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Sample records for pumping systems normalizacion

  1. Normalization of the energy efficiency in pumping systems; Normalizacion de eficiencia energetica en sistemas de bombeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Torres, R.A.; Buendia Dominguez, E.H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), supporting the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) has prepared the preliminary project of the norm of energetic efficiency for pumping systems, specifically for the agricultural sector. This document has complied with the necessary formalities for the issue of a norm and is about to be published as a Mexican Official Norm of energetic efficiency. In this paper mention is made of the results in the analysis of the pumping systems in operation, the energy saving, as well as the economic evaluation that sustain the norm project, indicating besides the environmental impact that its implantation will have. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) apoyando a la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) ha elaborado el anteproyecto de norma de eficiencia energetica en sistemas de bombeo, especificamente para el sector agricola. Dicho documento ha cumplido con los tramites necesarios para la emision de una norma, y esta proximo a publicarse como norma oficial mexicana de eficiencia energetica. En el presente articulo se mencionan los resultados del analisis de los sistemas de bombeo en operacion, los ahorros energeticos, asi como la evaluacion economica que sustenta el proyecto de norma, indicandose ademas el impacto ambiental que tendra la implantacion de la misma.

  2. Energy efficiency standardizing in vertical pumps; Normalizacion de eficiencia energetica en bombas verticales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Torres, Rosa Aracely; Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) supporting the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (National Commission for Energy Saving) developed the project of a standard on energy efficiency of vertical pumps, turbine type with external motor. This documents has fulfilled the necessary formalities for the issuing of a norm, being published the Mexican Official Norm (NOM-001-ENER-1995) on December 22, 1995. This article relates the results of the study for the elaboration of this norm, considering the energy saving, as well as the economic evaluation that supports the project of the norm, indicating also the environmental impact that its implantation will have. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) apoyando a la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) elaboro el anteproyecto de norma de eficiencia energetica en bombas verticales tipo turbina con motor externo. Dicho documento ha cumplido con los tramites necesarios para la emision de una norma, habiendose publicado como Norma Oficial Mexicana (NOM-001-ENER-1995) el 22 de diciembre de 1995. En el presente articulo se mencionan los resultados del estudio para la realizacion de esta norma, considerando los ahorros energeticos, asi como la evaluacion economica que sustenta el proyecto de norma, indicando tambien el impacto ambiental que tendra su implantacion.

  3. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  4. Pulsed differential pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipov, G.N.; Bagautdinov, F.A.; Rybalov, S.V.

    1985-06-01

    A pulsed differential pumping system is described for extracting an electron beam from a shaping region at a pressure of 10/sup -5/ torr into a volume with a pressure of 10-100 torr. A fast valve is used with appropriate geometrical parameters to reduce the length of the outlet channel considerable while increasing its diameter. Test results are given. The pumping system has two sections which communicate one with the other and with the volume at the elevated pressure which is produced by gasdynamic nozzles.

  5. Improving pumping system efficiency at coal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livoti, W.C.; McCandless, S.; Poltorak, R. [Baldor Electric Co. (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The industry must employ ultramodern technologies when building or upgrading power plant pumping systems thereby using fuels more efficiently. The article discusses the uses and efficiencies of positive displacement pumps, centrifugal pumps and multiple screw pumps. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  6. Pump control system for windmills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Don E.

    1983-01-01

    A windmill control system having lever means, for varying length of stroke of the pump piston, and a control means, responsive to the velocity of the wind to operate the lever means to vary the length of stroke and hence the effective displacement of the pump in accordance with available wind energy, with the control means having a sensing member separate from the windmill disposed in the wind and displaceable thereby in accordance with wind velocity.

  7. Certification and normalization in the electrical sector; Certificacion y normalizacion en el sector electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Ruiz, Martin [ANCE, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The normalization in Mexico, in what it refers to this century that is about to end, it could be said that it goes back and is having important changes in different stages, starting in 1928 with the appearance of the Law of Weights and Measures, in 1945 with the issue of the Law of Industrial Standards, in 1961 with the appearance of the General Law of Standards, Weights and Measures, in 1988 with the emission of the Federal Law on Metrology and Standardization in which still the standards were considered Official Mexican Standards, until July 1, 1992 in which appears a new Federal Law On Metrology and Standardization in which the standards could be classified in Mexican Official Standards and Mexican Standards, the first ones of forced fulfillment and second ones of voluntary character. Also, in this Law appear new terms and actors in the scope of the standardization and certification, so to speak, these actors are the Laboratories of Calibration and Tests, the Organisms of Standardization, the Organisms of Certification and the Units of Verification. In 1998 appear the Reforms to the Law and where a new figure appears that is the identity of accreditation and whose object and main activity is to recognize the technical competition and trustworthiness of the Organisms of Certification, of the Testing Laboratories, the Laboratories of Calibration and the Units of Verification for the evaluation of the conformity, and on March 15, 2001 appears in the Diario Oficial de la Federacion (Official Newspaper of the Federation) the Regulation of the Federal Law on Metrology and Standardization in order to have a document of support for its correct interpretation. [Spanish] La normalizacion en Mexico, en lo que data de este siglo que esta por terminar, podria decirse que se remonta y va tendiendo cambios importantes en diferentes etapas, iniciando en 1928 con la aparicion de la Ley de Pesas y de Medidas, en 1945 con la expedicion de la Ley de Normas Industriales, en 1961 con

  8. Absorption-heat-pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  9. Standardization for electric energy saving; Normalizacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Diaz, Arturo [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This work describes shortly the current legislation on the standardization; as well as the participation of the entities Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) and Programa de Ahorro de Energia (PAESE) in the consulting committees, for the elaboration of the Mexican official standards focussed to electric power saving. [Espanol] El presente trabajo, describe brevemente la legislacion actual sobre la normalizacion; asi como la participacion de las entidades Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) y Programa de ahorro de Energia (PAESE) en los comites consultivos, para la elaboracion de normas oficiales mexicanas enfocadas al ahorro de energia electrica.

  10. An economic evaluation comparison of solar water pumping system with engine pumping system for rice cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treephak, Kasem; Thongpron, Jutturit; Somsak, Dhirasak; Saelao, Jeerawan; Patcharaprakiti, Nopporn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose the design and economic evaluation of the water pumping systems for rice cultivation using solar energy, gasoline fuel and compare both systems. The design of the water and gasoline engine pumping system were evaluated. The gasoline fuel cost used in rice cultivation in an area of 1.6 acres. Under same conditions of water pumping system is replaced by the photovoltaic system which is composed of a solar panel, a converter and an electric motor pump which is compose of a direct current (DC) motor or an alternating current (AC) motor with an inverter. In addition, the battery is installed to increase the efficiency and productivity of rice cultivation. In order to verify, the simulation and economic evaluation of the storage energy battery system with batteries and without batteries are carried out. Finally the cost of four solar pumping systems was evaluated and compared with that of the gasoline pump. The results showed that the solar pumping system can be used to replace the gasoline water pumping system and DC solar pump has a payback less than 10 years. The systems that can payback the fastest is the DC solar pumping system without batteries storage system. The system the can payback the slowest is AC solar pumping system with batteries storage system. However, VAC motor pump of 220 V can be more easily maintained than the motor pump of 24 VDC and batteries back up system can supply a more stable power to the pump system.

  11. TFCX pumped limiter and vacuum pumping system design and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    Impurity control system design and performance studies were performed in support of the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) pre-conceptual design. Efforts concentrated on pumped limiter and vacuum pumping system design configuration, thermal/mechanical and erosion lifetime performance of the limiter protective surface, and helium ash removal performance. The reference limiter design forms a continuous toroidal belt at the bottom of the device and features a flat surface with a single leading edge. The vacuum pumping system features large vacuum ducts (diameter approximately 1 m) and high-speed, compound cryopumps. Analysis results indicate that the limiter/vacuum pumping system design provides adequate helium ash removal. Erosion, primarily by disruption-induced vaporization and/or melting, limits the protective surface lifetime to about one calendar year or only about 60 full-power hours of operation. In addition to evaluating impurity control system performance for nominal TFCX conditions, these studies attempt to focus on the key plasma physics and engineering design issues that should be addressed in future research and development programs.

  12. Reciprocating Pump Systems for Space Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J C

    2004-06-10

    Small propellant pumps can reduce rocket hardware mass, while increasing chamber pressure to improve specific impulse. The maneuvering requirements for planetary ascent require an emphasis on mass, while those of orbiting spacecraft indicate that I{sub SP} should be prioritized during pump system development. Experimental efforts include initial testing with prototype lightweight components while raising pump efficiency to improve system I{sub SP}.

  13. Pumps for medium sized solar systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon

    1996-01-01

    The suitability of the electronically controlled circulation pump type UPE 2000 from Grundfos for large solar heating systems was elucidated.......The suitability of the electronically controlled circulation pump type UPE 2000 from Grundfos for large solar heating systems was elucidated....

  14. Engine room cooling system using jet pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, J.W.; Lee, S.H. [Daewoo Heavy Industries Ltd. (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Construction machinery includes an engine enclosure separated from a cooling system enclosure by a wall to reduce noise and advance cooling system performance. For this structure, however, the axial fan cannot be of benefit to the engine room, and so the temperature rise in the engine room makes several bad conditions. This paper proposes that hot air in engine room is evacuated by secondary pipe using jet pump. This paper demonstrates the structure and the effect of jet pump and useful guideline on design of area, length, and shape of secondary pipe to maximize the effect of jet pump. (author). 4 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. A simplified heat pump model for use in solar plus heat pump system simulation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Perers, Bengt; Anderssen, Elsa; Nordman, Roger; Kovacs, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Solar plus heat pump systems are often very complex in design, with sometimes special heat pump arrangements and control. Therefore detailed heat pump models can give very slow system simulations and still not so accurate results compared to real heat pump performance in a system. The idea here is to start from a standard measured performance map of test points for a heat pump according to EN 14825 and then determine characteristic parameters for a simplified correlation based model of the he...

  16. Pumping Optimization Model for Pump and Treat Systems - 15091

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, S.; Ivarson, Kristine A.; Karanovic, M.; Miller, Charles W.; Tonkin, M.

    2015-01-15

    Pump and Treat systems are being utilized to remediate contaminated groundwater in the Hanford 100 Areas adjacent to the Columbia River in Eastern Washington. Design of the systems was supported by a three-dimensional (3D) fate and transport model. This model provided sophisticated simulation capabilities but requires many hours to calculate results for each simulation considered. Many simulations are required to optimize system performance, so a two-dimensional (2D) model was created to reduce run time. The 2D model was developed as a equivalent-property version of the 3D model that derives boundary conditions and aquifer properties from the 3D model. It produces predictions that are very close to the 3D model predictions, allowing it to be used for comparative remedy analyses. Any potential system modifications identified by using the 2D version are verified for use by running the 3D model to confirm performance. The 2D model was incorporated into a comprehensive analysis system (the Pumping Optimization Model, POM) to simplify analysis of multiple simulations. It allows rapid turnaround by utilizing a graphical user interface that: 1 allows operators to create hypothetical scenarios for system operation, 2 feeds the input to the 2D fate and transport model, and 3 displays the scenario results to evaluate performance improvement. All of the above is accomplished within the user interface. Complex analyses can be completed within a few hours and multiple simulations can be compared side-by-side. The POM utilizes standard office computing equipment and established groundwater modeling software.

  17. Damages on pumps and systems the handbook for the operation of centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Merkle, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Damage on Pumps and Systems. The Handbook for the Operation of Centrifugal Pumps offers a combination of the theoretical basics and practical experience for the operation of circulation pumps in the engineering industry. Centrifugal pumps and systems are extremely vulnerable to damage from a variety of causes, but the resulting breakdown can be prevented by ensuring that these pumps and systems are operated properly. This book provides a total overview of operating centrifugal pumps, including condition monitoring, preventive maintenance, life cycle costs, energy savings and economic aspects. Extra emphasis is given to the potential damage to these pumps and systems, and what can be done to prevent breakdown. Addresses specific issues about pumping of metal chips, sand, abrasive dust and other solids in fluidsEmphasis on economic and efficiency aspects of predictive maintenance and condition monitoring Uses life cycle costs (LCC) to evaluate and calculate the costs of pumping systems

  18. Diode-pumped laser with improved pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jim J.

    2004-03-09

    A laser wherein pump radiation from laser diodes is delivered to a pump chamber and into the lasing medium by quasi-three-dimensional compound parabolic concentrator light channels. The light channels have reflective side walls with a curved surface and reflective end walls with a curved surface. A flow tube between the lasing medium and the light channel has a roughened surface.

  19. Root cause analysis of pump valve failures of three membrane pump systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, L.J.; Eijk, A.; Hooft, L. van

    2014-01-01

    This paper will present the root cause analysis and the solution of fatigue failures of the pump valves of three membrane pump systems installed on a chemical plant of Momentive in Pernis, the Netherlands. The membrane pumps were installed approximately 30 years ago. Each system has encountered fati

  20. A simplified heat pump model for use in solar plus heat pump system simulation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Andersen, Elsa; Nordman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Solar plus heat pump systems are often very complex in design, with sometimes special heat pump arrangements and control. Therefore detailed heat pump models can give very slow system simulations and still not so accurate results compared to real heat pump performance in a system. The idea here...... is to start from a standard measured performance map of test points for a heat pump according to EN 14825 and then determine characteristic parameters for a simplified correlation based model of the heat pump. By plotting heat pump test data in different ways including power input and output form and not only...... as COP, a simplified relation could be seen. By using the same methodology as in the EN 12975 QDT part in the collector test standard it could be shown that a very simple model could describe the heat pump test data very accurately, by identifying 4 parameters in the correlation equation found....

  1. A simplified heat pump model for use in solar plus heat pump system simulation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Andersen, Elsa; Nordman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Solar plus heat pump systems are often very complex in design, with sometimes special heat pump arrangements and control. Therefore detailed heat pump models can give very slow system simulations and still not so accurate results compared to real heat pump performance in a system. The idea here...... is to start from a standard measured performance map of test points for a heat pump according to EN 14825 and then determine characteristic parameters for a simplified correlation based model of the heat pump. By plotting heat pump test data in different ways including power input and output form and not only...... as COP, a simplified relation could be seen. By using the same methodology as in the EN 12975 QDT part in the collector test standard it could be shown that a very simple model could describe the heat pump test data very accurately, by identifying 4 parameters in the correlation equation found....

  2. Heat Pumps in CHP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt

    in Danish conditions. The limitations are highly dependent on the integration of heat source and sink streams. An evaluation of feasible operating conditions was carried out considering the constraints of available refrigeration equipment and a requirement of a positive net present value of the investment...... goals. The presented study investigates the possible introduction of HPs from both a thermodynamic and a system/operation management perspective, in order to find optimal integration schemes in both current and future energy scenarios. Five generic configurations of HPs in district heating (DH) systems...... that three configurations are particular advantageous, whereas the two remaining configurations result in system performance close to or below what may be expected from an electric heater. One of the three advantageous configurations is required to be positioned at the location of the heat demand, whereas...

  3. Pump/Control System Minimum Operating Cost Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of pump performance was initiated to determine the efficiencies of an arbitrary group of small pumps. Trends in factors affecting energy usage in typical prime movers which might be used in liquid transport solar systems were assessed. Comparisons of centrifugal pump efficiencies were made from one manufacturer to another. Tests were also made on two positive-displacement pumps and comparisons with centrifugal pumps were observed.

  4. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid.......KEYWORDS: water, pump, design, vane, gear....

  5. Efficiency assessment of a wind pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, David D.; Merino, Gabriel G. [Department of Mechanization and Energy, University of Concepcion, Avenida Vicente Mendez 595, Chillan (Chile); Pavez, Boris J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of La Frontera, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile); Tapia, Juan A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

    2011-02-15

    The combined efficiency of the components determines overall system performance in electric wind pumping systems. We evaluated a system composed of a 3 kW wind generator feeding a battery bank of 48 V/880 Ah by means of a non-controlled 6-pulse rectifier. Connected to this battery bank was a 1.5 kW inverter that generated 220 V at 50 Hz, which powers a 1.1 kW single-phase electric pump. At the University of Concepcion, Chile, energy losses in each electrical component was determined using a data collection system configured to measure electrical variables in real time. The electrical power generated by the wind generator for different wind speeds averaged 38% lower than the power curve provided by the manufacturer. Electromechanical tests performed in a lab showed the operation efficiency of the electric generator of the wind turbine averaged 80%. This information, along with the electrical power output, and the wind velocity measured during field operation allowed us to determine the rotor's power coefficient C{sub p}, which had a maximum value of 35%. For the stored energy components measured data indicated that the rectifier, the battery bank, and the inverter operated with average efficiencies of 95%, 78% and 86% respectively. The combined component efficiencies showed a maximum of 17% of the wind energy would be available for water pumping. Since a large amount of wind energy was dissipated during the energy conversion process, new configurations should be analyzed that could avoid such losses in wind pumping systems. (author)

  6. Energy Efficient Pump Control for an Offshore Oil Processing System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Soleiman, Kian; Løhndorf, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficient control of a pump system for an offshore oil processing system is investigated. The seawater is lifted up by a pump system which consists of three identical centrifugal pumps in parallel, and the lifted seawater is used to cool down the crude oil flowing out of a threephase...... separator on one of the Danish north-sea platform. A hierarchical pump-speed control strategy is developed for the considered system by minimizing the pump power consumption subject to keeping a satisfactory system performance. The proposed control strategy consists of online estimation of some system...... operating parameters, optimization of pump configurations, and a real-time feedback control. Comparing with the current control strategy at the considered system, where the pump system is on/off controlled, and the seawater flows are controlled by a number of control valves, the proposed control strategy...

  7. Economics of heat pump systems for simultaneous heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Devotta, S.; Patwardhan, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    Heat pumps can be incorporated advantageously into processes which require simultaneously both cooling and heating. The economics of heat pumps in India for simultaneous heat and cooling is assessed with respect to process, design and economic parameters. For the typical conditions of various parameters in India, a heat pump system for simultaneous heating and cooling is very attractive.

  8. Contamination of successive samples in portable pumping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Thomas; Rand E. Eads

    1983-01-01

    Automatic discrete sample pumping systems used to monitor water quality should deliver to storage all materials pumped in a given cycle. If they do not, successive samples will be contaminated, a severe problem with highly variable suspended sediment concentrations in small streams. The cross-contamination characteristics of two small commonly used portable pumping...

  9. A Numerical Study on System Performance of Groundwater Heat Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sang Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater heat pumps have energy saving potential where the groundwater resources are sufficient. System Coefficients of Performance (COPs are measurements of performance of groundwater heat pump systems. In this study, the head and power of submersible pumps, heat pump units, piping, and heat exchangers are expressed as polynomial equations, and these equations are solved numerically to determine the system performance. Regression analysis is used to find the coefficients of the polynomial equations from a catalog of performance data. The cooling and heating capacities of water-to-water heat pumps are determined using Energy Plus. Results show that system performance drops as the water level drops, and the lowest flow rates generally achieve the highest system performance. The system COPs are used to compare the system performance of various system configurations. The groundwater pumping level and temperature provide the greatest effects on the system performance of groundwater heat pumps along with the submersible pumps and heat exchangers. The effects of groundwater pumping levels, groundwater temperatures, and the heat transfer coefficient in heat exchanger on the system performance are given and compared. This analysis needs to be included in the design process of groundwater heat pump systems, possibly with analysis tools that include a wide range of performance data.

  10. Audel water well pumps and systems mini-ref

    CERN Document Server

    Woodson, Roger D

    2011-01-01

    Introducing an Audel ""Mini-Ref"" for tradespeople working on water well pumps and pumping systems Water well pumps are used everywhere, with installations numbering in the millions. It's hard to believe that no one has written a small field book that covers these pieces of equipment. Finally, here's a great handy guide is for anyone who needs to know how these pumps work, how to troubleshoot problems unique to this type of piping system, and how to make common repairs for both above ground and submersible pumps. It contains vital and specific references applicable to a wide range of

  11. Ground Source Heat Pump in Heating System with Electronics Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAMŢU Ovidiu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring system is implemented for a ground coupled heat pump in heating/ system. The borehole heat exchangers – which are 150 m long - are filled with a mixture of water and ethilene glycol calledbrine. Metering and monitoring energy consumption is achieved for: heat pump, circulation pumps, additional electrical heating, hot air ventilation systems, control systems with sensors: analog and smart sensors. Instantaneous values are stored in a local computer.

  12. Assessing variable speed pump efficiency in water distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions are increasingly becoming important design targets in many industrial systems where fossil fuel based electrical energy is heavily utilised. In water distribution systems (WDSs a significant portion of operational cost is related to pumping. Recent studies have considered variable speed pumps (VSPs which aim to vary the operating point of the pump to match demand to pumping rate. Depending on the system characteristics, this approach can lead to considerable savings in operational costs. In particular, cost reductions can take advantage of the demand variability and can decrease energy consumption significantly. One of the issues in using variable speed pumping systems, however, is the total efficiency of the electric motor/pump arrangement under a given operating condition. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive discussion about the components of WDS that incorporate variable speed pumps (including electric motors, variable frequency drives and the pumps themselves to provide an insight of ways of increasing the system efficiency and hence to reduce energy consumption. In addition, specific attention is given to selection of motor types, sizing, duty cycle of pump (ratio of on-time and time period, losses due to installation and motor faults. All these factors affect the efficiency of motor drive/pump system.

  13. Assessing variable speed pump efficiency in water distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions are increasingly becoming important design targets in many industrial systems where fossil fuel based electrical energy is heavily utilised. In water distribution systems (WDSs a significant portion of operational cost is related to pumping. Recent studies have considered variable speed pumps (VSPs which aim to vary the operating point of the pump to match demand to pumping rate. Depending on the system characteristics, this approach can lead to considerable savings in operational costs. In particular, cost reductions can take advantage of the demand variability and can decrease energy consumption significantly. One of the issues in using variable speed pumping systems, however, is the total efficiency of the electric motor/pump arrangement under a given operating condition. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive discussion about the components of WDS that incorporate variable speed pumps (including electric motors, inverters and the pumps themselves to provide an insight of ways of increasing the system efficiency and hence to reduce energy consumption. In addition, specific attention is given to selection of motor types, sizing, duty cycle of pump (ratio of on-time and time period, losses due to installation and motor faults. All these factors affect the efficiency of motor drive/pump system.

  14. Jet pump-drive system for heat removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, James R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The invention does away with the necessity of moving parts such as a check valve in a nuclear reactor cooling system. Instead, a jet pump, in combination with a TEMP, is employed to assure safe cooling of a nuclear reactor after shutdown. A main flow exists for a reactor coolant. A point of withdrawal is provided for a secondary flow. A TEMP, responsive to the heat from said coolant in the secondary flow path, automatically pumps said withdrawn coolant to a higher pressure and thus higher velocity compared to the main flow. The high velocity coolant is applied as a driver flow for the jet pump which has a main flow chamber located in the main flow circulation pump. Upon nuclear shutdown and loss of power for the main reactor pumping system, the TEMP/jet pump combination continues to boost the coolant flow in the direction it is already circulating. During the decay time for the nuclear reactor, the jet pump keeps running until the coolant temperature drops to a lower and safe temperature where the heat is no longer a problem. At this lower temperature, the TEMP/jet pump combination ceases its circulation boosting operation. When the nuclear reactor is restarted and the coolant again exceeds the lower temperature setting, the TEMP/jet pump automatically resumes operation. The TEMP/jet pump combination is thus automatic, self-regulating and provides an emergency pumping system free of moving parts.

  15. Molecular system generation with strong resonance optical pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntsevich, B.F.; Churakov, V.V.

    1977-03-01

    A study was made of molecular system generation modulated by three oscillating levels with a rotating structure with strong resonance optical pumping. Molecular behavior of the active medium is described by equations for the density matrix. The relationship between the amplification coefficient and pressure at various pumping intensities was examined. In approaching the assigned pumping field, an examination was made of how the generation field is affected by the volumetric density of the pumping energy, partial pressure of the buffer gas and frequency difference in the pumping channel.

  16. Savings potential of pump control systems; Sparpotenzial geregelter Pumpensysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontermann, D.

    2008-07-01

    This article takes a look at the potential for saving energy available if speed-control systems are used to regulate the speed and, as a result, the energy consumption of industrial pumps. The author quotes that around one third of power consumption in commercial buildings is used for powering pumps. Life-cycle costs of pumps, in which operation, maintenance and repair are also taken into account, are discussed. Methods of dimensioning pumps and the difficulties that can be encountered in doing this are discussed. The planning necessary to choose the correct pump power is discussed, as is the use of multi-stage pump installations and their control. Monitoring of the operation of pump installations is also examined.

  17. Expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.M.; Humenik, K.E.

    1992-12-31

    This report describes an expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps. This system provides a means for early detection of pump or sensor degradation. Degradation is determined through the use of a statistical analysis technique, sequential probability ratio test, applied to information from several sensors which are responsive to differing physical parameters. The results of sequential testing of the data provide the operator with an early warning of possible sensor or pump failure.

  18. AUTOMATION OF THE RESIDENTIAL BUILDING WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM PUMPING STATION

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Kulia

    2016-01-01

    Essence of process of water-supply of apartment dwelling house is considered. The existent state over of automation of the pumping stations is brought. The task of development of the effective system of automatic control is put by them. Possibility of decision of task is shown by the use in the system of frequency transformer that feeds the electrodrives of pumps, and also due to perfection of algorithms of the pumps rotation frequency adjusting and logical management of their switching a seq...

  19. Origin of Possible Contamination Introduced by a Turbomolecular Pumping System

    CERN Document Server

    Bojon, J P; Weiss, K P

    1999-01-01

    Turbomolecular pumping groups are widely used in accelerators for the pre-evacuation and during the bake-out of the vacuum system. A major requirement for these groups, apart from pumping speed considerations, is the cleanliness of the vacuum produced. In an attempt to clarify this question, a bakeable low-pressure vacuum system has been constructed to allow the direct comparison of the contamination introduced by a turbomolecular pump and by an ideally clean cryopump. This contamination has been checked by the quantitative analysis of the residual gas as well as of the gases desorbed from surfaces under electron bombardment. Contamination by the rotary pump oil is only apparent below 40% of the turbomolecular pump nominal rotation speed. When the pump is stopped, the system is contaminated by heavy hydrocarbons which can be eliminated by a 300°C vacuum bake out.

  20. Vacuum Pump System Optimization Saves Energy at a Dairy Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-08-01

    In 1998, S&S Dairy optimized the vacuum pumping system at their dairy farm in Modesto, California. In an effort to reduce energy costs, S&S Dairy evaluated their vacuum pumping system to determine if efficiency gains and energy savings were possible.

  1. Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Metin [ENVIRON; Yavuzturk, Cy [University of Hartford; Pinder, George [University of Vermont

    2015-04-15

    Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.

  2. Optimal Ground Source Heat Pump System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Metin [Environ Holdings Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Yavuzturk, Cy [Univ. of Hartford, West Hartford, CT (United States); Pinder, George [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Despite the facts that GSHPs first gained popularity as early as the 1940’s and they can achieve 30 to 60 percent in energy savings and carbon emission reductions relative to conventional HVAC systems, the use of geothermal energy in the U.S. has been less than 1 percent of the total energy consumption. The key barriers preventing this technically-mature technology from reaching its full commercial potential have been its high installation cost and limited consumer knowledge and trust in GSHP systems to deliver the technology in a cost-effective manner in the market place. Led by ENVIRON, with support from University Hartford and University of Vermont, the team developed and tested a software-based a decision making tool (‘OptGSHP’) for the least-cost design of ground-source heat pump (‘GSHP’) systems. OptGSHP combines state of the art optimization algorithms with GSHP-specific HVAC and groundwater flow and heat transport simulation. The particular strength of OptGSHP is in integrating heat transport due to groundwater flow into the design, which most of the GSHP designs do not get credit for and therefore are overdesigned.

  3. Residential heat pumps in the future Danish energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Denmark is striving towards 100% renewable energy system in 2050. Residential heat pumps are expected to be a part of that system.We propose two novel approaches to improve the representation of residential heat pumps: Coefficients of performance (COPs) are modelled as dependent on air and ground...... temperature while installation of ground-source heat pumps is constrained by available ground area. In this study, TIMES-DK model is utilised to test the effects of improved modelling of residential heat pumps on the Danish energy system until 2050.The analysis of the Danish energy system was done...... for politically agreed targets which include: at least 50% of electricity consumption from wind power starting from 2020, fossil fuel free heat and power sector from 2035 and 100% renewable energy system starting from 2050. Residential heat pumps supply around 25% of total residential heating demand after 2035...

  4. PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.D.

    1959-03-24

    A pump is described for conveving liquids, particure it is not advisable he apparatus. The to be submerged in the liquid to be pumped, a conduit extending from the high-velocity nozzle of the injector,and means for applying a pulsating prcesure to the surface of the liquid in the conduit, whereby the surface oscillates between positions in the conduit. During the positive half- cycle of an applied pulse liquid is forced through the high velocity nozzle or jet of the injector and operates in the manner of the well known water injector and pumps liquid from the main intake to the outlet of the injector. During the negative half-cycle of the pulse liquid flows in reverse through the jet but no reverse pumping action takes place.

  5. Economics of heat pump assisted drying systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendyala, V.R.; Devotta, S.; Patwardhan, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The sensitivity of the economics of heat pump assisted dryers to various factors such as design, operational and economic variables, when payback period is adopted as the criterion, has been assessed for Indian conditions. Results have been presented in graphical form to illustrate the optimum conditions for economic viability. For the specific typical conditions and the current costs of electricity and steam in India, a heat pump assisted dryer has a payback period in the range of two to three years.

  6. Elements for Effective Management of Operating Pump and Treat Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet summarizes key aspects of effective management for operating pump and treat (P&T) systems based on lessons learned from conducting optimization evaluations at 20 Superfund-financed P&T systems.

  7. District Heating System Using Heat Pump Installations and CHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the district heating system, in which part of the heat of return water thermal power is used to supply heat to the district heating puThe article describes the district heating system, in which part of the heat of return water thermal power is used to supply heat to the district heating pumps, evaporators heating and hot water. Heat pumps use carbon dioxide as refrigerant. During the transitional period of the year, and the summer heat pump for preparing hot-water supply system uses the heat of the surrounding air. The heat of the ambient air is used in the intermediate heat exchanger between the first and second stages of the heat pump to cool the gas after the first stage of the compressor of the heat pump.

  8. Overall control and monitoring systems for pumped storage plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, B.; Cvetko, H.

    1982-01-01

    Experience and technical innovations in power plant engineering have resulted in continuous improvements of operation control, availability and safety of pumped storage plants. Process control is constantly improved as new developments are made in equipment and systems engineering. Plant control concepts with increasingly complex automation hierarchy are described by which pumped storage processes can be controlled optimally, reliably, and automatically.

  9. AUTOMATION OF THE RESIDENTIAL BUILDING WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM PUMPING STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kulia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Essence of process of water-supply of apartment dwelling house is considered. The existent state over of automation of the pumping stations is brought. The task of development of the effective system of automatic control is put by them. Possibility of decision of task is shown by the use in the system of frequency transformer that feeds the electrodrives of pumps, and also due to perfection of algorithms of the pumps rotation frequency adjusting and logical management of their switching a sequence. The practical value of the use of the system is to increase dynamic.

  10. Applicability of sewage heat pump air-conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金华; 刘猛; 刘勇; 靳鸣; 陈洁

    2009-01-01

    A sewage heat pump system and its application based on a project in Chongqing,China,were discussed. Based on the sewage conditions,a feasibility analysis of the sewage heat pump air conditioning system was conducted. The theoretical and quantitative calculations indicate that sewage flux in the city sewage main pipe in the project can satisfy heat exchange requirements,and taking water from the pipes has relatively small influence on the pipe net in summer and winter. The sewage heat pump air-conditioning system can save 21.5% operating cost in one year,which is energy efficient and environmentally friendly.

  11. A Review of the Security of Insulin Pump Infusion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Nathanael; Kohno, Tadayoshi; Klonoff, David C

    2011-01-01

    Insulin therapy has enabled patients with diabetes to maintain blood glucose control to lead healthier lives. Today, rather than injecting insulin manually using syringes, a patient can use a device such as an insulin pump to deliver insulin programmatically. This allows for more granular insulin delivery while attaining blood glucose control. Insulin pump system features have increasingly benefited patients, but the complexity of the resulting system has grown in parallel. As a result, security breaches that can negatively affect patient health are now possible. Rather than focus on the security of a single device, we concentrate on protecting the security of the entire system. In this article, we describe the security issues as they pertain to an insulin pump system that includes an embedded system of components, which include the insulin pump, continuous glucose management system, blood glucose monitor, and other associated devices (e.g., a mobile phone or personal computer). We detail not only the growing wireless communication threat in each system component, but also describe additional threats to the system (e.g., availability and integrity). Our goal is to help create a trustworthy infusion pump system that will ultimately strengthen pump safety, and we describe mitigating solutions to address identified security issues. PMID:22226278

  12. A Review of the Security of Insulin Pump Infusion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klonoff, David C. [Mills-Peninsula Health Services; Paul, Nathanael R [ORNL; Kohno, Tadayoshi [University of Washington, Seattle

    2011-01-01

    Insulin therapy has enabled diabetic patients to maintain blood glucose control to lead healthier lives. Today, rather than manually injecting insulin using syringes, a patient can use a device, such as an insulin pump, to programmatically deliver insulin. This allows for more granular insulin delivery while attaining blood glucose control. The insulin pump system features have increasingly benefited patients, but the complexity of the resulting system has grown in parallel. As a result security breaches that can negatively affect patient health are now possible. Rather than focus on the security of a single device, we concentrate on protecting the security of the entire system. In this paper we describe the security issues as they pertain to an insulin pump system that includes an embedded system of components including the insulin pump, continuous glucose management system, blood glucose monitor, and other associated devices (e.g., a mobile phone or personal computer). We detail not only the growing wireless communication threat in each system component, but we also describe additional threats to the system (e.g., availability and integrity). Our goal is to help create a trustworthy infusion pump system that will ultimately strengthen pump safety, and we describe mitigating solutions to address identified security issues both for now and in the future.

  13. Safety systems for the ESES 2002 wind pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Agamawy, H. [Engine Factory, Doki (Egypt)

    2001-07-01

    The ESES 2002 wind pump, a 4.6 m rotor diameter high-performance water pumping windmill, was tested at four different sites (Cairo, Giza, Wadi El Natroun and El-Tor city on the Red Sea coast) from September 1997 to July 1999. These machines utilize a 3:1 gearbox and a hydrodynamic sealing piston pump. These four ESES 2002 wind pumps were tested by pumping from a motionless water depth of 3 in up to an 84 m deep well. A variety of pump diameter sizes varying from 64 to 1400 mm were used. The water pumped was returned to the well after flowing through a settling storage tank having a capacity of 3 m{sup 3}. The instrumentation provided a 16 channel data acquisition system to accurately measure the machine performance, including rotor rpm, number of stroke, starting wind speed, flow rate, tail furl angle and other variables. The results verify that the ESES 2002 wind pump is a robust machine as two machines have been running for 2 years continuously without requiring any replacement parts or major or minor maintenance. (author)

  14. Control System for Solar-Assisted Heat Pump System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    heat pump , a water-to-air heat exchanger, a domestic water heater, and a cooling tower. The preferred embodiment of the controller of the present invention includes a first temperature sensing means for sensing the temperature of the collector fluid at the outlet of the solar collector system, a second temperature sensing means for sensing the temperature of the storage fluid at the thermal storage system, and a third temperature sensing means for sensing the temperature of the inlet water to the domestic water heater. The controller compares the temperature of the thermal

  15. Modelling contaminant transport for pumping wells in riverbank filtration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Shaymaa; Bahar, Arifah; Aziz, Zainal Abdul; Suratman, Saim

    2016-01-01

    Analytical study of the influence of both the pumping well discharge rate and pumping time on contaminant transport and attenuation is significant for hydrological and environmental science applications. This article provides an analytical solution for investigating the influence of both pumping time and travelling time together for one-dimensional contaminant transport in riverbank filtration systems by using the Green's function approach. The basic aim of the model is to understand how the pumping time and pumping rate, which control the travelling time, can affect the contaminant concentration in riverbank filtration systems. Results of analytical solutions are compared with the results obtained using a MODFLOW numerical model. Graphically, it is found that both analytical and numerical solutions have almost the same behaviour. Additionally, the graphs indicate that any increase in the pumping rate or simulation pumping time should increase the contamination in groundwater. The results from the proposed analytical model are well matched with the data collected from a riverbank filtration site in France. After this validation, the model is then applied to the first pilot project of a riverbank filtration system conducted in Malaysia. Sensitivity analysis results highlight the importance of degradation rates of contaminants on groundwater quality, for which higher utilization rates lead to the faster consumption of pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of pump and pump switch failures in rainwater harvesting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moglia, Magnus; Gan, Kein; Delbridge, Nathan; Sharma, Ashok K.; Tjandraatmadja, Grace

    2016-07-01

    Rainwater harvesting is an important technology in cities that can contribute to a number of functions, such as sustainable water management in the face of demand growth and drought as well as the detention of rainwater to increase flood protection and reduce damage to waterways. The objective of this article is to investigate the integrity of residential rainwater harvesting systems, drawing on the results of the field inspection of 417 rainwater systems across Melbourne that was combined with a survey of householders' situation, maintenance behaviour and attitudes. Specifically, the study moves beyond the assumption that rainwater systems are always operational and functional and draws on the collected data to explore the various reasons and rates of failure associated with pumps and pump switches, leaving for later further exploration of the failure in other components such as the collection area, gutters, tank, and overflows. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there is no data like this in academic literature or in the water sector. Straightforward Bayesian Network models were constructed in order to analyse the factors contributing to various types of failures, including system age, type of use, the reason for installation, installer, and maintenance behaviour. Results show that a number of issues commonly exist, such as failure of pumps (5% of systems), automatic pump switches that mediate between the tank and reticulated water (9% of systems), and systems with inadequate setups (i.e. no pump) limiting their use. In conclusion, there appears to be a lack of enforcement or quality controls in both installation practices by sometimes unskilled contractors and lack of ongoing maintenance checks. Mechanisms for quality control and asset management are required, but difficult to promote or enforce. Further work is needed into how privately owned assets that have public benefits could be better managed.

  17. Novel sucker rod pumping system based on linear motor technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立毅; 李立清; 吴红星; 胡余生; 邹积岩

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining petroleum at the cost of electrical energy is a common problem in almost all oil fields, and it is mainly caused by low duty radio of induction motor used in beam pumping units. Traditional beam-pumping units have many intrinsic disadvantages such as low efficiency, complex transmission devices, poor flexibility,tremendous volume and weight in long stroke, etc. Therefore, a novel direct driven linear electromagnetic pumping unit (EMPU) has been developed by combining oil extraction technology with linear motor technology. The thrust of EMPU matches the changing of suspension center load to improve the system efficiency and cut down the consumption of energy. Based on previous experience, a small-scale prototype was developed and a simulation was conducted with it. Both theoretical analyses and experimental study showed that the problems exiting in beam pumping units can be solved with EMPU system, and this is a new method which can be used to solve high energy waste in oil fields.

  18. Peristaltic pump-based low range pressure sensor calibration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayakumar, K B; Naveen Kumar, G; Nayak, M M; Dinesh, N S; Rajanna, K

    2015-11-01

    Peristaltic pumps were normally used to pump liquids in several chemical and biological applications. In the present study, a peristaltic pump was used to pressurize the chamber (positive as well negative pressures) using atmospheric air. In the present paper, we discuss the development and performance study of an automatic pressurization system to calibrate low range (millibar) pressure sensors. The system includes a peristaltic pump, calibrated pressure sensor (master sensor), pressure chamber, and the control electronics. An in-house developed peristaltic pump was used to pressurize the chamber. A closed loop control system has been developed to detect and adjust the pressure leaks in the chamber. The complete system has been integrated into a portable product. The system performance has been studied for a step response and steady state errors. The system is portable, free from oil contaminants, and consumes less power compared to existing pressure calibration systems. The veracity of the system was verified by calibrating an unknown diaphragm based pressure sensor and the results obtained were satisfactory.

  19. Sliding mode controller for a photovoltaic pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElOugli, A.; Miqoi, S.; Boutouba, M.; Tidhaf, B.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a sliding mode control scheme (SMC) for maximum power point tracking controller for a photovoltaic pumping system, is proposed. The main goal is to maximize the flow rate for a water pump, by forcing the photovoltaic system to operate in its MPP, to obtain the maximum power that a PV system can deliver.And this, through the intermediary of a sliding mode controller to track and control the MPP by overcoming the power oscillation around the operating point, which appears in most implemented MPPT techniques. The sliding mode control approach is recognized as one of the efficient and powerful tools for nonlinear systems under uncertainty conditions.The proposed controller with photovoltaic pumping system is designed and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. In addition, to evaluate its performances, a classical MPPT algorithm using perturb and observe (P&O) has been used for the same system to compare to our controller. Simulation results are shown.

  20. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems (HP-ICES) are energy systems for communities which provide heating, cooling and/or other thermal energy services through the use of heat pumps. Since heat pumps primarily transfer energy from existing and otherwise probably unused sources, rather than convert it from electrical or chemical to thermal form, HP-ICES offer significant potential for energy savings. Secondary benefits of HP-ICES include reduction of adverse environmental effects as compared to conventional systems, reliable production of services in contrast to the increasingly frequent utility curtailments and interruptions, and delivery of services to consumers at costs lower than those for conventional systems (including acquisition, operation, and maintenance costs). The objective of this multiphase project is development and demonstration of HP-ICES concepts leading to one or more operational systems by the end of 1984. The results of the system development phase of the HP-ICES Project are reported. Information is presented on: central heat pump and distributed heat pump ICES; potential applications; waste heat availability; system performance and economics; environmental impacts; site requirements; component testing requirements; mathematical analysis of heat balance and cost relations; and performance and economic analyses of HP-ICES located near Seattle, Washington and San Antonio, Texas. (LCL)

  1. Procurement specification high vacuum test chamber and pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cormick, J. E.

    1976-05-31

    The specification establishes requirements for a high-vacuum test chamber, associated vacuum pumps, valves, controls, and instrumentation that shall be designed and fabricated for use as a test chamber for testing a closed loop Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Ground Demonstration System (GDS). The vacuum system shall include all instrumentation required for pressure measurement and control of the vacuum pumping system. A general outline of the BIPS-GDS in the vacuum chamber and the preliminary piping and instrumentation interface to the vacuum chamber are shown.

  2. Optimization of pumping schemes for 160-Gb/s single channel Raman amplified systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lin; Rottwitt, Karsten; Peucheret, Christophe;

    2004-01-01

    Three different distributed Raman amplification schemes-backward pumping, bidirectional pumping, and second-order pumping-are evaluated numerically for 160-Gb/s single-channel transmission. The same longest transmission distance of 2500 km is achieved for all three pumping methods with a 105-km...... span composed of superlarge effective area fiber and inverse dispersion fiber. For longest system reach, second-order pumping and backward pumping have larger pump power tolerance than bidirectional pumping, while the optimal span input signal power margin of second-order pumping is the largest...

  3. Heat pumps in combined heat and power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    of the considered cases. When considering a case where the heat pump is located at a CHP (combined heat and power) plant, a configuration that increases the DH return temperature proposes the lowest operation cost, as low as 12 EUR MWh-1 for a 90 °C e 40 °C DH network. Considering the volumetric heating capacity......Heat pumps have previously been proposed as a way to integrate higher amounts of renewable energy in DH (district heating) networks by integrating, e.g., wind power. The paper identifies and compares five generic configurations of heat pumps in DH systems. The operational performance......, a third configuration is superior in all cases. Finally, the three most promising heat pump configurations are integrated in a modified PQ-diagram of the CHP plant. Each show individual advantages, and for two, also disadvantages in order to achieve flexible operation....

  4. Comparison of solar powered water pumping systems which use diaphragm pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four solar photovoltaic (PV) powered diaphragm pumps were tested at different simulated pumping depths at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory near Bushland, Texas. Two of the pumps were designed for intermediate pumping depths (30 to 70 meters), and the other two pumps were...

  5. Comparative analytics of infusion pump data across multiple hospital systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlin, Ann Christine; Malloy, William X; Arthur, Karen J; Gaston, Cindy; Young, James; Fernando, Sudheera; Fernando, Ruchith

    2015-02-15

    A Web-based analytics system for conducting inhouse evaluations and cross-facility comparisons of alert data generated by smart infusion pumps is described. The Infusion Pump Informatics (IPI) project, a collaborative effort led by research scientists at Purdue University, was launched in 2009 to provide advanced analytics and tools for workflow analyses to assist hospitals in determining the significance of smart-pump alerts and reducing nuisance alerts. The IPI system allows facility-specific analyses of alert patterns and trends, as well as cross-facility comparisons of alert data uploaded by more than 55 participating institutions using different types of smart pumps. Tools accessible through the IPI portal include (1) charts displaying aggregated or breakout data on the top drugs associated with alerts, numbers of alerts per device or care area, and override-to-alert ratios, (2) investigative reports that can be used to characterize and analyze pump-programming errors in a variety of ways (e.g., by drug, by infusion type, by time of day), and (3) "drill-down" workflow analytics enabling users to evaluate alert patterns—both internally and in relation to patterns at other hospitals—in a quick and efficient stepwise fashion. The formation of the IPI analytics system to support a community of hospitals has been successful in providing sophisticated tools for member facilities to review, investigate, and efficiently analyze smart-pump alert data, not only within a member facility but also across other member facilities, to further enhance smart pump drug library design. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    A Heat Pump Centered-Integrated Community Energy System (HP-ICES) concept was explored and developed that is based on use of privately owned ice-making heat pumps in each building or complex within a community. These heat pumps will provide all of the space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water needs. All of the community input energy required is provided by electrical power, thereby eliminating a community's dependence on gas or oil supplies. The heat pumps will operate in both air and water source modes, deriving performance advantages of both. The possible forms of an HP-ICES system, the technical and economic limitations, environmental impacts and other factors are discussed from a general viewpoint. The concept is applied to a specific planned community and its performance and economic features are examined in detail. It is concluded that the HP-ICES concept is technically viable, but that its economic desirability as compared with conventional heat pump systems is hampered by much higher initial costs, and that the economic feasibility of HP-ICES systems will depend on future fuel source costs and supply and on electric power rates. (LCL)

  7. Entropy, pricing and macroeconomics of pumped-storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Efstratiadis, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    We propose a pricing scheme for the enhancement of macroeconomic performance of pumped-storage systems, based on the statistical properties of both geophysical and economic variables. The main argument consists in the need of a context of economic values concerning the hub energy resource; defined as the resource that comprises the reference energy currency for all involved renewable energy sources (RES) and discounts all related uncertainty. In the case of pumped-storage systems the hub resource is the reservoir's water, as a benchmark for all connected intermittent RES. The uncertainty of all involved natural and economic processes is statistically quantifiable by entropy. It is the relation between the entropies of all involved RES that shapes the macroeconomic state of the integrated pumped-storage system. Consequently, there must be consideration on the entropy of wind, solar and precipitation patterns, as well as on the entropy of economic processes -such as demand preferences on either current energy use or storage for future availability. For pumped-storage macroeconomics, a price on the reservoir's capacity scarcity should also be imposed in order to shape a pricing field with upper and lower limits for the long-term stability of the pricing range and positive net energy benefits, which is the primary issue of the generalized deployment of pumped-storage technology. Keywords: Entropy, uncertainty, pricing, hub energy resource, RES, energy storage, capacity scarcity, macroeconomics

  8. Feasibility of a TinyPump system for pediatric CPB, ECMO, and circulatory assistance: hydrodynamic performances of the modified pump housing for implantable TinyPump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Suzuki, Masaaki; Hoshi, Hideo; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Fujimoto, Tetsuo; Takatani, Setsuo

    2007-01-01

    The TinyPump is a miniature centrifugal blood pump with an extremely small priming volume of 5 ml, allowing blood transfusion free cardiopulmonary bypass as well as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in pediatric patients. In this study, a new pump housing with the angled inlet port (25 degrees toward impeller center with respect to the flow axis) was designed to optimize the pump displaced volume and to extend the application of the TinyPump to implantable support The fluid dynamic performance analysis revealed that the head pressure losses increased from 3 to 17 mm Hg in comparison with straight port design as the pump rotational speed increased from 2,000 to 4,000 rpm. This was probably caused by perturbed flow patterns at the site of the inlet bent port area and streamline hitting the off-center of the impeller. No significant effect on pumping efficiency was observed because of modification in inlet port design. Modification in the inflow and outflow port designs together with the drive mechanism reduces the height of the pump system, including the motor, to 27 mm yielding the displaced volume of 68 ml in comparison with 40 mm of the paracorporeal system with the displaced volume of 105 ml. Further analysis in terms of hemolytic as well as antithrombogenic performance will be carried out to finalize the housing design for the implantable version of the TinyPump.

  9. Control characteristics for heating system circulation pumps; Regelkennlinien fuer Heizungsumwaelzpumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallesoe, C. S.; Bidstrup, N.; Bayer, M.

    2009-07-01

    This article takes a look at variable speed circulation pumps for space heating systems that are used in one and two-family housing. Although the control systems in most houses usually have just one characteristic, the need for several control characteristics in order to cope with varying needs is discussed. The basics of finding out what the control characteristic should look like in a particular case are discussed. Modern circulation pumps with integrated speed control and their interplay with thermostatic valves are examined and discussed. A new automatic adaptation algorithm is described and its way of working is explained. Experience gained in practice is examined.

  10. Super heat pump energy accumulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-20

    The SHP is a project for which NEDO is commissioned as a part of the Moonlight Project by MITI and has developed since 1985. This report introduced mainly the practical results(trial operation study of the 100kW class bench scale plant) in 1988 fiscal year and the present situation of SHP technical development. Further, this report introduced the estimation of the effects of carbon dioxide decrease and energy saving on the global warmimg up. On the bench scale experiment, the 100kW class compressive heat pump of super high performance and a 10Mcal class high density chemical energy storing technique between higher temperature(100{sup 0}C or more) and cooler temperature(10{sup 0}C or less) were established. The energy saving effect for business, industry and cooling energy in Japan by SHP is estimated to be 205kl(oil)/year in 2000 and CO{sub 2} reducing effect is estimated to be about 820,000tons/Year. 2 refs., 4figs.

  11. System and method of detecting cavitation in pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Bin; Sharma, Santosh Kumar; Yan, Ting; Dimino, Steven A.

    2017-10-03

    A system and method for detecting cavitation in pumps for fixed and variable supply frequency applications is disclosed. The system includes a controller having a processor programmed to repeatedly receive real-time operating current data from a motor driving a pump, generate a current frequency spectrum from the current data, and analyze current data within a pair of signature frequency bands of the current frequency spectrum. The processor is further programmed to repeatedly determine fault signatures as a function of the current data within the pair of signature frequency bands, repeatedly determine fault indices based on the fault signatures and a dynamic reference signature, compare the fault indices to a reference index, and identify a cavitation condition in a pump based on a comparison between the reference index and a current fault index.

  12. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF FLOW PATTERNS IN DIFFERENT PUMP INTAKE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Jie-min; WANG Ben-cheng; YU Ling-hui; LI Yok-sheung; TANG Ling

    2012-01-01

    A 3-D numerical model for pump intake is established based on the Navier-Stokes equations with the RNG k-εturbulence model and the VOF method to simulate the free surface.The applicability of the proposed model is validated by a test case of non-symmetric pump-intake bay.The predicted locations,structures and shapes of all vortices are in good agreement with those observed in experiments,though with some differences in vorticity strengths.The flow pattern and the efficiency of five types of pump intake systems are studied.The discharge and the velocity uniformity of the intake system are used as indices to evaluate its performance.

  13. Use of an Irrigation Pump System in Arthroscopic Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Mark S; Kusnezov, Nicholas; Sieg, Ryan N; Owens, Brett D; Herzog, Joshua P

    2016-05-01

    Since its inception, arthroscopic surgery has become widely adopted among orthopedic surgeons. It is therefore important to have an understanding of the basic principles of arthroscopy. Compared with open techniques, arthroscopic procedures are associated with smaller incisions, less structural damage, improved intra-articular visualization, less pain in the immediate postoperative period, and faster recovery for patients. Pump systems used for arthroscopic surgery have evolved over the years to provide improved intraoperative visualization. Gravity flow systems were described first and are still commonly used today. More recently, automated pump systems with pressure or dual pressure and volume control have been developed. The advantages of automated irrigation systems over gravity irrigation include a more consistent flow, a greater degree of joint distention, improved visualization especially with motorized instrumentation, decreased need for tourniquet use, a tamponade effect on bleeding, and decreased operative time. Disadvantages include the need for additional equipment with increased cost and maintenance, the initial learning curve for the surgical team, and increased risk of extra-articular fluid dissection and associated complications such as compartment syndrome. As image quality and pump systems improve, so does the list of indications including diagnostic and treatment modalities to address intra-articular pathology of the knee, shoulder, hip, wrist, elbow, and ankle joints. This article reviews the current literature and presents the history of arthroscopy, basic science of pressure and flow, types of irrigation pumps and their functions, settings, applications, and complications. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e474-e478.].

