of which are complex and change over time and space. This makes in vivo evaluation of lung biomechanics and a deep understanding of lung biomarkers, very challenging. In patients and animal models of lung disease, in vivo evaluations of lung structure and function are typically made at the mouth and include spirometry, multiple-breath gas washout tests and the forced oscillation technique. These techniques, and the biomarkers they provide, incorporate the properties of the whole organ system including the parenchyma, large and small airways, mouth, diaphragm and intercostal muscles. Unfortunately, these well-established measurements mask regional differences, limiting their ability to probe the lung's gross and micro-biomechanical properties which vary widely throughout the organ and its subcompartments. Pulmonary imaging has the advantage in providing regional, non-invasive measurements of healthy and diseased lung, in vivo. Here we summarize well-established and emerging lung imaging tools and biomarkers and how they may be used to generate lung biomechanical measurements. We review well-established and emerging lung anatomical, microstructural and functional imaging biomarkers generated using synchrotron x-ray tomographic-microscopy (SRXTM), micro-x-ray computed-tomography (micro-CT), clinical CT as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pulmonary imaging provides measurements of lung structure, function and biomechanics with high spatial and temporal resolution. Imaging biomarkers that reflect the biomechanical properties of the lung are now being validated to provide a deeper understanding of the lung that cannot be achieved using measurements made at the mouth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lung cancer mimicking lung abscess formation on CT images

    OpenAIRE

    Taira, Naohiro; Kawabata, Tsutomu; Gabe, Atsushi; Ichi, Takaharu; Kushi, Kazuaki; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawasaki, Hidenori; Yamashiro, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 64 Final Diagnosis: Lung pleomorphic carcinoma Symptoms: Cough • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Oncology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: The diagnosis of lung cancer is often made based on computed tomography (CT) image findings if it cannot be confirmed on pathological examinations, such as bronchoscopy. However, the CT image findings of cancerous lesions are similar to those of abscesses.We herein report a case of lung cancer that resemble...

  11. Clinical management and outcomes of patients with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome pulmonary fibrosis evaluated for lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Chemaly, Souheil; O'Brien, Kevin J; Nathan, Steven D; Weinhouse, Gerald L; Goldberg, Hilary J; Connors, Jean M; Cui, Ye; Astor, Todd L; Camp, Philip C; Rosas, Ivan O; Lemma, Merte; Speransky, Vladislav; Merideth, Melissa A; Gahl, William A; Gochuico, Bernadette R

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive, fatal manifestation of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS). Some patients with advanced HPS pulmonary fibrosis undergo lung transplantation despite their disease-associated bleeding tendency; others die while awaiting donor organs. The objective of this study is to determine the clinical management and outcomes of a cohort with advanced HPS pulmonary fibrosis who were evaluated for lung transplantation. Six patients with HPS-1 pulmonary fibrosis were evaluated at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center and one of two regional lung transplant centers. Their median age was 41.5 years pre-transplant. Three of six patients died without receiving a lung transplant. One of these was referred with end-stage pulmonary fibrosis and died before a donor organ became available, and donor organs were not identified for two other patients sensitized from prior blood product transfusions. Three of six patients received bilateral lung transplants; they did not have a history of excessive bleeding. One patient received peri-operative desmopressin, one was transfused with intra-operative platelets, and one received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and intra-operative prothrombin complex concentrate, platelet transfusion, and desmopressin. One transplant recipient experienced acute rejection that responded to pulsed steroids. No evidence of chronic lung allograft dysfunction or recurrence of HPS pulmonary fibrosis was detected up to 6 years post-transplant in these three lung transplant recipients. In conclusion, lung transplantation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are viable options for patients with HPS pulmonary fibrosis. Alloimmunization in HPS patients is an important and potentially preventable barrier to lung transplantation; interventions to limit alloimmunization should be implemented in HPS patients at risk of pulmonary fibrosis to optimize their candidacy for future lung transplants.

  12. Radiofrequency ablation in primary non-small cell lung cancer: What a radiologist needs to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Shivank; Pereira, Keith; Mohan, Prasoon; Narayanan, Govindarajan; Wangpaichitr, Medhi; Savaraj, Niramol

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the leading causes of death worldwide. In advanced cases of lung cancer, a multimodality approach is often applied, however with poor local control rates. In early non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), surgery is the standard of care. Only 15-30% of patients are eligible for surgical resection. Improvements in imaging and treatment delivery systems have provided new tools to better target these tumors. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has evolved as the next best option. The role of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is also growing. Currently, it is a third-line option in stage 1 NSCLC, when SBRT cannot be performed. More recent studies have demonstrated usefulness in recurrent tumors and some authors have also suggested combination of RFA with other modalities in larger tumors. Following the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), screening by low-dose computed tomography (CT) has demonstrated high rates of early-stage lung cancer detection in high-risk populations. Hence, even considering the current role of RFA as a third-line option, in view of increasing numbers of occurrences detected, the number of potential RFA candidates may see a steep uptrend. In view of all this, it is imperative that interventional radiologists be familiar with the techniques of lung ablation. The aim of this article is to discuss the procedural technique of RFA in the lung and review the current evidence regarding RFA for NSCLC. PMID:27081229

  13. Radiofrequency ablation in primary non-small cell lung cancer: What a radiologist needs to know

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, Shivank; Pereira, Keith; Mohan, Prasoon; Narayanan, Govindarajan; Wangpaichitr, Medhi; Savaraj, Niramol

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the leading causes of death worldwide. In advanced cases of lung cancer, a multimodality approach is often applied, however with poor local control rates. In early non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), surgery is the standard of care. Only 15-30% of patients are eligible for surgical resection. Improvements in imaging and treatment delivery systems have provided new tools to better target these tumors. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has evolved as the next best option. The role of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is also growing. Currently, it is a third-line option in stage 1 NSCLC, when SBRT cannot be performed. More recent studies have demonstrated usefulness in recurrent tumors and some authors have also suggested combination of RFA with other modalities in larger tumors. Following the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), screening by low-dose computed tomography (CT) has demonstrated high rates of early-stage lung cancer detection in high-risk populations. Hence, even considering the current role of RFA as a third-line option, in view of increasing numbers of occurrences detected, the number of potential RFA candidates may see a steep uptrend. In view of all this, it is imperative that interventional radiologists be familiar with the techniques of lung ablation. The aim of this article is to discuss the procedural technique of RFA in the lung and review the current evidence regarding RFA for NSCLC

  14. Stochastic rat lung dosimetry for inhaled radon progeny: a surrogate for the human lung for lung cancer risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler-Heil, R.; Hofmann, W. [University of Salzburg, Division of Physics and Biophysics, Department of Materials Research and Physics, Salzburg (Austria); Hussain, M. [University of Salzburg, Division of Physics and Biophysics, Department of Materials Research and Physics, Salzburg (Austria); Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-05-15

    Laboratory rats are frequently used in inhalation studies as a surrogate for human exposures. The objective of the present study was therefore to develop a stochastic dosimetry model for inhaled radon progeny in the rat lung, to predict bronchial dose distributions and to compare them with corresponding dose distributions in the human lung. The most significant difference between human and rat lungs is the branching structure of the bronchial tree, which is relatively symmetric in the human lung, but monopodial in the rat lung. Radon progeny aerosol characteristics used in the present study encompass conditions typical for PNNL and COGEMA rat inhalation studies, as well as uranium miners and human indoor exposure conditions. It is shown here that depending on exposure conditions and modeling assumptions, average bronchial doses in the rat lung ranged from 5.4 to 7.3 mGy WLM{sup -1}. If plotted as a function of airway generation, bronchial dose distributions exhibit a significant maximum in large bronchial airways. If, however, plotted as a function of airway diameter, then bronchial doses are much more uniformly distributed throughout the bronchial tree. Comparisons between human and rat exposures indicate that rat bronchial doses are slightly higher than human bronchial doses by about a factor of 1.3, while lung doses, averaged over the bronchial (BB), bronchiolar (bb) and alveolar-interstitial (AI) regions, are higher by about a factor of about 1.6. This supports the current view that the rat lung is indeed an appropriate surrogate for the human lung in case of radon-induced lung cancers. Furthermore, airway diameter seems to be a more appropriate morphometric parameter than airway generations to relate bronchial doses to bronchial carcinomas. (orig.)

  15. Lung-derived growth factors: possible paracrine effectors of fetal lung development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    A potential role for paracrine secretions in lung organogenesis has been hypothesized (Alescio and Piperno, 1957). These studies present direct support for the paracrine model by demonstrating the presence of locally produced mitogenic/maturational factors in fetal rat lung tissue. Conditioned serum free medium (CSFM) from nineteen-day fetal rat lung cultures was shown to contain several bioactive peptides as detected by 3 H-Thymidine incorporation into chick embryo and rat lung fibroblasts, as well as 14 C-choline incorporation into surfactant in mixed cell cultures. Using ion-exchange chromatography and Sephadex gel filtration, a partially purified mitogen, 11-III, was obtained. The partially purified 11-III stimulates mitosis in chick embryo fibroblasts and post-natal rat lung fibroblasts. Multiplication in fetal rat lung fibroblasts cultures is stimulated only when these are pre-incubated with a competence factor or unprocessed CSFM. This suggests the existence of an endogenously produced competence factor important in the regulation of fetal lung growth. Preparation 11-III does not possess surfactant stimulating activity as assessed by 3 H-choline incorporation into lipids in predominantly type-II cell cultures. These data demonstrate the presence of a maturational/mitogenic factor, influencing type-II mixed cell cultures. In addition, 11-III had been shown to play an autocrine role stimulating the proliferation of fetal lung fibroblasts. Finally, these data suggest the existence of a local produced competence factor

  16. Smart Technology in Lung Disease Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Nancy L; Kim, Dong-Yun; Tian, Xin

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the use of smart technology by investigators and patients to facilitate lung disease clinical trials and make them less costly and more efficient. By "smart technology" we include various electronic media, such as computer databases, the Internet, and mobile devices. We first describe the use of electronic health records for identifying potential subjects and then discuss electronic informed consent. We give several examples of using the Internet and mobile technology in clinical trials. Interventions have been delivered via the World Wide Web or via mobile devices, and both have been used to collect outcome data. We discuss examples of new electronic devices that recently have been introduced to collect health data. While use of smart technology in clinical trials is an exciting development, comparison with similar interventions applied in a conventional manner is still in its infancy. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of using this omnipresent, powerful tool in clinical trials, as well as directions for future research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Local and systemic effects of fibrin and cyanoacrylate adhesives on lung lesions in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus V.H. Carvalho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Tissue adhesives can be used to prevent pulmonary air leaks, which frequently occur after lung interventions. The objective of this study is to evaluate local and systemic effects of fibrin and cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives on lung lesions in rabbits. METHODS: Eighteen rabbits were submitted to videothoracoscopy + lung incision alone (control or videothoracoscopy + lung incision + local application of fibrin or cyanoacrylate adhesive. Blood samples were collected and assessed for leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts and interleukin-8 levels preoperatively and at 48 hours and 28 days post-operatively. After 28 days, the animals were euthanized for gross examination of the lung surface, and lung fragments were excised for histopathological analysis. RESULTS: Fibrin and cyanoacrylate produced similar adhesion scores of the lung to the parietal pleura. Microscopic analysis revealed uniform low-cellular tissue infiltration in the fibrin group and an intense tissue reaction characterized by dense inflammatory infiltration of granulocytes, giant cells and necrosis in the cyanoacrylate group. No changes were detected in the leukocyte, neutrophil or lymphocyte count at any time-point, while the interleukin-8 levels were increased in the fibrin and cyanoacrylate groups after 48 hours compared with the pre-operative control levels (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Both adhesive agents promoted normal tissue healing, with a more pronounced local inflammatory reaction observed for cyanoacrylate. Among the serum markers of inflammation, only the interleukin-8 levels changed post-operatively, increasing after 48 hours and decreasing after 28 days to levels similar to those of the control group in both the fibrin and cyanoacrylate groups.

  18. Amebic lung abscess with coexisting lung adenocarcinoma: a unusual case of amebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hailong; Min, Xiangyang; Li, Shuai; Feng, Meng; Zhang, Guofeng; Yi, Xianghua

    2014-01-01

    Amebic lung abscess with concurrent lung cancer, but without either a liver abscess or amebic colitis, is extremely uncommon. Here, we report a 70-year-old man presenting with pulmonary amebiasis and coexisting lung adenocarcinoma. During his first-time hospitalization, the diagnosis of lung amebiasis was confirmed by morphological observation and PCR in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sediments of pleural effusion. Almost four months later, the patient was readmitted to hospital for similar complaints. On readmission, lung adenocarcinoma was diagnosed by liquid-based sputum cytology and thought to be delayed because coexisting amebic lung abscess. This case demonstrated that sediments of pleural effusion may be used for further pathological examination after routine cytology has shown negative results. At the same time, we concluded that lung cancer may easily go undetected in the patients with pulmonary amebiasis and repetitive evaluation by cytology and imaging follow-up are useful to find potential cancer.

  19. Regeneration of the lung: Lung stem cells and the development of lung mimicking devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilders, K.; Eenjes, E.; van Riet, S.; Poot, Andreas A.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Truckenmüller, R.K.; Hiemstra, P.; Rottier, R.

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the increasing burden of lung associated diseases in society and an growing demand to accommodate patients, great efforts by the scientific community produce an increasing stream of data that are focused on delineating the basic principles of lung development and growth, as well as

  20. Effects of lung elasticity on the sound propagation in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Takahiro; Wada, Shigeo; Nakamura, Masanori; Horii, Noriaki; Mizushima, Koichiro

    2011-01-01

    Sound propagation in the lung was simulated for gaining insight into its acoustic properties. A thorax model consisting of lung parenchyma, thoracic bones, trachea and other tissues was made from human CT images. Acoustic nature of the lung parenchyma and bones was expressed with the Biot model of poroelastic material, whereas trachea and tissues were modeled with gas and an elastic material. A point sound source of white noises was placed in the first bifurcation of trachea. The sound propagation in the thorax model was simulated in a frequency domain. The results demonstrated the significant attenuation of sound especially in frequencies larger than 1,000 Hz. Simulations with a stiffened lung demonstrated suppression of the sound attenuation for higher frequencies observed in the normal lung. These results indicate that the normal lung has the nature of a low-pass filter, and stiffening helps the sound at higher frequencies to propagate without attenuations. (author)

  1. The effect of direct referral for fast CT scan in early lung cancer detection in general practice. A clinical, cluster-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldbrandt, Louise Mahncke

    2015-03-01

    the prediagnostic activity leading up to diagnosis in particular. An additional aim was to explore the diagnostic intervals for specific patient groups (Paper I). 2) In a randomised, controlled trial including all patients referred for the existing fast-track scheme to either direct chest and upper abdomen CE-MDCT or to evaluation by the chest physician, (i) to test: Fast-track performance measured by the number of CE-MDCT scans and chest physician specialist time per diagnosis  (Paper II) 3) In a two-arm, clinical, controlled, cluster-randomised trial where direct referral to CT together with a lung cancer update is compared with usual practice, (i) to test how CT is used in this group of patients and the outcome of CT (Paper III); and (ii) to test the effect of either modality on the time to lung cancer diagnosis, the TNM stage and the use of the fast-track pathway for lung cancer (Paper IV). Study I was a national registry-based cohort study of 971 consecutive, incident lung cancer patients in 2010 Data were derived from national registries and questionnaires filled in by general practitioners (GPs). Study II was a randomised, controlled trial enrolling 493 patients referred from general practice to a fast-track evaluation. Half of the patients were randomly assigned to the intervention and went straight to a chest CT before a chest physician evaluation. Studies III and IV were a cluster-randomised, controlled trial (IV) and a cohort study nested in the trial (III). A total of 199 general practices with 266 GPs were randomised into two groups. Intervention GPs were offered direct access to a low-dose chest CT combined with a meeting on early lung cancer detection. Study III concerned the intervention arm solely and reported uses and outcomes of the scans. Study IV evaluated the effect of direct low-dose CT on the time to diagnosis and stage at diagnoses for patients from intervention and control GPs. In Study I, we found that GPs were involved in 2/3 of all lung

  2. Lung structure and function relation in systemic sclerosis: Application of lung densitometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninaber, Maarten K., E-mail: m.k.ninaber@lumc.nl [Department of Pulmonology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Stolk, Jan; Smit, Jasper; Le Roy, Ernest J. [Department of Pulmonology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Kroft, Lucia J.M. [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Els Bakker, M. [Division of Image Processing, Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Vries Bouwstra, Jeska K. de; Schouffoer, Anne A. [Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Staring, Marius; Stoel, Berend C. [Division of Image Processing, Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • A quantitative CT parameter of lung parenchyma in systemic sclerosis is presented. • We examine the optimal percentage threshold for the percentile density. • The 85th percentile density threshold correlated significantly with lung function. • A lung structure–function relation is confirmed. • We report applicability of Perc85 in progression mapping of interstitial lung disease. - Abstract: Introduction: Interstitial lung disease occurs frequently in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Quantitative computed tomography (CT) densitometry using the percentile density method may provide a sensitive assessment of lung structure for monitoring parenchymal damage. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the optimal percentile density score in SSc by quantitative CT densitometry, against pulmonary function. Material and methods: We investigated 41 SSc patients by chest CT scan, spirometry and gas transfer tests. Lung volumes and the nth percentile density (between 1 and 99%) of the entire lungs were calculated from CT histograms. The nth percentile density is defined as the threshold value of densities expressed in Hounsfield units. A prerequisite for an optimal percentage was its correlation with baseline DLCO %predicted. Two patients showed distinct changes in lung function 2 years after baseline. We obtained CT scans from these patients and performed progression analysis. Results: Regression analysis for the relation between DLCO %predicted and the nth percentile density was optimal at 85% (Perc85). There was significant agreement between Perc85 and DLCO %predicted (R = −0.49, P = 0.001) and FVC %predicted (R = −0.64, P < 0.001). Two patients showed a marked change in Perc85 over a 2 year period, but the localization of change differed clearly. Conclusions: We identified Perc85 as optimal lung density parameter, which correlated significantly with DLCO and FVC, confirming a lung parenchymal structure–function relation in SSc. This provides

  3. Lung structure and function relation in systemic sclerosis: Application of lung densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninaber, Maarten K.; Stolk, Jan; Smit, Jasper; Le Roy, Ernest J.; Kroft, Lucia J.M.; Els Bakker, M.; Vries Bouwstra, Jeska K. de; Schouffoer, Anne A.; Staring, Marius; Stoel, Berend C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A quantitative CT parameter of lung parenchyma in systemic sclerosis is presented. • We examine the optimal percentage threshold for the percentile density. • The 85th percentile density threshold correlated significantly with lung function. • A lung structure–function relation is confirmed. • We report applicability of Perc85 in progression mapping of interstitial lung disease. - Abstract: Introduction: Interstitial lung disease occurs frequently in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Quantitative computed tomography (CT) densitometry using the percentile density method may provide a sensitive assessment of lung structure for monitoring parenchymal damage. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the optimal percentile density score in SSc by quantitative CT densitometry, against pulmonary function. Material and methods: We investigated 41 SSc patients by chest CT scan, spirometry and gas transfer tests. Lung volumes and the nth percentile density (between 1 and 99%) of the entire lungs were calculated from CT histograms. The nth percentile density is defined as the threshold value of densities expressed in Hounsfield units. A prerequisite for an optimal percentage was its correlation with baseline DLCO %predicted. Two patients showed distinct changes in lung function 2 years after baseline. We obtained CT scans from these patients and performed progression analysis. Results: Regression analysis for the relation between DLCO %predicted and the nth percentile density was optimal at 85% (Perc85). There was significant agreement between Perc85 and DLCO %predicted (R = −0.49, P = 0.001) and FVC %predicted (R = −0.64, P < 0.001). Two patients showed a marked change in Perc85 over a 2 year period, but the localization of change differed clearly. Conclusions: We identified Perc85 as optimal lung density parameter, which correlated significantly with DLCO and FVC, confirming a lung parenchymal structure–function relation in SSc. This provides

  4. 67Ga lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.; Pick, R.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with clinical signs of pulmonary embolic disease and lung infiltrates were studied to determine the value of gallium citrate 67 Ga lung scan in differentiating embolic from inflammatory lung disease. In 11 patients without angiographically proved embolism, only seven had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. In seven of these 11 patients, the 67 Ga concentration indicated inflammatory disease. In the 12 patients with angiographically proved embolic disease, six had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. None had an accumulation of 67 Ga in the area of pulmonary infiltrate. Thus, ventilation-perfusion lung scans are of limited value when lung infiltrates are present. In contrast, the accumulation of 67 Ga in the lung indicates an inflammatory process. Gallium imaging can help select those patients with lung infiltrates who need angiography

  5. Tomato Lycopene and Lung Cancer Prevention: From Experimental to Human Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palozza, Paola, E-mail: p.palozza@rm.unicatt.it; Simone, Rossella E.; Catalano, Assunta [Institute of General Pathology, School of Medicine, Catholic University, L. Go F. Vito, Rome 1 00168 (Italy); Mele, Maria Cristina [Institute of Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Catholic University, L. Go F. Vito, Rome 1 00168 (Italy)

    2011-05-11

    Increasing evidence suggests that tomato lycopene may be preventive against the formation and the development of lung cancer. Experimental studies demonstrated that lycopene may inhibit the growth of several cultured lung cancer cells and prevent lung tumorigenesis in animal models through various mechanisms, including a modulation of redox status, cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induction, a regulation of growth factor signaling, changes in cell growth-related enzymes, an enhancement of gap junction communication and a prevention of smoke-induced inflammation. In addition, lycopene also inhibited cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Several lycopene metabolites have been identified, raising the question as to whether the preventive effects of lycopene on cancer risk is, at least in part, due to its metabolites. Despite these promising reports, it is difficult at the moment to directly relate available experimental data to human pathophysiology. More well controlled clinical intervention trials are needed to further clarify the exact role of lycopene in the prevention of lung cancer cell growth. Such studies should take into consideration subject selection, specific markers of analysis, the levels of carotenoids being tested, metabolism and isomerization of lycopene, interaction with other bioactive food components. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of lycopene, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between lycopene consumption and human cancer risk.

  6. Tomato Lycopene and Lung Cancer Prevention: From Experimental to Human Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palozza, Paola; Simone, Rossella E.; Catalano, Assunta; Mele, Maria Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that tomato lycopene may be preventive against the formation and the development of lung cancer. Experimental studies demonstrated that lycopene may inhibit the growth of several cultured lung cancer cells and prevent lung tumorigenesis in animal models through various mechanisms, including a modulation of redox status, cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induction, a regulation of growth factor signaling, changes in cell growth-related enzymes, an enhancement of gap junction communication and a prevention of smoke-induced inflammation. In addition, lycopene also inhibited cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Several lycopene metabolites have been identified, raising the question as to whether the preventive effects of lycopene on cancer risk is, at least in part, due to its metabolites. Despite these promising reports, it is difficult at the moment to directly relate available experimental data to human pathophysiology. More well controlled clinical intervention trials are needed to further clarify the exact role of lycopene in the prevention of lung cancer cell growth. Such studies should take into consideration subject selection, specific markers of analysis, the levels of carotenoids being tested, metabolism and isomerization of lycopene, interaction with other bioactive food components. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of lycopene, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between lycopene consumption and human cancer risk

  7. Tomato Lycopene and Lung Cancer Prevention: From Experimental to Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunta Catalano

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that tomato lycopene may be preventive against the formation and the development of lung cancer. Experimental studies demonstrated that lycopene may inhibit the growth of several cultured lung cancer cells and prevent lung tumorigenesis in animal models through various mechanisms, including a modulation of redox status, cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induction, a regulation of growth factor signaling, changes in cell growth-related enzymes, an enhancement of gap junction communication and a prevention of smoke-induced inflammation. In addition, lycopene also inhibited cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Several lycopene metabolites have been identified, raising the question as to whether the preventive effects of lycopene on cancer risk is, at least in part, due to its metabolites. Despite these promising reports, it is difficult at the moment to directly relate available experimental data to human pathophysiology. More well controlled clinical intervention trials are needed to further clarify the exact role of lycopene in the prevention of lung cancer cell growth. Such studies should take into consideration subject selection, specific markers of analysis, the levels of carotenoids being tested, metabolism and isomerization of lycopene, interaction with other bioactive food components. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of lycopene, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between lycopene consumption and human cancer risk.

  8. Short and long-term effects of supervised versus unsupervised exercise training on health-related quality of life and functional outcomes following lung cancer surgery - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocki, Barbara Cristina; Andreasen, Jane; Nielsen, Lene Rodkjaer; Nekrasas, Vytautas; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Surgical resection enhances long-term survival after lung cancer, but survivors face functional deficits and report on poor quality of life long time after surgery. This study evaluated short and long-term effects of supervised group exercise training on health-related quality of life and physical performance in patients, who were radically operated for lung cancer. A randomized, assessor-blinded, controlled trial was performed on 78 patients undergoing lung cancer surgery. The intervention group (IG, n=41) participated in supervised out-patient exercise training sessions, one hour once a week for ten weeks. The sessions were based on aerobic exercises with target intensity of 60-80% of work capacity, resistance training and dyspnoea management. The control group (CG, n=37) received one individual instruction in exercise training. Measurements consisted of: health-related quality of life (SF36), six minute walk test (6MWT) and lung function (spirometry), assessed three weeks after surgery and after four and twelve months. Both groups were comparable at baseline on demographic characteristic and outcome values. We found a statistically significant effect after four months in the bodily pain domain of SF36, with an estimated mean difference (EMD) of 15.3 (95% CI:4 to 26.6, p=0.01) and a trend in favour of the intervention for role physical functioning (EMD 12.04, 95% CI: -1 to 25.1, p=0.07) and physical component summary (EMD 3.76, 95% CI:-0.1 to 7.6, p=0.06). At 12 months, the tendency was reversed, with the CG presenting overall slightly better measures. We found no effect of the intervention on 6MWT or lung volumes at any time-point. Supervised compared to unsupervised exercise training resulted in no improvement in health-related quality of life, except for the bodily pain domain, four months after lung cancer surgery. No effects of the intervention were found for any outcome after one year. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of wellness education on first-line icotinib hydrochloride patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer and their family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanwei, Li; Minghui, Fang; Manman, Quan; Zhuchun, Yan; Dongying, Liu; Zhanyu, Pan

    2018-04-11

    This study aims to examine the effects of wellness education (WE) intervention on the behavioral change, psychological status, performance status on patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoing icotinib hydrochloride treatment and their relationships with family caregivers. We conducted an intervention study involving 126 individuals with confirmed activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutation-positive stage IV NSCLC who received icotinib hydrochloride as first-line therapy between January 2014 and January 2016; their caregivers were also included in the study. For a period of 12 weeks, participants were randomly assigned into WE and control groups. The patients and family members in the WE group were provided with WE information about treatment, diet, social needs, rehabilitation, physical/mental health education, communication strategies, and patient care advice at least 3 times per week during treatment. Qualitative feedback of the participants was recorded during the intervention. Food Composition Database, the Family Environment Scale, patients/caregivers quality-of-life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung/Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer Scale), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were measured at baseline and for 12 weeks. Data were analyzed to compare the different outcomes. Of the 126 caregivers (64 WE and 62 control), 120 completed the study. We observed significant differences between the WE group and control group with respect to low daily calorie intake (31.0% vs 77.4%, p 0.05). After 12 weeks, WE intervention had improved scores on Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung-EWB and Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer Scale adaptation. In addition, the patients also showed improvements in HADS. WE interventions in patients with stage IV NSCLC undergoing icotinib hydrochloride treatment and their family resulted in strong intentions to engage in health-promoting behaviors related to

  10. History of Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabak, Gül; Şenbaklavacı, Ömer

    2016-04-01

    History of lung transplantation in the world can be traced back to the early years of the 20 th century when experimental vascular anastomotic techniques were developed by Carrel and Guthrie, followed by transplantation of thoracic organs on animal models by Demikhov and finally it was James Hardy who did the first lung transplantation attempt on human. But it was not until the discovery of cyclosporine and development of better surgical techniques that success could be achieved in that field by the Toronto Lung Transplant Group led by Joel Cooper. Up to the present day, over 51.000 lung transplants were performed in the world at different centers. The start of lung transplantation in Turkey has been delayed for various reasons. From 1998 on, there were several attempts but the first successful lung transplant was performed at Sureyyapasa Hospital in 2009. Today there are four lung transplant centers in Turkey; two in Istanbul, one in Ankara and another one in Izmir. Three lung transplant centers from Istanbul which belong to private sector have newly applied for licence from the Ministry of Health.

