WorldWideScience

Sample records for pumping electrical

  1. Thermo-electric pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georges, J.-L.; Veyret, J.-F.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a thermo-pump for electrically conductive liquid fluids, e.g. for a liquid metal such as sodium. This pump is characterized in that the piping for the circulation of the conductive liquid is constituted by a plurality of conduits defined by two co-axial cylinders and two walls parallel to their axis. Each conduit limited outside by a magnet, inside by a mild-iron tube, and laterally by two materials forming a thermocouple. The electric current generated by that thermo-couple and the magnetic flux generated by the magnets both loop the loop through an outer cylindrical nickel shell. This can be applied to sodium circulation loops for testing nuclear fuel elements [fr

  2. Electric fluid pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  3. Electric Turbo Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    NASA is working in junction with another company on the Electric Turbo Pump. Analysis of the impeller, including the blades, volute housing, and associated components, will take place in ANSYS. Contours of the deformed and stress were recorded to assess the parts. Campbell diagrams will be considered as mentioned to find the operating regions of the impeller and volute housing, more specifically what speed is ideal to ensure that the impeller does not begin to vibrate at a frequency that will break it. More than one material will be examined as per request by the designer to determine which material is more cost efficient, easy to machine, and can withstand the stress values that will be placed on it.

  4. Electrically Pumped Vertical-Cavity Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Tine

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the design of electrically pumped vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (eVCAs) for use in a mode-locked external-cavity laser has been developed, investigated and analysed. Four different eVCAs, one top-emitting and three bottom emitting structures, have been designed...... and discussed. The thesis concludes with recommendations for further work towards the realisation of compact electrically pumped mode-locked vertical externalcavity surface emitting lasers....

  5. Towards Electrically Pumped Nanolasers for Terabit Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra

    This thesis deals with modeling, design, fabrication and characterization of vertically electrically pumped photonic crystal light-emitting devices. For this purpose a new material platform of III-V semiconductors on silicon has been developed. The devices fabricated on this platform can be used...... as optical interconnects, where compatibility with Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology is required. The first part of this work is dedicated to modeling and simulations of electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers with diverse material configurations and different concepts...... for electrical injection. The analysis of the models is conducted with focus on laser performances, energy efficiency, and thermal properties. The second part of this thesis deals with design, fabrication and characterization of vertically electrically pumped photonic crystal light-emitting devices. The devices...

  6. Electricity Market Optimization of Heat Pump Portfolio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2013-01-01

    We consider a portfolio of domestic heat pumps controlled by an aggregator. The aggregator is able to adjust the consumption of the heat pumps without affecting the comfort in the houses and uses this ability to shift the main consumption to hours with low electricity prices. Further......, the aggregator is able to place upward and downward regulating bids in the regulating power market based on the consumption flexibility. A simulation is carried out based on data from a Danish domestic heat pump project, historical spot prices, regulating power prices, and spot price predictions. The simulations...

  7. Electric heat-pumps in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    Since the end of 1979 every other day an electrically operated heat-pump has started operation in Berlin (West). Pros and cons of heat-pumps are a much discussed subject. But what is the opinion of the user. As it is not known the BEWAG carried out a written customer inquiry in the summer 1982. The aim of the inquiry was to improve the advisory service by means of the answers obtained, to obtain information about the reliability or liability to defects of the heat pump, the mechanism they operate on and to know how big the oil substitution potential is. Customer satisfaction with the heat pumps was a further point of interest.

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of pumped thermal electricity storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Alexander; Parks, Geoff; Markides, Christos N.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater need for electricity storage. Although there are many existing and emerging storage technologies, most have limitations in terms of geographical constraints, high capital cost or low cycle life, and few are of sufficient scale (in terms of both power and storage capacity) for integration at the transmission and distribution levels. This paper is concerned with a relatively new concept which will be referred to here as Pumped Thermal Electricity Storage (PTES), and which may be able to make a significant contribution towards future storage needs. During charge, PTES makes use of a high temperature ratio heat pump to convert electrical energy into thermal energy which is stored as ‘sensible heat’ in two thermal reservoirs, one hot and one cold. When required, the thermal energy is then converted back to electricity by effectively running the heat pump backwards as a heat engine. The paper focuses on thermodynamic aspects of PTES, including energy and power density, and the various sources of irreversibility and their impact on round-trip efficiency. It is shown that, for given compression and expansion efficiencies, the cycle performance is controlled chiefly by the ratio between the highest and lowest temperatures in each reservoir rather than by the cycle pressure ratio. The sensitivity of round-trip efficiency to various loss parameters has been analysed and indicates particular susceptibility to compression and expansion irreversibility

  9. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Veyo, S.E.; Humphrey, J.R.

    1984-05-22

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module, an air mover module, and a resistance heat package module, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor in a space adjacent the heat exchanger, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations. 9 figs.

  10. Radial-Electric-Field Piezoelectric Diaphragm Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Robert G.; Working, Dennis C.; Mossi, Karla; Castro, Nicholas D.; Mane, Pooma

    2009-01-01

    In a recently invented class of piezoelectric diaphragm pumps, the electrode patterns on the piezoelectric diaphragms are configured so that the electric fields in the diaphragms have symmetrical radial (along-the-surface) components in addition to through-the-thickness components. Previously, it was accepted in the piezoelectric-transducer art that in order to produce the out-of-plane bending displacement of a diaphragm needed for pumping, one must make the electric field asymmetrical through the thickness, typically by means of electrodes placed on only one side of the piezoelectric material. In the present invention, electrodes are placed on both sides and patterned so as to produce substantial radial as well as through-the-thickness components. Moreover, unlike in the prior art, the electric field can be symmetrical through the thickness. Tests have shown in a given diaphragm that an electrode configuration according to this invention produces more displacement than does a conventional one-sided electrode pattern. The invention admits of numerous variations characterized by various degrees of complexity. Figure 1 is a simplified depiction of a basic version. As in other piezoelectric diaphragm pumps of similar basic design, the prime mover is a piezoelectric diaphragm. Application of a suitable voltage to the electrodes on the diaphragm causes it to undergo out-of-plane bending. The bending displacement pushes a fluid out of, or pulls the fluid into, a chamber bounded partly by the diaphragm. Also as in other diaphragm pumps in general, check valves ensure that the fluid flows only in through one port and only out through another port.

  11. Electric field-decoupled electroosmotic pump for microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaorong; Pu, Qiaosheng; Lu, Joann J

    2003-09-26

    An electric field-free electroosmotic pump has been constructed and its pumping rate has been measured under various experimental conditions. The key component of the pump is an ion-exchange membrane grounding joint that serves two major functions: (i) to maintain fluid continuity between pump channels and microfluidic conduit and (ii) to ground the solution in the microfluidic channel at the joint through an external electrode, and hence to decouple the electric field applied to the pump channels from the rest of the microfluidic system. A theoretical model has been developed to calculate the pumping rates and its validity has been demonstrated.

  12. Cooling devices and methods for use with electric submersible pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Todd A; Hill, Dallas D

    2014-12-02

    Cooling devices for use with electric submersible pump motors include a refrigerator attached to the end of the electric submersible pump motor with the evaporator heat exchanger accepting all or a portion of the heat load from the motor. The cooling device can be a self-contained bolt-on unit, so that minimal design changes to existing motors are required.

  13. Wind pumps for agriculture: Cost and environmental benefits (comparisons with electric and combustion engine driven pumps)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccoli, F.

    1991-01-01

    After describing initial and running costs of a group of wind-pumps, the author calculates and compares, as far as agricultural and zootechnical purposes are concerned, the costs for each cubic meter of water extracted through wind-powered, electric and internal-combustion engines. The comparisons clearly show, under adequate wind conditions, that wind-pumps are economically more suitable than electric and motor pumps with similar delivery heads

  14. Maternal response to two electric breast pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanical characteristics of breast pumps have been shown to influence milk extraction and hormone release in laboratory settings. However, few studies evaluate impact of differences in pump design on long-term breastfeeding success. This study evaluated the impact of a novel pump design on milk ex...

  15. Superconducting Electric Boost Pump for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A submersible, superconducting electric boost pump sized to meet the needs of future Nuclear Thermal Propulsion systems in the 25,000 lbf thrust range is proposed....

  16. Features of electric drive sucker rod pumps for oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizatullin, F. A.; Khakimyanov, M. I.; Khusainov, F. F.

    2018-01-01

    This article is about modes of operation of electric drives of downhole sucker rod pumps. Downhole oil production processes are very energy intensive. Oil fields contain many oil wells; many of them operate in inefficient modes with significant additional losses. Authors propose technical solutions to improve energy performance of a pump unit drives: counterweight balancing, reducing of electric motor power, replacing induction motors with permanent magnet motors, replacing balancer drives with chain drives, using of variable frequency drives.

  17. Electrical versus optical pumping of quantum dot amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Bischoff, Svend; Mørk, Jesper

    2001-01-01

    The influence of the pumping mechanism for the dynamical properties of quantum dot amplifiers is investigated for 10, 40 and 160 GHz signals. A fast response is predicted in the case of optical pumping in the wetting layer (WL). The combination of fast relaxation and capture times and the presence...... of a reservoir of carriers in the WL opens up for the possibility of ultrafast gain recovery in QD devices. The strength of optical contra electrical pumping is that it reduces the bottleneck effect of a slow WL. Optical pumping thus allows significant improvement of the dynamical properties of QD devices....

  18. Special considerations for electric submersible pump applications in underpressured reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of electric submersible pump performance tolerances and minor speed variations on the producing rate of wells completed in underpressured reservoirs, and presents ESP design considerations which are unique for this class of wells. These wells require considerable head to initiate flow and have relatively flat well-load curves. Pumps that operate near their maximum recommended rate have steep performance curves. it is shown that this minimizes the effect of an underperforming pump on producing rate. Equations are developed for calculating the effects of pump performance and speed. Application requires evaluating the slopes of the pump performance curve and well-load curve at design rate. Utility of these equations is demonstrated by practical examples. It is also demonstrated that flow-stall can easily occur in underpressured reservoir applications when pumps designed to operate near their minimum recommended rate are installed

  19. Experimental results of wind powered pumping plant with electrical transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falchetta, M.; Prischich, D.; Benedetti, A.; Cara, G.

    1992-01-01

    A demonstrative application of deep well pumping system employing a wind powered pumping plant with an electric transmission was set-up and tested for two years at the test field of the Casaccia center of ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment), near Rome. The tests permitted the evaluation of the practical performance, advantages and drawbacks of a wind pumping plant of this type, in order to permit a design optimization and a proper choice of components and of control strategies for future commercial applications. The main point of investigation was the evaluation of the effectiveness of a control scheme based on a 'permanent link' between electric generator and electric motor, avoiding any electronics and switching components, and leading to a very robust and reliable means of transferring energy to the pump at variable speed, and at low cost

  20. Modeling an autonomous wind turbine electric pump system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Forcos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Being one of the variable renewable energy sources, wind energy integration can be made using storage methods. All of these have been developed during time, but one might be more accessible than others because is using a free natural resource, water. This is pump storage. The purpose of this paper is modeling an autonomous wind turbine connected to an electric pump, in the aim of storage, and finally the determination of the efficiency.

  1. Energy pumping in electrical circuits under avalanche noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Kiyoshi; Sagawa, Takahiro; Hayakawa, Hisao

    2014-07-01

    We theoretically study energy pumping processes in an electrical circuit with avalanche diodes, where non-Gaussian athermal noise plays a crucial role. We show that a positive amount of energy (work) can be extracted by an external manipulation of the circuit in a cyclic way, even when the system is spatially symmetric. We discuss the properties of the energy pumping process for both quasistatic and finite-time cases, and analytically obtain formulas for the amounts of the work and the power. Our results demonstrate the significance of the non-Gaussianity in energetics of electrical circuits.

  2. Electric-discharge-pumped nitrogen ion laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudenslager, J. B.; Pacala, T. J.; Wittig, C.

    1976-01-01

    The routine operation is described of an N2(+) laser oscillating on the first negative band system of N2(+) which is produced in a preionized transverse discharge device. The discharge design incorporates features which favor the efficient production of the excitation transfer reaction of He2(+) with N2. A capacitive discharge switched by means of a high-current grounded grid thyratron is used to meet the design requirement of a volumetric discharge in high-pressure gas mixtures where the electric discharge need not have an ultrafast rise time (greater than 10 nsec) but should be capable of transferring large quantities of stored electric energy to the gas. A peak power of 180 kW in an 8-nsec laser pulse was obtained with a 0.1% mixture of N2 in helium at a total pressure of 3 atm. The most intense laser oscillations were observed on the (0,1) vibrational transition at 427.8 microns.

  3. Electrically pumped edge-emitting photonic bandgap semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shawn-Yu; Zubrzycki, Walter J.

    2004-01-06

    A highly efficient, electrically pumped edge-emitting semiconductor laser based on a one- or two-dimensional photonic bandgap (PBG) structure is described. The laser optical cavity is formed using a pair of PBG mirrors operating in the photonic band gap regime. Transverse confinement is achieved by surrounding an active semiconductor layer of high refractive index with lower-index cladding layers. The cladding layers can be electrically insulating in the passive PBG mirror and waveguide regions with a small conducting aperture for efficient channeling of the injection pump current into the active region. The active layer can comprise a quantum well structure. The quantum well structure can be relaxed in the passive regions to provide efficient extraction of laser light from the active region.

  4. Outdoor unit construction for an electric heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.

    1984-09-11

    The outdoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided with an upper portion containing propeller fan means for drawing air through the lower portion containing refrigerant coil means in the form of four discrete coils connected together in a subassembly forming a W shape, the unit being provided with four adjustable legs which are retracted in shipment, and are adjusted on site to elevate the unit to a particular height suitable for the particular location in which the unit is installed. 4 figs.

  5. Role of pump hydro in electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, R.; Moreira, C.; Silva, B.; Filipe, J.; Fulgêncio, N.

    2017-04-01

    This paper provides an overview of the expected role that variable speed hydro power plants can have in future electric power systems characterized by a massive integration of highly variable sources. Therefore, it is discussed the development of a methodology for optimising the operation of hydropower plants under increasing contribution from new renewable energy sources, addressing the participation of a hydropower plant with variable speed pumping in reserve markets. Complementarily, it is also discussed the active role variable speed generators can have in the provision of advanced frequency regulation services.

  6. Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    An electromagnetic pump for circulating liquid -metal coolant through a nuclear reactor wherein opposite walls of a pump duct serve as electrodes to transmit current radially through the liquid-metal in the ducts. A circumferential electric field is supplied to the liquid-metal by a toroidal electromagnet which has core sections interposed between the ducts. The windings of the electromagnet are composed of metal which is superconductive at low temperatures and the electromagnet is maintained at a temperature at which it is superconductive by liquid helium which is fed through the conductors which supply the excitation for the electromagnet. The walls of the ducts joining the electrodes include metal plates insulated from the electrodes backed up by insulators so that they are capable of withstanding the pressure of the liquid-metal. These composite wall structures may also be of thin metal strips of low electrical conductivity backed up by sturdy insulators. (author)

  7. Parametric studies and optimisation of pumped thermal electricity storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTigue, Joshua D.; White, Alexander J.; Markides, Christos N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PTES is modelled by cycle analysis and a Schumann-style model of the thermal stores. • Optimised trade-off surfaces show a flat efficiency vs. energy density profile. • Overall roundtrip efficiencies of around 70% are not inconceivable. - Abstract: Several of the emerging technologies for electricity storage are based on some form of thermal energy storage (TES). Examples include liquid air energy storage, pumped heat energy storage and, at least in part, advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage. Compared to other large-scale storage methods, TES benefits from relatively high energy densities, which should translate into a low cost per MW h of storage capacity and a small installation footprint. TES is also free from the geographic constraints that apply to hydro storage schemes. TES concepts for electricity storage rely on either a heat pump or refrigeration cycle during the charging phase to create a hot or a cold storage space (the thermal stores), or in some cases both. During discharge, the thermal stores are depleted by reversing the cycle such that it acts as a heat engine. The present paper is concerned with a form of TES that has both hot and cold packed-bed thermal stores, and for which the heat pump and heat engine are based on a reciprocating Joule cycle, with argon as the working fluid. A thermodynamic analysis is presented based on traditional cycle calculations coupled with a Schumann-style model of the packed beds. Particular attention is paid to the various loss-generating mechanisms and their effect on roundtrip efficiency and storage density. A parametric study is first presented that examines the sensitivity of results to assumed values of the various loss factors and demonstrates the rather complex influence of the numerous design variables. Results of an optimisation study are then given in the form of trade-off surfaces for roundtrip efficiency, energy density and power density. The optimised designs show a

  8. Impact Of Secondary-Primary Pumps Operating Sequence On The Electrical Power Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Rusdiyanto; Kiswanto

    2001-01-01

    The operating procedure of the reactor cooling system has decided that the primary cooling pump should be operated before secondary cooling pump as known primary-secondary pumps operating sequence. This decision is based on consideration that starting current of the primary pump is higher than secondary pump. Therefore, the primary-secondary pumps operating sequence can avoid the power supply system failure. However, this operating procedure has to take a consequence that in case of primary pump failure, the shutdown time period of the reaktor to be longer caused to re operate the primary pump has required that the running secondary pump should be shutted off. To solve this problem, an impact analysis of the secondary-primary pumps operating sequence on the electric power supply system was carried out to identify the revision possibility of the cooling pump operating procedure. The analysis by discussion of the measuring results of the secondary and primary pump starting current related to another electrical loads has been measured. From discussion it can be concluded that secondary-primary pumps operating sequence has no impact to failure in electric power supply system

  9. Performance evaluation of a transformerless multiphase electric submersible pump system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Hakeem

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Using of low-voltage variable-frequency drive followed by a step-up transformer is the most preferable way to feed an electrical submersible pump motor. The existence of long feeder between the motor and drive systems usually causes over-voltage problems because of the travelling wave phenomenon, which makes the employment of filter networks on the motor or inverter terminals mandatory. The so-called boost-inverter inherently can solve this problem with filter-less operation as it offers a direct sinusoidal output voltage. As boost inverters have voltage boosting capability, it can provide a transformer-less operation as well. This study investigates the performance of a five-phase modular winding induction machine fed from a boost-inverter through a long feeder. A simulation study using a 1000 Hp system and experimental investigation on a 1 Hp prototype machine are used to support the presented approach.

  10. Ion pump as molecular ratchet and effects of noise: electric activation of cation pumping by Na,K-ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsong, T. Y.; Xie, T. D.

    2002-08-01

    Na,K-ATPase is a universal ion pump of the biological cell. Under physiological conditions, it uses the γ-phosphorus bond energy of ATP during hydrolysis to pump 2 K+ inward and 3 Na+ outward; both being uphill transports. The experiment presented here demonstrates that the protein transporter can also use electric energy to fuel its pump activity. A theory of electroconformational coupling (TEC) is described and an experiment performed to verify several predictions of the model. Analysis based on the TEC model suggests that Na,K-ATPase is a Brownian ratchet. The enzyme harvests energy from the applied field by means of the field-induced conformational oscillation or fluctuation. However, high efficiency of energy transduction can only be achieved with an electric field of certain intensities, frequencies and waveforms. This property of the enzyme allows us to define an electric signal and differentiate it from electric noise on the basis of the analysis by the TEC model. Data show that electric noise alone does not induce pump activity. However, an appropriate power level of noise imposed on a signal can enhance the pump efficiency. The effect of noise on the signal transduction of Na,K-ATPase is reminiscent of the stochastic resonance phenomenon reported in other biological systems [3, 35]. The TEC model embodies many common features of enzymes and biological motors. It is potentially energy-efficient, much more so than models based on the ion-rectification mechanism.

  11. Particulars in design of the electrical part of the Kiev Pumped-Storage Electric Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brimerberg, V P

    1976-01-01

    The Kiev Pumped-Storage Electric Power Plant is the first such installation in the Soviet Union. The power capacity of the plant is 225 MW. There are six vertical hydraulic generators: three are connected to vertical pump-turbines and operate as motor-generators; the other three are connected to vertical radial-axial hydraulic turbines and operate as generators only. Each generator is a type SVO 733/130-36 with power of 45.6 MVA. The active power load is 83.5 MW, reactive--75.1, and total--112.5 MVA. The installation can be used for 500 h/yr at maximum power, producing 110 million kWh. During the high-water period, the plant is used daily for about 100 days, covering the peak of the load schedule of the southern power system. During the low-water period the plant is used as needed. During the slack hours at night the system operates in the pump mode for about 1400 h/yr, using 160 million kWh. During the remainder of the day the generators work as synchronous compensators with a total load on each of 36,500 kvar. Electrical circuits and a cross section of the generator are given. An explanation is also given of the grounding precautions taken to ensure an equipotential field at all points of the installation where personnel may be located.

  12. Increasing economic benefits by load-shifting of electrical heat pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Laveyne, Joannes; Zwaenepoel, Brecht; Van Eetvelde, Greet; Vandevelde, Lieven

    2014-01-01

    Electrical heating is still widely used in the process industry. While the use of immersion heaters for the production of hot water or steam is declining, the adoption rate of electrical heat pumps is increasing rapidly. Heat pumps show great flexibility and potential for energy savings, e.g. through low temperature waste heat recuperation. In combination with thermal storage they also allow for load shifting. Because their main power source is electricity, which up to now cannot be stored ef...

  13. Electricity demand profile with high penetration of heat pumps in Nordic area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the heat pump (HP) demand profile with high HP penetration in the Nordic area in order to achieve the carbon neutrality power system. The calculation method in the European Standard EN14825 was used to estimate the HP electricity demand profile. The study results show...... there will be high power demand from HPs and the selection of supplemental heating for heat pumps has a big impact on the peak electrical power load of heating. The study in this paper gives an estimate of the scale of the electricity demand with high penetration of heat pumps in the Nordic area....

  14. Potential for increased wind-generated electricity utilization using heat pumps in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, Michael; Modi, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Large-scale wind power and increased electric heat pumps were evaluated. • A deterministic model of wind power and electricity demand was developed. • Sub-models for space heating and domestic hot water demand were developed. • Increased use of heat pumps can improve the viability of large-scale wind power. • Larger wind power capacity can meet a target utilization rate with more heat pumps. - Abstract: The U.S. has substantial wind power potential, but given wind’s intermittent availability and misalignment with electricity demand profiles, large-scale deployment of wind turbines could result in high electricity costs due to energy storage requirements or low utilization rates. While fuel switching and heat pumps have been proposed as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy reduction strategies at the building scale, this paper shows that heat pump adoption could have additional system-wide benefits by increasing the utilization of wind-generated electricity. A model was developed to evaluate the effects of coupling large-scale wind power installations in New York State with increased use of electric heat pumps to meet a portion of space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) demands in New York City. The analysis showed significant increases in wind-generated electricity utilization with increased use of heat pumps, allowing for higher installed capacity of wind power. One scenario indicates that 78.5% annual wind-generated electricity utilization can be achieved with 3 GW of installed wind power capacity generated electricity equal to 20% of existing NYC annual electricity demand; if 20% of space heating and DHW demands are provided by heat pumps, the 78.5% utilization rate can be achieved with an increase of total wind power capacity to 5 GW. Therefore, this integrated supply–demand approach could provide additional system-wide emissions reductions

  15. Monitoring the ground water level change during the pump test by using the Electric resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H.; Chang, P. Y.; Yao, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    For hydrodynamics study of the unconfined aquifer in gravel formation, a pumping test was established to estimate the hydraulic conductivity in the midstream of Zhoushui River in Taiwan. The hydraulic parameters and the cone of depression could be estimated by monitoring the groundwater drawdown in an observation well which was in a short distance far from the pumping well. In this study we carried out the electric resistivity image monitoring during the whole pumping test. The electric resistivity data was measured with the surface and downhole electrodes which would produce a clear subsurface image of groundwater level through a larger distance than the distance between pumping and observation wells. The 2D electric image could also describe how a cone of depression truly created at subsurface. The continuous records could also show the change of groundwater level during the whole pumping test which could give a larger scale of the hydraulic parameters.

  16. Advanced Control of Wind Electric Pumping System for Isolated Areas Application

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Barara; Abderrahim Bennassar; Ahmed Abbou; Mohammed Akherraz; Badre Bossoufi

    2014-01-01

    The supply water in remote areas of windy region is one of most attractive application of wind energy conversion .This paper proposes an advanced controller suitable for wind-electric pump in isolated applications in order to have a desired debit from variation of reference speed of the pump also the control scheme of DC voltage of SIEG for feed the pump are presented under step change in wind speed. The simulation results showed a good performance of the global proposed control system.

  17. Pump selection and application in a pressurized water reactor electric generating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitch, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Various pump applications utilized in a nuclear pressurized water reactor electric generating plant are described. Emphasis is on pumps installed in the auxiliary systems of the primary nuclear steam supply system. Hydraulic and mechanical details, the ASME Code (Nuclear Design), materials, mechanical seals, shaft design, seismic qualification, and testing are addressed

  18. Farmers’ Comparative Use Assessment Of Wind And Electric Pump For Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaba Kwasi Selassie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Keta District provides one of the best wind regimes in Ghana and farming is the main occupation of most people in the communities of the district, notably the anloga community. A small size wind pump (1.6m rotor diameter is currently in operation in Anloga in the Keta District on pilot bases to verify its cost effectiveness compared with the hydro electric power technology. The high electricity tariff paid every month for power consumption deterred majority of the farmers using hydro electricity technology for pumping. A survey conducted revealed that out of about 50 farmers, only 29% engaged in the use of electric power for pumping whilst 69% still use the manual method. 2% of the farmers are using wind energy technology on pilot bases. Farmers in these coastal communities may have engaged in the use of wind energy for water pumping but for its high initial cost.

  19. Role of Pumped Storage Hydro Resources in Electricity Markets and System Operation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Botterud, A.; Milostan, C.; Krad, I.; Koritarov, V.