  14. Dynamic damper pressure fluctuation in the pumping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Korolyov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Inertial part of any devices and equipment (e.g., pumps, hung or mounted on the resilient frame and being under the influence of the disturbing force that works at a constant frequency, may be subject to fluctuations, especially near of the resonance area. For elimination these fluctuations, you can resort to the use of a dynamic damper. Aim: The aim of the work is an analytical study of various dynamic dampers to reduce pressure fluctuation problems in pumping systems. Materials and Methods: A comparative analysis of efficiency of functioning was carried out for two types of dynamic dampers - hydraulic and mechanical. Results: The technique for calculating of dynamic damper of fluid pressure fluctuations in the hydraulic and mechanical pumps is presented. Algorithms of calculations are reported to engineering applications and implemented in the production process. The calculations show that the use of dynamic mechanical dampers is expedient at high frequency pumps, and, with increasing frequency of the pump by 6 times, winning in the dimensions of the damper in 3.5 times.

  15. Open-cycle vapor compression heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, F.E.

    1983-06-01

    Waste energy in the form of low pressure waste steam and low grade waste heat can be efficiently recovered and upgraded to high pressure steam by means of an open-cycle steam heat pump system. Thermo Electron has developed a steam heat pump system. A description of the system highlights the rotary screw compressor, the gas engine prime mover, the speed increaser, and the control system. The amount of energy saved by the system is dependent on the performance of the prime mover as well as the compressor. Energy savings of 40 to 70 percent are predicted. A demonstration system was installed at Monsanto in Indian Orchard, Massachusetts. Energy savings of over 63% compared to current steam generation efficiency is expected.

  16. Proposition of Unique Pumping System with Counter-Rotating Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Kanemoto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbo-pumps have weak points, such as when the pumping operation becomes unstable in the rising portion of the head characteristics and/or the cavitation occurs under the intolerably low suction head. To overcome both weak points simultaneously, this article proposes a unique pumping system with counter-rotating mechanism, which consists of two stage impellers and a peculiar motor with double rotors. The front and the rear impellers are driven by the inner and the outer rotors of the motor, respectively, keeping the relative rotational speed constant and counter-balancing the rotational torque. Such driving conditions not only smartly improve the unstable performance at lower discharge, but also suppress the cavitation at higher discharge, in the optimum cooperation with the impeller works and the rotor outputs.

  17. System control fuzzy neural sewage pumping stations using genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владлен Николаевич Кузнецов

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the system of management of sewage pumping station with regulators based on a neuron network with fuzzy logic. Linguistic rules for the controller based on fuzzy logic, maintaining the level of effluent in the receiving tank within the prescribed limits are developed. The use of genetic algorithms for neuron network training is shown.

  18. Stability of Hydraulic Systems with Focus on Cavitating Pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Brennen, C. E.; Braisted, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Increasing use is being made of transmission matrices to characterize unsteady flows in hydraulic system components and to analyze the stability of such systems. This paper presents some general characteristics which should be examined in any experimentally measured transmission matrices and a methodology for the analysis of the stability of transmission matrices in hydraulic systems of order 2. These characteristics are then examined for cavitating pumps and the predicted instabilities (kn...

  19. Dynamic simulation and efficiency analysis of beam pumping system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢明明; 董世民; 童志雄; 田然凤; 陈慧玲

    2015-01-01

    An improved whole model of beam pumping system was built. In the detail, for surface transmission system (STS), a new mathematical model was established considering the influence of some factors on the STS’s torsional vibration, such as the time variation characteristic of equivalent stiffness of belt and equivalent rotational inertia of crank. For the sucker rod string (SRS), an improved mathematical model was built considering the influence of some parameters on the SRS’s longitudinal vibration, such as the nonlinear friction of plunger, hydraulic loss of pump and clearance leakage. The dynamic response and system efficiency of whole system were analyzed. The results show that there is a jumping phenomenon in the amplitude frequency curve, and the system.

  20. Hourly simulation of a Ground-Coupled Heat Pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naldi, C.; Zanchini, E.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a MATLAB code for the hourly simulation of a whole Ground-Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) system, based on the g-functions previously obtained by Zanchini and Lazzari. The code applies both to on-off heat pumps and to inverter-driven ones. It is employed to analyse the effects of the inverter and of the total length of the Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE) field on the mean seasonal COP (SCOP) and on the mean seasonal EER (SEER) of a GCHP system designed for a residential house with 6 apartments in Bologna, North-Center Italy, with dominant heating loads. A BHE field with 3 in line boreholes is considered, with length of each BHE either 75 m or 105 m. The results show that the increase of the BHE length yields a SCOP enhancement of about 7%, while the SEER remains nearly unchanged. The replacement of the on-off heat pump by an inverter-driven one yields a SCOP enhancement of about 30% and a SEER enhancement of about 50%. The results demonstrate the importance of employing inverter-driven heat pumps for GCHP systems.

  1. Vein-style air pumping tube and tire system and method of assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, Robert Leon; Gobinath, Thulasiram; Lin, Cheng-Hsiung; Lamgaday, Robin; Losey, Robert Allen; Griffoin, Jean-Claude Patrice Philippe

    2017-01-03

    An air pumping tube and tire system and method of assembling is provided in which a tire groove is formed to extend into a flexing region of a tire sidewall and a complementary air pumping tube inserts into the tire groove. In the green, uncured air pumping tube condition, one or more check valves are assembled into the air pumping tube through access shafts and align with an internal air passageway of the air pumping tube. Plug components of the system enclose the check valves in the air pumping tube and the check valve-containing green air pumping tube is then cured.

  2. Flathead Electric Cooperative Facility Geothermal Heat Pump System Upgrade.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab

    2014-06-01

    High initial cost and lack of public awareness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This paper highlights findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects, which is a heating only central GSHP system using shallow aquifer as heat source and installed at a warehouse and truck bay at Kalispell, MT. This case study is based on the analysis of measured performance data, utility bills, and calculations of energy consumptions of conventional central heating systems for providing the same heat outputs as the central GSHP system did. The evaluated performance metrics include energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GSHP system, pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of GSHP system compared with conventional heating systems. This case study also identified areas for reducing uncertainties in performance evaluation, improving operational efficiency, and reducing installed cost of similar GSHP systems in the future. Publication of ASHRAE at the annual conference in Seattle June 2014.

  3. Flathead Electric Cooperative Facility Geothermal Heat Pump System Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab

    2014-06-01

    High initial cost and lack of public awareness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This paper highlights findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects, which is a heating only central GSHP system using shallow aquifer as heat source and installed at a warehouse and truck bay at Kalispell, MT. This case study is based on the analysis of measured performance data, utility bills, and calculations of energy consumptions of conventional central heating systems for providing the same heat outputs as the central GSHP system did. The evaluated performance metrics include energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GSHP system, pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of GSHP system compared with conventional heating systems. This case study also identified areas for reducing uncertainties in performance evaluation, improving operational efficiency, and reducing installed cost of similar GSHP systems in the future. Publication of ASHRAE at the annual conference in Seattle.

  4. LOX/LH2 vane pump for auxiliary propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminger, J. A.; Ulbricht, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    Positive displacement pumps offer potential efficiency advantages over centrifugal pumps for future low thrust space missions. Low flow rate applications, such as space station auxiliary propulsion or dedicated low thrust orbiter transfer vehicles, are typical of missions where low flow and high head rise challenge centrifugal pumps. The positive displacement vane pump for pumping of LOX and LH2 is investigated. This effort has included: (1) a testing program in which pump performance was investigated for differing pump clearances and for differing pump materials while pumping LN2, LOX, and LH2; and (2) an analysis effort, in which a comprehensive pump performance analysis computer code was developed and exercised. An overview of the theoretical framework of the performance analysis computer code is presented, along with a summary of analysis results. Experimental results are presented for pump operating in liquid nitrogen. Included are data on the effects on pump performance of pump clearance, speed, and pressure rise. Pump suction performance is also presented.

  5. Variable flow controls of closed system pumps for energy savings in maritime power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chun-Lien; Liao, Chi-Hsiang; Chou, Tso-Chu

    2016-01-01

    Pumps are extensively used in maritime industries as marine vessels utilize a wide range of pumps and pumping techniques to transfer and distribute all types of air and fluids. The electrical energy consumed by the various motors accounts for about 70% of a vessel’s total power consumption...... pumps on marine vessels. The existing problem of traditional control methods for closed system pumps is analyzed and a mathematical model for variable flow controls with the appropriate control settings is derived. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated and verified through experimental...... and field tests of a practical auxiliary boiler feed water management system on a commercial vessel. It is proved that the proposed method can maintain constant water pressure for closed system pumps and provide an efficient way to measure energy savings and maintenance benefits. The results serve...

  6. Entropy, pumped-storage and energy system finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2015-04-01

    Pumped-storage holds a key role for integrating renewable energy units with non-renewable fuel plants into large-scale energy systems of electricity output. An emerging issue is the development of financial engineering models with physical basis to systematically fund energy system efficiency improvements across its operation. A fundamental physically-based economic concept is the Scarcity Rent; which concerns the pricing of a natural resource's scarcity. Specifically, the scarcity rent comprises a fraction of a depleting resource's full price and accumulates to fund its more efficient future use. In an integrated energy system, scarcity rents derive from various resources and can be deposited to a pooled fund to finance the energy system's overall efficiency increase; allowing it to benefit from economies of scale. With pumped-storage incorporated to the system, water upgrades to a hub resource, in which the scarcity rents of all connected energy sources are denominated to. However, as available water for electricity generation or storage is also limited, a scarcity rent upon it is also imposed. It is suggested that scarcity rent generation is reducible to three (3) main factors, incorporating uncertainty: (1) water's natural renewability, (2) the energy system's intermittent components and (3) base-load prediction deviations from actual loads. For that purpose, the concept of entropy is used in order to measure the energy system's overall uncertainty; hence pumped-storage intensity requirements and generated water scarcity rents. Keywords: pumped-storage, integration, energy systems, financial engineering, physical basis, Scarcity Rent, pooled fund, economies of scale, hub resource, uncertainty, entropy Acknowledgement: This research was funded by the Greek General Secretariat for Research and Technology through the research project Combined REnewable Systems for Sustainable ENergy DevelOpment (CRESSENDO; grant number 5145)

  7. Including Pressure Measurements in Supervision of Energy Efficiency of Wastewater Pump Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Arensman, Mareike; Nerup-Jensen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater pump systems decompose relatively rapidly compared to other pump systems because of the demanding properties of the pump medium. Only a systematic maintenance of the systems can prevent a significant and continuous decrease of the energy consumption per unit volume pumped (the specific...... energy). This article presents a method for a continuous supervision of the performance of both the pump and the pipeline in order to maintain the initial specific energy consumption as close as possible to the original value from when the system was commissioned. The method is based on pressure...... measurements only. The flow is determined indirectly from pressure fluctuations during pump run-up....

  8. New Electronic-Transition Laser Systems. Part 1. Electron Pumped Systems. Part 2. Chemically Pumped Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    laser development . There has not yet been a demonstration of gain in a visible chemical laser systems, and it appears unlikely that practical lasers of this type will be developed in the near future. Substantial progress has been made

  9. TEAMS Model for the HPGF LN2 Pump System Diagnostic Utility Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The engineering design group upgraded the liquid nitrogen pump system at the HPGF. The pump system supports the site-wide liquid nitrogen supply and its operation is...

  10. An Energy Saving System for a Beam Pumping Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqiang Lv

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Beam pumping units are widely used in the oil production industry, but the energy efficiency of this artificial lift machinery is generally low, especially for the low-production well and high-production well in the later stage. There are a number of ways for energy savings in pumping units, with the periodic adjustment of stroke speed and rectification of balance deviation being two important methods. In the paper, an energy saving system for a beam pumping unit (ESS-BPU based on the Internet of Things (IoT was proposed. A total of four types of sensors, including load sensor, angle sensor, voltage sensor, and current sensor, were used to detect the operating conditions of the pumping unit. Data from these sensors was fed into a controller installed in an oilfield to adjust the stroke speed automatically and estimate the degree of balance in real-time. Additionally, remote supervision could be fulfilled using a browser on a computer or smartphone. Furthermore, the data from a practical application was recorded and analyzed, and it can be seen that ESS-BPU is helpful in reducing energy loss caused by unnecessarily high stroke speed and a poor degree of balance.

  11. An Energy Saving System for a Beam Pumping Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hongqiang; Liu, Jun; Han, Jiuqiang; Jiang, An

    2016-05-13

    Beam pumping units are widely used in the oil production industry, but the energy efficiency of this artificial lift machinery is generally low, especially for the low-production well and high-production well in the later stage. There are a number of ways for energy savings in pumping units, with the periodic adjustment of stroke speed and rectification of balance deviation being two important methods. In the paper, an energy saving system for a beam pumping unit (ESS-BPU) based on the Internet of Things (IoT) was proposed. A total of four types of sensors, including load sensor, angle sensor, voltage sensor, and current sensor, were used to detect the operating conditions of the pumping unit. Data from these sensors was fed into a controller installed in an oilfield to adjust the stroke speed automatically and estimate the degree of balance in real-time. Additionally, remote supervision could be fulfilled using a browser on a computer or smartphone. Furthermore, the data from a practical application was recorded and analyzed, and it can be seen that ESS-BPU is helpful in reducing energy loss caused by unnecessarily high stroke speed and a poor degree of balance.

  12. Thermal efficiency improvements : a chemical heat pump system application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mert, M.S.; Salt, I.; Bolat, E. [Yildiz Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Karaca, F. [Marmara Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Chemical heat pumps are used to upgrade thermal energy and provide energy storage without losses. The feasibility of an n-hexane/1-hexane/hydrogen chemical heat pump system based on the dehydrogenation of n-hexane at low temperatures and 1-hexane at high temperatures was investigated. Theoretical analysis was carried out using related thermodynamic and equilibrium data to determine the thermal efficiency of the cycle. The latent heats of vaporization at normal boiling points for n-hexane and 1-hexane were calculated using a Riedel equation. Heat capacities as a function of temperature were calculated by Missenard group contribution and Rowlinson-Bondi methods. Estimated C{sub PL} values were presented. The effect of temperature on the Standart heat of reaction was calculated. Gibbs free energy was expressed as a function of temperature. Results indicated that a high 1-hexane concentration in the liquid mixture was required. The ratio of upgraded heat to supplied heat was the key parameter for estimating the thermal coefficient of performance (COP). It was observed that the efficiency of the pump increased with an increase in low level hydrogenation pressure. It was concluded that designing a chemical heat pump involves the consideration of a variety of interacting parameters. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  13. Calculation methods for SPF for heat pump systems for comparison, system choice and dimensioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordman, Roger; Andersson, Kajsa; Axell, Monica; Lindahl, Markus

    2010-09-15

    In this project, results from field measurements of heat pumps have been collected and summarised. Also existing calculation methods have been compared and summarised. Analyses have been made on how the field measurements compare to existing calculation models for heat pumps Seasonal Performance Factor (SPF), and what deviations may depend on. Recommendations for new calculation models are proposed, which include combined systems (e.g. solar - HP), capacity controlled heat pumps and combined DHW and heating operation

  14. A microfluidic two-pump system inspired by liquid feeding in mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Andrew; Goad, Angela; Stremler, Mark; Socha, John; Jung, Sunghwan

    Mosquitoes feed on nectar and blood using a two-pump system in the head-a smaller cibarial pump in line with a larger a pharyngeal pump, with a valve in between. To suck, mosquitoes transport the liquid (which may be a multi-component viscous fluid, blood) through a long micro-channel, the proboscis. In the engineering realm, microfluidic devices in biomedical applications, such as lab-on-a-chip technology, necessitate implementing a robust pump design to handle clogging and increase flow control compared to a single-pump system. In this talk, we introduce a microfluidic pump design inspired by the mosquito's two-pump system. The pumping performance (flow rate) in presence of impurities (air bubbles, soft clogs) is quantified as a function of phase difference and volume expansion of the pumps, and the elasticity of the valve.

  15. Performance analysis of multi-pump Raman+EDFA hybrid amplifiers for WDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim Martini, Márcia M.; Pontes, Maria José; Ribeiro, Moisés. R. N.; Kalinowski, Hypolito José

    2014-08-01

    An approximated technique to optimize the gain profile of multi-pump broadband hybrid amplifiers (Raman+EDFA) under residual pump recycling is applied to a WDM system. The Optimized hybrid amplifier configurations with multi-pumping were analyzed considering different number of input channels in order to check the global gain saturation and the changes in the global gain profile that occur due to signal-pump, signal-signal, and pump-pump interactions. This work extends the optimization of the gain profile from Raman+EDFA hybrid amplifiers and studies the signal-signal interactions, signal-pumping and pumping-pumping WDM systems. Multiple input channels allowed the gain characterization of the Raman+EDFA hybrid amplifier in terms of global gain, ripple, and noise figure considering applications for WDM systems.

  16. Application of Solar Photovoltaic Water Pumping System in Hainan Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangchun; YU; Qingqing; LIN; Xuedong; ZHOU; Zhibin; YANG

    2013-01-01

    With radical socio-economic development and strengthening of regulation of agricultural industrial structure in Hainan Province,fresh water resource becomes increasingly insufficient.Existing water-saving facilities and measures are unable to promote sustainable and stable development of local economy.This needs modern irrigation method.Solar photovoltaic water pumping system is necessary and feasible in Hainan agriculture,and will have directive significance for Hainan Province developing photovoltaic agriculture.

  17. Design of Reactor Coolant Pump Seal Online Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ah, Sang Ha; Chang, Soon Heung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Song Kyu [Korea Power Engineering Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    As a part of a Department of Korea Power Engineering Co., (KOPEC) Project, Statistical Quality Control techniques have been applied to many aspects of industrial engineering. An application to nuclear power plant maintenance and control is also presented that can greatly improve plant safety. As a demonstration of such an approach, a specific system is analyzed: the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs) and the fouling resistance of heat exchanger. This research uses Shewart X-bar, R charts, Cumulative Sum charts (CUSUM), and Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) to analyze the process for the state of statistical control. And the Control Chart Analyzer (CCA) has been made to support these analyses that can make a decision of error in process. The analysis shows that statistical process control methods can be applied as an early warning system capable of identifying significant equipment problems well in advance of traditional control room alarm indicators. Such a system would provide operators with enough time to respond to possible emergency situations and thus improve plant safety and reliability. RCP circulates reactor coolant to transfer heat from the reactor to the steam generators. RCP seals are in the pressure part of reactor coolant system, so if it breaks, it can cause small break LOCA. And they are running on high pressure, and high temperature, so they can be easily broken. Since the reactor coolant pumps operate within the containment building, physical access to the pumps occurs only during refueling outages. Engineers depend on process variables transmitted to the control room and through the station's data historian to assess the pumps' condition during normal operation.

  18. Stationary density matrix of a pumped polariton system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Carlos Andrés; Cabo, Alejandro; González, Augusto

    2009-03-27

    The density matrix rho of a model polariton system is obtained numerically from a master equation which takes account of pumping and losses. In the stationary limit, the coherences between eigenstates of the Hamiltonian are 3 orders of magnitude smaller than the occupations, meaning that the stationary density matrix is approximately diagonal in the energy representation. A weakly distorted grand canonical Gibbs distribution fits well the occupations.

  19. Method and system for homogenizing diode laser pump arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayramian, Andrew James

    2016-05-03

    An optical amplifier system includes a diode pump array including a plurality of semiconductor diode laser bars disposed in an array configuration and characterized by a periodic distance between adjacent semiconductor diode laser bars. The periodic distance is measured in a first direction perpendicular to each of the plurality of semiconductor diode laser bars. The diode pump array provides a pump output propagating along an optical path and characterized by a first intensity profile measured as a function of the first direction and having a variation greater than 10%. The optical amplifier system also includes a diffractive optic disposed along the optical path. The diffractive optic includes a photo-thermo-refractive glass member. The optical amplifier system further includes an amplifier slab having an input face and position along the optical path and separated from the diffractive optic by a predetermined distance. A second intensity profile measured at the input face of the amplifier slab as a function of the first direction has a variation less than 10%.

  20. Efficiency improvement for wind energy pumped storage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forcos, A.; Marinescu, C.; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    Integrating wind energy into the grid may raise stability problems. Solutions for avoiding these situations are studied and energy storage methods are suitable for balancing the energy between the wind turbine and grid. In this paper, an autonomous wind turbine pumped storage system is presented....... The focus of this paper is to improve the efficiency of this system, which is small at low power levels. The driving motorpump group of the storage system is the key point presented in this paper for efficiency improving. Two control methods, experimentally implemented for induction machine are presented...

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY AMONG HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM, COMPLETE GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND CONVENTIONAL HVAC SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Zhu; Yong X. Tao

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, a hotel with hybrid geothermal heat pump system (HyGSHP) in the Pensacola is selected and simulated by the transient simulation software package TRNSYS [1]. To verify the simulation results, the validations are conducted by using the monthly average entering water temperature, monthly facility consumption data, and etc. And three types of HVAC systems are compared based on the same building model and HVAC system capacity. The results are presented to show the advantages and disadvantages of HyGSHP compared with the other two systems in terms of energy consumptions, life cycle cost analysis.

  2. Failure Analysis of a Water Supply Pumping Pipeline System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Pozos-Estrada

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the most important results of a theoretical, experimental and in situ investigation developed in connection with a water supply pumping pipeline failure. This incident occurred after power failure of the pumping system that caused the burst of a prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP. Subsequently, numerous hydraulic transient simulations for different scenarios and various air pockets combinations were carried out in order to fully validate the diagnostic. As a result, it was determined that small air pocket volumes located along the pipeline profile were recognized as the direct cause of the PCCP rupture. Further, a detail survey of the pipeline was performed using a combination of non-destructive technologies in order to determine if immediate intervention was required to replace PCC pipes. In addition, a hydraulic model was employed to analyze the behavior of air pockets located at high points of the pipeline.

  3. Ultra high vacuum pumping system and high sensitivity helium leak detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    1997-01-01

    An improved helium leak detection method and apparatus are disclosed which increase the leak detection sensitivity to 10.sup.-13 atm cc s.sup.-1. The leak detection sensitivity is improved over conventional leak detectors by completely eliminating the use of o-rings, equipping the system with oil-free pumping systems, and by introducing measured flows of nitrogen at the entrances of both the turbo pump and backing pump to keep the system free of helium background. The addition of dry nitrogen flows to the system reduces backstreaming of atmospheric helium through the pumping system as a result of the limited compression ratios of the pumps for helium.

  4. 46 CFR 28.255 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. 28... the Aleutian Trade § 28.255 Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a bilge pump and bilge piping capable of draining any watertight compartment, other...

  5. The normalization in the use of solar heaters; La normalizacion en el uso de calentadores solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilatowsky F, I.; Terrones B, A.; Garcia H, C.R. [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the different criteria in the establishment of the standard for the converter devices and solar systems for water heating for domestic, commercial and services use, as well as the criteria needed for the standard required for the installation of the equipment and systems. Together with the former, it discusses the establishment of the criteria for the creation of: training programs, of a regulatory commission for the implementation, follow up and penalties derived of the application of the norm, a legal frame, to regulate the legal relationship among the manufacturers and service providers with the consumers, as well as a permanent program for the diffusion of the characteristics, energy saving and the environmental impact derived of the utilization of solar energy. Additionally, a description is made of the first experimental results obtained in a test bench, where the norm ASHRAE 93-77 was applied. [Espanol] En el presente articulo se presentan los diferentes criterios tanto para el establecimiento de la normatividad de los dispositivos conversores y sistemas solares para el calentamiento de agua para uso domestico, comercial y de servicios, asi como los necesarios para la normatividad requerida en la instalacion de los equipos y sistemas. Aunado a lo anterior se analiza el establecimiento de criterios para la creacion de: programas de capacitacion de una comision reguladora de la implantacion, seguimiento y sanciones derivadas de la aplicacion de la norma, un marco legal, regulador de la relacion juridica entre los fabricantes y prestadores de servicios y los consumidores, asi como un programa permanente de difusion sobre las caracteristicas, ahorro de energia e impacto ambiental derivado del uso de la energia solar. Adicionalmente se describen los primeros resultados experimentales obtenidos en un banco de pruebas, en donde se aplico la normas ASHRAE 93-77.

  6. Calculation of Earthing System at Bangladesh Storm Water Pumping Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiaolei; QIAN Zhongyang; LIANG Wei; WANG Qin

    2015-01-01

    A Storm Water Pumping Station funded by the World Bank is under construction and commissioning, of which the earthing system design is a crucial part for the electrical design. Based on IEEE and BS standards, this article fully introduces the analysis methodology and calculation of the system within the framework of the World Bank supported project. A solution of this practical case satisfied with the requirements of international standards is shown in order to bring experience and convenience for engineers who are dedicated to projects abroad.

  7. Heat pump system promises relief for asthma sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, G.

    1992-01-01

    A new energy efficient system for heating and ventilating domestic dwellings is being evaluated by E. A. Technology - a major electricity utilisation and distribution research company in the U.K. As well as providing enhanced comfort levels at lower operating costs, the use of the new heat pump system from E. A. Technology could, it is believed, prove to be an effective means of controlling the numbers and activity of the common house dust mite - one of the principal causes of asthma attacks. (author).

  8. Magnetocaloric heat pump device, a heating or cooling system and a magnetocaloric heat pump assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides a magnetocaloric heat pump device, comprising a magnetocaloric bed; a magnetic field source, the magnetocaloric bed and the magnetic field source being arranged to move relative to each other so as to generate a magnetocaloric refrigeration cycle within the heat pump, wherein...

  9. A method of applying two-pump system in automatic transmissions for energy conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Dong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the hydraulic efficiency, modern automatic transmissions tend to apply electric oil pump in their hydraulic system. The electric oil pump can support the mechanical oil pump for cooling, lubrication, and maintaining the line pressure at low engine speeds. In addition, the start–stop function can be realized by means of the electric oil pump; thus, the fuel consumption can be further reduced. This article proposes a method of applying two-pump system (one electric oil pump and one mechanical oil pump in automatic transmissions based on the forward driving simulation. A mathematical model for calculating the transmission power loss is developed. The power loss transfers to heat which requires oil flow for cooling and lubrication. A leakage model is developed to calculate the leakage of the hydraulic system. In order to satisfy the flow requirement, a flow-based control strategy for the electric oil pump is developed. Simulation results of different driving cycles show that there is a best combination of the size of electric oil pump and the size of mechanical oil pump with respect to the optimal energy conservation. Besides, the two-pump system can also satisfy the requirement of the start–stop function. This research is extremely valuable for the forward design of a two-pump system in automatic transmissions with respect to energy conservation and start–stop function.

  10. Accuracy of a New Patch Pump Based on a Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) Compared to Other Commercially Available Insulin Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borot, Sophie; Franc, Sylvia; Cristante, Justine; Penfornis, Alfred; Benhamou, Pierre-Yves; Guerci, Bruno; Hanaire, Hélène; Renard, Eric; Reznik, Yves; Simon, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    The JewelPUMP™ (JP) is a new patch pump based on a microelectromechanical system that operates without any plunger. The study aimed to evaluate the infusion accuracy of the JP in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro studies, commercially available pumps meeting the ISO standard were compared to the JP: the MiniMed® Paradigm® 712 (MP), Accu-Chek® Combo (AC), OmniPod® (OP), Animas® Vibe™ (AN). Pump accuracy was measured over 24 hours using a continuous microweighing method, at 0.1 and 1 IU/h basal rates. The occlusion alarm threshold was measured after a catheter occlusion. The JP, filled with physiological serum, was then tested in 13 patients with type 1 diabetes simultaneously with their own pump for 2 days. The weight difference was used to calculate the infused insulin volume. The JP showed reduced absolute median error rate in vitro over a 15-minute observation window compared to other pumps (1 IU/h): ±1.02% (JP) vs ±1.60% (AN), ±1.66% (AC), ±2.22% (MP), and ±4.63% (OP), P pumps: 21 (19; 25) minutes vs 90 (85; 95), 58 (42; 74), and 143 (132; 218) minutes (AN, AC, MP), P pumps (–2.2 ± 5.6% vs –0.37 ± 4.0%, P = .25). The JP was found to be easier to wear than conventional pumps. The JP is more precise over a short time period, more sensitive to catheter occlusion, well accepted by patients, and consequently, of potential interest for a closed-loop insulin delivery system. PMID:25079676

  11. Temperature and Humidity Independent Control Research on Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Wang, L. L.

    Taking green demonstration center building air conditioning system as an example, this paper presents the temperature and humidity independent control system combined with ground source heat pump system, emphasis on the design of dry terminal device system, fresh air system and ground source heat pump system.

  12. 46 CFR 28.815 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. 28... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.815 Bilge pumps, bilge... fixed, self priming, powered, bilge pump, having a minimum capacity rating of 50 gallons per...

  13. EFFICIENT DESIGN OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC WATER PUMPING AND TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmen Ben Chaabene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the world, the exploitation of solar energies knew a strong growth these last years. It is interesting to exploit them on the place of consumption, by directly transforming into heat, or in electricity according to needs and especially in remote areas where power from utility is not available or is too costly to install. The use of photovoltaic sources in water pumping and treatment domain is one of the most important renewable energy applications. Having an arid to a semi-arid climate, Tunisia receives low quantities of rain. Consequently, the available water resources in the country are rather modest in terms of both quantity and quality. 97% of water resources in Tunisia are of brackish water, particularly in the south parts of the country. Originate from ground water resources and surface, these waters are unsuitable for drinking or irrigation, because of the high salinity and biological contagion in sensitive (perceptible germs. The goal of this study is to direct the applied researches to the applications of coupling the photovoltaic energy, which is available in the south of the country and water domain (pumping, desalting and disinfecting. We present in this study some of pilot units coupled to photovoltaic sources and we propose a global system which gathers the water pumping, desalting and disinfecting operations. Some experimental and numerical results have been carried out to show the efficiency of the use of this system. The conception, the realization and the exploitation of this autonomous system will be the suitable solution for providing fresh water to a number of rural regions where important quantities of water are needed to either, the drinking and irrigation, in Tunisia and in the Mediterranean basin in general.

  14. Computer system design description for the spare pump mini-dacs data acquisition and control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, G.F. Jr.

    1994-09-29

    The attached document outlines the computer software design for the mini data acquisition and control system (DACS), that supports the testing of the spare pump for Tank 241-SY-101, at the maintenance and storage facility (MASF).

  15. Control of Electric Drives in the Best Efficiency Region of Pumping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakman Ilja

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper concentrates on improving the efficiency of the pumping system in which pumps are run by variable speed drives. The method is applicable to system consisting of several centrifugal pumps. Problems arising from running the pumps outside the optimal efficiency region are discussed. Common principles of operation and control of typical boosting pumping station are represented. Methods of regulation of productivity of the system are described. The proposed method is based on prediction of future efficiency of pumps before making adjustments of pumping system productivity. The proposed method is basing on tracking the working point of pump on efficiency graph. Monitoring the location of working point vs. efficiency graph enables to evaluate its current and future distances from the best efficiency point of the pump. Knowing the current number of running pumps it is possible to predict the location of working point after adjustment of productivity of the system. Ability to predict the increase or decrease of efficiency enables to enhance the adjustment of productivity of the system. Methods of graphical analysis of working state of the pumping system are representing topic for future research.

  16. Pumping systems characterization; Caracterizacion de los sistemas de bombeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Gutierrez, R. [Eficiencia Energetica, S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper the characterization of the pumping systems is discussed, and an explanation is given of the need of evaluating in detail the possibility of implementing the frequency variators as an option for energy conservation, explaining how the simple use of the similarity or affinity laws lead to over-estimate the saving. [Espanol] En este articulo se describe la caracterizacion de los sistemas de bombeo y se explica la necesidad de evaluar en detalle la posibilidad de implementacion de variadores de frecuencia, como una alternativa para el ahorro de energia, explicando como el simple uso de las leyes de semejanza o afinidad llevan a sobre-evaluar los ahorros.

  17. Role of pump hydro in electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, R.; Moreira, C.; Silva, B.; Filipe, J.; Fulgêncio, N.

    2017-04-01

    This paper provides an overview of the expected role that variable speed hydro power plants can have in future electric power systems characterized by a massive integration of highly variable sources. Therefore, it is discussed the development of a methodology for optimising the operation of hydropower plants under increasing contribution from new renewable energy sources, addressing the participation of a hydropower plant with variable speed pumping in reserve markets. Complementarily, it is also discussed the active role variable speed generators can have in the provision of advanced frequency regulation services.

  18. Pump-lockage ore transportation system for deep sea flexible mining system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hai-liang; YIN Ping-wei; XU Shao-jun; YANG Fang-qiong

    2008-01-01

    Based on characteristics of deep sea flexible mining system, a new pump-lockage ore transportation system was designed. According to Bernoulli equation and two-phase hydrodynamics theory, parameters of the new system were obtained and four ore transportation systems were analyzed. The results indicate that the pump head of 1000 m mining system is 100-150 m and that of 5 000 m mining system is 660-750 m. In addition, based on similarity theory, a model of the new transportation system was made,which can simulate more than 5 000 m actual ore transportation system. So both theory and experiment prove that the new pump-lockage ore transportation system is an ideal design for deep sea flexible mining system.

  19. Performance of a Solar Heating System with Photovoltaic Thermal Hybrid Collectors and Heat Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    . When the solar collectors are unable to supply the heat demand an auxiliary heat source is used. Heat pumps can generate this heat. Liquid/water heat pumps have better performance than air/water heat pumps in cold climates but requires installation of a tubing system for the cold side of the heat pump....... The tubes are typically placed in the ground, requires a significant land area and increase the installation cost. A new system design of a solar heating system with two storage tanks and a liquid/water heat pump is presented. The system consists of PVT collectors that generate both heat and electricity....... Heat from the collectors is transferred to a domestic hot water storage tank or to a cold storage tank, which is used as the source for the heat pump. When the heat pump charges the warm storage tank, heat is extracted from the cold storage tank, which then can be reheated by the PVT collectors...

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic pump with a system for promoting flow of fluid in one direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoff, Asuncion V.; Lee, Abraham P.

    2010-07-13

    A magnetohydrodynamic pump for pumping a fluid. The pump includes a microfluidic channel for channeling the fluid, a MHD electrode/magnet system operatively connected to the microfluidic channel, and a system for promoting flow of the fluid in one direction in the microfluidic channel. The pump has uses in the medical and biotechnology industries for blood-cell-separation equipment, biochemical assays, chemical synthesis, genetic analysis, drug screening, an array of antigen-antibody reactions, combinatorial chemistry, drug testing, medical and biological diagnostics, and combinatorial chemistry. The pump also has uses in electrochromatography, surface micromachining, laser ablation, inkjet printers, and mechanical micromilling.

  1. Development of a Compact, Efficient Cooling Pump for Space Suit Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boeyen, Roger; Reeh, Jonathan; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    A compact, low-power electrochemically-driven fluid cooling pump is currently being developed by Lynntech, Inc. With no electric motor and minimal lightweight components, the pump is significantly lighter than conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps. Reliability and robustness is achieved with the absence of rotating or moving components (apart from the bellows). By employing sulfonated polystyrene-based proton exchange membranes, rather than conventional Nafion membranes, a significant reduction in the actuator power consumption was demonstrated. Lynntech also demonstrated that these membranes possess the necessary mechanical strength, durability, and temperature range for long life space operation. The preliminary design for a Phase II prototype pump compares very favorably to the fluid cooling pumps currently used in space suit primary life support systems (PLSSs). Characteristics of the electrochemically-driven pump are described and the benefits of the technology as a replacement for electric motor pumps in mechanically pumped single-phase fluid loops is discussed.

  2. Performance of a small wind powered water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentz helical pumps (Henstedt-Ulzburg, Germany) have been powered by solar energy for remote water pumping applications for many years, but from October 2005 to March 2008 a Lorentz helical pump was powered by wind energy at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) near ...

  3. Pressure pulsations in reciprocating pump piping systems Part 1: Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jian-Jun; Edge, Kevin A

    2014-01-01

    A distributed parameter model of pipeline transmission line behaviour is presented, based on a Galerkin method incorporating frequency-dependent friction. This is readily interfaced to an existing model of the pumping dynamics of a plunger pump to allow time-domain simulations of pipeline pressure pulsations in both suction and delivery lines. A new model for the pump inlet manifold is also proposed.

  4. A comparison of the heat and mechanical energy of a heat-pump wind turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aybek, A.; Arslan, S.; Yildiz, E.; Atik, K. [University of Kahramanmaras (Turkey). Dept. of Agricultural Machinery

    2000-07-01

    While a variety of applications of wind energy have been studied in Turkey, no significant efforts have been made to utilize heat pumps for heat generation. The use of heat pumps in wind energy systems is worth considering because of the high efficiency of heat production. In this study, a directly coupled wind turbine-heat pump system was designed, constructed, and tested. Measurements determined the mechanical energy of the rotors of the wind turbine and the heat energy generated by the heat pump driven by the rotor shaft. Based on the comparisons between the power generated by the heat pump and the power of the Savonius rotors, it was found that the heat energy gained by the heat pump was four times greater than the mechanical energy obtained from the turbine. It was suggested that heat pumps could be efficiently used in wind energy systems. (Author)

  5. Expert system for the diagnosis of the condition and performance of centrifugal pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantunen, E.; Vaehae-Pietilae, K.; Pesonen, K. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    A brief description of the results of a study concerning the maintenance and downtime costs in Finnish pumping is given. The leakage of seals was found to be the fault that causes the highest downtime and maintenance costs. A small laboratory arrangement has been used to test the effectiveness of various condition monitoring methods. This information has been used in the development of a diagnostic expert system called CEPDIA, which can be used for diagnosing the condition of a pump and its components. The diagnosis is based on measuring results obtained from sensors and on information about maintenance actions carried out with the pump and its components. The principles of the CEPDIA expert system are described. A database is included in the system for handling and saving the measurement results, technical information on the pumps and maintenance actions carried out with the pumps. The diagnosis can also be based on vibration signature analysis, which is quite effective in determining which fault is the actual cause of malfunction of the pump or its components. CEPDIA can also be used to calculate of the efficiency of the electrical motor and the pump. CEPDIA has been tested in the diagnosis of 63 pumps. The average efficiency in pumping was less than 40 %, and more than 10 % of the pumps were pumping with less than 10 % efficiency. (orig.) 11 refs.

  6. Performance evaluation of a transformerless multiphase electric submersible pump system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Hakeem

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Using of low-voltage variable-frequency drive followed by a step-up transformer is the most preferable way to feed an electrical submersible pump motor. The existence of long feeder between the motor and drive systems usually causes over-voltage problems because of the travelling wave phenomenon, which makes the employment of filter networks on the motor or inverter terminals mandatory. The so-called boost-inverter inherently can solve this problem with filter-less operation as it offers a direct sinusoidal output voltage. As boost inverters have voltage boosting capability, it can provide a transformer-less operation as well. This study investigates the performance of a five-phase modular winding induction machine fed from a boost-inverter through a long feeder. A simulation study using a 1000 Hp system and experimental investigation on a 1 Hp prototype machine are used to support the presented approach.

  7. Skeletal Muscle Pump Drives Control of Cardiovascular and Postural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay K.; Garg, Amanmeet; Xu, Da; Bruner, Michelle; Fazel-Rezai, Reza; Blaber, Andrew P.; Tavakolian, Kouhyar

    2017-01-01

    The causal interaction between cardio-postural-musculoskeletal systems is critical in maintaining postural stability under orthostatic challenge. The absence or reduction of such interactions could lead to fainting and falls often experienced by elderly individuals. The causal relationship between systolic blood pressure (SBP), calf electromyography (EMG), and resultant center of pressure (COPr) can quantify the behavior of cardio-postural control loop. Convergent cross mapping (CCM) is a non-linear approach to establish causality, thus, expected to decipher nonlinear causal cardio-postural-musculoskeletal interactions. Data were acquired simultaneously from young participants (25 ± 2 years, n = 18) during a 10-minute sit-to-stand test. In the young population, skeletal muscle pump was found to drive blood pressure control (EMG → SBP) as well as control the postural sway (EMG → COPr) through the significantly higher causal drive in the direction towards SBP and COPr. Furthermore, the effect of aging on muscle pump activation associated with blood pressure regulation was explored. Simultaneous EMG and SBP were acquired from elderly group (69 ± 4 years, n = 14). A significant (p = 0.002) decline in EMG → SBP causality was observed in the elderly group, compared to the young group. The results highlight the potential of causality to detect alteration in blood pressure regulation with age, thus, a potential clinical utility towards detection of fall proneness. PMID:28345674

  8. Skeletal Muscle Pump Drives Control of Cardiovascular and Postural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay K.; Garg, Amanmeet; Xu, Da; Bruner, Michelle; Fazel-Rezai, Reza; Blaber, Andrew P.; Tavakolian, Kouhyar

    2017-03-01

    The causal interaction between cardio-postural-musculoskeletal systems is critical in maintaining postural stability under orthostatic challenge. The absence or reduction of such interactions could lead to fainting and falls often experienced by elderly individuals. The causal relationship between systolic blood pressure (SBP), calf electromyography (EMG), and resultant center of pressure (COPr) can quantify the behavior of cardio-postural control loop. Convergent cross mapping (CCM) is a non-linear approach to establish causality, thus, expected to decipher nonlinear causal cardio-postural-musculoskeletal interactions. Data were acquired simultaneously from young participants (25 ± 2 years, n = 18) during a 10-minute sit-to-stand test. In the young population, skeletal muscle pump was found to drive blood pressure control (EMG → SBP) as well as control the postural sway (EMG → COPr) through the significantly higher causal drive in the direction towards SBP and COPr. Furthermore, the effect of aging on muscle pump activation associated with blood pressure regulation was explored. Simultaneous EMG and SBP were acquired from elderly group (69 ± 4 years, n = 14). A significant (p = 0.002) decline in EMG → SBP causality was observed in the elderly group, compared to the young group. The results highlight the potential of causality to detect alteration in blood pressure regulation with age, thus, a potential clinical utility towards detection of fall proneness.

  9. Induction generator-induction motor wind-powered pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, M.S.; Lyra, R.O.C.; Silva, S.R. [CPDEE - UFMG, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The energy storage matter plays an important role in wind-electric conversion systems for isolated applications. Having that in mind, two different approaches can be basically considered: either the immediate conversion of the generated electric energy, as in a water pumping system or electric energy storage for later use, as in a battery charging system. Due to some features such as no need of an external reactive power source and, sometimes, a gearbox, permanent-magnet synchronous generators have been broadly used in low rated power isolated systems. Despite that, system performance can be affected when the generator is feeding an inductive load (e.g., an induction motor) under variable-speed-variable-frequency operational conditions. Since there is no effective flux control, motor overload may occur at high wind speeds. Thus, good system performance can be obtained through additional control devices which may increase system cost. Although being rugged and cheap, induction machines always work as a reactive power drain; therefore, they demand an external reactive power source. Considering that, reactive static compensators appear as an attractive alternative to the cost x performance problem. In addition to that, different control strategies can be used so that system performance can be improved.

  10. Design of Portable Mass Spectrometers with Handheld Probes: Aspects of the Sampling and Miniature Pumping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Hsun; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Kline-Schoder, Robert; Sorensen, Paul; Cooks, R. Graham; Ouyang, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    Miniature mass spectrometry analytical systems of backpack configuration fitted with sampling probes could potentially be of significant interest for in-field, real-time chemical analysis. In this study, various configurations were explored in which a long narrow tube was used to connect the turbo and backing pumps used to create and maintain vacuum. Also, for the first time we introduced two new types of pumps for miniature mass spectrometers, the Creare 130 g drag pump and Creare 350 g scroll backing pump. These pumps, along with another Creare 550 turbo pump and the commercially available Pfeiffer HiPace 10 turbo and KnF diaphragm backing pumps, were tested with the backpack configurations. The system performance, especially the scan time, was characterized when used with a discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface (DAPI) for ion introduction. The pumping performance in the pressure region above 1 mtorr is critical for DAPI operation. The 550 g turbo pump was shown to have a relatively higher pumping speed above 1 mtorr and gave a scan time of 300 ms, almost half the value obtained with the larger, heavier HiPace 10 often used with miniature mass spectrometers. The 350 g scroll pump was also found to be an improvement over the diaphragm pumps generally used as backing pumps. With a coaxial low temperature plasma ion source, direct analysis of low volatility compounds glass slides was demonstrated, including 1 ng DNP (2,4-Dinitrophenol) and 10 ng TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) with Creare 550 g turbo pump as well as 10 ng cocaine and 20 ng DNP with Creare 130 g drag pump.

  11. Pharyngeal pumping in Caenorhabditis elegans depends on tonic and phasic signaling from the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanowski, Nicholas F.; Raizen, David M.; Fang-Yen, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Rhythmic movements are ubiquitous in animal locomotion, feeding, and circulatory systems. In some systems, the muscle itself generates rhythmic contractions. In others, rhythms are generated by the nervous system or by interactions between the nervous system and muscles. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, feeding occurs via rhythmic contractions (pumping) of the pharynx, a neuromuscular feeding organ. Here, we use pharmacology, optogenetics, genetics, and electrophysiology to investigate the roles of the nervous system and muscle in generating pharyngeal pumping. Hyperpolarization of the nervous system using a histamine-gated chloride channel abolishes pumping, and optogenetic stimulation of pharyngeal muscle in these animals causes abnormal contractions, demonstrating that normal pumping requires nervous system function. In mutants that pump slowly due to defective nervous system function, tonic muscle stimulation causes rapid pumping, suggesting tonic neurotransmitter release may regulate pumping. However, tonic cholinergic motor neuron stimulation, but not tonic muscle stimulation, triggers pumps that electrophysiologically resemble typical rapid pumps. This suggests that pharyngeal cholinergic motor neurons are normally rhythmically, and not tonically active. These results demonstrate that the pharynx generates a myogenic rhythm in the presence of tonically released acetylcholine, and suggest that the pharyngeal nervous system entrains contraction rate and timing through phasic neurotransmitter release. PMID:26976078

  12. Maldistribution in airewater heat pump evaporators. Part 1: Effects on evaporator, heat pump and system level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mader, Gunda; Palm, Björn; Elmegaard, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to quantify the effect of evaporator maldistribution onoperating costs of air-water heat pumps. In the proposed simulation model maldistributionis induced by two parameters describing refrigerant phase and air flow distribution.Annual operating costs are calculated...... based on heat pump performance at distinct operatingconditions. Results show that percentage increase of operating costs is similar for thethree considered climate zones, even though the effect of maldistribution on heat pumpperformance varies with operating conditions. Differences in terms of absolute...

  13. Role of Pumped Storage Hydro Resources in Electricity Markets and System Operation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Botterud, A.; Milostan, C.; Krad, I.; Koritarov, V.

    2013-05-01

    The most common form of utility- sized energy storage system is the pumped storage hydro system. Originally, these types of storage systems were economically viable simply because they displace more expensive generating units. However, over time, as those expensive units became more efficient and costs declined, pumped hydro storage units no longer have the operational edge. As a result, in the current electricity market environment, pumped storage hydro plants are struggling. To offset this phenomenon, certain market modifications should be addressed. This paper will introduce some of the challenges faced by pumped storage hydro plants in today's markets and purpose some solutions to those problems.

  14. An optimized ground-coupled heat pump system design for northern climate applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catan, M.A.; Baxter, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of the performance of a ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) system with a water-source heat pump package designed expressly for such systems operating in a northern climate. The project objective was to minimize the life-cycle cost of a GCHP system by optimizing the design of both the heat pump package and the group coil in concert. In order to achieve this objective, a number of modelling tools were developed to analyze the heat pump's performance and cost, and the ground coil's performance.

  15. Sucker rod string design of the pumping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Hua Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The existing design of sucker rod string mainly focuses on the simplifying assumptions that rod string was exposed to simple tension loading. And its goal was to have equal modified stress at the top of each taper. The improved rod design was to have the same degree of safety at each section, and it used a dynamic force distribution that was proportional along the whole string. However, the available procedures did not provide the desired accuracy of its pertinent analysis, and the operators could not identify the specific phenomena that occur in CBM wells. In this paper, the mathematical models of rod loads and string length were developed based on the cyclic nature of rod string loading; the fatigue endurance method is used to design the single rod string; and the tapered rod string is designed to have an equal equivalent stress at the top of each section. Its application characteristics are demonstrated by the example of CBM wells in Ordos Basin. The interpretations of results show that the previous design gave the single rods a larger diameter and the top rods in the string a greater percent than the proposed method. The calculation should concern about inertial, vibration and friction forces to illustrate the elastic force waves travelling in the rod material with the speed of sound. The single string should be designed using fatigue endurance ratings due to asymmetric pulsating tension of rod loading; and the tapered string should involve a balanced design by setting the fatigue endurance at each section equal. A shorter stroke length gives a greater rod taper percentage and an increased load capacity results to an enhanced rod diameter. The rod diameter increases with the pump size and load capacity for the single string, and the rod taper percentage of the top rod strings increases with plunger diameter for the tapered string. The proposed research improves efficiency of the pumping system, assures good operating conditions, and reduces

  16. System curves for 100-K water plant expansion pump analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudock, E.R.

    1958-06-05

    Modifications to the 100-K water plant will be made, under Project CG-775, to increase total process water flow rates to 175,000 gpm or greater. Included in the modifications will be the installation of new pump impellers for the primary and secondary process water pumps located in the 190-K Buildings.

  17. PRESSURE OSCILLATIONS IN TRANSIENT PROCESSES OF HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS WITH VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennadii Zaionchkovskyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In aviation hydraulic drive of high power as a power supply the axial-piston variable displacement pumps became wide spreaded. The pump operational modes with air isolation and cavitation are accompanied by increased noise, delivery reduction and intensive pressure oscillations. The negative results of such phenomena are hydraulic elements erosion, pipeline fatigue failure, working fluid viscosity reduction and its contamination by wear products. The mechanism of cavitation rising in axial-piston pumps is considered, and factors which influence the cavitation rising and working fluid aeration are specified. The features of transient processes in aircraft hydraulic systems with variable displacement pumps are considered. It has been showed that as the pump delivery changes from its minimum to maximum great pressure oscillations in the aircraft pressure pipeline of the hydraulic system takes place, and have a negative influence on the pump service life. The recommendations concerning such pressure oscillation reduction are given.

  18. Comparative study by simulation of photovoltaic pumping systems with stationary and polar tracking arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illanes, R.; De Francisco, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. de Montes, Madrid (Spain); Torres, J.L.; De Blas, M. [Universidad Publica de Navarra, Dept. Proyectos e Ingenieria Rural, Navarra (Spain); Appelbaum, J. [Tel Aviv Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2003-07-01

    Using mathematical models for the different components of the photovoltaic pumping system: generator, inverter (if applicable), motors, pumps and piping, we have developed a computer program that, for given irradiance and temperature data, calculates the flow of water pumped at any given time. The program has been applied to study the hourly and yearly water flow pumped by a photovoltaic pumping system located in Madrid, employing centrifugal pumps powered by AC motors. The photovoltaic generator consists of, in one case, a stationary array and in the second case a polar tracking array. The hourly radiation data were estimated from the distribution of the atmospheric clearness coefficients and the monthly average daily radiation on a horizontal surface. The results of this study show that the use of a polar tracking array increases the average yearly water flow compared with the stationary array more than the corresponding increase of the incident radiation on the arrays. (Author)

  19. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF HEAT PUMP STATION GAS COOLER AT THE WIDE RANGE OF HEAT LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravleov A.A.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There is examined the structure the of control system of gas cooler of heat pump station, which uses the carbon dioxide as the working fluid in the transctitical thermodynamical cycle. It is analiyed the structure of the complex: heat pump station – district heating system.

  20. Modelling a directly coupled photovoltaic pumping system in a solar domestic hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Y.; Fraisse, G. [Savoy Univ., Le Bourget du lac (FR). Design Optimization and Environmental Engineering Laboratory (LOCIE)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a photovoltaic (PV) powered pumping system applying in a solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system. Two circulators ('Standard' and 'Solar') are employed respectively. A new model of circulator is developed in TRNSYS based on a 'Standard' type that consists of a DC-brushless motor and a centrifugal pump. Model validation is carried out by comparing with the experimental measurement. The experimental performance of these two circulators is analyzed on the aspects of startup and the stable operation stage. (orig.)