  11. MRI of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich (ed.) [University Clinic Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2009-07-01

    For a long time, only chest X-ray and CT were used to image lung structure, while nuclear medicine was employed to assess lung function. During the past decade significant developments have been achieved in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), enabling MRI to enter the clinical arena of chest imaging. Standard protocols can now be implemented on up-to-date scanners, allowing MRI to be used as a first-line imaging modality for various lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension and even lung cancer. The diagnostic benefits stem from the ability of MRI to visualize changes in lung structure while simultaneously imaging different aspects of lung function, such as perfusion, respiratory motion, ventilation and gas exchange. On this basis, novel quantitative surrogates for lung function can be obtained. This book provides a comprehensive overview of how to use MRI for imaging of lung disease. Special emphasis is placed on benign diseases requiring regular monitoring, given that it is patients with these diseases who derive the greatest benefit from the avoidance of ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  12. American Lung Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... see if you should get screened. Learn more EDUCATION ADVOCACY RESEARCH Our vision is a world free of lung disease The American Lung Association is ... by lung disease. Help us continue to deliver education, advocacy and research to those who need it. $250 $100 $50 Your best gift Donate now Learn More ... nonprofit software

  13. Unexpandable lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Marco F; Ferreiro, Lucía; Valdés, Luis

    2013-02-01

    Unexpandable lung is a mechanical complication by which the lung does not expand to the chest wall, impeding a normal apposition between the two pleural layers. The main mechanism involved is the restriction of the visceral pleura due to the formation of a fibrous layer along this pleural membrane. This happens because of the presence of an active pleural disease (lung entrapment), which can be resolved if proper therapeutic measures are taken, or a remote disease (trapped lung), in which an irreversible fibrous pleural layer has been formed. The clinical suspicion arises with the presence of post-thoracocentesis hydropneumothorax or a pleural effusion that cannot be drained due to the appearance of thoracic pain. The diagnosis is based on the analysis of the pleural liquid, the determination of pleural pressures as we drain the effusion and on air-contrast chest CT. As both represent the continuity of one same process, the results will depend on the time at which these procedures are done. If, when given a lung that is becoming entrapped, the necessary therapeutic measures are not taken, the final result will be a trapped lung. In this instance, most patients are asymptomatic or have mild exertional dyspnea and therefore they do not require treatment. Nevertheless, in cases of incapacitating dyspnea, it may be necessary to use pleural decortication in order to resolve the symptoms. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ann G; Cote, Michele L

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the most common causes of cancer death despite understanding the major cause of the disease: cigarette smoking. Smoking increases lung cancer risk 5- to 10-fold with a clear dose-response relationship. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among nonsmokers increases lung cancer risk about 20%. Risks for marijuana and hookah use, and the new e-cigarettes, are yet to be consistently defined and will be important areas for continued research as use of these products increases. Other known environmental risk factors include exposures to radon, asbestos, diesel, and ionizing radiation. Host factors have also been associated with lung cancer risk, including family history of lung cancer, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and infections. Studies to identify genes associated with lung cancer susceptibility have consistently identified chromosomal regions on 15q25, 6p21 and 5p15 associated with lung cancer risk. Risk prediction models for lung cancer typically include age, sex, cigarette smoking intensity and/or duration, medical history, and occupational exposures, however there is not yet a risk prediction model currently recommended for general use. As lung cancer screening becomes more widespread, a validated model will be needed to better define risk groups to inform screening guidelines.

  15. The relationship between ventilatory lung motion and pulmonary perfusion shown by ventilatory lung motion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Nakatsuka, Tatsuya; Yoshimura, Kazuhiko; Hirose, Yoshiki; Hirayama, Jiro; Kobayashi, Toshio; Handa, Kenjiro

    1991-01-01

    Using ventilatory lung motion imaging, which was obtained from two perfusion lung scintigrams with 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin taken in maximal inspiration and maximal expiration, the lung motion (E-I/I) of the each unilateral lung was studied in various cardiopulmonary diseases. The sum of (E-I)/I(+) of the unilateral lung was decreased in the diseased lung for localized pleuropulmonary diseases, including primary lung cancer and pleural thickening, and in both lungs for heart diseases, and diffuse pulmonary diseases including diffuse interstitial pneumonia and diffuse panbronchiolitis. The sum of (E-I)/I(+) of the both lungs, which correlated with vital capacity and PaO 2 , was decreased in diffuse interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary emphysema, diffuse panbronchiolitis, primary lung cancer, pleural diseases and so on. (E-I)/I(+), correlated with pulmonary perfusion (n=49, r=0.51, p 81m Kr or 133 Xe (n=49, r=0.61, p<0.001) than pulmonary perfusion. The ventilatory lung motion imaging, which demonstrates the motion of the intra-pulmonary areas and lung edges, appears useful for estimating pulmonary ventilation of the perfused area as well as pulmonary perfusion. (author)

  16. First Danish experience with ex vivo lung perfusion of donor lungs before transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ian Sune Iversen; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Møller, Christian Holdfold

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The number of lung transplantations is limited by a general lack of donor organs. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a novel method to optimise and evaluate marginal donor lungs prior to transplantation. We describe our experiences with EVLP in Denmark during the first year after its...... introduction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted by prospective registration of donor offers and lung transplantations in Denmark from 1 May 2012 to 30 April 2013. Donor lungs without any contraindications were transplanted in the traditional manner. Taken for EVLP were donor lungs that were...... otherwise considered transplantable, but failed to meet the usual criteria due to possible contusions or because they were from donors with sepsis or unable to pass the oxygenation test. RESULTS: In the study period, seven of 33 Danish lung transplantations were made possible due to EVLP. One patient died...

  17. Adults surviving lung cancer two or more years: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Deborah J; Lockwood, Suzy

    of surviving lung cancer post two years. The central themes that emerged were existential issues, health and self-care, physical ability, adjustment, and support.Quantitative studies identified that distressed groups had less meaningful experiences related to lung cancer survival than not distressed groups. The studies also found that emotional states and style of coping were related to the meaningfulness of lung cancer survival. With less emotional distress, seeing the good in everything, adjusting life to fit the changes from lung cancer, and adding physical activity to the daily routine, the life of a lung cancer survivor can be more meaningful. Healthcare providers must assess lung cancer survivors for potential symptom clusters affecting key patient outcomes such as quality of life. Consider introducing interventions to promote light to moderate physical activity in older patients and moderate to vigorous physical activity in younger patients, and ceasing smoking. Teach active coping strategies. There is a need for qualitative research studies exploring the experiences of lung cancer survivors. Further research is recommended on symptom clusters that might impact outcomes such as quality of life.

  18. Angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in lungs of lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Ales; Silar, Mira; Kosnik, Mitja

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND.: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Angiogenesis is crucial process in cancer growth and progression. This prospective study evaluated expression of two central regulatory molecules: angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS.: Clinical data, blood samples and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) from 23 patients with primary lung carcinoma were collected. BAL fluid was taken from part of the lung with malignancy, and from corresponding healthy side of the lung. VEGF and angiogenin concentrations were analysed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dilution of bronchial secretions in the BAL fluid was calculated from urea concentration ratio between serum and BAL fluid. RESULTS.: We found no statistical correlation between angiogenin concentrations in serum and in bronchial secretions from both parts of the lung. VEGF concentrations were greater in bronchial secretions in the affected side of the lung than on healthy side. Both concentrations were greater than serum VEGF concentration. VEGF concentration in serum was in positive correlation with tumour size (p = 0,003) and with metastatic stage of disease (p = 0,041). There was correlation between VEGF and angiogenin concentrations in bronchial secretions from healthy side of the lung and between VEGF and angiogenin concentrations in bronchial secretions from part of the lung with malignancy. CONCLUSION.: Angiogenin and VEGF concentrations in systemic, background and local samples of patients with lung cancer are affected by different mechanisms. Pro-angiogenic activity of lung cancer has an important influence on the levels of angiogenin and VEGF.

  19. Variable tidal volumes improve lung protective ventilation strategies in experimental lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieth, Peter M; Carvalho, Alysson R; Pelosi, Paolo; Hoehn, Catharina; Meissner, Christoph; Kasper, Michael; Hübler, Matthias; von Neindorff, Matthias; Dassow, Constanze; Barrenschee, Martina; Uhlig, Stefan; Koch, Thea; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama

    2009-04-15

    Noisy ventilation with variable Vt may improve respiratory function in acute lung injury. To determine the impact of noisy ventilation on respiratory function and its biological effects on lung parenchyma compared with conventional protective mechanical ventilation strategies. In a porcine surfactant depletion model of lung injury, we randomly combined noisy ventilation with the ARDS Network protocol or the open lung approach (n = 9 per group). Respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, and distribution of pulmonary blood flow were measured at intervals over a 6-hour period. Postmortem, lung tissue was analyzed to determine histological damage, mechanical stress, and inflammation. We found that, at comparable minute ventilation, noisy ventilation (1) improved arterial oxygenation and reduced mean inspiratory peak airway pressure and elastance of the respiratory system compared with the ARDS Network protocol and the open lung approach, (2) redistributed pulmonary blood flow to caudal zones compared with the ARDS Network protocol and to peripheral ones compared with the open lung approach, (3) reduced histological damage in comparison to both protective ventilation strategies, and (4) did not increase lung inflammation or mechanical stress. Noisy ventilation with variable Vt and fixed respiratory frequency improves respiratory function and reduces histological damage compared with standard protective ventilation strategies.

  20. Amebic lung abscess with coexisting lung adenocarcinoma: a unusual case of amebiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hailong; Min, Xiangyang; Li, Shuai; Feng, Meng; Zhang, Guofeng; Yi, Xianghua

    2014-01-01

    Amebic lung abscess with concurrent lung cancer, but without either a liver abscess or amebic colitis, is extremely uncommon. Here, we report a 70-year-old man presenting with pulmonary amebiasis and coexisting lung adenocarcinoma. During his first-time hospitalization, the diagnosis of lung amebiasis was confirmed by morphological observation and PCR in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sediments of pleural effusion. Almost four months later, the patient was readmitted to hospital for sim...

  1. Childhood Lung Function Predicts Adult Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Asthma-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overlap Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Dinh S; Burgess, John A; Lowe, Adrian J; Perret, Jennifer L; Lodge, Caroline J; Bui, Minh; Morrison, Stephen; Thompson, Bruce R; Thomas, Paul S; Giles, Graham G; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Jarvis, Debbie; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, E Haydn; Matheson, Melanie C; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2017-07-01

    The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing, yet there are limited data on early life risk factors. To investigate the role of childhood lung function in adult COPD phenotypes. Prebronchodilator spirometry was performed for a cohort of 7-year-old Tasmanian children (n = 8,583) in 1968 who were resurveyed at 45 years, and a selected subsample (n = 1,389) underwent prebronchodilator and post-bronchodilator spirometry. For this analysis, COPD was spirometrically defined as a post-bronchodilator FEV 1 /FVC less than the lower limit of normal. Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) was defined as the coexistence of both COPD and current asthma. Associations between childhood lung function and asthma/COPD/ACOS were examined using multinomial regression. At 45 years, 959 participants had neither current asthma nor COPD (unaffected), 269 had current asthma alone, 59 had COPD alone, and 68 had ACOS. The reweighted prevalence of asthma alone was 13.5%, COPD alone 4.1%, and ACOS 2.9%. The lowest quartile of FEV 1 at 7 years was associated with ACOS (odds ratio, 2.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-6.52), but not COPD or asthma alone. The lowest quartile of FEV 1 /FVC ratio at 7 years was associated with ACOS (odds ratio, 16.3; 95% confidence interval, 4.7-55.9) and COPD (odds ratio, 5.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-17.4), but not asthma alone. Being in the lowest quartile for lung function at age 7 may have long-term consequences for the development of COPD and ACOS by middle age. Screening of lung function in school age children may identify a high-risk group that could be targeted for intervention. Further research is needed to understand possible modifiers of these associations and develop interventions for children with impaired lung function.

  2. Early intervention studies in infants and preschool children with cystic fibrosis: Are we ready?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stick; H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm); P. Aurora (Paul); P. Gustafsson (Per); S. Ranganathan (Surabhi); P. Robinson; M. Rosenfeld (Margaret); P.D. Sly; F. Ratjen (Felix)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease starts early in life and progresses even in the absence of clinical symptoms. Therefore, sensitive outcome measures to quantify and track these early abnormalities in infants and young children are needed; both for clinical care and interventional

  3. Cervical lung hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightwood, Robin G.; Cleland, W. P.

    1974-01-01

    Lightwood, R. G., and Cleland, W. P. (1974).Thorax, 29, 349-351. Cervical lung hernia. Lung hernias occur in the cervical position in about one third of cases. The remainder appear through the chest wall. Some lung hernias are congenital, but trauma is the most common cause. The indications for surgery depend upon the severity of symptoms. Repair by direct suture can be used for small tears in Sibson's (costovertebral) fascia while larger defects have been closed using prosthetic materials. Four patients with cervical lung hernia are described together with an account of their operations. PMID:4850946

  4. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva with lung metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36-year-old lady presented with redness and decreased vision in right eye since 6 months. She was earlier diagnosed of cavitary lung lesion, presumed secondary to tuberculosis and treated with anti-tubercular treatment for 4 months. Examination of affected right eye revealed nil light perception, conjunctival congestion with an exuberant mass in the inferotemporal bulbar conjunctiva, proptosis, iris neovascularization, 360° closed angles, intraocular pressure of 48 mm Hg, exudative retinal detachment, uveal mass and orbital extension. A diagnostic needle biopsy of uveal mass revealed malignant cells. Computed tomography-guided lung biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, indicating metastatic spread from the orbit. She underwent lid-sparing exenteration of the right eye. Histopathological examination of the orbital tissue revealed mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising from the conjunctiva with extensive invasion into the orbital tissue, muscle fibers, sclera, choroid and optic nerve. Multiple tumor emboli were seen in the lumen of orbital blood vessels. In conclusion, mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva is a rare, aggressive variant of SCC. Early intervention is essential to prevent intraocular invasion and systemic metastasis.

  5. The Azygous Lobe of the Lung: in the Case of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlong, L M; Ram, Dharma; Sharma, Ashwani; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Iqbal, Sayed Assif; Nagar, Anand; Hazarika, Dibyamohan

    2017-06-01

    The azygous lobe of the lung is an uncommon developmental anomaly. Its surgical importance is hardly being described in literature. Here, we are presenting a case of lung cancer with incidental azygous lobe, with its surgical relevance during lung cancer surgery.

  6. Evaluation of lung injury induced by pingyangmycin with 99Tcm-HMPAO lung imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Changjiu; Yang Zhijie; Fu Peng; Zhang Rui

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the lung uptake of 99 Tc m -hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (HMPAO) in pingyangmycin-induced lung injury and its mechanism. Methods: 24 white rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group I: the control with normal diet. In group II, III and IV 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg pingyangmycin were given respectively by marginal vein of ear every other day. 99 Tc m -HMPAO static lung imaging was performed before and 8, 16, 24, 32 d after injection of pingyangmycin. 7 pixel x 5 pixel regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on the right lung(R) and right upper limb(B), R/B were calculated. Also, 2 ml venous blood was withdrawn for measurement of endothelin by radioimmunoassay. 16 d after pingyangmycin in group IV and 32 d in group I, II and III, all the rabbits were sacrificed. Both lungs were examined immediately under light and electron microscopy. Results: Compared with the control group, there were statistical differences of 99 Tc m -HMPAO lung uptake in group II, III and IV (P 99 Tc m -HMPAO lung imaging can detect early pingyangmycin-induced lung injury. The endothelium of lung microcapillary is presumably the main location site of 99 Tc m -HMPAO abnormal concentration. (authors)

  7. Hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension augments lung injury and airway reactivity caused by ozone exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zychowski, Katherine E.; Lucas, Selita N.; Sanchez, Bethany; Herbert, Guy; Campen, Matthew J., E-mail: mcampen@salud.unm.edu

    2016-08-15

    Ozone (O{sub 3})-related cardiorespiratory effects are a growing public health concern. Ground level O{sub 3} can exacerbate pre-existing respiratory conditions; however, research regarding therapeutic interventions to reduce O{sub 3}-induced lung injury is limited. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypoxia-associated pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a frequent comorbidity that is difficult to treat clinically, yet associated with increased mortality and frequency of exacerbations. In this study, we hypothesized that established HPH would confer vulnerability to acute O{sub 3} pulmonary toxicity. Additionally, we tested whether improvement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity via rho-kinase inhibition could mitigate pulmonary inflammation and injury. To determine if O{sub 3} exacerbated HPH, male C57BL/6 mice were subject to either 3 weeks continuous normoxia (20.9% O{sub 2}) or hypoxia (10.0% O{sub 2}), followed by a 4-h exposure to either 1 ppm O{sub 3} or filtered air (FA). As an additional experimental intervention fasudil (20 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally prior to and after O{sub 3} exposures. As expected, hypoxia significantly increased right ventricular pressure and hypertrophy. O{sub 3} exposure in normoxic mice caused lung inflammation but not injury, as indicated by increased cellularity and edema in the lung. However, in hypoxic mice, O{sub 3} exposure led to increased inflammation and edema, along with a profound increase in airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Fasudil administration resulted in reduced O{sub 3}-induced lung injury via the enhancement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity. These results indicate that increased pulmonary vascular pressure may enhance lung injury, inflammation and edema when exposed to pollutants, and that enhancement of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity may alleviate such vulnerability. - Highlights: • Environmental exposures can exacerbate chronic obstructive

  8. Molecular Mechanisms of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Proliferation of Lung Cells and Prevention by Vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neekkan Dey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer dearth. Cigarette smoking is the strongest risk factor for developing lung cancer, which is conceivably initiated by proliferation. Here, we show that low concentration of aqueous extract of cigarette smoke (AECS causes excessive proliferation of human lung epithelial cells (A549 without any apoptotic cell death. The causative factor responsible for AECS-induced proliferation has been identified as p-benzoquinone (p-BQ. Coimmunoprecipitation and immunoblot experiments indicate that p-BQ binds with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. However, in contrast to EGF, it causes aberrant phosphorylation of EGFR that lacks c-Cbl-mediated ubiquitination and degradation resulting in persistent activation of EGFR. This is followed by activation of Hras + Kras and the downstream survival and proliferative signaling molecules Akt and ERK1/2, as well as the nuclear transcription factors c-Myc and c-Fos. Vitamin C and/or antibody to p-BQ prevents AECS/p-BQ-induced proliferation of lung cells apparently by inactivating p-BQ and thereby preventing activation of EGFR and the downstream signaling molecules. The results suggest that vitamin C and/or antibody to p-BQ may provide a novel intervention for preventing initiation of lung cancer in smokers.

  9. Regulation of cytochrome P4501A1 expression by hyperoxia in human lung cell lines: Implications for hyperoxic lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhakta, Kushal Y.; Jiang, Weiwu; Couroucli, Xanthi I.; Fazili, Inayat S.; Muthiah, Kathirvel; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2008-01-01

    Supplemental oxygen, used to treat pulmonary insufficiency in newborns, contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Cytochrome P4501A enzymes are induced by hyperoxia in animal models, but their role in human systems is unknown. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms of induction of CYP1A1 by hyperoxia in human lung cell lines. Three human lung cell lines were exposed to hyperoxia (95% O2) for 0-72 h, and CYP1A1 activities, apoprotein contents, and mRNA levels were determined. Hyperoxia significantly induced CYP1A1 activity and protein contents (2-4 fold), and mRNA levels (30-40 fold) over control in each cell line. Transfection of a CYP1A1 promoter/luciferase reporter construct, followed by hyperoxia (4-72 h), showed marked (2-6 fold) induction of luciferase expression. EMSA and siRNA experiments strongly suggest that the Ah receptor (AHR) is involved in the hyperoxic induction of CYP1A1. MTT reduction assays showed attenuation of cell injury with the CYP1A1 inducer beta-naphthoflavone (BNF). Our results strongly suggest that hyperoxia transcriptionally activates CYP1A1 expression in human lung cell lines by AHR-dependent mechanisms, and that CYP1A1 induction is associated with decreased toxicity. This novel finding of induction of CYP1A1 in the absence of exogenous AHR ligands could lead to novel interventions in the treatment of BPD

  10. "Open lung ventilation optimizes pulmonary function during lung surgery".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, John B; Robinson, Lary A; Steighner, Michael L; Thrush, David; Reich, Richard R; Räsänen, Jukka O

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated an "open lung" ventilation (OV) strategy using low tidal volumes, low respiratory rate, low FiO2, and high continuous positive airway pressure in patients undergoing major lung resections. In this phase I pilot study, twelve consecutive patients were anesthetized using conventional ventilator settings (CV) and then OV strategy during which oxygenation and lung compliance were noted. Subsequently, a lung resection was performed. Data were collected during both modes of ventilation in each patient, with each patient acting as his own control. The postoperative course was monitored for complications. Twelve patients underwent open thoracotomies for seven lobectomies and five segmentectomies. The OV strategy provided consistent one-lung anesthesia and improved static compliance (40 ± 7 versus 25 ± 4 mL/cm H2O, P = 0.002) with airway pressures similar to CV. Postresection oxygenation (SpO2/FiO2) was better during OV (433 ± 11 versus 386 ± 15, P = 0.008). All postoperative chest x-rays were free of atelectasis or infiltrates. No patient required supplemental oxygen at any time postoperatively or on discharge. The mean hospital stay was 4 ± 1 d. There were no complications or mortality. The OV strategy, previously shown to have benefits during mechanical ventilation of patients with respiratory failure, proved safe and effective in lung resection patients. Because postoperative pulmonary complications may be directly attributable to the anesthetic management, adopting an OV strategy that optimizes lung mechanics and gas exchange may help reduce postoperative problems and improve overall surgical results. A randomized trial is planned to ascertain whether this technique will reduce postoperative pulmonary complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors affecting the local control of stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung tumors including primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Yasushi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Yamashita, Motohiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting local control of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumors including primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors. Between June 2006 and June 2009, 159 lung tumors in 144 patients (primary lung cancer, 128; metastatic lung tumor, 31) were treated with SBRT with 48-60 Gy (mean 50.1 Gy) in 4-5 fractions. Higher doses were given to larger tumors and metastatic tumors in principle. Assessed factors were age, gender, tumor origin (primary vs. metastatic), histological subtype, tumor size, tumor appearance (solid vs. ground glass opacity), maximum standardized uptake value of positron emission tomography using 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, and SBRT doses. Follow-up time was 1-60 months (median 18 months). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year local failure-free rates of all lesions were 90, 80, and 77%, respectively. On univariate analysis, metastatic tumors (p<0.0001), solid tumors (p=0.0246), and higher SBRT doses (p=0.0334) were the statistically significant unfavorable factors for local control. On multivariate analysis, only tumor origin was statistically significant (p=0.0027). The 2-year local failure-free rates of primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors were 87 and 50%, respectively. A metastatic tumor was the only independently significant unfavorable factor for local control after SBRT. (author)

  12. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews and l...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet.......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...

  13. Lung Focused Resuscitation at a Specialized Donor Care Facility Improves Lung Procurement Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephanie H; Kreisel, Daniel; Marklin, Gary F; Cook, Lindsey; Hachem, Ramsey; Kozower, Benjamin D; Balsara, Keki R; Bell, Jennifer M; Frederiksen, Christine; Meyers, Bryan F; Patterson, G Alexander; Puri, Varun

    2018-05-01

    Lung procurement for transplantation occurs in approximately 20% of brain dead donors and is a major impediment to wider application of lung transplantation. We investigated the effect of lung protective management at a specialized donor care facility on lung procurement rates from brain dead donors. Our local organ procurement organization instituted a protocol of lung protective management at a freestanding specialized donor care facility in 2008. Brain dead donors from 2001 to 2007 (early period) were compared with those from 2009 to 2016 (current period) for lung procurement rates and other solid-organ procurement rates using a prospectively maintained database. An overall increase occurred in the number of brain dead donors during the study period (early group, 791; late group, 1,333; p procurement rate (lung donors/all brain dead donors) improved markedly after the introduction of lung protective management (early group, 157 of 791 [19.8%]; current group, 452 of 1,333 [33.9%]; p procurement rate (total number of organs procured/donor) also increased during the study period (early group, 3.5 organs/donor; current group, 3.8 organs/donor; p = 0.006). Lung protective management in brain dead donors at a specialized donor care facility is associated with higher lung utilization rates compared with conventional management. This strategy does not adversely affect the utilization of other organs in a multiorgan donor. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lung cancer in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Rodriguez R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Raúl Barrera-Rodriguez,1 Jorge Morales-Fuentes2 1Biochemistry and Environmental Medicine Laboratory, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, 2Lung Cancer Medical Service, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, Tlalpan, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico Both authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Recent biological advances in tumor research provide clear evidence that lung cancer in females is different from that in males. These differences appear to have a direct impact on the clinical presentation, histology, and outcomes of lung cancer. Women are more likely to present with lung adenocarcinoma, tend to receive a diagnosis at an earlier age, and are more likely to be diagnosed with localized disease. Women may also be more predisposed to molecular aberrations resulting from the carcinogenic effects of tobacco, but do not appear to be more susceptible than men to developing lung cancer. The gender differences found in female lung cancer make it mandatory that gender stratification is used in clinical trials in order to improve the survival rates of patients with lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, adenocarcinoma, women, genetic susceptibility, genetic differences, tobacco

  15. Lung Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage, Apoptosis, and Fibrosis in Adenine-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim Nemmar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well-established that there is a crosstalk between the lung and the kidney, and several studies have reported association between chronic kidney disease (CKD and pulmonary pathophysiological changes. Experimentally, CKD can be caused in mice by dietary intake of adenine. Nevertheless, the consequence of such intervention on the lung received only scant attention. Here, we assessed the pulmonary effects of adenine (0.2% w/w in feed for 4 weeks-induced CKD in mice by assessing various physiological histological and biochemical endpoints. Adenine treatment induced a significant increase in urine output, urea and creatinine concentrations, and it decreased the body weight and creatinine clearance. It also increased proteinuria and the urinary levels of kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. Compared with control group, the histopathological evaluation of lungs from adenine-treated mice showed polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration in alveolar and bronchial walls, injury, and fibrosis. Moreover, adenine caused a significant increase in lung lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species and decreased the antioxidant catalase. Adenine also induced DNA damage assessed by COMET assay. Similarly, adenine caused apoptosis in the lung characterized by a significant increase of cleaved caspase-3. Moreover, adenine induced a significant increase in the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2 in the lung. We conclude that administration of adenine in mice induced CKD is accompanied by lung oxidative stress, DNA damage, apoptosis, and Nrf2 expression and fibrosis.

  16. Detection and Severity Scoring of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using Volumetric Analysis of Lung CT Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Mohammad Parsa; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Akhlaghpoor, Shahram

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a devastating disease.While there is no cure for COPD and the lung damage associated with this disease cannot be reversed, it is still very important to diagnose it as early as possible. In this paper, we propose a novel method based on the measurement of air trapping in the lungs from CT images to detect COPD and to evaluate its severity. Twenty-five patients and twelve normal adults were included in this study. The proposed method found volumetric changes of the lungs from inspiration to expiration. To this end, trachea CT images at full inspiration and expiration were compared and changes in the areas and volumes of the lungs between inspiration and expiration were used to define quantitative measures (features). Using these features,the subjects were classified into two groups of normal and COPD patients using a Bayesian classifier. In addition, t-tests were applied to evaluate discrimination powers of the features for this classification. For the cases studied, the proposed method estimated air trapping in the lungs from CT images without human intervention. Based on the results, a mathematical model was developed to relate variations of lung volumes to the severity of the disease. As a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system, the proposed method may assist radiologists in the detection of COPD. It quantifies air trapping in the lungs and thus may assist them with the scoring of the disease by quantifying the severity of the disease

  17. Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Worry, Uncertainty, and Insomnia for Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-04

    Anxiety Disorder; Worry; Uncertainty; Sleep Disorders; Insomnia; Fatigue; Pain; Depression; Cognitive-behavioral Therapy; Psychological Intervention; Esophageal Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Leukemia; Lung Cancer; Multiple Myeloma; Ovarian Neoplasm; Stage III or IV Cervical or Uterine Cancer; Stage IIIB, IIIC, or IV Breast Cancer; Glioblastoma Multiforme; Relapsed Lymphoma; Stage III or IV Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC or IV Melanoma

  18. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  19. Lung cancer after internal alpha-exposure of the lung from incorporated plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhail, S.

    2004-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies among workers of first Russian nuclear complex Mayak which produced weapon-grade plutonium showed significant increase of lung cancer mortality. The estimated shape of the dose-response was linear with both alpha and gamma dose but risk coefficients for gamma-exposure are on the edge of the significance level. This study was performed in the cohort of male Mayak nuclear workers initially hired in 1948-1958 with known levels of plutonium exposure. Number of observed lung cancer cases available for analyses in this cohort was 217. The relative risk of death from lung cancer among smokers was 10.7 (5.5-25.2) comparatively to non-smokers. This is in good correspondence with results of other studies. The excess relative risk per one Gray was 63. (4.1-9.7) for internal alpha-exposure and 0.18 (0.01-0.5) for external gamma-exposure. According to a model this gives 16:112:60:29 cases of lung cancer attributed to background, smoking, internal alpha-and external gamma-exposure, correspondingly. The relative risks of death from lung cancer were also estimated in a nested case-control study with lung cancer deaths as cases. Controls were selected from the cohort and matched for birth year to account for trend in lung cancer mortality with time. The analyses with nested case-control approach gave relative risks for smoking 14.7 (6.8-38.9). Relative risk of lung cancer among non-smokers after accumulating 0.34 Gy of alpha-exposure to lung was 3.7 (1.7-9.0). It should be emphasized that in fact after accumulation 0.3-0.4 Gy of absorbed dose 3-4 fold increase in lung cancer mortality was observed. This dose is very close to the dose which would be produced after intake of plutonium in quantities which are permissible today. (Author)

  20. Metastatic tumors of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenologic semiotics of lung metastases and their complications, as well as peculiarities of lung metastases of separate localization tumours are presented. Definition table for primary tumour by roentgenologic aspect of lung metastases is given

  1. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Research shows that smoking marijuana may help cancer cells grow. But there is no direct link between ...