    2013-05-01

    The most common form of utility- sized energy storage system is the pumped storage hydro system. Originally, these types of storage systems were economically viable simply because they displace more expensive generating units. However, over time, as those expensive units became more efficient and costs declined, pumped hydro storage units no longer have the operational edge. As a result, in the current electricity market environment, pumped storage hydro plants are struggling. To offset this phenomenon, certain market modifications should be addressed. This paper will introduce some of the challenges faced by pumped storage hydro plants in today's markets and purpose some solutions to those problems.

  20. Economic valuation of heat pumps and electric boilers in the Danish energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Maria Grønnegaard; Morales, Juan Miguel; Zugno, Marco; Pedersen, Thomas Engberg; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the economic value of heat pumps and electric boilers in Denmark. • The daily operation of a heat and power system is modeled by stochastic programming. • Deterministic models overestimate the value of heat pumps and electric boilers. • Heat pumps and electric boilers can reduce the cost of operating the Danish system. • Falling power prices may boost the future value of heat pumps and electric boilers. - Abstract: Heat pumps (HP) and electric immersion boilers (EB) have great potential to increase flexibility in energy systems. In parallel, decreasing taxes on electricity-based heat production are creating a more favorable economic environment for the deployment of these units in Denmark. In this paper, the economic value of heat pumps and electric boilers is assessed by simulating their day-to-day market performance using a novel operational strategy based on two-stage stochastic programming. This stochastic model is employed to optimize jointly the daily operation of HPs and EBs along with the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) units in the system. Uncertainty in the heat demand and power price is modeled via scenarios representing different plausible paths for their future evolution. A series of case-studies are performed using real-world data for the heat and power systems in the Copenhagen area during four representative weeks of 2013. We show that the use of stochastic operational models is critical, as standard deterministic models provide an overestimation of the added benefits from the installation of HPs and EBs, thus leading to over-investment in capacity. Furthermore, we perform sensitivity studies to investigate the effect on market performance of varying capacity and efficiency for these units, as well as of different levels of prices in the electricity market. We find that these parameters substantially affect the profitability of heat pumps and electric boilers, hence, they must be carefully assessed by potential

  1. Research and application of key technology of electric submersible plunger pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, K.; Sun, Y. N.; Zheng, S.; Du, W. S.; Li, J. N.; Pei, G. Z.; Gao, Y.; Wu, N.

    2018-06-01

    Electric submersible plunger pump is a new generation of rodless oil production equipment, whose improvements and upgrades of key technologies are conducive to its large-scale application and reduce the cost and improve the efficiency. In this paper, the operating mechanism of the unit in-depth study, aimed at the problems existing in oilfield production, to propose an optimization method creatively, including the optimal design of a linear motor for submersible oil, development of new double-acting load-relief pump, embedded flexible closed-loop control technology, research and development of low-cost power cables. 90 oil wells were used on field application, the average pump inspection cycle is 608 days, the longest pump check cycle has exceeded 1037 days, the average power saving rate is 45.6%. Application results show that the new technology of optimization and upgrading can further improve the reliability and adaptability of electric submersible plunger pump, reduce the cost of investment.

  2. Electric Boiler and Heat Pump Thermo-Electrical Models for Demand Side Management Analysis in Low Voltage Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The last fifteen years many European countries have integrated large percentage of renewable energy on their electricity generation mix. In Denmark the 21.3% of the electricity consumed nowadays is produced by the wind, and it has planned to be the 50% by 2025. In order to front future challenges...... on the power system control and operation, created by this unstable way of generation, Demand Side Management turns to be a promising solution. The storage capacity from thermo-electric units, like electric boilers and heat pumps, allows operating them with certain freedom. Hence they can be employed under...... certain coordination, to actively respond to the power system fluctuations. The following paper presents two simple thermo-electrical models of an electrical boiler and an air-source CO2 heat pump system. The purpose is using them in low voltage grids analysis to assess their capacity and flexibility...

  3. Current status and prospect of electric heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Shoichi

    1988-02-01

    Due to the advent of an age of high energy cost, technological developments of heat pumps have progressed and especially those for the industrial use are significant. As for housing, improvement of heating capacity was persued and improvement of the starting-up characteristics and consumption rate became possible. Consequently, the usage of the pump was expanded from a dedicated cooling apparatus to a cooling and heating apparatus and efforts of making it smaller, lighter and with less noise have been made fruitfully. Furthermore, a heat pump type room air conditioner for cold areas, a multi-functional type heat pump system which is consolidated into a single unit capable to supply hot water and dry clothes in a bath room, etc. and other packaged air conditioners have been introduced showing the diversified usages. On the other hand, as for the industrial use, for the purpose of improvement of energy utilization efficiency, heat pumps are used for shortening processing hours, improving quality of products and improving yield. As for energy saving, they are used for drying coating of golf balls, horticulture in the facilities, and hydroponics, etc.. (6 figs, 6 tabs)

  4. Heat pumps; Synergy of high efficiency and low carbon electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Akio

    2010-09-15

    Heat pump is attracting wide attention for its high efficiency to utilize inexhaustible and renewable ambient heat in the environment. With its rapid innovation and efficiency improvement, this technology has a huge potential to reduce CO2 emissions by replacing currently widespread fossil fuel combustion systems to meet various heat demands from the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. Barriers to deployment such as low public awareness and a relatively long pay-back period do exist, so it is strongly recommended that each country implement policies to promote heat pumps as a renewable energy option and an effective method to combat global warming.

  5. Economic valuation of heat pumps and electric boilers in the Danish energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Grønnegaard; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Zugno, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Heat pumps (HP) and electric immersion boilers (EB) have great potential to increase flexibility in energy systems. In parallel, decreasing taxes on electricity-based heat production are creating a more favorable economic environment for the deployment of these units in Denmark. In this paper, th...... by potential investors....

  6. Performance of a 10 kilowatt wind-electric water pumping system for irrigating crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vick, B.D.; Clark, R.N. [Conservation and Production Research Lab., Bushland, TX (United States); Molla, S. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A 10 kW wind-electric water pumping system was tested for field crop irrigation at pumping depths from 50 to 120 m. The wind turbine for this system used a permanent magnet alternator that powered off-the-shelf submersible motors and pumps without the use of an inverter. Pumping performance was determined at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Wind Energy Laboratory in Bushland, TX for the 10 kW wind turbine using a pressure valve and a pressure tank to simulate different pumping depths. Pumping performance was measured for two 10 kW wind turbines of the same type at farms near the cities of Garden City, TX and Stiles, TX. The pumping performance data collected at these actual wells compared favorably with the data collected at the USDA-ARS, Wind Energy Laboratory. If utility generated electricity was accessible, payback on the wind turbine depended on the cost of utility generated electricity and the transmission line extension cost.

  7. Bidding strategy for pumped-storage plant in pool-based electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanakasabapathy, P.; Shanti Swarup, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops optimal bidding strategies for a pumped-storage plant in a pool-based electricity market. In the competitive regime, when compared to simple hydroelectric generator, profit of the pumped-storage plant is maximized by operating it as a generator when market clearing price is high and as a pump when the price is low. Based on forecasted hourly market clearing price, a multistage looping algorithm to maximize the profit of a pumped-storage plant is developed, considering both the spinning and non-spinning reserve bids and meeting the technical operating constraints of the plant. The proposed model is adaptive for the nonlinear three-dimensional relationship between the power produced, the energy stored, and the head of the associated reservoir. Different operating cycles for a realistic pumped-storage plant are considered and simulation results are reported and compared. (author)

  8. Method and device for electromagnetic pumping by conduction of liquid metals having low electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Frere, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The invention is related to a method for pumping of liquid metals having a low electrical conductivity. To lower the resistance of the conductive spire containing liquid metal to be pumped, a tape formed by a conductive metal such as copper or nickel is inserted in that spire. The tape is interrupted at the level of the air gap of the main magnetic circuit at least when the conductive spire passes through that air gap

  9. Pump effect of a capillary discharge in electrically conductive liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Baerdemaeker, F.; Šimek, Milan; Leys, C.; Verstraete, W.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2007), s. 473-485 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1043403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : water * conductive * capillary * AC discharge * pump Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.747, year: 2007 http://www.springerlink.com/content/w802073563282272/fulltext.pdf

  10. Honda WT20K1C 2 inch electric driven trash pump and Honda ES6500c generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Recovery of highly volatile hydrocarbon spills has always presented safety problems due to the explosive, flammable nature of the product being recovered. In an effort to increase safety, decrease spill response time, and improve recovery and/or pumping of hydrocarbons, an electric driven trash pump has been designed, developed, and tested. This pump has the capacity to recover and/or pump volatile and flammable substances such as condensate, gasoline, diesel fuel, and light gravity crude oil products in a safe manner. The pumping unit consists of an electric motor rated for use in hazardous locations, a trash pump with a Duraprene impeller and pump body, a motor/pump frame, and a Honda ES6500c generator that powers the pump motor through up to 100 feet of cable. A remote control switch is used to operate the unit so that workers can stay at least 30 m away while it is running. 5 figs

  11. Large Scale Deployment of Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Heat Pumps (HPs) in the Nordic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Petersen, Pauli Fríðheim

    This report describes the study results of large scale deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs) in the Nordic countries of Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland, focusing on the demand profiles with high peneration of EVs and HPs in 2050......This report describes the study results of large scale deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs) in the Nordic countries of Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland, focusing on the demand profiles with high peneration of EVs and HPs in 2050...

  12. INTENSITY SETTER FOR A DEVICE OF SMOOTH START OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMP ELECTRIC MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Lobov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of an intensity setter, which in a rational law changes the opening thyristor the voltage regulator and effectively to changing power supply voltage stator windings of the electric pump deepening, ensuring a smooth start in a wide range. Methodology. Electric submersible pump belongs to the small inertia electric, since it is not significant total moment of inertia, not exceeding two moments of inertia of the motor and static moment on the shaft does not exceed forty percent of the nominal torque. For technical requirements that electric acceleration time should have no less than twenty seconds or more. Office starting modes of electric submersible pumps economically justified using thyristor voltage regulator by forming the dial changes the intensity of the necessary legislation in time voltage feeding the stator windings. This ensures a smooth start right rotor of the electric submersible pump. Results. A block diagram of the intensity setter that is: with control unit, two units that form the exponential voltage supply emitter follower and regulatory elements. The mathematical expressions for voltage at the stator windings of the motor, changing exponentially, opening the angle of thyristor power unit thyristor the voltage regulator, which is determined through the initial angle of opening. Provided formula for pick-up voltage and minimum voltage, time constants, which are determined from the basic equations of motion and mechanical characteristics of the electric motor. Analytical investigated by the voltage dependence violation by changing the time constant flowing and growing exhibitor supply voltage stator electric circuit deepening pump. Originality. Proposed in the initial time on the stator windings of the electric pick-up voltage is applied. Under the influence of this voltage, motor rotor begins to accelerate. At the same time, pick-up voltage decreases the minimum startup voltage varies exponentially in which

  13. The role of capacitance in a wind-electric water pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Shitao [West Texas A& M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States); Clark, R.N. [Conservation and Production Research Lab., Bushland, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The development of controllers for wind-electric water pumping systems to enable the use of variable voltage, variable frequency electricity to operate standard AC submersible pump motors has provided a more efficient and flexible water pumping system to replace mechanical windmills. A fixed capacitance added in parallel with the induction motor improves the power factor and starting ability of the pump motor at the lower cut-in frequency. The wind-electric water pumping system developed by USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Bushland, TX, operated well at moderate wind speeds (5-12 m/s), but tended to lose synchronization in winds above 12 m/s, especially if they were gusty. Furling generally did not occur until synchronization had been lost and the winds had to subside before synchronization could be reestablished. The frequency needed to reestablish synchronization was much lower (60-65 Hz) than the frequency where synchronization was lost (70-80 Hz). As a result, the load (motor and pump) stayed off an excessive amount of time thus causing less water to be pumped and producing a low system efficiency. The controller described in this paper dynamically connects additional capacitance of the proper amount at the appropriate time to keep the system synchronized (running at 55 to 60 Hz) and pumping water even when the wind speed exceeds 15 m/s. The system efficiency was improved by reducing the system off-line time and an additional benefit was reducing the noise caused by the high speed blade rotation when the load was off line in high winds.

  14. PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.D.

    1959-03-24

    A pump is described for conveving liquids, particure it is not advisable he apparatus. The to be submerged in the liquid to be pumped, a conduit extending from the high-velocity nozzle of the injector,and means for applying a pulsating prcesure to the surface of the liquid in the conduit, whereby the surface oscillates between positions in the conduit. During the positive half- cycle of an applied pulse liquid is forced through the high velocity nozzle or jet of the injector and operates in the manner of the well known water injector and pumps liquid from the main intake to the outlet of the injector. During the negative half-cycle of the pulse liquid flows in reverse through the jet but no reverse pumping action takes place.

  15. Towards an intermittency-friendly energy system: Comparing electric boilers and heat pumps in distributed cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blarke, Morten B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose an “intermittency-friendly” energy system design. ► We compare intermittency-friendly concepts in distributed cogeneration. ► We investigate a new concept involving a heat pump and intermediate cold storage. ► We find significant improvements in operational intermittency-friendliness. ► Well-designed heat pump concepts are more cost-effective than electric boilers. -- Abstract: Distributed cogeneration has played a key role in the implementation of sustainable energy policies for three decades. However, increasing penetration levels of intermittent renewables is challenging that position. The paradigmatic case of West Denmark indicates that distributed operators are capitulating as wind power penetration levels are moving above 25%; some operators are retiring cogeneration units entirely, while other operators are making way for heat-only boilers. This development is jeopardizing the system-wide energy, economic, and environmental benefits that distributed cogeneration still has to offer. The solution is for distributed operators to adapt their technology and operational strategies to achieve a better co-existence between cogeneration and wind power. Four options for doing so are analysed including a new concept that integrates a high pressure compression heat pump using low-temperature heat recovered from flue gasses in combination with an intermediate cold storage, which enables the independent operation of heat pump and cogenerator. It is found that an electric boiler provides consistent improvements in the intermittency-friendliness of distributed cogeneration. However, well-designed heat pump concepts are more cost-effective than electric boilers, and in future markets where the gas/electricity price ratio is likely to increase, compression heat pumps in combination with intermediate thermal storages represent a superior potential for combining an intermittency-friendly pattern of operation with the efficient use of

  16. Experience of decontaminating of the ventilation system electric motors and main circulation and waterside pump drive electric motors in conditions of the Chernobyl' NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.I.; Karataev, B.A.; Platonov, A.I.; Potekhin, V.B.; Ryumin, G.V.; Sorokin, N.M.; Fenogenov, V.A.; Cheremshin, P.I.

    1989-01-01

    The ventilation system electric motor decontamination is described. In decontaminating waterside pump rotors and stators with high level of contamination was developed a procedure, eliminating corrosion action and damage of electric isolation coatings

  17. GaAs-based high temperature electrically pumped polariton laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baten, Md Zunaid; Bhattacharya, Pallab, E-mail: pkb@eecs.umich.edu; Frost, Thomas; Deshpande, Saniya; Das, Ayan [Center for Photonic and Multiscale Nanomaterials, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Lubyshev, Dimitri; Fastenau, Joel M.; Liu, Amy W. K. [IQE, Inc., 119 Technology Drive, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States)

    2014-06-09

    Strong coupling effects and polariton lasing are observed at 155 K with an edge-emitting GaAs-based microcavity diode with a single Al{sub 0.31}Ga{sub 0.69}As/Al{sub 0.41}Ga{sub 0.59}As quantum well as the emitter. The threshold for polariton lasing is observed at 90 A/cm{sup 2}, accompanied by a reduction of the emission linewidth to 0.85 meV and a blueshift of the emission wavelength by 0.89 meV. Polariton lasing is confirmed by the observation of a polariton population redistribution in momentum space and spatial coherence. Conventional photon lasing is recorded in the same device at higher pump powers.

  18. Algorithm to determine electrical submersible pump performance considering temperature changes for viscous crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valderrama, A. [Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A., Distrito Socialista Tecnologico (Venezuela); Valencia, F. [Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A., Instituto de Tecnologia Venezolana para el Petroleo (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, electrical submersible pumps (ESPs) are used to transfer energy to fluids through stages made up of one impeller and one diffuser. Since liquid temperature increases through the different stages, viscosity might change between the inlet and outlet of the pump, thus affecting performance. The aim of this research was to create an algorithm to determine ESPs' performance curves considering temperature changes through the stages. A computational algorithm was developed and then compared with data collected in a laboratory with a CG2900 ESP. Results confirmed that when the fluid's viscosity is affected by the temperature changes, the stages of multistage pump systems do not have the same performance. Thus the developed algorithm could help production engineers to take viscosity changes into account and optimize the ESP design. This study developed an algorithm to take into account the fluid viscosity changes through pump stages.

  19. Always at the correct temperature. Thermal management with electric coolant pump; Immer richtig temperiert. Thermomanagement mit elektrischer Kuehlmittelpumpe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genster, A.; Stephan, W. [Pierburg GmbH, Neuss (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    Through the use of the electric coolant pump it has become possible for the first time to attain a cooling performance which is adapted precisely to the engine load and which is independent of engine speed. For cooling the new BMW six cylinder in-line Otto engine with an engine power rating of 190 kW, the electric coolant pump by Pierburg requires only 200 W of electrical power from the onboard electrical system. (orig.)

  20. Seawater pumping as an electricity storage solution for photovoltaic energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfrida, Giampaolo; Secchi, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    The stochastic nature of several renewable energy sources has raised the problem of designing and building storage facilities, which can help the electricity grid to sustain larger and larger contribution of renewable energy. Seawater pumped electricity storage is proposed as a good option for PV (Photovoltaic) or solar thermal power plants, located in suitable places close to the coast line. Solar radiation has a natural daily cycle, and storage reservoirs of limited capacity can substantially reduce the load to the electricity grid. Different modes of pump operation (fixed or variable speed) are considered, the preliminary sizing of the PV field and seawater reservoir is performed, and the results are comparatively assessed over a year-long simulated operation. The results show that PV pumped storage, even if not profitable in the present situation of the renewable energy Italian electricity market, is effective in decreasing the load on the transmission grid, and would possibly be attractive in the future, also in the light of developing off-grid applications. - Highlights: • A grid-connected seawater pumping system using photovoltaic power is proposed and its performance analyzed. • Year-round simulations are run with different sizes of photovoltaic field and reservoir. • An analysis is run about the profitability of the storage system, examining performance indexes and the cost of plant. • The system proposed appears near to attract the interest of the market

  1. A high-efficiency electrically-pumped single-photon source based on a photonics nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    An electrically-pumped single-photon source design with a predicted efficiency of 89% is proposed. The design is based on a quantum dot embedded in a photonic nanowire with tailored ends and optimized contact electrodes. Unlike cavity-based approaches, the photonic nanowire features broadband...

  2. Energy consumption modeling of air source electric heat pump water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, Grant; Bansal, Pradeep

    2010-01-01

    Electric heat pump air source water heaters may provide an opportunity for significant improvements in residential water heater energy efficiency in countries with temperate climates. As the performance of these appliances can vary widely, it is important for consumers to be able to accurately assess product performance in their application to maximise energy savings and ensure uptake of this technology. For a given ambient temperature and humidity, the performance of an air source heat pump water heater is strongly correlated to the water temperature in or surrounding the condenser. It is therefore important that energy consumption models for these products duplicate the real-world water temperatures applied to the heat pump condenser. This paper examines a recently published joint Australian and New Zealand Standard, AS/NZS 4234: 2008; Heated water systems - Calculation of energy consumption. Using this standard a series TRNSYS models were run for several split type air source electric heat pump water heaters. An equivalent set of models was then run utilizing an alternative water use pattern. Unfavorable errors of up to 12% were shown to occur in modeling of heat pump water heater performance using the current standard compared to the alternative regime. The difference in performance of a model using varying water use regimes can be greater than the performance difference between models of product.

  3. Electrically pumped graphene-based Landau-level laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Samuel; Wendler, Florian; Winnerl, Stephan; Malic, Ermin

    2018-03-01

    Graphene exhibits a nonequidistant Landau quantization with tunable Landau-level (LL) transitions in the technologically desired terahertz spectral range. Here, we present a strategy for an electrically driven terahertz laser based on Landau-quantized graphene as the gain medium. Performing microscopic modeling of the coupled electron, phonon, and photon dynamics in such a laser, we reveal that an inter-LL population inversion can be achieved resulting in the emission of coherent terahertz radiation. The presented paper provides a concrete recipe for the experimental realization of tunable graphene-based terahertz laser systems.

  4. Power converter with maximum power point tracking MPPT for small wind-electric pumping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, David; Merino, Gabriel; Salazar, Lautaro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We implement a wind electric pumping system of small power. • The power converter allowed to change the operating point of the electro pump. • Two control techniques were implemented in the power converter. • The control V/f variable allowed to increase the power generated by the permanent magnet generator. - Abstract: In this work, an AC–DC–AC direct-drive power converter was implemented for a wind electric pumping system consisting of a permanent magnet generator (PMG) of 1.3 kW and a peripheral single phase pump of 0.74 kW. In addition, the inverter linear V/f control scheme and the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm with variable V/f were developed. MPPT algorithm seeks to extract water in a wide range of power input using the maximum amount of wind power available. Experimental trials at different pump pressures were conducted. With a MPPT tracking system with variable V/f, a power value of 1.3 kW was obtained at a speed of 350 rpm and a maximum operating hydraulic head of 50 m. At lower operating heads pressures (between 10 and 40 m), variable V/f control increases the power generated by the PMG compared to the linear V/f control. This increase ranged between 4% and 23% depending on the operating pressure, with an average of 13%, getting close to the maximum electrical power curve of the PMG. The pump was driven at variable frequency reaching a minimum speed of 0.5 times the rated speed. Efficiency of the power converter ranges between 70% and 95% with a power factor between 0.4 and 0.85, depending on the operating pressure

  5. Double twist : Can-K's electric submersible twin screw pump is designed to handle the nastiest crudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-12-15

    This article described the Can-K Group of Companies' electric submersible twin screw pump (ESTSP) designed for pumping heavy crudes with high levels of asphaltenes, hydrogen sulphide, wax, and methane. The technology was awarded the 2010 winner of best production technology for a company with fewer than 100 employees. The ESTSP can pump at a greater depth than other lift technologies. The design challenges included making the pump small enough to fit inside the well casing while also able to generate the high pressures necessary for pumping heavy oil. The ESTSP can compete directly against other lift technologies, including electric submersible pumps (ESPs). In the design, two shafts are separated by a timing gear. Each shaft has short sections of interlocking screws that do not touch, which lessens tension and the need for torque, lowering electricity consumption. The ESTSP is more efficient than ESP systems, particularly in more viscous mediums with high gas-to-oil ratios. The positive displacement pump interprets only volume and does not distinguish between gas and oil, functioning with gas content up to 97 percent. ESTSP can also handle more sand than ESP because it does not rely on centrifugal force. A patented screw design also helps prevent pump seizure resulting from sand and other solids. The pump uses downhole electric motors from other manufacturers. The inherent efficiencies of twin screw pumps give the technology the potential to replace conventional ESPs. 2 figs.

  6. Example for electrical energy savings with the pump adjustable electric drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirchevski, Slobodan; Andonov, Zdravko; Saracevic, Fahrudin; Micevski, Darko; Buchkoski, Aleksandar

    2004-01-01

    Most used method of flow regulation is by throttling the pipeline. Development of power electronic gives opportunity for induction motor pump drives speed control. The common ways of pump flow control are throttling, reducing the working circle, usage of fore circle shovels rotating, by pass and pump speed control Only pump speed control is the most suitable for the energy possibilities. Intensive development of power electronic gives. opportunity to create devices - power converters, which can change the speed of induction motor. For that improvement the energy savings the measurements of power consumption with throttling and speed control have been made. Also, the MATLAB-SIMULINK model of the measured system has been made. The economic effects of saving energy using adjustable speed drives are analyzed for the measured values. The analysis shows that the money payback period of speed controller investment is short compared with the drive lifetime (20 years). (Author)

  7. OPTIMAL PARAMETERS OF BLASTING IN TUNNELS USING PATRONED AND PUMPED EXPLOSIVES WITH ELECTRIC AND NON-ELECTRIC INITIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Deković

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The parameters of drilling and blasting procedures during excavation of Grič and mala Kapela Tunnels are presented in this work. The tunnels are being constructed according to NATM (New Austrian Tunneling Method in two parallel tubes. By Comparison of blasting with patroned and pumped explosives and electric and non-electric mode of initiation, optimal technological parameters have been defined concerning duration of blasting working cycle, progress, tunnel category and seismic effects of blasting on the tunnel support system of the parallel tunnel tube.

  8. Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bryan; Mayer, Marie A.; Shambat, Gary; Sarmiento, Tomas; Harris, James; Haller, Eugene E.; Vučković, Jelena

    2011-05-01

    Efficient, low-threshold and compact semiconductor laser sources are under investigation for many applications in high-speed communications, information processing and optical interconnects. The best edge-emitting and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers have thresholds on the order of 100 µA (refs 1,2), but dissipate too much power to be practical for many applications, particularly optical interconnects. Optically pumped photonic-crystal nanocavity lasers represent the state of the art in low-threshold lasers; however, to be practical, techniques to electrically pump these structures must be developed. Here, we demonstrate a quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser in gallium arsenide pumped by a lateral p-i-n junction formed by ion implantation. Continuous-wave lasing is observed at temperatures up to 150 K. Thresholds of only 181 nA at 50 K and 287 nA at 150 K are observed--the lowest thresholds ever observed in any type of electrically pumped laser.