  1. Comparative Energy and Cost Analysis Between Conventional HVAC Systems and Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    heat pump (GSHP) relative to conventional heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems: air-source heat pumps (ASHP), air-cooled air conditioning with either natural gas, fuel oil, or liquid petroleum gas furnaces, or with electrical resistance heating. The Monte Carlo simulation is performed for a standard commercial office building within each of the 48 continental states. Regardless of the conventional HVAC system chosen, the simulation shows that for each state the GSHP has the highest probability of using less energy and having a lower operating and life

  2. Generalized Performance Characteristics of Refrigeration and Heat Pump Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Huleihil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A finite-time generic model to describe the behavior of real refrigeration systems is discussed. The model accounts for finite heat transfer rates, heat leaks, and friction as different sources of dissipation. The performance characteristics are cast in terms of cooling rate (r versus coefficient of performance (w. For comparison purposes, various types of refrigeration/heat pump systems are considered: the thermoelectric refrigerator, the reverse Brayton cycle, and the reverse Rankine cycle. Although the dissipation mechanisms are different (e.g., heat leak and Joule heating in the thermoelectric refrigerator, isentropic losses in the reverse Brayton cycle, and limits arising from the equation of state in the reverse Rankine cycle, the r−w characteristic curves have a general loop shape. There are four limiting types of operation: open circuit in which both r and w vanish in the limit of slow operation; short circuit in which again r and w vanish but in the limit of fast operation; maximum r; maximum w. The behavior of the considered systems is explained by means of the proposed model. The derived formulae could be used for a quick estimation of w and the temperatures of the working fluid at the hot and cold sides.

  3. Feasibility in photovoltaic pumping systems; Fiabilidad en sistemas de bombeo fotovoltaico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvarte, I.; Poza, F.; Lorenzo, E.

    2004-07-01

    In spite of the high reliability of PV pumping technology, PV pumping programs show that there are numerous problems when the whole system is evaluated: pumping, storage and distribution. Therefore, reality suggests the convenience of implementing quality assurance procedures taking into account the whole water chain. This paper presents how a current PV program in the Maghreb has faced up this challenge by elaborating technical specifications, carrying out quality tests, and developing testing procedures and facilities locally reproducible. (Author)

  4. Pharyngeal pumping continues after laser killing of the pharyngeal nervous system of C. elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, L.; Horvitz, H.R. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Using a laser microbeam to kill specific subsets of the pharyngeal nervous system of C. elegans, we found that feeding was accomplished by two separately controlled muscle motions, isthmus peristalsis and pumping. The single neuron M4 was necessary and sufficient for isthmus peristalsis. The MC neurons were necessary for normal stimulation of pumping in response to food, but pumping continued and was functional in MC- worms. The remaining 12 neuron types were also unnecessary for functional pumping. No operation we did, including destruction of the entire pharyngeal nervous system, abolished pumping altogether. When we killed all pharyngeal neurons except M4, the worms were viable and fertile, although retarded and starved. Since feeding is one of the few known essential actions controlled by the nervous system, we suggest that most of the C. elegans nervous system is dispensable in hermaphrodites under laboratory conditions. This may explain the ease with which nervous system mutants are isolated and handled in C. elegans.

  5. Commercialization of PV-powered pumping systems for use in utility PV service programs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The project described in this report was a commercialization effort focused on cost-effective remote water pumping systems for use in utility-based photovoltaic (PV) service programs. The project combined a commercialization strategy tailored specifically for electric utilities with the development of a PV-powered pumping system that operates conventional ac pumps rather than relying on the more expensive and less reliable PV pumps on the market. By combining these two attributes, a project goal was established of creating sustained utility purchases of 250 PV-powered water pumping systems per year. The results of each of these tasks are presented in two parts contained in this Final Summary Report. The first part summarizes the results of the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN) as a new business venture, while the second part summarizes the results of the Golden Photon system installations. Specifically, results and photographs from each of the system installations are presented in this latter part.

  6. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  7. Design development and testing of a solar PV pump based drip system for orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pande, P.C.; Singh, A.K.; Ansari, S.; Vyas, S.K.; Dave, B.K. [Central Arid Zone Research Inst., Jodhpur (India)

    2003-03-01

    A Solar Photovoltaic (PV) pump operated drip irrigation system has been designed and developed for growing orchards in arid region considering different design parameters like pumps size, water requirements, the diurnal variation in the pressure of the pump due to change in irradiance and pressure compensation in the drippers. The system comprising a PV pump with 900 W{sub p} PV array and 800 W dc motor-pump mono-block, microfilter, main and sub-mains and three open-able low-pressure compensating drippers on each plant was field tested. The emission uniformity was observed to be 92-94% with discharge of 3.8 l/h in the pressure range of 70-100 kPa provided by the pump and thus the system could irrigate some 1 ha area within 2 h. Based on the performance of the PV pump and the drip system, it was inferred that about 5 ha area of orchard could be covered. The projected benefit-cost ratio for growing pomegranate orchards with such a system was evaluated to be above 2 even with the costly PV pump and therefore the system was considered to be an appropriate technology for the development of arid region. (Author)

  8. Present conditions and perspectives of the standardization of the energy efficiency in Mexico; Actualidad y perspectivas del programa de normalizacion de la eficiencia energetica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu Pulido, Henry Anli; Sanchez Ramos, Itha [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The first energy efficiency standards of compulsory type were implemented in some states of the U.S. and in 1990 this country`s Federal government adopted them, since then, they have spread all over the world. This paper describes that under the frame of the National Program for Energy Modernization (1900-1994) and the National Development Program (1995-2000) of Mexico were considered as a priority the rational use of the energy, the conservation of the energy resources and the environmental protection. It is particularly mentioned, the standardization program of energy efficiency that has been developed that includes the limiting specification of the energy consumption or equipment efficiency, an essay method to determine the energy performance and the description of the label that will inform the users of the equipment energy performance [Espanol] Las primeras normas de eficiencia energetica de tipo obligatorio se implantaron en algunos estados de Estados Unidos y en 1990 las adopto el gobierno federal de ese pais, a partir de entonces se han difundido por todo el mundo. En el presente trabajo se describe que en el marco del Programa Nacional de Modernizacion Energetica (1900-1994) y del Plan Nacional de Desarrollo (1995-2000) de Mexico, se consideran como prioridad el uso racional de energia, la conservacion de recursos energeticos y la proteccion al medio ambiente. Se menciona particularmente, el programa de normalizacion de eficiencia energetica que se ha desarrollado incluye la especificacion del limite de consumo energetico o eficiencia del equipo, un metodo de ensayo para determinar el rendimiento energetico y la descripcion de la etiqueta que informara a los usuarios sobre el comportamiento energetico del equipo

  9. Multiphysics Modeling of an Annular Linear Induction Pump With Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbane, J.; Polzin, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    An annular linear induction pump (ALIP) that could be used for circulating liquid-metal coolant in a fission surface power reactor system is modeled in the present work using the computational COMSOL Multiphysics package. The pump is modeled using a two-dimensional, axisymmetric geometry and solved under conditions similar to those used during experimental pump testing. Real, nonlinear, temperature-dependent material properties can be incorporated into the model for both the electrically-conducting working fluid in the pump (NaK-78) and structural components of the pump. The intricate three-phase coil configuration of the pump is implemented in the model to produce an axially-traveling magnetic wave that is qualitatively similar to the measured magnetic wave. The model qualitatively captures the expected feature of a peak in efficiency as a function of flow rate.

  10. Comparison of performance between a parallel and a series solar-heat pump system; Solar heat pump system ni okeru heiretsu setsuzoku no seino hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanayama, K.; Zhao, J.; Baba, H.; Endo, N. [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    In a solar heat pump system, a single-tank system was fabricated, in which a heat pump is installed in series between a heat collecting tank and a heat storage tank. At the same time, a double-tank system was also fabricated, in which two tanks are assembled into one to which a solar system and a heat pump are connected in parallel. Performance of both systems was analyzed by using measured values and estimated values. Heat collecting efficiency in the double-tank system is higher by about 13 points than in the single-tank system. Nevertheless, the coefficient of performance for the single-tank system is 1.03 to 1.51 times greater than that of the double-tank system. Dependency of the single-tank system on natural energy is higher by 0.3 to 3 points than the double-tank system. Putting the above facts together, it may be said that the single-tank system connecting the solar system and the heat pump in parallel is superior in performance to the double-tank system of the series connection. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Overall control and monitoring systems for pumped storage plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, B.; Cvetko, H.

    1982-06-01

    The article describes control and monitoring concepts in which the delegation of responsibility is becoming more decisive than ever (automation hierarchy), and which are capable of optimized, automatic control of process events in pumped storage plants. 8 refs.

  12. Modeling an autonomous wind turbine electric pump system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Forcos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Being one of the variable renewable energy sources, wind energy integration can be made using storage methods. All of these have been developed during time, but one might be more accessible than others because is using a free natural resource, water. This is pump storage. The purpose of this paper is modeling an autonomous wind turbine connected to an electric pump, in the aim of storage, and finally the determination of the efficiency.

  13. Auto-control of pumping operations in sewerage systems by rule-based fuzzy neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Y.-M.; Chang, L.-C.; Tsai, M.-J.; Wang, Y.-F.; Chang, F.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Pumping stations play an important role in flood mitigation in metropolitan areas. The existing sewerage systems, however, are facing a great challenge of fast rising peak flow resulting from urbanization and climate change. It is imperative to construct an efficient and accurate operating prediction model for pumping stations to simulate the drainage mechanism for discharging the rainwater in advance. In this study, we propose two rule-based fuzzy neural networks, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and counterpropagation fuzzy neural network for on-line predicting of the number of open and closed pumps of a pivotal pumping station in Taipei city up to a lead time of 20 min. The performance of ANFIS outperforms that of CFNN in terms of model efficiency, accuracy, and correctness. Furthermore, the results not only show the predictive water levels do contribute to the successfully operating pumping stations but also demonstrate the applicability and reliability of ANFIS in automatically controlling the urban sewerage systems.

  14. Influence of individual heat pumps on wind power integration – Energy system investments and operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Münster, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Individual heat pumps are expected to constitute a significant electricity demand in future energy systems. This demand becomes flexible if investing in complementing heat storage capabilities. In this study, we analyse how the heat pumps can influence the integration of wind power by applying...

  15. Low voltage electroosmotic pump for high density integration into microfabricated fluidic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuck, F.C.A.; Staufer, U.

    2011-01-01

    A low voltage electroosmotic (eo) pump suitable for high density integration into microfabricated fluidic systems has been developed. The high density integration of the eo pump required a small footprint as well as a specific on-chip design to ventilate the electrolyzed gases emerging at the platin

  16. A suction detection system for rotary blood pumps based on the Lagrangian support vector machine algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Simaan, Marwan A

    2013-05-01

    The Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) is a rotary mechanical pump that is implanted in patients with congestive heart failure to help the left ventricle in pumping blood in the circulatory system. However, using such a device may result in a very dangerous event, called ventricular suction that can cause ventricular collapse due to overpumping of blood from the left ventricle when the rotational speed of the pump is high. Therefore, a reliable technique for detecting ventricular suction is crucial. This paper presents a new suction detection system that can precisely classify pump flow patterns, based on a Lagrangian Support Vector Machine (LSVM) model that combines six suction indices extracted from the pump flow signal to make a decision about whether the pump is in suction, approaching suction, or not in suction. The proposed method has been tested using in vivo experimental data based on two different pumps. The simulation results show that the system can produce superior performance in terms of classification accuracy, stability, learning speed, and good robustness compared to three other existing suction detection methods and the original SVM-based algorithm. The ability of the proposed algorithm to detect suction provides a reliable platform for the development of a feedback control system to control the speed of the pump while at the same time ensuring that suction is avoided.

  17. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Valveless Pumping in a Closed Nanofluidic Tube System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper S.; Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we perform a realistic nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation of valveless pumping in a closed nanofluidic tube system. It is shown that the simple pumping mechanism can generate a uni-directional mean flow on very small length and times scales, thereby overcoming the technical...

  18. Geothermal heat pump system assisted by geothermal hot spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, M.; Koizumi, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The authors propose a hybrid geothermal heat pump system that could cool buildings in summer and melt snow on the pedestrian sidewalks in winter, utilizing cold mine water and hot spring water. In the proposed system, mine water would be used as cold thermal energy storage, and the heat from the hot spring after its commercial use would be used to melt snow for a certain section of sidewalks. Neither of these sources is viable for direct use application of geothermal resources, however, they become contributing energy factors without producing any greenhouse gases. To assess the feasibility of the proposed system, a series of temperature measurements in the Edgar Mine (Colorado School of Mines' experimental mine) in Idaho Springs, Colorado, were first conducted, and heat/mass transfer analyses of geothermal hot spring water was carried out. The result of the temperature measurements proved that the temperature of Edgar Mine would be low enough to store cold groundwater for use in summer. The heat loss of the hot spring water during its transportation was also calculated, and the heat requirement for snow melt was compared with the heat available from the hot spring water. It was concluded that the heat supply in the proposed usage of hot spring water was insufficient to melt the snow for the entire area that was initially proposed. This feasibility study should serve as an example of "local consumption of locally available energy". If communities start harnessing economically viable local energy in a responsible manner, there will be a foundation upon which to build a sustainable community.

  19. Exergy analysis of the performance of low-temperature district heating system with geothermal heat pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekret Robert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Exergy analysis of low temperature geothermal heat plant with compressor and absorption heat pump was carried out. In these two concepts heat pumps are using geothermal water at 19.5 oC with spontaneous outflow 24 m3/h as a heat source. The research compares exergy efficiency and exergy destruction of considered systems and its components as well. For the purpose of analysis, the heating system was divided into five components: geothermal heat exchanger, heat pump, heat distribution, heat exchanger and electricity production and transportation. For considered systems the primary exergy consumption from renewable and non-renewable sources was estimated. The analysis was carried out for heat network temperature at 50/40 oC, and the quality regulation was assumed. The results of exergy analysis of the system with electrical and absorption heat pump show that exergy destruction during the whole heating season is lower for the system with electrical heat pump. The exergy efficiencies of total system are 12.8% and 11.2% for the system with electrical heat pump and absorption heat pump, respectively.

  20. Performance analysis of air source heat pump system for office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dong Won; KIm, Yong Chan [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Young Soo [School of Mechanical System Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In this study, the performance of an air source heat pump system installed in a commercial building is analyzed using the developed heat pump performance model and building load simulation data of several regions in Korea. The performance test of an air source heat pump system with a variable speed compressor is tested to develop model that considers changes in the performance characteristics of the heat pump system under various operating conditions. The heat pump system is installed in an environmental chamber, and the experimental equipment is set up according to the manufacturer' specifications as well as the AHRI 1230 test specifications. The performance test conditions of the heat pump system are selected using a central composite design method, in which 29 points for each cooling and heating mode are selected. The developed performance model based on experimental data predicts experimental values with an error of ±5 %. Building cooling and heating loads in three regions in Korea are analyzed using TRNSYS software, which includes standard building and weather data from Seoul, Daejeon and Busan in Korea. The effects of outdoor air temperature and part load ratio on the performance and regional monthly average power consumption of the heat pump system are analyzed.

  1. Improvement of photovoltaic pumping systems based on standard frequency converters by means of programmable logic controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ramos, Jose [Departamento de Electronica, Universidad de Malaga, Complejo Tecnologico de Teatinos (2.2.39), 29071 Malaga (Spain); Narvarte-Fernandez, Luis; Poza-Saura, Fernando [Instituto de Energia Solar, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (IES-UPM), Avenida Complutense s/n (204), 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Photovoltaic pumping systems (PVPS) based on standard frequency converters (SFCs) are currently experiencing a growing interest in pumping programmes implemented in remote areas because of their high performance in terms of component reliability, low cost, high power range and good availability of components virtually anywhere in the world. However, in practical applications there have appeared a number of problems related to the adaptation of the SFCs to the requirements of the photovoltaic pumping systems (PVPS). Another disadvantage of dedicated PVPS is the difficulty in implementing maximum power point tracking (MPPT). This paper shows that these problems can be solved through the addition of a basic industrial programmable logic controller (PLC) to the system. This PLC does not increase the cost and complexity of the system, but improves the adaptation of the SFC to the photovoltaic pumping system, and increases the overall performance of the system. (author)

  2. Assessment of solar-assisted gas-fired heat pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    As a possible application for the Goldstone Energy Project, the performance of a 10 ton heat pump unit using a hybrid solar gas energy source was evaluated in an effort to optimize the solar collector size. The heat pump system is designed to provide all the cooling and/or heating requirements of a selected office building. The system performance is to be augmented in the heating mode by utilizing the waste heat from the power cycle. A simplified system analysis is described to assess and compute interrrelationships of the engine, heat pump, and solar and building performance parameters, and to optimize the solar concentrator/building area ratio for a minimum total system cost. In addition, four alternative heating cooling systems, commonly used for building comfort, are described; their costs are compared, and are found to be less competitive with the gas solar heat pump system at the projected solar equipment costs.

  3. Assessment of solar-assisted gas-fired heat pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    As a possible application for the Goldstone Energy Project, the performance of a 10 ton heat pump unit using a hybrid solar gas energy source was evaluated in an effort to optimize the solar collector size. The heat pump system is designed to provide all the cooling and/or heating requirements of a selected office building. The system performance is to be augmented in the heating mode by utilizing the waste heat from the power cycle. A simplified system analysis is described to assess and compute interrrelationships of the engine, heat pump, and solar and building performance parameters, and to optimize the solar concentrator/building area ratio for a minimum total system cost. In addition, four alternative heating cooling systems, commonly used for building comfort, are described; their costs are compared, and are found to be less competitive with the gas solar heat pump system at the projected solar equipment costs.

  4. Generic Guide Specification for Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, WKT

    2000-04-12

    The attached Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pump (GHP) Guide Specifications have been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the intent to assist federal agency sites and engineers in the preparation of construction specifications for GHP projects. These specifications have been developed in the industry-standard Construction Specification Institute (CSI) format and cover several of the most popular members of the family of GHP systems. These guide specifications are applicable to projects whether the financing is with conventional appropriations, arranged by GHP specialty ESCOs under the U.S. Department of Energy's Technology-Specific GHP Super ESPCs, arranged by utilities under Utility Energy Service Contracts (UESCs) or arranged by generalist ESCOs under the various regional ESPCs. These specifications can provide several benefits to the end user that will help ensure successful GHP system installations. GHP guide specifications will help to streamline the specification development, review, and approval process because the architecture and engineering (AE) firm will be working from the familiar CSI format instead of developing the specifications from other sources. The guide specifications help to provide uniformity, standardization, and consistency in both the construction specifications and system installations across multiple federal sites. This standardization can provide future benefits to the federal sites in respect to both maintenance and operations. GHP guide specifications can help to ensure that the agency is getting its money's worth from the GHP system by preventing the use of marginal or inferior components and equipment. The agency and its AE do not have to start from scratch when developing specifications and can use the specification as a template and/or a checklist in developing both the design and the contract documents. The guide specifications can save project costs by reducing the engineering effort required

  5. Optimized ground-coupled heat pump system design for northern climate applications. [Including ground coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catan, M.A.; Baxter, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of the performance of a ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) system with a water - source heat pump package designed expressly for such systems operating in a northern climate. The project objective was to minimize the life-cycle cost of a GCHP system by optimizing the design of both the heat pump package and the ground coil in concert. In order to achieve this objective, a number of modelling tools were developed or modified to analyze the heat pump's performance and cost and the ground coil's performance. The life-cycle cost of a GCHP system (water-source heat pump with a horizontal ground coil) for an 1800 ft/sup 2/ (167 m/sup 2/) house in Pittsburgh, PA, was minimized over a 7 year economic life. Simple payback for the optimized GCHP system, relative to conventional air-source heat pumps, was under 3 years. The water-source heat pump package resulting from this optimization is calculated to cost 21% more than its conventional counterpart with a heating coefficient of performance (COP) about 20% higher, and a cooling COP about 23% higher. In the GCHP system modeled, its annual energy savings are predicted to be about 11% compared to a system designed around the conventional heat pump while having about the same installation cost. The major conclusion of this study is - GCHP system performance improvement can be attained by improving the water-source heat pump package at less cost than by buying more ground coil. The following conclusions were drawn from the steady-state performance optimization results: (1) By adding about $100.00 to the manufacturer's cost off construction, both the heating and cooling COPs can be improved by 20% or more. (2) Cooling COP need not be sacrificed for the sake of heating performance and vice versa. 13 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Improving the Efficiency of the Heat Pump Control System of Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump with Several Evaporators and Gas Coolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of coordination of the values of the refrigerant flow through the evaporators and gas coolers of the heat pump for the simultaneous production of heat and cold is studied. The compensation of the variations of the total flow through the evaporators is implemented using the variation of the capacity of the compressor and a corresponding change in flow through the auxiliary gas cooler of the heat pump. Control system of this gas cooler is constructed using the invariance principle of the output value (outlet temperature of the heated agent with respect to perturbations on the control channel (the refrigerant flow through the gas cooler. Principle of dual-channel compensation of the disturbance and advancing signal on input of control valve of the refrigerant through the gas cooler is ensured. Due to proposed solution, the intensity of the disturbances on the flow of refrigerant is reduced. Due to proposed technical solution power consumed by the heat pump compressor drive under transients is decreased.

  7. Pumped storage system model and experimental investigations on S-induced issues during transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Yang, Jiandong; Hu, Jinhong

    2017-06-01

    Because of the important role of pumped storage stations in the peak regulation and frequency control of a power grid, pump turbines must rapidly switch between different operating modes, such as fast startup and load rejection. However, pump turbines go through the unstable S region in these transition processes, threatening the security and stability of the pumped storage station. This issue has mainly been investigated through numerical simulations, while field experiments generally involve high risks and are difficult to perform. Therefore, in this work, the model test method was employed to study S-induced security and stability issues for a pumped storage station in transition processes. First, a pumped storage system model was set up, including the piping system, model units, electrical control systems and measurement system. In this model, two pump turbines with different S-shaped characteristics were installed to determine the influence of S-shaped characteristics on transition processes. The model platform can be applied to simulate any hydraulic transition process that occurs in real power stations, such as load rejection, startup, and grid connection. On the experimental platform, the S-shaped characteristic curves were measured to be the basis of other experiments. Runaway experiments were performed to verify the impact of the S-shaped characteristics on the pump turbine runaway stability. Full load rejection tests were performed to validate the effect of the S-shaped characteristics on the water-hammer pressure. The condition of one pump turbine rejecting its load after another defined as one-after-another (OAA) load rejection was performed to validate the possibility of S-induced extreme draft tube pressure. Load rejection experiments with different guide vane closing schemes were performed to determine a suitable scheme to adapt the S-shaped characteristics. Through these experiments, the threats existing in the station were verified, the

  8. Experimental evaluation of mechanical heart support system based on viscous friction disc pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Chernyavskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Experimental evaluation of the viscous friction disk pump efficiency, studying the relationship between inter-disk clearance and sizes of input and output ports and pump performance parameters.Materials and methods. To assess the characteristics and to optimize the disk friction pump design the pump model and experimental stand were created. Pump dimensions were set on the basis of medical and biological requirements for mechanical heart support systems and with due consideration of the experimental studies of our colleagues from Pennsylvania. Flow volume of the working fluid was measured by float rotameter Krohne VA-40 with measurement error of not more than 1%. The pressure values in the hydrodynamic circuit were measured using a monitor manufactured by Biosoft-M. Expansion device allowed changing the flow resistance of the system simulating the total peripheral resistance of the circulatory system.Results. Linear direct correlation between the pump performance and the pressure drop of liquid being created at the inlet and outlet of the pump was obtained. The required flow rate (5–7 l/min and pressure (90–100 mmHg were reached when the rotor speed was in the range of 2500–3000 rev/min. It has been shown that the increase of the inlet diameter to 15 mm has not resulted in a significant increase in the pump performance, and that the highest efficiency values can be obtained for the magnitude of inter-disk gap of 0.4–0.5 mm.Conclusion. Designed and manufactured experimental disc pump model for pumping fluid has showed the fundamental possibility to use this model as a system for mechanical support of the heart.

  9. Solar energy and heat pumps: evaluation of combined systems for heating and cooling of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.W.; Catan, M.A.; Le Doux, P.

    1982-09-01

    An analysis of a broad range of solar assisted heat pump systems was carried out. Systems were divided into three categories on the basis of whether ground coupling was included in the system and, if so, whether solar energy was stored in the ground or used in some other way. In the category of non-ground-coupled systems, an advanced air-source heat pump concept designed to improve capacity and coefficient of performance at low source temperatures was used as the basis for a dual source heat pump. For ground coupled systems which do not store solar heat in the ground, three options were considered: use of simple passive techniques to reduce the effective heating load; use of photovoltaics to drive the heat pump compressor; and use of active solar components as a source to the heat pump, for direct space heating, or for domestic hot water only. For systems which do store solar energy in the ground, the minimum size for efficient thermal carryover from summer to winter was determined to be a system capable of serving approx. 100 houses. Use of a fuel-fired heat pump is also an advantage in these larger systems. Economic analyses were based on a maximum allowable payback of 8 years for residential systems. For the large-scale system, a simplified 10-year life-cycle costing was employed.

  10. A Novel Pumped Hydro Combined with Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    OpenAIRE

    Erren Yao; Xinbing Wang; Liqin Wang; Huanran Wang

    2013-01-01

    A novel pumped hydro combined with compressed air energy storage (PHCA) system is proposed in this paper to resolve the problems of bulk energy storage in the wind power generation industry over an area in China, which is characterised by drought and water shortages. Thermodynamic analysis of the energy storage system, which focuses on the pre-set pressure, storage volume capacity, water air volume ratio, pump performance, and water turbine performance of the storage system, is also presented...

  11. A review on opportunities for the development of heat pump drying systems in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kivevele

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been discovered that heat pump drying is an efficient method of drying for drying industries. Heat pumps deliver more heat during the drying process than the work input to the compressor. Heat pump drying is a more advanced method than the traditional South African industrial and agricultural drying methods, such as direct/indirect sunlight, wood burning, fossil fuel burning, electrical heating and diesel engine heating. Heat pump dryers provide high energy efficiency with controllable temperature, air flow and air humidity and have significant energy-saving potential. In the last decade the market for heat pump systems for water heating and space cooling/heating has grown in South Africa, but the development of heat pumps for industrial and agricultural drying is very slow. As a result of high increases in fossil fuel prices and electricity in South Africa, as well as the problem of CO2 emissions, green energy, energy saving and energy efficiency are imperative. The development of heat pump drying systems in South Africa is an efficient way to solve energy problems in drying applications as this technology is still in its infancy. We review studies on heat pump drying and compare the methods therein with the most common methods of drying in South Africa.

  12. A fuzzy controller for the VASPS (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System) subsea separation and pumping system; Um controlador fuzzy para o sistema de separacao e bombeamento submarino - VASP (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Alex F.; Mendes, Jose Ricardo P.; Morooka, Celso K. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo; Estevam, Valdir [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guilherme, Ivan R. [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Estatistica, Matematica Aplicada e Computacao; Rigo, Jose Eduardo [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica no Espirito Santo (CEFETES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this paper the designs of a fuzzy controller for the VASPS (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System) liquid level and separation pressure control are presented, as well as a simulation of its work to evaluate the performance of the controller designed. The VASPS is a two-phase subsea separation and pumping system, which is made up of a separation vessel, where the mixture (liquid and gas) enters and suffers the separation process through three levels, the expansion chamber, the helix and the pool. The liquid inside the pool is taken to the platform using a pump that with a choke control the pool liquid level. The pool liquid level control is necessary because if the level exceeds the maximum value allowed, the liquid can invade the space occupied by the helix and hinder the separation process. An the other hand if the level is below the minimum allowed the pump can be damaged. The separation pressure control is important for operational security and efficiency issues, because when we keep the separation pressure near an optimum value we are maximizing its efficiency. With the controller and the simulator, many simulations of the work of system were made to get results that could be used to evaluate if the designed controller solved the problem and if its performance were satisfactory. After, a PID control system was designed to be used as comparison with the results obtained with the fuzzy controller, since the PID is widely used in the industrial environment. (author)

  13. A fuzzy controller for the VASPS (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System) subsea separation and pumping system; Um controlador fuzzy para o sistema de separacao e bombeamento submarino - VASP (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Alex F.; Mendes, Jose Ricardo P.; Morooka, Celso K. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo; Estevam, Valdir [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guilherme, Ivan R. [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Estatistica, Matematica Aplicada e Computacao; Rigo, Jose Eduardo [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica no Espirito Santo (CEFETES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this paper the designs of a fuzzy controller for the VASPS (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System) liquid level and separation pressure control are presented, as well as a simulation of its work to evaluate the performance of the controller designed. The VASPS is a two-phase subsea separation and pumping system, which is made up of a separation vessel, where the mixture (liquid and gas) enters and suffers the separation process through three levels, the expansion chamber, the helix and the pool. The liquid inside the pool is taken to the platform using a pump that with a choke control the pool liquid level. The pool liquid level control is necessary because if the level exceeds the maximum value allowed, the liquid can invade the space occupied by the helix and hinder the separation process. An the other hand if the level is below the minimum allowed the pump can be damaged. The separation pressure control is important for operational security and efficiency issues, because when we keep the separation pressure near an optimum value we are maximizing its efficiency. With the controller and the simulator, many simulations of the work of system were made to get results that could be used to evaluate if the designed controller solved the problem and if its performance were satisfactory. After, a PID control system was designed to be used as comparison with the results obtained with the fuzzy controller, since the PID is widely used in the industrial environment. (author)

  14. Experimental analysis of direct-expansion ground-coupled heat pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, V. C.; Baxter, V. D.

    1991-09-01

    Direct-expansion ground-coil-coupled (DXGC) heat pump systems have certain energy efficiency advantages over conventional ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems. Principal among these advantages are that the secondary heat transfer fluid heat exchanger and circulating pump are eliminated. While the DXGC concept can produce higher efficiencies, it also produces more system design and environmental problems (e.g., compressor starting, oil return, possible ground pollution, and more refrigerant charging). Furthermore, general design guidelines for DXGC systems are not well documented. A two-pronged approach was adopted for this study: (1) a literature survey, and (2) a laboratory study of a DXGC heat pump system with R-22 as the refrigerant, for both heating and cooling mode tests done in parallel and series tube connections. The results of each task are described in this paper. A set of general design guidelines was derived from the test results and is also presented.

  15. Performance analysis on solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲世林; 马飞; 仇安兵

    2009-01-01

    A solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating (SWHP-RFH) experimental system was introduced and analyzed. The SWHP-RFH system mainly consists of 11.44 m2 vacuum tube solar collector,1 000 L water tank assisted 3 kW electrical heater,a water source heat pump,the radiant floor heating system with cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X) of diameter 20 mm,temperature controller and solar testing system. The SWHP-RFH system was tested from December to February during the heating season in Beijing,China under different operation situations. The test parameters include the outdoor air temperature,solar radiation intensity,indoor air temperature,radiation floor average surface temperature,average surface temperature of the building envelope,the inlet and outlet temperatures of solar collector,the temperature of water tank,the heat medium temperatures of heat pump condenser side and evaporator side,and the power consumption includes the water source heat pump system,the solar source heat pump system,the auxiliary heater and the radiant floor heating systems etc. The experimental results were used to calculate the collector efficiency,heat pump dynamic coefficient of performance (COP),total energy consumption and seasonal heating performance during the heating season. The results indicate that the performance of the compound source heat pump system is better than that of the air source heat pump system. Furthermore,some methods are suggested to improve the thermal performance of each component and the whole SWHP-RFH system.

  16. Integrated solar pump design incorporating a brushless DC motor for use in a solar heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swan, Lukas G.; Allen, Peter L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dalhousie University, 1360 Barrington Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 1Z1 (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    Most solar thermal hot water heating systems utilize a pump for circulation of the working fluid. An elegant approach to powering the pump is via solar energy. A ''solar pump'' employs a photovoltaic module, electric motor, and pump to collect and convert solar energy to circulate the working fluid. This article presents an experimental investigation of a new integrated solar pump design that employs the stator of a brushless DC motor and a magnetically coupled pump that has no dynamic seal. This design significantly reduces total volume and mass, and eliminates redundant components. The integrated design meets a hydraulic load of 1.7 bar and 1.4 litres per minute, equal to 4.0 watts, at a rotational speed of 500 revolutions per minute. The brushless DC motor and positive displacement pump achieve efficiencies of 62% and 52%, respectively, resulting in an electric to hydraulic efficiency of 32%. Thus, a readily available photovoltaic module rated 15 watts output is suitable to power the system. A variety of design variations were tested to determine the impact of the armature winding, pump size, pulse width modulation frequency, seal can material, etcetera. The physical and magnetic design was found to dominate efficiency. The efficiency characteristics of a photovoltaic module are such that over-sizing is wasteful. The integrated design presents a robust, efficient package for use as a solar pump. Although focus has been placed on application to a solar thermal collector system, variations of the design are suitable for a wide variety of applications such as remote location water pumping. (author)

  17. Design and Analysis of Vacuum Pumping Systems for SNS DTL and CCL Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, S; Tung, L; Kishiyama, K; Nederbragt, W; Bernardin,; Bustos, G; Gillis, R; Meyer, Sr, R

    2001-06-14

    The mechanical design of the vacuum pumping systems for SNS DTL (Drift Tube Linac) and CCL (Cavity Coupled Linac) linac systems is summarized. Both vacuum systems were modeled to select the optimal pump configuration. The pressure history in up to 182 sub-volumes was analyzed in detail. Included in the model are time-dependent outgassing rates and pressure-dependent pump speeds for a variety of gas species. With this information, we solved for the pressure history during roughing and with turbo and ion pumps. The number and size of each pump were optimized to achieve the desired pressure with minimal costs. In the optimized design, directly mounted ion pumps were provided for six DTL tanks. For four CCL modules (each in length of 12-15 m), ion pumps with manifolds were selected. With all metallic surface outgassing, seal leakage and expected gas loads from all diagnostic devices taken into account, the designed systems can provide operating drift-tube pressure below 1.8 x 10{sup -7} Torr and CCL beamline pressures below 9.2 x 10{sup -8} Torr even under abnormal conditions. Details of the design and the modeling results are presented.

  18. Study on the System Design of a Solar Assisted Ground Heat Pump System Using Dynamic Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Gyung Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the use of hybrid systems using multiple heat sources in buildings to ensure a stable energy supply and improve the system performance has gained attention. Among them, a heat pump system using both solar and ground heat was developed and various system configurations have been introduced. However, establishing a suitable design method for the solar-assisted ground heat pump (SAGHP system including a thermal storage tank is complicated and there are few quantitative studies on the detailed system configurations. Therefore, this study developed three SAGHP system design methods considering the design factors focused on the thermal storage tank. Using dynamic energy simulation code (TRNSYS 17, individual performance analysis models were developed and long-term quantitative analysis was carried out to suggest optimum design and operation methods. As a result, it was found that SYSTEM 2 which is a hybrid system with heat storage tank for only a solar system showed the highest average heat source temperature of 14.81 °C, which is about 11 °C higher than minimum temperature in SYSTEM 3. Furthermore, the best coefficient of performance (COP values of heat pump and system were 5.23 and 4.32 in SYSYEM 2, using high and stable solar heat from a thermal storage tank. Moreover, this paper considered five different geographical and climatic locations and the SAGHP system worked efficiently in having high solar radiation and cool climate zones and the system COP was 4.51 in the case of Winnipeg (Canada where the highest heating demand is required.

  19. Commercial Impact and Optimum Capacity Determination of Pumped Storage Hydro Plant for a Practical Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, P. G.; Anand, S. R.; Imthias, Ahamed T. P.; Sreejith, P. S., Dr.

    2013-06-01

    This paper attempts to study the commercial impact of pumped storage hydro plant on the operation of a stressed power system. The paper further attempts to compute the optimum capacity of the pumped storage scheme that can be provided on commercial basis for a practical power system. Unlike the analysis of commercial aspects of pumped storage scheme attempted in several papers, this paper is presented from the point of view of power system management of a practical system considering the impact of the scheme on the economic operation of the system. A realistic case study is presented as the many factors that influence the pumped storage operation vary widely from one system to another. The suitability of pumped storage for the particular generation mix of a system is well explored in the paper. To substantiate the economic impact of pumped storage on the system, the problem is formulated as a short-term hydrothermal scheduling problem involving power purchase which optimizes the quantum of power to be scheduled and the duration of operation. The optimization model is formulated using an algebraic modeling language, AMPL, which is then solved using the advanced MILP solver CPLEX.

  20. Analysis of Fuel Cell Driven Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Community Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Keun Shin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fuel cell driven ground source heat pump (GSHP system is applied in a community building and heat pump system performance is analyzed by computational methods. Conduction heat transfer between the brine pipe and ground is analyzed by TEACH code in order to predict the performance of the heat pump system. The predicted coefficient of performance (COP of the heat pump system and the energy cost were compared with the variation of the location of the objective building, the water saturation rate of the soil, and the driven powers of the heat pump system. Compared to the late-night electricity driven system, a significant reduction of energy cost can be accomplished by employing the fuel cell driven heat pump system. This is due to the low cost of electricity production of the fuel cell system and to the application of the recovered waste heat generated during the electricity production process to the heating of the community building.

  1. Elimination of Oscillations in a Central Heating System using Pump Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard; Stoustrup, Jakob;

    2000-01-01

    In central heating systems with thermostatic valve temperature control it is a well known fact that room temperature oscillations may occur when the heat demand becomes low due to the non-linear behavior of the control loop. This is not only discomforting but it also increases the energy cost...... of heating the room. Using the pump speed as an active part in control is it shown that the room temperature may be stabilized in a wider interval of heat demand. The idea is to control the pump speed in a way that keeps the thermostatic valve within a suitable operating area using an estimate of the valve...... position. The position is estimated from the pump terminals, using the pump flow and the pump differential pressure. The concept is tested on a small central heating test bench. The results show that it is possible to stabilize the room temperature even at part load conditions...

  2. Speed-variable Switched Differential Pump System for Direct Operation of Hydraulic Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen;

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to overcome the inherent loss of energy due to throttling in valve driven hydraulic systems are many, and various approaches have been proposed by research communities as well as the industry. Recently, a so-called speed-variable differential pump was proposed for direct drive of hydraulic...... differential cylinders. The main idea was here to utilize an electric rotary drive, with the shaft interconnected to two antiparallel fixed displacement gear pumps, to actuate a differential cylinder. With the design carried out such that the area ratio of the cylinder matches the displacement ratio of the two...... gear pumps, the throttling losses are confined to cross port leakage in the cylinder and leakage of the pumps. However, it turns out that the volumetric pump losses and the pressure dynamics of the cylinder and connecting pipes may cause pressure increase- or decrease in the cylinder chambers, which...

  3. Systems for apartment buildings heat pumps. Final report; System foer fastighetsvaermepumpar. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakervall, Daniel (WSP Environmental, Stockholm (Sweden)); Rogstam, Joergen; Grotherus, Maarten (Sveriges Energi- och Kylcentrum, Katrineholm (Sweden))

    2009-05-15

    A fast growing segment of the heat pump business is the apartment building applications. Historically the experience base related to such installations is limited. However, this application is more complex than the much more widely spread domestic applications. The core idea of the project was to generate and collect information to avoid mistakes and to encourage the heat pump technology. By interviewing the 'market' and compiling the information good recommendations has been achieved. It is of great importance to convey the best available recommendations to the installers on the market to avoid pit holes and highlight the opportunities for installers and end consumers. A website has been design and built, www.sfvp.se, which contains useful tools for installers and potential system customers. A number of calculation tools to estimate heat requirement, cost of different heating systems, primary energy need, LCC, etc. are all available. The core of the site is the database containing heat pump installations with related data of importance. The data available is such key data as performance figures, cost of installation, etc. Today 104 system installations are collected in the database and these are marked in a colour coding to indicate the quality of the input data. Installations verified with measurement are given higher significance. It has been an unexpected challenge to find documented systems, so one of the conclusions of the project is that there is a great need for further measurement on the field. More information should be directed to the customers to request such equipment when systems are installed. The database enables statistical analysis of the key figures and it can be seen that the average seasonal COP is 3.2 and there are small differences between exhaust air and ground source heat pumps. It should be emphasised that the number of installations do not give statistical confidence for all kinds of analysis yet. Field measurements in apartment

  4. Designing & Optimizing a Moving Magnet Pump for Liquid Sodium Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvasta, Michael G.

    Advanced materials such as NF-616, NF-709, HT-UPS, and silicon carbide (SiC) have greater strength than traditional structural materials such as 316-SS. Thus, using these high-strength materials to build sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) could potentially reduce construction costs by lessening the required amount of material, and increase the efficiency of electromagnetic pumps by limiting ohmic heating within the pump duct walls. However, information pertaining to the sodium-compatibility of these alloys and ceramics is very sparse. Therefore, two separate test facilities were built to study the impact of both static and dynamic sodium corrosion The dynamic test facility enabled sodium corrosion to be studied under prototypic SFR operating conditions (T = 500 [C], V = 9.35 [m/s], CO = 2-3 [wppm]). The oxygen concentration, CO, within the dynamic test facility was maintained using a cold trap and measured with a plugging meter. The flow rate of the sodium was measured using a calibrated electromagnetic flowmeter. A moving magnet pump (MMP) was used to move the liquid sodium past the corrosion samples at a high velocity. Using newly developed theory, it was found that MMP performance could be accurately modeled and predicted for a wide variety of pump configurations.

  5. Paraformaldehyde pellet not necessary in vacuum-pumped maple sap system

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Carter B. Gibbs

    1970-01-01

    In a study of sugar maple sap collection through a vacuum-pumped plastic tubing system, yields were compared between tapholes in which paraformaldehyde pellets were used and tapholes without pellets, Use of the pellets did not increase yield.

  6. Pilot Project to Optimize Superfund-financed Pump and Treat Systems: Summary Report and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes Phase II (site optimization) of the Nationwide Fund-lead Pump and Treat Optimization Project. This phase included conducting Remediation System Evaluations (RSEs) at each of the 20 sites selected in Phase I.

  7. Conductivity of strongly pumped superconductors. An electron-phonon system far from equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krull, Holger

    2015-01-29

    The study of nonequilibrium physics is of great interest, because one can capture novel phenomena and properties which are hidden at equilibrium, e.g., one can study relaxation processes. A common way to study the nonequilibrium dynamics of a sample is a pump-probe experiment. In a pump probe experiment an intense laser pulse, the so called pump pulse, excites the sample and takes it out of equilibrium. After a certain delay time a second pulse, the probe pulse, measures the actual state of the sample. In this thesis, we theoretically study the pump-probe response of superconductors. On the one hand we are interest in the effect of a pump pulse and on the other hand we want to provide the pump-probe response, such that experimental measurement can be easily interpreted. In order to do this, we use the density matrix formalism to compute the pump-probe response of the system. In the density matrix formalism equations of motion are set up for expectation values of interest. In order to study the dynamics induced by a pump pulse, we compute the temporal evolution of the quasiparticle densities and the mean phonon amplitude. We find that the induced dynamics of the system depends on characteristics of the pump pulse. For short pulses, the system is pushed into the nonadiabatic regime. In this regime, the order parameter is lowered during the pump pulse and shows a 1/(√(t))-decaying oscillation afterwards. In addition, coherent phonons are generated, which is resonantly enhanced if the frequency of the order parameter oscillation is equal to the phonon frequency. For long pulses, the system is pushed into the adiabatic regime. In this regime, the order parameter is lowered during the pulse and remains almost constant afterwards. Further, there is almost no generation of coherent phonons. For the pump-probe response we compute the conductivity induced by the probe pulse. The conductivity is a typical observable in real pump-probe experiments. Hence, it is possible to

  8. An energy-saving pumping system with novel springs energy storage devices: Design, modeling, and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong jun Meng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the traditional reciprocating pumping unit, it generally starts at the bottom dead point with full load and is accelerated when starting and decelerated when stopping, which not only requires great energy from the motor but also impact on the output torque of motor. In order to tackle the above problems, we propose an energy-saving smooth reversing pumping system, which could store the energy in deceleration by making use of springs, and the stored energy could be reused in acceleration after reversion. This novel system targets to make the motor starting with light load, which could reduce the fluctuation in motor torque, decrease the starting time. In this article, a dynamic model and an efficiency model are established to compute the polished rod load dynamometer card and efficiency of the pumping unit. It is shown that the installed springs could help to reduce the impact on the system when reversing, and significantly decrease the energy consumption. In addition, we set up the real pumping system with load test system to verify the effectiveness of the model establishment. Through the experiment, the proposed pumping system could save energy up to 9.204% as compared to the traditional reciprocating pumping system.

  9. Residential CO2 Heat Pump System for Combined Space Heating and Hot Water Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Stene, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2, R-744) has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional working fluids in a number of applications due to its favourable environmental and thermophysical properties. Previous work on residential CO2 heat pumps has been dealing with systems for either space heating or hot water heating, and it was therefore considered interesting to carry out a theoretical and experimental study of residential CO2 heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water hea...

  10. Multi-energy systems applied to the building sector (Heat Pump Technology)

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Izquierdo, Marta

    2008-01-01

    The project deals with the study of multi-energy systems applied to the building sector. Nowadays, this thematic is very important because the use of systems integrating different energy sources and energy technologies is a key element in the design of low emission buildings. In particular, the project focuses on heat pump technologies. In the first part of the project an over view of the status of the heat pump development is investigated. Then, a numerical model to simulat...

  11. Energy Savings and Peak Demand Reduction of a SEER 21 Heat Pump vs. a SEER 13 Heat Pump with Attic and Indoor Duct Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.

    2014-03-01

    This report describes results of experiments that were conducted in an unoccupied 1600 square foot house--the Manufactured Housing (MH Lab) at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC)--to evaluate the delivered performance as well as the relative performance of a SEER 21 variable capacity heat pump versus a SEER 13 heat pump. The performance was evaluated with two different duct systems: a standard attic duct system and an indoor duct system located in a dropped-ceiling space.

  12. AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Data Acquisition System and Gamma Cart Data Acquisition Control System Software Configuration Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WHITE, D.A.

    1999-12-29

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) provides the instructions for change control of the AZ1101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Data Acquisition System (DAS) and the Sludge Mobilization Cart (Gamma Cart) Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS).

  13. Energy-saving control model of inverter for centrifugal pump systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Luo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The inverter control strategy is the key to pump energy-saving operation and should be established based on the current system configurations and system requirements, which is not the case in practice. As a result, the characteristics of pump system requirements and a combination pump with inverter were studied, and the mathematical models were established. A new model for an optimal inverter control strategy based on the current system configurations and system requirements was then established, and a method combining golden section search and genetic algorithm was formulated to solve this optimal model. This model sets up an optimal inverter control strategy to increase the efficiency of pump operation following a process line near the minimum requirements to improve operation conditions. The implementation difficulty of the control law was also reduced. Finally, the optimized model was applied to an industrial circulating pump system, and the result showed that the model can not only determine the optimal inverter control strategy but also evaluate the current operation situation of the pump configuration and determine the energy-saving potential for the current configuration, which can aid in the subsequent energy-saving reconstruction.

  14. The role of capacitance in a wind-electric water pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Shitao [West Texas A& M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States); Clark, R.N. [Conservation and Production Research Lab., Bushland, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The development of controllers for wind-electric water pumping systems to enable the use of variable voltage, variable frequency electricity to operate standard AC submersible pump motors has provided a more efficient and flexible water pumping system to replace mechanical windmills. A fixed capacitance added in parallel with the induction motor improves the power factor and starting ability of the pump motor at the lower cut-in frequency. The wind-electric water pumping system developed by USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Bushland, TX, operated well at moderate wind speeds (5-12 m/s), but tended to lose synchronization in winds above 12 m/s, especially if they were gusty. Furling generally did not occur until synchronization had been lost and the winds had to subside before synchronization could be reestablished. The frequency needed to reestablish synchronization was much lower (60-65 Hz) than the frequency where synchronization was lost (70-80 Hz). As a result, the load (motor and pump) stayed off an excessive amount of time thus causing less water to be pumped and producing a low system efficiency. The controller described in this paper dynamically connects additional capacitance of the proper amount at the appropriate time to keep the system synchronized (running at 55 to 60 Hz) and pumping water even when the wind speed exceeds 15 m/s. The system efficiency was improved by reducing the system off-line time and an additional benefit was reducing the noise caused by the high speed blade rotation when the load was off line in high winds.

  15. Density operator of a system pumped with polaritons: a Jaynes-Cummings-like approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quesada, Nicolas; RodrIguez, Boris A [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Vinck-Posada, Herbert, E-mail: nquesada@pegasus.udea.edu.co [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, Bogota (Colombia)

    2011-01-19

    We investigate the effects of considering two different incoherent excitation mechanisms on microcavity quantum dot systems modeled using the Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian. When the system is incoherently pumped with polaritons it is able to sustain a large number of photons inside the cavity with Poisson-like statistics in the stationary limit, and it also leads to a separable exciton-photon state. We also investigate the effects of both types of pumpings (excitonic and polaritonic) in the emission spectrum of the cavity. We show that the polaritonic pumping considered here is unable to modify the dynamical regimes of the system at variance with the excitonic pumping. Finally, we obtain a closed form expression for the negativity of the density matrices that the quantum master equation considered here generates.

  16. Design, optimization, and deployment of a waterworks pumping station control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Dariusz; Wetula, Andrzej; Bień, Andrzej

    2012-07-01

    This article presents a summary of the development and realization of a custom control and monitoring system for a water supply facility consisting of fixed-capacity intake pumps, a reservoir tank, and variable-speed outtake pumps. Project realization included the design and building of control hardware, as well as the design and deployment of the intake pump switching algorithm. Details of the control system design with an emphasis on the pump switching algorithm are given. The stages of the system development, including process modeling, design goal formulation, optimization of control algorithm using genetic algorithms, simulation, and implementation, are presented. Finally, deployment and real-life results are shown. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of dual-source hybrid heat pump system using groundwater and air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Yujin; Ooka, Ryozo [Cw403 Institute of Industry Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Shiba, Yoshiro [Zeneral Heatpump Industry Co., Ltd., Nagoya 459-8001 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    To achieve high heat pump efficiency, groundwater heat pump (GWHP) system uses groundwater, which is relatively stable AT temperature compared with outdoor air, as a heat source. However, it is difficult to meet annual heating and cooling loads using only groundwater as a heat source. In order to optimize the operation method of GWHP systems, it is necessary to develop a system utilizing both groundwater and air sources according to the building load conditions. Furthermore, during intermediate seasons (such as spring and autumn) with reduced heating and cooling loads, GWHP system is less efficient than air source heat pump (ASHP) system according to temperature conditions. In order to more efficiently use GWHP systems, it is necessary to develop a system which utilizes both groundwater and air sources according to temperature conditions and building loads. This research has developed a GWHP system that employs a hybrid heat pump system with groundwater wells using dual groundwater and air heat sources. In this paper, the annual performance of the developed system has been calculated, and several case studies have been conducted on the effect of introduction location, refrigerant and pumping rate. Furthermore, the coefficient of system performance and the effects on underground environments have been evaluated by real-scale experiment using two wells. (author)

  18. Performance of a 10 kilowatt wind-electric water pumping system for irrigating crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vick, B.D.; Clark, R.N. [Conservation and Production Research Lab., Bushland, TX (United States); Molla, S. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A 10 kW wind-electric water pumping system was tested for field crop irrigation at pumping depths from 50 to 120 m. The wind turbine for this system used a permanent magnet alternator that powered off-the-shelf submersible motors and pumps without the use of an inverter. Pumping performance was determined at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Wind Energy Laboratory in Bushland, TX for the 10 kW wind turbine using a pressure valve and a pressure tank to simulate different pumping depths. Pumping performance was measured for two 10 kW wind turbines of the same type at farms near the cities of Garden City, TX and Stiles, TX. The pumping performance data collected at these actual wells compared favorably with the data collected at the USDA-ARS, Wind Energy Laboratory. If utility generated electricity was accessible, payback on the wind turbine depended on the cost of utility generated electricity and the transmission line extension cost.

  19. Field measurement of the interactions between heat pumps and attic duct systems in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modera, M.P.; Jump, D.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1994-11-01

    Research efforts to improve residential heat-pump performance have tended to focus on laboratory and theoretical studies of the machine itself, with some limited field research having been focused on in-situ performance and installation issues. One issue that has received surprisingly little attention is the interaction between the heat pump and the duct system to which it is connected. This paper presents the results of a field study that addresses this interaction. Field performance measurements before and after sealing and insulating the duct systems were made on three heat pumps. From the pre-retrofit data it was found that reductions in heat-pump capacity due to low outdoor temperatures and/or coil frosting are accompanied by lower duct-system energy delivery efficiencies. The conduction loss reductions, and thus the delivery temperature improvements, due to adding duct insulation were found to vary widely depending on the length of the particular duct section, the thermal mass of that duct section, and the cycling characteristics of the heat-pump. In addition, it was found that the use of strip-heat back-up decreased after the retrofits, and that heat-pump cycling increased dramatically after the retrofits, which respectively increase and decrease savings due to the retrofits. Finally, normalized energy use for the three systems which were operated consistently pre- and post-retrofit showed an average reduction of 19% after retrofit, which corresponds to a chance in overall distribution-system efficiency of 24%.