  2. Dosimetric lung models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.; Roy, M.

    1986-01-01

    The anatomical and physiological factors that vary with age and influence the deposition of airborne radionuclides in the lung are reviewed. The efficiency with which aerosols deposit in the lung for a given exposure at various ages from birth to adulthood is evaluated. Deposition within the lung is considered in relation to the clearance mechanisms acting in different regions or compartments. The procedure for evaluating dose to sensitive tissues in lung and transfer to other organs that is being considered by the Task Group established by ICRP to review the Lung Model is outlined. Examples of the application of this modelling procedure to evaluate lung dose as a function of age are given, for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings, and for exposure to an insoluble 239 Pu aerosol. The former represents exposure to short-lived radionuclides that deliver relatively high doses to bronchial tissue. In this case, dose rates are marginally higher in children than in adults. Plutonium exposure represents the case where dose is predominantly delivered to respiratory tissue and lymph nodes. In this case, the life-time doses tend to be lower for exposure in childhood. Some of the uncertainties in this modelling procedure are noted

  3. Lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, H.K.; Kang, M.W.; Park, J.M.; Yang, W.J.; Shinn, K.S.; Bahk, Y.W.

    1993-01-01

    Lung abscess was successfully treated with percutaneous drainage in 5 of 6 patients. Complete abscess resolution occurred in 4 patients, partial resolution in one, and no response in one. The duration of drainage ranged from 7 to 18 days (mean 15.5 days) in successful cases. The failure of drainage in one neurologicall impaired patient was attributed to persistent aspiration. In 2 patients, concurrent pleural empyema was also cured. CT provided the anatomic details necessary for choosing the puncture site and avoiding puncture of the lung parenchyma. Percutaneous catheter drainage is a safe and effective method for treating lung abscess. (orig.)

  4. Lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorichter, S.

    2009-01-01

    The term lung function is often restricted to the assessment of volume time curves measured at the mouth. Spirometry includes the assessment of lung volumes which can be mobilised with the corresponding flow-volume curves. In addition, lung volumes that can not be mobilised, such as the residual volume, or only partially as FRC and TLC can be measured by body plethysmography combined with the determination of the airway resistance. Body plethysmography allows the correct positioning of forced breathing manoeuvres on the volume-axis, e.g. before and after pharmacotherapy. Adding the CO single breath transfer factor (T LCO ), which includes the measurement of the ventilated lung volume using He, enables a clear diagnosis of different obstructive, restrictive or mixed ventilatory defects with and without trapped air. Tests of reversibility and provocation, as well as the assessment of inspiratory mouth pressures (PI max , P 0.1 ) help to classify the underlying disorder and to clarify treatment strategies. For further information and to complete the diagnostic of disturbances of the ventilation, diffusion and/or perfusion (capillar-)arterial bloodgases at rest and under physical strain sometimes amended by ergospirometry are recommended. Ideally, lung function measurements are amended by radiological and nuclear medicine techniques. (orig.) [de

  5. Comparison of lung protective ventilation strategies in a rabbit model of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotta, A T; Gunnarsson, B; Fuhrman, B P; Hernan, L J; Steinhorn, D M

    2001-11-01

    To determine the impact of different protective and nonprotective mechanical ventilation strategies on the degree of pulmonary inflammation, oxidative damage, and hemodynamic stability in a saline lavage model of acute lung injury. A prospective, randomized, controlled, in vivo animal laboratory study. Animal research facility of a health sciences university. Forty-six New Zealand White rabbits. Mature rabbits were instrumented with a tracheostomy and vascular catheters. Lavage-injured rabbits were randomized to receive conventional ventilation with either a) low peak end-expiratory pressure (PEEP; tidal volume of 10 mL/kg, PEEP of 2 cm H2O); b) high PEEP (tidal volume of 10 mL/kg, PEEP of 10 cm H2O); c) low tidal volume with PEEP above Pflex (open lung strategy, tidal volume of 6 mL/kg, PEEP set 2 cm H2O > Pflex); or d) high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Animals were ventilated for 4 hrs. Lung lavage fluid and tissue samples were obtained immediately after animals were killed. Lung lavage fluid was assayed for measurements of total protein, elastase activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and malondialdehyde. Lung tissue homogenates were assayed for measurements of myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde. The need for inotropic support was recorded. Animals that received a lung protective strategy (open lung or high-frequency oscillatory ventilation) exhibited more favorable oxygenation and lung mechanics compared with the low PEEP and high PEEP groups. Animals ventilated by a lung protective strategy also showed attenuation of inflammation (reduced tracheal fluid protein, tracheal fluid elastase, tracheal fluid tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and pulmonary leukostasis). Animals treated with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation had attenuated oxidative injury to the lung and greater hemodynamic stability compared with the other experimental groups. Both lung protective strategies were associated with improved oxygenation, attenuated inflammation, and

  6. Association Between RT-Induced Changes in Lung Tissue Density and Global Lung Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jinli; Zhang Junan; Zhou Sumin; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Foltz, Rodney J.; Hollis, Donna R.; Light, Kim L.; Wong, Terence Z.; Kelsey, Christopher R.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the association between radiotherapy (RT)-induced changes in computed tomography (CT)-defined lung tissue density and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods and Materials: Patients undergoing incidental partial lung RT were prospectively assessed for global (PFTs) and regional (CT and single photon emission CT [SPECT]) lung function before and, serially, after RT. The percent reductions in the PFT and the average changes in lung density were compared (Pearson correlations) in the overall group and subgroups stratified according to various clinical factors. Comparisons were also made between the CT- and SPECT-based computations using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Between 1991 and 2004, 343 patients were enrolled in this study. Of these, 111 patients had a total of 203 concurrent post-RT evaluations of changes in lung density and PFTs available for the analyses, and 81 patients had a total of 141 concurrent post-RT SPECT images. The average increases in lung density were related to the percent reductions in the PFTs, albeit with modest correlation coefficients (range, 0.20-0.43). The analyses also indicated that the association between lung density and PFT changes is essentially equivalent to the corresponding association with SPECT-defined lung perfusion. Conclusion: We found a weak quantitative association between the degree of increase in lung density as defined by CT and the percent reduction in the PFTs.

  7. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is almost always due to smoking. TREATING LUNG CANCER Lung cancer treatment depends on several factors, including the ... org TARGETING CANCER CARE Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Lung cancer Lung cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... cancer, childhood Additional NIH Resources (3 links) National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Overview National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Prevention ...

  9. Estimation of Lung Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kai; Cao, Kunlin; Du, Kaifang; Amelon, Ryan; Christensen, Gary E.; Raghavan, Madhavan; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    Since the primary function of the lung is gas exchange, ventilation can be interpreted as an index of lung function in addition to perfusion. Injury and disease processes can alter lung function on a global and/or a local level. MDCT can be used to acquire multiple static breath-hold CT images of the lung taken at different lung volumes, or with proper respiratory control, 4DCT images of the lung reconstructed at different respiratory phases. Image registration can be applied to this data to estimate a deformation field that transforms the lung from one volume configuration to the other. This deformation field can be analyzed to estimate local lung tissue expansion, calculate voxel-by-voxel intensity change, and make biomechanical measurements. The physiologic significance of the registration-based measures of respiratory function can be established by comparing to more conventional measurements, such as nuclear medicine or contrast wash-in/wash-out studies with CT or MR. An important emerging application of these methods is the detection of pulmonary function change in subjects undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer. During RT, treatment is commonly limited to sub-therapeutic doses due to unintended toxicity to normal lung tissue. Measurement of pulmonary function may be useful as a planning tool during RT planning, may be useful for tracking the progression of toxicity to nearby normal tissue during RT, and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment post-therapy. This chapter reviews the basic measures to estimate regional ventilation from image registration of CT images, the comparison of them to the existing golden standard and the application in radiation therapy.

  10. MyD88 mediates in vivo effector functions of alveolar macrophages in acute lung inflammatory responses to carbon nanotube exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Evan A. [Division of Environmental Genetics and Molecular Toxicology, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Birch, M. Eileen [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH 45213 (United States); Yadav, Jagjit S., E-mail: Jagjit.Yadav@uc.edu [Division of Environmental Genetics and Molecular Toxicology, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are rapidly emerging as high-priority occupational toxicants. CNT powders contain fibrous particles that aerosolize readily in places of manufacture and handling, posing an inhalation risk for workers. Studies using animal models indicate that lung exposure to CNTs causes prolonged inflammatory responses and diffuse alveolar injury. The mechanisms governing CNT-induced lung inflammation are not fully understood but have been suggested to involve alveolar macrophages (AMs). In the current study, we sought to systematically assess the effector role of AMs in vivo in the induction of lung inflammatory responses to CNT exposures and investigate their cell type-specific mechanisms. Multi-wall CNTs characterized for various physicochemical attributes were used as the CNT type. Using an AM-specific depletion and repopulation approach in a mouse model, we unambiguously demonstrated that AMs are major effector cells necessary for the in vivo elaboration of CNT-induced lung inflammation. We further investigated in vitro AM responses and identified molecular targets which proved critical to pro-inflammatory responses in this model, namely MyD88 as well as MAPKs and Ca{sup 2} {sup +}/CamKII. We further demonstrated that MyD88 inhibition in donor AMs abrogated their capacity to reconstitute CNT-induced inflammation when adoptively transferred into AM-depleted mice. Taken together, this is the first in vivo demonstration that AMs act as critical effector cell types in CNT-induced lung inflammation and that MyD88 is required for this in vivo effector function. AMs and their cell type-specific mechanisms may therefore represent potential targets for future therapeutic intervention of CNT-related lung injury. - Highlights: • Demonstrated in vivo effector role of alveolar macrophages (AMs) in CNT toxicity • MyD88, MAPKs, and Ca{sup 2} {sup +}/CamKII are required for AM inflammatory responses in vitro. • MyD88 signaling is required for in vivo effector

  11. Automated segmentation of murine lung tumors in x-ray micro-CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swee, Joshua K. Y.; Sheridan, Clare; de Bruin, Elza; Downward, Julian; Lassailly, Francois; Pizarro, Luis

    2014-03-01

    Recent years have seen micro-CT emerge as a means of providing imaging analysis in pre-clinical study, with in-vivo micro-CT having been shown to be particularly applicable to the examination of murine lung tumors. Despite this, existing studies have involved substantial human intervention during the image analysis process, with the use of fully-automated aids found to be almost non-existent. We present a new approach to automate the segmentation of murine lung tumors designed specifically for in-vivo micro-CT-based pre-clinical lung cancer studies that addresses the specific requirements of such study, as well as the limitations human-centric segmentation approaches experience when applied to such micro-CT data. Our approach consists of three distinct stages, and begins by utilizing edge enhancing and vessel enhancing non-linear anisotropic diffusion filters to extract anatomy masks (lung/vessel structure) in a pre-processing stage. Initial candidate detection is then performed through ROI reduction utilizing obtained masks and a two-step automated segmentation approach that aims to extract all disconnected objects within the ROI, and consists of Otsu thresholding, mathematical morphology and marker-driven watershed. False positive reduction is finally performed on initial candidates through random-forest-driven classification using the shape, intensity, and spatial features of candidates. We provide validation of our approach using data from an associated lung cancer study, showing favorable results both in terms of detection (sensitivity=86%, specificity=89%) and structural recovery (Dice Similarity=0.88) when compared against manual specialist annotation.

  12. Treatment of intractable interstitial lung injury with alemtuzumab after lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohno, M; Perch, M; Andersen, E

    2011-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman underwent left single-lung transplantation for end-stage emphysema due to α1-antitrypsin deficiency in January 2010. Cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisolone were administered for immunosuppression and antithymocyte globulin for induction therapy at the time...... of transplantation. Routine examination of a lung biopsy, 4 months after transplantation, showed nonspecific, diffuse interstitial inflammation with alveolar septal fibrosis. The patient's clinical status and imaging studies, consistent with nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis, which was considered as signs......, posttransplant antirejection drug regimen. We have since successfully treated with alemtuzumab three additional patients who developed interstitial lung injury after lung transplantation, who are also summarized in this report....

  13. Eosinophils in the lung – modulating apoptosis and efferocytosis in airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Felton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the key role of the lung in efficient transfer of oxygen in exchange for carbon dioxide, a controlled inflammatory response is essential for restoration of tissue homeostasis following airway exposure to bacterial pathogens or environmental toxins. Unregulated or prolonged inflammatory responses in the lungs can lead to tissue damage, disrupting normal tissue architecture and consequently compromising efficient gaseous exchange. Failure to resolve inflammation underlies the development and/or progression of a number of inflammatory lung diseases including asthma. Eosinophils, granulocytic cells of the innate immune system, are primarily involved in defence against parasitic infections. However, the propagation of the allergic inflammatory response in chronic asthma is thought to involve excessive recruitment and impaired apoptosis of eosinophils together with defective phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis. In terms of therapeutic approaches for treatment of asthma, the widespread use of glucocorticoids is associated with a number of adverse health consequences after long-term use, while some patients suffer from steroid-resistant disease. A new approach for therapeutic intervention would be to promote the resolution of inflammation via modulation of eosinophil apoptosis and the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. This review focuses on the mechanisms underpinning eosinophil-mediated lung damage, currently available treatments and therapeutic targets that might in future be harnessed to facilitate inflammation resolution by the manipulation of cell survival and clearance pathways.

  14. The Cost-Effectiveness of High-Risk Lung Cancer Screening and Drivers of Program Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, Sonya; Peacock, Stuart J; Tammemägi, Martin C; Evans, William K; Leighl, Natasha B; Goffin, John R; Tremblay, Alain; Liu, Geoffrey; Manos, Daria; MacEachern, Paul; Bhatia, Rick; Puksa, Serge; Nicholas, Garth; McWilliams, Annette; Mayo, John R; Yee, John; English, John C; Pataky, Reka; McPherson, Emily; Atkar-Khattra, Sukhinder; Johnston, Michael R; Schmidt, Heidi; Shepherd, Frances A; Soghrati, Kam; Amjadi, Kayvan; Burrowes, Paul; Couture, Christian; Sekhon, Harmanjatinder S; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Goss, Glenwood; Ionescu, Diana N; Hwang, David M; Martel, Simon; Sin, Don D; Tan, Wan C; Urbanski, Stefan; Xu, Zhaolin; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Lam, Stephen

    2017-08-01

    Lung cancer risk prediction models have the potential to make programs more affordable; however, the economic evidence is limited. Participants in the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) were retrospectively identified with the risk prediction tool developed from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. The high-risk subgroup was assessed for lung cancer incidence and demographic characteristics compared with those in the low-risk subgroup and the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study (PanCan), which is an observational study that was high-risk-selected in Canada. A comparison of high-risk screening versus standard care was made with a decision-analytic model using data from the NLST with Canadian cost data from screening and treatment in the PanCan study. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess uncertainty and identify drivers of program efficiency. Use of the risk prediction tool developed from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial with a threshold set at 2% over 6 years would have reduced the number of individuals who needed to be screened in the NLST by 81%. High-risk screening participants in the NLST had more adverse demographic characteristics than their counterparts in the PanCan study. High-risk screening would cost $20,724 (in 2015 Canadian dollars) per quality-adjusted life-year gained and would be considered cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 in Canadian dollars per quality-adjusted life-year gained with a probability of 0.62. Cost-effectiveness was driven primarily by non-lung cancer outcomes. Higher noncurative drug costs or current costs for immunotherapy and targeted therapies in the United States would render lung cancer screening a cost-saving intervention. Non-lung cancer outcomes drive screening efficiency in diverse, tobacco-exposed populations. Use of risk selection can reduce the budget impact, and

  15. Precision cut lung slices as an efficient tool for in vitro lung physio-pharmacotoxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jean-Paul; Baste, Jean-Marc; Gay, Arnaud; Crochemore, Clément; Corbière, Cécile; Monteil, Christelle

    2013-01-01

    1.We review the specific approaches for lung tissue slices preparation and incubation systems and the research application fields in which lung slices proved to be a very efficient alternative to animal experimentation for biomechanical, physiological, pharmacological and toxicological approaches. 2.Focus is made on air-liquid interface dynamic organ culture systems that allow direct tissue exposure to complex aerosol and that best mimic in vivo lung tissue physiology. 3.A compilation of research applications in the fields of vascular and airway reactivity, mucociliary transport, polyamine transport, xenobiotic biotransformation, chemicals toxicology and complex aerosols supports the concept that precision cut lung slices are a very efficient tool maintaining highly differentiated functions similar to in vivo lung organ when kept under dynamic organ culture. They also have been successfully used for lung gene transfer efficiency assessment, for lung viral infection efficiency assessment, for studies of tissue preservation media and tissue post-conditioning to optimize lung tissue viability before grafting. 4.Taken all together, the reviewed studies point to a great interest for precision cut lung slices as an efficient and valuable alternative to in vivo lung organ experimentation.

  16. Traumatic lung hernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabaza, M. J.; Alcazar, P. P.; Touma, C.

    2001-01-01

    Lung hernia is an uncommon entity that is defined as the protrusion of the lung parenchyma through a defect in the thoracic cavity. It is classified on the basis of its location (cervical, intercostal and diaphragmatic) and etiology (congenital and acquired). Acquired lung hernias can be further grouped as spontaneous, traumatic or pathological, depending on the responsible mechanism. Nearly half of them are secondary to chest trauma, whether penetrating or blunt. We present a case of lung hernia in a patient with penetrating chest trauma. The diagnosis was suspected from the radiographic images and was confirmed by computed tomography. We also review the literature concerning its classification and incidence, diagnostic methods used and treatment. (Author) 9 refs

  17. Histomorphological features of combined forms of tuberculosis and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savenkov Y.F.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The were studied pathological features of combined forms of tuberculosis and non-small cell lung cancer in 72 patients who underwent radical surgical resection interventions from transsternal access with mediastinal lymph node dissection, with predominance of pneumonectomy - 63.9%. There were identified three main categories of pathological changes: cancer on the background of post-tuberculosis changes, cancer in tuberculoma, cancer in the wall of the active cavity. Post-tuberculosis changes were presented by dense centers, fibrosis, cirrhosis areas, sanitized cavities with histological predominance of coarse fiber connective tissue with giant cell granulomas, with areas characterized by the appearance of the lung tissue with atypical proliferation and metaplasia of bronchopulmonary epithelium, which is a precancerous condition. This malignant tumor process was presented mainly by adenocarcinomas and squamous cell cancer and differred by polymorphic macro- and microscopic picture. Cancer in tuberculoma and fibrous wall cavity differed by pronounced activity of tuberculosis process in the form of lymphohistiocytic infiltration, foci of caseous necrosis and presence of expressed granulation layer of Pirogov-Langhans’ cells. The basic morphological causes of carcinogenesis due to secondary changes of lung tissue in patients with tuberculosis were determined. The features of metastasis of malignant tumors on the background of specific tuberculous and post-tuberculosis changes in regional lymph nodes and the interrelation between the frequency of metastatic lesions with severity of tuberculosis and post-tuberculosis changes in them were studied; this has clinical significance in the surgical treatment of patients with concomitant forms of tuberculosis and lung cancer.

  18. Low cost biological lung volume reduction therapy for advanced emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakeer M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa Bakeer,1 Taha Taha Abdelgawad,1 Raed El-Metwaly,1 Ahmed El-Morsi,1 Mohammad Khairy El-Badrawy,1 Solafa El-Sharawy2 1Chest Medicine Department, 2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Background: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR, using biological agents, is one of the new alternatives to lung volume reduction surgery.Objectives: To evaluate efficacy and safety of biological BLVR using low cost agents including autologous blood and fibrin glue.Methods: Enrolled patients were divided into two groups: group A (seven patients in which autologous blood was used and group B (eight patients in which fibrin glue was used. The agents were injected through a triple lumen balloon catheter via fiberoptic bronchoscope. Changes in high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT volumetry, pulmonary function tests, symptoms, and exercise capacity were evaluated at 12 weeks postprocedure as well as for complications.Results: In group A, at 12 weeks postprocedure, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and residual volume/total lung capacity (% predicted (P-value: <0.001 and 0.038, respectively. In group B, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and (residual volume/total lung capacity % predicted (P-value: 0.005 and 0.004, respectively. All patients tolerated the procedure with no mortality.Conclusion: BLVR using autologous blood and locally prepared fibrin glue is a promising method for therapy of advanced emphysema in term of efficacy, safety as well as cost effectiveness. Keywords: BLVR, bronchoscopy, COPD, interventional pulmonology

  19. The mean lung dose (MLD). Predictive criterion for lung damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, Peter; Appold, Steffen [Dresden University of Technology (TU Dresden), Clinic and Polyclinic for Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Carl Gustav Carus Medical Faculty, Dresden (Germany); Herrmann, Thomas

    2015-07-15

    The purpose of this work was to prove the validity of the mean lung dose (MLD), widely used in clinical practice to estimate the lung toxicity of a treatment plan, by reevaluating experimental data from mini pigs. A total of 43 mini pigs were irradiated in one of four dose groups (25, 29, 33, and 37 Gy). Two regimens were applied: homogeneous irradiation of the right lung or partial irradiation of both lungs - including parts with lower dose - but with similar mean lung doses. The animals were treated with five fractions with a linear accelerator applying a CT-based treatment plan. The clinical lung reaction (breathing frequency) and morphological changes in CT scans were examined frequently during the 48 weeks after irradiation. A clear dose-effect relationship was found for both regimens of the trial. However, a straightforward relationship between the MLD and the relative number of responders with respect to different grades of increased breathing frequency for both regimens was not found. A morphologically based parameter NTCP{sub lung} was found to be more suitable for this purpose. The dependence of this parameter on the MLD is markedly different for the two regimens. In clinical practice, the MLD can be used to predict lung toxicity of a treatment plan, except for dose values that could lead to severe side effects. In the latter mentioned case, limitations to the predictive value of the MLD are possible. Such severe developments of a radiation-induced pneumopathy are better predicted by the NTCP{sub lung} formalism. The predictive advantage of this parameter compared to the MLD seems to remain in the evaluation and comparison of widely differing dose distributions, like in the investigated trial. (orig.) [German] Es soll unter Reevaluation von Tierversuchsdaten am Minischwein geprueft werden, ob die in der klinischen Praxis zur Beurteilung der Lungentoxizitaet eines Bestrahlungsregims regelhaft verwendete mittlere Lungendosis (MLD) eine zuverlaessige

  20. Estimation of gas and tissue lung volumes by MRI: functional approach of lung imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qanadli, S D; Orvoen-Frija, E; Lacombe, P; Di Paola, R; Bittoun, J; Frija, G

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the accuracy of MRI for the determination of lung gas and tissue volumes. Fifteen healthy subjects underwent MRI of the thorax and pulmonary function tests [vital capacity (VC) and total lung capacity (TLC)] in the supine position. MR examinations were performed at inspiration and expiration. Lung volumes were measured by a previously validated technique on phantoms. Both individual and total lung volumes and capacities were calculated. MRI total vital capacity (VC(MRI)) was compared with spirometric vital capacity (VC(SP)). Capacities were correlated to lung volumes. Tissue volume (V(T)) was estimated as the difference between the total lung volume at full inspiration and the TLC. No significant difference was seen between VC(MRI) and VC(SP). Individual capacities were well correlated (r = 0.9) to static volume at full inspiration. The V(T) was estimated to be 836+/-393 ml. This preliminary study demonstrates that MRI can accurately estimate lung gas and tissue volumes. The proposed approach appears well suited for functional imaging of the lung.

  1. Lung PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chest PET scan; Lung positron emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging; ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  2. Postoperative complications do not influence the pattern of early lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer in patients at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercegovac, Maja; Subotic, Dragan; Zugic, Vladimir; Jakovic, Radoslav; Moskovljevic, Dejan; Bascarevic, Slavisa; Mujovic, Natasa

    2014-05-19

    The pattern and factors influencing the lung function recovery in the first postoperative days are still not fully elucidated, especially in patients at increased risk. Prospective study on 60 patients at increased risk, who underwent a lung resection for primary lung cancer. complete resection and one or more known risk factors in form of COPD, cardiovascular disorders, advanced age or other comorbidities. Previous myocardial infarction, myocardial revascularization or stenting, cardiac rhythm disorders, arterial hypertension and myocardiopathy determined the increased cardiac risk. The severity of COPD was graded according to GOLD criteria. The trend of the postoperative lung function recovery was assessed by performing spirometry with a portable spirometer. Cardiac comorbidity existed in 55%, mild and moderate COPD in 20% and 35% of patients respectively. Measured values of FVC% and FEV1% on postoperative days one, three and seven, showed continuous improvement, with significant difference between the days of measurement, especially between days three and seven. There was no difference in the trend of the lung function recovery between patients with and without postoperative complications. Whilst pO2 was decreasing during the first three days in a roughly parallel fashion in patients with respiratory, surgical complications and in patients without complications, a slight hypercapnia registered on the first postoperative day was gradually abolished in all groups except in patients with cardiac complications. Extent of the lung resection and postoperative complications do not significantly influence the trend of the lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer.

  3. Lung cancer in elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagnerova, M.

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Europe and USA. The median age of diagnosis is currently 69 years, however this is gradually increasing with the aging population. Patients over age of 70 represent 40 % of all patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Age alone has not been found to be a significant prognostic factor in many malignancies, including lung cancer with performance status and stage being of greater importance. In lung cancer it is also evident that older patients gain equivalent benefit from cancer therapies as their younger counterparts. Elderly patients are under-treated in all aspects of their disease course from histological diagnosis to active therapy with surgical resection, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, irrespective of performance status or co-morbidities. Elderly patients are also underrepresented in lung cancer clinical trials. In this review is presented knowledge about lung cancer in elderly. (author)

  4. Resource utilization and costs during the initial years of lung cancer screening with computed tomography in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, Sonya; Lam, Stephen; Tammemagi, Martin C; Evans, William K; Leighl, Natasha B; Regier, Dean A; Bolbocean, Corneliu; Shepherd, Frances A; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Manos, Daria; Liu, Geoffrey; Atkar-Khattra, Sukhinder; Cromwell, Ian; Johnston, Michael R; Mayo, John R; McWilliams, Annette; Couture, Christian; English, John C; Goffin, John; Hwang, David M; Puksa, Serge; Roberts, Heidi; Tremblay, Alain; MacEachern, Paul; Burrowes, Paul; Bhatia, Rick; Finley, Richard J; Goss, Glenwood D; Nicholas, Garth; Seely, Jean M; Sekhon, Harmanjatinder S; Yee, John; Amjadi, Kayvan; Cutz, Jean-Claude; Ionescu, Diana N; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Martel, Simon; Soghrati, Kamyar; Sin, Don D; Tan, Wan C; Urbanski, Stefan; Xu, Zhaolin; Peacock, Stuart J

    2014-10-01

    It is estimated that millions of North Americans would qualify for lung cancer screening and that billions of dollars of national health expenditures would be required to support population-based computed tomography lung cancer screening programs. The decision to implement such programs should be informed by data on resource utilization and costs. Resource utilization data were collected prospectively from 2059 participants in the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). Participants who had 2% or greater lung cancer risk over 3 years using a risk prediction tool were recruited from seven major cities across Canada. A cost analysis was conducted from the Canadian public payer's perspective for resources that were used for the screening and treatment of lung cancer in the initial years of the study. The average per-person cost for screening individuals with LDCT was $453 (95% confidence interval [CI], $400-$505) for the initial 18-months of screening following a baseline scan. The screening costs were highly dependent on the detected lung nodule size, presence of cancer, screening intervention, and the screening center. The mean per-person cost of treating lung cancer with curative surgery was $33,344 (95% CI, $31,553-$34,935) over 2 years. This was lower than the cost of treating advanced-stage lung cancer with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or supportive care alone, ($47,792; 95% CI, $43,254-$52,200; p = 0.061). In the Pan-Canadian study, the average cost to screen individuals with a high risk for developing lung cancer using LDCT and the average initial cost of curative intent treatment were lower than the average per-person cost of treating advanced stage lung cancer which infrequently results in a cure.

  5. SARS – Lung Pathology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dry nonproductive cough – may show minimal lung infiltration. Recovery; * Lungs get fluid in bronchi- droplets infective and +ve for virus in culture and PCR. May also have co-infection with chlamydia/metapneumoviruses. Recovery; * Lung tissue destroyed due to ? immunological/cytokine mediated damage-Recovery ...

  6. The effect of surgery on lung volume and conventional monitoring parameters in ventilated newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proquitté, H; Freiberger, O; Yilmaz, S; Bamberg, C; Degenhardt, P; Roehr, C C; Wauer, R R; Schmalisch, G

    2010-05-01

    In newborn infants, thoraco-abdominal surgery is a serious intervention with respect to gas exchange and lung mechanics. This prospective clinical study compared surgery-induced changes in functional residual capacity (FRC) and ventilation inhomogeneity (VI) indices with changes in conventional monitoring parameters. Of 29 ventilated newborns (mean weight 2,770+/-864 g at surgery), 13, nine and seven underwent thoracic, abdominal or congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) surgery, respectively. The multiple breath washout (MBWO) technique using heptafluoropropane as tracer gas (Babylog 8000; Dräger, Lübeck, Germany) was performed ventilatory monitoring parameters. FRC decreased in non-CDH infants, while FRC increased and VI indices decreased in CDH infants. Despite improvements, the differences in FRC and VI between CDH and non-CDH infants indicated persistent impaired lung function in CHD infants. MBWO can be advantageously used to measure the effect of surgery on the lung. While FRC and VI indices changed following surgery, conventional monitoring parameters did not.