  9. A Study on Electric Vehicle Heat Pump Systems in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqi Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle heat pumps are drawing more and more attention due to their energy-saving and high efficiency designs. Some problems remain, however, in the usage of the heat pumps in electric vehicles, such as a drainage problem regarding the external heat exchangers while in heat pump mode, and the decrease in heating performance when operated in a cold climate. In this article, an R134a economized vapor injection (EVI heat pump system was built and tested. The drainage problem common amongst external heat exchangers was solved by an optimized 5 mm diameter tube-and-fin heat exchanger, which can meet both the needs of a condenser and evaporator based on simulation and test results. The EVI system was also tested under several ambient temperatures. It was found that the EVI was a benefit to the system heating capacity. Under a −20 °C ambient temperature, an average improvement of 57.7% in heating capacity was achieved with EVI and the maximum capacity was 2097 W, with a coefficient of performance (COP of 1.25. The influences of injection pressure and economizer capacity are also discussed in this article.

  10. Seasonal performance evaluation of electric air-to-water heat pump systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongellini, Matteo; Naldi, Claudia; Morini, Gian Luca

    2015-01-01

    A numerical model for the calculation of the seasonal performance of different kinds of electric air-to-water heat pumps is presented. The model is based on the procedure suggested by the European standard EN 14825 and the Italian standard UNI/TS 11300-4, which specify the guidelines for calculation of the seasonal performance of heat pumps during the heating season (SCOP), the cooling season (SEER) and for the production of domestic hot water. In order to consider the variation of outdoor conditions the developed model employs the bin-method. Different procedures are proposed in the paper for the analysis of the seasonal performance of mono-compressor, multi-compressor and variable speed compressor air-to-water heat pumps. The numerical results show the influence of the effective operating mode of the heat pumps on the SCOP value and put in evidence the impact of the design rules on the seasonal energy consumption of these devices. The study also highlights the importance of the correct sizing of the heat pump in order to obtain high seasonal efficiency and it shows that, for a fixed thermal load, inverter-driven and multi-compressor heat pumps have to be slightly oversized with respect to mono-compressor ones in order to obtain for the same building the highest SCOP values. - Highlights: • A model for the prediction of seasonal performance of HPs has been developed. • The model considers mono-compressor, multi-compressor and inverter-driven HPs. • The procedure takes into account HPs performances at partial load. • Optimization of heat pump sizing depending on its control system.

  11. Comparison on electrically pumped random laser actions of hydrothermal and sputtered ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Canxing; Jiang, Haotian; Li, Yunpeng; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2013-01-01

    Random lasing (RL) in polycrystalline ZnO films is an intriguing research subject. Here, we have comparatively investigated electrically pumped RL behaviors of two metal-insulator-semiconductor structured devices using the hydrothermal and sputtered ZnO films as the semiconductor components, i.e., the light-emitting layers, respectively. It is demonstrated that the device using the hydrothermal ZnO film exhibits smaller threshold current and larger output optical power of the electrically pumped RL. The morphological characterization shows that the hydrothermal ZnO film is somewhat porous and is much rougher than the sputtered one, suggesting that in the former stronger multiple light scattering can occur. Moreover, the photoluminescence characterization indicates that there are fewer defects in the hydrothermal ZnO film than in the sputtered one, which means that the photons can pick up larger optical gain through stimulated emission in the hydrothermal ZnO film. Therefore, it is believed that the stronger multiple light scattering and larger optical gain contribute to the improved performance of the electrically pumped RL from the device using the hydrothermal ZnO film

  12. Controlling a Conventional LS-pump based on Electrically Measured LS-pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2008-01-01

    As a result of the increasing use of sensors in mobile hydraulic equipment, the need for hydraulic pilot lines is decreasing, being replaced by electrical wiring and electrically controllable components. For controlling some of the existing hydraulic components there are, however, still a need...... this system, by either generating a copy of the LS-pressure, the LS-pressure being the output, or letting the output be the pump pressure. The focus of the current paper is on the controller design based on the first approach. Specifically a controlled leakage flow is used to avoid the need for a switching...

  13. High Concentration of Heat Pumps in Suburban Areas and Reduction of Their Impact on the Electricity Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruissen, O.P. van; Kamphuis, I.G.

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges of the near future for a more renewable Dutch electricity infrastructure is the embedding of high concentrations of heat pumps in currently built domestic residences. In the Dutch situation demand of electricity occurs simultaneously with demand of heat, high electricity peak

  14. LH2 pump component development testing in the electric pump room at test cell C inducer no. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, F. X.; Brunner, J. J.; Kirk, K. G.; Mathews, J. P.; Nishioka, T.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of a turbine pump for use with the nuclear engine for rocket vehicles are discussed. It was determined that the pump will be a two stage centrifugal pump with both stages having backswept impellers and an inducer upstream of the first stage impeller. The test program provided demonstration of the ability of the selected design to meet the imposed requirements.

  15. Electric power conservation while using pumping systems; Conservacion de Energia Electrica en Sistemas de Bombeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nambiar, P

    2007-01-15

    The pumping systems provide about 20 to 25 percent of energy which is necessary worldwide: it is fruitful to understand how to use electric power efficiently, to achieve the reduction regarding expenses a pumping system implies.It is essential to possess a better knowledge about the pumping system and its applications, in order to be able to use energy responsibly. If people do not how to operate this kind of systems properly, they will use inadequate equipment that will cause an energy waste. In addition it is important to know: alternative methods to meet variable demands, an adapted system to pump water requirements in order to ensure the pump work in its pumping point, and the life cycle system cost for the energy saving in the long term. [Spanish] En promedio del 20 al 25% de la energia necesaria en el mundo proviene de los sistemas de bombeo, por tal razon es importante saber como utilizar la energia electrica con eficiencia para asi lograr reducir los gastos que este tipo de sistemas implican. Para poder hacer un buen uso de la energia, es necesario que se tenga un conocimiento mayor del sistema de bombeo y aplicacion, ya que la ignorancia sobre esto exige el uso de aparatos que contribuyen al desperdicio de la energia; por otro lado tambien es esencial conocer metodos alternos para demandas variables, tener un sistema que se adapte a las necesidades de bombeo del agua para asegurarse de que cada bomba trabaje cerca de su punto de bombeo y finalmente conocer el costo del ciclo de vida del sistema para el ahorro de energia a largo plazo.

  16. Wind power integration with heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles - Energy systems analysis and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedegaard, K.

    2013-09-15

    This PhD investigates to which extent heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles can support the integration of wind power. Considering the gaps in existing research, the main focus is put on individual heat pumps in the residential sector (one-family houses) and the possibilities for flexible operation, using the heat storage options available. Several energy systems analyses are performed using the energy system models, Balmorel, developed at the former TSO, ElkraftSystem, and, EnergyPLAN, developed at Aalborg University. The Danish energy system towards 2030, with wind power penetrations of up to 60 %, is used as a case study in most of the analyses. Both models have been developed further, resulting in an improved representation of individual heat pumps and heat storages. An extensive model add-on for Balmorel renders it possible to optimise investment and operation of individual heat pumps and different types of heat storages, in integration with the energy system. Total costs of the energy system are minimised in the optimisation. The add-on incorporates thermal building dynamics and covers various different heat storage options: intelligent heat storage in the building structure for houses with radiator heating and floor heating, respectively, heat accumulation tanks on the space heating circuit, as well as hot water tanks. In EnergyPLAN, some of the heat storage options have been modelled in a technical optimisation that minimises fuel consumption of the energy system and utilises as much wind power as possible. The energy systems analyses reveal that in terms of supporting wind power integration, the installation of individual heat pumps is an important step, while adding heat storages to the heat pumps is less influential. When equipping the heat pumps with heat storages, only moderate system benefits can be gained. Hereof, the main system benefit is that the need for peak/reserve capacity investments can be reduced through peak load shaving; in

  17. Reactor coolant pump type RUV for Westinghouse Electric Company LLC reactor AP1000 TM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgarten, S.; Brecht, B.; Bruhns, U.; Fehring, P.

    2010-01-01

    The RUV is a reactor coolant pump, specially designed for the Westinghouse Electric Company LLC AP1000 TM reactor. It is a hermetically sealed, wet winding motor pump. The RUV is a very compact, vertical pump/motor unit, designed to fit into the compartment next to the reactor pressure vessel. Each of the two steam generators has two pump casings welded to the channel head by the suction nozzle. The pump/motor unit consists of a pump part, where a semi-axial impeller/diffuser combination is mounted in a one-piece pump casing. Computational Fluid Dynamics methods combined with various hydraulic tests in a 1:2 scale hydraulic test assure full compliance with the specific customer requirements. A short and rigid shaft, supported by a radial bearing, connects the impeller with the high inertia flywheel. This flywheel consists of a one-piece forged stainless steel cylinder, with an option for several smaller heavy metal cylinders inside. The flywheel is located inside the thermal barrier, which forms part of the pressure boundary. A specific arrangement of cooling water circuits guarantees a homogeneous temperature distribution in and around the flywheel, minimizes the friction losses of the flywheel and protects the motor from hot coolant. The driving torque is transmitted by the motor shaft, which itself is supported by two radial bearings. A three-phase, high-voltage squirrel-cage induction motor generates the driving torque. Due to the wet winding concept it is possible to achieve positive effects regarding motor lifetime. The cooling water is forced through the stator windings and the gap between rotor and stator by an auxiliary impeller. Furthermore, this wet winding motor concept has higher efficiency as compared to a canned motor since there are no eddy current losses. As part of the design process and in addition to the hydraulic scale model, a complete half scale model pump was built. It was used to verify the calculations performed like coast

  18. Integration between electric heat pump and PV system to increase self-consumption of an office application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselli Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a solar electric driven heat pump serving an office building located in southern Italy. To satisfy space heating and cooling demand a heat pump activated by electric energy available from solar photovoltaic plant is here considered. In order to improve the self-consumption of electricity available from photovoltaic system different configurations were considered introducing an electric storage and an electric vehicle. Dynamic simulations to evaluate energy performance of the system varying photovoltaic peak power (4.5–7.5 kW have been carried out. The proposed system achieves a fossil fuel primary energy saving up to about 96% in comparison to the reference conventional system based on a natural gas fired boiler, an electric chiller and the national electric grid. The results show that fossil fuel primary energy saving is higher when there are no storage battery and electric vehicle.

  19. Practical operation strategies for pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) utilising electricity price arbitrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Finn, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, three practical operation strategies (24Optimal, 24Prognostic, and 24Hsitrocial) are compared to the optimum profit feasible for a PHES facility with a 360 MW pump, 300 MW turbine, and a 2 GWh storage utilising price arbitrage on 13 electricity spot markets. The results indicate...... that almost all (not, vert, similar97%) of the profits can be obtained by a PHES facility when it is optimised using the 24Optimal strategy developed, which optimises the energy storage based on the day-ahead electricity prices. However, to maximise profits with the 24Optimal strategy, the day......-ahead electricity prices must be the actual prices which the PHES facility is charged or the PHES operator must have very accurate price predictions. Otherwise, the predicted profit could be significantly reduced and even become a loss. Finally, using the 24Optimal strategy, the PHES profit can surpass the annual...

  20. Synchronized and configurable source of electrical pulses for x-ray pump-probe experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J. P.; Chembrolu, V.; Yu, X. W.; Tyliszczak, T.; Acremann, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A method is described for the generation of software tunable patterns of nanosecond electrical pulses. The bipolar, high repetition rate (up to 250 MHz), fast rise time (<30 ps), square pulses are suitable for applications such as the excitation sequence in dynamic pump-probe experiments. Synchronization with the time structure of a synchrotron facility is possible as well as fine control of the relative delay in steps of 10 ps. The pulse generator described here is used to excite magnetic nanostructures with current pulses. Having an excitation system which can match the high repetition rate of a synchrotron allows for utilization of the full x-ray flux and is needed in experiments which require a large photon flux. The fast rise times allow for picosecond time resolution in pump-probe experiments. All pulse pattern parameters are configurable by software

  1. Emission characteristics of electrically- and optically-pumped single ZnO micro-spherical crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, D.; Shimogaki, T.; Tetsuyama, N.; Fusazaki, K.; Mizokami, Y.; Higashihata, M.; Ikenoue, H.; Okada, T.

    2014-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nano/microstructures have been attractive as the building blocks for the efficient opto-electronic devices in the ultraviolet (UV) region. We have succeeded in growing the ZnO micro/nanosphere by a simple laser ablation in the air, and therefore we have obtained UV lasing from the sphere under optical pumping. Recently, large size of several 10 micrometer ZnO microspheres were grown using Nd:YAG laser without Q-switching, and ZnO microsphere/p-GaN heterojunction were fabricated to obtain the electroluminescence (EL) from the microsphere by electrical pumping. Room-temperature EL in near-UV region with peak wavelength of 400 nm is observed under forward bias.

  2. Ionospheric plasma escape by high-altitude electric fields: Magnetic moment ''pumping''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, R.; Hultqvist, B.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of electric fields and the composition of upward flowing ionospheric ions by the Viking spacecraft have provided further insight into the mass dependent plasma escape process taking place in the upper ionosphere. The Viking results of the temperature and mass-composition of individual ion beams suggest that upward flowing ion beams can be generated by a magnetic moment ''pumping'' mechanism caused by low-frequency transverse electric field fluctuations, in addition to a field aligned ''quasi-electrostatic'' acceleration process. Magnetic moment ''pumping'' within transverse electric field gradients can be described as a conversion of electric drift velocity to cyclotron velocity by the inertial drift in time-dependent electric field. This gives an equal cyclotron velocity gain for all plasma species, irrespective of mass. Oxygen ions thus gain 16 times as much transverse energy as protons. In addition to a transverse energy gain above the escape energy, a field-aligned quasi-electrostatic acceleration is considered primarily responsible for the collimated upward flow of ions. The field-aligned acceleration adds a constant parallel energy to escaping ionospheric ions. Thus, ion beams at high altitudes can be explained by a bimodal acceleration from both a transverse (equal velocity) and a parallel (equal energy) acceleration process. The Viking observations also show that the thermal energy of ion beams, and the ion beam width are mass dependent. The average O + /H + ''temperature ratio has been found to be 4.0 from the Viking observations. This is less than the factor of 16 anticipated from a coherent transverse electric field acceleration but greater than the factor of 1 (or even less than 1) expected from a turbulent acceleration process. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  3. Searches for spatial anisotropy and a permanent atomic electric dipole moment using optically-pumped mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamoreaux, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance frequencies of 201 Hg (l = 3/2) and 199 Hg (l = 1.2) were compared in driven optically-pumped atomic light-absorption oscillators to see if the relative frequencies depend on the orientation of the quantization axis in space. The null result obtained (δnu 199 Hg nuclear magnetic resonance frequency in the presence of a reversible electric field of 9 kV/cm. The null result obtained (d/sub A/ < 5e cm) reduces previous limits on possible time-reversal violating interactions in atoms by an order of magnitude

  4. Comparison of LCA results of low temperature heat plant using electric heat pump, absorption heat pump and gas-fired boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitkiewicz, Anna; Sekret, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Usage of geothermal heat pump can bring environmental benefits. • The lowest environmental impact for whole life cycle is obtained for absorption heat pump. • The value of heat pump COP has a significant influence on environmental impact. • In case of coal based power generation the damage to human health is significant. - Abstract: This study compares the life cycle impacts of three heating plant systems which differ in their source of energy and the type of system. The following heating systems are considered: electric water-water heat pump, absorption water-water heat pump and natural gas fired boiler. The heat source for heat pump systems is low temperature geothermal source with temperature below 20 °C and spontaneous outflow 24 m 3 /h. It is assumed that the heat pumps and boiler are working in monovalent system. The analysis was carried out for heat networks temperature characteristic at 50/40 °C which is changing with outdoor temperature during heating season. The environmental life cycle impact is evaluated within life cycle assessment methodological framework. The method used for life cycle assessment is eco-indicator ‘99. The functional unit is defined as heating plant system with given amount of heat to be delivered to meet local heat demand in assumed average season. The data describing heating plant system is derived from literature and energy analysis of these systems. The data describing the preceding life cycle phases: extraction of raw materials and fuels, production of heating devices and their transportation is taken from Ecoinvent 2.0 life cycle inventory database. The results were analyzed on three levels of indicators: single score indicator, damage category indicators and impact category indicator. The indicators were calculated for characterization, normalization and weighting phases as well. SimaPro 7.3.2 is the software used to model the systems’ life cycle. The study shows that heating plants using a low

  5. Electrical and engine driven heat pumps for effective utilisation of renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aye, Lu; Charters, W.W.S

    2003-07-01

    Much of the energy used for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes is to provide efficient and effective heating of conditioned spaces and for specialist niche applications in process heat systems. Vapour compression heat pumps driven by electric motors or engines provide the real capability of upgrading low temperature sources of ambient and waste heat to match the desired load temperatures in such heating applications. Major source of ambient heat stem from the storage of solar energy in the ground, in lakes and rivers, and in atmospheric air. Heat pumps can therefore be used to effectively harness indirectly the daily solar radiation input. In addition many industries have major sources of waste low grade heat in the form of air or water discharged from the industrial process heat stream. Heat pumps are generally formally classified therefore as air source, ground source or water source units although there has also been considerable interest recently in hybrid units combining the attributes of two or more of these specific types mentioned above.

  6. Electrical and engine driven heat pumps for effective utilisation of renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Aye [Melbourne Univ., Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Charters, W.W.S. [Melbourne Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Parkville, VIC (Australia)

    2003-07-01

    Much of the energy used for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes is to provide efficient and effective heating of conditioned spaces and for specialist niche applications in process heat systems. Vapour compression heat pumps driven by electric motors or engines provide the real capability of upgrading low temperature sources of ambient and waste heat to match the desired load temperatures in such heating applications. Major source of ambient heat stem from the storage of solar energy in the ground, in lakes and rivers, and in atmospheric air. Heat pumps can therefore be used to effectively harness indirectly the daily solar radiation input. In addition many industries have major sources of waste low grade heat in the form of air or water discharged from the industrial process heat stream. Heat pumps are generally formally classified therefore as air source, ground source or water source units although there has also been considerable interest recently in hybrid units combining the attributes of two or more of these specific types mentioned above. (Author)

  7. A Step Towards Electric Propulsion Testing Standards: Pressure Measurements and Effective Pumping Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Swiatek, Michael W.; Yim, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The electric propulsion community has been implored to establish and implement a set of universally applicable test standards during the research, development, and qualification of electric propulsion systems. Existing practices are fallible and result in testing variations which leads to suspicious results, large margins in application, or aversion to mission infusion. Performance measurements and life testing under appropriate conditions can be costly and lengthy. Measurement practices must be consistent, accurate, and repeatable. Additionally, the measurements must be universally transportable across facilities throughout the development, qualification, spacecraft integration and on-orbit performance. A preliminary step to progress towards universally applicable testing standards is outlined for facility pressure measurements and effective pumping speed calculations. The standard has been applied to multiple facilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Test results and analyses of universality of measurements are presented herein.

  8. Performance evaluation and parametric choice criteria of a Brayton pumped thermal electricity storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Juncheng; Cai, Ling; Chen, Jincan; Zhou, Yinghui

    2016-01-01

    A more realistic thermodynamic model of the pumped thermal electricity storage (PTES) system consisting of a Brayton cycle and a reverse Brayton cycle is proposed, where the internal and external irreversible losses are took into account and several important controlling parameters, e.g., the pressure ratio and heat flows of the two isobaric processes in the Brayton cycle, are introduced. Analytic expressions for the round trip efficiency and power output of the PTES system are derived. The general performance characteristics of the PTES system are revealed. The optimal relationship between the round trip efficiency and the power output is obtained. The influences of some important controlling parameters on the performance characteristics of the PTES system are discussed and the optimally operating regions of these parameters are determined. - Highlights: • A cycle model of the Brayton pumped thermal electricity storage system is proposed. • Internal and external irreversible losses are considered. • Maximum power output and efficiency of the system are calculated. • Optimum performance characteristics of the system are revealed. • Rational ranges of key controlling parameters are determined.

  9. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Deep Geothermal Electric Submersible Pumping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Kullick

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep geothermal energy systems employ electric submersible pumps (ESPs in order to lift geothermal fluid from the production well to the surface. However, rough downhole conditions and high flow rates impose heavy strain on the components, leading to frequent failures of the pump system. As downhole sensor data is limited and often unrealible, a detailed and dynamical model system will serve as basis for deeper understanding and analysis of the overall system behavior. Furthermore, it allows to design model-based condition monitoring and fault detection systems, and to improve controls leading to a more robust and efficient operation. In this paper, a detailed state-space model of the complete ESP system is derived, covering the electrical, mechanical and hydraulic subsystems. Based on the derived model, the start-up phase of an exemplary yet realistic ESP system in the Megawatt range—located at a setting depth of 950 m and producing geothermal fluid of 140 ∘ C temperature at a rate of 0.145 m 3 s − 1 —is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results show that the system reaches a stable operating point with realistic values. Furthermore, the effect of self-excitation between the filter capacitor and the motor inductor can clearly be observed. A full set of parameters is provided, allowing for direct model implementation and reproduction of the presented results.

  10. Ocean Economy and Fault Diagnosis of Electric Submersible Pump applied in Floating platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panlong Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ocean economy plays a crucial role in the strengthening maritime safety industry and in the welfare of human beings. Electric Submersible Pumps (ESP have been widely used in floating platforms on the sea to provide oil for machines. However, the ESP fault may lead to ocean environment pollution, on the other hand, a timely fault diagnosis of ESP can improve the ocean economy. In order to meet the strict regulations of the ocean economy and environmental protection, the fault diagnosis of ESP system has become more and more popular in many countries. The vibration mechanical models of typical faults have been able to successfully diagnose the faults of ESP. And different types of sensors are used to monitor the vibration signal for the signal analysis and fault diagnosis in the ESP system. Meanwhile, physical sensors would increase the fault diagnosis challenge. Nowadays, the method of neural network for the fault diagnosis of ESP has been applied widely, which can diagnose the fault of an electric pump accurately based on the large database. To reduce the number of sensors and to avoid the large database, in this paper, algorithms are designed based on feature extraction to diagnose the fault of the ESP system. Simulation results show that the algorithms can achieve the prospective objectives superbly.

  11. Wind power integration with heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles – Energy systems analysis and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten

    The fluctuating and only partly predictable nature of wind challenges an effective integration of large wind power penetrations. This PhD thesis investigates to which extent heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles can support the integration of wind power. Considering the gaps in existing...... in an energy system context. Energy systems analyses reveal that the heat pumps can even without flexible operation contribute significantly to facilitating larger wind power investments and reducing system costs, fuel consumption, and CO2 emissions. When equipping the heat pumps with heat storages, only...... moderate additional benefits are achieved. Hereof, the main benefit is that the need for investing in peak/reserve capacities can be reduced through peak load shaving. It is more important to ensure flexible operation of electric vehicles than of individual heat pumps, due to differences in the load...

  12. Practical operation strategies for pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) utilising electricity price arbitrage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, D.; Lund, H.; Finn, P.; Mathiesen, B.V.; Leahy, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, three practical operation strategies (24Optimal, 24Prognostic, and 24Hsitrocial) are compared to the optimum profit feasible for a PHES facility with a 360 MW pump, 300 MW turbine, and a 2 GWh storage utilising price arbitrage on 13 electricity spot markets. The results indicate that almost all (∼97%) of the profits can be obtained by a PHES facility when it is optimised using the 24Optimal strategy developed, which optimises the energy storage based on the day-ahead electricity prices. However, to maximise profits with the 24Optimal strategy, the day-ahead electricity prices must be the actual prices which the PHES facility is charged or the PHES operator must have very accurate price predictions. Otherwise, the predicted profit could be significantly reduced and even become a loss. Finally, using the 24Optimal strategy, the PHES profit can surpass the annual investment repayments required. However, over the 5-year period investigated (2005-2009) the annual profit from the PHES facility varied by more than 50% on five out of six electricity markets considered. Considering the 40-year lifetime of PHES, even with low investment costs, a low interest rate, and a suitable electricity market, PHES is a risky investment without a more predictable profit. - Highlights: → Electricity generators typically operate on a market, including energy storage. → This paper assesses how energy storage can maximise its profits on a market. → Four operating strategies are assessed on 13 markets using a case study.→ One operating strategy achieves 97% of the profits feasible.→ However, the profit varies a lot depending on the market and capital costs.

  13. Optical gain in colloidal quantum dots achieved with direct-current electrical pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Young-Shin; Klimov, Victor I.

    2018-01-01

    Chemically synthesized semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) can potentially enable solution-processable laser diodes with a wide range of operational wavelengths, yet demonstrations of lasing from the QDs are still at the laboratory stage. An important challenge--realization of lasing with electrical injection--remains unresolved, largely due to fast nonradiative Auger recombination of multicarrier states that represent gain-active species in the QDs. Here we present population inversion and optical gain in colloidal nanocrystals realized with direct-current electrical pumping. Using continuously graded QDs, we achieve a considerable suppression of Auger decay such that it can be outpaced by electrical injection. Further, we apply a special current-focusing device architecture, which allows us to produce high current densities (j) up to ~18 A cm-2 without damaging either the QDs or the injection layers. The quantitative analysis of electroluminescence and current-modulated transmission spectra indicates that with j = 3-4 A cm-2 we achieve the population inversion of the band-edge states.