  20. First experience of water pumping system in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, C. [Soleco Ltd., Borgaa (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    A photovoltaic water pump (PVP) was installed and monitored in a village at sea level in the east coast of Yemen. Economic study showed PVP to be competitive within the power range of small diesel pumps, where they often even constitute the least-cost option. Social study showed the high acceptance and better integration of PVP into the project village. The water in Yemen is found in wells at depths of 15 m down to 100 m, and more. The village population usually lives on the top of the steep mountains and the well is down in the valley. The first pilot PVP was installed in a village at sea level with an existing well. The work is supported by World Bank financing and a co-operation with a Danish and Finnish CTF of World Bank. (au)

  1. Low-thrust chemical propulsion system pump technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadville, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    A study was conducted within the thrust range 450 to 9000 N (100 to 2000 pounds). Performance analyses were made on centrifugal, pitot, Barske, drag, Tesla, gear, piston, lobe, and vane pumps with liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and liquid oxygen as propellants. Gaseous methane and hydrogen driven axial impulse turbines, vane expanders, piston expanders, and electric motors were studied as drivers. Data are presented on performance, sizes, weights, and estimated service lives and costs.

  2. Advanced Control of Wind Electric Pumping System for Isolated Areas Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Barara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The supply water in remote areas of windy region is one of most attractive application of wind energy conversion .This paper proposes an advanced controller suitable for wind-electric pump in isolated applications in order to have a desired debit from variation of reference speed of the pump also the control scheme of DC voltage of SIEG for feed the pump are presented under step change in wind speed. The simulation results showed a good performance of the global proposed control system.

  3. Design of a Mechanical NaK Pump for Fission Space Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Omar R.; Bradley, David; Godfroy, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Alkali liquid metal cooled fission reactor concepts are under development for mid-range spaceflight power requirements. One such concept utilizes a sodium-potassium eutectic (NaK) as the primary loop working fluid. Traditionally, linear induction pumps have been used to provide the required flow and head conditions for liquid metal systems but can be limited in performance. This paper details the design, build, and check-out test of a mechanical NaK pump. The pump was designed to meet reactor cooling requirements using commercially available components modified for high temperature NaK service.

  4. MODEL-BASED DEVELOPMENT OF REAL-TIME SOFTWARE SYSTEM FOR ELECTRONIC UNIT PUMP SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shitao; YANG Shiwei; YANG Lin; GONG Yuanming; ZHUO Bin

    2007-01-01

    A real-time operating system (RTOS), also named OS, is designed based on the hardware platform of MC68376, and is implemented in the electronic control system for unit pump in diesel engine. A parallel and time-based task division method is introduced and the multi-task software architecture is built in the software system for electronic unit pump (EUP) system. The V-model software development process is used to control algorithm of each task. The simulation results of the hardware-in-the-loop simulation system (HILSS) and the engine experimental results show that the OS is an efficient real-time kernel, and can meet the real-time demands of EUP system; The built multi-task software system is real-time, determinate and reliable. V-model development is a good development process of control algorithms for EUP system, the control precision of control system can be ensured, and the development cycle and cost are also decreased.

  5. Pump characteristics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Volk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Providing a wealth of information on pumps and pump systems, Pump Characteristics and Applications, Third Edition details how pump equipment is selected, sized, operated, maintained, and repaired. The book identifies the key components of pumps and pump accessories, introduces the basics of pump and system hydraulics as well as more advanced hydraulic topics, and details various pump types, as well as special materials on seals, motors, variable frequency drives, and other pump-related subjects. It uses example problems throughout the text, reinforcing the practical application of the formulae

  6. In vivo evaluation of an implantable portal pump system for augmenting liver perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, L R; Seifalian, A M; Davidson, B R; Habib, N

    2000-08-01

    Increasing portal inflow in cirrhosis using a mechanical pump reduces portal venous pressure and improves liver function. A pump has been developed for portal vein implantation in human cirrhosis. This study describes the initial in vivo evaluation in a porcine model. Five Large White pigs underwent laparotomy and exposure of the liver. Flow in the hepatic artery, portal vein and hepatic microcirculation was monitored continuously. Hepatic tissue oxygenation was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. After baseline measurements the pump was inserted into the portal vein. Pump flow rate was then increased stepwise to 50 per cent over the baseline value for a period of 2 h. The pump was then stopped for 20 min and left in situ while continuing to collect systemic and hepatic haemodynamic data. The animal was killed and biopsies for histological examination were taken from the liver, small intestine and spleen. The baseline total hepatic blood flow was 626(39) ml/min; the hepatic artery supplied 18.4(2.1) per cent and the portal vein 81.6(2.1) per cent. The pump was inserted successfully in all animals without surgical complications. During surgical insertion of the pump, the temporary portal vein occlusion resulted in a significant rise in hepatic artery blood flow (22(3) per cent; P Portal vein flow was augmented by pumping; there was a significant correlation between the pump motor speed and portal vein flow (P oxygenation (P portal vein. Portal venous blood flow can be increased up to 50 per cent with a resultant increase in flow in the hepatic microcirculation and hepatic oxygenation and without adverse effects on either hepatic or systemic haemodynamics.

  7. Increasing wind energy penetration level using pumped hydro storage in island micro-grid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Sheikh Mominul [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Dept. of Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Ramea is a small island in southern Newfoundland. Since 2004, it has a wind-diesel hybrid power system to provide power for approximately 600 inhabitants. In this paper, wind speed data, load data, and sizing of pumped hydro system at Ramea, Newfoundland are presented. The dynamic model of wind turbine, pumped hydro system, and diesel generator are included in this paper. The dynamic model is simulated in SIMULINK/MATLAB to determine the system voltage and frequency variation and also to visualize different power outputs. Sizing of pumped hydro system indicates that a 150-kW pumped hydro storage system can be installed in Ramea to increase the renewable energy fraction to 37% which will reduce non-renewable fuel consumption on this island. Also, it is found that a pumped hydro energy storage system for Ramea is a much better choice than a hydrogen energy storage system. Such a system will have a higher overall efficiency and could be maintained using local technical expertise, therefore, a more appropriate technology for Ramea. (orig.)

  8. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Z. N.; Wu, P.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m3/h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result.

  9. EXERGY-BASED ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF GENERALIZED IRREVERSIBLE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    GOVIND MAHESHWARI; SUNIL K. SOMANI; SHARAD CHAUDHARY

    2011-01-01

    A reverse Carnot cycle forms the basis of all heat-pump cycles in providing heating and cooling loads. The optimal exergy-based Ecological analysis of an irreversible Heat-pump system with the losses of heat resistance, heat leak and internal irreversibility has been carried out by taking into account Exergy based ecological function (E) as an objective in the viewpoint of Finite-Time-Thermodynamics (FTT) or Entropy Generation Minimization (EGM). Exergy is defined here as the power required m...

  10. Pump as Turbine (PAT) Design in Water Distribution Network by System Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Oreste Fecarotta; Helena M. Ramos; Giuseppe Del Giudice; Armando Carravetta

    2013-01-01

    Water distribution networks face several problems related to leakages, where the pressure control strategy is a common practice for water loss management. Small-scale hydropower schemes, where pumps as turbines replace pressure reducing valves, can be considered an interesting technical solution, which ensures both economic convenience and system flexibility. Due to the water networks’ variable operating conditions, a new methodology to model the effectiveness of pumps as turbines was develop...

  11. Auto-control of pumping operations in sewerage systems by rule-based fuzzy neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Y.-M.; Chang, L.-C.; Tsai, M.-J.; Wang, Y. -F.; Chang, F.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Pumping stations play an important role in flood mitigation in metropolitan areas. The existing sewerage systems, however, are facing a great challenge of fast rising peak flow resulting from urbanization and climate change. It is imperative to construct an efficient and accurate operating prediction model for pumping stations to simulate the drainage mechanism for discharging the rainwater in advance. In this study, we propose two rule-based fuzzy neural networks, adaptive neuro-fuzzy infere...

  12. Optimal heat rejection pressure in transcritical carbon dioxide air conditioning and heat pump systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shengming; Jakobsen, Arne

    1998-01-01

    Due to the urgent need for environmentally benign refrigerants, the use of the natural substance carbon dioxide in refrigeration systems has gained more and more attention. In systems such as automobile air-conditioners and heat pumps, owing to the relatively high heat rejection temperatures......, the cycles using carbon dioxide as refrigerant will have to operate in the transcritical area. In a transcritical carbon dioxide system, there is an optimal heat rejection pressure that gives a maximum COP. In this paper, it is shown that the value of this optimal heat rejection pressure mainly depends...... dioxide air conditioning or heat pump systems and for intelligent controlling such systems....

  13. Optimal heat rejection pressure in transcritical carbon dioxide air conditioning and heat pump systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shengming; Jakobsen, Arne

    1998-01-01

    Due to the urgent need for environmentally benign refrigerants, the use of the natural substance carbon dioxide in refrigeration systems has gained more and more attention. In systems such as automobile air-conditioners and heat pumps, owing to the relatively high heat rejection temperatures...... dioxide air conditioning or heat pump systems and for intelligent controlling such systems......., the cycles using carbon dioxide as refrigerant will have to operate in the transcritical area. In a transcritical carbon dioxide system, there is an optimal heat rejection pressure that gives a maximum COP. In this paper, it is shown that the value of this optimal heat rejection pressure mainly depends...

  14. Analysis of a Residential Heating System Utilizing a Solar Assisted Water-to-Air Heat Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    heat pump heating system were analyzed. A realistic residence and solar assisted water-to-air heat pump system were modeled for this northern climate using the transient simulation computer code TRNSYS developed by the University of Wisconsin. The system was studied over a one month winter period, December, using actual hourly weather data. The system was analyzed for both the cloudiest and clearest December weather recorded in the last 30 years. The collector area and storage tank capacity were varied and the effects on system performance were

  15. Study on the Performance of a Ground Source Heat Pump System Assisted by Solar Thermal Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin Nam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A ground source heat pump system (GSHPS utilizes a relatively stable underground temperature to achieve energy-saving for heating and cooling in buildings. However, continuous long-term operation will reduce the soil temperature in winter, resulting in a decline in system performance. In this research, in order to improve the system performance of a GSHPS, a ground heat pump system integrated with solar thermal storage was developed. This solar-assisted ground heat pump system (SAGHPS can both maintain the balance of the soil temperature effectively and achieve higher system performance than the conventional system. In this paper, in order to examine the characteristics of the system, a dynamic simulation was conducted under various conditions. The results of our case study provide specific operation data such as heat exchange rate, heat source temperature, and heat pump COP. As a result, the heat pump COP of SAGHPS was 4.7%, 9.3% higher than that of the GSHPS.

  16. Performance study of a heat pump dryer system for speciality crops - Pt. 1: development of a simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adapa, P.K.; Schoenau, G.J.; Sokhansanj, S. [University of Saskatchewan (Canada). College of Engineering

    2002-07-01

    This research is concerned with the technology of heat pump assisted drying of specialty crops. A simplified procedure for modelling the performance of a low temperature heat pump dryer was developed. The system modelled consists of a vapour compression heat pump coupled to a continuous cross flow bed dryer. The model takes into account the detailed heat and mass transfer phenomena taking place in the heat pump and dryer circuits. (author)

  17. Heat pump centered integrated community energy systems: system development. Georgia Institute of Technology final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, D.W.; Trammell, B.C.; Dixit, B.S.; McCurry, D.C.; Rindt, B.A.

    1979-12-01

    Heat Pump Centered-Integrated Community Energy Systems (HP-ICES) show the promise of utilizing low-grade thermal energy for low-quality energy requirements such as space heating and cooling. The Heat Pump - Wastewater Heat Recovery (HP-WHR) scheme is one approach to an HP-ICES that proposes to reclaim low-grade thermal energy from a community's wastewater effluent. This report develops the concept of an HP-WHR system, evaluates the potential performance and economics of such a system, and examines the potential for application. A thermodynamic performance analysis of a hypothetical system projects an overall system Coefficient of Performance (C.O.P.) of from 2.181 to 2.264 for waste-water temperatures varying from 50/sup 0/F to 80/sup 0/F. Primary energy source savings from the nationwide implementation of this system is projected to be 6.0 QUADS-fuel oil, or 8.5 QUADS - natural gas, or 29.7 QUADS - coal for the period 1980 to 2000, depending upon the type and mix of conventional space conditioning systems which could be displaced with the HP-WHR system. Site-specific HP-WHR system designs are presented for two application communities in Georgia. Performance analyses for these systems project annual cycle system C.O.P.'s of 2.049 and 2.519. Economic analysis on the basis of a life cycle cost comparison shows one site-specific system design to be cost competitive in the immediate market with conventional residential and light commercial HVAC systems. The second site-specific system design is shown through a similar economic analysis to be more costly than conventional systems due mainly to the current low energy costs for natural gas. It is anticipated that, as energy costs escalate, this HP-WHR system will also approach the threshold of economic viability.

  18. A Novel Pumped Hydro Combined with Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erren Yao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel pumped hydro combined with compressed air energy storage (PHCA system is proposed in this paper to resolve the problems of bulk energy storage in the wind power generation industry over an area in China, which is characterised by drought and water shortages. Thermodynamic analysis of the energy storage system, which focuses on the pre-set pressure, storage volume capacity, water air volume ratio, pump performance, and water turbine performance of the storage system, is also presented. This paper discovers how such parameters affect the performance of the whole system. The ideal performance of this novel system has the following advantages: a simple, highly effective and low cost structure, which is comparable to the efficiency of a traditional pumped hydro storage system. Research results show a great solution to the current storage constraints encountered in the development of the wind power industry in China, which have been widely recognised as a bottleneck in the wind energy storage industry.

  19. Feasibility study of a wind powered water pumping system for rural Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misrak Girma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water is the primary source of life for mankind and one of the most basic necessities for rural development. Most of the rural areas of Ethiopia do not have access to potable water. Is some regions of the country access potable water is available through use of manual pumping and Diesel engine. In this research, wind water pump is designed to supply drinking water for three selected rural locations in Ethiopia. The design results show that a 5.7 m diameter windmill is required for pumping water from borehole through a total head of 75, 66 and 44 m for Siyadberand Wayu, Adami Tulu and East Enderta to meet the daily water demand of 10, 12 and 15 m3, respectively. The simulation for performance of the selected wind pump is conducted using MATLAB software and the result showed that monthly water discharge is proportional to the monthly average wind speed at the peak monthly discharge of 685 m3 in June, 888 m3 in May and 1203 m3 in March for Siyadberand Wayu, Adami Tulu and East Enderta sites, respectively. An economic comparison is conducted, using life cycle cost analysis, for wind mill and Diesel water pumping systems and the results show that windmill water pumping systems are more feasible than Diesel based systems.

  20. A comparison of diesel, biodiesel and solar PV-based water pumping systems in the context of rural Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Pokharel, Govind Raj; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    using petro-diesel, jatropha-based biodiesel and solar photovoltaic pumps. The technical system design consists of system sizing of prime mover (engine, solar panel and pumps) and estimation of reservoir capacity, which are based on the annual aggregate water demand modelling. With these investigations...... area, the levelised cost of pumping 1 L of water is higher than that of a solar pump and even higher when compared with diesel, if the seed yield per plant is less than 2 kg and without subsidy on the investment cost of cultivation and processing. With the productivity of 2.5 kg/plant, a biodiesel......-based system is more attractive than that of the diesel-based pump, but still remains more expensive than that of solar pump. From the technical perspective (reliability and easiness in operation) and economic evaluation of the technical alternatives, solar pumping system is found to be the most viable...

  1. DPAL pump system exceeding 3kW at 766nm and 30 GHz bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenning, Tobias; McCormick, Dan; Irwin, David; Stapleton, Dean; Guiney, Tina; Patterson, Steve

    2016-03-01

    Due to their low quantum defect, diode pumped alkali metal vapor lasers (DPALs) offer the promise of scalability to very high average power levels while maintaining excellent beam quality. Research on DPALs has progressed to ever increasing power levels across multiple gain media species over the last years, necessitating pump power in the kW range. Each material requires a specific pump wavelength: near 852nm for cesium, 780nm for rubidium, 766nm for potassium, and 670nm for lithium atoms. The shorter pump wavelength below 800nm are outside the typical wavelength range for pump diodes developed for diode pumped solid state lasers (DPSS). The biggest challenge in pumping these materials efficiently is the need for maintaining the narrow gain media absorption band of approximately 0.01nm while greatly increasing power. Typical high power diode lasers achieve spectral widths around 3nm (FWHM) in the near infrared spectrum, but optical gratings may be used internal or external to the cavity to reduce the spectral width. Recently, experimental results have shown yet narrower line widths ranging from picometers at very low power levels to sub-100 picometers for water cooled stacks around 1kW of output power. The focus of this work is the development of a fiber-based pump system for potassium DPAL. The individual tasks are the development of high power 766nm chip material, a fiber-coupled module as a building block, and a scalable system design to address power requirements from hundreds of watts to tens of kilowatts. Results for a 3kW system achieving ~30GHz bandwidth at 766nm will be shown. Approaches for power-scaling and size reduction will be discussed.

  2. Application of Heat Pump in Cooling Water System of HIRFL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator generates a lot of heat when it is working.It must be cooled by the circulating cooling water.Generally the heat was released to atimosphere by the cooling water tower.Because the heat energy is very huge(about 2M watts for HIRFL),it is big waste and the machine can’t be cooled to appropriate temperature when ambient temperature is high in summer.In order to solve the problems,the heat pump has been used

  3. Sliding mode control for efficiency optimization of wind electrical pumping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R.D. [Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina); Mantz, R.J. [Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Battatotto, P.E. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina)

    2003-07-01

    Wind energy conversion systems have been receiving increasing attention in recent years, particularly in remote areas, where power from the utility is not available or is costly to install. Among many applications, wind electrical systems are successfully used for pumping water. Owing to the non-linear characteristics of these systems, their control is essential to attain high efficiency. In this work, concepts of sliding mode control are employed to guarantee global stability and to optimize the efficiency of a wind electrical water-pumping system. The measurement of wind speed is avoided. A thorough analysis of stability and dynamic behaviour is realized. Simulation results are presented. (Author)

  4. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Madsen, C.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) is to provide a high-efficient ammonia heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept uses two storage tanks for the water, one discharged and one charged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process while the discharged...... to investigate the performance of the ISEC system. The ISEC concept approaches the efficiency of a number of heat pumps in series and the COP of the system may reach 6.8, which is up to 25 % higher than a conventional heat pump heating water in one step....... tank, is charging. Charging is done by circulating the water in the tank through the condenser several times and thereby gradually heats the water. This result in a lower condensing temperature than if the water was heated in one step. A dynamic model of the system, implemented in Dymola, is used...

  5. Treatment of refractory low-pressure hydrocephalus with an active pumping negative-pressure shunt system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalani, M Yashar S; Turner, Jay D; Nakaji, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Low-pressure hydrocephalus is a rare type of hydrocephalus characterized by negative intracranial pressure (ICP) and ventriculomegaly. Given the shortcomings of available methods to treat refractory low-pressure hydrocephalus, we set out to develop a new system for evacuation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the ventricular system where existing shunt systems do not produce the necessary gradient for CSF drainage. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of two patients with the diagnosis of negative-pressure hydrocephalus refractory to traditional treatments. We combined a traditional low-pressure, non-siphoning valve with a pumping chamber placed distal to the valve to create a system that could be actively pumped to remove excess CSF. Treatment of negative-pressure hydrocephalus requires the establishment of a lower ventricular drainage pressure than the drainage pressure in the subarachnoid space. In refractory cases, we propose the use of this active negative-pressure pumping system.

  6. Diode-Pumped High Energy and High Average Power All-Solid-State Picosecond Amplifier Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxing Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present our research on the high energy picosecond laser operating at a repetition rate of 1 kHz and the high average power picosecond laser running at 100 kHz based on bulk Nd-doped crystals. With diode-pumped solid state (DPSS hybrid amplifiers consisting of a picosecond oscillator, a regenerative amplifier, end-pumped single-pass amplifiers, and a side-pumped amplifier, an output energy of 64.8 mJ at a repetition rate of 1 kHz was achieved. An average power of 37.5 W at a repetition rate of 100 kHz pumped by continuous wave laser diodes was obtained. Compact, stable and high power DPSS laser amplifier systems with good beam qualities are excellent picosecond sources for high power optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA and high-efficiency laser processing.

  7. Optimization of the Geometrical Parameters of a Solar Bubble Pump for Absorption-Diffusion Cooling Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dammak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this study was to optimize the geometrical parameters of a bubble pump integrated in a solar flat plate collector. Approach: This solar bubble pump was part of an ammonia/water/helium (NH3/H2O/He absorption-diffusion cooling system. Results: An empirical model was developed on the basis of momentum, mass, material equations and energy balances. The mathematical model was solved using the simulation tool “Engineering Equation Solver (EES”. Conclusion/Recommendations: Using metrological data from Gabes (Tunisia various parameters were geometrically optimized for maximum bubble pump efficiency which was best for a bubble pump tube diameter of 6 mm, a tube length of 1.5 m, an inclination to the horizontal between 30 and 50° of the solar flat plate collector and a submergence ratio between 0.2 and 0.3.

  8. Feasibility study of a solar photovoltaic water pumping system for rural Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misrak Girma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar Photovoltaic (SPV water pumping system is one of the best technologies that utilize the solar energy to pump water from deep well underground water sources and to provide clean drinking water worldwide. The availability of abundant solar radiation and enough underground water sources in Ethiopia can be combined together to make clean drinking water available to rural communities. The software PVsyst 5.56 was used to study the feasibility of solar photovoltaic water pumping system in the selected sites. The designed system is capable of providing a daily average of 10.5, 7 and 6.5 m3/day for 700, 467 and 433 people in Siadberand Wayu, Wolmera and Enderta sites respectively, with average daily water consumption of 15 liters per day per person and the costs of water without any subsidy, are approximately 0.1, 0.14 and 0.16 $/m3for each site respectively. If diesel generator is used instead of solar photovoltaic water pumping system, to provide the same average daily water for the selected community, the costs of water without any subsidy are approximately 0.2, 0.23 and 0.27 $/m3 for each site respectively. A life cycle cost analysis method was also carried out for economic comparison between solar PV and the diesel pumping system. The results of this study are encouraging the use of the PV system for drinking water supply in the remote areas of the country.

  9. Heating performance of a ground source heat pump system installed in a school building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaedo; SONG; Kwangho; LEE; Youngman; JEONG; Seongir; CHEONG; Jaekeun; LEE; Yujin; HWANG; Yeongho; LEE; Donghyuk; LEE

    2010-01-01

    The heating performance of a water-to-refrigerant type ground source heat pump system is represented in this paper under the actual working conditions of the GSHP(ground source heat pump) system during the winter season of 2008.Ten heat pump equipments with the capacity of 10 HP each and a closed vertical typed-ground heat exchanger with 24 boreholes of 175 m in depth were constructed.We investigated a variety of working conditions,including the outdoor temperature,the ground temperature,and the water temperature of inlet and outlet of the ground heat exchanger in order to examine the heating performance of the GSHP system.Subsequently,the heating capacity and the input power were investigated to determine the heating performance of the GSHP system.The average heating coefficient of performance(COP) of the heat pump was noted to be 5.1 at partial load of 47%,while the overall system COP was found to be 4.2.Also,performance of the GSHP system was compared with that of air source heat pump.

  10. Human Health Science Building Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidel, James [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States)

    2014-12-22

    The grant objectives of the DOE grant funded project have been successfully completed. The Human Health Building (HHB) was constructed and opened for occupancy for the Fall 2012 semester of Oakland University. As with any large construction project, some issues arose which all were overcome to deliver the project on budget and on time. The facility design is a geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid building utilizing both desiccant dehumidification and variable refrigerant flow heat pumps. It is a cooling dominant building with a 400 ton cooling design day load, and 150 ton heating load on a design day. A 256 vertical borehole (320 ft depth) ground source heat pump array is located south of the building under the existing parking lot. The temperature swing and performance over 2013 through 2015 shows the ground loop is well sized, and may even have excess capacity for a future building to the north (planned lab facility). The HHB achieve a US Green Building Counsel LEED Platinum rating by collecting 52 of the total 69 available LEED points for the New Construction v.2 scoring checklist. Being Oakland's first geothermal project, we were very pleased with the building outcome and performance with the energy consumption approximately 1/2 of the campus average facility, on a square foot basis.

  11. Design of DC Conduction Pump for PGSFR Active Decay Heat Removal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dehee; Hong, Jonggan; Lee, Taeho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A DC conduction pump has been designed for the ADHRS of PGSFR. A VBA code developed by ANL was utilized to design and optimize the pump. The pump geometry dependent parameters were optimized to minimize the total current while meeting the design requirements. A double-C type dipole was employed to produce the calculated magnetic strength. Numerical simulations for the magnetic field strength and its distribution around the dipole and for the turbulent flow under magnetic force will be carried out. A Direct Current (DC) conduction Electromagnetic Pump (EMP) has been designed for Active Decay Heat Removal System (ADHRS) of PGSFR. The PGSFR has active as well as passive systems for the DHRS. The passive DHRS (PDHRS) works by natural circulation head and the ADHRS is driven by an EMP for the DHRS sodium loop and a blower for the finned-tube sodium-to-air heat exchanger (FHX). An Annular Linear Induction Pump (ALIP) can be also considered for the ADHRS, but DC conduction pump has been chosen. Selection basis of DHRS EMP is addressed and EMP design for single ADHRS loop with 1MWt heat removal capacity is introduced.

  12. Insulin pump therapy in youth with type 1 diabetes: toward closed-loop systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauschmann, Martin; Hovorka, Roman

    2014-06-01

    Insulin pump technology has advanced considerably over the past three decades, leading to more favorable metabolic control and less hypoglycemic events when compared with multiple daily injection therapy. The use of insulin pumps is increasing, particularly in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. This review outlines recent developments in insulin pump therapy from a pediatric perspective. 'Smart' pumps, sensor-augmented pump therapy and threshold-suspend feature of insulin pumps are reviewed in terms of efficacy, safety and psychosocial impact. The current status of closed-loop systems focusing on clinical outcomes is highlighted. Closed-loop insulin delivery is gradually progressing from bench to the clinical practice. Longer and larger studies in home settings are needed to expand on short- to medium-term outpatient evaluations. Predictive low glucose management and overnight closed-loop delivery may be the next applications to be implemented in daily routine. Further challenges include improvements of control algorithms, sensor accuracy, duration of insulin action, integration and size of devices and connectivity and usability. Gradual improvements and increasing sophistication of closed-loop components lie on the path toward unsupervised hands-off fully closed-loop system.

  13. Development of laser diode-pumped high average power solid-state laser for the pumping of Ti:sapphire CPA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Yoichiro; Tei, Kazuyoku; Kato, Masaaki; Niwa, Yoshito; Harayama, Sayaka; Oba, Masaki; Matoba, Tohru; Arisawa, Takashi; Takuma, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Laser diode pumped all solid state, high repetition frequency (PRF) and high energy Nd:YAG laser using zigzag slab crystals has been developed for the pumping source of Ti:sapphire CPA system. The pumping laser installs two main amplifiers which compose ring type amplifier configuration. The maximum amplification gain of the amplifier system is 140 and the condition of saturated amplification is achieved with this high gain. The average power of fundamental laser radiation is 250 W at the PRF of 200 Hz and the pulse duration is around 20 ns. The average power of second harmonic is 105 W at the PRF of 170 Hz and the pulse duration is about 16 ns. The beam profile of the second harmonic is near top hat and will be suitable for the pumping of Ti:sapphire laser crystal. The wall plug efficiency of the laser is 2.0 %. (author)

  14. Residential CO{sub 2} heat pump system for combined space heating and hot water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stene, Joern

    2004-02-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}, R-744) has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional working fluids in a number of applications due to its favourable environmental and thermophysical properties. Previous work on residential CO{sub 2} heat pumps has been dealing with systems for either space heating or hot water heating, and it was therefore considered interesting to carry out a theoretical and experimental study of residential CO{sub 2} heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water heating - o-called integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump systems. The scope of this thesis is limited to brine-to-water and water-to-water heat pumps connected to low-temperature hydronic space heating systems. The main conclusions are: (1) Under certain conditions residential CO{sub 2} heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water heating may achieve the same or higher seasonal performance factor (SPF) than the most energy efficient state-of-the-art brine-to-water heat pumps. (2) In contrary to conventional heat pump systems for combined space heating and DHW heating, the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system achieves the highest COP in the combined heating mode and the DHW heating mode, and the lowest COP in the space heating mode. Hence, the larger the annual DHW heating demand, the higher the SPF of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system. (3) The lower the return temperature in the space heating system and the lower the DHW storage temperature, the higher the COP of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump. A low return temperature in the space heating system also results in a moderate DHW heating capacity ratio, which means that a relatively large part of the annual space heating demand can be covered by operation in the combined heating mode, where the COP is considerably higher than in the space heating mode. (4) During operation in the combined heating mode and the DHW heating mode, the COP of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump is heavily influenced by

  15. Stand-Alone Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Water Pumping System and Its Economic Viability in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Baral

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents the concept of a stand-alone solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC water pumping system for rural Nepalese areas. Experimental results for this technology are presented based on a prototype. The economic viability of the system was assessed based on solar radiation data of different Nepalese geographic locations. The mechanical power produced by the solar ORC is coupled with a water pumping system for various applications, such as drinking and irrigation. The thermal efficiency of the system was found to be 8% with an operating temperature of 120 °C. The hot water produced by the unit has a temperature of 40 °C. Economic assessment was done for 1-kW and 5-kW solar ORC water pumping systems. These systems use different types of solar collectors: a parabolic trough collector (PTC and an evacuated tube collector (ETC. The economic analysis showed that the costs of water are $2.47/m3 (highest and $1.86/m3 (lowest for the 1-kW system and a 150-m pumping head. In addition, the cost of water is reduced when the size of the system is increased and the pumping head is reduced. The minimum volumes of water pumped are 2190 m3 and 11,100 m3 yearly for 1 kW and 5 kW, respectively. The payback period is eight years with a profitability index of 1.6. The system is highly feasible and promising in the context of Nepal.

  16. Graphical pump system optimisation method; Grafisk metod foer effektivisering av pumpsystem eller andra system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choy-Hsien Lin; Aelmqvist, Arnold (Stora Enso AB (Sweden))

    2008-08-15

    The matter of energy has recently gained importance for companies in general and the forest industry in particular. Efforts to improve energy efficiency are ongoing with all companies within the industry, in order to reduce the significant energy costs. One area that makes up a substantial portion of the energy consumption is the process flows that are used to transport paper pulp. A pump system consists of numerous valves, splits and other sources of pressure loss, which makes it difficult to gain an understanding of the pressure levels at various locations, which in turn makes it difficult to identify opportunities for improvements. This project has developed software to create pressure diagrams which visualizes pumping work clearly and simplifies efforts to understand pump systems. Because the diagrams are generated automatically, the effort to study different possible solutions is reduced, thus encouraging experimentation and new, innovative solutions. The goal of the project was to develop a user friendly tool the aids analysis and design of pulp and paper plants. An analysis of the screen room at Stora Enso Hylte's TMP plant was carried out using the tool as a pilot, in order to test it in a real setting. Throughout the system, the project identified possibilities to reduce the pressure head by at least 25 per cent, which translates to 50 per cent and more in power. These savings have been achieved in the cases where the changes have been implemented. The pilot project clearly shows that pump systems should be analyzed as a whole, in order to reap the most of the benefits. Given that the tools are available, savings beyond those of making isolated improvements can be achieved, with a smaller investment. The tool designed in the project enables a fast feedback on ideas through an intuitive visual mean, which simplifies calculations and analysis of systems. It should be noted that it is only a tool, and engineering still has to be done e.g. judging the

  17. EXERGY-BASED ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF GENERALIZED IRREVERSIBLE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOVIND MAHESHWARI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A reverse Carnot cycle forms the basis of all heat-pump cycles in providing heating and cooling loads. The optimal exergy-based Ecological analysis of an irreversible Heat-pump system with the losses of heat resistance, heat leak and internal irreversibility has been carried out by taking into account Exergy based ecological function (E as an objective in the viewpoint of Finite-Time-Thermodynamics (FTT or Entropy Generation Minimization (EGM. Exergy is defined here as the power required minus the lost power. The effects of irreversibilities along with internal heat leakage on coefficient on the performance of the system are investigated. The exergy based Ecological function decreases steadily with irreversibilites and heat leakages in the system. COP in such a system increases with the cycle temperature ratio. If a heat pump cycle is optimized with above mentioned criterion, there is a trade-off between its coefficient of Performance and the heating load it provides.

  18. A simplified but accurate prevision method for along the sun PV pumping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martire, Thierry [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique de Montpellier (LEM), Universite de Montpellier II, CC079, Place Eugene Bataillon, F 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Apex BP-SOLAR - 1, Rue du Grand Chene, F 34270 Saint Mathieu de Treviers (France); Glaize, Christian; Joubert, Charles [Laboratoire d' Electrotechnique de Montpellier (LEM), Universite de Montpellier II, CC079, Place Eugene Bataillon, F 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Rouviere, Benoit [Apex BP-SOLAR - 1, Rue du Grand Chene, F 34270 Saint Mathieu de Treviers (France)

    2008-11-15

    Supplying water in desert areas or isolated sites is the perfect job for along sun pumping systems. However, due to their relatively high cost, the sizing of these systems implies the use of an accurate tool. This paper presents a method that could be used for the sizing of an along the sun pumping system based on energetic considerations, simple modeling and fitting methods. The model described allows to predict the flow rate hour per hour for a given daily solar irradiance profile. It uses a three-phase induction machine, a voltage inverter and a centrifugal pump. Some experimental results are also confronted with the calculated ones in order to show the accuracy of the model. The accuracy of the model is shown to be good and essentially depends on the precision used to model each element in the overall system. (author)

  19. Controlling Price-Responsive Heat Pumps for Overload Elimination in Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csetvei, Zsuzsa; Østergaard, Jacob; Nyeng, Preben

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of applying electric heat pumps with the control-by-price-concept in order to avoid overload in a local distribution system. The proposed control algorithm is based upon a centrally dispatched real-time market price, reflecting the state of a larger power...... system, and is extended with a local price control for overload elimination on the corresponding feeder. The paper presents the mathematical models of a two-node system with price-responsive heat pumps, the chosen methodology of the central price calculation, and the proposed local feedback control...

  20. Theoretical energy and exergy analyses of solar assisted heat pump space heating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atmaca Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to use of alternative energy sources and energy efficient operation, heat pumps come into prominence in recent years. Especially in solar-assisted heat pumps, sizing the required system is difficult and arduous task in order to provide optimum working conditions. Therefore, in this study solar assisted indirect expanded heat pump space heating system is simulated and the results of the simulation are compared with available experimental data in the literature in order to present reliability of the model. Solar radiation values in the selected region are estimated with the simulation. The case study is applied and simulation results are given for Antalya, Turkey. Collector type and storage tank capacity effects on the consumed power of the compressor, COP of the heat pump and the overall system are estimated with the simulation, depending on the radiation data, collector surface area and the heating capacity of the space. Exergy analysis is also performed with the simulation and irreversibility, improvement potentials and exergy efficiencies of the heat pump and system components are estimated.

  1. PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPMENT MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR RESEARCHING OF NONPULSATILE FLOW PUMP AND CARDIAC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Bykov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The presented research uncovers the using of mathematical modeling methods for cardio-vascular system and axial blood pump interaction analysis under heart failure with combined valve pathology. The research will pro- vide data for automated pump control algorithm synthesis. Materials and methods. Mathematical model is build up by using experiments results from mock cardio-vascular circulation loop and mathematical representation of Newtonian fluid dynamics in pulsing circulation loop. The model implemented in modeling environment Simulink (Matlab. Results. Authors implemented mathematical model which describe cardio-vascular system and left-ven- tricular assistive device interaction for intact conditions. Values of parameters for intact conditions were acquired in the experiments on animals with implanted axial pump, experiments were conducted in FRCTAO. The model was verified by comparison of instantaneous blood flowrate values in experiments and in model. Conclusion. The paper present implemented mathematical model of cardio-vascular system and axial pump interaction for intact conditions, where the pump connected between left ventricle and aorta. In the next part of research authors will use the presented model to evaluate using the biotechnical system in conditions of heart failure and valve pathology. 

  2. Bond Graph Modeling and Validation of an Energy Regenerative System for Emulsion Pump Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The test system for emulsion pump is facing serious challenges due to its huge energy consumption and waste nowadays. To settle this energy issue, a novel energy regenerative system (ERS for emulsion pump tests is briefly introduced at first. Modeling such an ERS of multienergy domains needs a unified and systematic approach. Bond graph modeling is well suited for this task. The bond graph model of this ERS is developed by first considering the separate components before assembling them together and so is the state-space equation. Both numerical simulation and experiments are carried out to validate the bond graph model of this ERS. Moreover the simulation and experiments results show that this ERS not only satisfies the test requirements, but also could save at least 25% of energy consumption as compared to the original test system, demonstrating that it is a promising method of energy regeneration for emulsion pump tests.

  3. Pump as Turbine (PAT Design in Water Distribution Network by System Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreste Fecarotta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Water distribution networks face several problems related to leakages, where the pressure control strategy is a common practice for water loss management. Small-scale hydropower schemes, where pumps as turbines replace pressure reducing valves, can be considered an interesting technical solution, which ensures both economic convenience and system flexibility. Due to the water networks’ variable operating conditions, a new methodology to model the effectiveness of pumps as turbines was developed based on the efficiency and the mechanical reliability of the hydropower device and the flexibility of the plant. System effectiveness is proposed as the objective function in the optimization procedure and applied to a real system, enabling one to emphasize that the hydraulic regulation mode of the plant is better than the electric regulation mode for American Petroleum Industry (API manufacturing standards of pumps.

  4. Nano-porous-water Absorbents for Solid-absorbebt Heat Pump System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizota, Tadato; Nakayama, Noriaki

    Zeolite-water heat-pump system has been developed in these 25 years. Recently, an instant beer-cooling system has appeared by using the zeolite heat pump system as a commercial product. It takes so long time for the development since the first proposal. The most serious problem through the development has been of the ability of absorbents. Themaximum heat exchange capacity to date exceeds 1MJ•kg-1 for Mg89-A, which is comparable to the energy storage capacity of modern alkaline-ion batteries in weight-bases. But it needs high temperature heat sources more than 200°C for the activation. Absorbents useful at lower temperatures are thus desirable for effective use of various kinds of lower temperature heat sources Various nano-porous materials as well as zeolites now under investigation as candidates of heat-pump absorbents, such as silica-gels, allophane, imogolite, hydrotalcite, etc.

  5. Study Of Solar PV Sizing Of Water Pumping System For Irrigation Of Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mya Su Kyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this system come from the countries where economy is depended on agriculture and the climatic conditions lead to lack of rains. The farmers working in the farm lands are dependent on the rains and bore wells. Even if the farm land has a water-pump manual involvement by farmers is required to turn the pump onoff when on earth needed. This paper presents design and calculation analysis of efficient Solar PV water pumping system for irrigation of Asparagus. The study area falls 21-58-30 N Latitude and 96-5-0 E Longitude of Mandalay. The PV system sizing was made in such a way that it was capable of irrigation one acre of Asparagus plot with a daily water requirement of 25mday.

  6. Experimental performance evaluation of heat pump-based steam supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, T.; Sakuraba, I.; Hashimoto, K.; Hasegawa, H.

    2015-08-01

    Heat pumps have become increasingly important as a technology to reduce primary energy consumption and greenhouse effect gas emission. They are presently used mainly on residential air-conditioning and domestic hot water and are expected to spread to industrial heating processes. In 2011, Kobe Steel, Ltd. developed and commercialized two heat pump- based steam supply systems; the high efficiency steam supply system with a steam temperature of 120°C (SGH120) and the system which enables a steam temperature of 165°C (sGh165). For promoting the spread of these industrial heat pumps and enhancing the reliability of them, we investigate experimentally steam generation rate, energy efficiency and controlled performance of the SGH165 under various operating conditions on the assumption of actual different industrial processes, and evaluate technical possibilities for better performance.

  7. Analysis of off-grid hybrid wind turbine/solar PV water pumping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    While many remote water pumping systems exist (e.g. mechanical windmills, solar photovoltaic , wind-electric, diesel powered), very few combine both the wind and solar energy resources to possibly improve the reliability and the performance of the system. In this paper, off-grid wind turbine (WT) a...

  8. Energy dashboard for real-time evaluation of a heat pump assisted solar thermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, David Allen

    The emergence of net-zero energy buildings, buildings that generate at least as much energy as they consume, has lead to greater use of renewable energy sources such as solar thermal energy. One example is a heat pump assisted solar thermal system, which uses solar thermal collectors with an electrical heat pump backup to supply space heating and domestic hot water. The complexity of such a system can be somewhat problematic for monitoring and maintaining a high level of performance. Therefore, an energy dashboard was developed to provide comprehensive and user friendly performance metrics for a solar heat pump system. Once developed, the energy dashboard was tested over a two-week period in order to determine the functionality of the dashboard program as well as the performance of the heating system itself. The results showed the importance of a user friendly display and how each metric could be used to better maintain and evaluate an energy system. In particular, Energy Factor (EF), which is the ratio of output energy (collected energy) to input energy (consumed energy), was a key metric for summarizing the performance of the heating system. Furthermore, the average EF of the solar heat pump system was 2.29, indicating an efficiency significantly higher than traditional electrical heating systems.

  9. Millwater Pumping System Optimization Improves Efficiency and Saves Energy at an Automotive Glass Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-03-01

    In 2001, the Visteon automotive glass plant in Nashville, Tennessee renovated its millwater pumping system. This improvement saved the plant $280,000 annually in energy and operating costs, reduced annual energy consumption by 3.2 million kilowatt-hours, reduced water consumption, improved system performance, and reduced use of water treatment chemicals.

  10. Adapting CHP Software to suit the modelling of heat pump and refrigeration systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, M.J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The role of heat pumps and refrigeration machines as integrated parts of energy supply systems is increasing as a result of the search for systems which supply the desired amounts and types of energy in an energy-efficient manner. Tools to support engineers in designing, analysing and optimising suc

  11. DYNAMIC MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND APPLICATION FOR PUMPING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE INTEGRATED EVALUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hongxun; Wang Jian; Wu Yuejun

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model is set to evaluate the overall centrifugal pumping system using asynchronous motor as power. This method can be used to affirm system performance according the transform and the aberrance of interior parameters and exterior performance curves so as to give a reference to the equipment amelioration. The analysis of emulation experiment data suggests the model is effectively used.

  12. Adapting CHP Software to suit the modelling of heat pump and refrigeration systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, M.J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The role of heat pumps and refrigeration machines as integrated parts of energy supply systems is increasing as a result of the search for systems which supply the desired amounts and types of energy in an energy-efficient manner. Tools to support engineers in designing, analysing and optimising

  13. Auto-control of pumping operations in sewerage systems by rule-based fuzzy neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-M. Chiang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pumping stations play an important role in flood mitigation in metropolitan areas. The existing sewerage systems, however, are facing a great challenge of fast rising peak flow resulting from urbanization and climate change. It is imperative to construct an efficient and accurate operating prediction model for pumping stations to simulate the drainage mechanism for discharging the rainwater in advance. In this study, we propose two rule-based fuzzy neural networks, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS and counterpropagatiom fuzzy neural network (CFNN for on-line predicting of the number of open and closed pumps of a pivotal pumping station in Taipei city up to a lead time of 20 min. The performance of ANFIS outperforms that of CFNN in terms of model efficiency, accuracy, and correctness. Furthermore, the results not only show the predictive water levels do contribute to the successfully operating pumping stations but also demonstrate the applicability and reliability of ANFIS in automatically controlling the urban sewerage systems.

  14. Counter-rotating type axial flow pump unit in turbine mode for micro grid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, R.; Takano, G.; Murakami, T.; Kanemoto, T.; Komaki, K.

    2012-11-01

    Traditional type pumped storage system contributes to adjust the electric power unbalance between day and night, in general. This serial research proposes the hybrid power system combined the wind power unit with the pump-turbine unit, to provide the constant output for the grid system, even at the suddenly fluctuating/turbulent wind. In the pumping mode, the pump should operate unsteadily at not only the normal but also the partial discharge. The operation may be unstable in the rising portion of the head characteristics at the lower discharge, and/or bring the cavitation at the low suction head. To simultaneously overcome both weak points, the authors have proposed a superior pump unit that is composed of counter-rotating type impellers and a peculiar motor with double rotational armatures. This paper discusses the operation at the turbine mode of the above unit. It is concluded with the numerical simulations that this type unit can be also operated acceptably at the turbine mode, because the unit works so as to coincide the angular momentum change through the front runners/impellers with that thorough the rear runners/impellers, namely to take the axial flow at not only the inlet but also the outlet without the guide vanes.

  15. Vapor Compression and Thermoelectric Heat Pump Heat Exchangers for a Condensate Distillation System: Design and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lisa R.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing the reuse of wastewater while minimizing the use of consumables is critical in long duration space exploration. One of the more promising methods of reclaiming urine is the distillation/condensation process used in the cascade distillation system (CDS). This system accepts a mixture of urine and toxic stabilizing agents, heats it to vaporize the water and condenses and cools the resulting water vapor. The CDS wastewater flow requires heating and its condensate flow requires cooling. Performing the heating and cooling processes separately requires two separate units, each of which would require large amounts of electrical power. By heating the wastewater and cooling the condensate in a single heat pump unit, mass, volume, and power efficiencies can be obtained. The present work describes and compares two competing heat pump methodologies that meet the needs of the CDS: 1) a series of mini compressor vapor compression cycles and 2) a thermoelectric heat exchanger. In the paper, the system level requirements are outlined, the designs of the two heat pumps are described in detail, and the results of heat pump performance tests are provided. A summary is provided of the heat pump mass, volume and power trades and a selection recommendation is made.

  16. Auto-control of pumping operations in sewerage systems by rule-based fuzzy neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-M. Chiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pumping stations play an important role in flood mitigation in metropolitan areas. The existing sewerage systems, however, are facing a great challenge of fast rising peak flow resulting from urbanization and climate change. It is imperative to construct an efficient and accurate operating prediction model for pumping stations to simulate the drainage mechanism for discharging the rainwater in advance. In this study, we propose two rule-based fuzzy neural networks, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS and counterpropagation fuzzy neural network for on-line predicting of the number of open and closed pumps of a pivotal pumping station in Taipei city up to a lead time of 20 min. The performance of ANFIS outperforms that of CFNN in terms of model efficiency, accuracy, and correctness. Furthermore, the results not only show the predictive water levels do contribute to the successfully operating pumping stations but also demonstrate the applicability and reliability of ANFIS in automatically controlling the urban sewerage systems.

  17. Refrigerant Control Strategies for Residential Air-Conditioning and Heat-Pump System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shun-yu; ZHANG Chun-zhi; CHEN Jian

    2009-01-01

    This paper simulated the optimal refrigerant charge inventory of a refrigeration system in air-con-ditioning operation and heat-pump operation respectively,and studied the refrigerant control strategies in this system.The void fraction in two-phase fluid region was calculated by Harms model.And based on distributed parameter model and Harms model,the refrigerant charge inventory in condenser and evaporator were calculated and analyzed in air-conditioning conditions and heat-pump conditions,respectively.The calculating results of dif-ferent refrigerant mass between refrigeration and heating conditions indicate that the optimal refrigerant charge inventory in heat-pump conditions is lower than that in air-eonditioning conditions.To avoid the decrease of COP due to the surplus refrigerant in heating conditions,we introduced the liquid reservoir control method and associate capillary control method.Both of them could increase the heating capacity of the air-source heat pump-The difference of optimal refrigerant charge inventory in air-conditioning and heat-pump system can be controlled by the liquid reservoir or the associate capillary.

  18. Electric power conservation while using pumping systems; Conservacion de Energia Electrica en Sistemas de Bombeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nambiar, P

    2007-01-15

    The pumping systems provide about 20 to 25 percent of energy which is necessary worldwide: it is fruitful to understand how to use electric power efficiently, to achieve the reduction regarding expenses a pumping system implies.It is essential to possess a better knowledge about the pumping system and its applications, in order to be able to use energy responsibly. If people do not how to operate this kind of systems properly, they will use inadequate equipment that will cause an energy waste. In addition it is important to know: alternative methods to meet variable demands, an adapted system to pump water requirements in order to ensure the pump work in its pumping point, and the life cycle system cost for the energy saving in the long term. [Spanish] En promedio del 20 al 25% de la energia necesaria en el mundo proviene de los sistemas de bombeo, por tal razon es importante saber como utilizar la energia electrica con eficiencia para asi lograr reducir los gastos que este tipo de sistemas implican. Para poder hacer un buen uso de la energia, es necesario que se tenga un conocimiento mayor del sistema de bombeo y aplicacion, ya que la ignorancia sobre esto exige el uso de aparatos que contribuyen al desperdicio de la energia; por otro lado tambien es esencial conocer metodos alternos para demandas variables, tener un sistema que se adapte a las necesidades de bombeo del agua para asegurarse de que cada bomba trabaje cerca de su punto de bombeo y finalmente conocer el costo del ciclo de vida del sistema para el ahorro de energia a largo plazo.

  19. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE PRESSURE AND VACUUM CONTINUOUS CONTROL SYSTEM BASED ON HYBRID PUMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel pressure and vacuum continuous control system, which adopts a hybrid pump as pressure and vacuum source, is presented. The mathematical model of the system is developed. The theoretical simulation and analysis on the system are implemented in order to study the relationships among the characteristics, parameters and working points of the system. The experimental investigations on the system characteristics are presented with the adoption of a fuzzy-PID controller. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the pressure and vacuum continuous control system based on hybrid pump has good dynamic and static performance, strong robustness and satisfactory adaptability to various system parameters. According to the results, system can successfully gain high accuracy and fast response signal. Also, the mathematical model of system is also testified by the experimental results.

  20. System of Thermal Balance Maintenance in Modern Test Benches for Centrifugal Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Petrov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article “Systems of the heat balance maintenance in modern test benches for centrifugal pumps” makes the case to include cooling systems of a working fluid (heat setting in test bench for impeller pumps. It briefly summarizes an experience of bench building to test centrifugal pumps, developed at the BMSTU Department E-10 over the last 10 years. The article gives the formulas and the algorithm to calculate the heat capacity of different types of impeller pumps when tested at the bench as ell as to determine the heating time of the liquid in the bench without external cooling. Based on analysis of the power balance of a centrifugal pump, it is shown that about 90% of the pump unit-consumed electric power in terminals is used for heating up the working fluid in the loop of the test bench. The article gives examples of elementary heat calculation of the pump operation within the test bench. It presents the main types of systems to maintain thermal balance, their advantages, disadvantages and possible applications. The cooling system schemes for open and closed version of the benches both with built-in and with an independent cooling circuit are analysed. The paper separately considers options of such systems for large benches using the cooling tower as a cooling device in the loop, and to test the pumps using the hydraulic fluids other than water, including those at high temperatures of working fluids; in the latter case a diagram of dual-circuit cooling system "liquid-liquid-air" is shown. The paper depicts a necessity to use ethylene glycol coolant in the two-loop cooling bench. It provides an example of combining the functions of cooling and filtration in a single cooling circuit. Criteria for effectiveness of these systems are stated. Possible ways for developing systems to maintain a thermal balance, modern methods of regulation and control are described. In particular, the paper shows the efficiency of frequency control of the

  1. Optimization analysis of high temperature heat pump coupling to desiccant wheel air conditioning system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheng, Ying; Zhang, Yufeng; Fang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The high temperature heat pump and desiccant wheel (HTHP&DW) system can make full use of heat released from the condenser of heat pump for DW regeneration without additional heat. In this study, DW operation in the HTHP&DW system was investigated experimentally, and the optimization analysis....... Compared to the isosteric heat, heat accumulation in the desiccant and matrix material and heat leakage from regeneration side to process side have greater influence on the adiabatic effectiveness. Higher regeneration temperature leads to lower adiabatic effectiveness that increases more cooling load...