  7. Preliminary clinical experience with a dedicated interventional robotic system for CT-guided biopsies of lung lesions: a comparison with the conventional manual technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzidei, Michele; Argiro, Renato; Porfiri, Andrea; Boni, Fabrizio; Zaccagna, Fulvio; Napoli, Alessandro; Leonardi, Andrea; Bezzi, Mario; Catalano, Carlo [University of Rome, Department of Radiological, Oncological and Anatomopathological Sciences - Radiology - Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Anile, Marco; Venuta, Federico [University of Rome, Department of Thoracic Surgery - Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Vitolo, Domenico [University of Rome, Department of Radiological, Oncological and Anatomopathological Sciences - Pathology - Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Saba, Luca [Department of Radiology, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), di Cagliari-Polo di Monserrato, Monserrato (Italy); Longo, Flavia [University of Rome, Department of Radiological, Oncological and Anatomopathological Sciences - Oncology - Sapienza, Rome (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    Evaluate the performance of a robotic system for CT-guided lung biopsy in comparison to the conventional manual technique. One hundred patients referred for CT-guided lung biopsy were randomly assigned to group A (robot-assisted procedure) or group B (conventional procedure). Size, distance from entry point and position in lung of target lesions were evaluated to assess homogeneity differences between the two groups. Procedure duration, dose length product (DLP), precision of needle positioning, diagnostic performance of the biopsy and rate of complications were evaluated to assess the clinical performance of the robotic system as compared to the conventional technique. All biopsies were successfully performed. The size (p = 0.41), distance from entry point (p = 0.86) and position in lung (p = 0.32) of target lesions were similar in both groups (p = 0.05). Procedure duration and radiation dose were significantly reduced in group A as compared to group B (p = 0.001). Precision of needle positioning, diagnostic performance of the biopsy and rate of complications were similar in both groups (p = 0.05). Robot-assisted CT-guided lung biopsy can be performed safely and with high diagnostic accuracy, reducing procedure duration and radiation dose in comparison to the conventional manual technique. (orig.)

  8. Preliminary clinical experience with a dedicated interventional robotic system for CT-guided biopsies of lung lesions: a comparison with the conventional manual technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzidei, Michele; Argiro, Renato; Porfiri, Andrea; Boni, Fabrizio; Zaccagna, Fulvio; Napoli, Alessandro; Leonardi, Andrea; Bezzi, Mario; Catalano, Carlo; Anile, Marco; Venuta, Federico; Vitolo, Domenico; Saba, Luca; Longo, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Evaluate the performance of a robotic system for CT-guided lung biopsy in comparison to the conventional manual technique. One hundred patients referred for CT-guided lung biopsy were randomly assigned to group A (robot-assisted procedure) or group B (conventional procedure). Size, distance from entry point and position in lung of target lesions were evaluated to assess homogeneity differences between the two groups. Procedure duration, dose length product (DLP), precision of needle positioning, diagnostic performance of the biopsy and rate of complications were evaluated to assess the clinical performance of the robotic system as compared to the conventional technique. All biopsies were successfully performed. The size (p = 0.41), distance from entry point (p = 0.86) and position in lung (p = 0.32) of target lesions were similar in both groups (p = 0.05). Procedure duration and radiation dose were significantly reduced in group A as compared to group B (p = 0.001). Precision of needle positioning, diagnostic performance of the biopsy and rate of complications were similar in both groups (p = 0.05). Robot-assisted CT-guided lung biopsy can be performed safely and with high diagnostic accuracy, reducing procedure duration and radiation dose in comparison to the conventional manual technique. (orig.)

  9. How to optimize the lung donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Gabriele; Costamagna, Andrea; Fanelli, Vito; Boffini, Massimo; Pugliese, Francesco; Mascia, Luciana; Brazzi, Luca

    2018-02-01

    Over the last two decades, lung transplantation emerged as the standard of care for patients with advanced and terminal lung disease. Despite the increment in lung transplantation rates, in 2016 the overall mortality while on waiting list in Italy reached 10%, whereas only 39% of the wait-list patients were successfully transplanted. A number of approaches, including protective ventilatory strategy, accurate management of fluid balance, and administration of a hormonal resuscitation therapy, have been reported to improve lung donor performance before organ retrieval. These approaches, in conjunction with the use of ex-vivo lung perfusion technique contributed to expand the lung donor pool, without affecting the harvest of other organs and the outcomes of lung recipients. However, the efficacy of issues related to the ex-vivo lung perfusion technique, such as the optimal ventilation strategy, the ischemia-reperfusion induced lung injury management, the prophylaxis of germs transmission from donor to recipient and the application of targeted pharmacologic therapies to treat specific donor lung injuries are still to be explored. The main objective of the present review is to summarize the "state-of-art" strategies to optimize the donor lungs and to present the actual role of ex-vivo lung perfusion in the process of lung transplant. Moreover, different approaches about the technique reported in literature and several issues that are under investigation to treat specific donor lung injury will be discussed.

  10. Interstitial Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... propranolol (Inderal, Innopran), may harm lung tissue. Some antibiotics. Nitrofurantoin (Macrobid, Macrodantin, others) and ethambutol (Myambutol) can cause lung damage. Anti-inflammatory drugs. Certain anti-inflammatory drugs, such as rituximab ( ...

  11. First Danish experience with ex vivo lung perfusion of donor lungs before transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Ian Sune Iversen; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Møller, Christian Holdfold; Zemtsovski, Mikhail; Nilsson, Jens Christian; Seidelin, Casper Tobias; Perch, Michael; Iversen, Martin; Steinbrüchel, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The number of lung transplantations is limited by a general lack of donor organs. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a novel method to optimise and evaluate marginal donor lungs prior to transplantation. We describe our experiences with EVLP in Denmark during the first year after its introduction. The study was conducted by prospective registration of donor offers and lung transplantations in Denmark from 1 May 2012 to 30 April 2013. Donor lungs without any contraindications were transplanted in the traditional manner. Taken for EVLP were donor lungs that were otherwise considered transplantable, but failed to meet the usual criteria due to possible contusions or because they were from donors with sepsis or unable to pass the oxygenation test. In the study period, seven of 33 Danish lung transplantations were made possible due to EVLP. One patient died of non-EVLP-related causes, but all other recipients were alive with normal graft function at the end of our registration period. All lungs showed an improved PaO2/FiO2 ratio from a median 23.1 kPa (8.8-38.9) within the donor to 58.8 kPa (34.9-76.5) (FiO2 = 1.0) after EVLP, which corresponds to a 155% improved oxygenation. The median time to extubation, time in intensive care unit and the admission period were 1, 7 and 39 days, respectively. In the first year after the introduction of EVLP in Denmark, seven pairs of donor lungs that previously would have been rejected have been transplanted as a result of their improved function. EVLP seems to be a safe way to increase the use of marginal donor lungs. no funding was granted for the present paper. not relevant.

  12. Lung cancer-A global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Amanda; Ganti, Apar Kishor

    2017-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. While tobacco exposure is responsible for the majority of lung cancers, the incidence of lung cancer in never smokers, especially Asian women, is increasing. There is a global variation in lung cancer biology with EGFR mutations being more common in Asian patients, while Kras mutation is more common in Caucasians. This review will focus on the global variations in lung cancer and its treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Arterioscanning of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovskij, B.V.; Rabkin, I.Kh.; Matevosov, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Studied is lung microcirculation by means of introducting radioactive albumin (MAA 131 I introduction through a catheter) in bronchial vessels. Arterioscanning technique and its peculiarities are described in detail. It is established that results of arterioscanning must be estimated taking into account the nature of MAA 131 I distribution and fixation, counting rate and duration of radioactive registration in the range of pathologic neoplasms. It is shown that arterioscanning permits to reveal the 20-80 μm diameter vessels . This method can be one of the most important ones in the early diagnosis of lung cancer. The data on the diagnostic effectiveness of lung bronchial arteriography and arterioscanning in the cases of chronic inflammatory diseases, tuberculosis and some benigh lung tumours and neoplasms are also presented

  14. Dutch Lung Surgery Audit: A National Audit Comprising Lung and Thoracic Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Martijn Ten; Beck, Naomi; Heineman, David Jonathan; Damhuis, Ronald; Steup, Willem Hans; van Huijstee, Pieter Jan; Eerenberg, Jan Peter; Veen, Eelco; Maat, Alexander; Versteegh, Michel; van Brakel, Thomas; Schreurs, Wilhemina Hendrika; Wouters, Michel Wilhelmus

    2018-04-21

    The nationwide Dutch Lung Surgery Audit (DLSA) started in 2012 to monitor and evaluate the quality of lung surgery in the Netherlands as an improvement tool. This outline describes the establishment, structure and organization of the audit by the Dutch Society of Lung Surgeons (NVvL) and the Dutch Society of Cardiothoracic Surgeons (NVT), in collaboration with the Dutch Institute for Clinical Auditing (DICA). In addition, first four-year results are presented. The NVvL and NVT initiated a web-based registration including weekly updated online feedback for participating hospitals. Data verification by external data managers is performed on regular basis. The audit is incorporated in national quality improvement programs and participation in the DLSA is mandatory by health insurance organizations and the National Healthcare Inspectorate. Between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2015, all hospitals performing lung surgery participated and a total of 19,557 patients were registered from which almost half comprised lung cancer patients. Nationwide the guideline adherence increased over the years and 96.5% of lung cancer patients were discussed in preoperative multidisciplinary teams. Overall postoperative complications and mortality after non-small cell lung cancer surgery were 15.5% and 2.0%, respectively. The audit provides reliable benchmarked information for caregivers and hospital management with potential to start local, regional or national improvement initiatives. Currently, the audit is further completed with data from non-surgical lung cancer patients including treatment data from pulmonary oncologists and radiation oncologists. This will ultimately provide a comprehensive overview of lung cancer treatment in The Netherlands. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Genetic Variation in GSTP1, Lung Function, Risk of Lung Cancer, and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Marianne S.; Dahl, Morten; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2017-01-01

    66,069 individuals from the white general population for two common functional variants in the glutathione S-transferase pi 1 gene (GSTP1)—amino acid isoleucine 105 changed to a valine (Ile105Val) and amino acid alanine 114 changed to a valine (Ala114Val)—and recorded lung function, lung cancer......Introduction Glutathione S-transferase pi 1 metabolizes carcinogens from tobacco smoke in the lung. We tested whether genetically altered glutathione S-transferase pi 1 activity affects lung function and risk for tobacco-related cancer and mortality in the general population. Methods We genotyped......, tobacco-related cancer, and death as outcomes. Results Lung function was increased stepwise with the Ile105Val genotype overall (p

  16. Prediction of residual lung function after lung surgery, and examination of blood perfusion in the pre- and postoperative lung using three-dimensional SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimatani, Shinji [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-01-01

    In order to predict postoperative pulmonary function after lung surgery, preoperative {sup 99m}Tc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) lung perfusion scans with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed. Spirometry was also performed before and 4-6 months after surgery in 40 patients. In addition, changes in blood perfusion in the pre- and postoperative lung were examined by postoperative lung perfusion scans in 18 of the 40 patients. We measured the three-dimensional (3-D) imaging volume of the operative and contralateral lungs using the volumes rendering method at blood perfusion thresholds of 20, 50 and 75%, utilizing {sup 99m}Tc-MAA lung perfusion, and predicted pulmonary function by means of the measured volumes. We examined the correlation between predicted and the measured values of postoperative pulmonary function, forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV{sub 1.0}). The correlation between FEV{sub 1.0} predicted by SPECT (threshold 50%) and measured postoperative lung function resembled that between lung function predicted by the standard planar method and measured FEV{sub 1.0} in the lobectomy group. We then examined the ratios of both pre- and postoperative blood perfusion volumes obtained using 3-D imaging at lung perfusion threshold ranges of 10% each (PV20-29, PV30-39) to pre- and postoperative total perfusion (PV20-100). In the lobectomy group, the postoperative PV20-29/PV20-100 value was significantly higher for the operative side lung than the preoperative PV20-29/PV20-100 value, and the postoperative PV50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89 and 90-100/PV20-100 values were significantly lower than the respective preoperative values. However, in the contralateral lung, the respective pre- and postoperative PV/PV20-100 values were almost identical. These findings suggest that the rate of low blood perfusion increased while the rate of middle to high perfusion decreased in the lobectomy group in the operative

  17. Patient factors associated with lung transplant referral and waitlist for patients with cystic fibrosis and pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Vela, Monica; Rudakevych, Tanya; Wigfield, Christopher; Garrity, Edward; Saunders, Milda R

    2017-03-01

    Since 2005, the Lung Allocation Score (LAS) has prioritized patient benefit and post-transplant survival, reducing waitlist to transplant time to fibrosis (CF) and pulmonary fibrosis (PF). We analyzed the times from transplant eligibility to referral, work-up and waitlisting using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests. Overall, the referral rate for transplant-eligible patients was 64%. Of those referred, approximately 36% reach the lung transplant waitlist. Referred CF patients were significantly more likely to reach the transplant waitlist than PF patients (CF 60% vs PF 22%, p < 0.05). In addition, CF patients had a shorter wait from transplant eligibility to waitlist than PF patients (329 vs 2,369 days, respectively [25th percentile], p < 0.05). Patients with PF and CF both faced delays from eligibility to referral and waitlist. Quality improvement efforts are needed to better identify and refer appropriate patients for lung transplant evaluation. Targeted interventions may facilitate more efficient evaluation completion and waitlist appearance. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Lung abscess which needed to be distinguished from lung cancer; report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kazunori; Yoshizu, Akira; Misumi, Yuki; Hida, Naoya; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Sachiko

    2011-12-01

    Differential diagnosis of lung abscess from lung cancer is sometimes difficult. In February 2009, a 57-year-old man consulted our hospital complaining of bloody sputum. Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a 2.5 cm nodule with pleural indentation, spicula and vascular involvement in the right S(3). Bronchofiberscope could not establish a definitive diagnosis. Blood test showed no abnormality. Three months later, progression of the nodule to the adjacent middle lobe was demonstrated by follow-up CT, and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) showed isotope accumulation in the nodule and hilar lymph node. A diagnosis of lung cancer was suspected and surgery was performed. The diagnosis of possible lung cancer was made by needle biopsy, and the patient underwent right upper lobectomy and partial resection of middle lobe with standard nodal dissection. The final pathological diagnosis was lung abscess. Lung abscess must be kept in mind as a possible differential diagnosis when abnormal shadow suspected of lung cancer is observed.

  19. Economic evaluation of the practical approach to lung health and informal provider interventions for improving the detection of tuberculosis and chronic airways disease at primary care level in Malawi: study protocol for cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Elvis; Madan, Jason; Banda, Hastings; Squire, Bertie; Thomson, Rachael; Namakhoma, Ireen

    2015-01-08

    Chronic airway diseases pose a big challenge to health systems in most developing countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. A diagnosis for people with chronic or persistent cough is usually delayed because of individual and health system barriers. However, delayed diagnosis and treatment facilitates further transmission, severity of disease with complications and mortality. The objective of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of the practical approach to lung health strategy, a patient-centred approach for diagnosis and treatment of common respiratory illnesses in primary healthcare settings, as a means of strengthening health systems to improve the quality of management of respiratory diseases. Economic evaluation nested in a cluster randomised controlled trial with three arms will be performed. Measures of effectiveness and costs for all arms of the study will be obtained from the cluster randomised controlled clinical trial. The main outcome measures are a combined rate of major respiratory diseases milestones and process indicators extracted from the practical approach to lung health strategy. For analysis, descriptive as well as regression techniques will be used. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed according to intention-to-treat principle and from a societal perspective. Cost-effectiveness ratios will be calculated using bootstrapping techniques. We hope to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of the practical approach to lung health and informal healthcare providers, see an improvement in patients' quality of life, achieve a reduction in the duration and occurrence of episodes and the chronicity of respiratory diseases, and are able to report a decrease in the social cost. If the practical approach to lung health and informal healthcare provider's interventions are cost-effective, they could be scaled up to all primary healthcare centres. PACTR: PACTR201411000910192.

  20. Quantitative computed tomography of lung parenchyma in patients with emphysema: analysis of higher-density lung regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K.; Zheng, Bin; Sciurba, Frank C.; Tan, Jun; Gur, David

    2011-03-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (CT) has been widely used to detect and evaluate the presence (or absence) of emphysema applying the density masks at specific thresholds, e.g., -910 or -950 Hounsfield Unit (HU). However, it has also been observed that subjects with similar density-mask based emphysema scores could have varying lung function, possibly indicating differences of disease severity. To assess this possible discrepancy, we investigated whether density distribution of "viable" lung parenchyma regions with pixel values > -910 HU correlates with lung function. A dataset of 38 subjects, who underwent both pulmonary function testing and CT examinations in a COPD SCCOR study, was assembled. After the lung regions depicted on CT images were automatically segmented by a computerized scheme, we systematically divided the lung parenchyma into different density groups (bins) and computed a number of statistical features (i.e., mean, standard deviation (STD), skewness of the pixel value distributions) in these density bins. We then analyzed the correlations between each feature and lung function. The correlation between diffusion lung capacity (DLCO) and STD of pixel values in the bin of -910HU lung parenchyma and lung function, which indicates that similar to the conventional density mask method, the pixel value distribution features in "viable" lung parenchyma areas may also provide clinically useful information to improve assessments of lung disease severity as measured by lung functional tests.

  1. Genetic Risk Can Be Decreased: Quitting Smoking Decreases and Delays Lung Cancer for Smokers With High and Low CHRNA5 Risk Genotypes — A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Shiun Chen

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: We demonstrate that quitting smoking is highly beneficial in reducing lung cancer risks for smokers regardless of their CHRNA5 rs16969968 genetic risk status. Smokers with high-risk CHRNA5 genotypes, on average, can largely eliminate their elevated genetic risk for lung cancer by quitting smoking- cutting their risk of lung cancer in half and delaying its onset by 7 years for those who develop it. These results: 1 underscore the potential value of smoking cessation for all smokers, 2 suggest that CHRNA5 rs16969968 genotype affects lung cancer diagnosis through its effects on smoking, and 3 have potential value for framing preventive interventions for those who smoke.

  2. /sup 67/Ga lung scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.; Pick, R.

    1977-03-21

    Twenty-three patients with clinical signs of pulmonary embolic disease and lung infiltrates were studied to determine the value of gallium citrate /sup 67/Ga lung scan in differentiating embolic from inflammatory lung disease. In 11 patients without angiographically proved embolism, only seven had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. In seven of these 11 patients, the /sup 67/Ga concentration indicated inflammatory disease. In the 12 patients with angiographically proved embolic disease, six had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. None had an accumulation of /sup 67/Ga in the area of pulmonary infiltrate. Thus, ventilation-perfusion lung scans are of limited value when lung infiltrates are present. In contrast, the accumulation of /sup 67/Ga in the lung indicates an inflammatory process. Gallium imaging can help select those patients with lung infiltrates who need angiography.

  3. The Danish Lung Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR) was established by the Danish Lung Cancer Group. The primary and first goal of the DLCR was to improve survival and the overall clinical management of Danish lung cancer patients. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish primary lung cancer patients since...... 2000 are included into the registry and the database today contains information on more than 50,000 cases of lung cancer. MAIN VARIABLES: The database contains information on patient characteristics such as age, sex, diagnostic procedures, histology, tumor stage, lung function, performance...... the results are commented for local, regional, and national audits. Indicator results are supported by descriptive reports with details on diagnostics and treatment. CONCLUSION: DLCR has since its creation been used to improve the quality of treatment of lung cancer in Denmark and it is increasingly used...

  4. Relationship between radiation dose and lung function in patients with lung cancer receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsaker, V.; Dale, E.; Bruland, O.S.; Olsen, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    In patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), radical radiotherapy is the treatment of choice. The dose is limited by consequential pneumonitis and lung fibrosis. Hence, a better understanding of the relationship between the dose-volume distributions and normal tissue side effects is needed. CT is a non-invasive method to monitor the development of fibrosis and pneumonitis, and spirometry is an established tool to measure lung function. NSCLC patients were included in a multicenter trial and treated with megavoltage conformal radiotherapy. In a subgroup comprising 16 patients, a total dose of 59-63 Gy with 1.8-1.9 Gy per fraction was given. Dose-volume histograms were calculated and corrected according to the linear-quadratic formula using alpha/beta=3 Gy. The patients underwent repetitive CT examinations (mean follow-up, 133 days) following radiotherapy, and pre and post treatment spirometry (mean follow-up, 240 days). A significant correlation was demonstrated between local lung dose and changes in CT numbers >30 days after treatment (p 40 Gy Gy there was a sudden increase in CT numbers at 70-90 days. Somewhat unexpectedly, the highest mean lung doses were found in patients with the least reductions in lung function (peak expiratory flow; p<0.001). The correlation between CT numbers, radiation dose and time after treatment show that CT may be used to monitor development of lung fibrosis/pneumonitis after radiotherapy for lung cancer. Paradoxically, the patients with the highest mean lung doses experienced the minimum deterioration of lung function. This may be explained by reduction in the volume of existing tumour masses obstructing the airways, leading to relief of symptoms. This finding stresses the role of radiotherapy for lung cancer, especially where the treatment aim is palliative

  5. Are mindfulness and self-compassion related to psychological distress and communication in couples facing lung cancer? A dyadic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, M.P.J.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Drift, M.A. van der; Molema, J.; Hurk, D.G.M. van den; Prins, J.B.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer patients and their spouses report high rates of distress. Due to the increasing popularity of and evidence for mindfulness-based interventions in cancer, mindfulness and self-compassion have been identified as potentially helpful skills when coping with cancer. This dyadic study examined

  6. Looking is not seeing and listening is not hearing: effect of an intervention to enhance auditory skills of graduate-entry nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellico, Linda Honan; Duffy, Thomas C; Fennie, Kristopher P; Swan, Katharine A

    2012-01-01

    Inspection/observation and listening/auscultation are essential skills for health care providers. Given that observational and auditory skills take time to perfect, there is concern about accelerated students' ability to attain proficiency in a timely manner. This article describes the impact of music auditory training (MAT) for nursing students in an accelerated master's entry program on their competence in detecting heart, lung, and bowel sounds. During the first semester, a two-hour MAT session with focused attention on pitch, timbre, rhythm, and masking was held for the intervention group; a control group received traditional instruction only. Students in the music intervention group demonstrated significant improvement in hearing bowel, heart, and lung sounds (p < .0001). The ability to label normal and abnormal heart sounds doubled; interpretation of normal and abnormal lung sounds improved by 50 percent; and bowel sounds interpretation improved threefold, demonstrating the effect of an adult-oriented, creative, yet practical method for teaching auscultation.

  7. Eosinophilic Lung Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems characterized by having an increased number of eosinophils (white blood cells) in the lungs. These white ... category of pneumonias that feature increased numbers of eosinophils in the lung tissue. Pneumonia is an inflammatory ...

  8. Flock worker's lung: chronic interstitial lung disease in the nylon flocking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, D G; Crausman, R S; Durand, K T; Nayer, A; Kuhn, C

    1998-08-15

    Two young men working at a nylon flocking plant in Rhode Island developed interstitial lung disease of unknown cause. Similar clusters at the same company's Canadian plant were reported previously. To define the extent, clinicopathologic features, and potential causes of the apparent disease outbreak. Case-finding survey and retrospective cohort study. Academic occupational medicine program. All workers employed at the Rhode Island plant on or after 15 June 1990. Symptomatic employees had chest radiography, pulmonary function tests, high-resolution computed tomography, and serologic testing. Those with unexplained radiographic or pulmonary function abnormalities underwent bronchoalveolar lavage, lung biopsy, or both. The case definition of "flock worker's lung" required histologic evidence of interstitial lung disease (or lavage evidence of lung inflammation) not explained by another condition. Eight cases of flock worker's lung were identified at the Rhode Island plant. Three cases were characterized by a high proportion of eosinophils (25% to 40%) in lavage fluid. Six of the seven patients who had biopsy had histologic findings of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and the seventh had bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. All seven of these patients had peribronchovascular interstitial lymphoid nodules, usually with germinal centers, and most had lymphocytic bronchiolitis and interstitial fibrosis. All improved after leaving work. Review of the Canadian tissue specimens showed many similar histologic findings. Among the 165-member study cohort, a 48-fold or greater increase was seen in the sex-adjusted incidence rate of all interstitial lung disease. Work in the nylon flocking industry poses substantial risk for a previously unrecognized occupational interstitial lung disease. Nylon fiber is the suspected cause of this condition.

  9. Lung cancer knowledge among secondary school male teachers in Kudat, Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed; Kadir, Samiah Yasmin Abdul

    2013-01-01

    . Quitting smoking, avoiding second-hand smoking and avoiding unnecessary x-ray image of the chest (53.3%, 96.0%, 87.3%; respectively) are the main preventive measures mentioned by the participants. For the factors that influence the participants knowledge, univariate and multivariate analysis showed that only race was significant. Overall, the knowledge of school male teachers about lung cancer was low. However, few items were scored high: cigarettes are the main risk factor; avoiding second-hand smoking; and avoiding x-rays. Interventions to increase lung cancer awareness are needed to improve early detection behavior. Increase the price of pack of cigarettes to RM 20 and banning smoking in public places such as restaurants are highly recommended as primary preventive measures.

  10. Lung scintigraphy; Centellograma pulmonar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalenz, Roberto

    1994-12-31

    A review of lung scintigraphy, perfusion scintigraphy with SPECT, lung ventilation SPECT, blood pool SPECT. The procedure of lung perfusion studies, radiopharmaceutical, administration and clinical applications, imaging processing .Results encountered and evaluation criteria after Biello and Pioped. Recommendations and general considerations have been studied about relation of this radiopharmaceutical with other pathologies.

  11. Donor Lung Procurement by Surgical Fellow with an Expectation of High Rate of Lung Utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smail, Hassiba; Saxena, Pankaj; Wallinder, Andreas; Lin, Enjarn; Snell, Gregory I; Hobson, Jamie; Zimmet, Adam D; Marasco, Silvana F; McGiffin, David C

    2017-12-22

    There is an ever increasing demand for donor lungs in patients waiting for transplantation. Lungs of many potential donors will be rejected if the standard criteria for donor assessment are followed. We have expanded our donor lung pool by accepting marginal donors and establishing a donation after circulatory death program. We have achieved comparable results using marginal donors and accepting donor lungs following donation after circulatory death. We present our assessment and technical guidelines on lung procurement taking into consideration an increasingly complex cohort of lung donors. These guidelines form the basis of the lung procurement training program involving surgical Fellows at the Alfred Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times for human lung cancer and lung tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Yoshifumi; Shioya, Sumie; Kurita, Daisaku; Ohta, Takashi; Haida, Munetaka; Ohta, Yasuyo; Suda, Syuichi; Fukuzaki, Minoru.

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation times, T 1 and T 2 , for lung cancer tissue, and other samples of lung tissue obtained from surgical specimens. The samples were nine squamous cell carcinomas, five necrotic squamous cell carcinomas, 15 adenocarcinomas, two benign mesotheliomas, and 13 fibrotic lungs. The relaxation times were measured with a 90 MHz NMR spectrometer and the results were correlated with histological changes. The values of T 1 and T 2 for squamous cell carcinoma and mesothelioma were significantly longer than those of adenocarcinoma and fibrotic lung tissue. There were no significant differences in values of T 1 and T 2 between adenocarcinoma and lung tissue. The values of T 1 and T 2 for benign mesothelioma were similar to those of squamous cell carcinoma, which suggested that increases in T 1 and T 2 are not specific to malignant tissues. (author)

  13. Statistical lung model for microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.; Hadley, R.T.

    1984-03-01

    To calculate the microdosimetry of plutonium in the lung, a mathematical description is needed of lung tissue microstructure that defines source-site parameters. Beagle lungs were expanded using a glutaraldehyde fixative at 30 cm water pressure. Tissue specimens, five microns thick, were stained with hematoxylin and eosin then studied using an image analyzer. Measurements were made along horizontal lines through the magnified tissue image. The distribution of air space and tissue chord lengths and locations of epithelial cell nuclei were recorded from about 10,000 line scans. The distribution parameters constituted a model of lung microstructure for predicting the paths of random alpha particle tracks in the lung and the probability of traversing biologically sensitive sites. This lung model may be used in conjunction with established deposition and retention models for determining the microdosimetry in the pulmonary lung for a wide variety of inhaled radioactive materials

  14. Telomerase in lung cancer diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovkarova, E.; Stefanovski, T.; Dimov, A.; Naumovski, J.