  14. Electricity storage by gas pumping. An introduction to thermodynamic storage processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruer, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    To date, Pumped Hydro Storage (PHS) is practically the only technology used to store large quantities of electricity. There are however other ways to achieve the same goal. There are not yet well known, because the interest for large scale storage is quite new A complete family of storage technologies can be defined as 'Thermodynamic Storage Systems'. Their only common factor is that a gas is pumped and expanded in the process. If the gas is air taken from the atmosphere and discharged to it, the system is said 'an open system'. This is already developed in the form of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). Different embodiments are possible, following the way the heat gene - rated during the compression stage is conserved. The compressed air is generally stored in underground caverns created in deep salt formations. 2 installations are presently operating and many projects are envisaged. if the gas circulates in closed loop within the plant, the system is said 'a closed system' In this case, the energy is stored as heat and/or cold at different temperature levels. A great variety of technologies can be imagined and are under development, using different gases (e.g. argon, CO 2 ) and different temperature ranges. PHS and CAES require specific sites for water reservoirs or underground caverns. The dosed systems can be installed basically anywhere. (author)

  15. Oil Coking Prevention Using Electric Water Pump for Turbo-Charge Spark-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Ching Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbocharger has been widely implemented for internal combustion engine to increase an engine's power output and reduce fuel consumption. However, its operating temperature would rise to 340°C when engine stalls. This higher temperature may results in bearing wear, run-out, and stick, due to oil coking and insufficient lubrication. In order to overcome these problems, this paper employs Electric Water Pump (EWP to supply cool liquid to turbocharger actively when the engine stalls. The system layout, operating timing, and duration of EWP are investigated for obtaining optimal performance. The primarily experimental results show that the proposed layout and control strategy have a lower temperature of 100°C than the conventional temperature 225°C.

  16. Electrically driven heat pumps. Latest results from research and field tests; Elektrisch angetriebene Waermepumpen. Aktuelle Ergebnisse aus Forschung und Feldtests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braungardt, Simon; Guenther, Danny; Miara, Marek; Wapler, Jeannette [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Wessing, Werner [E.ON Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Electric heat pumps have become firmly established in the German heating market. In recent years they have gained an eight to ten per cent share of the market. Approximately every fourth new building is heated with a heat pump. Whereas until a few years ago ground source heat pumps were still sold the most, the sales figures have shifted in recent years in favour of air source heat pumps. Carefully planned, heat pump systems compare very economically with other heating systems, whereby their higher procurement costs are offset by their lower energy and operating costs. Heat pumps are also competitive in terms of their ecological balance. This situation is continually improving with the growing proportion of renewable energies used for supplying electricity. [German] Auf dem deutschen Heizungsmarkt haben sich elektrische Waermepumpen als feste Groesse etabliert. Ihr Marktanteil lag in den letzten Jahren zwischen acht und zehn Prozent. Etwa jeder vierte Neubau wird mit einer Waermepumpe beheizt. Waehrend vor einigen Jahren noch ueberwiegend Erdreich-Waermepumpen verkauft wurden, haben sich die Verkaufszahlen in den letzten Jahren zugunsten der Aussenluft-Waermepumpen verschoben. Sorgfaeltig geplant, koennen Waermepumpenanlagen oekonomisch sehr gut gegenueber anderen Heizsystemen bestehen. Den hoeheren Anschaffungskosten stehen niedrigere Energie- und Betriebskosten gegenueber. Auch in der oekologischen Bilanz sind Waermepumpen konkurrenzfaehig. Die Position verbessert sich stetig mit dem wachsenden Anteil erneuerbarer Energien bei der Stromversorgung.

  17. Integration of 100% heat pumps and electric vehicles in the low voltage distribution network: A Danish case story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shao, Nan; You, Shi; Segerberg, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The existing electricity infrastructure may to a great extent limit a high penetration of micro-sized Distributed Energy Rescores (DERs), due to physical bottlenecks, e.g. load capacities of cables and transformers and voltage limitations. In this study, integration impacts of heat pumps (HPs) an...

  18. Norwegian households' perception of wood pellet stove compared to air-to-air heat pump and electric heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopha, Bertha Maya; Kloeckner, Christian A.; Skjevrak, Geir; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, the high dependency on electric heating combined with the high electricity price prompted a significant number of Norwegian households to consider alternative heating systems. The government introduced economic support for wood pellet heating and heat pumps. In contrast to the fast growing heat pump market, this financial support has not resulted in a widespread adoption of wood pellet heating. This paper studies factors that influence the choice of heating system based on Norwegian households' perceptions. Electric heating, heat pump and wood pellet heating were compared, with a special focus on wood pellet heating. This study was conducted as a questionnaire survey on two independent samples. The first sample consisted of 188 randomly chosen Norwegian households, mainly using electric heating; the second sample consisted of 461 households using wood pellet heating. Our results show that socio-demographic factors, communication among households, the perceived importance of heating system attributes, and the applied decision strategy all influence the Norwegian homeowners. The significance of these factors differs between the two samples and the preferred type of anticipated future heating system. Strategies for possible interventions and policy initiatives are discussed.

  19. Development of electric drive for centrifugal mine pumps in Solikamsk Potassium Mine Group Based on Industrial OMRON Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostarev, S. N.; Sereda, T. G.; Tatarnikova, N. A.; Kochetova, O. V.

    2018-03-01

    The electric drive for automation pumping out of filtration waters in the Second Solikamsk Potasssium Mine Group is developed. The emergency situation of flooding of the Mine has been considered in the course of development of the Upper Kama deposits of potash-magnesium salts. The functional scheme of automation of a drive of the pump is developed. The scheme is stipulated with manual and automatic control. To decrease the risk of flooding of mine, it is recommended to establish gauges of both bottom and top level control of a brine and other equipment in the collector of a brine: the gauge of measurementof a level, the gauge of the signal system of a level, the gauge of the pump control, the gauge of the signal system of a level with remote data transmission. For regulation of the charge of sewage, the P-regulator with the executive mechanism is stipulated. The ladder diagram of a pump control is developed to improve the work of centrifugal pumps and to prevent the cases of mines flooding.

  20. Study on conservation of light diesel oil and electricity used in pump-sets for lift irrigation in Gujarat State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    Field experiments conducted on 12,500 pumps in India found that more than 85% of the pump sets were inefficient, making the consumption of electricity or diesel fuel over 150% above normal requirements. It also established that the farmers were not aware that they were wasting energy or that it could be corrected. Experts from the Institute of Co-operative Management who identified the factors causing energy waste and specified remedial measures felt that the most effective method for educating the farmers was through field level demonstrations and word-of-mouth communication at 50 sites. They demonstrated a low-resistance foot valve and other remedial measures that could cut fuel use by 38% or electricity use by 28%. The investment and benefits were calculated at each site. The new foot valve was found to be the most effective measure, followed by replacement of undersized suction pipes with rigid polyvinyl chloride pipes. 5 figures, 24 tables.

  1. Development of the pump protection system against cavitation on the basis of the stator current signature analysis of drive electric motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipervasser, M. V.; Gerasimuk, A. V.; Simakov, V. P.

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper a new registration method of such inadmissible phenomenon as cavitation in the operating mode of centrifugal pump is offered. Influence of cavitation and extent of its development on the value of mechanical power consumed by the pump from the electric motor is studied. On the basis of design formulas the joint mathematical model of centrifugal pumping unit with the synchronous motor is created. In the model the phenomena accompanying the work of a pumping installation in the cavitation mode are considered. Mathematical modeling of the pump operation in the considered emergency operation is carried out. The chart of stator current of the electric motor, depending on the degree of cavitation development of is received. On the basis of the analysis of the obtained data the conclusion on the possibility of registration of cavitation by the current of drive electric motor is made and the functional diagram of the developed protection system is offered, its operation principle is described.

  2. Treatment Wetland Aeration without Electricity? Lessons Learned from the First Experiment Using a Wind-Driven Air Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Boog

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerated treatment wetlands have become an increasingly recognized technology for treating wastewaters from domestic and various industrial origins. To date, treatment wetland aeration is provided by air pumps which require access to the energy grid. The requirement for electricity increases the ecological footprint of an aerated wetland and limits the application of this technology to areas with centralized electrical infrastructure. Wind power offers another possibility as a driver for wetland aeration, but its use for this purpose has not yet been investigated. This paper reports the first experimental trial using a simple wind-driven air pump to replace the conventional electric air blowers of an aerated horizontal subsurface flow wetland. The wind-driven air pump was connected to a two-year old horizontal flow aerated wetland which had been in continuous (24 h aeration since startup. The wind-driven aeration system functioned, however it was not specifically adapted to wetland aeration. As a result, treatment performance decreased compared to prior continuous aeration. Inconsistent wind speed at the site may have resulted in insufficient pressure within the aeration manifold, resulting in insufficient air supply to the wetland. This paper discusses the lessons learned during the experiment.

  3. Modeling and simulation of thermoelectric device working as a heat pump and an electric generator under Mediterranean climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Nimr, Moh'd A.; Tashtoush, Bourhan M.; Jaradat, Ahmad A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study of a small thermoelectric device used primarily as a heat pump and secondarily as an electricity generator when space heating and cooling are not required and incident solar radiation is sufficient. As a power generator, the thermoelectric device is integrated with an evacuated solar collector to utilize solar power. Performance of the thermoelectric device as a heat pump and as an electric generator is simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The purpose of this study is to estimate the energy savings from using the thermoelectric device in its electricity generation mode. The potential of energy saving because of this electricity generation mode function, has been examined in three different cases. These cases represent the operation of the dual mode thermoelectric system in typical home, school and office buildings in the Mediterranean region. In addition, the effects of different parameters, such as the solar radiation and ambient conditions, on the device performance were investigated for both modes as well as parameters related to the device itself. Furthermore, hours of operation were estimated and the economic feasibility of the device was evaluated. Results of this study include performance curves of the thermoelectric device in both modes as well as the estimation of the payback period for Mediterranean regions. - Highlights: • A thermoelectric device in dual mode integrated with an evacuated tube is studied. • The device is used as a heat pump and as an electricity generator. • Performance curves describing the behavior of the system have been resulted. • Energy saving by the system are calculated and presented for a period of one year. • Economic analysis of the system has been included.

  4. The influence of a vertical ground heat exchanger length on the electricity consumption of the heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michopoulos, A.; Kyriakis, N. [Process Equipment Design Laboratory, Mechanical Engineer Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh), P.O. Box 487, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-07-15

    The use of heat pumps combined with vertical ground heat exchangers for heating and cooling of buildings, has significantly gained popularity in recent years. The design method for these systems, as it is proposed by ASHRAE, is taking into account the maximum thermal and cooling loads of the building, the thermophysical properties of the soil at the area of installation and a minimum Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the heat pumps. This approach usually results in larger than needed length of the ground heat exchanger, thus increasing the installation cost. A new analytical simulation tool, capable to determine the required ground heat exchanger length has been developed at the Process Equipment Design Laboratory (PEDL) of the AUTh. It models the function of the system as a whole over long time periods, e.g. 20 years, using as input parameters the thermal and cooling loads of the building, the thermophysical properties of the borehole and the characteristic curves of the heat pumps. The results include the electricity consumption of the heat pumps and the heat absorbed from or rejected to the ground. The aim of this paper is to describe the developed simulation algorithm and present the results of such a simulation in a case study. It is proved that the total required length of the ground heat exchanger is less than that calculated using the common numerical method. (author)

  5. Assessment of load of beam-balanced pumping units by electric motor power indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д. И. Шишлянников

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental studies on the loading of beam-balanced pumping units (BP of sucker rod- pumping equipment (SRPE are presented. It is noted that the key factor that has the most significant effect causing the SRPE failure is the balance of the beam pumping unit, which determines the amount of specific energy consumption for the rise of reservoir fluid and the level of dynamic loads on the machine units. The urgency of using software-recording systems for estimating the loading of units of oil field pumping installations is substantiated. The principle of operation and design of the «AKD-SK» software recording system is described. The prospects of using this method for controlling the performance parameters and evaluating the technical state of the sicker rod-pumping units is proved on the basis of an analysis of the magnitude and nature of the changes in the loads of drive motors determined by the registration of the instantaneous values of the consumed power. The main provisions of the methodology for analyzing the watt-meters of drive motors of the sucker rod-pumping units are outlined. The nature of the manifestation of the main defects of submersible pumps and beam-balanced pumping units is described. The results of pilot-industrial tests of the beam-balanced pumping units equipped with advanced permanent magnet motors and intelligent control stations are presented. It is proved that the use of permanent magnet motors allows to reduce the specific energy consumption for the rise of reservoir fluid, which increases the efficiency of the SRPE.However, the presence of transient processes and generator operating modes of the permanent magnet motors results in the occurrence of significant dynamic loads, which, due to the rigid fixing of the rotor of magnet motor on the reducer shaft, negatively affect the life of the gearbox bearings. It has been shown that the lack of its own bearings in the tested motors causes a high probability

  6. Water Pumping Stations, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Water Pumping Stations dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  7. Sewerage Pumping Stations, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Sewerage Pumping Stations dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  8. Offshore Floating Wind Turbine-driven Deep Sea Water Pumping for Combined Electrical Power and District Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant, T; Buhagiar, D; Farrugia, R N

    2014-01-01

    A new concept utilising floating wind turbines to exploit the low temperatures of deep sea water for space cooling in buildings is presented. The approach is based on offshore hydraulic wind turbines pumping pressurised deep sea water to a centralised plant consisting of a hydro-electric power system coupled to a large-scale sea water-cooled air conditioning (AC) unit of an urban district cooling network. In order to investigate the potential advantages of this new concept over conventional technologies, a simplified model for performance simulation of a vapour compression AC unit was applied independently to three different systems, with the AC unit operating with (1) a constant flow of sea surface water, (2) a constant flow of sea water consisting of a mixture of surface sea water and deep sea water delivered by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine and (3) an intermittent flow of deep sea water pumped by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine. The analysis was based on one year of wind and ambient temperature data for the Central Mediterranean that is known for its deep waters, warm climate and relatively low wind speeds. The study confirmed that while the present concept is less efficient than conventional turbines utilising grid-connected electrical generators, a significant portion of the losses associated with the hydraulic transmission through the pipeline are offset by the extraction of cool deep sea water which reduces the electricity consumption of urban air-conditioning units

  9. Offshore Floating Wind Turbine-driven Deep Sea Water Pumping for Combined Electrical Power and District Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, T.; Buhagiar, D.; Farrugia, R. N.

    2014-06-01

    A new concept utilising floating wind turbines to exploit the low temperatures of deep sea water for space cooling in buildings is presented. The approach is based on offshore hydraulic wind turbines pumping pressurised deep sea water to a centralised plant consisting of a hydro-electric power system coupled to a large-scale sea water-cooled air conditioning (AC) unit of an urban district cooling network. In order to investigate the potential advantages of this new concept over conventional technologies, a simplified model for performance simulation of a vapour compression AC unit was applied independently to three different systems, with the AC unit operating with (1) a constant flow of sea surface water, (2) a constant flow of sea water consisting of a mixture of surface sea water and deep sea water delivered by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine and (3) an intermittent flow of deep sea water pumped by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine. The analysis was based on one year of wind and ambient temperature data for the Central Mediterranean that is known for its deep waters, warm climate and relatively low wind speeds. The study confirmed that while the present concept is less efficient than conventional turbines utilising grid-connected electrical generators, a significant portion of the losses associated with the hydraulic transmission through the pipeline are offset by the extraction of cool deep sea water which reduces the electricity consumption of urban air-conditioning units.

  10. Electrically pumped single-photon emission at room temperature from a single InGaN/GaN quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Saniya; Frost, Thomas; Hazari, Arnab; Bhattacharya, Pallab, E-mail: pkb@eecs.umich.edu [Center for Photonics and Multiscale Nanomaterials, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    We demonstrate a semiconductor quantum dot based electrically pumped single-photon source operating at room temperature. Single photons emitted in the red spectral range from single In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}N/GaN quantum dots exhibit a second-order correlation value g{sup (2)}(0) of 0.29, and fast recombination lifetime ∼1.3 ±0.3 ns at room temperature. The single-photon source can be driven at an excitation repetition rate of 200 MHz.

  11. Energy efficiency analysis of steam ejector and electric vacuum pump for a turbine condenser air extraction system based on supervised machine learning modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strušnik, Dušan; Marčič, Milan; Golob, Marjan; Hribernik, Aleš; Živić, Marija; Avsec, Jurij

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Steam ejector pump and electric liquid ring vacuum pump are analysed and modelled. • A supervised machine learning models by using real process data are applied. • The equation of ejector pumped mass flow from steam turbine condenser was solved. • The loss of specific energy capable of work in a SEPS or LRVP component was analysed. • The economic efficiency analysis per different coal heating values was made. - Abstract: This paper compares the vapour ejector and electric vacuum pump power consumptions with machine learning algorithms by using real process data and presents some novelty guideline for the selection of an appropriate condenser vacuum pump system of a steam turbine power plant. The machine learning algorithms are made by using the supervised machine learning methods such as artificial neural network model and local linear neuro-fuzzy models. The proposed non-linear models are designed by using a wide range of real process operation data sets from the CHP system in the thermal power plant. The novelty guideline for the selection of an appropriate condenser vacuum pumps system is expressed in the comparative analysis of the energy consumption and use of specific energy capable of work. Furthermore, the novelty is expressed in the economic efficiency analysis of the investment taking into consideration the operating costs of the vacuum pump systems and may serve as basic guidelines for the selection of an appropriate condenser vacuum pump system of a steam turbine.

  12. Investigation of a photo-voltaic pump station with asynchronous electric drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhagarov, N.; Vladimirov, P.

    2000-01-01

    A scheme of a photo-voltaic pump station with constant current drive is presented. The requirements for reliability and minimal maintenance necessitate the use of asynchronous drive which has been studied. The studies of the system's model for various regimes show its adequacy. The model can be used for determination of the optimal conditions providing maximal working efficiency

  13. Solar Pumping : The Basics

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2018-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic water pumping (SWP) uses energy from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels to power an electric water pump. The entire process, from sunlight to stored energy, is elegant and simple. Over last seven years, the technology and price of solar pumping have evolved dramatically and hence the opportunities it presents. Solar pumping is most competitive in regions with high solar inso...

  14. Trailing edge devices to improve performance and increase lifetime of wind-electric water pumping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vick, B.D.; Clark, R.N. [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Bushland, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Trailing edge flaps were applied to the blades of a 10 kW wind turbine used for water pumping to try to improve the performance and decrease the structural fatigue on the wind turbine. Most small wind turbines (10 kW and below) use furling (rotor turns out of wind similar to a mechanical windmill) to protect the wind turbine from overspeed during high winds. Some small wind turbines, however, do not furl soon enough to keep the wind turbine from being off line part of the time in moderately high wind speeds (10 - 16 m/s). As a result, the load is disconnected and no water is pumped at moderately high wind speeds. When the turbine is offline, the frequency increases rapidly often causing excessive vibration of the wind turbine and tower components. The furling wind speed could possibly be decreased by increasing the offset between the tower centerline and the rotor centerline, but would be a major and potentially expensive retrofit. Trailing edge flaps (TEF) were used as a quick inexpensive method to try to reduce the furling wind speed and increase the on time by reducing the rotor RPM. One TEF configuration improved the water pumping performance at moderately high wind speeds, but degraded the pumping performance at low wind speeds which resulted in little change in daily water volume. The other TEF configuration differed very little from the no flap configuration. Both TEF configurations however, reduced the rotor RPM in high wind conditions. The TEF, did not reduce the rotor RPM by lowering the furling wind speed as hoped, but apparently did so by increasing the drag which also reduced the volume of water pumped at the lower wind speeds. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Some Problems of the Integration of Heat Pump Technology into a System of Combined Heat and Electricity Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Böszörményi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The closure of a part of the municipal combined heat and power (CHP plant of Košice city would result in the loss of 200 MW thermal output within a realtively short period of time. The long term development plan for the Košice district heating system concentrates on solving this problem. Taking into account the extremely high (90 % dependence of Slovakia on imported energy sources and the desirability of reducing the emission of pollutantst the alternative of supplying of 100 MW thermal output from geothermal sources is attractive. However the indices of economic efficiency for this alternative are unsatisfactory. Cogeneration of electricity and heat in a CHP plant, the most efficient way of supplying heat to Košice at the present time. If as planned, geothermal heat is fed directly into the district heating network the efficiency would be greatly reduced. An excellent solution of this problem would be a new conception, preferring the utilization of geothermal heat in support of a combined electricity and heat production process. The efficiency of geothermal energy utilization could be increased through a special heat pump. This paper deals with several aspects of the design of a heat pump to be integrated into the system of the CHP plant.

  16. Sodium pumping: pump problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, M.; Guiton, P.

    Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads

  17. Controlled X-ray pumping in a wide range of piezo-electric oscillation frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Navasardyan, M A; Galoyan, K G

    1986-01-01

    In case of Laue diffraction the transmitted X-ray reflection in shown to be effectively controllable in the perfect quartz single crystal when it generates ultrasonic oscillations at the resonance frequency or in its vicinity. The maximum effective amplitude of applied sinusoidal oscillations is equal to 70 V. The pumping degree depends on the voltage amplitude. In this work monochromatic K subalpha sub 1 and K subalpha sub 2 molybdenum lines satisfying the thin crystal condition, mu t<=1, are used (mu is the linear absorption coefficient of the sample for the given wavelength and t is its thickness). The radiation was reflected from different planes such as (1011), (1011), (2022) etc. The complete pumping strongly restricts the structural factor possibilities in estimating the intensity of diffracted X-rays in case of considerable deformations in the bulk of perfect single crystal.

  18. Apparatus for servicing an eleongated suspended pump motor in an electric power plant with limited access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, R.; Johnson, F.T.; Ekeroth, D.E.; Matusz, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Elongated coolant pump motors suspended under steam generators within containment in a power plant with limited access space, are removed and replaced by an upright elongated maintenance cart with an elongated opening along one side in which the motor is received. Rollers support the cart for conveying the elongated motor in an upright position out from under the steam generator and onto an elevator. The elevator is lowered to transfer support of the cart and motor through trunnions to saddles straddling the elevator for rotation of the cart to a generally horizontal position. The elevator then raises the horizontally disposed cart carrying the motor to a higher floor where it is rolled off the elevator on rollers and out through the auxiliary equipment hatch. The cart includes a top V-shaped collar for supporting the motor, and a further lower support cradle operative when the cart is horizontal. Jacks support the motor during unbolting from the pump casing and lower it onto the cart. (Author)

  19. Driving Sodium-Potassium Pumps With An Oscillating Electric Field: Effects On Muscle Recovery In The Human Biceps Brachii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovyn, Matt; Chen, Wei; Lanes, Olivia; Mast, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Dr. Chen has developed a technique called synchronization modulation, which uses an oscillating electric field to increase the rate at which the sodium-potassium pumps in the cell membrane work. Because the sodium-potassium pump is integral in the recovery of skeletal muscle fibers after an action potential, we investigated the effects of applying synchronization modulation to muscles which had already undergone fatigue due to repeated action potentials during exercise. Fatigue was induced in human subjects' biceps brachii through isometric contraction. Surface electromyography measurements of fatigue index were used to quantify how the muscle recovered over the minutes following fatigue, both when synchronization modulation was applied and when it was absent. The preliminary results were inconclusive, but it is hoped that in later work it will be shown that applying synchronization modulation is effective in increasing the rate at which the muscle recovers to its initial state. This would demonstrate not only that synchronization modulation can be successfully applied to human muscle, but also that it has many potential applications in sports medicine and novel disease treatments. Work done as part of an REU program at the University of South Florida

  20. Electrically pumped all photonic crystal 2nd order DFB lasers arrays emitting at 2.3 μm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Adelin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Single-mode, widely tunable laser diodes in the mid-infrared range are highly interesting for demanding spectroscopic applications involving multi-species discrimination. We report on an alternative approach using single frequency laser arrays. Single-mode laser arrays were fabricated using all-photonic-crystal electrically pumped distributed feedback cavities on GaSb. The fabricated lasers exhibit thresholds in the 3.2 kA/cm2 range in a continuous wave regime at room temperature. The maximum output power reaches 1 mW and single mode operation with a side-mode suppression ratio of 30 dB is demonstrated. These lasers were used to perform tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy of several gases in standard gas cells. Continuous spectral coverage of a 40 nm band using 10 lasers seems an achievable goal using laser arrays with PhC lattice constant variations of 1 nm from laser to laser.

  1. Experimental investigation on heating performance of heat pump for electric vehicles at −20 °C ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Fei; Xue, Qingfeng; Albarracin Velez, Giovanny Marcelo; Zhang, Guiying; Zou, Huiming; Tian, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An ASHP system with refrigerant injection for EVs is designed, for cold regions. • The heat performances of the system are tested at −20 °C ambient temperature. • The system cycle process with refrigerant injection are analyzed on lgP-H diagrams. • The effects of refrigerant injection, dryness, and in-car inlet state are discussed. • The new system can improve heating and own better application prospect. - Abstract: Since the performance of conventional air source heat pump (ASHP) for electric vehicles (EVs) is apt to decline sharply in low ambient temperature, it will consume more electricity of the cell, and affect driving mileage in cold regions. Aiming at developing high efficiency heating system for EVs in cold regions, an ASHP system applying refrigerant injection for EVs is designed, as well as the test bench is built to investigate its performance. According to the operation condition of EVs, heating performances are tested on different in-car inlet air temperature and various fresh air ratios under −20 °C ambient temperature. The system cycle process with refrigerant injection, as well as the influences of refrigerant injection and dryness are also analyzed and discussed. The results show that the heating capacity of the ASHP with refrigerant injection can be increased up to 31%, and in comparison with the conventional heat pump system its heating performance is better when in-car inlet temperature is above −10 °C. Therefore, ASHP with refrigerant injection has great potentiality to be applied for the EVs in cold regions

  2. Electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koji; Suetake, Norio; Aizawa, Toshie; Nakasaki, Masayoshi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic pump suitable to a recycling pump for liquid sodium as coolants of an FBR type reactor. Namely, a stator module of the electromagnetic pump of the present invention comprises a plurality of outer laminate iron core units and outer stator modules stacked alternately in the axial direction. With such a constitution, even a long electromagnetic pump having a large number of outer stator coils can be manufactured without damaging electric insulation of the outer stator coils. In addition, the inner circumferential surface of the outer laminate iron cores is urged and brought into contact with the outer circumferential surface of the outer duct by an elastic material. With such a constitution, Joule loss heat generated in the outer stator coils and internal heat generated in the outer laminate iron cores can be released to an electroconductive fluid flowing the inner circumference of the outer duct by way of the outer duct. (I.S.)