  2. Evaluation of the performance in the solar assisted heat pump system; Taiyonetsu riyo heat pump system no seino hyoka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y. [Osaka Institute of Technology, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Performance of a solar heating system with a hydrothermal source heat pump was evaluated and compared with that of a direct solar heating system. The sun-dependency rates ({Sigma}D and {Sigma}H)of the direct system and heat pump (HP)-provided system were expressed as a function of the rate ({alpha}) of the auxiliary heat against the collected heat and as a function of the performance coefficient and {alpha}, respectively. When the sun-dependency rates are compared, it is found that the HP-provided system is the more advantageous when {Sigma}H/{Sigma}D>1. The relationship between the {alpha}`s of the two systems was clarified and computation was performed to compare the sun-dependency rates on condition that the two are equal in the heat collecting area. Although the sun-dependence rate cannot be elevated to 100% in the HP-provided system, it achieves a sun-dependency rate higher than that of the direct system even when the heat collecting area is small. In cases where the building is economically limited, for instance, with respect to the area for solar collector installation, it is advantageous to employ the HP-provided system. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Commercial Refrigeration: Heat Transfer Optimization and Energy Reduction, Measurement and Verification of a Liquid Refrigerant Pump System Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaul, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheppy, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-22

    This study describes the test results of a Refrigerant Pump System integrated into a commercial supermarket direct expansion (DX) vapor compression refrigeration system. The Liquid Refrigerant Pump System retrofit (patent-pending; application number 13/964,198) was introduced to NREL in August 2014 by CTA Architects Engineers.

  4. Systems study of drilling for installation of geothermal heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Sullivan, W.N.; Jacobson, R.D.; Pierce, K.G.

    1997-09-01

    Geothermal, or ground-source, heat pumps (GHP) are much more efficient than air-source units such as conventional air conditioners. A major obstacle to their use is the relatively high initial cost of installing the heat-exchange loops into the ground. In an effort to identify drivers which influence installation cost, a number of site visits were made during 1996 to assess the state-of-the-art in drilling for GHP loop installation. As an aid to quantifying the effect of various drilling-process improvements, we constructed a spread-sheet based on estimated time and material costs for all the activities required in a typical loop-field installation. By substituting different (improved) values into specific activity costs, the effect on total project costs can be easily seen. This report contains brief descriptions of the site visits, key points learned during the visits, copies of the spread-sheet, recommendations for further work, and sample results from sensitivity analysis using the spread-sheet.

  5. Experimental analysis on performance of high temperature heat pump and desiccant wheel system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheng, Ying; Zhang, Yufeng; Deng, Na

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of high energy consumption for regeneration of desiccant wheel in the rotary desiccant system, high temperature heat pump and desiccant wheel (HTHP&DW) system and corresponding air conditioning unit is built and tested in the extensive thermal hygrometric environment....... When the mixture refrigerant BY-3 is involved in the air source heat pump, the supply air temperatures are in the range as expected except that when in the extreme hot environment (above 36°C), dehumidification capability are satisfied and the regeneration temperatures can satisfy the regeneration...... requirement of desiccant without additional heat. It is also found that outdoor air temperature, humidity ratio and regeneration air flow rate have great impact on the performance of heat pump based on the coefficient of performance (COP) evaluated. COP is not quite high, as the maximum value is 2.26 for heat...

  6. Hydride heat pump. Volume I. Users manual for HYCSOS system design program. [HYCSOS code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorman, R.; Moritz, P.

    1978-05-01

    A method for the design and costing of a metal hydride heat pump for residential use and a computer program, HYCSOS, which automates that method are described. The system analyzed is one in which a metal hydride heat pump can provide space heating and space cooling powered by energy from solar collectors and electric power generated from solar energy. The principles and basic design of the system are presented, and the computer program is described giving detailed design and performance equations used in the program. The operation of the program is explained, and a sample run is presented. This computer program is part of an effort to design, cost, and evaluate a hydride heat pump for residential use. The computer program is written in standard Fortran IV and was run on a CDC Cyber 74 and Cyber 174 computer. A listing of the program is included as an appendix. This report is Volume 1 of a two-volume document.

  7. Antibiotic resistance, efflux pump genes and virulence determinants in Enterococcus spp. from surface water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molale, L G; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to report on antibiotic susceptibility patterns as well as highlight the presence of efflux pump genes and virulence genetic determinants in Enterococcus spp. isolated from South African surface water systems. One hundred and twenty-four Enterococcus isolates consisting of seven species were identified. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed a high percentage of isolates was resistant to β-lactams and vancomycin. Many were also resistant to other antibiotic groups. These isolates were screened by PCR, for the presence of four efflux pump genes (mefA, tetK, tetL and msrC). Efflux genes mefA and tetK were not detected in any of the Enterococcus spp. However, tetL and msrC were detected in 17 % of the Enterococcus spp. The presence of virulence factors in the Enterococcus spp. harbouring efflux pump genes was determined. Virulence determinants were detected in 86 % of the Enterococcus spp. harbouring efflux pump genes. Four (asa1, cylA, gel and hyl) of the five virulence factors were detected. The findings of this study have demonstrated that Enterococcus from South African surface water systems are resistant to multiple antibiotics, some of which are frequently used for therapy. Furthermore, these isolates harbour efflux pump genes coding for resistance to antibiotics and virulence factors which enhance their pathogenic potential.

  8. Theoretical study of heat pump system using CO2/dimethylether as refrigerant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiao-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, HCFC22 is widely used in heat pump systems in China, which should be phased out in the future. Thus, eco-friendly mixture CO2/dimethylether is proposed to replace HCFC22. Compared with pure CO2 and pure dimethylether, the mixture can reduce the heat rejection pressure, and suppress the flammability and explosivity of pure dimethylether. According to the Chinese National Standards on heat pump water heater and space heating system, performances of the subcritical heat pump system are discussed and compared with those of the HCFC22 system. It can be concluded that CO2 /dimethylether mixture works efficiently as a refrigerant for heat pumps with a large heat-sink temperature rise. When mass fraction of dimethylether is increased, the heat rejection pressure is reduced. Under the nominal working condition, there is an optimal mixture mass fraction of 28/72 of CO2/dimethylether for water heater application under conventional condensation pressure, 3/97 for space heating application. For water heater application, both the heating coefficient of performance and volumetric heating capacity increase by 17.90% and 2.74%, respectively, compared with those of HCFC22 systems. For space heating application, the heating coefficient of performance increases by 8.44% while volumetric heating capacity decreases by 34.76%, compared with those of HCFC22 systems. As the superheat degree increases, both the heating coefficient of performance and volumetric heating capacity tend to decrease.

  9. Analysis and field evaluation of an advanced ground-coupled heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, V.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Catan, M.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Hughes, H.M. (Climate Master, Inc. (USA)); Hughes, P.J. (Fleming (W.S.) and Associates, Inc., Syracuse, NY (USA)); O' Neil, R.A. (Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Syracuse, NY (USA))

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses the performance of a ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system with a water-source heat pump (WSHP) package designed expressly for such systems for a northern climate. The research objective was to minimize the life-cycle cost (LCC) of a GCHP system by optimizing the design of both the heat pump package and the ground heat exchanger in concert. The LCC of a GCHP system with a horizontal ground heat exchanger was minimized over a seven-year economic life for an 1800 ft{sup 2} (167 m{sup 2}) house in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Simple payback for the optimized system, relative to conventional air-source heat pumps (ASHPs), was less than three years. The resulting WSHP design is calculated to cost approximately 20% more than its conventional counterpart, but offers a 20% higher heating coefficient of performance (COP) and a 23% higher cooling COP. The major conclusion of this study is that by improving the WSHP package efficiency, the ground heat exchanger size can be reduced by at least 30% without sacrificing performance; this can yield significant improvement in the cost competitiveness of GCHP systems. 10 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Development of Discrete Power Supply with Charge Pump Method for High Powered Sonar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Ismail

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Power supply is one of the electronic devices that can provide electric energy for electronic systems or other systems. There are several types of power supplies that can be applied depend on the requirement and functions. One example is the use of power supply for sonar systems. Sonar system is a device which can be used to detect a target under water. The sonar system is an electronic circuit that requires a power supply with specific characteristics when the sonar functions as a transmitter and a receiver in the specific span time (when on and the specific lag time (when off. This paper discusses the design of power supply for high-powered sonar systems with discrete methods in which high power supply is only applied when the acoustic waves radiated under water. Charge pump was used to get the appropriate output voltage from lower input voltage. Charge pump utilized a combination of series and parallel connections of capacitors. The working mode of this power supply used the lag time as the calculation of time to charge charge pump capacitors in parallel while the span time was used for the calculation of discharging the charge pump capacitors in series.

  11. Heat pump technology

    CERN Document Server

    Von Cube, Hans Ludwig; Goodall, E G A

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pump Technology discusses the history, underlying concepts, usage, and advancements in the use of heat pumps. The book covers topics such as the applications and types of heat pumps; thermodynamic principles involved in heat pumps such as internal energy, enthalpy, and exergy; and natural heat sources and energy storage. Also discussed are topics such as the importance of the heat pump in the energy industry; heat pump designs and systems; the development of heat pumps over time; and examples of practical everyday uses of heat pumps. The text is recommended for those who would like to kno

  12. A discussion of system reliability and the relative importance of pumps and valves to overall system availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, A.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-12-01

    An analysis was undertaken to establish preliminary trends for how component aging can effect failure rates for swing check valves, centrifugal pumps and motor operated valves. These failure rate trends were evaluated over time and linear aging rate models established. The failure rate models were then used with classic reliability theories to estimate reliability as a function of operating time. Reliability theory was also used to establish a simple system reliability model. Using the system model, the relative importance of pumps and valves to the overall system reliability were studied. Conclusions were established relative to overall system availability over time and the relative unavailabilities of the various components studied.

  13. Design and Implementation of Microcontroller Based SelfSwitching Control and Protection System for Twin Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrudaynath Yelgudkar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper apprises reader with a unique, modular and comprehensive control system designed using embedded systems approach (microcontroller based, primarily for efficient use of twin (two or couple of pumps working simultaneously in a given environment while constantly monitoring critical parameters such as current, voltage, temperature, water level in reservoir etc. for protection purposes. Though this control system is developed for pumps, it can be seamlessly adapted for controlling similar loads. We have developed the system using ATMmega-32 microcontroller of AVR family. The critical parameters were monitored using ADC port (analogto-digital-converter port of the microcontroller. Motivation behind developing this system was to replace classical „dedicated integrated circuit‟ based control system with more intelligent, compact, programmable and upgradable system besides lowering its cost aspects, using „embedded systems‟.

  14. Simulation of embedded heat exchangers of solar aided ground source heat pump system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 郑茂余; 邵俊鹏; 李忠建

    2008-01-01

    Aimed at unbalance of soil temperature field of ground source heat pump system, solar aided energy storage system was established. In solar assisted ground-source heat pump (SAGSHP) system with soil storage, solar energy collected in three seasons was stored in the soil by vertical U type soil exchangers. The heat abstracted by the ground-source heat pump and collected by the solar collector was employed to heating. Some of the soil heat exchangers were used to store solar energy in the soil so as to be used in next winter after this heating period; and the others were used to extract cooling energy directly in the soil by circulation pump for air conditioning in summer. After that solar energy began to be stored in the soil and ended before heating period. Three dimensional dynamic numerical simulations were built for soil and soil heat exchanger through finite element method. Simulation was done in different strata month by month. Variation and restoration of soil temperature were studied. Economy and reliability of long term SAGSHP system were revealed. It can be seen that soil temperature is about 3 ℃ higher than the original one after one year’s running. It is beneficial for the system to operate for long period.

  15. Electronic Submersible Pump (ESP) Technology and Limitations with Respect to Geothermal Systems (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    The current state of geothermal technology has limitations that hinder the expansion of utility scale power. One limitation that has been discussed by the current industry is the limitation of Electric Submersible Pump (ESP) technology. With the exception of a few geothermal fields artificial lift technology is dominated by line shaft pump (LSP) technology. LSP's utilize a pump near or below reservoir depth, which is attached to a power shaft that is attached to a motor above ground. The primary difference between an LSP and an ESP is that an ESP motor is attached directly to the pump which eliminates the power shaft. This configuration requires that the motor is submersed in the geothermal resource. ESP technology is widely used in oil production. However, the operating conditions in an oil field vary significantly from a geothermal system. One of the most notable differences when discussing artificial lift is that geothermal systems operate at significantly higher flow rates and with the potential addition of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) even greater depths. The depths and flow rates associated with geothermal systems require extreme horsepower ratings. Geothermal systems also operate in a variety of conditions including but not limited to; high temperature, high salinity, high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS), and non-condensable gases.

  16. Geothermal source heat pump performance for a greenhouse heating system: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Sotirios Anifantis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouses play a significant function in the modern agriculture economy even if require great amount of energy for heating systems. An interesting solution to alleviate the energy costs and environmental problems may be represented by the use of geothermal energy. The aim of this paper, based on measured experimental data, such as the inside greenhouse temperature and the heat pump performance (input and output temperatures of the working fluid, electric consumption, was the evaluation of the suitability of low enthalpy geothermal heat sources for agricultural needs such as greenhouses heating. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the University of Bari, where a greenhouse was arranged with a heating system connected to a ground-source heat pump (GSHP, which had to cover the thermal energy request. The experimental results of this survey highlight the capability of the geothermal heat source to ensue thermal conditions suitable for cultivation in greenhouses even if the compressor inside the heat pump have operated continuously in a fluctuating state without ever reaching the steady condition. Probably, to increase the performance of the heat pump and then its coefficient of performance within GSHP systems for heating greenhouses, it is important to analyse and maximise the power conductivity of the greenhouse heating system, before to design an expensive borehole ground exchanger. Nevertheless, according to the experimental data obtained, the GSHP systems are effective, efficient and environmental friendly and may be useful to supply the heating energy demand of greenhouses.

  17. A refined computer program for the transient simulation of ground coupled heat pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J. W.; Metz, P. D.; Saunders, J. H.

    1983-04-01

    The use of the earth as a heat source/sink or storage medium for various heat pump based space conditioning systems were investigated. A computer program ground coupled system (GROCS) was developed to model the behavior of ground coupling devices. The GROCS was integrated with TRNSYS, the solar system simulation program, to permit the simulation of complete ground coupled heat pump systems. Experimental results were compared to GROCS simulation results for model validation. It is found that the model has considerable validity. A refined version of the GROCS-TRNSYS program developed to model vertical or horizontal earth coil systems, which considers system cycling is described. The design of the program and its interaction with TRNSYS are discussed.

  18. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Martin F.; Madsen, Claus; Olsen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) concept allows for a high efficiency of a heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept consists of two water storage tanks, one charged and one discharged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process, while the discharged tank...... modelling of the heat pump and tank system is performed (in continuation of Part I). The modelling is extended to include the system performance with different natural refrigerants and the influence of different types of compressors....... is charging. The charging of the tank is done by recirculating water through the condenser and thereby gradually heating the water. The modelling of the system is described in Part I [1]. In this part, Part II, an experimental test setup of the tank system is reported, the results are presented and further...

  19. Variable Displacement Control of the Concrete Pumping System Based on Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Min

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problems of cylinder piston striking cylinder and the hydraulic shocking of the main pump, and causing energy waste problem, the method of variable displacement control of piston stroke was proposed. In order to achieve effective control of the piston stroke, variable displacement control model was established under the physical constraint condition of non-collision between piston and cylinder. And the control process was realized by Dynamic Programming(DP, the simulation and test results show that piston of concrete pumping system don’t strike cylinder and reduce the hydraulic shock of the main pump outlet, meanwhile improve the response speed of the cylinder and achieve energy-saving purposes under varying loads. This control model built in the integration design space of structure variable and control variable is of guiding significance for solving open-loop system’s engineering problems.

  20. The role of heat pump technologies in the design of future sustainable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blarke, Morten Boje; Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, it is shown that in support of its ability to improve the overall economic cost-effectiveness and flexibility of the Danish energy system, the financially feasible integration of large-scale heat pumps with existing CHP units, is critically sensitive to the operational mode...... of the heat pump vis-à-vis the operational coefficient of performance (COP), which is set by the temperature level of the heat source. When using only ambient air as the heat source, the total heat production costs increases by about 10%, while the partial use of condensed flue gas from the CHP unit as a heat...... source results in an 8% cost reduction. Furthermore, the operational analysis shows that when a large-scale heat pump is integrated with an existing CHP unit, the projected spot market situation in Nord Pool, which reflects a growing share of wind power and heat-bound power generation electricity...

  1. Modeling of an Air Conditioning System with Geothermal Heat Pump for a Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cocchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to address climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions attaches great importance to research aimed at using renewable energy. Geothermal energy is an interesting alternative concerning the production of energy for air conditioning of buildings (heating and cooling, through the use of geothermal heat pumps. In this work a model has been developed in order to simulate an air conditioning system with geothermal heat pump. A ground source heat pump (GSHP uses the shallow ground as a source of heat, thus taking advantage of its seasonally moderate temperatures. GSHP must be coupled with geothermal exchangers. The model leads to design optimization of geothermal heat exchangers and to verify the operation of the geothermal plant.

  2. In Situ Measurement of the Undisturbed Ground Temperature for Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ya-su

    2008-01-01

    The undisturbed ground are important for design of the ground heat exchangers in ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems. In this paper, the undisturbed ground temperatures measured in two different methods are presented. The investigation was carried out in two cases. The temperature measured with the direct method is assumed to give the correct undisturbed ground temperature profile. The temperature measured with indirect method overestimates the undisturbed ground temperature by 2.1℃ and 1.7℃. This difference is mainly caused by the circulation pump and ambient air to the fluid. Therefore, the results that are decreased about 2℃ as compared with the indirect measured are recommended to estimate the undisturbed ground temperature in situ measuring. A smaller pump or deeper borehole or mild weather would result in a more correct temperature. Because the undisturbed ground temperature is affected by many factors. Whether or not these conclusions are correct to other areas, this would need further investigation.

  3. Operational test for photovoltaic pumping systems; Procedimento para averiguacao operacional de sistemas fotovoltaicos de bombeamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedrizzi, Maria Cristina; Brito, Alaan Ubaiara; Zilles, Roberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Lab. de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos], e-mail: fedrizzi@iee.usp.br, e-mail: alaan@iee.usp.br, e-mail: zilles@iee.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents an operational test for photovoltaic pumping systems daily production, m{sup 3}/dia. The procedure does not involve expensive instrumentation and is easy to be applied in the field as acceptance and qualification tools. In this way, the paper presents the boundary conditions for operational test accomplishment that allows its application. (author)

  4. Efficiency evaluation for the heat pump system in sharp continental climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimov Vyacheslav I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to calculate the energy efficient of water source heat pump system (HPSW under sharp climate conditions, the ice formation processe on the surface of evaporator pipes under conditions of “autumn-winter-spring” was studied.

  5. Optimum Organization and Maximum Capabilities of Heat-Pump Heating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, A. M.; Kuz‧min, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    The authors obtained a lower bound for the energy consumption in heating (maintaining an assigned temperature distribution in the system of intercommunicating chambers) and the corresponding distributions of the total heat-transfer coefficients and the temperature of the working medium of a heat pump in contact with the chambers and the environment.

  6. Simulation of Hybrid Photovoltaic Solar Assisted Loop Heat Pipe/Heat Pump System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Dai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid photovoltaic solar assisted loop heat pipe/heat pump (PV-SALHP/HP water heater system has been developed and numerically studied. The system is the combination of loop heat pipe (LHP mode and heat pump (HP mode, and the two modes can be run separately or compositely according to the weather conditions. The performances of independent heat pump (HP mode and hybrid loop heat pipe/heat pump (LHP/HP mode were simulated and compared. Simulation results showed that on typical sunny days in spring or autumn, using LHP/HP mode could save 40.6% power consumption than HP mode. In addition, the optimal switchover from LHP mode to HP mode was analyzed in different weather conditions for energy saving and the all-year round operating performances of the system were also simulated. The simulation results showed that hybrid LHP/HP mode should be utilized to save electricity on sunny days from March to November and the system can rely on LHP mode alone without any power consumption in July and August. When solar radiation and ambient temperature are low in winter, HP mode should be used

  7. Design and development of a split-evaporator heat-pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerville, M.H.; Penoncello, S.G.

    1981-12-01

    The designs and experimental results of three types of multiple source heat pumps are presented. The three designs are the parallel evaporator, the series evaporator, and the parallel evaporator with active subcooling, with the parallel evaporator with the active subcooling showing the most promise for solving the problem of defrosting of air evaporators. Three design procedures for multiple source heat pumps were developed. One of these is a hand calculational procedure, the others are computer based. The models are based upon the refrigerant flow rate, rather than the refrigeration effect of the evaporator. The technical results of a detailed analytical and experimental model of the heat transfer rates on a flat plate ice maker are presented. It is shown, both analytically and experimentally, that the temperature of the air surrounding the flat plate ice maker can play a dominant role in the rate of ice formation. A detailed weather analysis for forty cities located throughout the nation was completed. These data were processed to allow easy computation of thermal storage requirements for full, partial, or minimum ACES systems, or upon other design requirements, such as off-peak air conditioning. The results of an innovative ice storage system that is thermally coupled to the earth are described. This system has the potential for meeting both the off-peak air conditioning needs and the thermal storage requirements for the heating cycle. An economic and energy comparison of multiple source heat pumps with ACES, and air-to-air heat pump systems is presented.

  8. Specification and simulation of behavior of the Continuous Infusion Insulin Pump system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babamir, Seyed Morteza; Dehkordi, Mehdi Borhani

    2014-01-01

    Continuous Infusion Insulin Pump (CIIP) system is responsible for monitoring diabetic blood sugar. In this paper, we aim to specify and simulate the CIIP software behavior. To this end, we first: (1) presented a model consisting of the CIIP system behavior in response to its environment (diabetic) behavior and (2) we formally defined the safety requirements of the system environment (diabetic) in the Z formal modeling language. Such requirements should be satisfied by the CIIP software. Finally, we programmed the model and requirements.

  9. Performance analysis of system heat pump - heat recuperator used for air treatment in process industry

    OpenAIRE

    Milovančević Uroš M.; Kosi Franc F.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed parametric analysis and performance optimization of system “heat pump - recuperator is given in this paper. Mathematical model used for analysis is formed according to the physical model of the system and practical experience. Different types of compressors, and various temperature ranges are treated. Special attention is paid to influence of condensing and evaporating temperatures on system performances, so as to different features of heat recup...

  10. 885-nm Pumped Ceramic Nd:YAG Master Oscillator Power Amplifier Laser System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a traditional diode pumped solid-state laser that is typically pumped with 808-nm laser diode array (LDA) and crystalline Nd:YAG was improved by using 885-nm LDAs and ceramic Nd:YAG. The advantage is lower quantum defect, which will improve the thermal loading on laser gain medium, resulting in a higher-performance laser. The use of ceramic Nd:YAG allows a higher Nd dopant level that will make up the lower absorption at the 885-nm wavelength on Nd:YAG. When compared to traditional 808-nm pump, 885-nm diodes will have 30% less thermal load (or wasted heat) and will thus see a similar percentage improvement in the overall laser efficiency. In order to provide a more efficient laser system for future flight missions that require the use of low-repetition- rate (systems are numerous. The epitaxial structures of these 885-nm diodes are aluminum-free. There is a significant reduction in the thermal load generated from the Stokes shift or quantum defects. A Stokes shift is the energetic difference between the pump and laser photons. Pumping at a wavelength band closer to the lasing wavelength can reduce the thermal load by .30% compared to traditional pumping at 808 nm, and increase the optical- to-optical efficiency by the same factor. The slope efficiency is expected to increase with a reduction in the thermal load. The typical crystalline Nd:YAG can be difficult to produce with doping level >1% Nd. To make certain that the absorption at 885 nm is on the same par as the 808-nm diode, the Nd:YAG material needs to be doped with higher concentration of Nd. Ceramic Nd:YAG is the only material that can be tailored to specific needs.

  11. A Study on Electric Vehicle Heat Pump Systems in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqi Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle heat pumps are drawing more and more attention due to their energy-saving and high efficiency designs. Some problems remain, however, in the usage of the heat pumps in electric vehicles, such as a drainage problem regarding the external heat exchangers while in heat pump mode, and the decrease in heating performance when operated in a cold climate. In this article, an R134a economized vapor injection (EVI heat pump system was built and tested. The drainage problem common amongst external heat exchangers was solved by an optimized 5 mm diameter tube-and-fin heat exchanger, which can meet both the needs of a condenser and evaporator based on simulation and test results. The EVI system was also tested under several ambient temperatures. It was found that the EVI was a benefit to the system heating capacity. Under a −20 °C ambient temperature, an average improvement of 57.7% in heating capacity was achieved with EVI and the maximum capacity was 2097 W, with a coefficient of performance (COP of 1.25. The influences of injection pressure and economizer capacity are also discussed in this article.

  12. Induction Motors Most Efficient Operation Points in Pumped Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busca-Forcos, Andreea; Marinescu, Corneliu; Busca, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    efficiency is desired especially when operating with renewable energy systems, which present low energy conversion factor (up to 50% - performance coefficient for wind turbines, and efficiency up to 40% for photovoltaic systems). In this paper the most efficient operation points of the induction motors...

  13. Performance of hybrid quad generation system consisting of solid oxide fuel cell system and absorption heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cachorro, Irene Albacete; Daraban, Iulia Maria; Lainé, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    and absorption heat pump. The model is validated using data available in open literature. Overall this system shows better performance in terms of efficiency and CO2 emissions compared with cogeneration or tri-generation systems. Specifically, it suits better for applications, such food industry, where...

  14. Na/K pump regulation of cardiac repolarization: insights from a systems biology approach

    KAUST Repository

    Bueno-Orovio, Alfonso

    2013-05-15

    The sodium-potassium pump is widely recognized as the principal mechanism for active ion transport across the cellular membrane of cardiac tissue, being responsible for the creation and maintenance of the transarcolemmal sodium and potassium gradients, crucial for cardiac cell electrophysiology. Importantly, sodium-potassium pump activity is impaired in a number of major diseased conditions, including ischemia and heart failure. However, its subtle ways of action on cardiac electrophysiology, both directly through its electrogenic nature and indirectly via the regulation of cell homeostasis, make it hard to predict the electrophysiological consequences of reduced sodium-potassium pump activity in cardiac repolarization. In this review, we discuss how recent studies adopting the systems biology approach, through the integration of experimental and modeling methodologies, have identified the sodium-potassium pump as one of the most important ionic mechanisms in regulating key properties of cardiac repolarization and its rate dependence, from subcellular to whole organ levels. These include the role of the pump in the biphasic modulation of cellular repolarization and refractoriness, the rate control of intracellular sodium and calcium dynamics and therefore of the adaptation of repolarization to changes in heart rate, as well as its importance in regulating pro-arrhythmic substrates through modulation of dispersion of repolarization and restitution. Theoretical findings are consistent across a variety of cell types and species including human, and widely in agreement with experimental findings. The novel insights and hypotheses on the role of the pump in cardiac electrophysiology obtained through this integrative approach could eventually lead to novel therapeutic and diagnostic strategies. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  15. Performance of solar photovoltaic array fed water pumping system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    This paper discusses the design and performance analysis of a solar ... utilizing a special class of highly rugged machine with simple drive system called ..... Introduction to Fluid Power, Science &Technology, Delmar Cengage Learning.

  16. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS: SOLUTION TO REDUCE GLOBAL WARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Baradey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy conversion technologies, where waste heat recovery systems are included, have received significant attention in recent years due to reasons that include depletion of fossil fuel, increasing oil prices, changes in climatic conditions, and global warming. For low temperature applications, there are many sources of thermal waste heat, and several recovery systems and potential useful applications have been proposed by researchers [1-4]. In addition, many types of equipment are used to recover waste thermal energy from different systems at low, medium, and high temperature applications, such as heat exchangers, waste heat recovery boiler, thermo-electric generators, and recuperators. In this paper, the focus is on waste heat recovery from air conditioners, and an efficient application of these energy resources. Integration of solar energy with heat pump technologies and major factors that affect the feasibility of heat recovery systems have been studied and reviewed as well. KEYWORDS: waste heat recovery; heat pump.

  17. A Novel Constant-Pressure Pumped Hydro Combined with Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erren Yao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As intermittent renewable energy is receiving increasing attention, the combination of intermittent renewable energy with large-scale energy storage technology is considered as an important technological approach for the wider application of wind power and solar energy. Pumped hydro combined with compressed air energy storage system (PHCA is one of the energy storage systems that not only integrates the advantages but also overcomes the disadvantages of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems and pumped hydro energy storage systems to solve the problem of energy storage in China’s arid regions. Aiming at the variable working conditions of PHCA system technology, this study proposes a new constant-pressure PHCA. The most significant characteristics of this system were that the water pump and hydroturbine work under stable conditions and this improves the working efficiency of the equipment without incurring an energy loss. In addition, the constant-pressure PHCA system was subjected to energy and exergy analysis, in expectation of exploring an attractive solution for the large-scale storage of existing intermittent renewable energy.

  18. Experimental investigation on optimal temperature lift of an inverter heat pump system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature lift directly influences the efficiency of the heat pump, meanwhile, the coefficient of performance and the heat sink temperature lift of heat pump systems are mutually exclusive parameters, i.e., the higher temperature lift leads to the lower coefficient of performance while the lower temperature lift leads to the higher coefficient of performance. To deal with the dilemma, a primary theoretical analysis is performed, and a case study of an inverter water source heat pump is carried out, which is operated under the conditions of compressor frequency of 15-85 Hz and heat sink flow rate of 120/160/180/200 kg/h, respectively. The relationships among the temperature lift, coefficient of performance and compressor power consumption are analyzed, The results show that the optimal temperature lift mainly depends on the inlet temperature of heat sink, and has little to do with the compressor frequency and water flow rate, which are of significance for the optimal operation of heat pump systems.

  19. Simple systems for treating pumped, turbid water with flocculants and a geotextile dewatering bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jihoon; McLaughlin, Richard A

    2016-11-01

    Pumping sediment-laden water from excavations is often necessary on construction sites. This water is often treated by pumping it through geotextile dewatering bags. The bags are not designed to filter the fine sediments that create high turbidity, but dosing with a flocculant prior to the bag could result in greater turbidity control. This study compared two systems for introducing flocculant: passive dosing of commercial solid biopolymer (chitosan) and injection of dissolved polyacrylamide (PAM) in a length of corrugated pipe connected to the bag. The biopolymer system consisted of sequential porous socks containing a "charging agent" followed by chitosan in the corrugated pipe with two levels of dosing. The dissolved PAM was injected into turbid water at a flow-weighted concentration at 1 mg L(-1). For each treatment, sediment-laden turbid water in the range of 2000 to 3500 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) was pumped into the upstream of corrugated pipe and samples were taken from pipe entrance, pipe exit, and dewatering bag exit. Without flocculant treatment, the dewatering bag reduced turbidity by 70% but the addition of flocculant increased the turbidity reduction up to 97% relative to influent. At the pipe exit, the low-dose biopolymer was less effective in reducing turbidity (37%) but it was equally effective as the high-dose biopolymer or PAM injection after the bag. Our results suggest that a relatively simple treatment with flocculants, either passively or actively, can be very effective in reducing turbidity for pumped water on construction sites.

  20. Reducing Pumping Power in Hydronic Heating and Cooling Systems with Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Kristoffer Jason

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are being used increasingly in a variety of thermal transfer and thermal storage applications. This thesis presents the results of a laboratory study into the feasibility of improving the performance of hydronic heating and cooling systems by adding microcapsules filled with a PCM to the water used as heat transport media in these systems. Microencapsulated PCMs (MPCMs) increase the heat carrying capacity of heat transport liquids by absorbing or releasing heat at a constant temperature through a change of phase. Three sequences of tests and their results are presented: 1) Thermal cycling tests conducted to determine the melting temperatures and extent of supercooling associated with the MPCMs tested. 2) Hydronic performance tests in which MPCM slurries were pumped through a fin-and-tube, air-to-liquid heat exchanger and their thermal transfer performance compared against that of ordinary water. 3) Mechanical stability tests in which MPCM slurries were pumped in a continuous loop in order to gauge the extent of rupture due to pumping. It is shown that slurries consisting of water and MPCMs ˜ 14-24 mum in diameter improve thermal performance and offer the potential for power savings in the form of reduced pumping requirements. In addition, it is shown that while slurries of MPCMs 2-5 mum in diameter appear to exhibit better mechanical stability than slurries of larger diameter MPCMs, the smaller MPCMs appear to reduce the thermal performance of air-to-liquid heat exchangers.

  1. Study of a centrifugal blood pump in a mock loop system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhart, Beatriz; da Silva, Bruno Utiyama; Fonseca, Jeison; Bock, Eduardo; Leme, Juliana; da Silva, Cibele; Leão, Tarcísio; Andrade, Aron

    2013-11-01

    An implantable centrifugal blood pump (ICBP) is being developed to be used as a ventricular assist device (VAD) in patients with severe cardiovascular diseases. The ICBP system is composed of a centrifugal pump, a motor, a controller, and a power supply. The electricity source provides power to the controller and to a motor that moves the pump's rotor through magnetic coupling. The centrifugal pump is composed of four parts: external conical house, external base, impeller, and impeller base. The rotor is supported by a pivot bearing system, and its impeller base is responsible for sheltering four permanent magnets. A hybrid cardiovascular simulator (HCS) was used to evaluate the ICBP's performance. A heart failure (HF) (when the heart increases beat frequency to compensate for decrease in blood flow) was simulated in the HCS. The main objective of this work is to analyze changes in physiological parameters such as cardiac output, blood pressure, and heart rate in three situations: healthy heart, HF, and HF with left circulatory assistance by ICBP. The results showed that parameters such as aortic pressure and cardiac output affected by the HF situation returned to normal values when the ICBP was connected to the HCS. In conclusion, the test results showed satisfactory performance for the ICBP as a VAD.

  2. Assessment of two-level heat pump installations’ power efficiency for heat supply systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аlla Е. Denysova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of energy saving becomes one of the most important in power engineering. It is caused by exhaustion of world reserves in hydrocarbon fuel, such as gas, oil and coal representing sources of traditional heat supply. Conventional sources has essential shortcomings: low power, ecological and economic efficiencies, that can be eliminated by using alternative methods of power supply, like the considered one: low-temperature natural heat of ground waters of on the basis of heat pump installations application. The heat supply system considered provides an effective use of two-level heat pump installation operating as heat source the Odessa city ground waters during the lowest ambient temperature period. Proposed is a calculation method of heat pump installations on the basis of geothermal heat supply. Calculated are the values of electric energy consumption N by the compressors’ drive, and the heat supply system transformation coefficient µ for a source of geothermal heat from ground waters of Odessa city allowing to estimate efficiency of two-level heat pump installations.

  3. Automated Web-based Monitoring of a Pump and Treat System at the Hanford Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, W.; Versteeg, R.; Richardson, A.; Ankeny, M.; Gilmore, T.; Morse, J.; Thompson, M.

    2006-05-01

    Automated and autonomous monitoring of environmental conditions can be used to improve operational efficiency, verify remedial action decisions, and promote confidence in the monitoring process by making data and associated derived information readily accessible to regulators and stakeholders. Ultimately autonomous monitoring systems can reduce overall costs associated with regulatory compliance of performance and long- term monitoring. As part of a joint decision between DOE and the WA Department of Ecology to put on "cold standby" a pump and treat system that has been operating on the Department of Energy's Hanford site in Washington State since 1995, a web site was developed to display the automated water level network around the pump and treat system. The automated water level network consists of nineteen wells with water level transducers and temperature and conductivity probes for selected wells. Data from this network will be used to evaluate the impacts of the pump-and-treat system and the response of the aquifer to shutdown of the system. The website will provide access to data from the automated network along with additional information pertaining to the shutdown of the pump and treat system to the various stakeholders in a convenient and timely fashion. This will allow the various stakeholders to observe the impacts of the shutdown as the aquifer responds. There are future plans to expand this web-based data reporting platform to other environmental data that pertains to the various remedial actions planned at the Hanford site. The benefits of the web site application for monitoring and stewardship are: consistency of data processing and analyses with automated and on demand data and information delivery. The system and data access is password controlled and access to various data or fields can be restricted to specified users. An important feature is that the stakeholders have access to the data in near-real time providing a checks-and-balance system

  4. Stochastic pump effect and geometric phases in dissipative and stochastic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The success of Berry phases in quantum mechanics stimulated the study of similar phenomena in other areas of physics, including the theory of living cell locomotion and motion of patterns in nonlinear media. More recently, geometric phases have been applied to systems operating in a strongly stochastic environment, such as molecular motors. We discuss such geometric effects in purely classical dissipative stochastic systems and their role in the theory of the stochastic pump effect (SPE).

  5. Design and performance of main vacuum pumping system of SST-1 Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Ziauddin, E-mail: ziauddin@ipr.res.in; Pathan, Firozkhan; George, Siju; Dhanani, Kalpesh; Paravastu, Yuvakiran; Semwal, Pratibha; Pradhan, Subrata

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •SST-1 Tokamak was successfully commissioned. •Vacuum vessel and cryostat were pumped down to 6.3 × 10{sup −7} mbar and 1.3 × 10{sup −5} mbar. •Leaks developed during baking were detected in-situ by RGA and confirmed later on. •Cryo-pumping effect was observed when LN2 thermal shields reached below 273 K. •Non-standard aluminum wire-seals have shown leak tightness < 1.0 × 10{sup −9} mbar l/s. -- Abstract: Steady-state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) was installed and it is commissioning for overall vacuum integrity, magnet systems functionality in terms of successful cool down to 4.5 K and charging up to 10 kA current was started from August 2012. Plasma operation of 100 kA current for more than 100 ms was also envisaged. It is comprised of vacuum vessel (VV) and cryostat (CST). Vacuum vessel, an ultra-high (UHV) vacuum chamber with net volume of 23 m{sup 3} was maintained at the base pressure of 6.3 × 10{sup −7} mbar for plasma confinement. Cryostat, a high-vacuum (HV) chamber with empty volume 39 m{sup 3} housing superconducting magnet system, bubble thermal shields and hydraulics for these circuits, maintained at 1.3 × 10{sup −5} mbar in order to provide suitable environment for these components. In order to achieve these ultimate vacuums, two numbers of turbo-molecular pumps (TMP) are installed in vacuum vessel while three numbers of turbo-molecular pumps are installed in cryostat. Initial pumping of both the chambers was carried out by using suitable Roots pumps. PXI based real time controlled system is used for remote operation of the complete pumping operation. In order to achieve UHV inside the vacuum vessel, it was baked at 150 °C for longer duration. Aluminum wire-seals were used for all non-circular demountable ports and a leak tightness < 1.0 × 10{sup −9} mbar l/s were achieved.

  6. Technical Report for Water Circulation Pumping System for Trihalomethanes (THMs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellah, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-08

    The TSWWS was added as an active source of supply to the permit (No. 03-10-13P-003) in 2010, but has never been used due to the potential for formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the distribution system. THMs are formed as a by-product when chlorine is used to disinfect water for drinking. THMs are a group of chemicals generally referred to as disinfection by-products (DBPs). THMs result from the reaction of chlorine with organic matter that is present in the water. Some of the THMs are volatile and may easily vaporize into the air. This fact forms the basis of the design of the system discussed in this technical report. In addition, the design is based on the results of a study that has shown success using aeration as a means to reduce TTHMs to within allowable concentration levels with turn-over times as long as ten days. The Primary Drinking Water Standards of Regulated Contaminants Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for TTHMs is 80 parts per billion (ppb). No other changes to the existing drinking water distribution system and chlorination operations are anticipated before switching to the TSWWS as the primary drinking water source. The two groundwater wells (Wells 20 and 18) which are currently the primary and backup water sources for the system would be maintained for use as backup supply. In the future, one of the wells may be removed from the system. A permit amendment would be filed at that time if this modification was deemed appropriate.

  7. Operation of the counter-rotating type pump-turbine unit installed in the power stabilizing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto, T.; Honda, H.; Kasahara, R.; Miyaji, T.

    2014-03-01

    This serial research intends to put a unique power stabilization system with a pumped storage into practical use. The pumped storage is equipped with a counter-rotating type pump-turbine unit whose operating mode can be shifted instantaneously in response to the fluctuation of power from renewable resources. This paper verifies that the system is reasonably effective to stabilize the fluctuating power. It is necessary to quickly increase the rotational speed when the operation is shifted from the turbine to the pumping modes, because the unit cannot pump-up water from a lower reservoir at a slow rotational speed while keeping gross/geodetic head constant. The maximum hydraulic efficiency at the turbine mode is close to the efficiency of the counter-rotating type hydroelectric unit designed exclusively for the turbine mode. The system is also provided for a pilot plant to be operated in the field.

  8. Study on a groundwater source heat pump cooling system in solar greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Lilong; Ma, Chengwei [China Agricultural Univ., Beijing (China). Coll. of Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering. Dept. of Agricultural Structure and Bio-environmental Engineering], E-mail: macwbs@cau.edu.cn

    2008-07-01

    This study aims at exploiting the potential of ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology in cooling agricultural greenhouse, and advocating the use of renewable and clean energy in agriculture. GSHP has the multi-function of heating, cooling and dehumidifying, which is one of the fastest growing technologies of renewable energy air conditioning in recent years. The authors carried out experiment on the ground source heat pump system in cooling greenhouse in Beijing region during the summertime of 2007, and conducted analysis on the energy efficiency of the system by using coefficient of performance (COP). According to the data collected during Aug.13-18th, 2007, the coefficient of performance of GSHP system (COP{sub sys}) has reached 3.15 on average during the test. (author)

  9. OPAL - extension for use with ventilation and pump systems; OPAL-Erweiterung mit Luefter- und Pumpensystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, R.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses how an existing software tool called OPAL that supports the energy-efficient dimensioning of electrical drive systems was extended to cover pump and fan applications. According to the authors, the new version 3 allows the energy efficiency of such systems as well as the economic feasibility of many types of improvement projects to be evaluated in a fast and accurate manner. Software is described that has been designed and optimised using real world examples that can be often found in the water supply and facility management areas. These include heating-system pumps as well as ventilation and pressure-boosting applications. The practicability and benefits offered by the tool are demonstrated using several examples.

  10. Efficiency optimization of a photovoltaic water pumping system for irrigation in Ouargla, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louazene, M. L.; Garcia, M. C. Alonso; Korichi, D.

    2017-02-01

    This work is technical study to contribute to the optimization of pumping systems powered by solar energy (clean) and used in the field of agriculture. To achieve our goals, we studied the techniques that must be entered on a photovoltaic system for maximum energy from solar panels. Our scientific contribution in this research is the realization of an efficient photovoltaic pumping system for irrigation needs. To achieve this and extract maximum power from the PV generator, two axes have been optimized: 1. Increase in the uptake of solar radiation by choice an optimum tilt angle of the solar panels, and 2. it is necessary to add an adaptation device, MPPT controller with a DC-DC converter, between the source and the load.

  11. Study on a groundwater source heat pump cooling system in solar greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Lilong; Ma, Chengwei [China Agricultural Univ., Beijing (China). Coll. of Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering. Dept. of Agricultural Structure and Bio-environmental Engineering], E-mail: macwbs@cau.edu.cn

    2008-07-01

    This study aims at exploiting the potential of ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology in cooling agricultural greenhouse, and advocating the use of renewable and clean energy in agriculture. GSHP has the multi-function of heating, cooling and dehumidifying, which is one of the fastest growing technologies of renewable energy air conditioning in recent years. The authors carried out experiment on the ground source heat pump system in cooling greenhouse in Beijing region during the summertime of 2007, and conducted analysis on the energy efficiency of the system by using coefficient of performance (COP). According to the data collected during Aug.13-18th, 2007, the coefficient of performance of GSHP system (COP{sub sys}) has reached 3.15 on average during the test. (author)

  12. OPAL - extension for use with ventilation and pump systems; OPAL-Erweiterung mit Luefter- und Pumpensystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, R.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses how an existing software tool called OPAL that supports the energy-efficient dimensioning of electrical drive systems was extended to cover pump and fan applications. According to the authors, the new version 3 allows the energy efficiency of such systems as well as the economic feasibility of many types of improvement projects to be evaluated in a fast and accurate manner. Software is described that has been designed and optimised using real world examples that can be often found in the water supply and facility management areas. These include heating-system pumps as well as ventilation and pressure-boosting applications. The practicability and benefits offered by the tool are demonstrated using several examples.

  13. Optimization of Serial Combined System of Ground-Coupled Heat Pump and Solar Collector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jun; CHEN Yan; LU Suzhen; CUI Junkui

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical optimization model was set up for a ground-solar combined system based on in-situ experimental results,in which the solar collector was combined serially with a ground-coupled heat pump(GCHP).The universal optimal equations were solved by the constrained variable metric method considering both the performance and economics.Then the model was applied to a specific case concerning an actual solar assisted GCHP system for space heating.The results indicated a system coefficient of performance(COP)of 3.9 for the optimal method under the seriaI heating mode,and 3.2 for the conventional one.In addition,the optimum solution also showed advantages in energy and cost saving.1eading to a 16.7%improvement in the heat pump performance at 17.2%less energy consumption and 11.8%lower annual cost,respectively.

  14. Preliminary Feasibility Study of a Hybrid Solar and Modular Pumped Storage Hydro System at Biosphere 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansey, Kevin [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Hortsman, Chris [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the preliminary feasibility of a hybrid solar and modular pumped storage system designed for high energy independence at Biosphere 2 is assessed. The system consists of an array of solar PV panels that generate electricity during the day to power both Biosphere 2 and a pump that sends water through a pipe to a tank at a high elevation. When solar power is not available, the water is released back down the pipe towards a tank at a lower elevation, where it passes through a hydraulic water turbine to generate hydroelectricity to power Biosphere 2. The hybrid system is sized to generate and store enough energy to enable Biosphere 2 to operate without a grid interconnection on an average day.

  15. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM FOR HEAT PUMP EMBEDDED IN INSTALLATION FOR PASTEURIZATION AND COOLING OF MILK, part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A heat pump scheme embedded into the installation for pasteurization and cooling of milk products is developed. A scheme of gas cooler automatic control system is considered. Methods of autonomous control of heat pump gas cooler and evaporators are presented as well.

  16. Research on the performance of low-lift diving tubular pumping system by CFD and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chenzhi; Cheng, Li; Liu, Chao; Zhou, Jiren; Tang, Fangping; Jin, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Post-diving tubular pump is always used in large-discharge & low-head irrigation or storm drainage pumping station, its impeller and motor share the same shaft. Considering diving tubular pump system's excellent hydraulic performance, compact structure, good noise resistance and low operating cost, it is used in Chinese pump stations. To study the hydraulic performance and pressure fluctuation of inlet and outlet passage in diving tubular pump system, both of steady and unsteady full flow fields are numerically simulated at three flow rate conditions by using CFD commercial software. The asymmetry of the longitudinal structure of inlet passage affects the flow pattern on outlet. Especially at small flow rate condition, structural asymmetry will result in the uneven velocity distribution on the outlet of passage inlet. The axial velocity distribution uniformity increases as the flow rate increases on the inlet of passage inlet, and there is a positive correlation between hydraulic loss in the passage inlet and flow rate's quadratic. The axial velocity distribution uniformity on the outlet of passage inlet is 90% at design flow rate condition. The predicted result shows the same trend with test result, and the range of high efficiency area between predicted result and test result is almost identical. The dominant frequency of pressure pulsation is low frequency in inlet passage at design condition. The dominant frequency is high frequency in inlet passage at small and large flow rate condition. At large flow rate condition, the flow pattern is significantly affected by the rotation of impeller in inlet passage. At off-design condition, the pressure pulsation is strong at outlet passage. At design condition, the dominant frequency is 35.57Hz, which is double rotation frequency.

  17. Wind power integration with heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles - Energy systems analysis and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedegaard, K.

    2013-09-15

    This PhD investigates to which extent heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles can support the integration of wind power. Considering the gaps in existing research, the main focus is put on individual heat pumps in the residential sector (one-family houses) and the possibilities for flexible operation, using the heat storage options available. Several energy systems analyses are performed using the energy system models, Balmorel, developed at the former TSO, ElkraftSystem, and, EnergyPLAN, developed at Aalborg University. The Danish energy system towards 2030, with wind power penetrations of up to 60 %, is used as a case study in most of the analyses. Both models have been developed further, resulting in an improved representation of individual heat pumps and heat storages. An extensive model add-on for Balmorel renders it possible to optimise investment and operation of individual heat pumps and different types of heat storages, in integration with the energy system. Total costs of the energy system are minimised in the optimisation. The add-on incorporates thermal building dynamics and covers various different heat storage options: intelligent heat storage in the building structure for houses with radiator heating and floor heating, respectively, heat accumulation tanks on the space heating circuit, as well as hot water tanks. In EnergyPLAN, some of the heat storage options have been modelled in a technical optimisation that minimises fuel consumption of the energy system and utilises as much wind power as possible. The energy systems analyses reveal that in terms of supporting wind power integration, the installation of individual heat pumps is an important step, while adding heat storages to the heat pumps is less influential. When equipping the heat pumps with heat storages, only moderate system benefits can be gained. Hereof, the main system benefit is that the need for peak/reserve capacity investments can be reduced through peak load shaving; in

  18. Hydrodynamic performance of distributed pump-jet propulsion system for un- derwater vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LÜ Xiao-jun; ZHOU Qi-dou; FANG Bin

    2014-01-01

    A type of distributed pump-jet propulsion system (DPJP) is developed with two or four specially designed pump-jet pods located around the axisymmetric underwater vehicle body symmetrically. The flow field is numerically simulated by solving the RANS equations with the finite volume method. The computational method is validated by comparing the calculated hull resistances of the SUBOFF AFF-3 model and the open water performance of a ducted propeller with experimental data. The hydrodynamic performances of the DPJP with different axial or radial positions and numbers of pump-jet pods are obtained to analyze the interactions between the hull and the pump-jet pods. It is shown in the calculated results that the decrease of the distance between the pods and the hull leads to an increase both in the efficiency of the pods and the thrust deduction factor due to the effect of the stern wake. And, a negative thrust deduction factor can be obtained by locating the DPJP at the parallel middle body near the aftbody of the vehicle to improve the hydrodynamic performance of the DPJP. Besides, the increase of the number of pods will cause a remarkable decrease of the total propulsive efficiency of the DPJP with the pods mounted on the stern planes, while a small decline of the total propulsive efficiency of the DPJP is observed with the pods mounted on the parallel middle body.

  19. Annual investigation of vertical type ground source heat pump system performance on a wall heating and cooling system in Istanbul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbulut, U.; Yoru, Y.; Kincay, O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yildiz Technical University (Turkey)], email: akbulutugur@yahoo.com, email: yilmazyoru@gmail.com, email: okincay@yildiz.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    Wall heating and cooling systems (WHCS) are equipped with heating serpentines or panels for water circulation. These systems operate in a low temperature range so they are preferable to other, conventional systems. Furthermore, when these systems are connected to a ground source heat pump (GSHP) system, energy performance and thermal comfort are further enhanced. The purpose of this paper is to report the results of an annual inspection done on a vertical type ground-coupled heat pump systems (V-GSHP) WHCS in Istanbul and present the results. The performance data from the Yildiz Renewable Energy House at Davutpasa Campus of Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey, during the year 2010 were collected and analyzed. The conclusions drawn from the inspection and analysis were listed in this paper. Using renewable energy sources effectively will bring both economic and environmental benefits and it is hoped that the use of these energy efficient WHCS systems will become widespread.

  20. LMFBR with booster pump in pumping loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, H.J.

    1975-10-14

    A loop coolant circulation system is described for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) utilizing a low head, high specific speed booster pump in the hot leg of the coolant loop with the main pump located in the cold leg of the loop, thereby providing the advantages of operating the main pump in the hot leg with the reliability of cold leg pump operation.

  1. Development of advanced heat pump for commercial use. Denchukenshiki koseino heat pump no kaihatsu; Gyomuyo system no energy koritsu to keizaisei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikawa, Michiyuki; Iwatsubo, Tetsushiro; Hamamatsu, Teruhide.; (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo, Japan)

    1989-10-01

    The Central Research Instotute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) has been developing the CRIEPI type heat pump to achieve high efficiency. The energy saving ability and economic efficiency were evaluated for this system when the system would be applied to the medium scale hotels for which the construction figure was comparatively large. The objective hotel was a business hotel having gross floor area of 13,436m {sup 2} in which yearly cooling load, heating load and hot water supplying load were nearly equal. The system was based on a 2 stage compression type and had the thermal storing function utilizing the midnight power. The total thermal output was 660Mcal/h on the heat pump for air conditioning and hot water supplying, and the compressure input was 210kW. It was clarified that this system had higher efficiency and more energy saving ability than those of conventional heat pump systems; that the installation cost could be cleared off by the difference of 5-7 years energy cost; and that this system could compete in economic efficiency with conventional systems. 12 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Water hammer in the pump-rising pipeline system with an air chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Sang-Gyun; LEE Kye-Bock; KIM Kyung-Yup

    2014-01-01

    Water hammer following the tripping of pumps can lead to overpressure and negative pressure. Reduction in overpressure and negative pressure may be necessary to avoid failure, to improve the efficiency of operation and to avoid fatigue of system components. The field tests on the water hammer have been conducted on the pump rising pipeline system with an air chamber. The hydraulic transient was simulated using the method of characteristics. Minimizing the least squares problem representing the difference between the measured and predicted transient response in the system performs the calibration of the simulation program. Among the input variables used in the water hammer analysis, the polytropic exponent, the discharge coefficient and the wave speed were calibrated. The computer program developed in this study will be useful in designing the optimum parameters of an air chamber for the real pump pipeline system. The correct selection of air chamber size and the effect of the inner diameter of the orifice to minimize water hammer have been investigated by both field measurements and numerical modeling.