    2003-01-01

    Background. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein that looks after the telomeric cap of the linear chromosomes maintaining its length. It is over expressed in tumour tissues, but not in normal somatic cells. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the telomerase activity in lung cancer patients as novel marker for lung cancer detection evaluating the influence of tissue/cell obtaining technique. Material and methods. Using the TRAP (telomeric repeat amplification protocol), telomerase activity was determined in material obtained from bronchobiopsy (60 lung cancer patients compared with 20 controls) and washings from transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy performed in 10 patients with peripheral lung tumours. Results. Telomerase activity was detected in 75% of the lung cancer bronchobyopsies, and in 100% in transthoracic needle washings. Conclusions. Measurement of telomerase activity can contribute in fulfilling the diagnosis of lung masses and nodules suspected for lung cancer. (author)

  15. Molybdate transporter ModABC is important for Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic lung infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périnet, Simone; Jeukens, Julie; Kukavica-Ibrulj, Irena; Ouellet, Myriam M; Charette, Steve J; Levesque, Roger C

    2016-01-12

    Mechanisms underlying the success of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in chronic lung infection among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are poorly defined. The modA gene was previously linked to in vivo competitiveness of P. aeruginosa by a genetic screening in the rat lung. This gene encodes a subunit of transporter ModABC, which is responsible for extracellular uptake of molybdate. This compound is essential for molybdoenzymes, including nitrate reductases. Since anaerobic growth conditions are known to occur during CF chronic lung infection, inactivation of a molybdate transporter could inhibit proliferation through the inactivation of denitrification enzymes. Hence, we performed phenotypic characterization of a modA mutant strain obtained by signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM_modA) and assessed its virulence in vivo with two host models. The STM_modA mutant was in fact defective for anaerobic growth and unable to use nitrates in the growth medium for anaerobic respiration. Bacterial growth and nitrate usage were restored when the medium was supplemented with molybdate. Most significantly, the mutant strain showed reduced virulence compared to wild-type strain PAO1 according to a competitive index in the rat model of chronic lung infection and a predation assay with Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae. As the latter took place in aerobic conditions, the in vivo impact of the mutation in modA appears to extend beyond its effect on anaerobic growth. These results support the modABC-encoded transporter as important for the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa, and suggest that enzymatic machinery implicated in anaerobic growth during chronic lung infection in CF merits further investigation as a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  16. Measurement of asbestos bodies in lung tissue of autopsy cases diagnosed with primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idei, Yuka; Kamada, Satoe; Matsumoto, Shoji; Ohnishi, Kazuo; Kitazawa, Riko; Kitazawa, Sohei

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relation between asbestos-related lung cancer and the concentration of asbestos bodies in lung tissue, we analyzed the concentration in 24 autopsy cases diagnosed with primary lung cancer, with regard to the gender, age, histological type of lung cancer and occupation of each case. The asbestos bodies were measured according to Kohyama's method. Positive cases (more than 5,000 bodies per 1 g of dry lung tissue) were further analyzed for asbestosis and pleural plaques by chest X-ray and chest CT. Two cases exhibited more than 5,000 bodies, five cases between 1,000 and 5,000, and seventeen cases less than 1,000. The occupation of the two positive cases was not informative: one demonstrated neither asbestosis nor pleural plaques, and the other showed only pleural plaques. Although the number of cases of asbestos-related lung cancer is minimal among all lung cancer cases, the number of the former may exceed that of mesothelioma patients. Not only physicians but also radiologists, surgeons and pathologists need to collaborate in the diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer. (author)

  17. Lung cancer mutation profile of EGFR, ALK, and KRAS: Meta-analysis and comparison of never and ever smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Aaron M; Sun, Kathie Y; Ruestow, Peter; Cowan, Dallas M; Madl, Amy K

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. While the majority of lung cancers are associated with tobacco smoke, approximately 10-15% of U.S. lung cancers occur in never smokers. Evidence suggests that lung cancer in never smokers appears to be a distinct disease caused by driver mutations which are different than the genetic pathways observed with lung cancer in smokers. A meta-analysis of human epidemiologic data was conducted to evaluate the profile of common or therapy-targetable mutations in lung cancers of never and ever smokers. Epidemiologic studies (N=167) representing over 63,000 lung cancer cases were identified and used to calculate summary odds ratios for lung cancer in never and ever smokers containing gene mutations: EGFR, chromosomal rearrangements and fusion of EML4 and ALK, and KRAS. This analysis also considered the effect of histopathology, smoking status, sex, and ethnicity. There were significantly increased odds of presenting the EGFR and ALK-EML4 mutations in 1) adenocarcinomas compared to non-small cell lung cancer and 2) never smokers compared to ever smokers. The prevalence of EGFR mutations was higher in Asian women as compared to women of Caucasian/Mixed ethnicity. As the smoking history increased, there was a decreased odds for exhibiting the EGFR mutation, particularly for cases >30 pack-years. Compared to ever smokers, never smokers had a decreased odds of KRAS mutations among those of Caucasian/Mixed ethnicity (OR=0.22, 95% CI: 0.17-0.29) and those of Asian ethnicity (OR=0.39, 95% CI: 0.30-0.50). Our findings show that key driver mutations and several patient features are highly prevalent in lung cancers of never smokers. These associations may be helpful as patient demographic models are developed to predict successful outcomes of targeted therapeutic interventions NSCLC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of increases in lung volume on clearance of aerosolized solute from human lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, J.D.; Luce, J.M.; Lazar, N.M.; Wu, J.N.; Lipavsky, A.; Murray, J.F.

    1985-10-01

    To study the effect of increases in lung volume on solute uptake, we measured clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-DTPA) at different lung volumes in 19 healthy humans. Seven subjects inhaled aerosols (1 micron activity median aerodynamic diam) at ambient pressure; clearance and functional residual capacity (FRC) were measured at ambient pressure (control) and at increased lung volume produced by positive pressure (12 cmH2O continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)) or negative pressure (voluntary breathing). Six different subjects inhaled aerosol at ambient pressure; clearance and FRC were measured at ambient pressure and CPAP of 6, 12, and 18 cmH2O pressure. Six additional subjects inhaled aerosol at ambient pressure or at CPAP of 12 cmH2O; clearance and FRC were determined at CPAP of 12 cmH2O. According to the results, Tc-DTPA clearance from human lungs is accelerated exponentially by increases in lung volume, this effect occurs whether lung volume is increased by positive or negative pressure breathing, and the effect is the same whether lung volume is increased during or after aerosol administration. The effect of lung volume must be recognized when interpreting the results of this method.

  19. Effect of increases in lung volume on clearance of aerosolized solute from human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, J.D.; Luce, J.M.; Lazar, N.M.; Wu, J.N.; Lipavsky, A.; Murray, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    To study the effect of increases in lung volume on solute uptake, we measured clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-DTPA) at different lung volumes in 19 healthy humans. Seven subjects inhaled aerosols (1 micron activity median aerodynamic diam) at ambient pressure; clearance and functional residual capacity (FRC) were measured at ambient pressure (control) and at increased lung volume produced by positive pressure [12 cmH 2 O continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)] or negative pressure (voluntary breathing). Six different subjects inhaled aerosol at ambient pressure; clearance and FRC were measured at ambient pressure and CPAP of 6, 12, and 18 cmH 2 O pressure. Six additional subjects inhaled aerosol at ambient pressure or at CPAP of 12 cmH 2 O; clearance and FRC were determined at CPAP of 12 cmH 2 O. According to the results, Tc-DTPA clearance from human lungs is accelerated exponentially by increases in lung volume, this effect occurs whether lung volume is increased by positive or negative pressure breathing, and the effect is the same whether lung volume is increased during or after aerosol administration. The effect of lung volume must be recognized when interpreting the results of this method

  20. Silica inhalation altered telomere length and gene expression of telomere regulatory proteins in lung tissue of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeb, Mohammad; Joseph, Pius; Kodali, Vamsi; Mustafa, Gul; Farris, Breanne Y; Umbright, Christina; Roberts, Jenny R; Erdely, Aaron; Antonini, James M

    2017-12-11

    Exposure to silica can cause lung fibrosis and cancer. Identification of molecular targets is important for the intervention and/or prevention of silica-induced lung diseases. Telomeres consist of tandem repeats of DNA sequences at the end of chromosomes, preventing chromosomal fusion and degradation. Regulator of telomere length-1 (RTEL1) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), genes involved in telomere regulation and function, play important roles in maintaining telomere integrity and length. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of silica inhalation on telomere length and the regulation of RTEL1 and TERT. Lung tissues and blood samples were collected from rats at 4, 32, and 44 wk after exposure to 15 mg/m 3 of silica × 6 h/d × 5 d. Controls were exposed to air. At all-time points, RTEL1 expression was significantly decreased in lung tissue of the silica-exposed animals compared to controls. Also, significant increases in telomere length and TERT were observed in the silica group at 4 and 32 wk. Telomere length, RTEL1 and TERT expression may serve as potential biomarkers related to silica exposure and may offer insight into the molecular mechanism of silica-induced lung disease and tumorigeneses.

  1. Sustained Aeration of Infant Lungs (SAIL) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglia, Elizabeth E; Owen, Louise S; Thio, Marta; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Lista, Gianluca; Te Pas, Arjan; Hummler, Helmut; Nadkarni, Vinay; Ades, Anne; Posencheg, Michael; Keszler, Martin; Davis, Peter; Kirpalani, Haresh

    2015-03-15

    Extremely preterm infants require assistance recruiting the lung to establish a functional residual capacity after birth. Sustained inflation (SI) combined with positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) may be a superior method of aerating the lung compared with intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) with PEEP in extremely preterm infants. The Sustained Aeration of Infant Lungs (SAIL) trial was designed to study this question. This multisite prospective randomized controlled unblinded trial will recruit 600 infants of 23 to 26 weeks gestational age who require respiratory support at birth. Infants in both arms will be treated with PEEP 5 to 7 cm H2O throughout the resuscitation. The study intervention consists of performing an initial SI (20 cm H20 for 15 seconds) followed by a second SI (25 cm H2O for 15 seconds), and then PEEP with or without IPPV, as needed. The control group will be treated with initial IPPV with PEEP. The primary outcome is the combined endpoint of bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death at 36 weeks post-menstrual age. www.clinicaltrials.gov , Trial identifier NCT02139800 , Registered 13 May 2014.

  2. New estimates for human lung dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Christine; Sidavasan, Sivalal; Kramer, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The currently used lung dimensions in dosimetry were originally estimated in the 1940s from Army recruits. This study provides new estimates of lung dimensions based on images acquired from a sample from the general population (varying age and sex). Building accurate models, called phantoms, of the human lung requires that the spatial dimensions (length, width, and depth) be quantified, in addition to volume. Errors in dose estimates may result from improperly sized lungs as the counting efficiency of externally mounted detectors (e.g., in a lung counter) is dependent on the position of internally deposited radioactive material (i.e., the size of the lung). This study investigates the spatial dimensions of human lungs. Lung phantoms have previously been made in one of two sizes. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Torso Phantom (LLNL) has deep, short lungs whose dimensions do not comply well with the data published in Report 23 (Reference Man) issued by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute Torso Phantom(JAERI), has longer, shallower lungs that also deviate from the ICRP values. However, careful examination of the ICRP recommended values shows that they are soft. In fact, they have been dropped from the ICRP's Report 89 which updates Report 23. Literature surveys have revealed a wealth of information on lung volume, but very little data on the spatial dimensions of human lungs. Better lung phantoms need to be constructed to more accurately represent a person so that dose estimates may be quantified more accurately in view of the new, lower, dose limits for occupationally exposed workers and the general public. Retrospective chest images of 60 patients who underwent imaging of the chest- lungs as part of their healthy persons occupational screening for lung disease were chosen. The chosen normal lung images represent the general population). Ages, gender and weight of the

  3. The assessment and impact of sarcopenia in lung cancer: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jemima; Noble, Simon; Chester, John; Coles, Bernadette; Byrne, Anthony

    2014-01-02

    There is growing awareness of the relationship between sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass and function), and outcomes in cancer, making it a potential target for future therapies. In order to inform future research and practice, we undertook a systematic review of factors associated with loss of muscle mass, and the relationship between muscle function and muscle mass in lung cancer, a common condition associated with poor outcomes. We conducted a computerised systematic literature search on five databases. Studies were included if they explored muscle mass as an outcome measure in patients with lung cancer, and were published in English. Secondary care. Patients with lung cancer. Factors associated with loss of muscle mass and muscle function, or sarcopenia, and the clinical impact thereof in patients with lung cancer. We reviewed 5726 citations, and 35 articles were selected for analysis. Sarcopenia, as defined by reduced muscle mass alone, was found to be very prevalent in patients with lung cancer, regardless of body mass index, and where present was associated with poorer functional status and overall survival. There were diverse studies exploring molecular and metabolic factors in the development of loss of muscle mass; however, the precise mechanisms that contribute to sarcopenia and cachexia remain uncertain. The effect of nutritional supplements and ATP infusions on muscle mass showed conflicting results. There are very limited data on the correlation between degree of sarcopenia and muscle function, which has a non-linear relationship in older non-cancer populations. Loss of muscle mass is a significant contributor to morbidity in patients with lung cancer. Loss of muscle mass and function may predate clinically overt cachexia, underlining the importance of evaluating sarcopenia, rather than weight loss alone. Understanding this relationship and its associated factors will provide opportunities for focused intervention to improve clinical outcomes.

  4. Measurement of lung tissue dynamics in artificially ventilated rats with optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnabel Christian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of lung tissue and the airways become a major task for medical care and health care systems in modern industrial countries in the future. Suitable treatment methods and strategies for lung support and artificial ventilation are of dare need. Besides the obvious importance as life-saving intervention, the effects of usually used over-pressure ventilation onto the sensitive alveolar tissue are insufficiently understood. Therefore, it is of great interest to characterize lung tissue during artificial ventilation at the alveolar level. Those measurements can be used to link micromechanics of alveolar structures to mechanical properties of the whole lung like compliance and resistance measured at the ventilator device. This can be done only in animal experiments due to the fact that imaging techniques used in human diagnostics like CT or MRT fail to resolve alveolar tissue structures. The disadvantage of high-resolution techniques like optical coherence tomography (OCT or intravital microscopy (IVM is the need of a surgical access to the lung due to the limitation in penetration depth of these techniques. Furthermore, imaging dynamic processes with high-resolution imaging techniques during uninterrupted artificial ventilation is a challenging task. In this study, we present a measurement setup for combined imaging of conventional pressure-controlled ventilated rats and the visualization of volume changes of alveolar structures during one cycle of breath. A custom-made OCT system in combination with a triggered scanning algorithm was used to acquire time-resolved 3D OCT image data. Furthermore, this system was combined with a self-adapting autofocus function for intravital microscopy to track the lung surface keeping the tissue in focal plane. The combination of new dynamic measurement modes for OCT and IVM allows new insights into alveolar tissue and will promote the understanding of mechanical behavior during artificial ventilation.

  5. Cross-Disciplinary Analysis of Lymph Node Classification in Lung Cancer on CT Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherief, Ahmed H; Lau, Charles T; Obuchowski, Nancy A; Mehta, Atul C; Rice, Thomas W; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2017-04-01

    Accurate and consistent regional lymph node classification is an important element in the staging and multidisciplinary management of lung cancer. Regional lymph node definition sets-lymph node maps-have been created to standardize regional lymph node classification. In 2009, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) introduced a lymph node map to supersede all preexisting lymph node maps. Our aim was to study if and how lung cancer specialists apply the IASLC lymph node map when classifying thoracic lymph nodes encountered on CT scans during lung cancer staging. From April 2013 through July 2013, invitations were distributed to all members of the Fleischner Society, Society of Thoracic Radiology, General Thoracic Surgical Club, and the American Association of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology to participate in an anonymous online image-based and text-based 20-question survey regarding lymph node classification for lung cancer staging on CT imaging. Three hundred thirty-seven people responded (approximately 25% participation). Respondents consisted of self-reported thoracic radiologists (n = 158), thoracic surgeons (n = 102), and pulmonologists who perform endobronchial ultrasonography (n = 77). Half of the respondents (50%; 95% CI, 44%-55%) reported using the IASLC lymph node map in daily practice, with no significant differences between subspecialties. A disparity was observed between the IASLC definition sets and their interpretation and application on CT scans, in particular for lymph nodes near the thoracic inlet, anterior to the trachea, anterior to the tracheal bifurcation, near the ligamentum arteriosum, between the bronchus intermedius and esophagus, in the internal mammary space, and adjacent to the heart. Use of older lymph node maps and inconsistencies in interpretation and application of definitions in the IASLC lymph node map may potentially lead to misclassification of stage and suboptimal management of lung

  6. Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  7. SU-G-JeP1-06: Correlation of Lung Tumor Motion with Tumor Location Using Electromagnetic Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muccigrosso, D; Maughan, N; Parikh, P [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Schultejans, H; Bera, R [Lindbergh High School, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: It is well known that lung tumors move with respiration. However, most measurements of lung tumor motion have studied long treatment times with intermittent imaging; those populations may not necessarily represent conventional LINAC patients. We summarized the correlation between tumor motion and location in a multi-institutional trial with electromagnetic tracking, and identified the patient cohort that would most benefit from respiratory gating. Methods: Continuous electromagnetic transponder data (Varian Medical, Seattle, WA) of lung tumor motion was collected from 14 patients (214 total fractions) across 3 institutions during external beam radiation therapy in a prospective clinical trial (NCT01396551). External intervention from the clinician, such as couch shifts, instructed breath-holds, and acquisition pauses, were manually removed from the 10 Hz tracking data according to recorded notes. The average three-dimensional displacement from the breathing cycle’s end-expiratory to end-inhalation phases (peak-to-peak distance) of the transponders’ isocenter was calculated for each patient’s treatment. A weighted average of each isocenter was used to assess the effects of location on motion. A total of 14 patients were included in this analysis, grouped by their transponders’ location in the lung: upper, medial, and lower. Results: 8 patients had transponders in the upper lung, and 3 patients each in the medial lobe and lower lung. The weighted average ± standard deviation of all peak-to-peak distances for each group was: 1.04 ± 0.39 cm in the lower lung, 0.56 ± 0.14 cm in the medial lung, and 0.30 ± 0.06 cm in the upper lung. Conclusion: Tumors in the lower lung are most susceptible to excessive motion and daily variation, and would benefit most from continuous motion tracking and gating. Those in the medial lobe might be at moderate risk. The upper lobes have limited motion. These results can guide different motion management strategies

  8. Hypercapnic acidosis modulates inflammation, lung mechanics, and edema in the isolated perfused lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Hilde R; Bersten, Andrew D; Barr, Heather A; Doyle, Ian R

    2007-12-01

    Low tidal volume (V(T)) ventilation strategies may be associated with permissive hypercapnia, which has been shown by ex vivo and in vivo studies to have protective effects. We hypothesized that hypercapnic acidosis may be synergistic with low V(T) ventilation; therefore, we studied the effects of hypercapnia and V(T) on unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated isolated perfused lungs. Isolated perfused rat lungs were ventilated for 2 hours with low (7 mL/kg) or moderately high (20 mL/kg) V(T) and 5% or 20% CO(2), with lipopolysaccharide or saline added to the perfusate. Hypercapnia resulted in reduced pulmonary edema, lung stiffness, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the lavage and perfusate. The moderately high V(T) did not cause lung injury but increased lavage IL-6 and perfusate IL-6 as well as TNF-alpha. Pulmonary edema and respiratory mechanics improved, possibly as a result of a stretch-induced increase in surfactant turnover. Lipopolysaccharide did not induce significant lung injury. We conclude that hypercapnia exerts a protective effect by modulating inflammation, lung mechanics, and edema. The moderately high V(T) used in this study stimulated inflammation but paradoxically improved edema and lung mechanics with an associated increase in surfactant release.

  9. Factors influencing the decline in lung density in a Danish lung cancer screening cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher B.; Dirksen, Asger; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer screening trials provide an opportunity to study the natural history of emphysema by using CT lung density as a surrogate parameter.In the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 2,052 participants were included. At screening rounds, smoking habits were recorded and spirometry was performed....... CT lung density was measured as the volume-adjusted 15th percentile density (PD15). A mixed effects model was used with former smoking males with...

  10. Cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk: Pooled analysis in the International Lung Cancer Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.R.; Morgenstern, H.; Greenland, S.; Chang, S.C.; Lazarus, P.; Teare, M.D.; Woll, P.J.; Orlow, I.; Cox, B.; Brhane, Y.; Liu, G.; Hung, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk, data on 2,159 lung cancer cases and 2,985 controls were pooled from 6 case-control studies in the US, Canada, UK, and New Zealand within the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Study-specific associations between cannabis smoking and lung cancer were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographic factors, tobacco smoking status and pack-years; odds-ratio estimates were pooled usin...

  11. Measurement of lung volume by lung perfusion scanning using SPECT and prediction of postoperative respiratory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andou, Akio; Shimizu, Nobuyosi; Maruyama, Shuichiro

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of lung volume by lung perfusion scanning using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and its usefulness for the prediction of respiratory function after lung resection were investigated. The lung volumes calculated in 5 patients by SPECT (threshold level 20%) using 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA), related very closely to the actually measured lung volumes. This results prompted us to calculate the total lung volume and the volume of the lobe to be resected in 18 patients with lung cancer by SPECT. Based on the data obtained, postoperative respiratory function was predicted. The predicted values of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV 1.0 ), and maximum vital volume (MVV) showed closer correlations with the actually measured postoperative values (FVC, FEV 1.0 , MVV : r=0.944, r=0.917, r=0.795 respectively), than the values predicted by the ordinary lung perfusion scanning. This method facilitates more detailed evaluation of local lung function on a lobe-by-lobe basis, and can be applied clinically to predict postoperative respiratory function. (author)

  12. Lung release of HIPDM: A new index of lung dysfunction for clinical and experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistolesi, M.; Miniati, M.; Ghelarducci, L.

    1985-01-01

    Lung uptake, metabolism and release of amines has been experimentally documented. The authors studied in rabbit and man the lung kinetics of radioiodinated N-N-N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1, 3-propanediamine (HIPDM). In rabbits, after i.v. injection, 95% of HIPDM is kept within the lungs and is then released with a mean time (t-bar) of several hours as assessed both in vivo, by gamma camera external counting (n=5; t-bar=7.0 hrs), and in vitro by measuring activity in lung homogenates at various times after injection (n=56; t-bar=7.6 hrs). In 10 healthy non smoking subjects t-bar was 6.4 +- 1 hrs, whereas it was 12.1 +- 2 hrs in 10 asymptomatic smokers with normal pulmonary function tests. Preliminary clinical studies showed that HIPDM lung release is delayed in non smoking patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (n=4; t-bar=11.5 +- 2 hrs) and to a greater extent in adult respiratory distress syndrome (n=4; t-bar=25.8 +- 5hrs), whereas it was not significantly affected in cardiogenic pulmonary edema (n=4; t-bar=8.8 +- 2 hrs). Hence, both smoke exposure and injury to the lung microcirculation may impair HIPDM lung kinetics. HIPDM external counting may therefore provide a new index of lung dysfunction in man. Rabbit can be used as a model to evaluate HIPDM lung kinetics in experimentally induced lung injury

  13. The aging lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowery EM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Erin M Lowery,1 Aleah L Brubaker,2 Erica Kuhlmann,1 Elizabeth J Kovacs31Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine at Loyola University Medical Center, 2Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USAAbstract: There are many age-associated changes in the respiratory and pulmonary immune system. These changes include decreases in the volume of the thoracic cavity, reduced lung volumes, and alterations in the muscles that aid respiration. Muscle function on a cellular level in the aging population is less efficient. The elderly population has less pulmonary reserve, and cough strength is decreased in the elderly population due to anatomic changes and muscle atrophy. Clearance of particles from the lung through the mucociliary elevator is decreased and associated with ciliary dysfunction. Many complex changes in immunity with aging contribute to increased susceptibility to infections including a less robust immune response from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Considering all of these age-related changes to the lungs, pulmonary disease has significant consequences for the aging population. Chronic lower respiratory tract disease is the third leading cause of death in people aged 65 years and older. With a large and growing aging population, it is critical to understand how the body changes with age and how this impacts the entire respiratory system. Understanding the aging process in the lung is necessary in order to provide optimal care to our aging population. This review focuses on the nonpathologic aging process in the lung, including structural changes, changes in muscle function, and pulmonary immunologic function, with special consideration of obstructive lung disease in the elderly.Keywords: aging, lung, pulmonary immunology, COPD

  14. Lung deformations and radiation-induced regional lung collapse in patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diot, Quentin, E-mail: quentin.diot@ucdenver.edu; Kavanagh, Brian; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Gaspar, Laurie; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Garg, Kavita [Department of Radiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To differentiate radiation-induced fibrosis from regional lung collapse outside of the high dose region in patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung tumors. Methods: Lung deformation maps were computed from pre-treatment and post-treatment computed tomography (CT) scans using a point-to-point translation method. Fifty anatomical landmarks inside the lung (vessel or airway branches) were matched on planning and follow-up scans for the computation process. Two methods using the deformation maps were developed to differentiate regional lung collapse from fibrosis: vector field and Jacobian methods. A total of 40 planning and follow-ups CT scans were analyzed for 20 lung SBRT patients. Results: Regional lung collapse was detected in 15 patients (75%) using the vector field method, in ten patients (50%) using the Jacobian method, and in 12 patients (60%) by radiologists. In terms of sensitivity and specificity the Jacobian method performed better. Only weak correlations were observed between the dose to the proximal airways and the occurrence of regional lung collapse. Conclusions: The authors presented and evaluated two novel methods using anatomical lung deformations to investigate lung collapse and fibrosis caused by SBRT treatment. Differentiation of these distinct physiological mechanisms beyond what is usually labeled “fibrosis” is necessary for accurate modeling of lung SBRT-induced injuries. With the help of better models, it becomes possible to expand the therapeutic benefits of SBRT to a larger population of lung patients with large or centrally located tumors that were previously considered ineligible.

  15. Effective treatment with icotinib in lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR and ALK co-alterations and brain metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye CY

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chenyang Ye,1,* Ji Wang,2,* Shu Zheng,1 Ying Chai3 1Cancer Institute, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Intervention, National Ministry of Education, Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Medical Sciences, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 2Department of Surgical Oncology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 3Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: We report a rare case of advanced lung cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase co-alterations and brain metastasis, in which icotinib treatment was effective for both the primary lung tumor and the brain metastasis. The patient achieved important clinical remission with a progression-free survival for two years. Our treatment strategy appears to be a promising therapeutic approach for this subgroup of patients. Keywords: lung cancer, brain metastasis, EGFR, ALK, icotinib

  16. Ex vivo lung perfusion in clinical lung transplantation--state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasson, Anders S I; Dark, John H; Fisher, Andrew J

    2014-11-01

    Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has emerged as a new technique for assessing and potentially reconditioning human donor lungs previously unacceptable for clinical transplantation with the potential to dramatically push the limits of organ acceptability. With the recent introduction of portable EVLP, a new era in lung preservation may be upon us with the opportunity to also limit organ ischaemic times and potentially improve the outcome of donor lungs already deemed acceptable for transplantation. It took over half a century for the technique to evolve from basic theory to semi-automated circuits fit for clinical use that are now rapidly being adopted in transplant centres across the globe. With this field in constant evolution and many unanswered questions remaining, our review serves as an update on the state of the art of EVLP in clinical lung transplantation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  17. Lung fibrosis in deceased HIV-infected patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica J Shaddock

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP is one of the most common opportunistic infections found in patients with HIV. The prognosis if ventilation is required is poor, with mortality of 36 - 80%. Although more recent studies have shown improved survival, our experience has been that close to 100% of such patients die, and we therefore decided to investigate further. Methods. All patients with confirmed or suspected PcP who died owing to respiratory failure were eligible for the study. Where consent was obtained, trucut lung biopsies were performed post mortem, stored in formalin and sent for histopathological assessment. Results. Twelve adequate lung biopsies were obtained from 1 July 2008 to 28 February 2011 – 3 from men and 9 from women. The mean age was 34.7 years (range 24 - 46, and the mean admission CD4 count was 20.8 (range 1 - 68 cells/μl and median 18.5 cells/μl. All specimens demonstrated typical PcP histopathology; in addition, 9 showed significant interstitial fibrosis. Three had co-infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV, two of which had fibrosis present. There was no evidence of TB or other fungal infections. Conclusion. The high mortality seen in this cohort of PcP patients was due to intractable respiratory failure from interstitial lung fibrosis. whereas the differential includes ventilator induced lung injury, drug resistance or co-infections, we suggest that this is part of the disease progression in certain individuals. Further studies are required to identify interventions that could modify this process and improve outcomes in patients with PcP who require mechanical ventilation. S Afr J HIV Med 2012;13(2:64-67.

  18. Alveolar epithelial fluid transport capacity in reperfusion lung injury after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, L B; Golden, J A; Finkbeiner, W E; Matthay, M A

    1999-03-01

    Reperfusion lung injury is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic lung transplantation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the function of the alveolar epithelium in the setting of reperfusion lung injury. Simultaneous samples of pulmonary edema fluid and plasma were collected from eight patients with severe post-transplantation reperfusion edema. The edema fluid to plasma protein ratio was measured, an indicator of alveolar-capillary barrier permeability. The initial edema fluid to plasma protein ratio was > 0.75 in six of eight patients, confirming the presence of increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier. Graft ischemic time was positively correlated with the degree of permeability (r = 0.77, p mean +/- SD). Alveolar fluid clearance was calculated from serial samples in six patients. Intact alveolar fluid clearance correlated with less histologic injury, rapid resolution of hypoxemia, and more rapid resolution of radiographic infiltrates. The two patients with no net alveolar fluid clearance had persistent hypoxemia and more severe histologic injury. This study provides the first direct evidence that increased permeability to protein is the usual cause of reperfusion edema after lung transplantation, with longer ischemic times associated with greater permeability to protein in the transplanted lung. The high rates of alveolar fluid clearance indicate that the fluid transport capacity of the alveolar epithelium may be well preserved in the allograft despite reperfusion lung injury. The ability to reabsorb fluid from the alveolar space was a marker of less severe reperfusion injury, whereas the degree of alveolar-capillary barrier permeability to protein was not. Measurement of alveolar fluid clearance may be useful to assess the severity of reperfusion lung injury and to predict outcome when pulmonary edema develops after lung transplantation.