  3. Electric discharge effects on a XeCl pumped S2 heat-pipe laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, K.; Greenberg, K.; Verdeyen, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that an electrical discharge can dissociate the higher-order sulfur molecules S(3-8) into dimers S2 and thus create the proper environment for efficient conversion of XeCl radiation at 308 nm to the blue-green. The use of a heat-pipe configuration greatly alleviates the technological problems.

  4. Swiss pumped hydro storage potential for Germany's electricity system under high penetration of intermittent renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meerwijk, Aagje J. H.; Benders, Reinerus; Davila-Martinez, Alejandro; Laugs, Gideon A. H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to cut greenhouse-gas emissions and increase energy security, the European Commission stimulates the deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources (IRES) towards 2050. In an electricity system with high shares of IRES implemented in the network, energy balancing like storage is needed

  5. Identification of electric-field-dependent steps in the Na(+),K(+)-pump cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Laura J; Garcia, Alvaro; Rasmussen, Helge H; Cornelius, Flemming; Mahmmoud, Yasser A; Berlin, Joshua R; Lev, Bogdan; Allen, Toby W; Clarke, Ronald J

    2014-09-16

    The charge-transporting activity of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase depends on its surrounding electric field. To isolate which steps of the enzyme's reaction cycle involve charge movement, we have investigated the response of the voltage-sensitive fluorescent probe RH421 to interaction of the protein with BTEA (benzyltriethylammonium), which binds from the extracellular medium to the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase's transport sites in competition with Na(+) and K(+), but is not occluded within the protein. We find that only the occludable ions Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+) cause a drop in RH421 fluorescence. We conclude that RH421 detects intramembrane electric field strength changes arising from charge transport associated with conformational changes occluding the transported ions within the protein, not the electric fields of the bound ions themselves. This appears at first to conflict with electrophysiological studies suggesting extracellular Na(+) or K(+) binding in a high field access channel is a major electrogenic reaction of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. All results can be explained consistently if ion occlusion involves local deformations in the lipid membrane surrounding the protein occurring simultaneously with conformational changes necessary for ion occlusion. The most likely origin of the RH421 fluorescence response is a change in membrane dipole potential caused by membrane deformation. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gas-heating alternatives to the residential electric heat pump. Gas Appliance Technology Center 1987 program. Topical report for Work Area 1.1, October 1989-March 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, C.

    1990-05-01

    The characteristics of electric heat pumps are described. Options are defined and assessed for utilizing gas heating in conjunction with existing residential electric heat pumps. These options include gas heat introduced into the refrigeration circuit, a flue gas-heated tube bank in the air supply duct, and a hot-water-to-air coil in the supply duct. Economics are presented for conversion of a residence's total space and water heating from electric to gas in New York City and Atlanta. Potential marketing strategies are discussed, and potential gas sales volumes from conversions are estimated. The study concludes that the use of gas water heating coupled with a hydronic coil in the supply ductwork from the air handler is the most advantageous option for the gas industry

  7. Unleashing Flexibility from Electric Boilers and Heat Pumps in Danish Residential Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, Rakesh; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2018-01-01

    and thereby improving its techno-economic efficiency. The data used for the evaluation are also from the real household sites in Denmark provided by the district heating utility. Focus is on the low-voltage grid, and that’s very relevant since many doesn’t expect any flexibility from that voltage level. Study...... this model is compared to responses from an average model of the hot water storage tank to evaluate the benefit of the more detailed model. Finally, analysis on consumption patterns of electrical and thermal loads in residential buildings in Northern Jutland, Denmark, are used for analysis of the system...... and use of thermal units as flexible consumer loads in the low voltage (LV) distribution network grid. The models of EB and HP with storage tank are briefly discussed in relation to the actual control and flexibility based on grid condition and status of storage tank temperature or position...

  8. Modification of the motor control system of secondary cooling pumps of the multipurpose reactor - GA Siwabessy (RSG-GAS) to overcome the electrical flicking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yayan Andriyanto; Tufiq, M.; Adin Sudirman; Koes Indrakoesoema

    2012-01-01

    Modification of the motor control system of secondary cooling pumps that have been carried out to overcome the electrical flicking. Consequences of unanticipated flicking is the cooling pumps will shut down. Modification is done by replacing the control system PLN to Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS), plus a component of Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB) 220 Volt 2 Amp 2 Pole, 2 Auxiliary Contactor-type 3RH1131-1APOO with 1 NO auxiliary contact (normally Open) and two time-1BP30-3RP1505 type relay (off delay). Delay time to overcome the electrical flicking is set to 1 seconds and 2 seconds, taking into calculate the electrical flicking that occurred while in the setting of time limits, the predicted secondary cooling water pressure inside the pipeline is still eligible and the motor cooling system operation can still continue to operate. In the flicking of an electrical incident on 13 April 2010 at 0:45 Pm showed that the modifications of the secondary coolant pump motors operation when the reactor operates with a power of 15 MW. (author)

  9. Electrically-pumped, broad-area, single-mode photonic crystal lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Chak, Philip; Poon, Joyce K S; DeRose, Guy A; Yariv, Amnon; Scherer, Axel

    2007-05-14

    Planar broad-area single-mode lasers, with modal widths of the order of tens of microns, are technologically important for high-power applications and improved coupling efficiency into optical fibers. They may also find new areas of applications in on-chip integration with devices that are of similar size scales, such as for spectroscopy in microfluidic chambers or optical signal processing with micro-electromechanical systems. An outstanding challenge is that broad-area lasers often require external means of control, such as injection-locking or a frequency/spatial filter to obtain single-mode operation. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate effective index-guided, large-area, edge-emitting photonic crystal lasers driven by pulsed electrical current injection at the optical telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm. By suitable design of the photonic crystal lattice, our lasers operate in a single mode with a 1/e(2) modal width of 25 microm and a length of 600 microm.

  10. Optimal bidding in Turkey day ahead electricity market for wind energy and pumped storage hydro power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyhun Yıldız

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In electrical grid; when the demand power increases energy prices increase, when the demand decreases energy prices decrease. For this reason; to increase the total daily income, it is required to shift generations to the hours that high demand power values occurred. Wind Power Plants (WPP have unstable and uncontrollable generation characteristic. For this reason, energy storage systems are needed to shift the generations of WPPs in time scale. In this study, four wind power plants (WPP which are tied to the Turkish interconnected grid and a pumped hydro storage power plant (PSPP that meets the energy storage requirement of these power plants are investigated in Turkey day ahead energy market. An optimization algorithm is developed using linear programming technique to maximize the day ahead market bids of these plants which are going to generate power together. When incomes and generations of the plants that are operated with optimization strategy is analyzed, it is seen that annual income increased by 2.737% compared with WPPs ‘s alone operation and generations are substantially shifted to the high demand power occurred hours.

  11. An experimental study of the enhanced heating capacity of an electric heat pump (EHP) using the heat recovered from a gas engine generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Min; Chang, Se Dong [HAC R and D Laboratory, LG Electronics, 327-23 Gasan-Dong, Geumcheon-gu, Seoul 153-802 (Korea); Lee, Jaekeun; Hwang, Yujin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30, Changjeon-Dong, Keumjeong-Ku, Busan 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-11-15

    This paper is concerned with the effect of recovered heat on the heating capacity of an Electric Heat Pump (EHP), which is supplied with electric power and recovered heat from a gas engine generator system. Two methods of supplying recovery heat are examined: (i) to the refrigerant with the discharge line heat exchanger (HEX), and (ii) to the refrigerant of the evaporator with the sub-evaporator. Heating capacity, input power and coefficient of performance (COP) were investigated and compared for each heat recovery method. Conclusively, we found that the second method was most reasonable to recover wasted heat and increased system COP by 215%. (author)

  12. Concept of the solar-pumped laser-photovoltaics combined system and its application to laser beam power feeding to electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohiro, Tomoyoshi; Takeda, Yasuhiko; Ito, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ikesue, Akio; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Higuchi, Kazuo; Ichiki, Akihisa; Mizuno, Shintaro; Ito, Tadashi; Yamada, Noboru; Nath Luitel, Hom; Kajino, Tsutomu; Terazawa, Hidetaka; Takimoto, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kemmei

    2017-08-01

    We have developed a compact solar-pumped laser (µSPL) employing an off-axis parabolic mirror with an aperture of 76.2 mm diameter and an yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramic rod of φ1 mm × 10 mm doped with 1% Nd and 0.1% Cr as a laser medium. The laser oscillation wavelength of 1.06 µm, just below the optical absorption edge of Si cells, is suitable for photoelectric conversion with minimal thermal loss. The concept of laser beam power feeding to an electric vehicle equipped with a photovoltaic panel on the roof was proposed by Ueda in 2010, in which the electricity generated by solar panels over the road is utilized to drive a semiconductor laser located on each traffic signal along the road. By substituting this solar-electricity-driven semiconductor laser with a solar-pumped laser, the energy loss of over 50% in converting the solar electricity to a laser beam can be eliminated. The overall feasibility of this system in an urban area such as Tokyo was investigated.

  13. Study of Stage-wise Pressure Pulsation in an Electric Submersible Pump under Variable Frequency Operation at Shut-off Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, A.; Kumaraswamy, S.

    2018-01-01

    Pressure pulsation causes vibration in the Electric Submersible Pump (ESP) and affects the life and performance of its system. ESP systems are installed at depths ranging from a few meters to several hundred meters. Unlike pumps used on the surface, once they are installed they become inaccessible for maintenance or for any kind of diagnostic measurement that might be taken directly on them. Therefore a detailed knowledge of mean and fluctuating pressures is required to achieve an optimal pressure distribution inside the ESP. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the stage-wise pulsating pressure in ESP at shut-off condition at different speeds. Experiments were conducted on a pump having five stages. A variable frequency drive was used to operate the pump at five different speeds. Piezoresistive transducers were mounted at each stage of ESP to capture the unsteady pressure signals. Fast Fourier Transformation was carried out on the pressure signals to convert into frequency domain and the spectra of pressure pulsation signals were analyzed. The obtained results indicated the existence of fundamental frequency corresponding to the speed of rotation times the number of impeller blades and of the whole series of harmonics of higher frequencies.

  14. Small Scroll Pump for Cryogenic Liquids, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a compact, reliable, light weight, electrically driven pump capable of pumping cryogenic liquids, based on scroll pump technology. This pump will...

  15. A novel polygeneration system integrating photovoltaic/thermal collectors, solar assisted heat pump, adsorption chiller and electrical energy storage: Dynamic and energy-economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, Francesco; Figaj, Rafal Damian; Vanoli, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Space heating/cooling, domestic hot water and electrical energy are provided by the system. • Two different users are investigated: fitness center and office. • The influence of the battery system on system economic performance is scarce. • Net metering contract is more profitable compared to simplified purchase/resale arrangement one. - Abstract: In this paper a dynamic simulation model and a thermo-economic analysis of a novel polygeneration system are presented. The system includes photovoltaic/thermal collectors coupled with a solar-assisted heat pump, an adsorption chiller and an electrical energy storage. The modelled plant supplies electrical energy, space heating and cooling and domestic hot water. The produced solar thermal energy is used during the winter to supply the heat pump evaporator, providing the required space heating. In summer, solar thermal energy is used to drive an adsorption chiller providing the required space cooling. All year long, solar thermal energy in excess, with respect to the space heating and cooling demand, is used to produce domestic hot water. The produced electrical energy is self-consumed by both user and system auxiliary equipment and/or supplied to the grid. The system model includes a detailed electrical energy model for user storage and exchange with the grid along with a detailed building model. This study is a continuation of previous works recently presented by the authors. In particular, the present paper focuses on the real electrical demands of several types of users and on the analysis of the comfort of building users. Differently from the works previously published by the authors, the present work bases the calculations on measured electrical demands of real users (fitness center and offices). The system performance is analyzed with two different electricity supply contracts: net metering and simplified purchase/resale arrangement. Daily, weekly and yearly results are presented. Finally, a

  16. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report. Part I, Lab/Field Performance Evaluation and Accelerated Life Testing of a Hybrid Electric Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Murphy, Richard W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    DOE has supported efforts for many years with the objective of getting a water heater that uses heat pump technology (aka a heat pump water heater or HPWH) successfully on the residential equipment market. The most recent previous effort (1999-2002) produced a product that performed very well in ORNL-led accelerated durability and field tests. The commercial partner for this effort, Enviromaster International (EMI), introduced the product to the market under the trade name Watter$aver in 2002 but ceased production in 2005 due to low sales. A combination of high sales price and lack of any significant infrastructure for service after the sale were the principal reasons for the failure of this effort. What was needed for market success was a commercial partner with the manufacturing and market distribution capability necessary to allow economies of scale to lead to a viable unit price together with a strong customer service infrastructure. General Electric certainly meets these requirements, and knowing of ORNL s expertise in this area, approached ORNL with the proposal to partner in a CRADA to produce a high efficiency electric water heater. A CRADA with GE was initiated early in Fiscal Year, 2008. GE initially named its product the Hybrid Electric Water Heater (HEWH).

  17. Energy efficiency in pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Durmus; Yagmur, E. Alptekin [TUBITAK-MRC, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Yigit, K. Suleyman; Eren, A. Salih; Celik, Cenk [Engineering Faculty, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Kilic, Fatma Canka [Department of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Kocaeli University, Kullar, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, ''energy efficiency'' studies, done in a big industrial facility's pumps, are reported. For this purpose; the flow rate, pressure and temperature have been measured for each pump in different operating conditions and at maximum load. In addition, the electrical power drawn by the electric motor has been measured. The efficiencies of the existing pumps and electric motor have been calculated by using the measured data. Potential energy saving opportunities have been studied by taking into account the results of the calculations for each pump and electric motor. As a conclusion, improvements should be made each system. The required investment costs for these improvements have been determined, and simple payback periods have been calculated. The main energy saving opportunities result from: replacements of the existing low efficiency pumps, maintenance of the pumps whose efficiencies start to decline at certain range, replacements of high power electric motors with electric motors that have suitable power, usage of high efficiency electric motors and elimination of cavitation problems. (author)

  18. Energy efficiency in pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Durmus; Yagmur, E. Alptekin; Yigit, K. Suleyman; Kilic, Fatma Canka; Eren, A. Salih; Celik, Cenk

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, 'energy efficiency' studies, done in a big industrial facility's pumps, are reported. For this purpose; the flow rate, pressure and temperature have been measured for each pump in different operating conditions and at maximum load. In addition, the electrical power drawn by the electric motor has been measured. The efficiencies of the existing pumps and electric motor have been calculated by using the measured data. Potential energy saving opportunities have been studied by taking into account the results of the calculations for each pump and electric motor. As a conclusion, improvements should be made each system. The required investment costs for these improvements have been determined, and simple payback periods have been calculated. The main energy saving opportunities result from: replacements of the existing low efficiency pumps, maintenance of the pumps whose efficiencies start to decline at certain range, replacements of high power electric motors with electric motors that have suitable power, usage of high efficiency electric motors and elimination of cavitation problems

  19. Evolution of a Diffusion Channel in an Inhomogeneous Electric Field of the KrF-Laser Pump Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampol'skaya, S. A.; Yastremsky, A. G.; Panchenko, Yu. N.; Puchikin, A. V.; Bobrovnikov, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    The results of studying the 2D-simulation of evolution of a diffusion channel in the KrF-laser pump discharge initiated by the pin on the cathode surface are presented. It is shown that during the pump pulse, the inhomogeneity passes successively through three stages: a plasma spot on the cathode surface, a diffuse channel, and a high-conductivity channel. From the analysis of the dynamics of spatial distribution of spontaneous emission on the B0-X transition of the KrF molecule in such a discharge, it is obtained that the channel can work as an amplifying medium while the volumetric form of its glow is maintained. Despite the contraction of the channel into a narrow cord at the end of the pump pulse, the distribution of the radiation energy over the entire pulse has the shape of a torch with the width at the anode of 0.6 cm.

  20. Optically pumped laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMaria, A.J.; Mack, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    Laser systems which are pumped by an electric discharge formed in a gas are disclosed. The discharge is in the form of a vortex stabilized electric arc which is triggered with an auxiliary energy source. At high enough repetition rates residual ionization between successive pulses contributes to the pulse stabilization. The arc and the gain medium are positioned inside an optical pumping cavity where light from the arc is coupled directly into the gain medium

  1. Thermomechanical piston pump development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelman, E. E.

    1971-01-01

    A thermally powered reciprocating pump has been devised to replace or augment an electric pump for the transport of temperature-control fluid on the Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS). The thermally powered pump operates cyclically by extracting heat energy from the fluid by means of a vapor-pressure expansion system and by using the heat to perform the mechanical work of pumping. A feasibility test unit has been constructed to provide an output of 7 cu in during a 10- to 100-second cycle. It operates with a fluid input temperature of 200 to 300 F and a heat sink temperature of 0 to 30 F.

  2. Penis Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your appointment might be less involved. Choosing a penis pump Some penis pumps are available without a ... it doesn't get caught in the ring. Penis pumps for penis enlargement Many advertisements in magazines ...

  3. An analysis on how proposed requirements for near zero energy buildings manages PV electricity in combination with two different types of heat pumps and its policy implications – A Swedish example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thygesen, Richard; Karlsson, Björn

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis on how exhaust air- and ground source- heat pumps in combination with PV-systems affects the specific energy demand of buildings with the proposed Swedish near zero energy building definition and its policy implications. It also presents a method on how to estimate the contribution from the photovoltaic-system on the reduction of the specific energy demand of the building. A challenge with the proposed near zero energy building definition is that it is not clearly defined how it manages photovoltaic electricity as a mean to reduce the specific energy demand of buildings. The results suggest that the building with the ground source heat pump and heat recovery ventilation has the lowest specific energy demand. The proposed definition will give an advantage to system combinations comprised of heat pumps and PV-systems and this will lead to the possibility to build less insulated buildings with higher heat losses than for a building with a non-electrical heating system. A higher share of heat pumps can lead to lower electricity production in Sweden because of lost heating loads in district heating systems and a higher electricity demand. - Highlights: • We analyzed how the proposed Swedish NZE building definition manages PV electricity. • The building with a GSHP has the lowest specific energy demand. • Two different assumptions on the usage of PV electricity was used. • The difference between the two assumptions is 6 kWh/m"2 for both the GSHP and EAHP.

  4. Wet motor geroter fuel pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiernicki, M.V.

    1987-05-05

    This patent describes a wet motor gerotor fuel pump for pumping fuel from a fuel source to an internal combustion which consists of: gerotor pump means comprising an inner pump gear, an outer pump gear, and second tang means located on one of the inner and outer pump gears. The second tang means further extends in a second radial direction radially offset from the first radial direction and forms a driving connection with the first tang means such that the fuel pump pumps fuel from the fuel source into the narrow conduit inlet chamber, through the gerotor pump means past the electric motor means into the outlet housing means substantially along the flow axis to the internal combustion engine.

  5. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, HH

    1981-01-01

    Centrifugal Pumps describes the whole range of the centrifugal pump (mixed flow and axial flow pumps are dealt with more briefly), with emphasis on the development of the boiler feed pump. Organized into 46 chapters, this book discusses the general hydrodynamic principles, performance, dimensions, type number, flow, and efficiency of centrifugal pumps. This text also explains the pumps performance; entry conditions and cavitation; speed and dimensions for a given duty; and losses. Some chapters further describe centrifugal pump mechanical design, installation, monitoring, and maintenance. The

  6. Apparatus and method for servicing an elongated suspended pump motor in an electric power plant with limited access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, R.V.; Ekeroth, D.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Matusz, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Elongated coolant pumps suspended under steam generators within containment in a power plant with limited access space, are removed and replaced by an elongated maintenance cart with an elongated opening along one side in which the motor is received. Rollers support the cart for conveying the elongated motor in an upright position out from under the steam generator and onto an elevator. The elevator is lowered to transfer support of the cart and motor through trunnions to saddles straddling the elevator for rotation of the cart to a generally horizontal position. The elevator then raises the horizontally disposed cart carrying the motor to a higher floor where it is rolled off the elevator and out through the auxiliary equipment hatch. 14 figures

  7. Portable photovoltaic irrigation pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furber, J. D.

    1980-07-01

    Experiences in developing a solar-powered irrigation pump to meet the needs of poor farmers in developing nations are summarized. The design which evolved is small and portable, employing a high-efficiency electric pump, powered by photovoltaic panels. Particular emphasis is placed on how the system works, and on early field problems experienced with the first prototypes. The resolution of these problems and the performance of actual systems in various countries is presented and user responses are noted.

  8. Reactor recirculation pump test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taka, Shusei; Kato, Hiroyuki

    1979-01-01

    A test loop for a reactor primary loop recirculation pumps (PLR pumps) has been constructed at Ebara's Haneda Plant in preparation for production of PLR pumps under license from Byron Jackson Pump Division of Borg-Warner Corporation. This loop can simulate operating conditions for test PLR pumps with 130 per cent of the capacity of pumps for a 1100 MWe BWR plant. A main loop, primary cooling system, water demineralizer, secondary cooling system, instrumentation and control equipment and an electric power supply system make up the test loop. This article describes the test loop itself and test results of two PLR pumps for Fukushima No. 2 N.P.S. Unit 1 and one main circulation pump for HAZ Demonstration Test Facility. (author)

  9. Electromagnetic pump technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, R.

    1994-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors have an important role to play in our nuclear power programme. Liquid metal sodium is used as the coolant for removing fission heat generated in fast reactors and a distinctive physical property of sodium is its high electrical conductivity. This enables application of electromagnetic (EM) pumps, working on same principle as electric motors, for pumping liquid sodium. Due to its lower efficiency as compared to centrifugal pumps, use of EM pumps has been restricted to reactor auxiliary circuits and experimental facilities. As part of our efforts to manufacture fast reactor components indigenously, work on the development of two types of EM pumps namely flat linear induction pump (FLIP) and annular linear induction pump (ALIP) has been undertaken. Design procedures based on an equivalent circuit approach have been established and results from testing a 5.6 x 10E-3 Cum/s (20 Cum/h) FLIP in a sodium loop were used to validate the procedure. (author). 7 refs., 6 figs

  10. Proper Sizing of Circulation Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the preliminary results from field tests of replacing various types of old pumps used for circulating water in heating systems in single- and double-family houses with new types of pumps. The tests were carried out in Denmark for the Danish Electricity Savings Trust, but the r......The paper describes the preliminary results from field tests of replacing various types of old pumps used for circulating water in heating systems in single- and double-family houses with new types of pumps. The tests were carried out in Denmark for the Danish Electricity Savings Trust...

  11. Efficiency potentials of heat pumps with combined heat and power. For maximum reduction of CO2 emissions and for electricity generation from fossil fuels with CO2 reduction in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rognon, F.

    2005-06-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how the efficiency potential of heat pumps together with combined heat and power systems can help provide a maximum reduction of CO 2 emissions and provide electricity generation from fossil fuel in Switzerland together with reductions in CO 2 emissions. In Switzerland, approximately 80% of the low-temperature heat required for space-heating and for the heating-up of hot water is produced by burning combustibles. Around a million gas and oil boilers were in use in Switzerland in 2000, and these accounted for approximately half the country's 41.1 million tonnes of CO 2 emissions. The authors state that there is a more efficient solution with lower CO 2 emissions: the heat pump. With the enormous potential of our environment it would be possible to replace half the total number of boilers in use today with heat pumps. This would be equivalent to 90 PJ p.a. of useful heat, or 500,000 systems. The power source for heat pumps should come from the substitution of electric heating systems (electric resistor-based systems) and from the replacement of boilers. This should be done by using combined heat and power systems with full heat utilisation. This means, according to the authors, that the entire required power source can be provided without the need to construct new electricity production plants. The paper examines and discusses the theoretical, technical, market and realisable potentials

  12. Single-mode electrically pumped GaSb-based VCSELs emitting continuous-wave at 2.4 and 2.6 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, Alexander; Arafin, Shamsul; Kashani-Shirazi, Kaveh

    2009-01-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are perfect light sources for spectroscopic applications, where properties such as continuous-wave (cw) operation, single-mode emission, high lifetime and often low power consumption are crucial. For applications such as tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), there is a growing interest in laser devices emitting in the near- to mid-infrared wavelength range, where many environmentally and technologically important gases show strong absorption lines. The (AlGaIn)(AsSb) material system based on GaSb is the material of choice for covering the 2.0-3.3 μm range. In this paper, we report on electrically pumped single-mode VCSELs with emission wavelengths of 2.4 and 2.6 μm, operating cw at room temperature and beyond. By (electro-) thermal tuning, the emission wavelength can be tuned mode-hop free over a range of several nanometers. In addition, low threshold currents of several milliamperes promise mobile application. In the devices, a structured buried tunnel junction with subsequent overgrowth has been used in order to achieve efficient current confinement, reduced optical losses and increased electrical conductivity. Furthermore, strong optical confinement is introduced in the lasers due to laterally differing cavity lengths.