  3. Hypoglycemia Prevention and User Acceptance of an Insulin Pump System with Predictive Low Glucose Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhary, Pratik; Olsen, Birthe S; Conget, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    , and evaluated user acceptance via questionnaires. RESULTS: There were 2,322 suspend before low events (2.1 per subject-day). The mean (± SD) duration of pump suspension events was 56.4 ± 9.6 min, and the mean subsequent sensor glucose (SG) nadir was 71.8 ± 5.2 mg/dL. SG values following 1,930 (83......BACKGROUND: The MiniMed 640G sensor-augmented insulin pump system (Medtronic, Inc., Northridge, CA) can automatically suspend insulin delivery in advance of predicted hypoglycemia and restart it upon recovery. The aims of this analysis were to determine the rate at which predicted hypoglycemia...... was avoided with this strategy, as well as to assess user acceptance of the system and its insulin management features. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty subjects with type 1 diabetes used the system for 4 weeks. We retrospectively evaluated performance of the system, using downloaded pump and sensor data...

  4. Closed-loop helium circulation system for actuation of a continuously operating heart catheter pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabegovic, Alen; Hinteregger, Markus; Janeczek, Christoph; Mohl, Werner; Gföhler, Margit

    2017-06-09

    Currently available, pneumatic-based medical devices are operated using closed-loop pulsatile or open continuous systems. Medical devices utilizing gases with a low atomic number in a continuous closed loop stream have not been documented to date. This work presents the construction of a portable helium circulation addressing the need for actuating a novel, pneumatically operated catheter pump. The design of its control system puts emphasis on the performance, safety and low running cost of the catheter pump. Static and dynamic characteristics of individual elements in the circulation are analyzed to ensure a proper operation of the system. The pneumatic circulation maximizes the working range of the drive unit inside the catheter pump while reducing the total size and noise production.Separate flow and pressure controllers position the turbine's working point into the stable region of the pressure creation element. A subsystem for rapid gas evacuation significantly decreases the duration of helium removal after a leak, reaching subatmospheric pressure in the intracorporeal catheter within several milliseconds. The system presented in the study offers an easy control of helium mass flow while ensuring stable behavior of its internal components.

  5. Advanced electric heat pump dual-stroke compressor and system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyo, S. E.; Fagan, T. J.

    1983-12-01

    The development of an advanced electric heat pump is discussed. A two-capacity, residential, advanced electric heat pump utilizing a unique dual-stroke compressor was developed. Two nearly identical preprototype split systems of nominally 3.5 tons maximum cooling capacity were designed, built and laboratory tested. The estimated annual energy efficiency of this advanced system is 20 percent better than a two-speed electric heat pump available at contract inception in 1979. This superior performance is due to the synergism of a high-efficiency, dual-stroke reciprocating compressor, a dual-strength high-efficiency single-speed single-phase hermetic drive motor, a single-width, single-entry high-efficiency indoor blower with backward curved cambered plate blades, a high-efficiency multivane axial flow outdoor fan, high-efficiency two-speed air mover motors and a microprocessor control system. The relative proportions of heat exchangers, air flows and compressor size as well as the ratio between high and low capacity were optimized so as to minimize the annual cost of ownership in a northern climate. Constraints placed upon the optimization and design process to ensure comfort provide heating air with a temperature of at least 90(0)F and provide cooling with a sensible-to-total capacity ratio of not more than 0.7. System performance was measured in the laboratory in accordance with applicable codes and procedures. Performance data plus hardware details are provided.

  6. Binary blend of carbon dioxide and fluoro ethane as working fluid in transcritical heat pump systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an eco-friendly working fluid, carbon dioxide or R744 is expected to substitute for the existing working fluids used in heat pump systems. It is, however, challenged by the much higher heat rejection pressure in transcritical cycle compared with the traditional subcritical cycle using freons. There exists a worldwide tendency to utilize blend refrigerants as alternatives. Therefore, a new binary blend R744/R161 in this research is proposed in order to decrease the heat rejection pressure. Meanwhile, on mixing R744 with R161, the flammability and explosivity of R161 can be suppressed because of the extinguishing effect of R744. A transcritical thermodynamic model is developed, and then the system performances of heat pump using R744/R161 blend are investigated and compared with those of pure R744 system under the same operation conditions. The variations of heat rejection pressure, heating coefficient of performance, unit volumetric heating capacity, discharge temperature of compressor and the mass fraction of R744/R161 are researched. The results show that R744/R161 mixture can reduce the heat rejection pressure of transcritical heat pump system.

  7. Diagnosis of mechanical pumping system using neural networks and system parameters analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Tai Ming; Wang, Wei Hui [National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung (China)

    2009-01-15

    Normally, a mechanical pumping system is equipped to monitor some of the important input and output signals which are set to the prescribed values. This paper addressed dealing with these signals to establish the database of input- output relation by using a number of neural network models through learning algorithms. These signals encompass normal and abnormal running conditions. The abnormal running conditions were artificially generated. Meanwhile, for the purpose of setting up an on-line diagnosis network, the learning speed and accuracy of three kinds of networks, viz., the backpropagation (BPN), radial basis function (RBF) and adaptive linear (ADALINE) neural networks have been compared and assessed. The assessment criteria of the networks are compared with the correlation result matrix in terms of the neuron vectors. Both BPN and RBF are judged by the maximum vector based on the post-regression analysis, and the ADALINE is judged by the minimum vector based on the least mean square error analysis. By ignoring the neural network training time, it has been shown that if the mechanical diagnosis system is tackled off-line, the RBF method is suggested. However, for on-line diagnosis, the BPN method is recommended

  8. Performance analysis of system heat pump - heat recuperator used for air treatment in process industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovančević Uroš M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed parametric analysis and performance optimization of system “heat pump - recuperator is given in this paper. Mathematical model used for analysis is formed according to the physical model of the system and practical experience. Different types of compressors, and various temperature ranges are treated. Special attention is paid to influence of condensing and evaporating temperatures on system performances, so as to different features of heat recuperator. It is found out that in accordance to the working regimes and the compressor type, it is possible to determine optimal conditions in which the system will consume the minimum of electricity.

  9. Heat pump air conditioning system for pure electric vehicle at ultra-low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hai-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When the ordinary heat pump air conditioning system of a pure electric vehicle runs at ultra-low temperature, the discharge temperature of compressor will be too high and the heating capacity of the system will decay seriously, it will lead to inactivity of the heating system. In order to solve this problem, a modification is put forward, and an experiment is also designed. The experimental results show that in the same conditions, this new heating system increases more than 20% of the heating capacity; when the outside environment temperature is negative 20 degrees, the discharge temperature of compressor is below 60 degrees.

  10. Modeling a high output marine steam generator feedwater control system which uses parallel turbine-driven feed pumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Zhi-qiang; ZOU Hai; SUN Jian-hua

    2008-01-01

    Parallel turbine-driven feedwater pumps are needed when ships travel at high speed. In order to study marine steam generator feedwater control systems which use parallel turbine-driven feed pumps,a mathematical model of marine steam generator feedwater control system was developed which includes mathematical models of two steam generators and parallel turbine-driven feed pumps as well as mathematical models of feedwater pipes and feed regulating valves. The operating condition points of the parallel turbine-driven feed pumps were calculated by the Chebyshev curve fit method. A water level controller for the steam generator and a rotary speed controller for the turbine-driven feed pumps were also included in the model. The accuracy of the mathematical models and their controllers was verified by comparing their results with those from a simulator.

  11. Improvement Analysis in a Municipal Pumping System Aiming the Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fernando Dutra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid and disorderly growth that occurred in the city of Caxias do Sul - RS in the last two decades, many problems of water supply are observed in specific areas, especially in peak times and days of consumption. In order to solve the mentioned problem and focusing on energy efficiency, this study proposed two improvements in the pumping system of Santa Fe, which is responsible for supplying the northern part of Caxias do Sul. The improvements mentioned dealt with the exchange of the pumping system and the use of a frequency converter to control its speed. From the measurements made and simulations in spreadsheets and software Epanet, it was found that the two improvements are technically and economically viable, providing an estimated monthly savings of 37.7%.

  12. Optimal Placement of A Heat Pump in An Integrated Power and Heat Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klyapovskiy, Sergey; You, Shi; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2017-01-01

    pump – a component that links electric and heating utilities together. The system used to demonstrate the integrated planning approach has two neighboring 10kV feeders and several distribution substations with loads that require central heating from the heat pump. The optimal location is found......With the present trend towards Smart Grids and Smart Energy Systems it is important to look for the opportunities for integrated development between different energy sectors, such as electricity, heating, gas and transportation. This paper investigates the problem of optimal placement of a heat...... with the help of mathematical optimization that minimizes investments of both electric and heating utilities, achieving the reduction of the total investment. The optimization is performed in Matlab using built-in Genetic Algorithm function and Matpower software package for calculating power flow equations....

  13. Study and Development of an Air Conditioning System Operating on a Magnetic Heat Pump Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pao-Lien

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the design of a laboratory scale demonstration prototype of an air conditioning system operating on a magnetic heat pump cycle. Design parameters were selected through studies performed by a Kennedy Space Center (KSC) System Simulation Computer Model. The heat pump consists of a rotor turning through four magnetic fields that are created by permanent magnets. Gadolinium was selected as the working material for this demonstration prototype. The rotor was designed to be constructed of flat parallel disks of gadolinium with very little space in between. The rotor rotates in an aluminum housing. The laboratory scale demonstration prototype is designed to provide a theoretical Carnot Cycle efficiency of 62 percent and a Coefficient of Performance of 16.55.

  14. Power supply for pumping systems in northern Chile: Photovoltaics as alternative to grid extension and diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chueco-Fernandez, Francisco J. [SINCLAIR KNIGHT MERZ CHILE, 161 Monsenor Sotero Sanz, Providencia, Santiago de Chile (Chile); Bayod-Rujula, Angel A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, CIRCE, C/Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    This paper examines and compares the cost-effectiveness to energize pumping systems in remote areas on northern Chile by means of photovoltaic systems, diesel engines and grid extension. Variables such as the distance to the power grid, the voltage grid, the prices of electricity and fuel, and the required investments, are taken into account. The comparison is made for wide range of variable values, distances and pumping requirements. The results obtained are useful for choosing the best alternative for the power supply of pumping systems in wells in Northern Chile. (author)

  15. Model predictive control of servo motor driven constant pump hydraulic system in injection molding process based on neurodynamic optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-gang PENG; Jun WANG; Wei WEI

    2014-01-01

    In view of the high energy consumption and low response speed of the traditional hydraulic system for an injection molding machine, a servo motor driven constant pump hydraulic system is designed for a precision injection molding process, which uses a servo motor, a constant pump, and a pressure sensor, instead of a common motor, a constant pump, a pressure pro-portion valve, and a flow proportion valve. A model predictive control strategy based on neurodynamic optimization is proposed to control this new hydraulic system in the injection molding process. Simulation results showed that this control method has good control precision and quick response.

  16. Structure of microprocessor-based automation system of oil pumping station “Alexndrovskaya”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriyenko Margarita A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structure of microprocessed-based automation system (MBAS of oil pumping station (OPS «Alexandrovskaya», located on the territory of Tomsk region and forming part of the Oil Transporting Joint Stock Company «Transneft», developed in accordance with the requirements of the guidance document «Complex of the typical design choices automation of OPSs and crude storages on the basis of modern standard solutions and components».

  17. Correcting Working Postures in Water Pump AssemblyTasks using the OVAKO Work Analysis System (OWAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Atiya Kadhim Al-Zuheri; Hussein S. Ketan

    2008-01-01

    Ovako Working Postures Analyzing System (OWAS) is a widely used method for studying awkward working postures in workplaces. This study with OWAS, analyzed working postures for manual material handling of laminations at stacking workstation for water pump assembly line in Electrical Industrial Company (EICO) / Baghdad. A computer program, WinOWAS, was used for the study. In real life workstation was found that more than 26% of the working postures observed were classified as either AC2 (slight...

  18. Parametric Optimization of Control Systems Pumping Station by the Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Dounaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Now the frequency regulation with its well-known advantages is becoming more popular for using in electric drives. One of these systems is the system of liquid flow stabilization for pumping station of the second flood, which is discussed at the article. There are functional elements of the system: the frequency converter, the induction motor, pump set, check valve, part of the pipeline between the flow sensors and PID controller. In this case are used PID controller with universal input and RS-485 OWEN TRM101.The article tries to solve the main problem, which is to set optimal controller settings. The article presents a mathematical model of the system, built on the basis of transfer functions. The specific values of the parameters for Bratsk pumping station of the second flood are found.To solve the problem of parametric optimization for control of pumping station authors use a genetic algorithm, which allows us to use different quality criteria. A set of parameters for the genetic algorithm is represented, as well as a method of selection and a method of the transition between generations. The problem of parametric optimization was solved by quadratic integral criterion and by the criterion, composed of direct measures of quality (regulation time and the overshoot. The PID controller optimal values of adjustable parameters were obtained both for considered criteria and for their corresponding transient processes. Comparative analysis of results was produced. When proving the optimality of the obtained settings for the quadratic criterion the proximity of the gradient components of the target functional to zero is demonstrated. In the case of a criterion based on a direct measure of quality, is presented a picture of convergence of adjustable parameters to the same value when run with different starting points.It is presented that the use of a criterion based on a direct measure of quality, can significantly reduce the overshoot with a

  19. Case Study of Developing Gear Pump Design System with SolidEdge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONGXiao-ying

    2004-01-01

    Part and Draft modules of SolidEdge are used to construct 3D solid models and generate part drawings, while ActiveX Automation of VB is used to access engineering database files to realize dimension-driven modification of the designed parts. Moreover, VB plays the enabling role of integrating all work processes of gear pump design, resulting in a comprehensiveCAD system.

  20. Flux Vector Splitting Schemes for Water Hammer Flows in Pumping Supply Systems with Air Vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Sun; Yuebin Wu; Ying Xu; Tae Uk Jang

    2015-01-01

    To solve water hammer problems in pipeline systems, many numerical simulation approaches have been developed. This paper improves a flux vector splitting ( FVS) scheme whose grid is the same as the fixed⁃grid MOC scheme. The proposed FVS scheme is used to analyze water hammer problems caused by a pump abrupt shutdown in a pumping system with an air vessel. This paper also proposes a pump⁃valve⁃vessel model combining a pump⁃valve model with an air vessel model. The results show that the data obtained by the FVS scheme are similar to the ones obtained by the fixed⁃grid method of characteristics ( MOC ) . And the results using the pump⁃valve⁃vessel model are almost the same as the ones using both the pump⁃valve model and the air vessel model. Therefore, it is effective that the proposed FVS scheme is used to solve water hammer problems and the pump⁃valve⁃vessel model replaces both the pump⁃valve model and the air vessel model to simulate water hammer flows in the pumping system with the air vessel.

  1. Vectorial Command of Induction Motor Pumping System Supplied by a Photovoltaic Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlouf, Messaoud; Messai, Feyrouz; Benalla, Hocine

    2011-01-01

    With the continuous decrease of the cost of solar cells, there is an increasing interest and needs in photovoltaic (PV) system applications following standard of living improvements. Water pumping system powered by solar-cell generators are one of the most important applications. The fluctuation of solar energy on one hand, and the necessity to optimise available solar energy on the other, it is useful to develop new efficient and flexible modes to control motors that entrain the pump. A vectorial control of an asynchronous motor fed by a photovoltaic system is proposed. This paper investigates a photovoltaic-electro mechanic chain, composed of a PV generator, DC-AC converter, a vector controlled induction motor and centrifugal pump. The PV generator is forced to operate at its maximum power point by using an appropriate search algorithm integrated in the vector control. The optimization is realized without need to adding a DC-DC converter to the chain. The motor supply is also ensured in all insolation conditions. Simulation results show the effectiveness and feasibility of such an approach.

  2. Performance evaluation of heat pump system using R744/R161 mixture refrigerant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As an efficient and energy conservation technology, heat pumps working with R22, which are scheduled to be phased out by Montreal Protocol, are widely used in China at present. The global deteriorating ecology environment would accelerate the phase-out time of R22 in developing countries. Therefore, as a matter of urgency, an eco-friendly substitute should be investigated in order to replace R22. Under this context, and with a consideration of the environmental protection, R744/R161 mixture refrigerant is proposed. R744/R161 mixture refrigerant’s condensation pressure is reduced and its flammability and explosivity are suppressed. A thermodynamic model is developed, and under the given working conditions, the performances of subcritical heat pump system using R744/R161 mixture of variable mass fraction are discussed and compared with those of the R22 system. The optimal mass fraction of R744/R161 is given, which corresponds to a maximal heating coefficient of performance. The simulation results show that R744/R161 mixture can work as a competitive alternative to R22 in heat pump system.

  3. Pump RIN-induced impairments in unrepeatered transmission systems using distributed Raman amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jingchi; Tang, Ming; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Lu, Chao; Wang, Liang; Dong, Zhenhua; Bilal, Syed Muhammad; Fu, Songnian; Shum, Perry Ping; Liu, Deming

    2015-05-04

    High spectral efficiency modulation format based unrepeatered transmission systems using distributed Raman amplifier (DRA) have attracted much attention recently. To enhance the reach and optimize system performance, careful design of DRA is required based on the analysis of various types of impairments and their balance. In this paper, we study various pump RIN induced distortions on high spectral efficiency modulation formats. The vector theory of both 1st and higher-order stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) effect using Jones-matrix formalism is presented. The pump RIN will induce three types of distortion on high spectral efficiency signals: intensity noise stemming from SRS, phase noise stemming from cross phase modulation (XPM), and polarization crosstalk stemming from cross polarization modulation (XPolM). An analytical model for the statistical property of relative phase noise (RPN) in higher order DRA without dealing with complex vector theory is derived. The impact of pump RIN induced impairments are analyzed in polarization-multiplexed (PM)-QPSK and PM-16QAM-based unrepeatered systems simulations using 1st, 2nd and 3rd-order forward pumped Raman amplifier. It is shown that at realistic RIN levels, negligible impairments will be induced to PM-QPSK signals in 1st and 2nd order DRA, while non-negligible impairments will occur in 3rd order case. PM-16QAM signals suffer more penalties compared to PM-QPSK with the same on-off gain where both 2nd and 3rd order DRA will cause non-negligible performance degradations. We also investigate the performance of digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms to mitigate such impairments.

  4. Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menart, James A. [Wright State University

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled ?Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.? The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump

  5. Recovery Act: Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A Menart, Professor

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump. The

  6. Computer simulation of ground coupled storage in a series solar assisted heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, John W.; Metz, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    A quantitative study of the effect of thermal coupling between the ground and the heat storage element of a series solar assisted heat pump system is presented. The transient simulation computer program TRNSYS is used to simulate the solar portion of this system. A program to simulate the thermal interaction of the storage element with the ground is incorporated into TRNSYS as a sub-routine. This program calculates heat flow through the ground in discrete steps over space and time. Boundary conditions are established. The ground coupled storage is driven by thermal inputs from the solar portion of the system and from the changing ambient and ground temperatures.

  7. Final Technical Report for EE0006091: H2Pump Hydrogen Recycling System Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudt, Rhonda [H2Pump LLC, Latham, NY (United States)

    2017-02-21

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the product readiness and to quantify the benefits and customer value proposition of H2Pump’s Hydrogen Recycling System (HRS-100™) by installing and analyzing the operation of multiple prototype 100-kg per day systems in real world customer locations. The data gathered will be used to measure reliability, demonstrate the value proposition to customers, and validate our business model. H2Pump will install, track and report multiple field demonstration systems in industrial heat treating and semi-conductor applications. The customer demonstrations will be used to develop case studies and showcase the benefits of the technology to drive market adoption.

  8. Contribution of variable-speed pump hydro storage for power system dynamic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, B.; Moreira, C.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents the study of variable-speed Pump Storage Powerplant (PSP) in the Portuguese power system. It evaluates the progressive integration in three major locations and compares the power system performance following a severe fault event with consequent disconnection of non-Fault Ride-through (FRT) compliant Wind Farms (WF). To achieve such objective, a frequency responsive model was developed in PSS/E and was further used to substitute existing fixed-speed PSP. The results allow identifying a clear enhancement on the power system performance by the presence of frequency responsive variable-speed PSP, especially for the scenario presented, with high level of renewables integration.

  9. Organizational, Cultural, and Psychological Determinants of Smart Infusion Pump Work Arounds: A Study of 3 U.S. Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Benjamin B; Perrigino, Matthew; Tucker, Sharon J; Gaston, Cynthia L; Young, Jim; Vermace, Beverly J; Walroth, Todd A; Buening, Natalie R; Skillman, Katherine L; Berndt, Dawn

    2017-09-01

    We investigated nurse perceptions of smart infusion medication pumps to provide evidence-based insights on how to help reduce work around and improve compliance with patient safety policies. Specifically, we investigated the following 3 research questions: (1) What are nurses' current attitudes about smart infusion pumps? (2) What do nurses think are the causes of smart infusion pump work arounds? and (3) To whom do nurses turn for smart infusion pump training and troubleshooting? We surveyed a large number of nurses (N = 818) in 3 U.S.-based health care systems to address the research questions above. We assessed nurses' opinions about smart infusion pumps, organizational perceptions, and the reasons for work arounds using a voluntary and anonymous Web-based survey. Using qualitative research methods, we coded open-ended responses to questions about the reasons for work arounds to organize responses into useful categories. The nurses reported widespread satisfaction with smart infusion pumps. However, they reported numerous organizational, cultural, and psychological causes of smart pump work arounds. Of 1029 open-ended responses to the question "why do smart pump work arounds occur?" approximately 44% of the causes were technology related, 47% were organization related, and 9% were related to individual factors. Finally, an overwhelming majority of nurses reported seeking solutions to smart pump problems from coworkers and being trained primarily on the job. Hospitals may significantly improve adherence to smart pump safety features by addressing the nontechnical causes of work arounds and by providing more leadership and formalized training for resolving smart pump-related problems.

  10. Performance study of a heat pump dryer system for speciality crops - Pt. 2: model verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adapa, P.K.; Schoenau, G.J.; Sokhansanj, S. [University of Saskatchewan (Canada). College of Engineering

    2002-07-01

    The experimental and predicted performance data of a heat pump dryer system is reported. Chopped alfalfa was dried in a cabinet dryer in batches and also by emulating continuous bed drying using two heat pumps operating in parallel. Results showed that alfalfa was dried from an initial moisture content of 70% (wb) to a final moisture content of 10% (wb). The batch drying took about 4.5 h while continuous bed drying took 4 h to dry the same amount of material. The average air velocity inside the dryer was 0.36 m s{sup -1}. Low temperatures (30-45{sup o}C) for safe drying of specialty crops were achieved experimentally. The heat pump drying system used in this study was about 50% more efficient in recovering the latent heat from the dryer exhaust compared to the conventional dryers. Specific moisture extraction rate (SMER) was maximum when relative humidity stayed above 40%. The dryer was shown to be capable of SMER of between 0.5 and 1.02 kg kW{sup -1} h{sup -1}. It was concluded that continuous bed drying is potentially a better option than batch drying because high process air humidity ratios at the entrance of the evaporator and constant moisture extraction rate and specific moisture extraction rate values can be maintained. An uncertainty analysis confirmed the accuracy of the model. (author)

  11. Economic valuation of heat pumps and electric boilers in the Danish energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Grønnegaard; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Zugno, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Heat pumps (HP) and electric immersion boilers (EB) have great potential to increase flexibility in energy systems. In parallel, decreasing taxes on electricity-based heat production are creating a more favorable economic environment for the deployment of these units in Denmark. In this paper......, the economic value of heat pumps and electric boilers is assessed by simulating their day-to-day market performance using a novel operational strategy based on two-stage stochastic programming. This stochastic model is employed to optimize jointly the daily operation of HPs and EBs along with the Combined Heat...... representative weeks of 2013. We show that the use of stochastic operational models is critical, as standard deterministic models provide an overestimation of the added benefits from the installation of HPs and EBs, thus leading to over-investment in capacity. Furthermore, we perform sensitivity studies...

  12. Increasing nuclear safety and operational reliability by upgrading the charging pump mechanical sealing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenhout, Gerard van [Flowserve Corporation, Etten-Leur (Netherlands); Nilsson, Peter [Flowsys Technologies AB, Moelndal (Sweden); Jehander, Magnus [Ringhals AB, Vaeroebacka (Sweden)

    2016-03-15

    For the Ringhals-2 nuclear power plant, three installed centrifugal pumps were designated to have a combined High Head Safety Injection function, as well as a Chemical Volume Control System function. The pumps were originally installed with rubber bellow type mechanical seals, which over time had demonstrated an unreliable sealing performance by displaying high leakages. In 2002, the Ringhals Maintenance engineers initiated to identify a more reliable and robust shaft sealing solution. In 2007, the project was launched and the installation of the first, new mechanical sealing solution took place in the autumn of 2011. In October 2014, these mechanical seals were dismantled and inspected. The inspection confirmed the expected reliability of the new solution.

  13. Increasing nuclear safety and operational reliability by upgrading the charging pump mechanical sealing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenhout, Gerard van [Flowserve Corporation, Etten-Leur (Netherlands); Nilsson, Peter [Flowsys Technologies AB, Moelndal (Sweden); Jehander, Magnus [Ringhals AB, Vaeroebacka (Sweden)

    2016-07-01

    For the Ringhals-2 nuclear power plant, three installed centrifugal pumps were designated to have a combined High Head Safety Injection function, as well as a Chemical Volume Control System function. The pumps were originally installed with rubber bellow type mechanical seals, which over time had demonstrated an unreliable sealing performance by displaying high leakages. In 2002, the Ringhals Maintenance engineers initiated to identify a more reliable and robust shaft sealing solution. In 2007, the project was launched and the installation of the first, new mechanical sealing solution took place in the autumn of 2011. In October 2014, these mechanical seals were dismantled and inspected. The inspection confirmed the expected reliability of the new solution.

  14. Test bench for operational investigation of photovoltaic pumping systems; Bancada de ensaio para averiguacao operacional de sistemas fotovoltaicos de bombeamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Alaan Ubaiara; Fedrizzi, Maria Cristina; Zilles, Roberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], Emails: alaan@iee.usp.br, fedrizzi@iee.usp.br, zilles@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    From the daily water demand, total head and the daily average irradiation, is possible to determine the size of the PV generator for pumping systems. However, once the equipment is acquired some tests are recommended, specially to verify its performance. One of the most relevant parameters to qualify a pumping system is the daily water delivered (m{sup 3}/day) as a function of daily solar irradiation (Wh/m{sup 2}). Facilities that fit different boundaries conditions, as for example constant total head (m) are not easily available, and just few laboratories have this capability. In this way a simple instrumentation with the capability to determine the daily performance of PV pumping systems is presented. The proposed test tools use a hydraulic circuit with two pumps, one connected to the PV system and the other to the electric grid. The total head is maintained constant by the variable speed drive connected to the grid. (author)

  15. Optimization of systems with the combination of ground-source heat pump and solar collectors in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Elisabeth; Hellström, Göran; Perers, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    The use of ground-source heat pumps for heating and domestic hot water in dwellings is common in Sweden. The combination with solar collectors has been introduced to reduce the electricity demand in the system. In order to analyze different systems with combinations of solar collectors and ground......-source heat pumps, computer simulations have been carried out with the simulation program TRNSYS. Large differences were found between the system alternatives. The optimal design is when solar heat produces domestic hot water during summertime and recharges the borehole during wintertime. The advantage...... is related to the rate of heat extraction from the borehole as well as the overall design of the system. The demand of electricity may increase with solar recharging, because of the increased operating time of the circulation pumps. Another advantage with solar heat in combination with heat pumps is when...

  16. A portable pressure pump for microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems using a porous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kyoung Je; Kim, Dong Sung

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel portable and disposable pressure pump using a porous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sponge and demonstrate its application to a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip. The porous PDMS sponge was simply fabricated by a sugar leaching technique based on capillary suction of pre-cured PDMS into lumps of sugar, thereby enabling us to achieve the porous PDMS sponge composed of interconnected micropores. To indicate the characteristics of the porous PDMS sponge and pump, we measured the average porosities of them whose values were 0.64 and 0.34, respectively. A stress-strain relationship of the fabricated portable pressure pump represented a linear behavior in the compressive strain range of 0 to 20%. Within this range, a pumping volume of the pressure pump could be linearly controlled by the compressed strain. Finally, the fabricated porous PDMS pump was successfully demonstrated as a portable pressure pump for a disposable microfluidic lab-on-a-chip for efficient detection of agglutination. The proposed portable pressure pump can be potentially applicable to various disposable microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems.

  17. A new method of providing pulsatile flow in a centrifugal pump: assessment of pulsatility using a mock circulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreros, Jesús; Berjano, Enrique J; Sales-Nebot, Laura; Más, Pedro; Calvo, Irene; Mastrobuoni, Stefano; Mercé, Salvador

    2008-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential advantages of pulsatile flow as compared with continuous flow. However, to date, physiologic pumps have been technically complex and their application has therefore remained in the experimental field. We have developed a new type of centrifugal pump, which can provide pulsatile as well as continuous flow. The inner wall of a centrifugal pump is pulsed by means of a flexible membrane, which can be accurately controlled by means of either a hydraulic or pneumatic driver. The aim of this study was to assess the hydraulic behavior of the new pump in terms of surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE). We conducted experiments using a mock circulatory system including a membrane oxygenator. No differences were found in the pressure-flow characteristics between the new pump and a conventional centrifugal pump, suggesting that the inclusion of the flexible membrane does not alter hydraulic performance. The value of SHE rose when systolic volume was increased. However, SHE dropped when the percentage of ejection time was reduced and also when the continuous flow (programmed by the centrifugal console) increased. Mean flow matched well with the continuous flow set by the centrifugal console, that is, the pulsatile component of the flow was exclusively controlled by the pulsatile console, and was therefore independent of the continuous flow programmed by the centrifugal console. The pulsatility of the new pump was approximately 25% of that created with a truly pulsatile pump.

  18. A study on modeling and performance assessment of a heat pump system for utilizing low temperature geothermal resources in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepbasli, Arif [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Tolga Balta, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aksaray Engineering Faculty, Nigde University, 68100 Aksaray (Turkey)

    2007-10-15

    Low and moderate geothermal resources are found in most areas of the world. A very efficient way to heat and air-condition homes and buildings is the utilization of ground source heat pumps (GSHPs), also known as geothermal heat pump (GHPs), to obtain heat energy from low temperature geothermal resources. The present study deals with the modeling and performance evaluation of a heat pump system utilizing a low temperature geothermal resource, which is approximated to a geothermal reservoir. The system was designed, constructed and tested in Nigde University, Nigde, Turkey and has been successfully operated since 2005. Energy and exergy analysis methods were used to assess the system performance based on the experimental data. Exergy destructions (or irreversibilities) as well as energy and exergy efficiency relations were presented for each component of the heat pump unit and the whole system, while some thermodynamic parameters, such as fuel depletion ratio, relative irreversibility, productivity lack, exergetic factor and improvement potential, were investigated for the system. Energy and exergy efficiency values on a product/fuel basis were found to range from 73.9% to 73.3% and 63.3% to 51.7% at dead (reference) state temperatures varying from 0 to 25 C for the heat pump unit and entire system, respectively. It is expected that the model presented here would be beneficial to the researchers, government administration, and engineers working in the area of heat pump systems for residential applications. (author)

  19. Physiological characterisation of the efflux pump system of antibiotic-susceptible and multidrug-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, A; Spengler, G; Martins, M; Rodrigues, L; Viveiros, M; Davin-Regli, A; Chevalier, J; Couto, I; Pagès, J M; Amaral, L

    2010-10-01

    Enterobacter aerogenes predominates amongst Enterobacteriaceae species that are increasingly reported as producers of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Although this mechanism of resistance to beta-lactams is important, other mechanisms bestowing a multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype in this species are now well documented. Amongst these mechanisms is the overexpression of efflux pumps that extrude structurally unrelated antibiotics prior to their reaching their targets. Interestingly, although knowledge of the genetic background behind efflux pumps is rapidly advancing, few studies assess the physiological nature of the overall efflux pump system of this, or for that matter any other, bacterium. The study reported here evaluates physiologically the efflux pump system of an E. aerogenes ATCC reference as well as two strains whose MDR phenotypes are mediated by overexpressed efflux pumps. The activities of the efflux pumps in these strains are modulated by pH and glucose, although the effects of the latter are essentially restricted to pH 8, suggesting the presence of two general efflux pump systems, i.e. proton-motive force-dependent and ABC transporter types, respectively.

  20. Optimization and thermoeconomics research of a large reclaimed water source heat pump system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-ping; Du, Fang-hui

    2013-01-01

    This work describes a large reclaimed water source heat pump system (RWSHPS) and elaborates on the composition of the system and its design principles. According to the characteristics of the reclaimed water and taking into account the initial investment, the project is divided into two stages: the first stage adopts distributed heat pump heating system and the second adopts the combination of centralized and decentralized systems. We analyze the heating capacity of the RWSHPS, when the phase II project is completed, the system can provide hydronic heating water with the supply and return water temperature of 55°C/15°C and meet the hydronic heating demand of 8 million square meters of residential buildings. We make a thermal economics analysis by using Thermal Economics theory on RWSHPS and gas boiler system, it is known that the RWSHPS has more advantages, compared with the gas boiler heating system; both its thermal efficiency and economic efficiency are relatively high. It provides a reference for future applications of the RWSHPS.

  1. High energy picosecond Yb:YAG CPA system at 10 Hz repetition rate for pumping optical parametric amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingebiel, Sandro; Wandt, Christoph; Skrobol, Christoph; Ahmad, Izhar; Trushin, Sergei A; Major, Zsuzsanna; Krausz, Ferenc; Karsch, Stefan

    2011-03-14

    We present a chirped pulse amplification (CPA) system based on diode-pumped Yb:YAG. The stretched ns-pulses are amplified and have been compressed to less than 900 fs with an energy of 200 mJ and a repetition rate of 10 Hz. This system is optically synchronized with a broadband seed laser and therefore ideally suited for pumping optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA) stages on a ps-timescale.

  2. Virtual Training System for Hydraulic Pump Cart Based on Virtual Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wusha Huang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper dissertates the application of Virtual Reality Technology in the training process. Virtual training system has more advantages than traditional training system. The design of virtual training system based on PTC DIVISION Mockup software, position tracker and 3-D mouse is proposed. The system is divided into two parts: directing part and operating part. Collision detection is discussed to improve the sense of reality in the virtual environment .This system is applied to the training process of hydraulic pump cart’s assembly and disassembly. More immersive training effect is obtained in this system. The goal of reducing training costs and improving the efficiency of training can be achieved in the virtual training system.  

  3. Small-signal modelling and control of photovoltaic based water pumping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arun; Ganesh Malla, Siva; Narayan Bhende, Chandrasekhar

    2015-07-01

    This paper studies small-signal modelling and control design for a photovoltaic (PV) based water pumping system without energy storage. First, the small-signal model is obtained and then, using this model, two proportional-integral (PI) controllers, where one controller is used to control the dc-link voltage and the other one to control the speed of induction motor, are designed to meet control goals such as settling time and peak overshoot of the closed loop responses. The loop robustness of the design is also studied. For a given set of system parameters, simulations are carried out to validate the modelling and the control design.

  4. Energy system investment model incorporating heat pumps with thermal storage in buildings and buffer tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Balyk, Olexandr

    2013-01-01

    options: passive heat storage in the building structure via radiator heating, active heat storage in concrete floors via floor heating, and use of thermal storage tanks for space heating and hot water. It is shown that the model is well qualified for analysing possibilities and system benefits...... be taken into account. In this study, we present a model that facilitates analysing individual heat pumps and complementing heat storages in integration with the energy system, while optimising both investments and operation. The model incorporates thermal building dynamics and covers various heat storage...

  5. Large electromagnetic pumps. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilman, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    The development of large electromagnetic pumps for the liquid metal heat transfer systems of fission reactors has progressed for a number of years. Such pumps are now planned for fusion reactors and solar plants as well. The Einstein-Szilard (annular) pump has been selected as the preferred configuration. Some of the reasons that electromagnetic pumps may be preferred over mechanical pumps and why the annular configuration was selected are discussed. A detailed electromagnetic analysis of the annular pump, based on slug flow, is presented. The analysis is then used to explore the implications of large size and power on considerations of electromagnetic skin effect, geometric skin effect and the cylindrical geometry.

  6. Performance monitoring of a bubble pumped solar domestic hot water system - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuch, P.D.; Harrison, S.J. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Solar Calorimetry Lab.

    1995-12-01

    A new type of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system for cold climates was described. The bubble pump system is self pumping and self regulating (it circulates anti-freeze). The system transports heat from roof mounted solar collectors to a thermal storage located at a lower level when there is available solar radiation. The design is unique in that it has no moving parts and requires no external electrical or mechanical input to operate. A unit was installed on a row house in Kingston, Ontario, to evaluate its performance. The average daily solar fraction was 32.4 per cent, and the average system efficiency for the monitored period was 13.4 per cent. This was below expectations due to low hot water demand. Performance improved somewhat towards the end of the monitoring period due to increased demand for hot water, improvements to the system, and increased solar insulation. A more realistic annual performance was estimated at 19 per cent for system efficiency and 41 per cent for solar fraction. Further improvements could be expected, especially in mid-winter performance, if the solar collector slope could be increased to a value of 45 to 60 degrees to the horizontal. 8 refs., 14 tabs., 9 figs.

  7. Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers: Part II: Gain media, laser systems, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivas, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The field of optically pumped planar waveguide lasers has seen a rapid development over the last two decades driven by the requirements of a range of applications. This sustained research effort has led to the demonstration of a large variety of miniature highly efficient laser sources by combining different gain media and resonator geometries. One of the most attractive features of waveguide lasers is the broad range of regimes that they can operate, spanning from continuous wave and single frequency through to the generation of femtosecond pulses. Furthermore, their technology has experienced considerable advances to provide increased output power levels, deriving benefits from the relative immunity from the heat generated in the gain medium during laser operation and the use of cladding-pumped architectures. This second part of the review on optically pumped planar waveguide lasers provides a snapshot of the state-of-the-art research in this field in terms of gain materials, laser system designs, and as well as a perspective on the status of their application as real devices in various research areas.

  8. A novel electro-optical pump-probe system for bioelectromagnetic investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Annalisa; Couderc, Vincent; Leproux, Philippe; Labruyère, Alexis; Tonello, Alessandro; El Amari, Saad; Arnaud-Cormos, Delia; Leveque, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    In the area of bioelectromagnetic studies there is a growing interest to understand the mechanisms leading to nanosecond electric fields induced electroporation. Real-time imaging techniques at molecular level could probably bring further advances on how electric fields interact with living cells. However the investigations are limited by the present-day lack of these kinds of advanced instrumentations. In this context, we present an innovative electro-optical pump-probe system. The aim of our project is to provide a performing and compact device for electrical stimulation and multiplex Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (M-CARS) imaging of biological cells at once. The system consists of a 1064 nm sub-nanosecond laser source providing both a monochromatic pump and a polychromatic Stokes optical beam used in a CARS process, as well as the trigger beam for the optoelectronic switching-based electrical pulse generator. The polychromatic Stokes beam (from 600 to 1700 nm) results from a supercontinuum generation in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). A detailed spectro-temporal characterization of such a broadband spectrum shows the impact of the nonlinear propagation in the fiber on the Stokes wave. Despite the temporal distortions observable on Stokes pulse profiles, their spectral synchronization with the pump pulse remains possible and efficient in the interesting region between 1100 nm and 1700 nm. The electrical stimulation device consists of a customized generator combining microstrip-line technology and laser-triggered photoconductive semiconductor switches. Our experimental characterization highlights the capability for such a generator to control the main pulse parameters (profile, amplitude and duration) and to be easily synchronized with the imaging system. We finally test and calibrate the system by means of a KDP crystal. The preliminary results suggest that this electro-optical system provides a suitable tool for real-time investigation of

  9. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, Ahmad, E-mail: syuhada-mech@yahoo.com; Mubarak, Amir Zaki, E-mail: amir-zaki-mubarak@yahoo.com; Maulana, M. Ilham, E-mail: mil2ana@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Syiah Kuala University Jl. Syech Abdul Rauf No.7 Darussalam Banda Aceh 23111 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US$ 14,938.

  10. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-03-01

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US 14,938.

  11. A 40 W cw Nd:YAG solar laser pumped through a heliostat: a parabolic mirror system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, J.; Liang, D.; Guillot, E.; Abdel-Hadi, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Solar-pumped solid-state lasers are promising for renewable extreme-temperature material processing. Here, we report a significant improvement in solar laser collection efficiency by pumping the most widely used Nd:YAG single-crystal rod through a heliostat-parabolic mirror system. A conical-shaped fused silica light guide with 3D-CPC output end is used to both transmit and compress the concentrated solar radiation from the focal zone of a 2 m diameter parabolic mirror to a 5 mm diameter Nd:YAG rod within a conical pump cavity, which enables multi-pass pumping through the laser rod. 40 W cw laser power is measured, corresponding to 13.9 W m-2 record-high collection efficiency for the solar laser pumped through a heliostat-parabolic mirror system. 2.9% slope efficiency is fitted, corresponding to 132% enhancement over that of our previous pumping scheme. A 209% reduction in threshold pump power is also registered.

  12. Studies on injector pump-ultrasonic nebulizer feeding sample system for MPT-AES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Guodong; Hang Songbai; Yu Aimin

    2006-01-01

    The feeding-sample system used by microwave plasma torch atomic emission spectroscopy(MPT-AES)is the pneumatic nebulization system;its efficiency,however,is not good.A newly built injector pump-ultrasonic nebulizer combination feeding-sample system has been designed.Its performance was tested and compared with that of the pneumatic nebulization system.It can be concluded that the newly built feeding-sample system can increase the spectral line intensity by about two to three times and decrease the detection limit by about 2 to 10 times.Moreover,this newly built system can reduce the time taken washing the sample cell from 30 rain or so to about 10 rain.

  13. Innovative commercial ``ground source'' heat pump system sources and sinks: Engineering and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, H.M.; Lowenstein, A.I.; Henderson, H.I. Jr.; Carlson, S.W.; Risser, J.E.

    1998-07-01

    Geothermal heat pumps, which will be called GX systems in this paper, have been employed in specialty applications on both residential and commercial buildings for several decades. GX systems generally have very competitive life cycle costs, but somewhat higher initial costs. The incremental cost of the ground heat exchanger cost is close to the average cost per ton, so GX systems work best with very efficient building shells. Innovative methods can reduce the ground heat exchanger cost. These include better coupling of the heat exchange boreholes to the ground, hybrid systems that use low cost closed fluid coolers to supplement the ground heat exchanger where cooling loads dominate, open loop systems, and opportunistic systems that use sewage effluent or other non-standard sources for heat exchange. These approaches and their benefits are illustrated through five case studies.

  14. 2012 International Conference on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering Thermal Economic Analysis on LiBr Refrigeration -Heat Pump System Applied in CCHP System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, CuiZhen; Yang, Mo; Lu, Mei; Zhu, Jiaxian; Xu, Wendong

    LiBr refrigeration cooling water contains a lot of low-temperature heat source, can use this part of the heat source heat boiler feed water. This paper introduced LiBr refrigeration - heat pump system which recovery heat of the LiBr refrigeration cooling water by heat pump system to heat the feed water of boiler. Hot economic analysis on the system has been performed based on the experimental data. Results show that LiBr refrigeration-heat pump system brings 26.6 percent decrease in primary energy rate consumption comparing with the combined heat and power production system(CHP) and separate generation of cold;

  15. Large-scale heat pumps in sustainable energy systems: System and project perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blarke Morten B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that in support of its ability to improve the overall economic cost-effectiveness and flexibility of the Danish energy system, the financially feasible integration of large-scale heat pumps (HP with existing combined heat and power (CHP plants, is critically sensitive to the operational mode of the HP vis-à-vis the operational coefficient of performance, mainly given by the temperature level of the heat source. When using ground source for low-temperature heat source, heat production costs increases by about 10%, while partial use of condensed flue gasses for low-temperature heat source results in an 8% cost reduction. Furthermore, the analysis shows that when a large-scale HP is integrated with an existing CHP plant, the projected spot market situation in The Nordic Power Exchange (Nord Pool towards 2025, which reflects a growing share of wind power and heat-supply constrained power generation electricity, further reduces the operational hours of the CHP unit over time, while increasing the operational hours of the HP unit. In result, an HP unit at half the heat production capacity as the CHP unit in combination with a heat-only boiler represents as a possibly financially feasible alternative to CHP operation, rather than a supplement to CHP unit operation. While such revised operational strategy would have impacts on policies to promote co-generation, these results indicate that the integration of large-scale HP may jeopardize efforts to promote co-generation. Policy instruments should be designed to promote the integration of HP with lower than half of the heating capacity of the CHP unit. Also it is found, that CHP-HP plant designs should allow for the utilization of heat recovered from the CHP unit’s flue gasses for both concurrent (CHP unit and HP unit and independent operation (HP unit only. For independent operation, the recovered heat is required to be stored. .

  16. Stability analysis of the governor-turbine-hydraulic system of pumped storage plant during small load variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X. D.; Zhang, J.; Chen, S.; Liu, J. C.

    2016-11-01

    Governor-turbine-hydraulic (GTH) system is complex because of strong couplings of hydraulic, mechanical and electrical system. This paper presents a convenient mathematical model of the GTH system of a pumped storage plant (PSP) during small load variation. By using state space method and eigenvalue method, the stability of the GTH system is analyzed and the stable regions of the system can be given as well, which would help to optimize system design or the turning of governors. The proposed method is used to analyze the stability of a practical pumped storage plant during small load variation, which is also simulated in time domain on the basis of characteristics method. The theoretical analysis is in good agreement with numerical simulations. Based on the proposed method, the effect of the system parameters and operating conditions on the stable regions is investigated. These results are useful for the design of the GTH system of pumped storage plants.

  17. Conessine as a novel inhibitor of multidrug efflux pump systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriyong, Thanyaluck; Srimanote, Potjanee; Chusri, Sasitorn; Yingyongnarongkul, Boon-Ek; Suaisom, Channarong; Tipmanee, Varomyalin; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2017-08-14

    Holarrhena antidysenterica has been employed as an ethnobotanical plant for the treatment of dysentery, diarrhoea, fever, and bacterial infections. Biological activities of the principle compound, conessine including anti-diarrhoea and anti-plasmodial effects were documented. Our previous study reported potency of Holarrhena antidysenterica extract and conessine as resistance modifying agents against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. This study aimed to investigate (i) whether conessine, a steroidal alkaloid compound, could act as a resistance modifying agent against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and (ii) whether MexAB-OprM efflux pump involved in the mechanism. Conessine combined with various antibiotics were determined for synergistic activity against P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain K767 (wild-type), K1455 (MexAB-OprM overexpressed), and K1523 (MexB deletion). H33342 accumulation assay was used to evaluate efflux pump inhibition while NPN uptake assay was assessed membrane permeabilization. Conessine significantly reduced MICs of all antibiotics by at least 8-fold in MexAB-OprM overexpressed strain. The levels were comparable to those obtained in wild-type strain for cefotaxime, levofloxacin, and tetracycline. With erythromycin, novobiocin, and rifampicin, MICs were 4- to 8-fold less than MICs of the wild-type strain. Loss of MexAB-OprM due to deletion of mexB affected susceptibility to almost all antibiotics, except novobiocin. Synergistic activities between other antibiotics (except novobiocin) and conessine observed in MexB deletion strain suggested that conessine might inhibit other efflux systems present in P. aeruginosa. Inhibition of H33342 efflux in the tested strains clearly demonstrated that conessine inhibited MexAB-OprM pump. In contrast, the mode of action as a membrane permeabilizer was not observed after treatment with conessine as evidenced by no accumulation of 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine. The results suggested that

  18. Development and application of engineering-scale solar water heater system assisted by heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Xiufeng; Feng Shiyu; Hu Wei; Zheng Feifei [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., Xi' an (China); Wang Huiyu; Luo Cong [Yangzhou Sunleada Co, Ltd, Yangzhou (China); Wang Jianguo; Fan Guiyou [TongLing Real Estate Co. Ltd, TongLing (China)

    2008-07-01

    An engineering-scale solar water heater system assisted by heat pump was developed based on a modularized structure. The subunits of modularized system include vacuum solar energy collectors, air source heat pump, heat storage and supplying system and control panel. All devices could be controlled and monitored centrally. Energy source of this system was composed of solar energy (70%), air thermal energy (20%) and electric power (10%). The system has advantages of high average annual comprehensive energy efficiency and elementary energy utilization efficiency. The product can be employed in central heat water supplying project with a capacity of more than 6 ton, in such facilities as residential districts, hotels, restaurants, dormitories, bathing centers and so on. The economical efficiency is better as the scale is bigger. The project has been supported by innovation funds of Science and Technology of Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), being applied in a residential district successfully as a demonstration project of renewable and new energy by Chinese Ministry of Construction. (orig.)

  19. Wind-driven stand-alone DFIG with battery and pumped hydro storage system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K NAVIN SAM; N KUMARESAN; N AMMASAI GOUNDEN

    2017-02-01

    A wind-driven doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) along with the battery and pumped hydro storage plant (PHSP) has been devised for supplying isolated loads. PHSP-based storage system is economical and viable for the MW level wind-turbine system. The proposed scheme employs a squirrel-cage induction machine (SCIM) coupled with reversible pump turbine for PHSP. The battery storage is also included in this system to cope up with the intermittent nature of wind and fast-changing load. A simple control strategy has been implemented for maintaining the set values of voltage magnitude and frequency at the stator terminals of DFIG, which serve as a virtual grid for connecting ac loads and SCIM. Based on the availability of power in the wind, PHSP and battery, various operating modes of the proposed system have been clearly identified forsupplying the isolated loads. These operating modes are clearly demonstrated through the analysis developed for this purpose and validated through experimental results. The salient features of the proposed system over the existing stand-alone wind-driven generators are (i) structural simplicity, i.e., employing only one power electronic converter, (ii) wide speed operation of wind-driven DFIG, (iii) reduced battery capacity, (iv) high energy storage using PHSP and (v) availability of continuous power to the isolated loads.

  20. Compact interior heat exchangers for CO{sub 2} mobile heat pumping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafner, Armin

    2003-07-01

    The natural refrigerant carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) offers new possibilities for design of flexible, efficient and environmentally safe mobile heat pumping systems. As high-efficient car engines with less waste heat are developed, extra heating of the passenger compartment is needed in the cold season. A reversible transcritical CO{sub 2} system with gliding temperature heat rejection can give high air delivery temperature which results in rapid heating of the passenger compartment and rapid defogging or defrosting of windows. When operated in cooling mode, the efficiency of transcritical CO{sub 2} systems is higher compared to common (HFC) air conditioning systems, at most dominant operating conditions. Several issues were identified for the design of compact interior heat exchangers for automotive reversible CO{sub 2} heat pumping systems. Among theses issues are: (1) Refrigerant flow distribution, (2) Heat exchanger fluid flow circuiting, (3) Air temperature uniformity downstream of the heat exchanger, (4) Minimization of temperature approach, (5) Windshield flash fogging due to retained water inside the heat exchanger, (6) Internal beat conduction in heating mode operation, and (7) Refrigerant side pressure drop In order to provide a basis for understanding these issues, the author developed a calculation model and set up a test facility and investigated different prototype heat exchangers experimentally.

  1. Energy performance and economic evaluation of heat pump/organic rankine cycle system with sensible thermal storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2016-01-01

    -life conditions knowledge, the paper considers two different sensible energy storage (TES) configurations for the reversible heat pump/organic Rankine cycle (HP/ORC) system: a buffer tank for both space heating and domestic hot water and a hot water storage tank used exclusively for domestic hot water...... that consists of a ground-source heat pump with possibility of reversing operation as an ORC power cycle combined with solar heating in a single-family building is introduced. The ORC mode enables the use of solar energy in periods of no heat energy demand and reverses the heat pump cycle to supply electrical...