  19. Captopril reduces collagen and mast cell accumulation in irradiated rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, W.F.; Molteni, A.; Ts'ao, C.H.; Hinz, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril ameliorates radiation-induced pulmonary endothelial dysfunction in rats. The present study determined whether captopril also reduces collagen (hydroxyproline) accumulation in the lungs of rats sacrificed 2 months after a range of single doses (0-30 Gy) of 60Co gamma rays to the right hemithorax. Captopril was administered in the feed at a regimen of 0, 25, or 50 mg/kg/day continuously after irradiation. Mast cell counts also were obtained from lungs of all animals exposed to 30 Gy. In rats receiving no captopril, there was a radiation dose-dependent increase in right lung hydroxyproline (HP) content and in HP concentration per g wet weight. Captopril produced a drug dose-dependent suppression in this radiation-induced HP accumulation. At a dose of 50 mg/kg/d, captopril reduced the slope of the radiation dose response curve for lung HP content by a factor of 1.7, and completely prevented the increase in HP concentration. At an isoeffect level of 550 micrograms HP per right superior lobe, this dose of captopril exhibited a DRF of 1.7 +/- 0.2. In rats exposed to 30 Gy, moreover, the number of mast cells per mm2 of alveolar cross-sectional surface area decreased from 105 +/- 8 to 100 +/- 7 and 59 +/- 5 in the groups given 0, 25 or 50 mg/kg/d of captopril, respectively, (vs none in sham-irradiated rats). These data are the first to demonstrate that the ACE inhibitor captopril might provide a novel intervention in the pathogenesis of radiation fibrosis

  20. Early cystic fibrosis lung disease: Role of airway surface dehydration and lessons from preventive rehydration therapies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Marcus A; Graeber, Simon Y; Stahl, Mirjam; Zhou-Suckow, Zhe

    2014-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease starts in the first months of life and remains one of the most common fatal hereditary diseases. Early therapeutic interventions may provide an opportunity to prevent irreversible lung damage and improve outcome. Airway surface dehydration is a key disease mechanism in CF, however, its role in the in vivo pathogenesis and as therapeutic target in early lung disease remains poorly understood. Mice with airway-specific overexpression of the epithelial Na(+) channel (βENaC-Tg) recapitulate airway surface dehydration and phenocopy CF lung disease. Recent studies in neonatal βENaC-Tg mice demonstrated that airway surface dehydration produces early mucus plugging in the absence of mucus hypersecretion, which triggers airway inflammation, promotes bacterial infection and causes early mortality. Preventive rehydration therapy with hypertonic saline or amiloride effectively reduced mucus plugging and mortality in neonatal βENaC-Tg mice. These results support clinical testing of preventive/early rehydration strategies in infants and young children with CF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. SU-E-J-249: Correlation of Mean Lung Ventilation Value with Ratio of Total Lung Volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, N; Qu, H; Xia, P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Lung ventilation function measured from 4D-CT and from breathing correlated CT images is a novel concept to incorporate the lung physiologic function into treatment planning of radiotherapy. The calculated ventilation functions may vary from different breathing patterns, affecting evaluation of the treatment plans. The purpose of this study is to correlate the mean lung ventilation value with the ratio of the total lung volumes obtained from the relevant CTs. Methods: A ventilation map was calculated from the variations of voxel-to-voxel CT densities from two breathing phases from either 4D-CT or breathing correlated CTs. An open source image registration tool of Plastimatch was used to deform the inhale phase images to the exhale phase images. To calculate the ventilation map inside lung, the whole lung was delineated and the tissue outside the lung was masked out. With a software tool developed in house, the 3D ventilation map was then converted in the DICOM format associated with the planning CT images. The ventilation map was analyzed on a clinical workstation. To correlate ventilation map thus calculated with lung volume change, the total lung volume change was compared the mean ventilation from our method. Results: Twenty two patients who underwent stereotactic body irradiation for lung cancer was selected for this retrospective study. For this group of patients, the ratio of lung volumes for the inhale (Vin ) and exhale phase (Vex ) was shown to be linearly related to the mean of the local ventilation (Vent), Vin/Vex=1.+0.49*Vent (R2=0.93, p<0.01). Conclusion: The total lung volume change is highly correlated with the mean of local ventilation. The mean of local ventilation may be useful to assess the patient's lung capacity

  2. The effect of irradiation on lung function and perfusion in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abratt, Raymond P.; Willcox, Paul A.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively study the changes in lung function in patients with lung carcinoma treated with relatively high doses of irradiation. Methods and Materials: Lung function was assessed prior to and at 6 and 12 months following radiation therapy by a clinical dyspnea score, formal pulmonary function tests (lung volume spirometry and diffusion capacity) as well as an ipsilateral hemithorax lung perfusion scan. Changes in dyspnea score were evaluated by the chi-square and the Fishers exact test. Changes in formal lung function tests were compared with the t-test for dependent data and correlations with the t-test for independent data. Fifty-one patients were entered into the study. There were 42 evaluable patients at 6 months after irradiation and 22 evaluable patients at 12 months after irradiation. Results: A worsening of dyspnea score from 1 to 2, which is clinically acceptable, occurred in 50% or more of patients. However, a dyspnea score of 3, which is a serious complication, developed in only 5% of patients. The diffusion capacity (DLCO) decreased by 14% at 6 months and 12% at 12 months) (p < 0.0001). The forced vital capacity and total lung capacity decreased between 6% and 8% at 6 month and 12 months, which was statistically significant. The forced expiratory volume in 1 s decreased between 2 and 3% at 6 month and 12 months, which was not statistically significant. The ipsilateral hemithorax perfusion decreased by 17 and 20% at 6 and 12 months (p < 0.0001). There was no correlation between the initial hemithorax perfusion, or its decrease at follow up and the decrease in DLCO. Conclusion: Lung irradiation results in some loss of lung function in patients with lung cancer with a projected survival of 6 months or more. The pretreatment DLCO assessment should be useful in predicting clinical tolerance to irradiation

  3. Obesity-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Causes Lung Endothelial Dysfunction and Promotes Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Guo, Zhi; Sun, Jianxin; Li, Jonathan; Kallen, Caleb B; Naik, Ulhas P; Summer, Ross

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. We recently showed that diet-induced obese mice exhibit pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with enhanced susceptibility to LPS-induced acute lung injury. Here, we demonstrate that lung endothelial dysfunction in diet-induced obese mice coincides with increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Specifically, we observed enhanced expression of the major sensors of misfolded proteins, including protein kinase R-like ER kinase, inositol-requiring enzyme α, and activating transcription factor 6, in whole lung and in primary lung endothelial cells isolated from diet-induced obese mice. Furthermore, we found that primary lung endothelial cells exposed to serum from obese mice, or to saturated fatty acids that mimic obese serum, resulted in enhanced expression of markers of ER stress and the induction of other biological responses that typify the lung endothelium of diet-induced obese mice, including an increase in expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and a decrease in expression of endothelial cell-cell junctional proteins. Similar changes were observed in lung endothelial cells and in whole-lung tissue after exposure to tunicamycin, a compound that causes ER stress by blocking N-linked glycosylation, indicating that ER stress causes endothelial dysfunction in the lung. Treatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical protein chaperone that reduces ER stress, restored vascular endothelial cell expression of adhesion molecules and protected against LPS-induced acute lung injury in diet-induced obese mice. Our work indicates that fatty acids in obese serum induce ER stress in the pulmonary endothelium, leading to pulmonary endothelial cell dysfunction. Our work suggests that reducing protein load in the ER of pulmonary endothelial cells might protect against acute respiratory distress syndrome in obese

  4. Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) / Microwave Ablation (MWA) of Lung Tumors ... and Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors? What are Radiofrequency and Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors? Radiofrequency ablation, ...

  5. Automated volume of interest delineation and rendering of cone beam CT images in interventional cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Cristian; Schäfer, Dirk; Eshuis, Peter; Carroll, John; Grass, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Interventional C-arm systems allow the efficient acquisition of 3D cone beam CT images. They can be used for intervention planning, navigation, and outcome assessment. We present a fast and completely automated volume of interest (VOI) delineation for cardiac interventions, covering the whole visceral cavity including mediastinum and lungs but leaving out rib-cage and spine. The problem is addressed in a model based approach. The procedure has been evaluated on 22 patient cases and achieves an average surface error below 2mm. The method is able to cope with varying image intensities, varying truncations due to the limited reconstruction volume, and partially with heavy metal and motion artifacts.

  6. Factors influencing the decline in lung density in a Danish lung cancer screening cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.B. Shaker (Saher); A. Dirksen (Asger); P. Lo (Pechin); L.T. Skovgaard (Lene); M. de Bruijne (Marleen); J.H. Pedersen (Jerry)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer screening trials provide an opportunity to study the natural history of emphysema by using computed tomography (CT) lung density as a surrogate parameter. In the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 2,052 participants were included. At screening rounds, smoking habits were

  7. Partial liquid ventilation improves lung function in ventilation-induced lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Vazquez de Anda; R.A. Lachmann; S.J.C. Verbrugge (Serge); D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik); J.J. Haitsma (Jack); B.F. Lachmann (Burkhard)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractDisturbances in lung function and lung mechanics are present after ventilation with high peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) and low levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Therefore, the authors investigated whether partial liquid ventilation can re-establish

  8. Independent lung ventilation in a newborn with asymmetric acute lung injury due to respiratory syncytial virus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Nardo Matteo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Independent lung ventilation is a form of protective ventilation strategy used in adult asymmetric acute lung injury, where the application of conventional mechanical ventilation can produce ventilator-induced lung injury and ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Only a few experiences have been published on the use of independent lung ventilation in newborn patients. Case presentation We present a case of independent lung ventilation in a 16-day-old infant of 3.5 kg body weight who had an asymmetric lung injury due to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. We used independent lung ventilation applying conventional protective pressure controlled ventilation to the less-compromised lung, with a respiratory frequency proportional to the age of the patient, and a pressure controlled high-frequency ventilation to the atelectatic lung. This was done because a single tube conventional ventilation protective strategy would have exposed the less-compromised lung to a high mean airways pressure. The target of independent lung ventilation is to provide adequate gas exchange at a safe mean airways pressure level and to expand the atelectatic lung. Independent lung ventilation was accomplished for 24 hours. Daily chest radiograph and gas exchange were used to evaluate the efficacy of independent lung ventilation. Extubation was performed after 48 hours of conventional single-tube mechanical ventilation following independent lung ventilation. Conclusion This case report demonstrates the feasibility of independent lung ventilation with two separate tubes in neonates as a treatment of an asymmetric acute lung injury.

  9. Radiation pneumonitis: generalised lung changes detected by radionuclide imaging following focal lung irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.; Sephton, R.; Irving, L.; Crennan, E.

    1992-01-01

    The usefulness of a nuclear imaging technique as a means of detecting radiation-induced lung injury is examined. The technique involves the patient inhaling modified technegas TM , a gas-like radiotracer which is an ultra fine particulate dispersion. This crosses the alveolar-capillary membrane and the clearance rate of the tracer from the lungs is presumed to reflect membrane permeability. A case of a patient who, after receiving localised radiotherapy and chemotherapy for lung cancer, developed symptoms and signs of radiation pneumonitis is reported. Pre- and post-radiotherapy investigations using the nuclear technique showed acceleration of rates of tracer clearance from both lungs, consistent with generalised changes in alveolar-capillary membrane permeability. It is suggested that the symptoms of radiation pneumonitis may in part result from pathophysiologic changes in nonirradiated lung which may appear radiologically normal. 4 refs., 2 figs

  10. Noninvasive Computed Tomography-based Risk Stratification of Lung Adenocarcinomas in the National Lung Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Fabien; Duan, Fenghai; Raghunath, Sushravya M; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A; Garg, Kavita; Greco, Erin; Nath, Hrudaya; Robb, Richard A; Bartholmai, Brian J; Peikert, Tobias

    2015-09-15

    Screening for lung cancer using low-dose computed tomography (CT) reduces lung cancer mortality. However, in addition to a high rate of benign nodules, lung cancer screening detects a large number of indolent cancers that generally belong to the adenocarcinoma spectrum. Individualized management of screen-detected adenocarcinomas would be facilitated by noninvasive risk stratification. To validate that Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield (CANARY), a novel image analysis software, successfully risk stratifies screen-detected lung adenocarcinomas based on clinical disease outcomes. We identified retrospective 294 eligible patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma spectrum lesions in the low-dose CT arm of the National Lung Screening Trial. The last low-dose CT scan before the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma was analyzed using CANARY blinded to clinical data. Based on their parametric CANARY signatures, all the lung adenocarcinoma nodules were risk stratified into three groups. CANARY risk groups were compared using survival analysis for progression-free survival. A total of 294 patients were included in the analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis of all the 294 adenocarcinoma nodules stratified into the Good, Intermediate, and Poor CANARY risk groups yielded distinct progression-free survival curves (P < 0.0001). This observation was confirmed in the unadjusted and adjusted (age, sex, race, and smoking status) progression-free survival analysis of all stage I cases. CANARY allows the noninvasive risk stratification of lung adenocarcinomas into three groups with distinct post-treatment progression-free survival. Our results suggest that CANARY could ultimately facilitate individualized management of incidentally or screen-detected lung adenocarcinomas.

  11. Comparative Study of Esophageal Self-expandable Metallic Stent Insertion and Gastrostomy Feeding for Dysphagia Caused by Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Min, Yang Won; Lee, Hyuk; Min, Byung Hoon; Lee, Joon Haeng; Rhee, Poong Lyul; Kim, Jae J

    2018-03-25

    Dysphagia is encountered in a large proportion of patients with lung cancer and is associated with malnutrition and a poor quality of life. This study compared the clinical outcomes of self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) insertion and percutaneous gastrostomy (PG) feeding for patients with lung cancer and dysphagia. A total of 261 patients with lung cancer, who underwent either SEMS insertion (stent group) or PG (gastrostomy group) as an initial treatment procedure for dysphagia between July 1997 and July 2015 at the Samsung Medical Center, were reviewed retrospectively, and 84 patients with esophageal obstruction were identified. The clinical outcomes, including the overall survival, additional intervention, complications, and post-procedural nutritional status in the two groups, were compared. Among the 84 patients finally analyzed, 68 patients received SEMS insertion and 16 had PG. The stent group had less cervical obstruction and more mid-esophageal obstruction than the gastrostomy group. The Kaplan-Meier curves revealed similar overall survival in the two groups. Multivariate analysis showed that the two modalities had similar survival rates (PG compared with SEMS insertion, hazard ratio 0.682, p=0.219). Fifteen patients (22.1%) in the stent group received additional intervention, whereas there was no case in the gastrostomy group (p=0.063). The decrease in the serum albumin level after the procedure was lower in the gastrostomy group than in the stent group (-0.20±0.54 g/dL vs. -0.65±0.57 g/dL, p=0.013). SEMS insertion and PG feeding for relieving dysphagia by lung cancer had a comparable survival outcome. On the other hand, PG was associated with a better nutritional status.

  12. Niacinamide mitigated the acute lung injury induced by phorbol myristate acetate in isolated rat's lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Chih; Hsieh, Nan-Kuang; Liou, Huey Ling; Chen, Hsing I

    2012-03-01

    Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) is a strong neutrophil activator and has been used to induce acute lung injury (ALI). Niacinamide (NAC) is a compound of B complex. It exerts protective effects on the ALI caused by various challenges. The purpose was to evaluate the protective effects of niacinamide (NAC) on the PMA-induced ALI and associated changes. The rat's lungs were isolated in situ and perfused with constant flow. A total of 60 isolated lungs were randomized into 6 groups to received Vehicle (DMSO 100 μg/g), PMA 4 μg/g (lung weight), cotreated with NAC 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/g (lung weight). There were 10 isolated lungs in each group. We measured the lung weight and parameters related to ALI. The pulmonary arterial pressure and capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) were determined in isolated lungs. ATP (adenotriphosphate) and PARP [poly(adenosine diphophate-ribose) polymerase] contents in lung tissues were detected. Real-time PCR was employed to display the expression of inducible and endothelial NO synthases (iNOS and eNOS). The neutrophil-derived mediators in lung perfusate were determined. PMA caused increases in lung weight parameters. This agent produced pulmonary hypertension and increased microvascular permeability. It resulted in decrease in ATP and increase in PARP. The expression of iNOS and eNOS was upregulated following PMA. PMA increased the neutrophil-derived mediators. Pathological examination revealed lung edema and hemorrhage with inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemical stain disclosed the presence of iNOS-positive cells in macrophages and endothelial cells. These pathophysiological and biochemical changes were diminished by NAC treatment. The NAC effects were dose-dependent. Our results suggest that neutrophil activation and release of neutrophil-derived mediators by PMA cause ALI and associated changes. NO production through the iNOS-producing cells plays a detrimental role in the PMA-induced lung injury. ATP is beneficial

  13. Niacinamide mitigated the acute lung injury induced by phorbol myristate acetate in isolated rat's lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chia-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA is a strong neutrophil activator and has been used to induce acute lung injury (ALI. Niacinamide (NAC is a compound of B complex. It exerts protective effects on the ALI caused by various challenges. The purpose was to evaluate the protective effects of niacinamide (NAC on the PMA-induced ALI and associated changes. Methods The rat's lungs were isolated in situ and perfused with constant flow. A total of 60 isolated lungs were randomized into 6 groups to received Vehicle (DMSO 100 μg/g, PMA 4 μg/g (lung weight, cotreated with NAC 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/g (lung weight. There were 10 isolated lungs in each group. We measured the lung weight and parameters related to ALI. The pulmonary arterial pressure and capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc were determined in isolated lungs. ATP (adenotriphosphate and PARP [poly(adenosine diphophate-ribose polymerase] contents in lung tissues were detected. Real-time PCR was employed to display the expression of inducible and endothelial NO synthases (iNOS and eNOS. The neutrophil-derived mediators in lung perfusate were determined. Results PMA caused increases in lung weight parameters. This agent produced pulmonary hypertension and increased microvascular permeability. It resulted in decrease in ATP and increase in PARP. The expression of iNOS and eNOS was upregulated following PMA. PMA increased the neutrophil-derived mediators. Pathological examination revealed lung edema and hemorrhage with inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemical stain disclosed the presence of iNOS-positive cells in macrophages and endothelial cells. These pathophysiological and biochemical changes were diminished by NAC treatment. The NAC effects were dose-dependent. Conclusions Our results suggest that neutrophil activation and release of neutrophil-derived mediators by PMA cause ALI and associated changes. NO production through the iNOS-producing cells plays a detrimental

  14. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next three ...

  15. Microbiome overview in swine lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Maboni Siqueira

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of swine enzootic pneumonia. However other mycoplasma species and secondary bacteria are found as inhabitants of the swine respiratory tract, which can be also related to disease. In the present study we have performed a total DNA metagenomic analysis from the lungs of pigs kept in a field condition, with suggestive signals of enzootic pneumonia and without any infection signals to evaluate the bacteria variability of the lungs microbiota. Libraries from metagenomic DNA were prepared and sequenced using total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. The metagenomic distribution showed a great abundance of bacteria. The most common microbial families identified from pneumonic swine's lungs were Mycoplasmataceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae, whereas in the carrier swine's lungs the most common families were Mycoplasmataceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. Analysis of community composition in both samples confirmed the high prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae. Moreover, the carrier lungs had more diverse family population, which should be related to the lungs normal flora. In summary, we provide a wide view of the bacterial population from lungs with signals of enzootic pneumonia and lungs without signals of enzootic pneumonia in a field situation. These bacteria patterns provide information that may be important for the establishment of disease control measures and to give insights for further studies.

  16. Lung Cancer in uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chundi; Fan Jixiong; Wang Liuhu; Huang Yiehan; Nie Guanghua

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyese the clinical data of 39 uranium miners with lung cancer and of 20 patients with lung cancer who have not been exposed to uranium as control. The age of uranium miners with lung cancer was 36∼61 with an average of 48.8, nine years earlier than that of the control group (57.3). In the uranium miner patients the right lung was more susceptible to cancer than the left, the ratio being 2.5:1. However, in the control group the right lung had an equal incidence of cancer as the left lung. The relative frequency of small cell anaplastic carcinoma in uranium miner was higher than that in the control group. In the miner patients the mean occupation history was 11.1 ± 5.2 years; the exposure dose to radon and its daughters in 50% patients was 0.504J(120 WLM). The etiologic factor of lung cancer in uranium miners is strongly attributed, in addition to smoking, to the exposure to radon and its daughters in uranium mines

  17. Diagnostic Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in men and women. It is frequently seen among men than in women and male-female ratio is 1.5:1. Common epidemiological factors that increase risk of lung cancer is smoking. Early age to start smoking, high number of smoking cigarettes per a day and depth of inhalation increase risk of lung cancer. 25% of patients with lung cancer are nonsmokers that passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to substances such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel, beryllium, mustard gas increases the risk of lung cancer. The well defined risk factor is exposure to asbestos. In addition advanced age, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and genetic predisposition are the risk factors that increases lung cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 749-756

  18. Assessment and management of refractory breathlessness in interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, Lucy; Walthall, Helen

    2017-09-02

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) refers to a cluster of fibroinflammatory conditions. There are limited treatment options and most patients have severe dyspnoea. The prognosis is poor. This study aims to evaluate current literature on the assessment and management of refractory breathlessness in ILD. Few tools are available to assess dyspnoea in advanced respiratory disease. Holistic assessment requires a combination of tools but there are few disease specific tools. The role of opioids is well established in the reduction of breathlessness, but there is insufficient evidence that benzodiazepines are beneficial. Non-pharmcolological breathlessness intervention services can give patients mastery of their disease, reduced distress due to breathlessness and were more cost effective. More research on holistic interventions for use in advanced disease needs to be done. Patient-reported outcome measures could elicit valuable evidence to describe the benefit of breathlessness management services in advanced respiratory disease.

  19. Risk of lung cancer by radon, disagreement in international regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Pena, P.; Villamares, A.; Avelar, J. R.

    2013-10-01

    Diverse international organizations have evaluated the risk of lung cancer starting from epidemic studies in miners of uranium mines, where the corresponding effective dose was determined relating with the dose received by the population during Hiroshima and Nagasaki events. Alternately, the equivalent dose has been calculated by means of based models on the energy deposited by the breathable radon fractions and its decay products in the breathing ducts. A unique factor agreed by the diverse organizations that allows converting radon concentration to effective dose does not exist. Neither an agreement exists among the different countries on which duty to be the value of the maximum concentration of radon, in interiors starting from which an intervention is required and if this intervention is standardized, recommended or nonexistent. In this work study cases in Mexico are presented and their interpretation alternative based on the international agreements absence. (Author)

  20. Lung-protective ventilation in neonatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kaam, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is considered an important risk factor in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and is primarily caused by overdistension (volutrauma) and repetitive opening and collapse (atelectrauma) of terminal lung units. Lung-protective ventilation should

  1. Decay-Accelerating Factor Mitigates Controlled Hemorrhage-Instigated Intestinal and Lung Tissue Damage and Hyperkalemia in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    glucose , hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and ionized calcium (iCa2+) using i-STAT cartridges ( Abbott Laboratories...animals were observed for 200 minutes. Blood chemistry and physiological parameters were recorded. Tissue samples from lung and small intestine were...seemingly acceptable medical therapy and surgical intervention.4 The first physiologic response to severe blood loss is activation of the neuroendocrine

  2. Cryotherapy in Treating Patients With Lung Cancer That Has Spread to the Other Lung or Parts of the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Advanced Malignant Mesothelioma; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Lung Metastases; Recurrent Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  3. Disentegrating lung tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamedbekov, Eh.N.; Kyazimova, L.G.; Mamed''yarova, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical and roentgenological appearances of tuberculosis and tumoral lesions of bronchi and lungs are similar. It makes possible of wrong diagnosis of disease. Complications in diagnosis are connected with that fact that increase of frequency of pulmonary carcinoma both in patients with active tuberculosis and in persons with residual posttuberculous changes in respiratory organs is observed. Patients with specific processes in the lungs was presented. Additional X-ray examination was carried out on the base of clinical symptoms and results of X-ray examination. The diagnosis was established: disintegrating blastoma of the right lung with metastases to mediastinum lymph nodes

  4. Multimodal lung cancer screening using the ITALUNG biomarker panel and low dose computed tomography. Results of the ITALUNG biomarker study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Francesca Maria; Bisanzi, Simonetta; Carrozzi, Laura; Falaschi, Fabio; Lopes Pegna, Andrea; Mascalchi, Mario; Picozzi, Giulia; Peluso, Marco; Sani, Cristina; Greco, Luana; Ocello, Cristina; Paci, Eugenio

    2017-07-01

    Asymptomatic high-risk subjects, randomized in the intervention arm of the ITALUNG trial (1,406 screened for lung cancer), were enrolled for the ITALUNG biomarker study (n = 1,356), in which samples of blood and sputum were analyzed for plasma DNA quantification (cut off 5 ng/ml), loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability. The ITALUNG biomarker panel (IBP) was considered positive if at least one of the two biomarkers included in the panel was positive. Subjects with and without lung cancer diagnosis at the end of the screening cycle with LDCT (n = 517) were evaluated. Out of 18 baseline screen detected lung cancer cases, 17 were IBP positive (94%). Repeat screen-detected lung cancer cases were 18 and 12 of them positive at baseline IBP test (66%). Interval cancer cases (2-years) and biomarker tests after a suspect Non Calcific Nodule follow-up were investigated. The single test versus multimodal screening measures of accuracy were compared in a simulation within the screened ITALUNG intervention arm, considering screen-detected and interval cancer cases. Sensitivity was 90% at baseline screening. Specificity was 71 and 61% for LDCT and IBP as baseline single test, and improved at 89% with multimodal, combined screening. The positive predictive value was 4.3% for LDCT at baseline and 10.6% for multimodal screening. Multimodal screening could improve the screening efficiency at baseline and strategies for future implementation are discussed. If IBP was used as primary screening test, the LDCT burden might decrease of about 60%. © 2017 UICC.

  5. First Danish experience with ex vivo lung perfusion of donor lungs before transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ian Sune Iversen; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Møller, Christian Holdfold

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The number of lung transplantations is limited by a general lack of donor organs. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a novel method to optimise and evaluate marginal donor lungs prior to transplantation. We describe our experiences with EVLP in Denmark during the first year after its...... otherwise considered transplantable, but failed to meet the usual criteria due to possible contusions or because they were from donors with sepsis or unable to pass the oxygenation test. RESULTS: In the study period, seven of 33 Danish lung transplantations were made possible due to EVLP. One patient died......% improved oxygenation. The median time to extubation, time in intensive care unit and the admission period were 1, 7 and 39 days, respectively. CONCLUSION: In the first year after the introduction of EVLP in Denmark, seven pairs of donor lungs that previously would have been rejected have been transplanted...

  6. Prevention of reperfusion lung injury by lidocaine in isolated rat lung ventilated with higher oxygen levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lidocaine, an antiarrhythmic drug has been shown to be effective against post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in heart. However, its effect on pulmonary reperfusion injury has not been investigated. AIMS: We investigated the effects of lidocaine on a postischaemic reperfused rat lung model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lungs were isolated and perfused at constant flow with Krebs-Henseilet buffer containing 4% bovine serum albumin, and ventilated with 95% oxygen mixed with 5% CO2. Lungs were subjected to ischaemia by stopping perfusion for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion for 10 minutes. Ischaemia was induced in normothermic conditions. RESULTS: Postischaemic reperfusion caused significant (p < 0.0001 higher wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure compared to control lungs. Lidocaine, at a dose of 5mg/Kg b.w. was found to significantly (p < 0.0001 attenuate the increase in the wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure observed in post-ischaemic lungs. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine is effective in preventing post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in isolated, perfused rat lung.