  13. The utilization of excess wind-electric power from stock water pumping systems to heat a sector of the stock tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nydahl, J.E.; Carlson, B.O. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    On the high plains, a wind-electric stock water pumping system produces a significant amount of excess power over the winter months due to intense winds and the decreased water consumption by cattle. The University of Wyoming is developing a multi-tasking system to utilize this excess energy to resistively heat a small sector of the stock tank at its demonstration/experimental site. This paper outlines the detailed heat transfer analysis that predicted drinking water temperature and icing conditions. It also outlines the optimization criteria and the power produced by the Bergey 1500 wind electric system. Results show that heating a smaller insulated tank inserted into the larger tank would raise the drinking water temperature by a maximum of 6.7 {degrees}C and eliminate icing conditions. The returns associated with the additional cattle weight gain, as a result of the consumption of warmer water, showed that system modification costs would be recovered the first year. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Controlling groundwater pumping online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekri, Slim

    2009-08-01

    Groundwater over-pumping is a major problem in several countries around the globe. Since controlling groundwater pumping through water flow meters is hardly feasible, the surrogate is to control electricity usage. This paper presents a framework to restrict groundwater pumping by implementing an annual individual electricity quota without interfering with the electricity pricing policy. The system could be monitored online through prepaid electricity meters. This provides low transaction costs of individual monitoring of users compared to the prohibitive costs of water flow metering and monitoring. The public groundwater managers' intervention is thus required to determine the water and electricity quota and watch the electricity use online. The proposed framework opens the door to the establishment of formal groundwater markets among users at very low transaction costs. A cost-benefit analysis over a 25-year period is used to evaluate the cost of non-action and compare it to the prepaid electricity quota framework in the Batinah coastal area of Oman. Results show that the damage cost to the community, if no active policy is implemented, amounts to (-$288) million. On the other hand, the implementation of a prepaid electricity quota with an online management system would result in a net present benefit of $199 million.

  15. Geothermal heat pump performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  16. Geothermal Heat Pump Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  17. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  18. Electrical characterisation of p-doped distributed Bragg reflectors in electrically pumped GaInNAs VCSOAs for 1.3 {mu}m operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaqmaqchee, F.A.I. [University of Essex, School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering Colchester, CO43SQ (United Kingdom); Mazzucato, S., E-mail: smazzu@essex.ac.uk [University of Essex, School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering Colchester, CO43SQ (United Kingdom); Sun, Y.; Balkan, N. [University of Essex, School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering Colchester, CO43SQ (United Kingdom); Tiras, E. [Anadolu University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Yunus Emre Campus 26470, Eskisehir (Turkey); Hugues, M.; Hopkinson, M. [University of Sheffield, Electronic and Electrical Engineering Department, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We electrically characterised two p-type doped DBRs for 1.3 {mu}m VCSOA applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Abrupt and graded structures were designed and investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Longitudinal and vertical transports were measured as function of temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low series resistivity achieved using the interface composition grading technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theoretical model confirmed the obtained results. - Abstract: The high resistivity that is encountered in p-type DBRs is an important problem in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers and optical amplifiers (VCSELs and VCSOAs). This is because the formation of potential barriers at the interfaces between layers of high and low refractive index inhibits the carrier flow, thus increasing the DBR series resistance. In this work, the electrical characteristics of two p-type doped DBR structures grown on undoped and p-type doped GaAs substrates have been investigated. The DBRs are designed for VCSOAs operating at 1.3 {mu}m and consist of 14-periods of alternating GaAs and Al{sub 0.9}Ga{sub 0.1}As in the first sample and 14-periods of GaAs and Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/Al{sub 0.9}Ga{sub 0.1}As in the second one. For the longitudinal transport sample, Hall mobility and sheet carrier density were measured in the temperature range from 77 to 300 K. In the vertical transport sample, current-voltage (I-V) measurements across the DBR layers were carried out at different temperatures in the range between 15 and 300 K. We achieved resistivity reduction in our samples by using an interface composition grading technique aimed at improving the VCSOA characteristics.

  19. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  20. Analysis of water flow, power and electrical current of a motor pump powered by photovoltaic panels; Analise da vazao, potencia e corrente em uma motobomba acionada por paines fotovoltaicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Paulo Takashi; Santos, Jose Airton Azevedo dos; Michels, Roger Nabeyama [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR-MD), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: airton@utfpr.edu.br; Ricieri, Reinaldo Prandini [Universidade do Oeste Paulista (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: ricieri@unioeste.br; Halmeman, Maria Cristina Rodrigues [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR-CM), Campo Mourao, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Because of the high cost of electricity connection to distant places, far away from conventional nets, photovoltaic solar energy is widely used in public illumination, water pumping, medical care centers, etc. With the purpose to contribute to a better utilization in this type of energy, the object of the project is to analyze the water flow, power and electrical current of a motor pump to be used for water lift, driven by photovoltaic panels, the data will be collected at every 2 meters in height from 2.2 to 18.2 meters. The analyses show the outflow linear dependence in relation to the height of the water lift, a second order dependence of the electrical power provided by the photovoltaic panels in relation to the solar irradiance on the panels and a linear dependence of the electrical current in relation to the solar irradiance. This study is a part of a project developed at the 'Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana' (UTFPR) - Campus Medianeira - PR. Two photovoltaic panels were used from Solarex Brand, model MSX 56, a motor pump made by Shurflo Ltd, model 2088-732, two pyranometers from KIPP and ZONEN CM3, a type K thermocouple, a pressure transducer model HUBA-510 and a water flow transducer. (author)

  1. Mechano-electrical feedback explains T-wave morphology and optimizes cardiac pump function: insight from a multi-scale model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermeling, Evelien; Delhaas, Tammo; Prinzen, Frits W; Kuijpers, Nico H L

    2012-01-01

    In the ECG, T- and R-wave are concordant during normal sinus rhythm (SR), but discordant after a period of ventricular pacing (VP). Experiments showed that the latter phenomenon, called T-wave memory, is mediated by a mechanical stimulus. By means of a mathematical model, we investigated the hypothesis that slow acting mechano-electrical feedback (MEF) explains T-wave memory. In our model, electromechanical behavior of the left ventricle (LV) was simulated using a series of mechanically and electrically coupled segments. Each segment comprised ionic membrane currents, calcium handling, and excitation-contraction coupling. MEF was incorporated by locally adjusting conductivity of L-type calcium current (g(CaL)) to local external work. In our set-up, g(CaL) could vary up to 25%, 50%, 100% or unlimited amount around its default value. Four consecutive simulations were performed: normal SR (with MEF), acute VP, sustained VP (with MEF), and acutely restored SR. MEF led to T-wave concordance in normal SR and to discordant T-waves acutely after restoring SR. Simulated ECGs with a maximum of 25-50% adaptation closely resembled those during T-wave memory experiments in vivo and also provided the best compromise between optimal systolic and diastolic function. In conclusion, these simulation results indicate that slow acting MEF in the LV can explain a) the relatively small differences in systolic shortening and mechanical work during SR, b) the small dispersion in repolarization time, c) the concordant T-wave during SR, and d) T-wave memory. The physiological distribution in electrophysiological properties, reflected by the concordant T-wave, may serve to optimize cardiac pump function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Coordination of Heat Pumps, Electric Vehicles and AGC for Efficient LFC in a Smart Hybrid Power System via SCA-Based Optimized FOPID Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Khezri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high price of fossil fuels, the increased carbon footprint in conventional generation units and the intermittent functionality of renewable units, alternative sources must contribute to the load frequency control (LFC of the power system. To tackle the challenge, dealing with controllable loads, the ongoing study aims at efficient LFC in smart hybrid power systems. To achieve this goal, heat pumps (HPs and electric vehicles (EVs are selected as the most effective controllable loads to contribute to the LFC issue. In this regard, the EVs can be controlled in a bidirectional manner as known charging and discharging states under a smart structure. In addition, regarding the HPs, the power consumption is controllable. As the main task, this paper proposes a fractional order proportional integral differential (FOPID controller for coordinated control of power consumption in HPs, the discharging state in EVs and automatic generation control (AGC. The parameters of the FOPID controllers are optimized simultaneously by the sine cosine algorithm (SCA, which is a new method for optimization problems. In the sequel, four scenarios, including step and random load changes, aggregated intermittent generated power from wind turbines, a random load change scenario and a sensitivity analysis scenario, are selected to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed SCA-based FOPID controllers in a hybrid two-area power system.

  3. Load Frequency Control by use of a Number of Both Heat Pump Water Heaters and Electric Vehicles in Power System with a Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuta, Taisuke; Shimizu, Koichiro; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    In Japan, from the viewpoints of global warming countermeasures and energy security, it is expected to establish a smart grid as a power system into which a large amount of generation from renewable energy sources such as wind power generation and photovoltaic generation can be installed. Measures for the power system stability and reliability are necessary because a large integration of these renewable energy sources causes some problems in power systems, e.g. frequency fluctuation and distribution voltage rise, and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) is one of effective solutions to these problems. Due to a high cost of the BESS, our research group has studied an application of controllable loads such as Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) and Electric Vehicle (EV) to the power system control for reduction of the required capacity of BESS. This paper proposes a new coordinated Load Frequency Control (LFC) method for the conventional power plants, the BESS, the HPWHs, and the EVs. The performance of the proposed LFC method is evaluated by the numerical simulations conducted on a power system model with a large integration of wind power generation and photovoltaic generation.

  4. Compact, Lightweight Electromagnetic Pump for Liquid Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Palzin, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    A proposed direct-current electromagnetic pump for circulating a molten alkali metal alloy would be smaller and lighter and would demand less input power, relative to currently available pumps of this type. (Molten alkali metals are used as heat-transfer fluids in high-temperature stages of some nuclear reactors.) The principle of operation of this or any such pump involves exploitation of the electrical conductivity of the molten metal: An electric current is made to pass through the liquid metal along an axis perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the flow channel, and a magnetic field perpendicular to both the longitudinal axis and the electric current is superimposed on the flowchannel region containing the electric current. The interaction between the electric current and the magnetic field produces the pumping force along the longitudinal axis. The advantages of the proposed pump over other such pumps would accrue from design features that address overlapping thermal and magnetic issues.

  5. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  6. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Gülich, Johann Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    This book gives an unparalleled, up-to-date, in-depth treatment of all kinds of flow phenomena encountered in centrifugal pumps including the complex interactions of fluid flow with vibrations and wear of materials. The scope includes all aspects of hydraulic design, 3D-flow phenomena and partload operation, cavitation, numerical flow calculations, hydraulic forces, pressure pulsations, noise, pump vibrations (notably bearing housing vibration diagnostics and remedies), pipe vibrations, pump characteristics and pump operation, design of intake structures, the effects of highly viscous flows, pumping of gas-liquid mixtures, hydraulic transport of solids, fatigue damage to impellers or diffusers, material selection under the aspects of fatigue, corrosion, erosion-corrosion or hydro-abrasive wear, pump selection, and hydraulic quality criteria. As a novelty, the 3rd ed. brings a fully analytical design method for radial impellers, which eliminates the arbitrary choices inherent to former design procedures. The d...

  7. 46 CFR 169.654 - Bilge pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge pumps. 169.654 Section 169.654 Shipping COAST... Electrical Bilge Systems § 169.654 Bilge pumps. (a) Vessels of less than 65 feet in length must have a portable hand bilge pump having a maximum capacity of 5 gpm. (b) In addition to the requirements of...

  8. Pumping life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg; Dach, Ingrid; Hoffmann, Robert Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The name PUMPKIN may suggest a research centre focused on American Halloween traditions or the investigation of the growth of vegetables – however this would be misleading. Researchers at PUMPKIN, short for Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease, are in fact interested in a large family o......’. Here we illustrate that the pumping of ions means nothing less than the pumping of life....

  9. Cost reduction of electric energy in pumping station of small and medium size water systems; Reducao do custo de energia eletrica em estacoes elevatorias de sistemas de abastecimento de agua de pequeno e medio portes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutiya, Milton Tomoyuki

    1989-12-31

    This work presents the main aspects concerning the electric energy cost reduction and includes since simple solutions of easy installation, usually without the need of great study or investment, until the more complex ones that lead to the cost diminution achieved through the energy consumption reduction. Aspects relating to cost abatement accomplished by modifying the pumping operation systems are considered as well. At last, it exposes the conclusions of the work. (author). 69 figs., 14 tabs., 110 refs

  10. An analysis of Water Supply Heat Pump's Capability of Energy Storage and Energy Saving Using Electricity%水源热泵系统蓄能节能的可行性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴薇; 张小松

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristic of water supply heat pump (WLHP) is introduced. The thermal performanceand effect of energy saving that can be used to heating and cooling at the same time (the distinctive working mode) is em-phasized. A new idea of heat input using wave trough electricity instead of boilers is brought up, the effect and significance ofthis new method is discussed.

  11. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  12. Thermodynamic performance analysis of a novel electricity-heating cogeneration system (EHCS) based on absorption heat pump applied in the coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongsheng; Li, Zhenlin; Zhao, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Presented a novel waste heat recovery method for Combined Heat and Power system. • Established models of the integrated system based on energy and exergy analysis. • Adopted both design and actual data ensuring the reliability of analysis results. - Abstract: A novel electricity-heating cogeneration system (EHCS) which is equipped with an absorption heat pump (AHP) system to recover waste heat from exhaust steam of the steam turbines in coal-fired thermal power plants is proposed to reduce heating energy consumption and improve the utilization of the fossil fuels in existing CHP (Combined Heat and Power) systems. According to the first and second thermodynamic law, the changes of the performance evaluation indicators are analyzed, and exergy analyses for key components of the system are carried out as well as changes of exergy indexes focusing on 135 MW direct air cooling units before and after modification. Compared with the conventional heating system, the output power increases by about 3.58 MW, gross coal consumption rate and total exergy loss respectively reduces by 11.50 g/kW h and 4.649 MW, while the total thermal and exergy efficiency increases by 1.26% and 1.45% in the EHCS when the heating load is 99,918 kJ at 75% THA condition. Meanwhile, the decrement of total exergy loss and increment of total exergy efficiency increase with the increasing of the heating load. The scheme cannot only bring great economic benefits but also save fossil resources, which has a promising market application potential.

  13. Liquid metals pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Frere, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Pumps used to pump liquid metals depend on the liquid metal and on the type of application concerned. One deals more particularly with electromagnetic pumps, the main pumps used with mechanical pumps. To pump sodium in the nuclear field, these two types of pumps are used; the pumps of different circuits of Super Phenix are presented and described [fr

  14. Environmental and energy efficiency evaluation of residential gas and heat pump heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganji, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Energy efficiency and source air pollutant emission factors of gas heaters, gas engine heat pumps, and electric heat pumps for domestic heating have been evaluated and compared. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, gas engine heat pumps have the highest energy efficiency followed by electric heat pumps and then gas heaters. Electric heat pumps produce more than twice as much NO x , and comparable CO 2 and CO per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. CO production per unit of useful heating energy from gas engine heat pumps without any emission control is substantially higher than electric heat pumps and natural gas heaters. NO x production per unit of useful heating energy from natural gas engine heat pumps (using lean burn technology) without any emission control is about the same as effective NO x production from electric heat pumps. Gas engine heat pumps produce about one-half CO 2 compared to electric heat pumps

  15. Electrokinetic pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2007-11-20

    A method for altering the surface properties of a particle bed. In application, the method pertains particularly to an electrokinetic pump configuration where nanoparticles are bonded to the surface of the stationary phase to alter the surface properties of the stationary phase including the surface area and/or the zeta potential and thus improve the efficiency and operating range of these pumps. By functionalizing the nanoparticles to change the zeta potential the electrokinetic pump is rendered capable of operating with working fluids having pH values that can range from 2-10 generally and acidic working fluids in particular. For applications in which the pump is intended to handle highly acidic solutions latex nanoparticles that are quaternary amine functionalized can be used.

  16. Heat pumps: heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pielke, R

    1976-01-01

    The author firstly explains in a general manner the functioning of the heat pump. Following a brief look at the future heat demand and the possibilities of covering it, the various methods of obtaining energy (making use of solar energy, ground heat, and others) and the practical applications (office heating, swimming pool heating etc.) are explained. The author still sees considerable difficulties in using the heat pump at present on a large scale. Firstly there is not enough maintenance personnel available, secondly the electricity supply undertakings cannot provide the necessary electricity on a wide basis without considerable investments. Other possibilities to save energy or to use waste energy are at present easier and more economical to realize. Recuperative and regenerative systems are described.

  17. High-vacuum plasma pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorodnov, A.M.; Minajchev, V.E.; Miroshkin, S.I.

    1980-01-01

    The action of an electric-arc high-vacuum pump intended for evacuating the volumes in which the operation processes are followed by a high gas evolution is considered. The operation of the pump is based on the principle of controlling the getter feed according to the gas load and effect of plasma sorbtion pumping. The pump performances are given. The starting pressure is about 5 Pa, the limiting residual pressure is about 5x10 -6 Pa, the pumping out rate of nitrogen in the pressure range 5x10 -5 -5x10 -3 Pa accounts for about 4000 l/s, the power consumption comes to 6 kW. Analyzing the results of the test operation of the pump, it has been concluded that its principal advantages are the high starting pressure, controlled getter feed rate and possibility of pumping out the gases which are usually pumped out with difficulty. The operation reliability of the pump is defined mainly by reliable operation of the ignition system of the vacuum arc [ru

  18. Pumps and pump facilities. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, W.; Bauerfeind, H.; Gutmann, G.; Leuschner, G.; Matthias, H.B.; Mengele, R.; Neumaier, R.; Vetter, G.; Wagner, W.

    1981-01-01

    This book deals with the common fundamental aspects of liquid pumps and gives an exemplary choice of the most important kinds of pumps. The scientific matter is dealt with by means of practical mathematical examples among other ways of presenting the matter. Survey of contents: Division on main operational data of pumps - pipe characteristics - pump characteristics - suction behaviour of the pumps - projecting and operation of rotary pumps - boiler feed pumps - reactor feed pumps - oscillating positive-displacement pumps - eccentric spiral pumps. (orig./GL) [de

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic generator and pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birzvalk, Yu.A.; Karasev, B.G.; Lavrentyev, I.V.; Semikov, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    The MHD generator-pump system, or MHD coupling, is designed to pump liquid-metal coolant in the primary circuit of a fast reactor. It contains a number of generator and pump channels placed one after another and forming a single electrical circuit, but hydraulically connected parallel to the second and first circuits of the reactor. All the generator and pump channels are located in a magnetic field created by the magnetic system with an excitation winding that is fed by a regulated direct current. In 500 to 2000 MW reactors, the flow rate of the coolant in each loop of the primary circuit is 3 to 6 m 3 /s and the hydraulic power is 2 to 4 MW. This paper examines the primary characteristics of an MHD generator-pump system with various dimensions and number of channels, wall thicknesses, coolant flow rates, and magnetic fields. It is shown that its efficiency may reach 60 to 70%. The operating principle of the MHD generator-pump system is explained in the referenced patent and involves the transfer of hydraulic power from generator channels to pump channels using a magnetic field and electrical circuit common to both channels. Variations of this system may be analyzed using an equivalent circuit. 7 refs., 5 figs

  20. Spinning-Scroll Pump for Cryogenic Feed System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is an efficient, compact, lightweight, reliable, electric-driven, cryogenic spinning scroll pump (CSSP) capable of pumping liquid methane or oxygen at...

  1. Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to the electricity industry in the United Kingdom, under the headings; importance and scope of the industry's work; future fuel supplies (estimated indigenous fossil fuels reserves); outlook for UK energy supplies; problems of future generating capacity and fuel mix (energy policy; construction programme; economics and pricing; contribution of nuclear power - thermal and fast reactors; problems of conversion of oil-burning to coal-burning plant). (U.K.)

  2. Fluidic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priestman, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    A fluidic pump has primary and secondary vessels connected by a pipe, a displacement vessel having liquid to be delivered through a pipe via a rectifier provided with a feed tank. A drive unit delivers pressure fluid to a line to raise liquid and compress trapped gas or liquid in the space, including the pipe between the liquids in the two vessels and thus drive liquid out of the displacement vessel. The driving gas is therefore separated by the barrier liquid and the trapped gas or liquid from the liquid to be pumped which liquid could be e.g. radioactive. (author)

  3. Pumped storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    The privately financed 1,000 MW Rocky Point Pumped Storage Project located in central Colorado, USA, will be one of the world's highest head, 2,350 feet reversible pump/turbine projects. The project will offer an economical supply of peaking power and spinning reserve power to Colorado and other southwestern states. This paper describes how the project will be made compatible with the environmental conditions in the project area and the type of terrestrial mitigation measures that are being proposed for those situations where the project impacts the environment, either temporarily or permanently

  4. Utilization of computational simulator for comparison of correlations in multiphase flow in ESP (Electrical Submersible Pumping) systems; Utilizacao de simulador computacional para a comparacao das correlacoes de escoamento multifasico em sistemas BCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Roselaine M. dos; Maitelli, Carla Wilza S.P.; Maitelli, Andre L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Costa, Rutacio O. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Electrical Submersible Pumping (ESP) is an artificial lifting method which can be used both onshore and offshore for the production of high flow rates of liquid. By using the computational simulator for systems ESP developed by the AUTOPOC/LAUT - UFRN, this work aimed to evaluate empirical correlations for calculation of multiphase flow in tubing typical of artificial lifting systems operating by ESP. The parameters used for evaluating the correlations are some of the dynamic variables of the system such as head that indicates the lifting capacity of the system, the flow rate of fluid in the pump and the discharge pressure at the pump. Five (5) correlations were evaluated, from which only one considered slipping between phases, but does not take into account flow patterns and, four others considering slipping between the phases as well the flow patterns. The simulation results obtained for all these correlations were compared to results from a commercial computational simulator, extensively used in the oil industry. For both simulators, input values and simulation time, were virtually the same. The results showed that the simulator used in this work showed satisfactory performance, since no significant differences from those obtained with the commercial simulator. (author)

  5. Diagnosis of feed water, condensate and circulation pumps in electric power plants; Diagnostico de bombas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin Castellanos, Carlos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    This article encompasses the analysis and the diagnosis of the pump`s performance that belong to the feed water, condensate and circulation systems of a fossil fuel power plant (FFPP). For this analysis pressure, temperature and flow data were collected by means of field installed instrumentation, as well as these pumps` motors current consumption and voltage values. Later on, the capacity and the pump efficiency are calculated and compared with the design values, to obtain the actual performance of the equipment with the aid of their characteristic curves (Q vs {Delta}H, Q vs {pi}, etc.). [Espanol] Este articulo comprende el analisis y el diagnostico de comportamiento de las bombas, las cuales forman parte de los sistemas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion de una central termoelectrica (CT). Para el analisis se recopilan datos de presion, temperatura y flujo de la instrumentacion instalada en campo, asi como de los valores de consumo de corriente y de voltaje en los motores de dichas bombas. Posteriormente, se calcula la capacidad y la eficiencia de las bombas en operacion real y se comparan con los valores de diseno, para obtener el comportamiento real del equipo con ayuda de las curvas caracteristicas (Q vs {Delta}H, Q vs {pi}, etcetera).

  6. Damage of reactor recirculation pump of No.3 plant in Fukushima No.2 Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    No.3 plant in Fukushima No.2 Nuclear Power Station is a BWR plant with the rated output of 1100 MW, and as for the damage of its reactor recirculation pump, the investigation of the cause and the examination of countermeasures are advanced by the special committee. It is presumed that the submerged bearing ring of this pump caused the fatigue fracture due to the insufficient penetration in the fillet-welded part. The ring broke into pieces, and the main disk of the impeller was broken by the wear due to the pieces. Further, the damage of washers and the falling-off of bolts occurred. The metallic particles generated by wear were about 30 kg, and it is presumed that several kg of them adhered to fuel. Hereafter, the investigation of the cause will be continued, and the countermeasures for preventing the recurrence are examined. On January 1, 1989, the vibration of the pump increased, and the alarm was issued. However, the operation was continued carefully. On January 6, the vibration increased again, and on January 7, the reactor was stopped. The third regular inspection was begun on the same day, and the damage of the pump was found. (K.I.)

  7. Diagnosis of feed water, condensate and circulation pumps in electric power plants; Diagnostico de bombas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin Castellanos, Carlos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This article encompasses the analysis and the diagnosis of the pump`s performance that belong to the feed water, condensate and circulation systems of a fossil fuel power plant (FFPP). For this analysis pressure, temperature and flow data were collected by means of field installed instrumentation, as well as these pumps` motors current consumption and voltage values. Later on, the capacity and the pump efficiency are calculated and compared with the design values, to obtain the actual performance of the equipment with the aid of their characteristic curves (Q vs {Delta}H, Q vs {pi}, etc.). [Espanol] Este articulo comprende el analisis y el diagnostico de comportamiento de las bombas, las cuales forman parte de los sistemas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion de una central termoelectrica (CT). Para el analisis se recopilan datos de presion, temperatura y flujo de la instrumentacion instalada en campo, asi como de los valores de consumo de corriente y de voltaje en los motores de dichas bombas. Posteriormente, se calcula la capacidad y la eficiencia de las bombas en operacion real y se comparan con los valores de diseno, para obtener el comportamiento real del equipo con ayuda de las curvas caracteristicas (Q vs {Delta}H, Q vs {pi}, etcetera).

  8. Proceedings: Meeting customer needs with heat pumps, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    Electric heat pumps provide a growing number of residential and commercial customers with space heating and cooling as well as humidity control and water heating. Industrial customers use heat pump technology for energy-efficient, economical process heating and cooling. Heat pumps help utilities meet environmental protection needs and satisfy their load-shape objectives. The 1991 conference was held in Dallas on October 15--18, featuring 60 speakers representing electric utilities, consulting organizations, sponsoring organizations, and heat pump manufacturers. The speakers presented the latest information about heat pump markets, technologies, applications, trade ally programs, and relevant issues. Participants engaged in detailed discussions in ''breakout'' and parallel sessions and viewed more than 30 exhibits of heat pumps, software, and other products and services supporting heat pump installations and service. Electric utilities have the greatest vested interest in the sale of electric heat pumps and thus have responsibility to ensure quality installations through well-trained technicians, authoritative and accurate technical information, and wellinformed design professionals. The electric heat pump is an excellent tool for the electric utility industry's response to environmental and efficiency challenges as well as to competition from other fuel sources. Manufacturers are continually introducing new products and making research results available to meet these challenges. Industrial process heat pumps offer customers the ability to supply heat to process at a lower cost than heat supplied by primary-fuel-fired boilers. From the utility perspective these heat pumps offer an opportunity for a new electric year-round application

  9. An economic evaluation comparison of solar water pumping system with engine pumping system for rice cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treephak, Kasem; Thongpron, Jutturit; Somsak, Dhirasak; Saelao, Jeerawan; Patcharaprakiti, Nopporn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose the design and economic evaluation of the water pumping systems for rice cultivation using solar energy, gasoline fuel and compare both systems. The design of the water and gasoline engine pumping system were evaluated. The gasoline fuel cost used in rice cultivation in an area of 1.6 acres. Under same conditions of water pumping system is replaced by the photovoltaic system which is composed of a solar panel, a converter and an electric motor pump which is compose of a direct current (DC) motor or an alternating current (AC) motor with an inverter. In addition, the battery is installed to increase the efficiency and productivity of rice cultivation. In order to verify, the simulation and economic evaluation of the storage energy battery system with batteries and without batteries are carried out. Finally the cost of four solar pumping systems was evaluated and compared with that of the gasoline pump. The results showed that the solar pumping system can be used to replace the gasoline water pumping system and DC solar pump has a payback less than 10 years. The systems that can payback the fastest is the DC solar pumping system without batteries storage system. The system the can payback the slowest is AC solar pumping system with batteries storage system. However, VAC motor pump of 220 V can be more easily maintained than the motor pump of 24 VDC and batteries back up system can supply a more stable power to the pump system.