  2. Increasing RES Penetration and Security of Energy Supply by Use of Energy Storages and Heat Pumps in Croatian Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajačić, Goran; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duić, Neven;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper integration of wind power generation into the Croatian electricity supply is analysed using available technologies. The starting point is a model of the energy system in Croatia in 2007. Comprehensive hour-by-hour energy system analyses are conducted of a complete system meeting...... electricity, heat and transport demands, and including renewable energy, power plants, and combined heat and power production (CHP) for district heating. Using the 2007 energy system the wind power share is increased by two energy storage options: Pumped hydro and heat pumps in combination with heat storages...... with specific regulation of power system could additionally increase wind penetration for 0.37 TWh. Hence, with the current technologies installed in the Croatian energy system the installed pumped hydro-plant may facilitate more than 10% wind power in the electricity system. Large-scale integration of wind...

  3. Design and Evaluation of a Photovoltaic/Thermal-Assisted Heat Pump Water Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Liang Tsai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, modelling and performance evaluation of a photovoltaic/thermal-assisted heat pump water heating (PVTA-HPWH system. The cooling effect of a refrigerant simultaneously enhances the PVT efficiency and effectively improves the coefficient of performance (COP of the HPWH system. The proposed model was built in the MATLAB/Simulink environment by considering the reciprocal energy exchange between a PVT evaporator and a HPWH system. In addition, the power consumption needs of the HPWH are provided by the PV electricity using a model-based control methodology. System performance is evaluated through a real field test. The results have demonstrated the power autarchy of the proposed PVTA-HPWH system with better PVT efficiency and COP. In addition, the good agreement between the model simulation and the experimental measurements demonstrate the proposed model with sufficient confidence.

  4. Evaluation of the electroosmotic medium pump system for preparative disk gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, M; Hosogi, Y; Takiguchi, H; Saito, S; Shiroza, T; Shibata, Y; Hiratsuka, K; Kiyama-Kishikawa, M; Abiko, Y

    2001-01-15

    This paper describes an improved electroosmotic elution system for preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) based on the epochal idea of H. V. Tan et al. (Nucleic Acids Res. 1988, 16, 1921-1930). In this elution system, a semipermeable membrane, mounted under the gel terminal end, works as the elution pump as well as the partition of the elution chamber. We refer to this system as the "electroosmotic medium pump system." Operation of the constructed apparatus (3.6 cm i.d. disk gel column) and resolution of the protein bands were examined by separation of the model protein mixture (bovine serum albumin (BSA), ovalbumin, bovine carbonic anhydrase, soybean trypsin inhibitor) and purification of the membrane protein, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV). The Spectra/Por 7 dialysis membrane provided a better flow profile for the elution buffer. The four model proteins of the protein mixture were able to be completely separated from each other and recovered without dilution. The maximum protein concentration of eluate achieved was 93 mg/ml, when applying a single component, BSA fraction V, as a sample. Furthermore, the multifunctional ectoenzyme, DPP IV, was purified in a single step.

  5. Exergy performance analysis of the conceptual district energy network system with heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seung Won; Chung, Ha Seung [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Sung [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    To increase the efficiency of a district heating system, we propose a district energy network concept which combines several heating resources with additional electric heat pump and thermal energy storage. With help of thermal energy storage, a heat pump can be operated at maximum efficiency at all the time. Electricity generated with less CO{sub 2} emission makes the proposed system much more environmentally friendly. Even though the proposed concept can be applied to any given situation, a specific target area was chosen to show the effectiveness of the newly proposed energy network concept more clearly. Several constraints were applied for the selection process and a simplified model used for quantitative comparison between the existing and the developed concept. Exergy analysis showed the increased performance of proposed energy network system. The result showed that the newly proposed concept generates less CO{sub 2} emission by 46% at maximum compared to the existing system. By using additional renewable energy sources, we can reduce CO{sub 2} emission even further.

  6. Performance Testing of a Liquid Metal Pump for In-Space Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Fission surface power (FSP) systems could be used to provide power on the surface of the moon, Mars, or other planets and moons of our solar system. Fission power systems could provide excellent performance at any location, including those near the poles or other permanently shaded regions, and offer the capability to provide on demand power at any time, even at large distances from the sun. Fission-based systems also offer the potential for outposts, crew and science instruments to operate in a power-rich environment. NASA has been exploring technologies with the goal of reducing the cost and technical risk of employing FSP systems. A reference 40 kWe option has been devised that is cost-competitive with alternatives while providing more power for less mass anywhere on the lunar surface. The reference FSP system is also readily extensible for use on Mars, where it would be capable of operating through global dust storms and providing year-round power at any Martian latitude. Detailed development of the FSP concept and the reference mission are documented in various other reports. The development discussed in this paper prepares the way for testing of the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU), which is a 10 kWe end-to-end test of FSP technologies intended to raise the entire FSP system to technology readiness level (TRL) 6. The Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) was established by NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to provide a capability for performing hardware-directed activities to support multiple in-space nuclear reactor concepts by using a nonnuclear test methodology. This includes fabrication and testing at both the module/component level and at near prototypic reactor components and configurations allowing for realistic thermal-hydraulic evaluations of systems. The liquid-metal pump associated with the FSP system must be compatible with the liquid NaK coolant and have adequate performance to enable a viable flight system. Idaho National

  7. Hardware and software system for monitoring oil pump operation in power high-voltage transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михайло Дмитрович Дяченко

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the basic prerequisites for the creation of an automated monitoring system for oil pumps of high-voltage transformers. This is due to the fact that the long operation of oil pumps results in deterioration and destruction of bearings, rubbing of the rotor, breakage and damage to the impeller, leakage, etc., which inevitably causes a significant decrease in the insulating properties of the transformer oil and leads to expenditures for its further recovery. False triggerings of gas protection sometimes occur. Continuous operation of the electric motor also requires additional equipment to protect the motor itself from various emergency situations, such as a short in the stator winding, a housing breakdown, an incomplete phase mode, etc. The use of stationary systems provides: diagnosing defects at an early stage of their development, increasing the reliability and longevity of the equipment components, increasing the overhaul period, decreasing the number of emergency stops, and adjusting the schedule of preventative maintenance. The basic principles of identification of the damaged part of the oil pump are given, the hardware and algorithmic solutions are considered in the work. The full-scale tests of the model sample on the power transformer of the high-voltage substation confirmed the assumption of the possibility of detecting the damaged unit separating it from the rest connected in one mechanical structure. A detailed analysis of the operation of each of the units is carried out by means of the general substation switchboard and displayed as graphs, diagrams and text messages. When the limit values of vibration are reached, faults in the operation of the unit are detected, the overlimit current values, a warning alarm is activated, and the command to disconnect the damaged unit is issued. The optimal solution for the organization of the information collection system using the principle of sensor networks, but combined

  8. Developing a System for Integraded Automatic Control of Mutiple Infusion Pumps : The Multiplex infusion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Most errors in ICUs are related to intravenous (IV) therapy. Previous studies suggested that hard to operate infusion pumps and the high cognitive workload for ICU nurses contribute to these errors. Conventional IV therapy requires separate lumens for incompatible IV drugs. This often requires the p

  9. The Effects of Fin Spacing and Tube Outer Diameter of Evaporator on System Performance in Heat Pump Tumble Dryers

    OpenAIRE

    Onan, Cenk; Erdem, Serkan; Özkan, Derya Burcu; Heperkan, Hasan Alpay

    2014-01-01

    In heat pump tumble dryers, moisture separates from the laundry and leaves the dryer system at the evaporator. Moist air goes out the drum and enters the evaporator whose outer surface is below the dew point temperature. Air cools and then leaves its moisture. At the airside of the evaporator the wet surface develops and simultaneous heat-mass transfer occurs. Fin-and-tube heat exchangers are used as evaporators in household heat pump tumble dryers. In addition to optimum operating conditions...

  10. Electronic Unit Pump Diesel Engine Control Unit Design for Integrated Powertrain System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo-lan; ZHAO Chang-lu; ZHANG Fu-jun; HUANG Ying

    2005-01-01

    The performance of the electronic unit pump (EUP) diesel engine is studied, it will be used in the integrated powertrain and its multi parameters are controllable. Both the theoretical analysis and experiment research are taken. A control unit for the fuel quantity and timing in crankshaft domain is designed on this basis and the engine experiment test has been done. For the constant speed camshaft driving EUP system, the fuel quantity will increase as the supply angle goes up and injection timing has no effect. The control precision can reach 1°CA. The full injection timing MAP and engine peak performance curves are made successfully.

  11. El sistema de inyección de combustible tipo bomba inyector UPS (Unit Pump System)

    OpenAIRE

    Tamayo Ramírez, Marlon Antonio; Hurtado Chiriboga, Hernán Mauricio

    2007-01-01

    El sistema de inyección de combustible electrónica diesel tipo bomba conducto inyector UPS (Unit Pump System), con bombas de inyección individual, es la continuación de los sistemas de inyección con bomba de inyección conjunta. Estas bombas llamadas bombas de inyección solidarias al bloque motor, se asignan individualmente a cada cilindro. En la bomba de inyección solidaria al bloque motor, la alta presión de combustible, se sigue produciendo según el principio de bomba de émbolo, como ...

  12. Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump System Development – Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ally, Moonis R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Uselton, R. B. [Lennox Industries, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Between October 2007 and September 2017, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lennox Industries, Inc. (Lennox) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) system for the US residential market. The Lennox AS-IHP concept consisted of a high-efficiency air-source heat pump (ASHP) for space heating and cooling services and a separate heat pump water heater/dehumidifier (WH/DH) module for domestic water heating and dehumidification (DH) services. A key feature of this system approach with the separate WH/DH is capability to pretreat (i.e., dehumidify) ventilation air and dedicated whole-house DH independent of the ASHP. Two generations of laboratory prototype WH/DH units were designed, fabricated, and lab tested. Performance maps for the system were developed using the latest research version of the US Department of Energy/ORNL heat pump design model (Rice 1992; Rice and Jackson 2005; Shen et al. 2012) as calibrated against the lab test data. These maps served as the input to TRNSYS (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2010) to predict annual performance relative to a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (i.e., a combination of an ASHP with a seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) of 13 and resistance water heater with an energy factor (EF) of 0.9). Predicted total annual energy savings (based on use of a two-speed ASHP and the second-generation WH/DH prototype for the AS-IHP), while providing space conditioning, water heating, and dehumidification for a tight, well-insulated 2600 ft2 (242 m2) house at three US locations, ranged from 33 to 36%, averaging 35%, relative to the baseline system. The lowest savings were seen at the cold-climate Chicago location. Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced by about 50 to 60% relative to a resistance WH.

  13. Requirements Analysis Study for Master Pump Shutdown System Project Development Specification [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-03-24

    This document has been updated during the definitive design portion of the first phase of the W-314 Project to capture additional software requirements and is planned to be updated during the second phase of the W-314 Project to cover the second phase of the Project's scope. The objective is to provide requirement traceability by recording the analysis/basis for the functional descriptions of the master pump shutdown system. This document identifies the sources of the requirements and/or how these were derived. Each requirement is validated either by quoting the source or an analysis process involving the required functionality, performance characteristics, operations input or engineering judgment.

  14. Municipal water-based heat pump heating and/or cooling systems: Findings and recommendations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington, State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Wegman, S. [South Dakota Utilities Commission (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the present work was to determine if existing heat pump systems based on municipal water systems meet existing water quality standards, to analyze water that has passed through a heat pump or heat exchanger to determine if corrosion products can be detected, to determine residual chlorine levels in municipal waters on the inlet as well as the outlet side of such installations, to analyses for bacterial contaminants and/or regrowth due to the presence of a heat pump or heat exchanger, to develop and suggest criteria for system design and construction, to provide recommendations and specifications for material and fluid selection, and to develop model rules and regulations for the installation, operation, and monitoring of new and existing systems. In addition, the Washington State University (WSU) has evaluated availability of computer models that would allow for water system mapping, water quality modeling and system operation.

  15. Simulation model of a new solar pumped laser system of Fresnel lens in Helwan of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser A. Abdel-Hadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model of a new solar pumped laser system is tested to be run in Helwan in Egypt as an example of an industrial polluted area. The system is based on concentrating the solar radiation using a Fresnel lens on a laser head fixed on a mount tracking the sun during the day and powered by a DC battery. The model is fed by real solar radiation data in the various seasons in order to know the laser power got from such a system in those conditions. The results showed that the output laser power obtained from this system can be up to 6.2 W in spring, 6.8 W in summer, 2.2 W in autumn and 0.4 W in winter.

  16. Research on rigid–flexible coupling dynamic characteristics of boom system in concrete pump truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Tang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Concrete pump truck plays an important role in infrastructure construction and national economic development. In recent years, its boom system becomes longer, and its dynamic and control become more complicated. In order to study the dynamic characteristics of boom system, three dynamic models such as multi-rigid-body model, rigid–flexible coupling model, and rigid–flexible coupling model with equivalent hydraulic cylinder were built in this work. Simulation analysis and experimental analysis were done, and they show that we should not only consider the large-range motion but also consider the small flexible deformation to study the dynamic characteristics of boom system precisely. It provides the theoretical basis to vibration control, trajectory prediction, and life assessment for boom system and such structures.

  17. Study on Operating Performance of Stirling Engine-Driven Vapor Compression Heat Pump System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Noboru

    Stirling engines have many unique advantages including higher thermal efficiencies, preferable exhaust gas characteristics, multi-fuel usage, and low noise and vibration. On the other hand, heat pump systems are very attractive for space heating and cooling, and industrial usage. There are several environmental merits of Stirling driven vapor compression (SDVC) systems. A design method for the SDVC, which is based on mathematical methods for Stirling and Ranking cycles, has been developed. The attractive SDVC performance using conventional and alternative refrigerants was shown. From the calculated Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) and operating costs, it became clear that the SDVC system with the alternative refrigerant has a higher potential as the future air-conditioning system.

  18. Geothermal Heat Pump System for New Student Housing Project at the University at Albany Main Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lnu, Indumathi [Univ. of Albany, NY (United States)

    2015-08-27

    University at Albany successfully designed, constructed and is operating a new student housing building that utilizes ground source heat pump (GSHP) for heating and cooling the entire 191,500SF building. The installed system consists of a well field with 150 bores, 450 feet deep and (189) terminal heat pump units for a total capacity of 358 Tons cooling and 4,300 MBtu/h heating. The building opened in Fall 2012. The annual energy use and cost intensity of the building, after the changes made during the first 2 years’ of operation is 57kBtu/SF/Year and $1.30/SF/Year respectively. This is approximately 50% lower than the other residential quads on campus, despite the fact that the quads are not air-conditioned. The total project cost from design through 3-years of operations is approximately $6 Million, out of which $5.7 Million is for construction of the GSHP system including the well field. The University received a $2.78 Million grant from the Department of Energy. The estimated utility cost savings, compared to a baseline building with conventional HVAC system, is approximately $185,000. The estimated simple payback, after grant incentives, is 15 years. Additionally, the project has created 8.5FTE equivalent jobs.

  19. Emergy evaluation of a pumping irrigation water production system in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Luo, Zhaohui; Webber, Michael; Chen, Jing; Wang, Weiguang

    2014-03-01

    The emergy concept was used to evaluate a pumping irrigation water production system in China. A framework for emergy evaluation of the significance of irrigation water and its production process was developed. The results show that the irrigation water saved has the highest emergy value (8.73E + 05 sej·J-1), followed by the irrigation water supplied to farmlands (1.72E + 05 sej·J-1), the pumped water (4.81E + 04 sej·J-1), with the lowest value shown from water taken from the local river (3.72E + 04 sej·J-1). The major contributions to the emergy needed for production are the inputs of soil and water. This production system could contribute to the irrigated agriculture and economy, according to several calculated emergy indices: emergy yield ratio ( EYR), emergy investment ratio ( EIR), environmental load ratio ( ELR), and environmental sustainability index ( ESI). The comparative analysis shows that the emergy theory and method, different from the conventional monetary-based analysis, could be used to evaluate irrigation water and its production process in terms of the biophysical account. Additional emergy evaluations should be completed on different types of water production and irrigated agricultural systems to provide adequate guidelines for the sustainability of irrigation development.

  20. Heat transfer analysis of underground U-type heat exchanger of ground source heat pump system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Guihong; Zhang, Liyin

    2016-01-01

    Ground source heat pumps is a building energy conservation technique. The underground buried pipe heat exchanging system of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) is the basis for the normal operation of an entire heat pump system. Computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation software, ANSYS-FLUENT17.0 have been performed the calculations under the working conditions of a continuous and intermittent operation over 7 days on a GSHP with a single-well, single-U and double-U heat exchanger and the impact of single-U and double-U buried heat pipes on the surrounding rock-soil temperature field and the impact of intermittent operation and continuous operation on the outlet water temperature. The influence on the rock-soil temperature is approximately 13 % higher for the double-U heat exchanger than that of the single-U heat exchanger. The extracted energy of the intermittent operation is 36.44 kw·h higher than that of the continuous mode, although the running time is lower than that of continuous mode, over the course of 7 days. The thermal interference loss and quantity of heat exchanged for unit well depths at steady-state condition of 2.5 De, 3 De, 4 De, 4.5 De, 5 De, 5.5 De and 6 De of sidetube spacing are detailed in this work. The simulation results of seven working conditions are compared. It is recommended that the side-tube spacing of double-U underground pipes shall be greater than or equal to five times of outer diameter (borehole diameter: 180 mm).

  1. Development of magnetic bearing system for a new third-generation blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Joo; Ahn, Chi Bum; Choi, Jaesoon; Park, Jun Woo; Song, Seung-Joon; Sun, Kyung

    2011-11-01

    A magnetic bearing system is a crucial component in a third-generation blood pump, particularly when we consider aspects such as system durability and blood compatibility. Many factors such as efficiency, occupying volume, hemodynamic stability in the flow path, mechanical stability, and stiffness need to be considered for the use of a magnetic bearing system in a third-generation blood pump, and a number of studies have been conducted to develop novel magnetic bearing design for better handling of these factors. In this study, we developed and evaluated a new magnetic bearing system having a motor for a new third-generation blood pump. This magnetic bearing system consists of a magnetic levitation compartment and a brushless direct current (BLDC) motor compartment. The active-control degree of freedom is one; this control is used for controlling the levitation in the axial direction. The levitation in the radial direction has a passive magnetic levitation structure. In order to improve the system efficiency, we separated the magnetic circuit for axial levitation by using a magnetic circuit for motor drive. Each magnetic circuit in the bearing system was designed to have a minimum gap by placing mechanical parts, such as the impeller blades, outside the circuit. A custom-designed noncontact gap sensor was used for minimizing the system volume. We fabricated an experimental prototype of the proposed magnetic bearing system and evaluated its performance by a control system using the Matlab xPC Target system. The noncontact gap sensor was an eddy current gap sensor with an outer diameter of 2.38 mm, thickness of 0.88 mm, and resolution of 5 µm. The BLDC motor compartment was designed to have an outer diameter of 20 mm, length of 28.75 mm, and power of 4.5 W. It exhibited a torque of 8.6 mNm at 5000 rpm. The entire bearing system, including the motor and the sensor, had an outer diameter of 22 mm and a length of 97 mm. The prototype exhibited sufficient levitation

  2. Pumps; Pumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Praktische Energiekunde e.V., Muenchen (Germany). Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft; Hellriegel, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Praktische Energiekunde e.V., Muenchen (Germany). Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft; Pfitzner, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Praktische Energiekunde e.V., Muenchen (Germany). Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft

    1994-11-01

    The technical features of commercial pump types are described with regard to their technical, energy-related and economic parameters, and characteristic data are presented in the form of data sheets. This is to provide a basis for a comparative assessment of different technologies and technical variants. The chapter `System specifications` describes the various fields of application of pumps and the resulting specific requirements. The design and function of the different pump types are described in `Technical description`. `System and plant description dscribes the design and adaptation of pumps, i.e. the adaptation of the plant data to the system requirements. `Data compilation` provides a survey of the types and systematics of the compiled data as well as a decision aid for selecting the pumps best suited to the various applications. The `Data sheet` section describes the structure and handling of the data sheets as well as the data contained therein. The data sheets are contained in the apapendix of this report. The section `General analysis` compares typical technical, energy-related and economic characteristics of the different pump types. This is to enable a rough comparison of pump types and to facilitate decisions. The chapter `Example` illustrates the use of the data sheets by means of a selected example. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit hat zum Ziel, Technik seriengefertigter und marktgaengiger Pumpen in typisierter Form hinsichtlich ihrer technischen, energetischen und wirtschaftlichen Parameter zu beschreiben und ihre charakteristischen Kennwerte in Datenblaettern abzubilden. Damit wird ein grundlegendes Instrument fuer die vergleichende Beurteilung unterschiedlicher Techniken bzw. Technikvarianten hinsichtlich energetischer und wirtschaftlicher Kriterien geschaffen. Im Abschnitt `Systemanforderungen` erfolgt die Beschreibung der einzelnen Anwendungsbereiche fuer Pumpen mit den speziellen daraus resultierenden Anforderungen. Der Aufbau und

  3. Analysis of the Hydrologic Response Associated with Shutdown and Restart of the 200-ZP-1 Pump-and-Treat System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, Frank A.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2000-09-08

    A number of programs have been implemented on the Hanford Site that utilize the pumping and treatment of contaminated groundwater as part of their remediation strategy. Often the treated water is reinjected into the aquifer at injection well sites. The implementation of remedial pump and treat systems, however, results in hydraulic pressure responses, both areally and vertically (i.e., with depth) within the pumped aquifer. The area within the aquifer affected by the pump and treat system (i.e., radius of influence) is commonly estimated based on detecting associated water-level responses within surrounding monitor wells. Natural external stresses, such as barometric pressure fluctuations, however, can have a discernible impact on well water-level measurements. These temporal barometric effects may significantly mask water-level responses within more distant wells that are only slightly affected (< 0.10 m) by the test system. External stress effects, therefore, can lead to erroneous indications of the radius of influence of the imposed pump and treat system remediation activities and can greatly diminish the ability to analyze the associated well responses for hydraulic property characterization. When these extraneous influences are significant, adjustments or removal of the barometric effects from the test-response record may be required for quantitative hydrologic assessment. This report examines possible hydrologic effects of pump and treat remediation actions and provides a detailed analysis of water-level measurements for selected 200-ZP-1 pump and treat system monitor wells during the recent Y2K shutdown (December 1999) and restart activity (January 2000). The general findings presented in this report have universal application for unconfined and confined aquifer systems.

  4. Pumping machinery theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Badr, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Pumping Machinery Theory and Practice comprehensively covers the theoretical foundation and applications of pumping machinery. Key features: Covers characteristics of centrifugal pumps, axial flow pumps and displacement pumpsConsiders pumping machinery performance and operational-type problemsCovers advanced topics in pumping machinery including multiphase flow principles, and two and three-phase flow pumping systemsCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine efficiency and energy consumptionCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine effi

  5. THE INVESTIGATION OF THE INTERACTION OF THE IMPLANTABLE ROTARY BLOOD PUMP AND THE LEFT VENTRICLE ON THE MOCK CIRCULATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Konysheva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the dynamics of the interaction of rotary pump, connected to the scheme «the left ventricle – aor- ta», and left ventricle in norms and heart failure, using data obtained on the mock circulatory system. Adverse pumping states such as suction and regurgitation can be detected. These limits depend on the degree of cardiac failure, which confirms the need to control the speed of rotation of the impeller in the range of the cardiac failure from pathology to normal. It has been shown that the pulsating pressure at the inlet of the pump modulates the flow of the pump, making it a pulsating, what positively affects on the dynamics of cardiac output. 

  6. Theoretical study on volatile organic compound removal and energy performance of a novel heat pump assisted solid desiccant cooling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nie, Jinzhe; Fang, Lei; Zhang, Ge

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical model was established for predicting the volatile organic compound (VOC) removal and energy performance of a novel heat pump assisted solid desiccant cooling system (HP-SDC). The HP-SDC was proposed based on the combination of desiccant rotor with heat pump, and was designed...... for cooling, dehumidification and indoor air cleaning in normal office, commercial or residential buildings. The desiccant rotor was used for dehumidification and indoor air cleaning; the heat pump provided sensible cooling and regeneration heat for the desiccant rotor. The theoretical model consisted of two...... sub-models. One sub-model was used to simulate the heat, moisture and VOC transfer in the desiccant rotor; the other sub-model was used to predict the energy performance of the heat pump. Combining the two sub-models, the energy performance and VOC removal effect of the HP-SDC could be simulated...

  7. The research progress of heat pump systems%热泵系统的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      随着社会和科技的发展,热泵系统的应用越来越广泛。因此,研究热泵系统成为了当前研究的一个热点课题。文章介绍了热泵系统的作用,概述了热泵系统采用的关键技术,阐述了热泵系统的系统结构,并对热泵系统的多个应用进行了探讨,为热泵系统开发设计提供了一个全面的综述。%With the development of society and science and technology,heat pump systems has become more and more popular and has been a hot topic at present. The paper summarizes the function of heat pump systems,then introduces the heat pump technology, and then carries out investigation on the system structure,finally,discusses the application of these kinds of systems. This review is fo-cused on the advances in heat pump systems to provide reference to develop heat pump systems.

  8. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF HEAT-PUMPS APPLICATION IN LOW TEMPERATURE HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Chepurnoy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The  article  considers  comparative  operation-efficiency  of  the  low-temperature  heatsupply systems with heat pumping plants (HPP and with hot-water boilers. The paper shows that for energy evaluation of the alternative heat-supply systems effectiveness one cannot employ the transformation ratio (heating coefficient and the fuel heat-utilization factor in the HPP. Nonetheless the transformation ratio enters the formulae designating the efficiency of HPP operation. The authors obtain a generalized formula for ascertainment of transformation ratio and suggest evaluating the operation efficiency of the heat-supply systems by means of indicators specifying relative gain in the exergy-efficiency factor, fuel savings and saving expenditures connected with fuel and utilities. They attain formulae and build nomographic charts for those indicators ascertainment. The operation-efficiency comparative analysis of the low-temperature heat supply systems with HPP and with hot-water boilers shows that the HPP systems increase their effectiveness with transformation ratio, fuel price increase as well as with low electric-energy prices. The article specifies that with fuel low prices, the transformation-ratios limiting values with which the HPP operation-efficacy gains, grow. Energy-efficiency increase in the HPP does not always guaranty their economic effectiveness. These findings are true only for the heating systems. The hot water-supply systems will require the HPP condenser water additional heating to the assumed temperature from another thermal source, which reduces the effectiveness of the heat pump plants utilizing.

  9. Variable speed drives for pumps used in intensive pond culture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to about 2010, the only large pumps on most catfish farms were those associated with the water supply. Water from wells is usually pumped to the surface using single-speed, vertical, lineshaft turbine pumps powered by three phase, electric motors. Since 2010, several catfish farmers have bui...

  10. Inverting pump-probe spectroscopy for state tomography of excitonic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Stephan; Whaley, K Birgitta

    2013-04-28

    We propose a two-step protocol for inverting ultrafast spectroscopy experiments on a molecular aggregate to extract the time-evolution of the excited state density matrix. The first step is a deconvolution of the experimental signal to determine a pump-dependent response function. The second step inverts this response function to obtain the quantum state of the system, given a model for how the system evolves following the probe interaction. We demonstrate this inversion analytically and numerically for a dimer model system, and evaluate the feasibility of scaling it to larger molecular aggregates such as photosynthetic protein-pigment complexes. Our scheme provides a direct alternative to the approach of determining all Hamiltonian parameters and then simulating excited state dynamics.

  11. Simulating open quantum systems: from many-body interactions to stabilizer pumping

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, M; Zhou, Y L; Roos, C F; Zoller, P

    2011-01-01

    In a recent experiment, Barreiro et al. demonstrated the fundamental building blocks of an open-system quantum simulator with trapped ions [Nature 470, 486 (2011)]. Using up to five ions, single- and multi-qubit entangling gate operations were combined with optical pumping in stroboscopic sequences. This enabled the implementation of both coherent many-body dynamics as well as dissipative processes by controlling the coupling of the system to an artificial, suitably tailored environment. This engineering was illustrated by the dissipative preparation of entangled two- and four-qubit states, the simulation of coherent four-body spin interactions and the quantum non-demolition measurement of a multi-qubit stabilizer operator. In the present paper, we present the theoretical framework of this gate-based ("digital") simulation approach for open-system dynamics with trapped ions. In addition, we discuss how within this simulation approach minimal instances of spin models of interest in the context of topological q...

  12. System simulation for an untreated sewage source heat pump (USSHP) in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Na; Hao, Peng Z.

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses the system characteristics of an untreated sewage source heat pump in winter. In this system, the sewage enters into the evaporator directly. The variable parameters to control the system contain the sewage temperature at evaporator inlet and the water temperature at condenser inlet. It is found that most parameters, except the condensation heat transfer coefficient, change in the form of sine wave the same as the sewage temperature at inlet. The heating load and consumed power are 12.9kW and 3.45kW when the sewage temperature at inlet is 13°C. COP is about 3.75 in the range of the sewage temperature at inlet of 12-13°C.

  13. Characterization of a mini-channel heat exchanger for a heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteconi, A.; Giuliani, G.; Tartuferi, M.; Polonara, F.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper a mini-channel aluminum heat exchanger used in a reversible heat pump is presented. Mini-channel finned heat exchangers are getting more and more interest for refrigeration systems, especially when compactness and low refrigerant charge are desired. Purpose of this paper was to characterize the mini-channel heat exchanger used as evaporator in terms of heat transfer performance and to study the refrigerant distribution in the manifold. The heat exchanger characterization was performed experimentally by means of a test rig built up for this purpose. It is composed of an air-to-air heat pump, air channels for the external and internal air circulation arranged in a closed loop, measurement sensors and an acquisition system. The overall heat transfer capacity was assessed. Moreover, in order to characterize the flow field of the refrigerant in the manifold of the heat exchanger, a numerical investigation of the fluid flow by means of CFD was performed. It was meant to evaluate the goodness of the present design and to identify possible solutions for the future improvement of the manifold design.

  14. Effects of a dual-pump crude-oil recovery system, Bemidji, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Herkelrath, William N.

    2014-01-01

    A crude-oil spill occurred in 1979 when a pipeline burst near Bemidji, MN. In 1998, the pipeline company installed a dual-pump recovery system designed to remove crude oil remaining in the subsurface at the site. The remediation from 1999 to 2003 resulted in removal of about 115,000 L of crude oil, representing between 36% and 41% of the volume of oil (280,000 to 316,000 L) estimated to be present in 1998. Effects of the 1999 to 2003 remediation on the dissolved plume were evaluated using measurements of oil thicknesses in wells plus measurements of dissolved oxygen in groundwater. Although the recovery system decreased oil thicknesses in the immediate vicinity of the remediation wells, average oil thicknesses measured in wells were largely unaffected. Dissolved-oxygen measurements indicate that a secondary plume was caused by disposal of the pumped water in an upgradient infiltration gallery; this plume expanded rapidly immediately following the start of the remediation in 1999. The result was expansion of the anoxic zone of groundwater upgradient and beneath the existing natural attenuation plume. Oil-phase recovery at this site was shown to be challenging, and considerable volumes of mobile and entrapped oil remain in the subsurface despite remediation efforts.

  15. Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems.

  16. Numerical estimation of heat distribution from the implantable battery system of an undulation pump LVAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Eiji; Makino, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Chinzei, Tsuneo; Abe, Yusuke; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Mochizuki, Shu-ichi; Imachi, Kou; Inoue, Yusuke; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    We have been developing an implantable battery system using three series-connected lithium ion batteries having an energy capacity of 1,800 mAh to drive an undulation pump left ventricular assist device. However, the lithium ion battery undergoes an exothermic reaction during the discharge phase, and the temperature rise of the lithium ion battery is a critical issue for implantation usage. Heat generation in the lithium ion battery depends on the intensity of the discharge current, and we obtained a relationship between the heat flow from the lithium ion battery q(c)(I) and the intensity of the discharge current I as q(c)(I) = 0.63 x I (W) in in vitro experiments. The temperature distribution of the implantable battery system was estimated by means of three-dimentional finite-element method (FEM) heat transfer analysis using the heat flow function q(c)(I), and we also measured the temperature rise of the implantable battery system in in vitro experiments to conduct verification of the estimation. The maximum temperatures of the lithium ion battery and the implantable battery case were measured as 52.2 degrees C and 41.1 degrees C, respectively. The estimated result of temperature distribution of the implantable battery system agreed well with the measured results using thermography. In conclusion, FEM heat transfer analysis is promising as a tool to estimate the temperature of the implantable lithium ion battery system under any pump current without the need for animal experiments, and it is a convenient tool for optimization of heat transfer characteristics of the implantable battery system.

  17. Tolerability, safety and efficacy of Iloprost infusion without peristaltic pump in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tosi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate safety, tolerability and efficacy on Raynaud’s phenomenon (Rp of iloprost infusion without peristaltic pump in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc. Patients and methods. The inclusion criteria were diagnosis of SSc, age between 18 and 65 years, presence of Rp, and absence of any controindication to the use of iloprost. The treatment was carried out in a day hospital setting and consisted first of 5 consecutive days of iloprost infusion (from an initial dose of 1.0 ng/Kg/min up to 2 ng/kg/min, and then of 2 days of infusions at the maximum possible dose every 45 days for one year. All of the adverse events were carefully recorded and the changes in the Rp were measured by a 5 grade scale (worsened, unmodified, slightly improved, very improved, disappeared. Results. Thirty-eight SSc patients (all females, mean age 49 years (range 18.5-65, disease duration 1.5 years (range 0.5-10.8 were enrolled in the study. During the first cycle of therapy, 14 avderse events occurred in 11 (28.9% patients and during the next cycles, 3 adverse events were seen in 3 (7.9% patients. In all of the cases they were mild and transient. Rp was considered very improved in 15 (39.5% patients, slightly improved in 13 (34.2%, unmodified in 8 (21% and worse in 2 (5.2%. Discussion. In this study intravenous iloprost without peristaltic pump proved to be safe, well tolerated, and as effective as traditional infusion through peristaltic pump in improving Rp in patients with SSc.

  18. Performance of water source heat pump system using high-density polyethylene tube heat exchanger wound with square copper wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wen Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface water source heat pump system is an energy-efficient heat pump system. Surface water heat exchanger is an important part of heat pump system that can affect the performance of the system. In order to enhance the performance of the system, the overall heat transfer coefficient (U value of the water exchanger using a 32A square copper coiled high-density polyethylene tube was researched. Comparative experiments were conducted between the performance of the coiled high-density polyethylene tube and the 32A smooth high-density polyethylene tube. At the same time, the coefficient of performance of the heat pump was investigated. According to the result, the U value of the coiled tube was 18% higher than that of the smooth tube in natural convection and 19% higher in forced convection. The coefficient of performance of the heat pump with the coiled tube is higher than that with the smooth tube. The economic evaluation of the coiled tube was also investigated.

  19. A systematic outline of the system combination of solar thermal power plants and heat pumps; Systematische Gliederung der Systemkombination von solarthermischen Anlagen und Waermepumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, Michel Y.; Frank, Elimar [Hochschule fuer Technik HSR, Rapperswil (Switzerland). SPF Inst. fuer Solartechnik; Trinkl, Christoph; Zoerner, Wilfried [Hochschule Ingolstadt (Germany). Kompetenzfeld Erneuerbare Energien

    2010-07-01

    In recent years, increasingly systems for heat supply for space heating and hot water were developed based on the combination of solar thermal systems and heat pumps up to serial production. The manufacturers or suppliers either come from the solar energy industry or from the heat pump sector and accordingly have the specific background knowledge in one of these two technologies. Thus, two different approaches for the conceptual design of system solutions are identifiable. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the actual classification in solar thermal systems and heat pumps as well as a systematic outline concept for combined solar heat pump systems.

  20. Energy performance of a ventilation system for a block of apartments with a ground source heat pump as generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchi, M.; Lorenzini, M.; Valdiserri, P.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a numerical simulation of the annual performance of two different systems: a traditional one composed by a gas boiler-chiller pair and one consisting of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) both coupled to two thermal storage tanks. The systems serve a bloc of flats located in northern Italy and are assessed over a typical weather year, covering both the heating and cooling seasons. The air handling unit (AHU) coupled with the GSHP exhibits excellent characteristics in terms of temperature control, and has high performance parameters (EER and COP), which make conduction costs about 30% lower than those estimated for the traditional plant.

  1. Numerical analysis of heat exchange processes for the ground source heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, H.; Muto, H.; Moritani, S.; Kohgo, Y.; Hamamoto, S.; Takemura, T.; Ohnishi, J.; Komatsu, T.

    2012-12-01

    Ground source heat pump systems (GSHP) use ground or groundwater as a heat source. They can achieve much higher coefficient of performance (COP) than conventional air source heat pump systems because the temperature of the ground is much more stable than that of the air. Heat energy in the ground is then viewed as one of the renewable energy sources. GSHP has been receiving great interests among countries in North America and Western Europe, as well as some developed countries in Asia because it can potentially reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission. While GSHP can inject heat from the buildings to the ground for cooling during the summer, it can pump heat stored in the ground for heating during the winter. As some physical, chemical, and biological properties of the ground and groundwater are temperature dependent, running GSHP can eventually affect groundwater quality. The main objective of this project was to develop a model that allows predicting not only ground and groundwater temperatures but also changes in physical, chemical, and biological properties of ground and groundwater with GSHP under operations. This particular study aims at simulating heat exchange and transfer processes in the ground for a vertical-loop closed GSHP system. In the closed GSHP system, an anti-freezing solution is circulated inside the closed-loop tube, called U-tube, that is buried in the ground. Heat is then transferred to the anti-freezing solution in the U-tube by a heat exchanger. In this study we used HYDRUS to predict temperature of the anti-freezing solution, as well as that of the ground. HYDRUS allows one to simulate variably-saturated water flow and solute and heat transport in porous media numerically in two- and three-dimensional domains with great flexibility in defining boundary conditions. At first changes in anti-freezing solution temperatures measured were predicted in response to Thermal Response Test (TRT) conducted at our study site. Then, heat

  2. Optomechanical oscillator pumped and probed by optically two isolated photonic crystal cavity systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng; Sumikura, Hisashi; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Taniyama, Hideaki; Takiguchi, Masato; Notomi, Masaya

    2016-11-28

    Optomechanical control of on-chip emitters is an important topic related to integrated all-optical circuits. However, there is neither a realization nor a suitable optomechanical structure for this control. The biggest obstacle is that the emission signal can hardly be distinguished from the pump light because of the several orders' power difference. In this study, we designed and experimentally verified an optomechanical oscillation system, in which a lumped mechanical oscillator connected two optically isolated pairs of coupled one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities. As a functional device, the two pairs of coupled cavities were respectively used as an optomechanical pump for the lumped oscillator (cavity pair II, wavelengths were designed to be within a 1.5 μm band) and a modulation target of the lumped oscillator (cavity pair I, wavelengths were designed to be within a 1.2 μm band). By conducting finite element method simulations, we found that the lumped-oscillator-supported configurations of both cavity pairs enhance the optomechanical interactions, especially for higher order optical modes, compared with their respective conventional side-clamped configurations. Besides the desired first-order in-plane antiphase mechanical mode, other mechanical modes of the lumped oscillator were investigated and found to possibly have optomechanical applications with a versatile degree of freedom. In experiments, the oscillator's RF spectra were probed using both cavity pairs I and II, and the results matched those of the simulations. Dynamic detuning of the optical spectrum of cavity pair I was then implemented with a pumped lumped oscillator. This was the first demonstration of an optomechanical lumped oscillator connecting two optically isolated pairs of coupled cavities, whose biggest advantage is that one cavity pair can be modulated with an lumped oscillator without interference from the pump light in the other cavity pair. Thus, the oscillator is a suitable

  3. Simulation of heat-pump systems in Polysun 4 - Final report; Simulation von Waermepumpen-Systemen in Polysun 4 - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti, J.; Witzig, A. [Vela Solaris AG, Winterthur (Switzerland); Huber, A.; Ochs, M. [Huber Energietechnik AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-01-15

    Polysun 4 is a software program for the simulation of heating systems. The simulation kernel applies a time stepping algorithm and dynamically calculates all relevant system parameters over a one year period, based on statistical weather data. On the one hand, Polysun draws out by physics-based simulation scheme and its modularity, which allows any arrangement of the system components. On the other hand, Polysun offers a unique set of component catalogues which cover a large number of commercially available system components. In this project, three kinds of heat pumps have been integrated in Polysun, namely the air/water, water/water and brine/water heat pumps. Furthermore, the relevant heat sources have been implemented, namely ambient air, soil and groundwater. In consequence, Polysun now covers a large, and almost complete, range of renewable energy systems. Simulation parameters are the measured heat pump COP values (in accordance with EN 255 and EN 14511). A linear interpolation scheme has been developed in this project in order to simulate systems for arbitrary source and heat pump temperatures and to interpolate the power consumption. For the dynamic simulation of the ground source heat pump, the numerical algorithm from the Program EWS (calculation module developed in 1997) has been integrated into Polysun. Groundwater probes are calculated with respect to the soil temperatures. Heat pumps and probes were implemented as independent components in Polysun. In the graphical user interface, they can be arbitrarily placed and connected with other hydraulic components. The timestepping simulation calculates inlet temperature, electric power consumption and heat transfer in the entire system. The Polysun catalogs have been extended accordingly with total over 300 component entries and a number of relevant system templates. (authors)

  4. The Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of the Water Lubricated Bearing-Rotor System in Seawater Desalination Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Ye

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the water lubricated bearing-rotor system in seawater desalination pump, this paper is based on the coupling between the lubricating flow field and the rotor dynamics. The fluid-solid interaction (FSI method, Rigid Body, was adopted to study the journal orbit of the bearing-rotor system under the periodic unbalancing load. The influences of geometric and working parameter to the journal orbit were combined to analyze the stability and reliability of the bearing-rotor system. The result shows that increasing the rotating speed would increase the journal whirling amplitude and the system sensitivity to the external excitation and unbalancing load were promoted; increasing the aspect ratio would reduce the journal whirling amplitude and cause the system to be more unstable; increasing the inlet pressure would reduce the journal whirling amplitude and cause the system to be more unstable; increasing the unbalancing load would reduce the stability margin and the system is easy to be unstable if obstructed; increasing the radial clearance would reduce the journal whirling amplitude and cause the system to be more unstable. The attitude angle has no influence on the journal whirling amplitude but would influence the stability of system and the value of attitude angle should not be large.

  5. Speed-variable Switched Differential Pump System for Direct Operation of Hydraulic Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2015-01-01

    proportional valves, this design allows to control the lower chamber pressure levels, throttling excess compression flow to tank. The resulting design introduces additional losses due to throttling of excess compression flow, but also improves the dynamic properties of the system significantly. The proposed...... differential cylinders. The main idea was here to utilize an electric rotary drive, with the shaft interconnected to two antiparallel fixed displacement gear pumps, to actuate a differential cylinder. With the design carried out such that the area ratio of the cylinder matches the displacement ratio of the two...... may seriously influence the dynamics and hence the performance during operation. This paper presents an analysis of these properties, and a redesign of the hydraulic system concept is proposed. Here the area- and displacement ratios are deliberately mismatched, causing inherent pressure build...

  6. Operation Performance of Air Source Heat Pump System for Space Heating in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jun; CHEN Yan; QU Hang; LI Xinguo

    2007-01-01

    An air source heat pump system (ASHPS) used in an office building is set up and studied experimentally. Its operating performance in winter is evaluated based on test data and a comparative discussion is given on the effect of climate conditions and heating load ratio on the operation behavior.Then heating capacity variation caused by evaporator frosting is analyzed as well. Finally, the defrosting parameters and the technical feasibility are studied for a constant heating demand. The experimental results indicate that both the outlet water temperature drop and the system COP should be taken into account when setting defrosting parameters, and ASHPS is a viable technology for space heating and hotwater production in winter in Tianjin, which can maintain the room temperature above 19 ℃ when the outdoor temperature is -2 ℃.

  7. Investment and Economy Analysis of Water-Source Heat Pump System in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ding

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, the application of renewable energy witnesses rapid development. In the near future, a lot of demonstration projects will be built and thus it is urgent to know the economics of renewable energy building application technologies. Based on the renewable energy demonstration projects in Chongqing city, the author discussed the economy issue of water-source heat pump system (WSHPs in order to provide suggestions for the application projects. According to the design information of demonstration projects, the average incremental investment, allowance, and payback period are calculated in this paper. Comparing WSHPs with traditional heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC system, the saved energy of WSHPs is estimated in the current paper. The author calculated the amount of saved energy in unit applied area and unit intake water. Besides, the economy and efficiency of WSHPs project is analyzed at the end of this paper.

  8. Manufacturing of metallic porous structures to be used in capillary pumping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gonçalves Reimbrecht

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Sintered metallic porous structures have an application as capillary structures in two-phase heat transfer loops. In this work the manufacturing procedure of tubular porous structures for capillary pump application is discussed. The application of porous structures on capillary pumping systems requires porosity higher than 40% and pore size diameter lower than 20 µm. Carbonyl nickel powder with particle diameter between 3 and 7 µm and stainless steel AISI316L powder with particle diameter between 1 and 22 µm were used as raw material. Sintering under hydrogen atmosphere was performed both in a resistive furnace and in a plasma reactor. Temperature and time were the modified parameters to obtain suitable porosity and roundness on the samples. The porosity was measured using the Arquimedes Principle (MPIF-42, the roundness was evaluated using a simplified measurement technique of the sample diameter and the pore size distribution was determined by image analysis techniques. Images obtained by Scanning Electronic Microscopy were employed on the image analysis. The sintering parameters selected to manufacture nickel samples were 700 °C and 30 min resulting in a porosity of about 44%. The sintering parameters selected to manufacture stainless steel samples were 1000 °C and 30 min resulting in a porosity of about 40%.

  9. Design and evaluation of osmotic pump-based controlled release system of Ambroxol Hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiongkai; Sun, Min; Gao, Yan; Cao, Fengliang; Zhai, Guangxi

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to design and evaluate an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system for controlling the release of Ambroxol Hydrochloride (Amb). Citric acid, lactose and polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) were employed as osmotic agents. Surelease EC containing polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) controlling the membrane porosity was used as semi-permeable membrane. The formulation of tablet core was optimized by orthogonal design and evaluated by weighted mark method. The influences of the amount of PEG 400 and membrane thickness on Amb release were investigated. The optimal osmotic pump tablet (OPT) was evaluated in different release media and at different stirring rates. The major release power confirmed was osmotic pressure. The release of Amb from OPT was verified at a rate of approximately zero-order, and cumulative release percentage at 12?h was 92.6%. The relative bioavailability of Amb OPT in rabbits relative to the commercial sustained capsule was 109.6%. Our results showed that Amb OPT could be a practical preparation with a good prospect.

  10. Design Approach for Solar Photovoltaic Ground Water Pumping System for Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiqur Rahman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Eastern India has rich resource base for intensive and diversified agriculture, but the production and productivity of this region is quite low due to lack of assured irrigation as even a short dry spell of drought adversely affects the stability of agricultural production. The foremost reason energy squeeze in terms of lack of electricity and substantial increase in diesel price, which refrain farmers from operating required number hours of diesel pumps. This region is endowed with enormous solar energy potential with solar radiation of 4 - 6.4 kWh/m2/day and 250 - 300 bright sunshine days. Therefore, it can be a year round reliable source of energy for ground water pumpingto meet supplementary irrigation requirement. In addition to reliability,environmental pollution would also be reduced. However,in view of initial investment cost, cropping pattern and land holding sizes of the region,solar photovoltaic pumping system should be of appropriatesize and it should be designed keeping in view the solar irradianceround the year and water requirement in different seasons. This technical discusses few important aspects to fulfilthis proposition.

  11. Generation of synchronized signal and pump pulses for an optical parametric chirped pulse amplification based multi-terawatt Nd:glass laser system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Raghuramaiah; R K Patidar; R A Joshi; P A Naik; P D Gupta

    2010-11-01

    Synchronized signal (650 ps) and pump (1.3 ns) pulses were generated using 4-pass geometry in a grating pair based pulse stretcher unit. The pump pulse has been further amplified in a high gain regenerative amplifier. This amplified pulse was used as the pump in an optical parametric chirped pulse amplification based Nd:glass laser system. As the chirped signal pulse and the pump pulse originated from the same oscillator, the time jitter between the pump pulse and the signal pulse can be <50 ps.

  12. Geochemical impacts of groundwater heat pump systems in an urban alluvial aquifer with evaporitic bedrock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido Schneider, Eduardo A. [Geological Survey of Spain (IGME), C/ Manuel Lasala no. 44, 9B, 50006 Zaragoza (Spain); García-Gil, Alejandro, E-mail: agargil@unizar.es [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Zaragoza, C/ Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); GHS, Institute of Environmental Assessment & Water Research (IDAEA), CSIC, Jordi Girona 18–26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Vázquez-Suñè, Enric [GHS, Institute of Environmental Assessment & Water Research (IDAEA), CSIC, Jordi Girona 18–26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Sánchez-Navarro, José Á. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Zaragoza, C/ Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    In the last decade, there has been an extensive use of shallow geothermal exploitations in urban environments. Although the thermal interference between exploitations has been recently studied, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the geochemical impacts of those systems on the aquifers where they are installed. Groundwater flow line scale and well-doublet scale research work has been conducted at city scale to quantify the geochemical interaction of shallow geothermal exploitations with the environment. A comprehensive analysis was conducted on data obtained from a monitoring network specifically designed to control and develop aquifer policies related to thermal management of the aquifer. The geochemical impacts were evaluated from a thermodynamic point of view by means of saturation index (SI) calculations with respect to the different mineral species considered in the system. The results obtained indicate limited geochemical interaction with the urban environment in most of the situations. However, there are some cases where the interaction of the groundwater heat pump installations with the evaporitic bedrock resulted in the total disablement of the exploitation system operation wells. The application of the tool proposed proved to be pragmatic in the evaluation of geochemical impacts. Injection of water into the aquifer can trigger an important bedrock gypsum and halite dissolution process that is partly responsible for scaling in well casing pipes and collapse of the terrain in the vicinity of injection wells. - Highlights: • We studied geochemical impacts of groundwater heat pump systems. • We have sampled a monitoring network in an energetically exploited urban aquifer. • A limited geochemical interaction has been found in most of the exploitations. • Reinjection into the aquifer produces an important bedrock gypsum dissolution. • Scaling in well casing pipes and collapse of the terrain have been observed.

  13. Modeling and Controlling Flow Transient in Pipeline Systems: Applied for Reservoir and Pump Systems Combined with Simple Surge Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itissam ABUIZIAH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available When transient conditions (water hammer exist, the life expectancy of the system can be adversely impacted, resulting in pump and valve failures and catastrophic pipe rupture. Hence, transient control has become an essential requirement for ensuring safe operation of water pipeline systems. To protect the pipeline systems from transient effects, an accurate analysis and suitable protection devices should be used. This paper presents the problem of modeling and simulation of transient phenomena in hydraulic systems based on the characteristics method. Also, it provides the influence of using the protection devices to control the adverse effects due to excessive and low pressure occuring in the transient. We applied this model for two main pipeline systems: Valve and pump combined with a simple surge tank connected to reservoir. The results obtained by using this model indicate that the model is an efficient tool for water hammer analysis. Moreover, using a simple surge tank reduces the unfavorable effects of transients by reducing pressure fluctuations.

  14. A numerical study on the oil retention of R410A and PVE oil mixture in multi heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak Soo; Kim, Min Soo [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Predicting an amount of discharged oil from a compressor is necessary to charge the compressor with proper amount of oil. The amount of discharged oil can be predicted by calculating the oil retention amount in each component of a heat pump system. This study suggests a method for calculating the oil retention amount in a heat pump system. In addition, flow pattern of refrigerant and oil mixture in horizontal gas line of refrigerant was ascertained by flow visualization. The oil retention amounts in each component of multi heat pump system were calculated with respect to mass flux of refrigerant, Oil circulation ratio (OCR), length of horizontal and vertical lines. Oil retention amounts in horizontal and vertical gas lines of refrigerant were significant. To validate the model for gas lines of refrigerant, comparison between predicted and experimental oil retention amounts was conducted, and mean absolute percentage error was 15.0%.

  15. Optimization design and compare of different solar-ground source heat pump system of office building in cold regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H.; He, S.; Fu, Y.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents two different operation modes of Solar-Ground Source Heat Pump System (SGSHP(S)). With the simulation tool TRNSYS, two different SGSHP system models were built to taking simulation. After making analysis and compare of different simulation results, series operation mode was believed to be better than parallel in the target building.