  7. Noninvasive Computed Tomography–based Risk Stratification of Lung Adenocarcinomas in the National Lung Screening Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Fabien; Duan, Fenghai; Raghunath, Sushravya M.; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Garg, Kavita; Greco, Erin; Nath, Hrudaya; Robb, Richard A.; Bartholmai, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Screening for lung cancer using low-dose computed tomography (CT) reduces lung cancer mortality. However, in addition to a high rate of benign nodules, lung cancer screening detects a large number of indolent cancers that generally belong to the adenocarcinoma spectrum. Individualized management of screen-detected adenocarcinomas would be facilitated by noninvasive risk stratification. Objectives: To validate that Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield (CANARY), a novel image analysis software, successfully risk stratifies screen-detected lung adenocarcinomas based on clinical disease outcomes. Methods: We identified retrospective 294 eligible patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma spectrum lesions in the low-dose CT arm of the National Lung Screening Trial. The last low-dose CT scan before the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma was analyzed using CANARY blinded to clinical data. Based on their parametric CANARY signatures, all the lung adenocarcinoma nodules were risk stratified into three groups. CANARY risk groups were compared using survival analysis for progression-free survival. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 294 patients were included in the analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis of all the 294 adenocarcinoma nodules stratified into the Good, Intermediate, and Poor CANARY risk groups yielded distinct progression-free survival curves (P < 0.0001). This observation was confirmed in the unadjusted and adjusted (age, sex, race, and smoking status) progression-free survival analysis of all stage I cases. Conclusions: CANARY allows the noninvasive risk stratification of lung adenocarcinomas into three groups with distinct post-treatment progression-free survival. Our results suggest that CANARY could ultimately facilitate individualized management of incidentally or screen-detected lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:26052977

  8. Implantation port-catheter permanent indwelling of pulmonary artery in treating lung metastasis from HCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jiemin; Wang Jianhua; Yan Zhiping; Wang Xiaolin; Gong Gaoquan; Liu Qingxin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To observe the efficacy of a percutaneous implantation port-catheter permanent indwelling pulmonary artery for regional chemotherapy of the metastatic lung cancer from HCC. Methods: Between 1995 and 1999, 62 patients (42 males, 20 females; mean age 46 years) suffering from the metastatic lung cancer from HCC underwent percutaneous implantation of port-catheter permanent indwelling pulmonary artery using the right subclavian vein. In 19 patients with metastatic tumor located on one side of the lung, an indwelling catheter was placed into the ipsilateral side pulmonary artery. With metastasis of both sides, the catheter was inserted into the main trunk of pulmonary artery. The regimens of the chemotherapy were 5-FU + CDDP + MMC(FDM) or 5-FU + CDDP + MMC(FDA). Results: The interventional procedure was successfully completed in all 62 cases (100%). The complications occurred in 8% cases, including infections (3.2%), unhealed wound (1.6%) and pneumothorax (3.2%). The treatment effects of 3-months after the procedure were as follows: the obvious decrease of lung tumor size was 35.5%; stable disease (SD) 32.3% and progressive disease (PD) 32.3%. 6 months follow-up: 12 patients were dead (12/62) and the others are still doing well. The response rates were 22.6%, partial response (PR) 32.3%; stable disease (SD) 25.8% and progressive disease (PD) 32.3%. Conclusions: The percutaneous implantation techniques of pulmonary arterial port-catheter could be a good method in the treatment of metastatic lung cancer from HCC because of it is simple, with few complications and positive effect

  9. Lung heparan sulfates modulate Kfc during increased vascular pressure: evidence for glycocalyx-mediated mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluff, Mark; Kingston, Joseph; Hill, Denzil; Chen, Haiyan; Hoehne, Soeren; Malleske, Daniel T.; Kaur, Rajwinederjit

    2012-01-01

    Lung endothelial cells respond to changes in vascular pressure through mechanotransduction pathways that alter barrier function via non-Starling mechanism(s). Components of the endothelial glycocalyx have been shown to participate in mechanotransduction in vitro and in systemic vessels, but the glycocalyx's role in mechanosensing and pulmonary barrier function has not been characterized. Mechanotransduction pathways may represent novel targets for therapeutic intervention during states of elevated pulmonary pressure such as acute heart failure, fluid overload, and mechanical ventilation. Our objective was to assess the effects of increasing vascular pressure on whole lung filtration coefficient (Kfc) and characterize the role of endothelial heparan sulfates in mediating mechanotransduction and associated increases in Kfc. Isolated perfused rat lung preparation was used to measure Kfc in response to changes in vascular pressure in combination with superimposed changes in airway pressure. The roles of heparan sulfates, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species were investigated. Increases in capillary pressure altered Kfc in a nonlinear relationship, suggesting non-Starling mechanism(s). nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and heparanase III attenuated the effects of increased capillary pressure on Kfc, demonstrating active mechanotransduction leading to barrier dysfunction. The nitric oxide (NO) donor S-nitrosoglutathione exacerbated pressure-mediated increase in Kfc. Ventilation strategies altered lung NO concentration and the Kfc response to increases in vascular pressure. This is the first study to demonstrate a role for the glycocalyx in whole lung mechanotransduction and has important implications in understanding the regulation of vascular permeability in the context of vascular pressure, fluid status, and ventilation strategies. PMID:22160307

  10. Use of telehealth technology for home spirometry after lung transplantation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengpiel, Juliane; Fuehner, Thomas; Kugler, Christiane; Avsar, Murat; Bodmann, Isabelle; Boemke, Annelies; Simon, Andre; Welte, Tobias; Gottlieb, Jens

    2010-12-01

    Complications often occur during the early phase after lung transplantation, and rapid diagnosis is vital. Home spirometry is used to detect early changes in graft function. Bluetooth-equipped cell phones are easy to use and facilitate data transfer from home spirometry. To explore use of home spirometry with Bluetooth data transfer in outpatient lung transplant recipients. Single-center prospective randomized controlled trial. Intervention-Fifty-six patients were randomized either to home spirometry with data transfer via Bluetooth-equipped cell phones or to home spirometry alone before discharge after lung transplantation. In the Bluetooth group, results were transferred to a database capable of generating alarm messages. Time from onset of symptoms to physician consultation during the first 6 months after lung transplantation was the primary end point. Adherence to home spirometry was 97.2% in the Bluetooth group and 95.3% in the home spirometry alone group (P = .73). Median time to first consultation (P = .60) and frequency of consultation (P = .06) did not differ significantly in the 2 groups. Mean scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were lower in patients in the Bluetooth group (1.5; range, 0.0-4.0) than in the home spirometry alone group (4.0; range, 2.0-6.0; P = .04). Home spirometry with data transfer is feasible and safe in lung transplant recipients. Compared with home spirometry alone, additional data transfer was equally effective regarding the time interval from symptom onset to consultation. Patients in the Bluetooth group reported less anxiety, which may improve emotional well-being.

  11. Role of radio-aerosol and perfusion lung imaging in early detection of chronic obstructive lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, A; Pande, J N; Guleria, J S; Gopinath, P G

    1983-04-01

    The efficacy of radio-aerosol and perfusion lung imaging in the early detection of chronic obstructive lung disease was evaluated in 38 subjects. The subjects included 5 non-smokers, 21 smokers with minimal or no respiratory symptoms and 12 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. Each subject consented to a respiratory questionaire, detailed physical examination, chest X-ray examinations, detailed pulmonary function tests and sup(99m)Tc-radioaerosol-inhalation lung imaging. Perfusion lung imaging with sup(99m)Tc-labelled macroaggregated albumin was performed in 22 subjects. A significant correlation (P<0.001) was observed between the degree of abnormalities on radio-aerosol imaging and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) including forced expiratory volume in 1 s, maximum midexpiratory flow rate and mean transit time analysis. Abnormal radio-aerosol patterns and deranged PFTs were observed in 21 subjects each. Of 21 subjects with abnormal radioaerosol pattern 8 had normal PFTs. Of 21 subjects with abnormal PFTs 8 had normal aerosol images. Aerosol lung images and PFTs were abnormal more frequently than perfusion lung images. The results suggest that radio-aerosol lung imaging is as sensitive an indicator as PFTs for early detection of chronic obstructive lung disease and can be usefully combined with PFTs for early detection of alteration in pulmonary physiology in smokers.

  12. [Lung auscultation--an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgi, Urs; Huber, Lars Christian

    2015-07-01

    The auscultation of the lungs is - among anamnesis - the most important part in the assessment of patients presenting with pulmonary symptoms. The lung auscultation is reproducible, cost efficient and very helpful to distinguish between differential diagnoses, in particular in emergency situations. Detection and description of lung sounds requires experience and should be performed by strict adherence to the internationally accepted terminology. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Postural lung recruitment assessed by lung ultrasound in mechanically ventilated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusman, Gerardo; Acosta, Cecilia M; Böhm, Stephan H; Waldmann, Andreas D; Ferrando, Carlos; Marquez, Manuel Perez; Sipmann, Fernando Suarez

    2017-10-13

    Atelectasis is a common finding in mechanically ventilated children with healthy lungs. This lung collapse cannot be overcome using standard levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and thus for only individualized lung recruitment maneuvers lead to satisfactory therapeutic results. In this short communication, we demonstrate by lung ultrasound images (LUS) the effect of a postural recruitment maneuver (P-RM, i.e., a ventilatory strategy aimed at reaerating atelectasis by changing body position under constant ventilation). Data was collected in the operating room of the Hospital Privado de Comunidad, Mar del Plata, Argentina. Three anesthetized children undergoing mechanical ventilation at constant settings were sequentially subjected to the following two maneuvers: (1) PEEP trial in the supine position PEEP was increased to 10 cmH 2 O for 3 min and then decreased to back to baseline. (2) P-RM patient position was changed from supine to the left and then to the right lateral position for 90 s each before returning to supine. The total P-RM procedure took approximately 3 min. LUS in the supine position showed similar atelectasis before and after the PEEP trial. Contrarily, atelectasis disappeared in the non-dependent lung when patients were placed in the lateral positions. Both lungs remained atelectasis free even after returning to the supine position. We provide LUS images that illustrate the concept and effects of postural recruitment in children. This maneuver has the advantage of achieving recruitment effects without the need to elevate airways pressures.

  14. Oxidative lung injury correlates with one-lung ventilation time during pulmonary lobectomy: a study of exhaled breath condensate and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-de-la-Asunción, José; García-del-Olmo, Eva; Perez-Griera, Jaume; Martí, Francisco; Galan, Genaro; Morcillo, Alfonso; Wins, Richard; Guijarro, Ricardo; Arnau, Antonio; Sarriá, Benjamín; García-Raimundo, Miguel; Belda, Javier

    2015-09-01

    During lung lobectomy, the operated lung is collapsed and hypoperfused; oxygen deprivation is accompanied by reactive hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. After lung lobectomy, ischaemia present in the collapsed state is followed by expansion-reperfusion and lung injury attributed to the production of reactive oxygen species. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the time course of several markers of oxidative stress simultaneously in exhaled breath condensate and blood and to determine the relationship between oxidative stress and one-lung ventilation time in patients undergoing lung lobectomy. This single-centre, observational, prospective study included 28 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer who underwent lung lobectomy. We measured the levels of hydrogen peroxide, 8-iso-PGF2α, nitrites plus nitrates and pH in exhaled breath condensate (n = 25). The levels of 8-iso-PGF2α and nitrites plus nitrates were also measured in blood (n = 28). Blood samples and exhaled breath condensate samples were collected from all patients at five time points: preoperatively; during one-lung ventilation, immediately before resuming two-lung ventilation; immediately after resuming two-lung ventilation; 60 min after resuming two-lung ventilation and 180 min after resuming two-lung ventilation. Both exhaled breath condensate and blood exhibited significant and simultaneous increases in oxidative-stress markers immediately before two-lung ventilation was resumed. However, all these values underwent larger increases immediately after resuming two-lung ventilation. In both exhaled breath condensate and blood, marker levels significantly and directly correlated with the duration of one-lung ventilation immediately before resuming two-lung ventilation and immediately after resuming two-lung ventilation. Although pH significantly decreased in exhaled breath condensate immediately after resuming two-lung ventilation, these pH values were inversely correlated with the

  15. [Lung transplantation: supply and demand in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, M; Souilamas, R; Tixier, D; Mal, H

    2008-10-01

    For a decade lung transplantation has suffered from a lack of donor organs which aroused a national debate and led to planned action in collaboration with The French National Agency for Transplantation. Analysis of the stages of the process from potential donor to lung transplantation identified lung procurement as the main priority. An increase in the number of potential lung donors and revision of the acceptance criteria led to a doubling of the annual rate of lung transplantation in less than two years. In the near future we may solve the problem of donor family refusals and establish scientifically based criteria for lung acceptance to increase the rate of lung transplantation. Transplantation from non heart-beating donors and the reconditioning of ex vivo non acceptable lungs might supply additional organs to fulfill demand in the long term. The rate of lung transplantation activity in France doubled as the result of a dramatic increase of donor lung proposals. The current improvement in the results of lung transplantation might create new demands and generate future difficulties in the supply of donor lungs. New approaches, such as transplantation from non heart-beating donors and reconditioning ex vivo non acceptable lungs, should be examined in the near future.

  16. Effects of staff training and electronic event monitoring on long-term adherence to lung-protective ventilation recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Ixchel; Martin, Marcus; Kraus, Stefan; Bürkle, Thomas; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Schüttler, Jürgen; Toddenroth, Dennis

    2018-02-01

    To investigate long-term effects of staff training and electronic clinical decision support (CDS) on adherence to lung-protective ventilation recommendations. In 2012, group instructions and workshops at two surgical intensive care units (ICUs) started, focusing on standardized protocols for mechanical ventilation and volutrauma prevention. Subsequently implemented CDS functions continuously monitor ventilation parameters, and from 2015 triggered graphical notifications when tidal volume (V T ) violated individual thresholds. To estimate the effects of these educational and technical interventions, we retrospectively analyzed nine years of V T records from routine care. As outcome measures, we calculated relative frequencies of settings that conform to recommendations, case-specific mean excess V T , and total ICU survival. Assessing 571,478 V T records from 10,241 ICU cases indicated that adherence during pressure-controlled ventilation improved significantly after both interventions; the share of conforming V T records increased from 61.6% to 83.0% and then 86.0%. Despite increasing case severity, ICU survival remained nearly constant over time. Staff training effectively improves adherence to lung-protective ventilation strategies. The observed CDS effect seemed less pronounced, although it can easily be adapted to new recommendations. Both interventions, which futures studies could deploy in combination, promise to improve the precision of mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. PEComa of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayabhaskar R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa, also called clear cell ′′sugar′′ tumor of the lung, is a rare benign tumor arising from perivascular epithelioid cells (PECs. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with right lower lobe lesion which turned out to be a clear cell tumor of the lung. An [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG - positron emission tomography (PET scan revealed mild FDG uptake in the lung lesion (SUV< 1 with no active uptake elsewhere in the body. We discuss the clinical, radiologic and immunohistochemical features of clear cell ′′sugar′′ tumor of lung and compare them with published literature.

  18. Progressive multiple cystic changes in both lungs in a patient treated with gefitinib for lung adenocarcinoma with multiple lung metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yon Ju; Chun, Eun Mi; Lee, Soon Nam; Shim, Sung Shin

    2014-01-01

    Gefitinib is regarded as a relatively safe agent for the treatment of an advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Pulmonary toxicity such as interstitial lung disease associated with gefitinib is uncommon with an estimated all time incidence around 1% worldwide. Moreover, a case of gefitinib associated with pulmonary cystic changes has not been reported yet. In this report we present a case of progressive multiple air cystic changes in both lungs in a patient with NSCLC and intrapulmonary metastases who underwent a gefitinib therapy.

  19. Targeting apoptosis pathways in lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pore, Milind M.; Hiltermann, T. Jeroen N.; Kruyt, Frank A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is a devastating disease with a poor prognosis. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) represent different forms of lung cancer that are associated with distinct genetic causes and display different responses to therapy in the clinic. Whereas SCLC is often

  20. Pseudo tumors of the lung after lung volume reduction surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oey, Inger F; Jeyapalan, Kanagaratnam; Entwisle, James J; Waller, David A

    2004-03-01

    We describe 2 patients who underwent lung volume reduction surgery, who postoperatively had computed tomographic scans that showed symptomatic mass lesions suggestive of malignancy and an inhaled foreign body. Investigations excluded these conditions with the remaining likely diagnosis of pseudotumor secondary to buttressing material. These potential sequelae of lung volume reduction surgery should be recognized in follow-up investigations.

  1. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detected on a lung CT scan. If your doctor finds another health problem, you may undergo further testing and, possibly, invasive treatments that wouldn't have been pursued if you hadn't had lung cancer ... need to: Inform your doctor if you have a respiratory tract infection. If ...

  2. Effect of primarily cultured human lung cancer-associated fibroblasts on radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xiaoqin; Ji Jiang; Chen Yongbing; Shan Fang; Lu Xueguan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of human lung cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) on the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells when CAF is placed in direct contact co-culture with lung cancer cells. Methods: Human lung CAF was obtained from fresh human lung adenocarcinoma tissue specimens by primary culture and subculture and was then identified by immunofluorescence staining. The CAF was placed in direct contact co-culture with lung cancer A 549 and H 1299 cells, and the effects of CAF on the radiosensitivity of A 549 and H 1299 cells were evaluated by colony-forming assay. Results: The human lung CAF obtained by adherent culture could stably grow and proliferate, and it had specific expression of α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and fibroblast activation protein,but without expression of cytokeratin-18. The plating efficiency (PE, %) of A 549 cells at 0 Gy irradiation was (20.0 ± 3.9)% when cultured alone versus (32.3 ± 5.5)% when co-cultured with CAF (t=3.16, P<0.05), and the PE of H 1299 cells at 0 Gy irradiation was (20.6 ± 3.1)% when cultured alone versus (35.2 ± 2.3)% when co-cultured with CAF (t=6.55, P<0.05). The cell survival rate at 2 Gy irradiation (SF 2 ) of A 549 cells was 0.727 ±0.061 when cultured alone versus 0.782 ± 0.089 when co-cultured with CAF (t=0.88, P>0.05), and the SF 2 of H 1299 cells was 0.692 ±0.065 when cultured alone versus 0.782 ± 0.037 when co-cultured with CAF (t=2.08, P>0.05). The protection enhancement ratios of human lung CAF for A 549 cells and H 1299 cells were 1.29 and 1.25, respectively. Conclusions: Human lung CAF reduces the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells when placed in direct contact co-culture with them, and the radioprotective effect may be attributed to CAF promoting the proliferation of lung cancer cells. (authors)

  3. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Improving Lung Function in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-12

    Cachexia; Fatigue; Pulmonary Complications; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  4. Lung protective mechanical ventilation and two year survival in patients with acute lung injury: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Dale M; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A; Dinglas, Victor D; Sevransky, Jonathan E; Dennison Himmelfarb, Cheryl R; Desai, Sanjay V; Shanholtz, Carl; Brower, Roy G; Pronovost, Peter J

    2012-04-05

    To evaluate the association of volume limited and pressure limited (lung protective) mechanical ventilation with two year survival in patients with acute lung injury. Prospective cohort study. 13 intensive care units at four hospitals in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 485 consecutive mechanically ventilated patients with acute lung injury. Two year survival after onset of acute lung injury. 485 patients contributed data for 6240 eligible ventilator settings, as measured twice daily (median of eight eligible ventilator settings per patient; 41% of which adhered to lung protective ventilation). Of these patients, 311 (64%) died within two years. After adjusting for the total duration of ventilation and other relevant covariates, each additional ventilator setting adherent to lung protective ventilation was associated with a 3% decrease in the risk of mortality over two years (hazard ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 0.99, P=0.002). Compared with no adherence, the estimated absolute risk reduction in two year mortality for a prototypical patient with 50% adherence to lung protective ventilation was 4.0% (0.8% to 7.2%, P=0.012) and with 100% adherence was 7.8% (1.6% to 14.0%, P=0.011). Lung protective mechanical ventilation was associated with a substantial long term survival benefit for patients with acute lung injury. Greater use of lung protective ventilation in routine clinical practice could reduce long term mortality in patients with acute lung injury. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00300248.

  5. Nicotine transport in lung and non-lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Mikihisa; Kamei, Hidetaka; Nagahiro, Machi; Kawami, Masashi; Yumoto, Ryoko

    2017-11-01

    Nicotine is rapidly absorbed from the lung alveoli into systemic circulation during cigarette smoking. However, mechanism underlying nicotine transport in alveolar epithelial cells is not well understood to date. In the present study, we characterized nicotine uptake in lung epithelial cell lines A549 and NCI-H441 and in non-lung epithelial cell lines HepG2 and MCF-7. Characteristics of [ 3 H]nicotine uptake was studied using these cell lines. Nicotine uptake in A549 cells occurred in a time- and temperature-dependent manner and showed saturation kinetics, with a Km value of 0.31mM. Treatment with some organic cations such as diphenhydramine and pyrilamine inhibited nicotine uptake, whereas treatment with organic cations such as carnitine and tetraethylammonium did not affect nicotine uptake. Extracellular pH markedly affected nicotine uptake, with high nicotine uptake being observed at high pH up to 11.0. Modulation of intracellular pH with ammonium chloride also affected nicotine uptake. Treatment with valinomycin, a potassium ionophore, did not significantly affect nicotine uptake, indicating that nicotine uptake is an electroneutral process. For comparison, we assessed the characteristics of nicotine uptake in another lung epithelial cell line NCI-H441 and in non-lung epithelial cell lines HepG2 and MCF-7. Interestingly, these cell lines showed similar characteristics of nicotine uptake with respect to pH dependency and inhibition by various organic cations. The present findings suggest that a similar or the same pH-dependent transport system is involved in nicotine uptake in these cell lines. A novel molecular mechanism of nicotine transport is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiodiagnosis of lung picture changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenetskij, M.S.; Lezova, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    The roentgenological picture of changes of the lung picture in the case of different pathological states in the lungs and the heart, is described. A developed diagnostic algorithm for the syndrome of lung picture change and the rules of its application are given. 5 refs.; 9 figs

  7. Lung Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer appears in two main types. Non-small cell (squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma), and small cell lung cancer (oat cell cancer and combined small cell carcinoma). Find evidence-based information on lung cancer treatment, causes and prevention, research, screening, and statistics.

  8. Lung vagal afferent activity in rats with bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelegle, E S; Walby, W F; Mansoor, J K; Chen, A T

    2001-05-01

    Bleomycin treatment in rats results in pulmonary fibrosis that is characterized by a rapid shallow breathing pattern, a decrease in quasi-static lung compliance and a blunting of the Hering-Breuer Inflation Reflex. We examined the impulse activity of pulmonary vagal afferents in anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rats with bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis during the ventilator cycle and static lung inflations/deflations and following the injection of capsaicin into the right atrium. Bleomycin enhanced volume sensitivity of slowly adapting stretch receptors (SARs), while it blunted the sensitivity of these receptors to increasing transpulmonary pressure. Bleomycin treatment increased the inspiratory activity, while it decreased the expiratory activity of rapidly adapting stretch receptors (RARs). Pulmonary C-fiber impulse activity did not appear to be affected by bleomycin treatment. We conclude that the fibrosis-related shift in discharge profile and enhanced volume sensitivity of SARs combined with the increased inspiratory activity of RARs contributes to the observed rapid shallow breathing of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis.

  9. Four Cases of Interstitial Lung Disease Induced by Erlotinib 
and A Review of the Literatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling WU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Erlotinib is an agent of oral epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors which are used for non-small cell lung cancer. Although this class of agents is considered to be relatively safe, the most serious, but rare, adverse reaction is drug-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD. ILD induced by gefitinib been often described, but the ILD induced by erlotinib is relatively less well known. We here describle four cases of ILD related to erlotinib and review recent literatures to help physicians earlier alert erlotinib-induced ILD. It is important to carefully monitor pulmonary symptoms in all patients who are receiving erlotinib. Early diagnosis and timely intervention is critical in the treatment of drug-induced ILD.

  10. Ischemia and reperfusion of the lung tissues induced increase of lung permeability and lung edema is attenuated by dimethylthiourea (PP69).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K H; Chao, D; Liu, C F; Chen, C F; Wang, D

    2010-04-01

    This study sought to determine whether oxygen radical scavengers of dimethylthiourea (DMTU), superoxide dismutase (SOD), or catalase (CAT) pretreatment attenuated ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced lung injury. After isolation from a Sprague-Dawley rat, the lungs were perfused through the pulmonary artery cannula with rat whole blood diluted 1:1 with a physiological salt solution. An acute lung injury was induced by 10 minutes of hypoxia with 5% CO2-95% N2 followed by 65 minutes of ischemia and then 65 minutes of reperfusion. I/R significantly increased microvascular permeability as measured by the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), lung weight-to-body weight ratio (LW/BW), and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (PCBAL). DMTU pretreatment significantly attenuated the acute lung injury. The capillary filtration coefficient (P<.01), LW/BW (P<.01) and PCBAL (P<.05) were significantly lower among the DMTU-treated rats than hosts pretreated with SOD or CAT. The possible mechanisms of the protective effect of DMTU in I/R-induced lung injury may relate to the permeability of the agent allowing it to scavenge intracellular hydroxyl radicals. However, whether superoxide dismutase or catalase antioxidants showed protective effects possibly due to their impermeability of the cell membrane not allowing scavenging of intracellular oxygen radicals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiation-induced lung damage promotes breast cancer lung-metastasis through CXCR4 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feys, Lynn; Descamps, Benedicte; Vanhove, Christian; Vral, Anne; Veldeman, Liv; Vermeulen, Stefan; De Wagter, Carlos; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-09-29

    Radiotherapy is a mainstay in the postoperative treatment of breast cancer as it reduces the risks of local recurrence and mortality after both conservative surgery and mastectomy. Despite recent efforts to decrease irradiation volumes through accelerated partial irradiation techniques, late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity still occurs after breast irradiation. The importance of this pulmonary injury towards lung metastasis is unclear. Preirradiation of lung epithelial cells induces DNA damage, p53 activation and a secretome enriched in the chemokines SDF-1/CXCL12 and MIF. Irradiated lung epithelial cells stimulate adhesion, spreading, growth, and (transendothelial) migration of human MDA-MB-231 and murine 4T1 breast cancer cells. These metastasis-associated cellular activities were largely mimicked by recombinant CXCL12 and MIF. Moreover, an allosteric inhibitor of the CXCR4 receptor prevented the metastasis-associated cellular activities stimulated by the secretome of irradiated lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, partial (10%) irradiation of the right lung significantly stimulated breast cancer lung-specific metastasis in the syngeneic, orthotopic 4T1 breast cancer model.Our results warrant further investigation of the potential pro-metastatic effects of radiation and indicate the need to develop efficient drugs that will be successful in combination with radiotherapy to prevent therapy-induced spread of cancer cells.

  12. A heat conduction simulator to estimate lung temperature distribution during percutaneous transthoracic cryoablation for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futami, Hikaru; Arai, Tsunenori; Yashiro, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Seishi; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Izumi, Youtaro; Tsukada, Norimasa; Kawamura, Masafumi

    2006-01-01

    To develop an evaluation method for the curative field when using X-ray CT imaging during percutaneous transthoracic cryoablation for lung cancer, we constructed a finite-element heat conduction simulator to estimate temperature distribution in the lung during cryo-treatment. We calculated temperature distribution using a simple two-dimensional finite element model, although the actual temperature distribution spreads in three dimensions. Temperature time-histories were measured within 10 minutes using experimental ex vivo and in vivo lung cryoablation conditions. We adjusted specific heat and thermal conductivity in the heat conduction calculation and compared them with measured temperature time-histories ex vivo. Adjusted lung specific heat was 3.7 J/ (g·deg C) for unfrozen lung and 1.8 J/ (g·deg C) for frozen lung. Adjusted lung thermal conductivity in our finite element model fitted proportionally to the exponential function of lung density. We considered the heat input by blood flow circulation and metabolic heat when we calculated the temperature time-histories during in vivo cryoablation of the lung. We assumed that the blood flow varies in inverse proportion to the change in blood viscosity up to the maximum blood flow predicted from cardiac output. Metabolic heat was set as heat generation in the calculation. The measured temperature time-histories of in vivo cryoablation were then estimated with an accuracy of ±3 deg C when calculated based on this assumption. Therefore, we successfully constructed a two-dimensional heat conduction simulator that is capable of estimating temperature distribution in the lung at the time of first freezing during cryoablation. (author)

  13. Combining "open-lung" ventilation and arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist: influence of different tidal volumes on gas exchange in experimental lung failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellenbach, Ralf M; Kredel, Markus; Kuestermann, Julian; Klingelhoefer, Michael; Schuster, Frank; Wunder, Christian; Kranke, Peter; Roewer, Norbert; Brederlau, Jörg

    2009-08-01

    Although low-tidal ventilation may reduce mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), it can also result in severe respiratory acidosis and lung derecruitment. This study tested the hypothesis that combining "open-lung" ventilation and arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist (av-ECLA) allows for maximal tidal volume (VT) reduction without the development of decompensated respiratory acidosis and impairment of oxygenation. After induction of ARDS in eight female pigs (56.1+/-3.2 kg), lung recruitment was performed and positive end-expiratory pressure was set 3 cmH2O above the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve. All animals were ventilated in the pressure-controlled ventilation mode (PCV) with VTs ranging from 0-8 ml/kg. At each VT, gas exchange and hemodynamic measurements were obtained with the av-ECLA circuit clamped and declamped. With each declamping, the gas flow through the membrane lung was set to 10 l of oxygen/min. The respiratory rate was adjusted to maintain normocapnia, but limited to 40/min. After lung recruitment, oxygenation remained significantly improved although VTs were minimized to 0 ml/kg (p<0.05). PaO2 was significantly improved during PCV and av-ECLA compared with PCV alone at VTs <4 ml/kg (p<0.05). With VT <6 ml/kg, severe acidosis could only be avoided if PCV was combined with av-ECLA. Due to sufficient CO2 elimination during av-ECLA, the VTs could be reduced to 0-2 ml/kg without the risk of decompensated respiratory acidosis. It was also shown that the "open-lung" strategy chosen was associated with sustained improvements in oxygenation, even though VTs were minimized.

  14. Characteristic patterns in the fibrotic lung. Comparing idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with chronic lung allograft dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Isis E; Heinzelmann, Katharina; Verleden, Stijn; Eickelberg, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    Tissue fibrosis, a major cause of death worldwide, leads to significant organ dysfunction in any organ of the human body. In the lung, fibrosis critically impairs gas exchange, tissue oxygenation, and immune function. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most detrimental and lethal fibrotic disease of the lung, with an estimated median survival of 50% after 3-5 years. Lung transplantation currently remains the only therapeutic alternative for IPF and other end-stage pulmonary disorders. Posttransplant lung function, however, is compromised by short- and long-term complications, most importantly chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). CLAD affects up to 50% of all transplanted lungs after 5 years, and is characterized by small airway obstruction with pronounced epithelial injury, aberrant wound healing, and subepithelial and interstitial fibrosis. Intriguingly, the mechanisms leading to the fibrotic processes in the engrafted lung exhibit striking similarities to those in IPF; therefore, antifibrotic therapies may contribute to increased graft function and survival in CLAD. In this review, we focus on these common fibrosis-related mechanisms in IPF and CLAD, comparing and contrasting clinical phenotypes, the mechanisms of fibrogenesis, and biomarkers to monitor, predict, or prognosticate disease status.