  10. Heat pumps at the maltings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    Heat pumps have halved the energy costs of producing finished malt at two of the country's maltsters. The fuel-fired kilning processes described are now performed by heat pumps with considerable energy and production benefits at the maltings of J.P. Simpson and Co. (Alnwick) Ltd, in Tivetshall St Margaret, Norfolk, and of Munton and Fison Plc of Stowmarket, Suffolk. The heat pump system installed at the Station Malting of J.P. Simpson was devised by the Electricity Council Research Centre at Capenhurst near Chester. Energy cost benefits of Pound 6,000 a month are being realised at Simpsons, but there is the added benefit that the system has been designed to provide conditioned air to the germination cycle to ensure that the correct temperature is maintained throughout the year. At the Cedars factory of Munton and Fison, heat pumps were used on a trial basis for plant micropropagation and for a fish farming unit.

  11. Electrostatic coupling of ion pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Frausto, J; Lüger, P; Apell, H J

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the electrostatic interactions between membrane-embedded ion-pumps and their consequences for the kinetics of pump-mediated transport processes have been examined. We show that the time course of an intrinsically monomolecular transport reaction can become distinctly nonexponential, if the reaction is associated with charge translocation and takes place in an aggregate of pump molecules. First we consider the electrostatic coupling of a single dimer of ion-pumps embedded in the membrane. Then we apply the treatment to the kinetic analysis of light-driven proton transport by bacteriorhodopsin which forms two-dimensional hexagonal lattices. Finally, for the case of nonordered molecules, we also consider a model in which the pumps are randomly distributed over the nodes of a lattice. Here the average distance is equal to that deduced experimentally and the elemental size of the lattice is the effective diameter of one single pump. This latter model is applied to an aggregate of membrane-embedded Na, K- and Ca-pumps. In all these cases the electrostatic potential considered is the exact solution calculated from the method of electrical images for a plane membrane of finite thickness immersed in an infinite aqueous solution environment. The distributions of charges (ions or charged binding sites) are considered homogeneous or discrete in the membrane and/or in the external solution. In the case of discrete distributions we compare the results from a mean field approximation and a stochastic simulation.

  12. Solar Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pique, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Proposed pump moves liquid by action of bubbles formed by heat of sun. Tube of liquid having boiling point of 100 to 200 degrees F placed at focal axis of cylindrical reflector. Concentrated sunlight boils liquid at focus, and bubbles of vapor rise in tube, carrying liquid along with them. Pressure difference in hot tube sufficient to produce flow in large loop. Used with conventional flat solar heating panel in completely solar-powered heat-storage system.

  13. Pumping behavior of sputter ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.; McCafferty, D.

    The ultrahigh vacuum requirements of ISABELLE is obtained by distributed pumping stations. Each pumping station consists of 1000 l/s titanium sublimation pump for active gases (N 2 , H 2 , O 2 , CO, etc.), and a 20 l/s sputter ion pump for inert gases (methane, noble gases like He, etc.). The combination of the alarming production rate of methane from titanium sublimation pumps (TSP) and the decreasing pumping speed of sputter ion pumps (SIP) in the ultrahigh vacuum region (UHV) leads us to investigate this problem. In this paper, we first describe the essential physics and chemistry of the SIP in a very clean condition, followed by a discussion of our measuring techniques. Finally measured methane, argon and helium pumping speeds are presented for three different ion pumps in the range of 10 -6 to 10 -11 Torr. The virtues of the best pump are also discussed

  14. Seminar on heat pump research and applications: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, R.V. Jr. (ed.)

    1984-11-01

    This volume is a compilation of papers prepared by speakers at a seminar on heat pumps. The seminar was organized by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in cooperation with Louisiana Power and Light Company and New Orleans Public Service, Inc. The seminar's purpose was to inform utility managers and engineers of the most recent developments in residential heat pump technology and applications. Statements by invited panelists on the outlook for heat pump technology are also included. The speakers, who represented key organizations in the heat pump area, including utilities, industry associations, manufacturers, independent research institutes, government, and EPRI, addressed the following topics: status of heat pump research and development, heat pump testing and rating; field monitoring of heat pumps; heat pump water heaters; heat pump reliability; and marketing programs for pumps. All papers, total of sixteen have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  15. Demonstration test on the heat pump system, thermally utilizing the domestic waste water. Result of the collecting test on an air conditioning system, Hokkaido Electric Power Gymnasium, Tomari; Seikatsu haisui netsuriyo heat pump system jissho shiken. Tomari Hokuden taiikukan reidanbo system no sainetsu shiken kekka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, T; Yamada, K; Watanabe, K [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan)

    1995-06-14

    A heat pump system utilizing the domestic waste water was introduced into a gymnasium owned by Hokkaido Electric Power to elucidate the applicability of domestic waste water as a thermal source of heat pump in the cold region. The gymnasium is a two-storied concrete building with the floor space of 2292m{sup 2}. Ground water at temperatures from 10 to 20{degree}C is utilized for the water supply. Made to flow together as waste water, the dirty water and daily exhaust water are discharged at the rate of 100t/day into a river after passing through the septic tank. Higher by 5 to 15{degree}C than the atmospheric temperature, the discharging temperature is kept higher than 10{degree}C even during the very cold period. The domestic waste water is almost neutral in pH, and normal in both SS and BOD. The heat pump was utilized for two stages, i.e., thermal collection and temperature heightening. The capacity of a sewage storage tank tank was made to be 170m{sup 3} to meet the thermal load of 139000kcal/h in the gymnasium. The temperature of 15{degree}C could be kept during the air heating trial. The system is about 2 in coefficient of performance. The K-value of heat exchanger decreased by about 30% after seven months of operation. Upon its overhauling, its K-value recovered to 2.37, so that it must be overhauled once a year. 5 refs., 15 figs. 4 tabs.

  16. Operation method study based on the energy balance of an independent microgrid using solar-powered water electrolyzer and an electric heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Shin'ya; Watanabe, Seizi; Rengarajan, Balaji

    2011-01-01

    A completely energy-independent microgrid (green microgrid) was examined in this work with the aims of abating greenhouse gas emissions by spreading the use of green energy, providing energy backup systems for disaster, and increasing the energy utilization efficiency with the use of exhaust heat. This paper analyzed the energy supply to six houses in a cold region. The green microgrid consisted of photovoltaics, water electrolyzers, proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEFCs), and heat pumps. To investigate the operation method and the capacity of each piece of equipment in the arrangement, a distributed system with two or more sets of equipment and a central system with one set of equipment were analyzed by a genetic algorithm. By introducing the prior energy need pattern of a cold region into the proposed system, the operation method and equipment capacity based on the power and heat balance were clarified. By introducing the partial load performance of a water electrolyzer and a PEFC into the analysis program, the operation method of each system was investigated. It was found that the area of a solar cell of a distributed system could be reduced by 12% as compared to a central system. -- Highlights: → A completely energy-independent microgrid (green microgrid) was planned. → The green microgrid consisted of photovoltaics, water electrolyzers, PEM-FCs, and heat pumps. → Operation of a concentrated system and a distributed system. → Investigate of the operation method and the capacity of each piece of equipment.

  17. Heat pumps in district heating networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    constraints limit the power plants. Efficient heat pumps can be used to decouple the constraints of electricity and heat production, while maintaining the high energy efficiency needed to match the politically agreed carbon emission goals. The requirements in terms of COP, location, capacity and economy...... and strategic planning in the energy sector. The paper presents a case study of optimal implementation of heat pumps in the present energy system of the Copenhagen area. By introduction of the correct capacity of heat pumps, a 1,6 % reduction in fuel consumption for electricity and heat production can...

  18. The efficient use of the electric energy in underground water pumping systems in the Bajio (lowlands); El uso eficiente de la energia electrica en los sistemas de bombeo de agua subterranea en el Bajio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E. [Irapuato (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In the Bajio region the underground water is the main source of drinking water and approximately constitutes 50% of the water used for agricultural purposes. From the energy standpoint pumping represents 33% of the electricity consumption and a wastage of 35% is estimated. In order to take care of this problem a methodology was designed for an energetic appraisal of the well pumping systems, with the basic objective of knowing the electro-mechanical efficiency of the equipment and the efficiency of the auxiliary equipment and the well hydraulic response. The analysis of the results of 221 diagnoses performed demonstrates the profitability of the equipment rehabilitation, plus other advantages of collective character . [Espanol] En la region del Bajio, el agua subterranea constituye la principal fuente de agua potable y aproximadamente, el 50% del agua para riego agricola; desde el punto de vista energetico, el bombeo de ella representa el 33% de la electricidad que se consume y se estima un desperdicio del 35%. Para atender la problematica, se diseno una metodologia para un diagnostico energetico de los sistemas de bombeo de los pozos, con el objetivo basico de conocer la eficiencia electro-mecanica de los equipos, el comportamiento de los equipos auxiliares y la capacidad de respuesta hidraulica del pozo. El analisis de los resultados de 221 diagnosticos realizados, pone de manifiesto la redituabilidad de la rehabilitacion de los equipos, ademas de otras ventajas de caracter colectivo.

  19. The efficient use of the electric energy in underground water pumping systems in the Bajio (lowlands); El uso eficiente de la energia electrica en los sistemas de bombeo de agua subterranea en el Bajio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E [Irapuato (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In the Bajio region the underground water is the main source of drinking water and approximately constitutes 50% of the water used for agricultural purposes. From the energy standpoint pumping represents 33% of the electricity consumption and a wastage of 35% is estimated. In order to take care of this problem a methodology was designed for an energetic appraisal of the well pumping systems, with the basic objective of knowing the electro-mechanical efficiency of the equipment and the efficiency of the auxiliary equipment and the well hydraulic response. The analysis of the results of 221 diagnoses performed demonstrates the profitability of the equipment rehabilitation, plus other advantages of collective character . [Espanol] En la region del Bajio, el agua subterranea constituye la principal fuente de agua potable y aproximadamente, el 50% del agua para riego agricola; desde el punto de vista energetico, el bombeo de ella representa el 33% de la electricidad que se consume y se estima un desperdicio del 35%. Para atender la problematica, se diseno una metodologia para un diagnostico energetico de los sistemas de bombeo de los pozos, con el objetivo basico de conocer la eficiencia electro-mecanica de los equipos, el comportamiento de los equipos auxiliares y la capacidad de respuesta hidraulica del pozo. El analisis de los resultados de 221 diagnosticos realizados, pone de manifiesto la redituabilidad de la rehabilitacion de los equipos, ademas de otras ventajas de caracter colectivo.

  20. Pumped storage - necessary and sensible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    2006-01-01

    This comprehensive article takes a look at the long-established technique of using pumped storage schemes to temporarily store electricity. Here, excess power is used to pump water back into high-level reservoirs during low-load periods so that it can be used to generate electricity during peak periods. Ecological and energy-loss aspects are discussed as are the objections raised by environmental agencies. An overview of the present situation and the operation of such installations in Switzerland is provided. Future developments in this area and the role played in the European power system are discussed. Comparisons are made between hydro-electric peak power production and that using gas turbines and other systems. In particular, the efficiencies and the carbon dioxide loading involved are looked at. Also, the situation with power generation using new renewables is examined and the economic prerequisites for the operation of such schemes are looked at

  1. 'Pioneer' - A controlled air-water heat pump for the replacement of oil-fired and electric heating systems; Geregelte Waermepumpe Pioneer. Geregelte Luft-Wasser-Waermepumpe fuer Sanierungen von Oel- und Elektroheizungen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeckh, P. von; Borer, M.; Borer, T. [Fachhochschule beider Basel FHBB, Dept. Industrie, Abtlg. Maschinenbau, Muttenz (Switzerland); Eggenberger, H.J. [Solartis GmbH, WP-Versuchslabor EICH, Fuellinsdorf (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that involved the development of an air-water heat pump system that could replace existing oil-fired and electric heating systems. The system features variable-frequency compressor and ventilator drives and was tested on a special test bed that provided appropriately prepared primary air. The measurements and optimisations made included the definition of optimal parameters for ventilator and de-icing system, measurement of performance coefficients and noise emissions as well as on the suitability of the system for hot-water generation. The authors quote figures that show that the performance of the variable-speed system is much better than systems running in stop-and-go mode.

  2. Resonant Tunneling Spin Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.

  3. Pump characteristics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Volk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Providing a wealth of information on pumps and pump systems, Pump Characteristics and Applications, Third Edition details how pump equipment is selected, sized, operated, maintained, and repaired. The book identifies the key components of pumps and pump accessories, introduces the basics of pump and system hydraulics as well as more advanced hydraulic topics, and details various pump types, as well as special materials on seals, motors, variable frequency drives, and other pump-related subjects. It uses example problems throughout the text, reinforcing the practical application of the formulae

  4. Walking beam pumping unit system efficiency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilgore, J.J.; Tripp, H.A.; Hunt, C.L. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The cost of electricity used by walking beam pumping units is a major expense in producing crude oil. However, only very limited information is available on the efficiency of beam pumping systems and less is known about the efficiency of the various components of the pumping units. This paper presents and discusses measurements that have been made on wells at several Shell locations and on a specially designed walking beam pump test stand at Lufkin Industries. These measurements were made in order to determine the overall system efficiency and efficiency of individual components. The results of this work show that the overall beam pumping system efficiency is normally between 48 and 58 percent. This is primarily dependent on the motor size, motor type, gearbox size, system's age, production, pump size, tubing size, and rod sizes

  5. Knudsen pump driven by a thermoelectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharas, Kunal; McNamara, Shamus

    2010-01-01

    The first use of a thermoelectric material in the bidirectional operation of a gas pump using thermal transpiration has been demonstrated. The thermoelectric material maintains a higher temperature difference which favors thermal transpiration and thus increases the efficiency of gas pumping. Since the hot and cold sides of the thermoelectric material are reversible, the direction of the pump may be changed by reversing the electrical current direction. Two different pump designs are presented that illustrate some of the design tradeoffs. The pumps are characterized by measuring the pressure difference that may be generated and by measuring the flow rate in the forward and reverse directions. For a pump composed of a porous material with a pore size of 100 nm, a maximum flow rate of 0.74 cm 3 min −1 and a maximum pressure of 1.69 kPa are achieved

  6. Internal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushima, Jun; Hayashi, Youjiro; Ueda, Masayuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to an internal pump. A water hole allowing communication between internal and external circumferences of a stretch tube is provided at the portion of the stretch tube corresponding to a position where an end face of a nozzle portion of a motor case and an end face of a diffuser are joined with each other so that hot filtered water inside a pressure container which has entered from where the end face of the nozzle portion of the motor case and the end face of the diffuser are joined with each other is combined with the purged water so that it can be sent back to the pressure container again. (author) figs

  7. Breastfeeding FAQs: Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pump is best? You can buy or rent a breast pump from lactation consultants, hospitals, retail ... place to do it. Many companies offer their employees pumping and nursing areas. If yours doesn't, ...

  8. Combined solar photovoltaic and hydroelectric pumped storage power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gzraryan, R.V.

    2009-01-01

    Combined model of solar photovoltaic and pumped storage stations aimed at power supply for 40 rural houses are considered. The electric circuits of station and their acting regularities are developed and submitted. The both generation curve of photovoltaic station and load curve of electrical customer are considered. The power of hydraulic unit, pumping unit and photovoltaic station are calculated

  9. Synchronization modulation of Na/K pumps on Xenopus oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pengfei; Mast, Jason; Chen, Wei

    We developed a new technique named synchronization modulation to electrically synchronize and modulate the Na/K pump molecules by a specially designed oscillating electric field. This technique is based on the theory of energy-trap in quantum physics as well as the concept of electronic synchrotron accelerator. As a result, the Na-transports are all entrapped into the positive half-cycle of the applied electric field and consequently, all of the K-transports are entrapped into the negative half cycle of the field. To demonstrate the process of the pump synchronization and modulation, we use Xenopus oocytes as a platform and introduce two-electrode whole-cell voltage clamp in measurement of pump current. Practically, we first synchronize the pump molecules running at the same pace (rate and phase) by a specially designed oscillation electric field. Then, we carefully maintain the pump synchronization status and gradually change the field frequency (decrease and increase) to modulate the pump molecules to newer pumping rate. The result shows a separation of the inward K current from the outward Na current, and about 10 time increase of the total (inward plus outward) pump current from the net outward current from the random paced pump molecules. Also, the ratio of the modulated total pump current with synchronized total pump current is consistent with the ratio of their field frequencies.

  10. LMFBR with booster pump in pumping loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    A loop coolant circulation system is described for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) utilizing a low head, high specific speed booster pump in the hot leg of the coolant loop with the main pump located in the cold leg of the loop, thereby providing the advantages of operating the main pump in the hot leg with the reliability of cold leg pump operation

  11. Liquid metal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  12. Liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair

  13. Heat pump technology

    CERN Document Server

    Von Cube, Hans Ludwig; Goodall, E G A

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pump Technology discusses the history, underlying concepts, usage, and advancements in the use of heat pumps. The book covers topics such as the applications and types of heat pumps; thermodynamic principles involved in heat pumps such as internal energy, enthalpy, and exergy; and natural heat sources and energy storage. Also discussed are topics such as the importance of the heat pump in the energy industry; heat pump designs and systems; the development of heat pumps over time; and examples of practical everyday uses of heat pumps. The text is recommended for those who would like to kno

  14. Heat pump heating with heat pumps driven by combustion engines or turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, K

    1977-01-27

    The heat pump described is driven by a gas Otto cycle engine, or a gas- or light- or heavy-oil fired Diesel engine. The claim refers to the use of waste heat of the engines by feeding into the input circuit of the heat pump. In addition, a drive by an electrical motor-generator or power production can be selected at times of peak load in the electrical supply network.

  15. Dry vacuum pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibuet, R

    2008-01-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R and D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed

  16. Design and construction of a two-stage centrifugal pump | Nordiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Centrifugal pumps are widely used in moving liquids from one location to another in homes, offices and industries. Due to the ever increasing demand for centrifugal pumps it became necessary to design and construction of a two-stage centrifugal pump. The pump consisted of an electric motor, a shaft, two rotating impellers ...

  17. Heat pumps in western Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freymond, A.

    2003-01-01

    The past ten years have seen an extraordinary expansion of heat-pump market figures in the western (French speaking) part of Switzerland. Today, more than 14,000 units are in operation. This corresponds to about 18% of all the machines installed in the whole country, compared to only 10 to 12% ten years ago. This success illustrates the considerable know-how accumulated by the leading trade and industry during these years. It is also due to the promotional program 'Energy 2000' of the Swiss Federal Department of Energy that included the heat pump as a renewable energy source. Already in 1986, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne was equipped with a huge heat pump system comprising two electrically driven heat pumps of 3.5 MW thermal power each. The heat source is water drawn from the lake of Geneva at a depth of 70 meters. An annual coefficient of performance of 4.5 has been obtained since the commissioning of the plant. However, most heat pump installations are located in single-family dwellings. The preferred heat source is geothermal heat, using borehole heat exchangers and an intermediate heat transfer fluid. The average coefficient of performance of these installations has been increased from 2.5 in 1995 to 3.1 in 2002

  18. Microelectromechanical pump utilizing porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Jeffrey W [Albuquerque, NM; Stalford, Harold L [Norman, OK

    2011-07-19

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) pump is disclosed which includes a porous silicon region sandwiched between an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber. The porous silicon region is formed in a silicon substrate and contains a number of pores extending between the inlet and outlet chambers, with each pore having a cross-section dimension about equal to or smaller than a mean free path of a gas being pumped. A thermal gradient is provided along the length of each pore by a heat source which can be an electrical resistance heater or an integrated circuit (IC). A channel can be formed through the silicon substrate so that inlet and outlet ports can be formed on the same side of the substrate, or so that multiple MEM pumps can be connected in series to form a multi-stage MEM pump. The MEM pump has applications for use in gas-phase MEM chemical analysis systems, and can also be used for passive cooling of ICs.

  19. Multiple pump housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, II, Michael R.; Elliott; Christopher M.

    2010-03-23

    A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.

  20. Design and experimental characterization of an EM pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Reyoung; Hong, Sang Hee

    1999-01-01

    Generally, an EM (electromagnetic) pump is been employed to circulate electrically conducting liquids by using the Lorentz force. Especially, at the liquid metal reactor (LMR), which uses liquid sodium with high electrical conductivity as a coolant, an EM pump is needed due to its advantages over a mechanical pump, such as no rotating parts, no noise, and simplicity. In this research, an EM pump of a pilot annular linear induction type with a flow rate of 200 l/min was designed by using the electrical equivalent-circuit method. The pump was designed and manufactured by considering material and environmental (high temperature and liquid sodium) requirements. The pump performance was experimentally characterized based on input currents, voltage, power, and frequency. Also, the theoretical prediction was compared with the experimental result

  1. Centrifugal pump handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pumps, Sulzer

    2010-01-01

    This long-awaited new edition is the complete reference for engineers and designers working on pump design and development or using centrifugal pumps in the field. This authoritative guide has been developed with access to the technical expertise of the leading centrifugal pump developer, Sulzer Pumps. In addition to providing the most comprehensive centrifugal pump theory and design reference with detailed material on cavitation, erosion, selection of materials, rotor vibration behavior and forces acting on pumps, the handbook also covers key pumping applications topics and operational

  2. Development of liquid nitrogen Centrifugal Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, M; Sagiyama, R; Tsuchiya, H; Takayama, T; Torii, Y; Nakamura, M; Hoshino, Y; Odashima, Y

    2009-01-01

    Usually liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ) transfer from a container to a laboratory equipment takes place by applying pressure to the container to push out liquid or pouring liquid into the cryostat directly by lifting the container. In order to overcome inconvenience of pressuring or lifting containers, we have been developing the Liquid Nitrogen Centrifugal Pump of a small electric turbine pump. Significant advantages that both reducing time to fill LN 2 and controlling the flow rate of liquid into the cryostat are obtained by introducing this pump. We have achieved the lift of about 800mm with the vessel's opening diameter of 28mm.

  3. New and future heat pump technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswick, F. A.

    It is not possible to say for sure what future heat pumps will look like, but there are some interesting possibilities. In the next five years, we are likely to see US heat pumps with two kinds of innovations: capacity modulation and charge control. Capacity modulation will be accomplished by variable-speed compressor motors. The objective of charge control is to keep the refrigerant charge in the system where it belongs for best performance; there are probably many ways to accomplish this. Charge control will improve efficiency and durability; capacity modulation will further improve efficiency and comfort. The Stirling cycle heat pump has several interesting advantages, but it is farther out in time. At present, we don't know how to make it as efficient as the conventional vapor-compression heat pump. Electric utility people should be aware that major advances are being made in gas-fired heat pumps which could provide strong competition in the future. However, even a gas-fired heat pump has a substantial auxiliary electric power requirement. The resources needed to develop advanced heat pumps are substantial and foreign competition will be intense. It will be important for utilities, manufacturers, and the federal government to work in close cooperation.

  4. Performance evaluation on vacuum pumps using nanolubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lue, Yeou Feng; Hsu, Yu Chun; Teng, Tun Ping [Dept. of Industrial EducationNational Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan (China)

    2016-09-15

    This study produced alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanovacuum-pump lubricants (NVALs) by involving the dispersion of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles in a vacuum-pump lubricant (VAL) with oleic as a dispersant. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the suspension performance, thermal conductivity, viscosity, specific heat, tribological performance and vacuum-pump performance of the NVALs. The experimental results obtained from the vacuum-pump performance tests show that the NVALs with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration of 0.2 wt.% and oleic concentration of 0.025 wt.% yielded the lowest electricity consumption, conserving 2.39% of electricity compared with the VAL. No marked difference was observed between the temperatures of the vacuum pump using VAL and NVAL. Furthermore, evacuation (i.e., the minimal pressure of -99.5 kPa) was reached faster by the vacuum pump with the NVALs, and the evacuation time could be reduced by 4.91% under optimal conditions. In addition, the vacuum pump with the NVALs exhibited superior overall effectiveness under relatively lower ambient temperatures.