  16. Optimal control of a fuel cell/wind/PV/grid hybrid system with thermal heat pump load

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sichilalu, S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal energy management strategy for a grid-tied photovoltaic–wind-fuel cell hybrid power supply system. The hybrid system meets the load demand consisting of an electrical load and a heat pump water heater supplying thermal...

  17. Method of evaluation of efficiency improvement potential for water supply systems with focus on variable speed centrifugal pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pilscikovs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is the derivation of the method for evaluation of efficiency improvement potential for public water supply systems with a focus on centrifugal network pumps. The efficiency of proportional pressure control usage has been analyzed for variable speed pumps. It has been done if proportional pressure control is used in comparison with constant pressure control mode. For this reason, energy calculation analyses have been realized for variable speed centrifugal pumps, and the theoretical tool of estimation of the efficiency improvement potential for public water supply systems has been derived. The conclusions are as follows: (1 it has been found that 1110 MWh of annually consumed electrical energy can be saved up, if the control mode of variable speed network pumps will be changed from constant pressure to proportional pressure control mode with the deviation of 20% from head value of duty point at zero flow; (2 about 13 MWh of annually consumed electrical energy can be saved up, if the proportional pressure control mode with the deviation of 15% will be changed to the deviation of 20%; (3 totally about 1123 MWh or 1.12 GWh (14% of the annually consumed electrical energy by variable speed network pumps can be saved up in small public water supply systems in Latvia.

  18. A new computational fluid dynamics method for in-depth investigation of flow dynamics in roller pump systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Liang, Xin M; Zhao, Gang; Su, Youchao; Wang, Yang

    2014-07-01

    Roller pumps are commonly used in circulatory assist devices to deliver blood, but the inherent high mechanical stresses (especially wall shear stress) may cause considerable damage to cells. Conventional experimental approaches to evaluate and reduce device-induced cell damage require considerable effort and resources. In this work, we describe the use of a new computational fluid dynamics method to more effectively study roller pump systems. A generalized parametric model for the fluid field in a typical roller pump system is presented first, and analytical formulations of the moving boundary are then derived. Based on the model and formulations, the dynamic geometry and mesh of the fluid field can be updated automatically according to the time-dependent roller positions. The described method successfully simulated the pulsing flow generated by the pump, offering a convenient way to visualize the inherent flow pattern and to assess shear-induced cell damage. Moreover, the highly reconfigurable model and the semiautomated simulation process extend the usefulness of the presented method to a wider range of applications. Comparison studies were conducted, and valuable indications about the detailed effects of structural parameters and operational conditions on the produced wall shear stress were obtained. Given the good consistency between the simulated results and the existing experimental data, the presented method displays promising potential to more effectively guide the development of improved roller pump systems which produce less mechanical damage to cells.

  19. Chemiluminometric determination of captopril in a multi-pumping flow system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, S Sofia M; Santos, João L M

    2012-07-15

    In this work, a simple, versatile and fully automated analytical methodology for the chemiluminometric determination of captopril - an angiotensin II-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor - in pharmaceutical formulations, is proposed. The developed methodology was based on the enhancement by captopril of the chemiluminescence emission of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II). In sulphuric acid medium tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) was oxidized by cerium(IV) and converted into a reactive oxidant specie [Ru(bpy)(3)](3+), which was subsequently reduced with captopril in order to yield a significant enhancement of the original chemiluminescence emission that was directly related to captopril concentration. The analytical process was implemented by resorting to an automated multi-pumping flow system (MPFS) that enabled the establishment of multiple reaction interfaces, which, in combination with the created pulsed flowing stream assured a fast and reproducible sample/reagent mixing and reaction development essential to guarantee the generation and subsequent measurement of the short-lived species involved in the chemiluminescent process. The developed system employed three solenoid micro-pumps as the only flow manifold active components. These assured the insertion, propelling and commuting of all solutions. The automatic actuation of the solenoid micro-pumps provided an easily programmed, operated and controlled analytical flow system, exhibiting high versatility, efficiency and compactness at a low cost. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the proposed method allowed the determination of captopril for concentrations between 2×10(-3) and 1.5×10(-1)mmolL(-1) (r=0.9996, n=6) and a sampling frequency of about 58 determinations per hour, producing 620μL of waste per determination. The results obtained for pharmaceutical formulations were statistically comparable to those provided by the reference procedure with a relative deviation between -2.32 and 1.39%. The

  20. Characterization of Site for Installing Open Loop Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S. W.; Park, Y.; Lee, J. Y.; Yi, M. J.; Cha, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to understand hydrogeological properties of site where open loop ground source heat pump system will be installed and operated. Groundwater level and water temperature were hourly measured at the well developed for usage of open loop ground source heat pump system from 11 October 2013 to 8 January 2014. Groundwater was sampled in January and August 2013 and its chemical and isotopic compositions were analyzed. The bedrock of study area is the Jurassic granodiorite that mainly consists of quartz (27.9 to 46.8%), plagioclase (26.0 to 45.5%), and alkali feldspar (9.5 to 18.7%). The groundwater level ranged from 68.30 to 68.94 m (above mean sea level). Recharge rate was estimated using modified watertable fluctuation method and the recharge ratios was 9.1%. The water temperature ranged from 14.8 to 15.0oC. The vertical Increase rates of water temperature were 1.91 to 1.94/100 m. The water temperature showed the significant seasonal variation above 50 m depth, but had constant value below 50 m depth. Therefore, heat energy of the groundwater can be used securely in open loop ground source heat pump system. Electrical conductivity ranged from 120 to 320 µS/cm in dry season and from 133 to 310 µS/cm in wet season. The electrical conductivity gradually decreased with depth. In particular, electrical conductivity in approximately 30 m depth decreased dramatically (287 to 249 µS/cm) in wet season. The groundwater was Ca-HCO3 type. The concentrations of dissolved components did not show the vertically significant variations from 0 to 250 m depth. The δ18O and δD ranged from -9.5 to -9.4‰ and from -69 to -68‰. This work is supported by the New and Renewable Energy of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No.20123040110010).

  1. An investigation of the performance of an electronic in-line pump system for diesel engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Li-yun; ZHU Yuan-xian; LONG Wu-qiang; MA Xiu-zhen; XUE Ying-ying

    2008-01-01

    WIT Electronic Fuel System Co.,Ltd. has developed a new fuel injector,the Electronic In-line Pump (EIP) system,designed to meet China's diesel engine emission and fuel economy regulations. It can be used on marine diesel engines and commercial vehicle engines through different EIP systems. A numerical model of the EIP system was built in the AMESim environment for the purpose of creating a design tool for engine application and system optimization. The model was used to predict key injection characteristics under different operating conditions,such as injection pressure,injection rate,and injection duration. To validate these predictions,experimental tests were conducted under the conditions that were modeled. The results were quite encouraging and in agreement with model predictions. Additional experiments were conducted to study the injection characteristics of the EIP system. These results show that injection pressure and injection quantity are insensitive to injection timing variations,this is due to the design of the constant velocity cam profile. Finally,injection quantity and pressure vs. pulse width at different cam speeds are presented,an important injection characteristic for EIP system calibration.

  2. Production of Hyperpolarized 129Xe Gas Without Nitrogen by Optical Pumping at 133Cs D2 line in Flow System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xin; SUN Xian-Ping; LUO Jun; ZENG Xi-Zhi; LIU Mai-Li; ZHAN Ming-Sheng

    2004-01-01

    @@ We report production of hyperpolarized 129Xe gas via spin-exchange with optically pumped Cs atoms at the D2 line, achieved at low magnetic field in a flow system and in the absence of nitrogen gas. The nuclear spin polarization of hyperpolarized 129Xe gas is enhanced by a factor of 10000 compared to that without optical pumping under the same condition, which corresponds to polarization of about 2.66%. Due to the high spin polarization, the radiation damping of hyperpolarized 129Xe gas has also been observed in the flow system.

  3. Performance evaluation and parametric optimization of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell/heat-driven heat pump hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Chen, J. [Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2012-06-15

    With the help of the current models of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and three-heat-source heat pumps, a generic model of a PEM fuel cell/heat-driven heat pump hybrid system is established, so that the waste heat produced in the PEM fuel cell may be availably utilized. Based on the theory of electrochemistry and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, expressions for the efficiency and power output of the PEM fuel cell, the coefficient of performance and rate of pumping heat of the heat-driven heat pump, and the equivalent efficiency and power output of the hybrid system are derived. The curves of the equivalent efficiency and power output of the hybrid system varying with the electric current density and the equivalent power output versus efficiency curves are represented through numerical calculation. The general performance characteristics of the hybrid system are analyzed. The optimally operating regions of some important parameters of the hybrid system are determined. The influence of some main irreversible losses on the performance of the hybrid system is discussed in detail. The advantages of the hybrid system are revealed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Energy optimization in pumping systems; Optimización de energía en sistemas de bombeo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Roger Sabogal Abril

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Within this research a study was performed on energy optimization in pumping systems, highlighting the impact of variable frequency drivers (VFD. This work seeks to propose a model to diagnose pumping systems, contributing towards reduced energy consumption. A search and compilation was performed of theory of pumping systems, AC motors, VFD, and industrial applications. A model is proposed for diagnosis and experimental data was obtained from a test bench. After taking the data, it was proceeded to analyze it on an Excel Tool developed by the author. This tool allowed identifying the system; then, a simulation was performed consisting on assigning a percentage of use to the load curve; thus, showing a saving if the system is used at the highest efficiency point. Lastly, all the procedure was carried out via a system with VFD, which showed less energy consumption. The tool developed in Excel allows, through a set of data, computing load system, pump efficiency, motor efficiency, motor – VFD, and MCC or motor starter.

  5. GUI Of Control System On The Level Of Oil Tank By Two Pumps Using V. Basic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qusay Jalil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Science is developing applications in all fields medical industrial agricultural military .... etc. private computer applications and at the moment has become easier development tasks through a computer which controls the systems through the so-called graphical user interface GUI where it is through the graphical interface to control the whole system in terms of operating appeared maintenance and other this is not only but rather can handle the graphical interface by any person who is not a specialist in the field of control of any It simplifies dealing with the system by the designer person.This paper represents a simplification of the work of control is full of a large volume of fuel tank system as in factories through the two pumps and valves discharge consists of control system of two parts 1- Software 2- Hardware for Soft is the part of the compiler is responsible for receiving data processed and giving orders to the hardware for the purpose of implementation.This is done simulations of the system through the graphical user interface GUI designed under the working environment V.BASIC by a specialist engineer to be controlled by someone less experienced in the field of control

  6. Hybrid space heating/cooling system with Trombe wall, underground venting, and assisted heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley, J.W.; James, L.C.; Stevens, S.; Autry, A.N.; Nussbaum, M.; MacQueen, S.V.

    1983-06-22

    Our goal was to design and monitor a hybrid solar system/ground loop which automatically assists the standard, thermostatically controlled home heating/cooling system. The input from the homeowner was limited to normal thermostat operations. During the course of the project it was determined that to effectively gather data and control the various component interactions, a micro-computer based control system would also allow the HVAC system to be optimized by simple changes to software. This flexibility in an untested concept helped us to achieve optimum system performance. Control ranged from direct solar heating and direct ground loop cooling modes, to assistance of the heat pump by both solar space and ground loop. Sensors were strategically placed to provide data on response of the Trombe wall (surface, 4 in. deep, 8 in. deep), and the ground loop (inlet, 3/4 length, outlet). Micro-computer hardware and computer programs were developed to make cost effective decisions between the various modes of operation. Although recent advances in micro-computer hardware make similar control systems more readily achievable utilizing standard components, attention to the decision making criteria will always be required.

  7. Energy Performance and Economic Evaluation of Heat Pump/Organic Rankine Cycle System with Sensible Thermal Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, C.; Dumont, O.; Nielsen, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    that consists of a ground-source heat pump with possibility of reversing operation as an ORC power cycle combined with solar heating in a single-family building is introduced. The ORC mode enables the use of solar energy in periods of no heat energy demand and reverses the heat pump cycle to supply electrical......The interaction between electrical and thermal energy demands represent a potential area for balancing supply and demand that could contribute to the integration of intermittent renewables in energy systems. To enable the interaction between thermal and electric energy, an innovative concept...... power.This paper combines a dynamic model based on empirical data of the HP/ORC system with lessons learned from 140 heat pump installations operating in real-life conditions in a cold climate. These installations were monitored for a period up to 5 years.Based on the aforementioned model and real...

  8. Energy performance and economic evaluation of heat pump/organic rankine cycle system with sensible thermal storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2016-01-01

    that consists of a ground-source heat pump with possibility of reversing operation as an ORC power cycle combined with solar heating in a single-family building is introduced. The ORC mode enables the use of solar energy in periods of no heat energy demand and reverses the heat pump cycle to supply electrical......The interaction between electrical and thermal energy demands represent a potential area for balancing supply and demand that could contribute to the integration of intermittent renewables in energy systems. To enable the interaction between thermal and electric energy, an innovative concept...... power. This paper combines a dynamic model based on empirical data of the HP/ORC system with lessons learned from 140 heat pump installations operating in real-life conditions in a cold climate. These installations were monitored for a period up to 5 years. Based on the aforementioned model and real...

  9. Highly efficient end-side-pumped Nd:YAG solar laser by a heliostat-parabolic mirror system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, J; Liang, D; Vistas, C R; Guillot, E

    2015-03-10

    We report a large improvement in the collection and slope efficiency of an Nd:YAG solar laser pumped by a heliostat-parabolic mirror system. A conical fused silica lens was used to further concentrate the solar radiation from the focal zone of a 2 m diameter primary concentrator to a Nd:YAG single-crystal rod within a conical pump cavity, which enabled multipass pumping to the active medium. A 56 W cw laser power was measured, corresponding to 21.1  W/m2 record-high solar laser collection efficiency with the heliostat-parabolic mirror system. 4.9% slope efficiency was calculated, corresponding to 175% enhancement over our previous result.

  10. Installation and field trials of pump turbine for standalone power generation for PICO HYDEL system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetwani, S.H. [Electrical Research and Development Association, Vadodara, Gujarat (India)

    2010-07-01

    The installation and field trials of pump turbines for standalone power generation for a pico hydel system were discussed in this presentation. Background on the project was first presented. The technology was best suited for distributed generation. The presentation discussed the installation of the unit at the Galibidu Gram Panchayat in the Coorg District of Karnataka in India. An estimate was also provided. Laboratory trials were outlined and site performance was discussed. The total head available at the site was 74 metres. Ten houses were electrified with this unit in the first phase. Three cfls of 15 watts each were energized in each house. It was concluded that in the second phase, it was planned to install a 14 inch television in each house. figs.

  11. Resonators induced transparency and optical switching assisted by optofluidic pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Sun, Li-Hui

    2016-12-01

    A tunable plasmonic induced transparency (PIT)-based light switching is proposed and investigated. The proposed structure consists of a bus waveguide, two nanoresonators and an optofluidic pump system for actively tuning the system’s transmission. By using the finite difference time domain method, it is found that the interferences between the dark and bright mode resonators can be controlled by manipulating the fluid filled in the resonator, leading to an actively tunable plasmonic switch, the transmittance can be flexibly tuned from near unity to zero. The structure in our paper has the following advantages, such as ultracompact size and easy fabrication. Our study will provide a possibility for designing the ultrafast devices in highly integrated optical circuits.

  12. Requirements Analysis Study for Master Pump Shutdown System Project Development Specification [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-09-20

    This study is a requirements document that presents analysis for the functional description for the master pump shutdown system. This document identifies the sources of the requirements and/or how these were derived. Each requirement is validated either by quoting the source or an analysis process involving the required functionality, performance characteristics, operations input or engineering judgment. The requirements in this study apply to the first phase of the W314 Project. This document has been updated during the definitive design portion of the first phase of the W314 Project to capture additional software requirements and is planned to be updated during the second phase of the W314 Project to cover the second phase of the project's scope.

  13. Optimization of ground source heat pumps systems through the implementation of hybrid systems; Optimizacion de las instalaciones de bomba de calor geotermica mediante la implementacion de sistemas hibridos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magraner, T.; Quilis, M. S.; Martinez, S.

    2009-07-01

    One of the fundamental aspects to consider in the design of a ground heat pump system is the heat balance in the ground since thermal saturation of the ground produces a decreasing of the performance of the system throughout its useful life. The hybrid geothermal system which combined geothermal heat pump system with other systems for generation or dissipation energy are very suitable for balancing the heat exchanger meters needed for the proper functioning of the system, important aspect to reduce costs and achieve attractive return periods of the initial investment. Energesis Ingenieria has developed and implemented in two office buildings, a design of hybrid systems based on the combination of a geothermal heat pump and air-condensed units (dry coolers) that can ensure energy efficiencies comparable to geothermal pure systems, reducing substantially the investment cost. (Author) 5 refs.

  14. Impact of compressors on the efficiency of a heat pump. System efficiency; Einfluss des Verdichters auf die Effizienz einer Waermepumpe. Systemeffizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Stephan [Danfoss GmbH, Offenbach am Main (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Heat pumps increasingly are becoming popular. Their operation is emission-free. Everywhere, the available power distribution system may supply compressors, pumps and fans with energy. Whether air-air, air-water or water (brine)-water heat pump - the compressor always is the core element and the largest single consumer. What should be considered in the selection and optimization of compressors in order to design the overall system as efficiently as possible?.

  15. Autonomous BDFIG-wind generator with torque and pitch control for maximum efficiency in a water pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camocardi, P. [LEICI, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1 y 47, CC 91 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); CONICET (Argentina); Battaiotto, P. [LEICI, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1 y 47, CC 91 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Mantz, R. [LEICI, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1 y 47, CC 91 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents and analyzes the operation strategy for an autonomous wind energy conversion system oriented to water pumping. It consists of a wind turbine with a Brushless Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (BDFIG), electrically coupled with a squirrel cage induction machine moving a centrifugal type water pump. Because of no brushes and slip rings, the BDFIG is suitable for autonomous systems, which often work in hard conditions. Additionally, the power flow on the BDFIG principal stator could be driven from a fractional power converter connected on the auxiliary stator winding. This Turbine-BDFIG and Motor-Pump configuration provides a high robustness and reliability, reducing the operational and maintenance costs. The operation strategy proposes, for wind speeds smaller than the rated, to maximize the volume of water pumped based on the optimization of the wind energy capture. To do that, a sliding mode control tracks the optimal turbine torque by means of a torque control. Meanwhile, for wind speeds greater than the rated, a pitch control keeps the water pump within the safe operation area by adjusting the speed and power of the turbine in their rated values. To assess and corroborate the proposed strategy, simulations with different wind profiles are made. (author)

  16. 33 CFR 157.126 - Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pumps. 157.126 Section 157.126... Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.126 Pumps. (a) Crude oil must be supplied to the COW machines by COW system pumps or cargo pumps. (b) The pumps under...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1135 - Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumps. 154.1135 Section 154.1135 Shipping COAST GUARD... Pumps. (a) Water to the water spray system must be supplied by: (1) A pump that is only for the use of the system; (2) A fire pump; or (3) A pump specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522)....

  18. Recovery act. Development of design and simulation tool for hybrid geothermal heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shaojie [ClimateMaster, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Ellis, Dan [ClimateMaster, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2014-05-29

    The ground source heat pump (GSHP) system is one of the most energy efficient HVAC technologies in the current market. However, the heat imbalance may degrade the ability of the ground loop heat exchanger (GLHX) to absorb or reject heat. The hybrid GSHP system, which combines a geothermal well field with a supplemental boiler or cooling tower, can balance the loads imposed on the ground loop heat exchangers to minimize its size while retaining superior energy efficiency. This paper presents a recent simulation-based study with an intention to compare multiple common control strategies used in hybrid GSHP systems, including fixed setpoint, outside air reset, load reset, and wetbulb reset. A small office in Oklahoma City conditioned by a hybrid GSHP system was simulated with the latest version of eQUEST 3.7[1]. The simulation results reveal that the hybrid GSHP system has the excellent capability to meet the cooling and heating setpoints during the occupied hours, balance thermal loads on the ground loop, as well as improve the thermal comfort of the occupants with the undersized well field.

  19. A liquid-metal filling system for pumped primary loop space reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, D. L.; Reed, W. C.

    Some concepts for the SP-100 space nuclear power reactor use liquid metal as the primary coolant in a pumped loop. Prior to filling ground engineering test articles or reactor systems, the liquid metal must be purified and circulated through the reactor primary system to remove contaminants. If not removed, these contaminants enhance corrosion and reduce reliability. A facility was designed and built to support Department of Energy Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor tests conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This test program used liquid sodium to cool nuclear fuel in in-pile experiments; thus, a system was needed to store and purify sodium inventories and fill the experiment assemblies. This same system, with modifications and potential changeover to lithium or sodium-potassium (NaK), can be used in the Space Nuclear Power Reactor Program. This paper addresses the requirements, description, modifications, operation, and appropriateness of using this liquid-metal system to support the SP-100 space reactor program.

  20. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Chiller for Air-Conditioning and Hot Water Supply Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Mita, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tadashi; Hoshino, Norimasa; Kimura, Yoshihisa

    In Part 1 of this study, the performance characteristics of a 457kW gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP) chiller have been obtained from a simulation model analysis for both cooling and heating modes and it has been found that the part-load characteristics of the GHP chiller are fairly well. On the back of Part 1, a computer simulation program has been developed for the evaluation of GHP chiller systems to compare with the other types of heat source systems for air-conditioning and hot water supply applications. The simulation program can be used to estimate annual energy consumption, annual CO2 emission, etc. of the systems with the data of monthly and hourly thermal loads on various buildings, outdoor air conditions, and characteristics of various components comprising the systems. By applying this to some cases of medium-scale hotel, office, shop, and hospital buildings, it has been found that the GHP chiller systems have advantages particularly in the cases of hotels and hospitals where a lot of hot water demand exists. It has also been found that the combination of a GHP chiller and a direct-fired absorption water chiller boiler (hot and chilled water generator) appears promising.

  1. An electrostatic ion pump with nanostructured Si field emission electron source and Ti particle collectors for supporting an ultra-high vacuum in miniaturized atom interferometry systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban; Velásquez-García, Luis F.

    2016-12-01

    We report a field emission-based, magnetic-less ion pump architecture for helping maintain a high vacuum within a small chamber that is compatible with miniaturized cold-atom interferometry systems. A nanostructured silicon field emitter array, with each nano-sharp tip surrounded by a self-aligned proximal gate electrode, is used to generate a surplus of electrons that cause impact ionization of gas molecules. A two-stage cylindrical electron collector, made of titanium, is used to increase the travel distance of the electrons, augmenting the ionization probability; gas ionization is subsequently followed by gettering of the ions by a negatively charged, annular-shaped titanium electrode. A proof-of-concept pump prototype was characterized using a 25 cm3 stainless steel vacuum chamber backed up by an external turbomolecular pump, a diaphragm pump, and a standard ion pump. Pumping action was observed with the electrostatic pump operating alone after an initial rapid rise of the chamber pressure due to electron/ion scrubbing. In addition, running the electrostatic pump in combination with the standard ion pump results in a lower vacuum level compared to the vacuum level produced by the standard ion pump acting alone. A proposed reduced-order model accurately predicts the functional dependence of the pressure versus time data and provides a good estimate of the characteristic pumping time constant inferred from the experiments.

  2. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, HH

    1981-01-01

    Centrifugal Pumps describes the whole range of the centrifugal pump (mixed flow and axial flow pumps are dealt with more briefly), with emphasis on the development of the boiler feed pump. Organized into 46 chapters, this book discusses the general hydrodynamic principles, performance, dimensions, type number, flow, and efficiency of centrifugal pumps. This text also explains the pumps performance; entry conditions and cavitation; speed and dimensions for a given duty; and losses. Some chapters further describe centrifugal pump mechanical design, installation, monitoring, and maintenance. The

  3. Pumping life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg; Dach, Ingrid; Hoffmann, Robert Daniel

    2012-01-01

    of membrane proteins: P-type ATPase pumps. This article takes the reader on a tour from Aarhus to Copenhagen, from bacteria to plants and humans, and from ions over protein structures to diseases caused by malfunctioning pump proteins. The magazine Nature once titled work published from PUMPKIN ‘Pumping ions......’. Here we illustrate that the pumping of ions means nothing less than the pumping of life....

  4. Advanced exergy analysis of transcritical CO2 heat pump system based on experimental data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JAHAR SARKAR; DNYANESH JOSHI

    2016-11-01

    Conventional exergy analysis identifies component exergy destruction, however, does not give clear picture whether occurs because of component itself or due to remaining components and then the advanced exergy analysis is emphasized. The main purpose of this study is to apply advanced exergy analysis to the transcritical CO2 vapor compression heat pump system for simultaneous water cooling and heating, along withthe conventional exergy analysis. The novelty of the present study is the advanced exergy analysis (with modified methodology) of transcritical superheat cycle based on experimental data. Endogenous, exogenous, avoidable and unavoidable exergy destructions are determined for each component of this system. Results showthat compressor is having highest exergy destruction among the CO2system components and also its major partis avoidable endogenous exergy destruction. According to conventional exergy analysis, the sequence for improvement seems to be compressor, gas cooler, expansion valve and evaporator; however, the in-depthanalysis (advanced exergy analysis) shows compressor is the first component followed by evaporator, gas cooler and expansion valve to be considered for improvisation. Thus it is concluded that compressor provides highest opportunity for improvement and new design of the same will improve overall transcritical CO2 system performance.

  5. Integration of Variable Speed Pumped Hydro Storage in Automatic Generation Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgêncio, N.; Moreira, C.; Silva, B.

    2017-04-01

    Pumped storage power (PSP) plants are expected to be an important player in modern electrical power systems when dealing with increasing shares of new renewable energies (NRE) such as solar or wind power. The massive penetration of NRE and consequent replacement of conventional synchronous units will significantly affect the controllability of the system. In order to evaluate the capability of variable speed PSP plants participation in the frequency restoration reserve (FRR) provision, taking into account the expected performance in terms of improved ramp response capability, a comparison with conventional hydro units is presented. In order to address this issue, a three area test network was considered, as well as the corresponding automatic generation control (AGC) systems, being responsible for re-dispatching the generation units to re-establish power interchange between areas as well as the system nominal frequency. The main issue under analysis in this paper is related to the benefits of the fast response of variable speed PSP with respect to its capability of providing fast power balancing in a control area.

  6. Energy efficiency model for small/medium geothermal heat pump systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staiger Robert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heating application efficiency is a crucial point for saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Today, EU legal framework conditions clearly define how heating systems should perform, how buildings should be designed in an energy efficient manner and how renewable energy sources should be used. Using heat pumps (HP as an alternative “Renewable Energy System” could be one solution for increasing efficiency, using less energy, reducing the energy dependency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This scientific article will take a closer look at the different efficiency dependencies of such geothermal HP (GHP systems for domestic buildings (small/medium HP. Manufacturers of HP appliances must document the efficiency, so called COP (Coefficient of Performance in the EU under certain standards. In technical datasheets of HP appliances, these COP parameters give a clear indication of the performance quality of a HP device. HP efficiency (COP and the efficiency of a working HP system can vary significantly. For this reason, an annual efficiency statistic named “Seasonal Performance Factor” (SPF has been defined to get an overall efficiency for comparing HP Systems. With this indicator, conclusions can be made from an installation, economy, environmental, performance and a risk point of view. A technical and economic HP model shows the dependence of energy efficiency problems in HP systems. To reduce the complexity of the HP model, only the important factors for efficiency dependencies are used. Dynamic and static situations with HP´s and their efficiency are considered. With the latest data from field tests of HP Systems and the practical experience over the last 10 years, this information will be compared with one of the latest simulation programs with the help of two practical geothermal HP system calculations. With the result of the gathered empirical data, it allows for a better estimate of the HP system efficiency, their

  7. Optically pumped atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Happer, William; Walker, Thad

    2010-01-01

    Covering the most important knowledge on optical pumping of atoms, this ready reference is backed by numerous examples of modelling computation for optical pumped systems. The authors show for the first time that modern scientific computing software makes it practical to analyze the full, multilevel system of optically pumped atoms. To make the discussion less abstract, the authors have illustrated key points with sections of MATLAB codes. To make most effective use of contemporary mathematical software, it is especially useful to analyze optical pumping situations in the Liouville spa

  8. Upscaling a district heating system based on biogas cogeneration and heat pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; de Wit, Jan B.

    2015-01-01

    The energy supply of the Meppel district Nieuwveense landen is based on biogas cogeneration, district heating, and ground source heat pumps. A centrally located combined heat and power engine (CHP) converts biogas from the municipal wastewater treatment facility into electricity for heat pumps and

  9. Upscaling a district heating system based on biogas cogeneration and heat pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van Richard P.; Fink, Jiří; Wit, de Jan B.; Smit, Gerard J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The energy supply of the Meppel district Nieuwveense landen is based on biogas cogeneration, district heating, and ground source heat pumps. A centrally located combined heat and power engine (CHP) converts biogas from the municipal wastewater treatment facility into electricity for heat pumps and h

  10. Upscaling a district heating system based on biogas cogeneration and heat pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; de Wit, Jan B.

    2015-01-01

    The energy supply of the Meppel district Nieuwveense landen is based on biogas cogeneration, district heating, and ground source heat pumps. A centrally located combined heat and power engine (CHP) converts biogas from the municipal wastewater treatment facility into electricity for heat pumps and h

  11. Compact fibre-laser-pumped Ho:YLF oscillator-amplifier system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bollig, C

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available to deliver diffraction limited beams even under intense end-pumping. However, Ho:YLF has a somewhat stronger quasi-three-level nature, which implies that in order to reach transparency at the 2065 nm line, 22% of the Ho ions need to be pumped into the upper...

  12. Detecting failures of the glucose sensor-insulin pump system: improved overnight safety monitoring for Type-1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchinetti, Andrea; Del Favero, Simone; Sparacino, Giovanni; Cobelli, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    New sensors for real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and pumps for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), possibly mounted on the same device, opened new scenarios for Type-1 diabetes treatment. However, possible failures of either CGM or CSII can expose diabetic patients to risks that can be dangerous especially overnight. In this contribution we present a proof-of-concept method, developed in a state-space context and implemented through a Kalman estimator, to detect in real time possible overnight failures of the sensor-pump system by simultaneously using CGM and CSII data. The method is tested on two simulated and one real subject. Results show that the method is able to correctly generate alerts for sensor-pump failures and stimulates further investigation on its development.

  13. Developing and Analysing sub-10 µm Fluidic Systems with Integrated Electrodes for Pumping and Sensing in Nanotechnology Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuck, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, sub-10 µm fluidic systems with integrated electrodes for pumping and sensing in nanotechnology applications were developed and analyzed. This work contributes to the development of the scanning ion pipette (SIP), a tool to investigate surface changes on the nanometer scale induced by

  14. Pressure management of water distribution systems via the remote real-time control of variable speed pumps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Page, Philip R

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Low and constant pressure can be maintained throughout a water distribution system by setting the pressure at remote consumer locations and using the pressure to control the speed of a variable speed pump (VSP). The prospect of incorporating...

  15. Developing and Analysing sub-10 µm Fluidic Systems with Integrated Electrodes for Pumping and Sensing in Nanotechnology Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuck, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, sub-10 µm fluidic systems with integrated electrodes for pumping and sensing in nanotechnology applications were developed and analyzed. This work contributes to the development of the scanning ion pipette (SIP), a tool to investigate surface changes on the nanometer scale induced by

  16. Means-End based Functional Modeling for Intelligent Control: Modeling and Experiments with an Industrial Heat Pump System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a Multilevel Flow Model (MFM) of an industrial heat pump system and its use for diagnostic reasoning. MFM is functional modeling language supporting an explicit means-ends intelligent control strategy for large industrial process plants. The model is used...

  17. Means-End based Functional Modeling for Intelligent Control: Modeling and Experiments with an Industrial Heat Pump System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a Multilevel Flow Model (MFM) of an industrial heat pump system and its use for diagnostic reasoning. MFM is functional modeling language supporting an explicit means-ends intelligent control strategy for large industrial process plants. The model is used...

  18. Optimum bleeding rate of open loop ground source heat pump systems determined by hydrogeological modeling in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, W. H.; Kim, N.; Lee, J. Y.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the influence of open loop ground source heat pump systems operation on hydrological conditions of aquifer. Test bed is located in Chuncheon, Korea. The step drawdown test was conducted in five stages for 300 minutes. The variation of groundwater levels by open loop ground source heat pump systems operation was estimated using Visual MODFLOW. Transmissivity ranged from 2.02×10-4 to 9.36×10-4, and storage coefficient ranged from 0.00067 to 0.021. The amount of optimum bleeding was calculated to be 240 m3/day. When bleeding will be 50, 90, 240 and 450 m3/day for 5 years, groundwater levels may decrease 1.84, 3.31, 8.89 and 17.0 m, respectively. If the amount of bleeding is 50 m3/day, the influence of bleeding will not reach the boundary regions of the Soyang River after 5 years. Regarding the open loop ground source heat pump system installed at the test bed, the amount of optimum bleeding in accordance with the stand are proposed by the government is 90 m3/day, which is 20% of the 450 m3/day circulation quantity of the system. However, if continuous bleeding of more than 90 m3/day occurs, then the radius of influence is expected to reach the boundary regions of the Soyang River after 5 years. These results indicate that amount of optimum bleeding differ in each open loop ground soured heat pump system. Therefore, the debate for the amount of optimum bleeding in open loop ground source heat pump systems is demanded. This work is supported by the Energy Efficiency and Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No.20123040110010).

  19. Analysis of the impact of heat pump technology on the Irish energy system to the year 2000. Energy case study series: No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, J.

    1977-09-15

    An analysis of the impact of existing and new heat pump technology on the Irish energy system to the year 2000 was undertaken. The methodology used involved the measurement of the potential impact against a base Reference Energy System for various heat pump strategies. A short analysis of the implementation rates and their effect on technology impact was also carried out.

  20. Monitoring of Building Heating and Cooling Systems Based on Geothermal Heat Pump in Galicia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco D.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In November 2009 was signed an agreement between Galicia’s Government and EnergyLab to develop a project related with the geothermal heatpumps (hereafter, GSHP technology. That project consisted in replacing the existing thermal equipment generators (diesel boilers and air-water heat pumps by GSHP systems in representative public buildings: two nursery schools, a university library, a health centre and a residential building. This new systems will reach the demands of existing heating, cooling and domestic hot water (hereafter, DHW. These buildings can serve as examples of energy and economic savings that can offer this technology. We will show detailed analysis of the GSHP facilities monitored, since the starting-up of them. Which includes: COP’s, EER’s, energy consumption, operating costs, operation hours of the system, economic and emissions comparative, geothermal exchange evolution graphs, environmental conditions evolution graphs (temperature and demands, etc. The results presented show an example of the important benefits of the GSHP technology and the significant savings that can offer its implementation for heating, cooling and DHW production.

  1. Geochemical impacts of groundwater heat pump systems in an urban alluvial aquifer with evaporitic bedrock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido Schneider, Eduardo A; García-Gil, Alejandro; Vázquez-Suñè, Enric; Sánchez-Navarro, José Á

    2016-02-15

    In the last decade, there has been an extensive use of shallow geothermal exploitations in urban environments. Although the thermal interference between exploitations has been recently studied, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the geochemical impacts of those systems on the aquifers where they are installed. Groundwater flow line scale and well-doublet scale research work has been conducted at city scale to quantify the geochemical interaction of shallow geothermal exploitations with the environment. A comprehensive analysis was conducted on data obtained from a monitoring network specifically designed to control and develop aquifer policies related to thermal management of the aquifer. The geochemical impacts were evaluated from a thermodynamic point of view by means of saturation index (SI) calculations with respect to the different mineral species considered in the system. The results obtained indicate limited geochemical interaction with the urban environment in most of the situations. However, there are some cases where the interaction of the groundwater heat pump installations with the evaporitic bedrock resulted in the total disablement of the exploitation system operation wells. The application of the tool proposed proved to be pragmatic in the evaluation of geochemical impacts. Injection of water into the aquifer can trigger an important bedrock gypsum and halite dissolution process that is partly responsible for scaling in well casing pipes and collapse of the terrain in the vicinity of injection wells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Neural Network Based MPPT Technique Controller for Photovoltaic Pumping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Yaichi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a novel method using the artificial neural network (ANN for the improvement of the performances of a photovoltaic system composed of a photovoltaic (PV array, an inverter, a motor asynchronous and a centrifugal pump. For this type of system, different optimization strategies have been proposed to improve the over of the PV system efficiency, i.e. the PV generator is forced to operate at its maximum power point “MPPT”, generally, by the insertion of DC/DC boost converter between the photovoltaic array and the inverter. In this work we propose an approach, where optimization is realized without need adding a DC/DC converter to the chain, using field-oriented control through the monitoring of the voltage-fed inverter frequency. The motor is also ensured in all insolation conditions. A multilayer feed forward perception type NN is proposed for MPPT control, and the back-propagation algorithm is used for training. The performances of the drive with ANN-based MPPT are excellent. The maximum power point (MPP can be easily obtained to frequency-controlled drive.

  3. Monitoring of Building Heating and Cooling Systems Based on Geothermal Heat Pump in Galicia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, M.; Rodriguez, J.; Franco, D.

    2012-10-01

    In November 2009 was signed an agreement between Galicia's Government and EnergyLab to develop a project related with the geothermal heatpumps (hereafter, GSHP) technology. That project consisted in replacing the existing thermal equipment generators (diesel boilers and air-water heat pumps) by GSHP systems in representative public buildings: two nursery schools, a university library, a health centre and a residential building. This new systems will reach the demands of existing heating, cooling and domestic hot water (hereafter, DHW). These buildings can serve as examples of energy and economic savings that can offer this technology. We will show detailed analysis of the GSHP facilities monitored, since the starting-up of them. Which includes: COP's, EER's, energy consumption, operating costs, operation hours of the system, economic and emissions comparative, geothermal exchange evolution graphs, environmental conditions evolution graphs (temperature and demands), etc. The results presented show an example of the important benefits of the GSHP technology and the significant savings that can offer its implementation for heating, cooling and DHW production. Note to the reader: The article number has been corrected on web pages on November 22, 2013.

  4. Field measurements to demonstrate new technology for heat pump systems; Faeltmaetningar foer att demonstrera ny teknik foer vaermepumpsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiljander, Pia; Haglund Stignor, Caroline; Lidbom, Peter; Viktorsson, Magnus; Lindahl, Markus; Axell, Monica

    2010-09-15

    Within the frames of this project there are ongoing measurements of five different heat pump facilities used for heating houses and tap water in one-family houses. The measurements started in the first part of 2010 and are supposed to go on for one year. The final result together with analysis and discussions will be presented in a report that will be published in summer 2011. The purpose of the measurements is to present the potential for heat pump technology in order to raise the acceptance of the technology and through raised acceptance increase the implementation of the technology in new markets. The project also has its purpose in usage of the results and conclusions as basic data and guidelines for constructors and assembling fitters. The project is not intended to grade individual heat pumps from various suppliers in regard to efficiency. A field study does not adapt well for comparison between different heat pumps since there are too many variables (outdoor climate, usage pattern, construction of the building, installation solution, kind of heat pump system) that affect the performance of the heating system. Results from field studies should therefore never be used for comparison. This kind of work should be carried out in a laboratory where variables that affect the result can be controlled. The project started with a mapping of the Swedish heat pump market in order to obtain a base when choosing the different heat pump facilities that should be included in the field study. The selection was made together with the heat pump manufacturers with focus on selecting the best possible technology and to include different technologies. Another important criterion for the selection was to find households that agreed to participate in the study. Included in the study are two buildings with geothermal heating, one with geothermal heating combined with solar panels, one brine/water heat pump connected to a ground storage combined with solar panels and one building

  5. Hydraulic Calculation Method for the Fluid Delivery System of Centrifugal Pump%离心泵流体输送系统水力计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宏斌

    2001-01-01

    简述离心泵和管路的特性,介绍离心泵流体输送管路系统的水力计算方法,以及如何确定泵的安装高度。%The characteristics of centrifugal pump and pipeline are brieflyelaborated. The hydraulic calculation method for fluid delivery pipeline system of centrifugal pump and the method of determining the pump installation height are introduced.

  6. Primary investigations on the potential of a novel diode pumped Er:YAG laser system for middle ear surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Karl; Wurm, Holger; Hausladen, Florian

    2016-02-01

    Flashlamp pumped Er:YAG lasers are successfully used clinically for both precise soft and hard tissue ablation. Since several years a novel diode pumped Er:YAG laser system (Pantec Engineering AG) is available, with mean laser power up to 40 W and pulse repetition rate up to 1 kHz. The aim of the study was to investigate the suitability of the laser system specifically for stapedotomy. Firstly an experimental setup was realized with a beam focusing unit and a computer controlled translation stage to move the samples (slices of porcine bone) with a defined velocity while irradiation with various laser parameters. A microphone was positioned in a defined distance to the ablation point and the resulting acoustic signal of the ablation process was recorded. For comparison, measurements were also performed with a flash lamp pumped Er:YAG laser system. After irradiation the resulting ablation quality and efficacy were determined using light microscopy. Using a high speed camera and "Töpler-Schlierentechnik" the cavitation bubble in water after perforation of a bone slice was investigated. The results show efficient bone ablation using the diode pumped Er:YAG laser system. Also a decrease of the sound level and of the cavitation bubble volume was observed with decreasing pulse duration. Higher repetition rates lead to a slightly increase of thermal side effects but have no influence on the ablation efficiency. In conclusion, these first experiments demonstrate the high potential of the diode pumped Er:YAG laser system for use in middle ear surgery.

  7. 液压泵试验台系统设计%Research of Test System of Hydraulic Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳宝元; 黄志坚; 何曼

    2015-01-01

    One test system of hydraulic pump which includes hydraulic system, electronic control system and computer control system is de-signed, and some critical types of components are selected. The whole system is simple, practical which can reliably and quickly test perfor-mance parameters of hydraulic pump.%设计了一种液压泵试验台系统,包括液压系统、电控系统和计算机测控系统,对系统的相关元件进行了选型,整个系统简单实用,能可靠、快捷地对液压泵的性能参数进行测试。

  8. Simultaneous delivery of Nifedipine and Metoprolol tartarate using sandwiched osmotic pump tablet system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaravelrajan, R; Narayanan, N; Suba, V; Bhaskar, K

    2010-10-31

    The sandwiched osmotic tablet system that could deliver Nifedipine and Metoprolol tartarate simultaneously for extended period of time was developed in order to reduce the problems associated with multidrug therapy of hypertension. This system composed of a middle push layer and attached drug layers of Nifedipine and Metoprolol. The advantage of the sandwiched osmotic tablet system over the commercialized push-pull osmotic tablet system is its simplicity of preparation, as the surface identification was avoided. Polyethylene oxide 600,000 and 8,000,000 g/mole were used as thickening agent of drug layer and the expandable hydrogel of push layer, respectively. It has been observed that amount of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and KCL of the drug and push layer had profound influence on Nifedipine and Metoprolol release. Further, the release of drugs was optimized by the size of the delivery orifice, level of plasticizer and membrane thickness. The optimal osmotic pump tablet was found to deliver both drugs at a rate of approximately zero order for up to 16 h independent of pH and agitational intensity, but dependent on the osmotic pressure of the release media. The formulations were found to be stable after 3 months of accelerated stability studies. Prediction of steady-state levels showed the plasma concentrations of Nifedipine and Metoprolol to be within the desired range. Further sandwiched system had a good sustained effect in comparison with the conventional product. Hence the prototype design of the system could be applied to other combinations of drugs used for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, etc.

  9. 46 CFR 119.520 - Bilge pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge pumps. 119.520 Section 119.520 Shipping COAST... Ballast Systems § 119.520 Bilge pumps. (a) Each vessel must be provided with bilge pumps in accordance... have a portable hand bilge pump that must be: (1) Capable of pumping water, but not...

  10. Simulating on water storage and pump capacity of "Kencing" river polder system in Kudus regency, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, Slamet Imam; Adi, Henny Pratiwi; Santoso, Esti; Heikoop, Rick

    2017-03-01

    Settlement in the Jati District, Kudus Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia, is growing rapidly. Previous paddy fields area turns into new residential, industrial and office buildings. The rain water collected in small Kencing river that flows into big Wulan River. But the current condition, during high rain intensity Wulan river water elevation higher than the Kencing river, so that water can not flow gravity and the area inundated. To reduce the flooding, required polder drainage system by providing a long channel as water storage and pumping water into Wulan river. How to get optimal value of water storage volume, drainage system channels and the pump capacity? The result used to be efficient in the operation and maintenance of the polder system. The purpose of this study is to develop some scenarios water storage volume, water gate operation and to get the optimal value of operational pumps removing water from the Kencing River to Wulan River. Research Method is conducted by some steps. The first step, it is done field orientation in detail, then collecting secondary data including maps and rainfall data. The map is processed into Watershed or catchment area, while the rainfall data is processed into runoff discharge. Furthermore, the team collects primary data by measuring topography to determine the surface and volume of water storage. The analysis conducted to determine of flood discharge, water channel hydraulics, water storage volume and pump capacity corresponding. Based on the simulating of long water storage volume and pump capacity with some scenario trying, it can be determined optimum values. The results used to be guideline in to construction proses, operation and maintenance of the drainage polder system.

  11. Pressure Pump Power Control in the Primary Circuit of the Heat Exchange System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilin Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the problem of speed in hot water systems where highly efficient plate heat exchanger is used. Especially marked the problem which is connected with long transition drive of constant speed exceeding the time of the heat exchanger accumulative tank emptying more than twice. As a regulating element in the heat exchange system there was proposed to use asynchronous electric drive of pressure pump in the primary circuit of the heat exchanger. For correct use of such electric drive we solved the problem of control object mathematical model synthesis, which has non-linear properties, in particular, the transfer coefficient of the circuit can vary in more than 6 times. At the same time there was revealed the dependence of the transfer coefficient on the motor speed, which must be considered in the controller synthesis. In conclusion we suggested the solutions of regulators synthesis tasks with customizable settings for speed and switchable structure between relay λ and PI regulators.

  12. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Purge Control Pump Assembly Modeling and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, R. Gregory; Hunt, Patrick L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary results from a thermal/flow analysis of the Purge Control Pump Assembly (PCPA) indicate that pump performance (mass flow rate) is enhanced via cooling of the housing and lowering of the inlet vapor quality. Under a nominal operational profile (25% duty cycle or less), at the maximum motor dissipation, it appears that the peristaltic tubing temperature will still remain significantly below the expected UPA condenser temperature (78 F max versus approximately 105 F in the condenser) permitting condensation in the pump head.

  13. Diode-Pumped High Energy and High Average Power All-Solid-State Picosecond Amplifier Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaxing Liu; Wei Wang; Zhaohua Wang; Zhiguo Lv; Zhiyuan Zhang; Zhiyi Wei

    2015-01-01

    We present our research on the high energy picosecond laser operating at a repetition rate of 1 kHz and the high average power picosecond laser running at 100 kHz based on bulk Nd-doped crystals. With diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) hybrid amplifiers consisting of a picosecond oscillator, a regenerative amplifier, end-pumped single-pass amplifiers, and a side-pumped amplifier, an output energy of 64.8 mJ at a repetition rate of 1 kHz was achieved. An average power of 37.5 W at a repetition ra...

  14. Research on an Intelligent Decision Support System for a Conceptual Innovation Design of Pumping Units Based on TRIZ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Attention is concentrated on how to perform the innovative design during the process of pumping unit conceptual design, and how to enhance design efficiency and inspire creativity. Aiming at the shortages of conceptual design, introducing the theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) into the mechanical product design for producing innovative ideas, and using the advanced computer-aided technique, the intelligent decision support system (IDSS) based on TRIZ (TRIZ-IDSS) has been constructed. The construction method, system structure, conceptual production, decision-making and evaluation of the problem solving subsystem are discussed. The innovative conceptual design of pumping units indicates that the system can help the engineers open up a new space of thinking, overcome the thinking inertia, and put forward innovative design concepts. This system also can offer the scientific instructions for the innovative design of mechanical products.

  15. Integration between electric heat pump and PV system to increase self-consumption of an office application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselli Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a solar electric driven heat pump serving an office building located in southern Italy. To satisfy space heating and cooling demand a heat pump activated by electric energy available from solar photovoltaic plant is here considered. In order to improve the self-consumption of electricity available from photovoltaic system different configurations were considered introducing an electric storage and an electric vehicle. Dynamic simulations to evaluate energy performance of the system varying photovoltaic peak power (4.5–7.5 kW have been carried out. The proposed system achieves a fossil fuel primary energy saving up to about 96% in comparison to the reference conventional system based on a natural gas fired boiler, an electric chiller and the national electric grid. The results show that fossil fuel primary energy saving is higher when there are no storage battery and electric vehicle.

  16. Heat pumps in industry. Pt. 2: Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M. [Padova Univ., Vicenza (Italy). Ist. di Ingegneria Gestionale

    1995-04-01

    A selection of applications of heat pumps in industry is described, reporting plant lay-outs and performances. The selection includes compression heat pumps at different temperatures, vapour recompression systems, absorption heat pumps and heat transformers. (author)

  17. Flow patterns and boundary conditions for inlet and outlet conduits of large pump system with low head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐磊; 陆伟刚; 陆林广; 董雷; 王兆飞

    2014-01-01

    The flow patterns in the inlet and outlet conduits have a decisive effect on the safe, stable, and highly efficient operation of the pump in a large pumping station with low head. The numerical simulation of three-dimensional (3D) turbulence flow in conduits is an important method to study the hydraulic performance and conduct an optimum hydraulic design for the conduits. With the analyses of the flow patterns in the inlet and outlet conduits, the boundary conditions of the numerical simulation for them can be determined. The main obtained conclusions are as follows: (i) Under normal operation conditions, there is essentially no pre-swirl flow at the impeller chamber inlet of an axial-flow pump system, based on which the boundary condition at the inlet conduit may be defined. (ii) The circulation at the guide vane outlet of an axial-flow pump system has a great effect on the hydraulic performance of the outlet conduit, and there is optimum circulation for the performance. Therefore, it is strongly suggested to design the guide vane according to the optimum circulation. (iii) The residual circulation at the guide vane outlet needs to be considered for the inlet boundary condition of the outlet conduit, and the value of the circulation may be measured in a specially designed test model.

  18. Optimization and testing of the Beck Engineering free-piston cryogenic pump for LNG systems on heavy vehicles. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Douglas S.

    2003-01-10

    Task 7 was completed by reaching Milestone 7: Test free piston cryogenic pump (FPCP) in Integrated LNG System. Task 4: Alternative Pump Design was also completed. The type of performance of the prototype LNG system is consistent with requirements of fuel systems for heavy vehicles; however, the maximum flow capacity of the prototype LNG system is significantly less than the total flow requirement. The flow capacity of the prototype LNG system is determined by a cavitation limit for the FPCP.

  19. Accuracy of a new patch pump based on a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) compared to other commercially available insulin pumps: results of the first in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borot, Sophie; Franc, Sylvia; Cristante, Justine; Penfornis, Alfred; Benhamou, Pierre-Yves; Guerci, Bruno; Hanaire, Hélène; Renard, Eric; Reznik, Yves; Simon, Chantal; Charpentier, Guillaume

    2014-11-01

    The JewelPUMP™ (JP) is a new patch pump based on a microelectromechanical system that operates without any plunger. The study aimed to evaluate the infusion accuracy of the JP in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro studies, commercially available pumps meeting the ISO standard were compared to the JP: the MiniMed® Paradigm® 712 (MP), Accu-Chek® Combo (AC), OmniPod® (OP), Animas® Vibe™ (AN). Pump accuracy was measured over 24 hours using a continuous microweighing method, at 0.1 and 1 IU/h basal rates. The occlusion alarm threshold was measured after a catheter occlusion. The JP, filled with physiological serum, was then tested in 13 patients with type 1 diabetes simultaneously with their own pump for 2 days. The weight difference was used to calculate the infused insulin volume. The JP showed reduced absolute median error rate in vitro over a 15-minute observation window compared to other pumps (1 IU/h): ±1.02% (JP) vs ±1.60% (AN), ±1.66% (AC), ±2.22% (MP), and ±4.63% (OP), P pumps: 21 (19; 25) minutes vs 90 (85; 95), 58 (42; 74), and 143 (132; 218) minutes (AN, AC, MP), P pumps (-2.2 ± 5.6% vs -0.37 ± 4.0%, P = .25). The JP was found to be easier to wear than conventional pumps. The JP is more precise over a short time period, more sensitive to catheter occlusion, well accepted by patients, and consequently, of potential interest for a closed-loop insulin delivery system.

  20. Magnetocaloric pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G. V.

    1973-01-01

    Very cold liquids and gases such as helium, neon, and nitrogen can be pumped by using magnetocaloric effect. Adiabatic magnetization and demagnetization are used to alternately heat and cool slug of pumped fluid contained in closed chamber.