  15. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Pediatrics, Aurora, CO (United States); The Children' s Hospital, Rick Wilson Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Aurora, CO (United States); Hayes, Kari [The Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Bourland, Wendy [Children' s Hospital at St. Francis, Warren Clinic, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  16. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy; Hayes, Kari; Bourland, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for 18 F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  17. Respiratory lung motion analysis using a nonlinear motion correction technique for respiratory-gated lung perfusion SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ue, Hidenori; Haneishi, Hideaki; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Suga, Kazuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the respiratory motion of lungs using a nonlinear motion correction technique for respiratory-gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. The motion correction technique corrects the respiratory motion of the lungs nonlinearly between two-phase images obtained by respiratory-gated SPECT. The displacement vectors resulting from respiration can be computed at every location of the lungs. Respiratory lung motion analysis is carried out by calculating the mean value of the body axis component of the displacement vector in each of the 12 small regions into which the lungs were divided. In order to enable inter-patient comparison, the 12 mean values were normalized by the length of the lung region along the direction of the body axis. This method was applied to 25 Technetium (Tc)-99m-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) perfusion SPECT images, and motion analysis results were compared with the diagnostic results. It was confirmed that the respiratory lung motion reflects the ventilation function. A statistically significant difference in the amount of the respiratory lung motion was observed between the obstructive pulmonary diseases and other conditions, based on an unpaired Student's t test (P<0.0001). A difference in the motion between normal lungs and lungs with a ventilation obstruction was detected by the proposed method. This method is effective for evaluating obstructive pulmonary diseases such as pulmonary emphysema and diffuse panbronchiolitis. (author)

  18. Pulmonary vascular volume ratio measured by cardiac computed tomography in children and young adults with congenital heart disease: comparison with lung perfusion scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Hyub [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    Lung perfusion scintigraphy is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating differential lung perfusion ratio in congenital heart disease. To compare cardiac CT with lung perfusion scintigraphy for estimated pulmonary vascular volume ratio in patients with congenital heart disease. We included 52 children and young adults (median age 4 years, range 2 months to 28 years; 31 males) with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy without an interim surgical or transcatheter intervention and within 1 year. We calculated the right and left pulmonary vascular volumes using threshold-based CT volumetry. Then we compared right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT with right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy by using paired t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. The right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT (66.3 ± 14.0%) were significantly smaller than the right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy (69.1 ± 15.0%; P=0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -2.8 ± 5.8% and 95% limits of agreement (-14.1%, 8.5%) between these two variables. Cardiac CT, in a single examination, can offer pulmonary vascular volume ratio in addition to pulmonary artery anatomy essential for evaluating peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in patients with congenital heart disease. However there is a wide range of agreement between cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy. (orig.)

  19. Pulmonary vascular volume ratio measured by cardiac computed tomography in children and young adults with congenital heart disease: comparison with lung perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Hyub

    2017-01-01

    Lung perfusion scintigraphy is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating differential lung perfusion ratio in congenital heart disease. To compare cardiac CT with lung perfusion scintigraphy for estimated pulmonary vascular volume ratio in patients with congenital heart disease. We included 52 children and young adults (median age 4 years, range 2 months to 28 years; 31 males) with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy without an interim surgical or transcatheter intervention and within 1 year. We calculated the right and left pulmonary vascular volumes using threshold-based CT volumetry. Then we compared right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT with right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy by using paired t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. The right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT (66.3 ± 14.0%) were significantly smaller than the right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy (69.1 ± 15.0%; P=0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -2.8 ± 5.8% and 95% limits of agreement (-14.1%, 8.5%) between these two variables. Cardiac CT, in a single examination, can offer pulmonary vascular volume ratio in addition to pulmonary artery anatomy essential for evaluating peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in patients with congenital heart disease. However there is a wide range of agreement between cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy. (orig.)

  20. Pulmonary vascular volume ratio measured by cardiac computed tomography in children and young adults with congenital heart disease: comparison with lung perfusion scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Hyub

    2017-11-01

    Lung perfusion scintigraphy is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating differential lung perfusion ratio in congenital heart disease. To compare cardiac CT with lung perfusion scintigraphy for estimated pulmonary vascular volume ratio in patients with congenital heart disease. We included 52 children and young adults (median age 4 years, range 2 months to 28 years; 31 males) with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy without an interim surgical or transcatheter intervention and within 1 year. We calculated the right and left pulmonary vascular volumes using threshold-based CT volumetry. Then we compared right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT with right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy by using paired t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. The right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT (66.3 ± 14.0%) were significantly smaller than the right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy (69.1 ± 15.0%; P=0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -2.8 ± 5.8% and 95% limits of agreement (-14.1%, 8.5%) between these two variables. Cardiac CT, in a single examination, can offer pulmonary vascular volume ratio in addition to pulmonary artery anatomy essential for evaluating peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in patients with congenital heart disease. However there is a wide range of agreement between cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy.

  1. Mechanisms of Disease: Host-Pathogen Interactions between Burkholderia Species and Lung Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Jonathan; Bell, Rachel E.; Clark, Graeme C.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Burkholderia species can cause a range of severe, often fatal, respiratory diseases. A variety of in vitro models of infection have been developed in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism by which Burkholderia spp. gain entry to and interact with the body. The majority of studies have tended to focus on the interaction of bacteria with phagocytic cells with a paucity of information available with regard to the lung epithelium. However, the lung epithelium is becoming more widely recognized as an important player in innate immunity and the early response to infections. Here we review the complex relationship between Burkholderia species and epithelial cells with an emphasis on the most pathogenic species, Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei. The current gaps in knowledge in our understanding are highlighted along with the epithelial host-pathogen interactions that offer potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26636042

  2. Effect of CT screening on smoking habits at 1-year follow-up in the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, H; Tønnesen, P; Holst Pedersen, J

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of low-dose CT screening for lung cancer on smoking habits has not been reported in large randomised controlled trials. METHODS: This study evaluated the effect on smoking habits of screening with low-dose CT at 1-year follow up in the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial...... pack years. Smoking habits were determined at baseline and at annual screening. Smoking status was verified using exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Lung function tests, nicotine dependency and motivation to quit smoking were assessed. Quit rates and relapse rates were determined at 1-year follow...... (DLCST), a 5-year randomised controlled trial comprising 4104 subjects; 2052 subjects received annual low-dose CT scan (CT group) and 2052 received no intervention (control group). Participants were healthy current and former smokers (>4 weeks since smoking cessation) with a tobacco consumption of >20...

  3. Lung transplantation in children. Specific aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Galdó, Antonio; Solé Montserrat, Juan; Roman Broto, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Lung transplantation has become in recent years a therapeutic option for infantswith terminal lung disease with similar results to transplantation in adults.In Spain, since 1996 114 children lung transplants have been performed; this corresponds to3.9% of the total transplant number.The most common indication in children is cystic fibrosis, which represents between 70-80% of the transplants performed in adolescents. In infants common indications areinterstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension.In most children a sequential double lung transplant is performed, generally with the help ofextracorporeal circulation. Lung transplantation in children presents special challenges in monitoring and follow-up, especially in infants, given the difficulty in assessing lung function and performing transbronchial biopsies.There are some more specific complications in children like postransplant lymphoproliferative syndrome or a greater severity of respiratory virus infections .After lung transplantation children usually experiment a very important improvement in their quality of life. Eighty eight per cent of children have no limitations in their activity after 3 years of transplantation.According to the registry of the International Society for Heart & Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) survival at 5 years of transplantation is 54% and at 10 years is around 35%. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Estrogen, Estrogen Receptor and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Han Hsu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen has been postulated as a contributor for lung cancer development and progression. We reviewed the current knowledge about the expression and prognostic implications of the estrogen receptors (ER in lung cancer, the effect and signaling pathway of estrogen on lung cancer, the hormone replacement therapy and lung cancer risk and survival, the mechanistic relationship between the ER and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, and the relevant clinical trials combining the ER antagonist and the EGFR antagonist, to investigate the role of estrogen in lung cancer. Estrogen and its receptor have the potential to become a prognosticator and a therapeutic target in lung cancer. On the other hand, tobacco smoking aggravates the effect of estrogen and endocrine disruptive chemicals from the environment targeting ER may well contribute to the lung carcinogenesis. They have gradually become important issues in the course of preventive medicine.

  5. Outcomes of Adolescent and Adult Patients with Lung Metastatic Osteosarcoma and Comparison of Synchronous and Metachronous Lung Metastatic Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Gok Durnali

    Full Text Available Osteosarcomas with lung metastases are rather heterogenous group. We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of osteosarcoma patients with lung metastases and to compare the synchronous and metachronous lung metastatic groups. A total of 93 adolescent and adult patients with lung metastatic osteosarcoma, from March 1995 to July 2011, in a single center, were included. Sixty-five patients (69.9% were male. The median age was 19 years (range, 14-74. Thirty-nine patients (41.9% had synchronous lung metastases (Group A and 54 patients (58.1% had metachronous lung metastases (Group B. The 5-year and 10-year post-lung metastases overall survival (PLM-OS was 17% and 15%, respectively. In multivariate analysis for PLM-OS, time to lung metastases (p = 0.010, number of metastatic pulmonary nodules (p = 0.020, presence of pulmonary metastasectomy (p = 0.007 and presence of chemotherapy for lung metastases (p< 0.001 were found to be independent prognostic factors. The median PLM-OS of Group A and Group B was 16 months and 9 months, respectively. In Group B, the median PLM-OS of the patients who developed lung metastases within 12 months was 6 months, whereas that of the patients who developed lung metastases later was 16 months. Time to lung metastases, number and laterality of metastatic pulmonary nodules, chemotherapy for lung metastatic disease and pulmonary metastasectomy were independent prognostic factors for patients with lung metastatic osteosarcoma. The best PLM-OS was in the subgroup of patients treated both surgery and chemotherapy. The prognosis of the patients who developed lung metastases within 12 months after diagnosis was worst.

  6. The dysmorphic lung: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, J.M.; Caceres, J.

    1996-01-01

    Congenital lung malformations are not infrequent and can be discovered in adults. It is, therefore, necessary to know their radiological manifestations in order to avoid diagnostic errors. We classify the congenital lung malformations in two main groups: dysmorphic lung and focal pulmonary malformations. We review the radiological spectrum of dysmorphic lung, based on a classification that emphasises the pulmonary abnormality, adding variants when diaphragmatic or venous abnormalities are present. In our opinion this approach allows for a rational use of advanced imaging techniques (CT, MRI). (orig.). With 13 figs

  7. The dysmorphic lung: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, J.M. [SDI-UDIAT, Consorci Hospitalari del Parc Tauli, Parc Tauli s/n, E-08208 Barcelona (Spain)]|[Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Caceres, J. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)]|[Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    1996-08-01

    Congenital lung malformations are not infrequent and can be discovered in adults. It is, therefore, necessary to know their radiological manifestations in order to avoid diagnostic errors. We classify the congenital lung malformations in two main groups: dysmorphic lung and focal pulmonary malformations. We review the radiological spectrum of dysmorphic lung, based on a classification that emphasises the pulmonary abnormality, adding variants when diaphragmatic or venous abnormalities are present. In our opinion this approach allows for a rational use of advanced imaging techniques (CT, MRI). (orig.). With 13 figs.

  8. Curbing the burden of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urman, Alexandra; Hosgood, H Dean

    2016-06-01

    Lung cancer contributes substantially to the global burden of disease and healthcare costs. New screening modalities using low-dose computerized tomography are promising tools for early detection leading to curative surgery. However, the screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures of these techniques may be costly. Focusing on prevention is an important factor to reduce the burden of screening, treatment, and lung cancer deaths. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has identified several lung carcinogens, which we believe can be considered actionable when developing prevention strategies. To curb the societal burden of lung cancer, healthcare resources need to be focused on early detection and screening and on mitigating exposure(s) of a person to known lung carcinogens, such as active tobacco smoking, household air pollution (HAP), and outdoor air pollution. Evidence has also suggested that these known lung carcinogens may be associated with genetic predispositions, supporting the hypothesis that lung cancers attributed to differing exposures may have developed from unique underlying genetic mechanisms attributed to the exposure of interest. For instance, smokingattributed lung cancer involves novel genetic markers of risk compared with HAP-attributed lung cancer. Therefore, genetic risk markers may be used in risk stratification to identify subpopulations that are at a higher risk for developing lung cancer attributed to a given exposure. Such targeted prevention strategies suggest that precision prevention strategies may be possible in the future; however, much work is needed to determine whether these strategies will be viable.

  9. Interactions of heart disease and lung disease on radionuclide tests of lung anatomy and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierson, R.N. Jr.; Barrett, C.R. Jr.; Yamashina, A.; Friedman, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    This paper considers the effects of heat diseases on lung anatomy, lung function, and pulmonary nuclear test procedures, and also the effects of lung diseases on cardiac function, with particular reference to radionuclide tests. Historically, pulmonary nuclear medicine has been focused on discovering and quantifying pulmonary embolism, but the potential of nuclear tracer techniques to carry out high-precision, regional, quantitative measurements of blood flow, air flow, and membrane transport promises a much more powerful and wide-ranging diagnostic application than the search for pulmonary emboli. The authors therefore define normal anatomy and function in a framework suitable to develop the relationships between cardiac and pulmonary function, with particular attention to regional differences in lung function, since regional measurements provide a special province for radionuclide lung studies

  10. General Information about Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  11. Inhibition of Pyk2 blocks lung inflammation and injury in a mouse model of acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Yingli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2 is essential in neutrophil degranulation and chemotaxis in vitro. However, its effect on the process of lung inflammation and edema formation during LPS induced acute lung injury (ALI remains unknown. The goal of the present study was to determine the effect of inhibiting Pyk2 on LPS-induced acute lung inflammation and injury in vivo. Methods C57BL6 mice were given either 10 mg/kg LPS or saline intratracheally. Inhibition of Pyk2 was effected by intraperitoneal administration TAT-Pyk2-CT 1 h before challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis of cell counts, lung histology and protein concentration in BAL were analyzed at 18 h after LPS treatment. KC and MIP-2 concentrations in BAL were measured by a mouse cytokine multiplex kit. The static lung compliance was determined by pressure-volume curve using a computer-controlled small animal ventilator. The extravasated Evans blue concentration in lung homogenate was determined spectrophotometrically. Results Intratracheal instillation of LPS induced significant neutrophil infiltration into the lung interstitium and alveolar space, which was attenuated by pre-treatment with TAT-Pyk2-CT. TAT-Pyk2-CT pretreatment also attenuated 1 myeloperoxidase content in lung tissues, 2 vascular leakage as measured by Evans blue dye extravasation in the lungs and the increase in protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage, and 3 the decrease in lung compliance. In each paradigm, treatment with control protein TAT-GFP had no blocking effect. By contrast, production of neutrophil chemokines MIP-2 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine in the bronchoalveolar lavage was not reduced by TAT-Pyk2-CT. Western blot analysis confirmed that tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 in LPS-challenged lungs was reduced to control levels by TAT-Pyk2-CT pretreatment. Conclusions These results suggest that Pyk2 plays an important role in the development of acute lung injury in mice and

  12. Knowledge of the signs and symptoms and risk factors of lung cancer in Australia: mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Crane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in Australia. There is potential that health promotion about the risks and warning signs of lung cancer could be used to reduce delays in symptom presentation when symptoms are first detected. This study investigated knowledge, attitudes and beliefs which might impact help-seeking behaviour and could provide insight into possible public health interventions in New South Wales (NSW. Methods A convergent mixed method study design was used wherein data from 16 qualitative focus groups of residents (40+ years, purposefully recruited and stratified by smoking status, age and geography (metropolitan/regional, were compared with a CATI administered population-wide telephone survey (n = 1,000 using the Cancer Research UK cancer awareness measure (LungCAM. Qualitative findings were analysed thematically using NVIVO. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate predictors of symptom knowledge in STATA. Findings were integrated using triangulation techniques. Results Across focus groups, haemoptysis was the only symptom creating a sense of medical urgency. Life experiences evoked a ‘wait and see’ attitude to any health deterioration. Perceived risk was low amongst those at risk with current smokers preferring to deny their risk while former smokers were generally unaware of any ongoing risk. The quantitative sample consisted of females (62 %, 40–65 years (53 %, low SES (53 %, former (46 % and current smokers (14 %. In quantitative findings, haemoptysis and dyspnoea were the most recognised symptoms across the sample population. Age (<65 years, sex (female and high socio-economic status contributed to a higher recognition of symptoms. Smoking was recognised as a cause of lung cancer, yet ever-smokers were less likely to recognise the risk of lung cancer due to second-hand smoke (OR 0.7 95 % CI 0.5–0.9. Conclusion While there was some recognition of risk factors

  13. Estimation of pulmonary hypertension in lung and valvular heart diseases by perfusion lung scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tadashige [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). School of Allied Medical Sciences; Tanaka, Masao; Yazaki, Yoshikazu; Kitabayashi, Hirosi; Koizumi, Tomonori; Kubo, Keisi; Sekiguchi, Morie; Yano, Kesato

    1999-06-01

    To estimate pulmonary hypertension, we measured postural differences in pulmonary blood flow for the lateral decubitus positions on perfusion lung scintigrams with Tc-99 m macro-aggregated albumin, applying the method devised by Tanaka et al (Eur J Nucl Med 17: 320-326, 1990). Utilizing a scintillation camera coupled to a minicomputer system, changes in the distribution of pulmonary blood flow caused by gravitational effects, namely, changes in the total count ratios for the right lung versus the left lung in the right and left lateral decubitus positions (R/L), were obtained for 44 patients with lung disease, 95 patients with valvular heart disease, and 23 normal subjects. Mean standard deviation in the R/L ratios was 3.09{+-}1.28 for the normal subjects, 1.97{+-}0.89 for the patients with lung disease, and 1.59{+-}0.59 for the patients with valvular heart disease. The R/L ratios correlated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure and cardio-thoracic ratios in the lung disease and valvular heart disease groups, with pulmonary arteriolar resistance in the former, and with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure in the latter. Defining pulmonary hypertension (>20 mmHg) as an R/L ratio of less than 1.81, which is the mean-1 standard deviation for normal subjects, the sensitivity and the specificity of the R/L ratio for the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension were 62.9% and 76.2%, respectively, for the lung disease patients, and 80.3% and 61.8%, respectively, for the valvular heart disease patients. This method seems to be useful for the pathophysiologic evaluation of pulmonary perfusion in cases of lung disease and valvular heart disease. (author)

  14. Estimation of pulmonary hypertension in lung and valvular heart diseases by perfusion lung scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Yazaki, Yoshikazu; Kitabayashi, Hirosi; Koizumi, Tomonori; Kubo, Keisi; Sekiguchi, Morie; Yano, Kesato

    1999-01-01

    To estimate pulmonary hypertension, we measured postural differences in pulmonary blood flow for the lateral decubitus positions on perfusion lung scintigrams with Tc-99 m macro-aggregated albumin, applying the method devised by Tanaka et al (Eur J Nucl Med 17: 320-326, 1990). Utilizing a scintillation camera coupled to a minicomputer system, changes in the distribution of pulmonary blood flow caused by gravitational effects, namely, changes in the total count ratios for the right lung versus the left lung in the right and left lateral decubitus positions (R/L), were obtained for 44 patients with lung disease, 95 patients with valvular heart disease, and 23 normal subjects. Mean standard deviation in the R/L ratios was 3.09±1.28 for the normal subjects, 1.97±0.89 for the patients with lung disease, and 1.59±0.59 for the patients with valvular heart disease. The R/L ratios correlated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure and cardio-thoracic ratios in the lung disease and valvular heart disease groups, with pulmonary arteriolar resistance in the former, and with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure in the latter. Defining pulmonary hypertension (>20 mmHg) as an R/L ratio of less than 1.81, which is the mean-1 standard deviation for normal subjects, the sensitivity and the specificity of the R/L ratio for the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension were 62.9% and 76.2%, respectively, for the lung disease patients, and 80.3% and 61.8%, respectively, for the valvular heart disease patients. This method seems to be useful for the pathophysiologic evaluation of pulmonary perfusion in cases of lung disease and valvular heart disease. (author)

  15. When does the lung die? Kfc, cell viability, and adenine nucleotide changes in the circulation-arrested rat lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Becker, R M; Hoffmann, S C; Lemasters, J J; Egan, T M

    1997-07-01

    Lungs harvested from cadaveric circulation-arrested donors may increase the donor pool for lung transplantation. To determine the degree and time course of ischemia-reperfusion injury, we evaluated the effect of O2 ventilation on capillary permeability [capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc)], cell viability, and total adenine nucleotide (TAN) levels in in situ circulation-arrested rat lungs. Kfc increased with increasing postmortem ischemic time (r = 0.88). Lungs ventilated with O2 1 h postmortem had similar Kfc and wet-to-dry ratios as controls. Nonventilated lungs had threefold (P Kfc at 30 and 60 min postmortem compared with controls. Cell viability decreased in all groups except for 30-min postmortem O2-ventilated lungs. TAN levels decreased with increasing ischemic time, particularly in nonventilated lungs. Loss of adenine nucleotides correlated with increasing Kfc values (r = 0.76). This study indicates that lungs retrieved 1 h postmortem may have normal Kfc with preharvest O2 ventilation. The relationship between Kfc and TAN suggests that vascular permeability may be related to lung TAN levels.

  16. Toxocariasis masquerading as liver and lung metastatic nodules in patents with gastrointestinal cancer: clinicopathologic study of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sanghui; Kim, Yun Soo; Kim, Yu Jin; Kyung, Sun Young; Park, Jeong-Woong; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Lee, Sang Pyo

    2012-01-01

    There are sporadic reports in the literature in which radiologic liver and lung lesions found incidentally during follow-up metastatic surveillance were shown to be caused by toxocariasis. The objective of the work discussed in this report was to identify common clinical and histopathological features of toxocariasis resembling metastatic nodules in five patients with gastrointestinal cancer. We retrospectively analyzed clinical features of five gastrointestinal cancer patients with liver or lung nodules mimicking metastasis. Serologic tests for parasitic infestations and pathologic examinations were performed. All five patients were males and three patients had gastric cancer and two had colorectal cancer. All the cases of toxocariasis were confirmed serologically. On follow-up imaging, the lesions improved or resolved, suggestive of the phenomenon of visceral larva migrans. In two patients, liver biopsy was performed and showed eosinophilic abscess. Serologic tests and liver or lung biopsy should be performed aggressively to exclude toxocariasis when patients with underlying gastrointestinal cancer present with hepatic or pulmonary nodules associated with eosinophilia, particularly if the patients have a clinical history of raw animal liver ingestion. Curative surgical intervention should not be excluded just because of multiple nodules in the liver or the lungs.

  17. Radon exposure and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Vukovic, B.; Faj, Z.; Radolic, V.; Suveljak, B.

    2003-01-01

    Although studies of radon exposure have established that Rn decay products are a cause of lung cancer among miners, the lung cancer risk to the general population from indoor radon remains unclear and controversial. Our epidemiological investigation of indoor radon influence on lung cancer incidence was carried out for 201 patients from the Osijek town. Ecological method was applied by using the town map with square fields of 1 km 2 and the town was divided into 24 fields. Multiple regression study for the lung cancer rate on field, average indoor radon exposure and smoking showed a positive linear double regression for the mentioned variables. Case-control study showed that patients, diseased of lung cancer, dwelt in homes with significantly higher radon concentrations, by comparison to the average indoor radon level of control sample. (author)

  18. Lung uptake on I-131 therapy and short-term outcome in patients with lung metastasis from differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Shozo; Shiga, Tohru; Uchiyama, Yuko; Manabe, Osamu; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Tamaki, Nagara

    2014-01-01

    It is sometimes difficult to assess I-131 lung uptake at the initial I-131 therapy because of strong artifacts from I-131 uptake in the thyroid bed. The aim of this study was to analyze the lung uptake at the second I-131 therapy for lung metastasis in patients who did not have lung uptake at the initial therapy from differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Then, we also analyzed the relationship between the initial lung uptake and short-term outcome after I-131 therapies. This study included 62 DTC patients with lung metastasis. The patients were classified into 2 groups according to the lung uptake at the initial I-131 therapy such as patients with lung uptake (positive uptake group n=31) and those without lung uptake (negative uptake group n=31). The lung uptake was analyzed at the second therapy in both groups. The short-term outcome was also analyzed based on the CT findings of lung metastasis size and serum thyroglobulin level between the two groups. The positive uptake group showed positive lung uptake at the second therapy in 23 patients (74%), whereas none of negative uptake group showed any lung uptake at the second therapy (P < 0.01). The positive uptake group significantly decreased in the size of lung metastasis from the initial therapy to the second therapy (20.0 ± 11.7 to 16.6 ± 9.6 mm, P < 0.01) with further decrease after the second therapy (P < 0.05). The serum thyroglobulin level was also significantly decreased from the initial therapy to the second therapy (4348 ± 7011 to 2931 ± 4484 ng/ml, P < 0.05). In contrast, the negative uptake group significantly increased in the size of lung metastasis from the initial therapy to the second therapy (17.3 ± 12.2 to 19.9 ± 14.3 mm, P < 0.01) with further increase after the second therapy (P < 0.01). No patients without lung uptake at the initial I-131 therapy showed lung uptake at the second therapy, or showed treatment effect. Therefore, second I-131 therapy for these patients with initially

  19. CT evaluation of cavitary lung lesions: focused on lung cancer, tuberculosis and abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Rahn; Kim, Myung Gyu; Kang, Eun Young; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1992-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of cavitary lung lesions is frequently problematic. We studied 35 patients with cavitary lung lesions, consisting of lung cancer (17 patients), pulmonary tuberculosis (11 patients), and lung abscess (7 patients). We analysed CT scans in terms of irregularities of the cavity wall, maximum wall thickness, the presence of air-fluid level, location of the cavity within the mass, number of cavities within the mass, size of the cavity and the presence of calcification within the mass. Cancer cavity showed irregular inner (100%) and outer margins (100%), and thick wall (mean, 1.94 cm), eccentrical location (94%) and multiplicity within a mass (38%). Tuberculous cavity showed smooth inner (56%) and irregular outer margins (75%), thin wall (mean 0.96 cm), central location (62%), and multiplicity in one patient (36%). Abscess cavity showed irregular inner (57%) and outer margins (91%), relatively thin wall (mean 1.0 cm), central location (57%), and air-fluid level (86%). CT scan could differentiate malignant lesions from benign condition such as tuberculosis and lung abscess by observing characteristics of the cavities

  20. CT evaluation of cavitary lung lesions: focused on lung cancer, tuberculosis and abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Rahn; Kim, Myung Gyu; Kang, Eun Young; Suh, Won Hyuck [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-11-15

    Differential diagnosis of cavitary lung lesions is frequently problematic. We studied 35 patients with cavitary lung lesions, consisting of lung cancer (17 patients), pulmonary tuberculosis (11 patients), and lung abscess (7 patients). We analysed CT scans in terms of irregularities of the cavity wall, maximum wall thickness, the presence of air-fluid level, location of the cavity within the mass, number of cavities within the mass, size of the cavity and the presence of calcification within the mass. Cancer cavity showed irregular inner (100%) and outer margins (100%), and thick wall (mean, 1.94 cm), eccentrical location (94%) and multiplicity within a mass (38%). Tuberculous cavity showed smooth inner (56%) and irregular outer margins (75%), thin wall (mean 0.96 cm), central location (62%), and multiplicity in one patient (36%). Abscess cavity showed irregular inner (57%) and outer margins (91%), relatively thin wall (mean 1.0 cm), central location (57%), and air-fluid level (86%). CT scan could differentiate malignant lesions from benign condition such as tuberculosis and lung abscess by observing characteristics of the cavities.

  1. Pathogenic mechanism in lung fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witschi, H.; Haschek, W.M.; Meyer, K.R.; Ullrich, R.L.; Dalbey, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether an interaction between two agents causing alveolar epithelial damage would produce lung fibrosis. In mouse lung, intraperitoneal injection of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene causes diffuse alveolar type I cell necrosis, followed by proliferation of type II alveolar cells. In animals exposed to 70% O 2 or 100-200 rad x rays during the phase of type II cell proliferation following BHT, diffuse interstitial lung fibrosis developed within 2 weeks. Quantitative analysis of the lungs for hydroxyproline showed that the interaction between BHT and O 2 or x rays was synergistic. If exposure to O 2 or x rays was delayed until epithelial recovery was complete, no fibrosis was seen. Abnormally high levels of lung collagen persisted up to 6 months after one single treatment with BHT and 100 rad x rays. A commonly seen form of chronic lung damage may thus be caused by an acute interaction between a bloodborne agent which damages the alveolar cell and a toxic inhalant or x rays, provided a critically ordered sequence of exposure is observed

  2. Impact of physical activity on fatigue and quality of life in people with advanced lung cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, H M; Bell, M L; van der Ploeg, H P; Turner, J D; Kabourakis, M; Spencer, L; Lewis, C; Hui, R; Blinman, P; Clarke, S J; Boyer, M J; Vardy, J L

    2017-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) improves fatigue and quality of life (QOL) in cancer survivors. Our aim was to assess whether a 2-month PA intervention improves fatigue and QOL for people with advanced lung cancer. Participants with advanced lung cancer, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) ≤2, >6 months life expectancy, and ability to complete six-min walk test, were stratified (disease stage, PS 0-1 versus 2, centre) and randomized (1:1) in an open-label study to usual care (UC) (nutrition and PA education materials) or experimental intervention (EX): UC plus 2-month supervised weekly PA and behaviour change sessions. Assessments occurred at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 months. The primary endpoint was fatigue [Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F) questionnaire] at 2 months. The study was designed to detect a difference in mean FACT-F subscale score of 6. Analysis was intention-to-treat using linear mixed models. We recruited 112 patients: 56 (50.4%) were randomized to EX, 55(49.5%) to UC; 1 ineligible. Male 55%; median age 64 years (34-80); 106 (96%) non-small cell lung cancer; 106 (95.5%) stage IV. At 2, 4 and 6 months, 90, 73 and 62 participants were assessed, respectively, with no difference in attrition between groups. There were no significant differences in fatigue between the groups at 2, 4 or 6 months: mean scores at 2 months EX 37.5, UC 36.4 (difference 1.2, 95% CI - 3.5, 5.8, P = 0.62). There were no significant differences in QOL, symptoms, physical or functional status, or survival. Adherence to the intervention was good but the intervention group did not increase th