  5. Pumped energy transfer stations (STEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournery, Jean-Francois

    2015-12-01

    As objectives of development are high for renewable energies (they are supposed to cover 50 per cent of new energy needs by 2035), pumped energy transfer stations are to play an important role in this respect. The author first discusses the consequences of the development of renewable energies on the exploitation of electric grids: issue of intermittency for some of them, envisaged solutions. Then, he addresses one of the solutions: the storage of electric power. He notices that increasing the potential energy of a volume of water is presently the most mature solution to face massive needs of the power system. Dams and pumped energy transfer stations represent now almost the whole installed storage power in the world. The author then presents these pumped energy transfer stations: principle, brief history (the first appeared in Italy and Switzerland at the end of the 1890's). He indicates the various parameters of assessment of such stations: maximum stored energy, installed power in pumping mode and turbine mode, time constant, efficiency, level of flexibility. He discusses economic issues. He describes and comments the operation of turbine-pump groups: ternary groups, reversible binary groups. He discusses barriers to be overcome and technical advances to be made for varying speed groups and for marine stations. He finally gives an overview (table with number of stations belonging to different power ranges, remarkable installations) of existing stations in China, USA, Japan, Germany, Austria, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Switzerland, France and UK, and indicate predictions regarding storage needs at the world level. Some data are finally indicated for the six existing French installations

  6. Pumping mechanisms in sputter-ion pumps low pressure operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that significant H 2 pumping occurs in the walls of triode pumps. Also, H 2 is pumped in the anode cells of sputter-ion pumps. This pumping occurs in a manner similar to that by which the inert gases are pumped. That is, H 2 pumped in the walls of the anode cells by high energy neutral burial. Hydrogen in the pump walls and anodes limits the base pressure of the pump. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  7. Pumping mechanisms in sputter-ion pumps low pressure operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that significant H 2 pumping occurs in the walls of triode pumps. Also, H 2 is pumped in the anode cells of sputter-ion pumps. This pumping occurs in a manner similar to that by which the inert gases are pumped. That is, H 2 is pumped in the walls of the anode cells by high energy neutral burial. Hydrogen in the pump walls and anodes limits the base pressure of the pump

  8. Adsorption pump for helium pumping out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donde, A.L.; Semenenko, Yu.E.

    1981-01-01

    Adsorption pump with adsorbent cooling by liquid helium is described. Shuttered shield protecting adsorbent against radiation is cooled with evaporating helium passing along the coil positioned on the shield. The pump is also equipped with primed cylindrical shield, cooled with liquid nitrogen. The nitrogen shield has in the lower part the shuttered shield, on the pump casing there is a valve used for pump pre-burning, and valves for connection to recipient as well. Pumping- out rates are presented at different pressures and temperatures of adsorbent. The pumping-out rate according to air at absorbent cooling with liquid nitrogen constituted 5x10 -4 Pa-3000 l/s, at 2x10 -2 Pa-630 l/s. During the absorbent cooling with liquid hydrogen the pumping-out rate according to air was at 4x10 -4 Pa-580 l/s, at 2x10 -3 Pa-680 l/s, according to hydrogen - at 8x10 -5 Pa-2500 l/s, at 5x10 -3 Pa-4200 l/s. During adsorbent cooling with liquid helium the rate of pumping-out according to hydrogen at 3x10 5 Pa-2400% l/s, at 6x10 3 Pa-1200 l/s, and according to helium at 3.5x10 -5 Pa-2800 l/s, at 4x10 -3 Pa-1150 l/s. The limit vacuum is equal to 1x10 -7 Pa. The volume of the vessel with liquid helium is equal to 3.5 l. Helium consumption is 80 cm 3 /h. Consumption of liquid nitrogen from the shield is 400 cm 3 /h. The limit pressure in the pump is obtained after forevacuum pumping-out (adsorbent regeneration) at 300 K temperature. The pump is made of copper. The pump height together with primed tubes is 800 mm diameter-380 mm [ru

  9. Wind pumps for farms: Economic and environmental feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccoli, F.

    1992-01-01

    The cost and environmental benefits of four different types of water pumps for use on farms are compared. The factors considered in the analysis of the different pumps categorized according to head (7, 30 and 50 m) and energy source (wind energy, electricity, gasoline or fuel oil) include operating and maintenance costs, and payback periods. Particular attention is given to the socio-economic implications of the use of wind pumps in developing countries. In this case, the various aspects taken into account are: wind pump siting requirements, optimum sizing, the feasibility of water pumping-power production with the use of wind turbines, required skill levels of operators, and environmental compatibility

  10. First domestic primary loop recircuration pump for boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Minoru; Taka, Shusei; Kato, Hiroyuki

    1981-01-01

    Two primary loop recirculation (PLR) pumps for the second unit of the Fukushima No. 2 Nuclear Power Station of the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., have been manufactured by Ebara Corporation. They are the first domestically produced pumps for commercial power plants and were manufactured under license from Byron Jackson Pump Division of Borg Warner Corporation. This article describes the special features of pump design and stress analysis, and the results of the 700 hours of factory loop tests, which are all essential for the PLR pump. (author)

  11. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.; Nyilas, C.P.; Denmeade, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    A transfer pump is described which is used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank. 17 figs

  12. Continuously pumping and reactivating gas pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for continuous pumping using cycling cyropumping panels. A plurality of liquid helium cooled panels are surrounded by movable nitrogen cooled panels the alternatively expose or shield the helium cooled panels from the space being pumped. Gases condense on exposed helium cooled panels until the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to isolate the helium cooled panels. The helium cooled panels are incrementally warmed, causing captured gases to accumulate at the base of the panels, where an independent pump removes the gases. After the helium cooled panels are substantially cleaned of condensate, the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to expose the helium cooled panels to the space being pumped

  13. Continuously pumping and reactivating gas pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzer, Thomas H.; Call, Wayne R.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for continuous pumping using cycling cyropumping panels. A plurality of liquid helium cooled panels are surrounded by movable nitrogen cooled panels the alternatively expose or shield the helium cooled panels from the space being pumped. Gases condense on exposed helium cooled panels until the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to isolate the helium cooled panels. The helium cooled panels are incrementally warmed, causing captured gases to accumulate at the base of the panels, where an independent pump removes the gases. After the helium cooled panels are substantially cleaned of condensate, the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to expose the helium cooled panels to the space being pumped.

  14. Miniature Scroll Pumps Fabricated by LIGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Dean; Shcheglov, Kirill; White, Victor; Bae, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Miniature scroll pumps have been proposed as roughing pumps (low - vacuum pumps) for miniature scientific instruments (e.g., portable mass spectrometers and gas analyzers) that depend on vacuum. The larger scroll pumps used as roughing pumps in some older vacuum systems are fabricated by conventional machining. Typically, such an older scroll pump includes (1) an electric motor with an eccentric shaft to generate orbital motion of a scroll and (2) conventional bearings to restrict the orbital motion to a circle. The proposed miniature scroll pumps would differ from the prior, larger ones in both design and fabrication. A miniature scroll pump would include two scrolls: one mounted on a stationary baseplate and one on a flexure stage (see figure). An electromagnetic actuator in the form of two pairs of voice coils in a push-pull configuration would make the flexure stage move in the desired circular orbit. The capacitance between the scrolls would be monitored to provide position (gap) feedback to a control system that would adjust the drive signals applied to the voice coils to maintain the circular orbit as needed for precise sealing of the scrolls. To minimize power consumption and maximize precision of control, the flexure stage would be driven at the frequency of its mechanical resonance. The miniaturization of these pumps would entail both operational and manufacturing tolerances of pump components. In addition, the vibrations of conventional motors and ball bearings exceed these tight tolerances by an order of magnitude. Therefore, the proposed pumps would be fabricated by the microfabrication method known by the German acronym LIGA ( lithographie, galvanoformung, abformung, which means lithography, electroforming, molding) because LIGA has been shown to be capable of providing the required tolerances at large aspect ratios.

  15. Pump/heat exchanger assembly for pool-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathenson, R.D.; Slepian, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a heat exchanger and pump assembly for transferring thermal energy from a heated, first electrically conductive fluid to a pumped, second electrically conductive fluid and for transferring internal energy from the pumped, second electrically conductive fluid to the first electrically conductive fluid, the assembly adapted to be disposed within a pool of the first electrically conductive fluid and comprising: a heat exchanger comprising means for defining a first annularly shaped cavity for receiving a flow of the second electrically conductive fluid and a plurality of tubes disposed within the cavity, whereby the second electrically conductive fluid in the cavity is heated, each of the tubes having an input and an output end. The input ends being disposed at the top of the heat exchanger for receiving from the pool a flow of the first electrically conductive fluid therein. The output ends being disposed at the bottom of and free of the cavity defining means for discharging the first electrically conductive fluid directly into the pool; a pump disposed beneath the heat exchanger and comprised of a plurality of flow couplers disposed in a circular array, each flow coupler comprised of a pump duct for receiving the first electrically conductive fluid and a generator duct for receiving the second electrically conductive fluid

  16. Centrifugal Pump Monitoring and Determination of Pump Characteristic Curves Using Experimental and Analytical Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Stan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal pumps are widely used in the industry, especially in the oil and gas sector for fluids transport. Classically, these are designed to transfer single phase fluids (e.g., water at high flow rates and relatively low pressures when compared with other pump types. As part of their constructive feature, centrifugal pumps rely on seals to prevent air entrapment into the rotor during its normal operation. Although this is a constructive feature, water should pass through the pump inlet even when the inlet manifold is damaged. Modern pumps are integrated in pumping units which consist of a drive (normally electric motor, a transmission (when needed, an electronic package (for monitoring and control, and the pump itself. The unit also has intake and outlet manifolds equipped with valves. Modern systems also include electronic components to measure and monitor pump working parameters such as pressure, temperature, etc. Equipment monitoring devices (vibration sensors, microphones are installed on modern pumping units to help users evaluate the state of the machinery and detect deviations from the normal working condition. This paper addresses the influence of air-water two-phase mixture on the characteristic curve of a centrifugal pump; pump vibration in operation at various flow rates under these conditions; the possibilities of using the results of experimental investigations in the numerical simulations for design and training purposes, and the possibility of using vibration and sound analysis to detect changes in the equipment working condition. Conclusions show that vibration analysis provides accurate information about the pump’s functional state and the pumping process. Moreover, the acoustic emission also enables the evaluation of the pump status, but needs further improvements to better capture and isolate the usable sounds from the environment.

  17. Design and analysis of hydraulic ram water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, N. S. M.; Gamil, S. A.; Amin, N. A. M.; Safar, M. J. A.; Majid, M. S. A.; Kazim, M. N. F. M.; Nasir, N. F. M.

    2017-10-01

    The current pumping system (DC water pump) for agriculture is powered by household electricity, therefore, the cost of electricity will be increased due to the higher electricity consumption. In addition, the water needs to be supplied at different height of trees and different places that are far from the water source. The existing DC water pump can pump the water to 1.5 m height but it cost money for electrical source. The hydraulic ram is a mechanical water pump that suitable used for agriculture purpose. It can be a good substitute for DC water pump in agriculture use. The hydraulic ram water pumping system has ability to pump water using gravitational energy or the kinetic energy through flowing source of water. This project aims to analyze and develop the water ram pump in order to meet the desired delivery head up to 3 meter height with less operation cost. The hydraulic ram is designed using CATIA software. Simulation work has been done using ANSYS CFX software to validate the working concept. There are three design were tested in the experiment study. The best design reached target head of 3 m with 15% efficiency and flow rate of 11.82l/min. The results from this study show that the less diameter of pressure chamber and higher supply head will create higher pressure.

  18. Submersible canned motor mixer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    A mixer pump is described used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump. 10 figs

  19. Study on tariffs for heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieleman, M.; Hellemans, J.G.; Bouvy, E.J.; Van de Molen, B.A.

    1996-07-01

    An overview is given of the impact of electricity prices on the economic feasibility of electrical heat pumps for the residential sector, utility buildings, horticulture, and the industry in the Netherlands. The financial feasibility is calculated for three scenarios: low (present situation in the Netherlands), medium (short-term situation, 1998-2000, and more favtoable compared to the low scenario) and high (even more favorable conditions for the expected future situation after the year 2000 in case of a large-scale application of heat pumps). 25 figs., 25 tabs., 10 appendices, 46 refs

  20. A method of applying two-pump system in automatic transmissions for energy conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Dong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the hydraulic efficiency, modern automatic transmissions tend to apply electric oil pump in their hydraulic system. The electric oil pump can support the mechanical oil pump for cooling, lubrication, and maintaining the line pressure at low engine speeds. In addition, the start–stop function can be realized by means of the electric oil pump; thus, the fuel consumption can be further reduced. This article proposes a method of applying two-pump system (one electric oil pump and one mechanical oil pump in automatic transmissions based on the forward driving simulation. A mathematical model for calculating the transmission power loss is developed. The power loss transfers to heat which requires oil flow for cooling and lubrication. A leakage model is developed to calculate the leakage of the hydraulic system. In order to satisfy the flow requirement, a flow-based control strategy for the electric oil pump is developed. Simulation results of different driving cycles show that there is a best combination of the size of electric oil pump and the size of mechanical oil pump with respect to the optimal energy conservation. Besides, the two-pump system can also satisfy the requirement of the start–stop function. This research is extremely valuable for the forward design of a two-pump system in automatic transmissions with respect to energy conservation and start–stop function.

  1. Pumps in mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This article looks at the pump industry as a whole, its historical links with the mining industry, their parallel develop ment, and at the individual manufacturers and pumps, services and auxillary products they have to offer.

  2. Electricity production of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czodor, T.

    2003-01-01

    Here is examined the spatial structure of electric energy production divided in hydropower plants (through-flow and re-pumping), thermal power plants as the most expensive way of electric energy production and nuclear power plants where high difficulty and long-term realisation of construction projects and spent financial resources are pointed out. Work describes present structure of electric energy production and consumption and refers to alternative electric energy sources

  3. Centrifugal Force Based Magnetic Micro-Pump Driven by Rotating Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S H; Hashi, S; Ishiyama, K

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a centrifugal force based magnetic micro-pump for the pumping of blood. Most blood pumps are driven by an electrical motor with wired control. To develop a wireless and battery-free blood pump, the proposed pump is controlled by external rotating magnetic fields with a synchronized impeller. Synchronization occurs because the rotor is divided into multi-stage impeller parts and NdFeB permanent magnet. Finally, liquid is discharged by the centrifugal force of multi-stage impeller. The proposed pump length is 30 mm long and 19 mm in diameter which much smaller than currently pumps; however, its pumping ability satisfies the requirement for a blood pump. The maximum pressure is 120 mmHg and the maximum flow rate is 5000ml/min at 100 Hz. The advantage of the proposed pump is that the general mechanical problems of a normal blood pump are eliminated by the proposed driving mechanism.

  4. Centrifugal Force Based Magnetic Micro-Pump Driven by Rotating Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Hashi, S.; Ishiyama, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a centrifugal force based magnetic micro-pump for the pumping of blood. Most blood pumps are driven by an electrical motor with wired control. To develop a wireless and battery-free blood pump, the proposed pump is controlled by external rotating magnetic fields with a synchronized impeller. Synchronization occurs because the rotor is divided into multi-stage impeller parts and NdFeB permanent magnet. Finally, liquid is discharged by the centrifugal force of multi-stage impeller. The proposed pump length is 30 mm long and19 mm in diameter which much smaller than currently pumps; however, its pumping ability satisfies the requirement for a blood pump. The maximum pressure is 120 mmHg and the maximum flow rate is 5000ml/min at 100 Hz. The advantage of the proposed pump is that the general mechanical problems of a normal blood pump are eliminated by the proposed driving mechanism.

  5. Photovoltaic pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockgether, J.; Kiessling, K. P.

    1983-09-01

    Solar pump systems for the irrigation of fields and for water supply in regions with much sunshine are discussed. For surface water and sources with a hoisting depth of 12 m, a system with immersion pumps is used. For deep sources with larger hoisting depths, an underwater motor pump was developed. Both types of pump system meet the requirements of simple installation and manipulation, safe operation, maintenance free, and high efficiency reducing the number of solar cells needed.

  6. A study of water pump efficiency for household water demand at Lubuklinggau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliawati, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Water pump is a device to transport liquid from one place to another. This device is used in most of household in Indonesia. Small-scale water pump which is effective to lift more discharge is generally used. The ones that are most preferred are centrifugal types which having low absorbability. Pump performance is limited by pressure level in real electrical power whereas pump efficiency is influenced by head and discharge. The research aims to find out the efficiency of five distinct brands of home water pumps which are broadly distributed in market. Efficiency analysis take by laboratorium and financial analysis using NPV and BCR are done in order to obtained dicharge and pressure from each pump. At the end of the research, one out of 5 home water pump brands will be selected as the optimal working home water pump with low operational expense based on the utilizing age. The result of the research shows that the maximum efficiency value among various brands of water pump is diverse. Each value is arranged as follow from water pump A to E orderly: 12,9%, 13,5%, 12,8%, 14,8%, and 3,4%. From the calculation, water demand of South Lubuklinggau at stage 1 is 1117,7 l/s and stage 2 is 3495,2 l/s.. Moreover, the researcher conducts of investment, operation and maintenance cost with 25 years pump utilizing age towards 2 conditions (1) of maximum efficiency, i.e. pump A Rp16.563.971; pump B Rp12.163.798; pump C Rp11.809.513,2; pump D Rp11.473.928,3; pump E Rp12.648.708,3; (2) of max discharge, i.e. pump A Rp111.993.822,8; pump B Rp26.128.845,1; pump C Rp51.697.208,8; pump D Rp51.098.687,4; pump E Rp22.915.952,7;Financial analysis with interest rate 13% show a positive NPV(+) for all pump except pump A in max efficiency and a negative NPV (-) for all except pump B in max discharge. BCR value for max efficiency are pump A 0,8; pump B 1,6; pump C 1,7; pump D 1,7 and pump E 1,3. And for max discharge are pump A 0,2; pump B 1,1; pump C 0,7; pump D 0,7 and pump E 0,9. Result

  7. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  8. Vertical pump assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohnal, M.; Rosel, J.; Skarka, V.

    1988-01-01

    The mounting is described of the drive assembly of a vertical pump for nuclear power plants in areas with seismic risk. The assembly is attached to the building floor using flexible and damping elements. The design allows producing seismically resistant pumps without major design changes in the existing types of vertical pumps. (E.S.). 1 fig

  9. Experimental study on energy performance of clean air heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Nie, Jinzhe; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    An innovative clean air heat pump (CAHP) was designed and developed based on the air purification capacity of regenerative silica gel rotor. The clean air heat pump integrated air purification, dehumidification and cooling in one unit. A prototype of the clean air heat pump was developed...... to investigate its energy performance. Energy consumption of the prototype of CAHP was measured in laboratory at different climate conditions including mild-cold, mildhot and extremely hot and humid climates. The energy saving potential of the clean air heat pump compared to a conventional ventilation and air......-conditioning system was calculated. The experimental results showed that the clean air heat pump saved substantial amount of energy compared to the conventional system. For example, the CAHP can save up to 59% of electricity in Copenhagen, up to 40% of electricity in Milan and up to 30% of electricity in Colombo...

  10. Ground Source Heat Pump in Heating System with Electronics Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAMŢU Ovidiu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring system is implemented for a ground coupled heat pump in heating/ system. The borehole heat exchangers – which are 150 m long - are filled with a mixture of water and ethilene glycol calledbrine. Metering and monitoring energy consumption is achieved for: heat pump, circulation pumps, additional electrical heating, hot air ventilation systems, control systems with sensors: analog and smart sensors. Instantaneous values are stored in a local computer.

  11. Heat Pump Efficiencies simulated in Aspen HYSYS and Aspen Plus

    OpenAIRE

    Øi, Lars Erik; Tirados, Irene Yuste

    2015-01-01

    Heat pump technology provides an efficient and sustainable solution for both heating and cooling. A traditional heat pump can be defined as a mechanical-compression cycle refrigeration system powered by electricity. Traditional refrigerants used in heat pumps are ammonia or chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons. Because many of these chlorofluorohydrocarbons (CFC??) are ozone-depleting components, evaluation of more environmentally friendly refrigerants like pure hydrocarbons is important....

  12. Monitoring for shaft cracks on reactor recirculation pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowal, M.G.; O'Brien, J.T. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The article discusses the vibration characteristics associated with a boiling water reactor (BWR) recirculation pump. It also describes the application of diagnostic techniques and shaft crack theory to an on-line diagnostic monitoring system for reactor recirculation pumps employed at Philadelphia Electric Company's Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. Specific emphasis is placed on the unique monitoring techniques associated with these variable speed vertical pumps

  13. Estimation of pump operational state with model-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, Tero; Tamminen, Jussi; Ahola, Jero; Viholainen, Juha; Aranto, Niina; Kestilae, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Pumps are widely used in industry, and they account for 20% of the industrial electricity consumption. Since the speed variation is often the most energy-efficient method to control the head and flow rate of a centrifugal pump, frequency converters are used with induction motor-driven pumps. Although a frequency converter can estimate the operational state of an induction motor without external measurements, the state of a centrifugal pump or other load machine is not typically considered. The pump is, however, usually controlled on the basis of the required flow rate or output pressure. As the pump operational state can be estimated with a general model having adjustable parameters, external flow rate or pressure measurements are not necessary to determine the pump flow rate or output pressure. Hence, external measurements could be replaced with an adjustable model for the pump that uses estimates of the motor operational state. Besides control purposes, modelling the pump operation can provide useful information for energy auditing and optimization purposes. In this paper, two model-based methods for pump operation estimation are presented. Factors affecting the accuracy of the estimation methods are analyzed. The applicability of the methods is verified by laboratory measurements and tests in two pilot installations. Test results indicate that the estimation methods can be applied to the analysis and control of pump operation. The accuracy of the methods is sufficient for auditing purposes, and the methods can inform the user if the pump is driven inefficiently.

  14. Development of a Wind Directly Forced Heat Pump and Its Efficiency Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jwo, Ching-Song; Chien, Zi-Jie; Chen, Yen-Lin; Chien, Chao-Chun

    2013-01-01

    The requirements of providing electric energy through the wind-forced generator to the heat pump for water cooling and hot water heating grow significantly by now. This study proposes a new technique to directly adopt the wind force to drive heat pump systems, which can effectively reduce the energy conversion losses during the processes of wind force energy converting to electric energy and electric energy converting to kinetic energy. The operation of heat pump system transfers between chil...

  15. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. These can generally be classified as: Mechanical; Hydraulic; Tribological; Chemical; and Other (including those associated with the pump driver). Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump

  16. Liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    A liquid metal pump comprising a shaft support structure which is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft carries an impeller and the support structure carries an impeller cage which is slidably disposed in a diffuser so as to allow complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair. The diffuser is concentrically supported in the pump housing which also takes up all reaction forces generated by the discharge of the liquid metal from the diffuser, with floating seals arranged between impeller cage and the diffuser. The space between the diffuser and the pump housing permits the incoming liquid to essentially surround the diffuser. (author)

  17. Jet pump assisted artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  18. Electromagnetic circulation pump for corrosive gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noe, P.; Delafosse, D.; Deletre, G.

    1965-01-01

    In order to transport very corrosive products (fluorinated compounds) we have been led to develop a totally metallic circulation pump capable of operating at above room temperatures and with a molecular vacuum. We have aimed at maximum simplicity both in its conception and in its operation. The tests showed that the compression ratios produced, although not high are interesting (1.5 at a pressure of 100 torr) (see curve I). The flow-rate range is very wide: about one hundred ccs/atm/min. to 3000 ccs/atm/min. (see curves IV, V, VI). The desorption of this pump presents no difficulty if both the aspiration and the reject sides are pumped together. A hole of 2 mm diameter drilled in the piston makes it possible to desorb the space between the two segments. The price of this pump is not high: 1300 F, with the electrical cabinet. (authors) [fr

  19. Improvements in or relating to pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, R E; Boyle, K

    1976-06-30

    A pump is described that has what is termed a fluid diode in the inlet and outlet. Each such diode has non-moving parts and is operable to allow fluid to flow therethrough easily in one direction and to give restricted flow in the reverse direction. A suction leg is provided, connected to an ejector having a passage for compressed gas, and a valve is provided in the passage downstream of the ejector operable to open and close the passage periodically, thereby creating alternate negative and positive pumping pressures within the pump chamber. The valve may take the form of a solenoid valve and may include electrically linked means for sensing liquid levels. The pump is stated to be particularly attractive for plants in which it is desirable to avoid pump maintenance. Examples of its application includes the transfer of toxic and radioactive liquids. The exhaust from the ejector can be fed into a containment vessel from which it can be extracted through a normal venting system for plant handling such materials. It is also suitable for sludge pumping. The solenoid valve does not come into contact with the fluid being pumped, and can be located so that it is accessible for maintenance. Stainless steel is normally a convenient constructional material.

  20. Survey of residential heat pump owner experience in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsoy, J

    1985-11-11

    Heat pump owners in 7 Canadian cities were surveyed to establish installation costs, repair costs and frequencies, and customer satisfaction with heat pump systems as a function of region, installing contractor, manufacturer, model, year of installation and system type. The following summarizes the major findings of the study. Most Canadian heat pumps are retrofit installations in existing homes. The majority of these heat pumps have either supplemented or replaced an oil furnace. The average age of heat pumps is 2.5 years. The median size of heat pumps installed is 2.5 tons. The three most popular brands by order of prevalence are York, Carrier and General Electric. Only about one-fifth of heat pump owners have purchased service contracts. Two-thirds of the heat pumps have never needed repairs. Eighty-three percent of heat pump owners have never incurred any repair costs; and of those that have, about half spent $100 or less. The most frequent repair problems are refrigerant leaks followed by relays and controls. Corrective actions average about 0.3 per unit year. The owners' evaluation of comfort from their heat pump is generally favourable. About 12% of the owners find the outdoor unit noisy and 10% feel maintenance costs are at a disadvantage. Overall, only 7% of heat pump owners indicated that they would not install a heat pump in their next house. Most heat pump owners are satisfied with their heat pump brand and installer. Owners with systems installed in newer homes are more satisfied with their heat pumps than those who have installed heat pumps in older homes. 3 figs., 93 tabs.

  1. Industrial Heat Pump for a High Temperature District Heating Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Claus Nørgaard

    by excess thermal energy from thermal solar panels. An industrial heat pump system using the natural refrigerant ammonia, is extracting the thermal energy from the storage when needed, and produce hot water at 85°C, for the district heating grid. The heat pump also acts as contributor to electricity grid...

  2. Current and future employment of the heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassitto, L.

    2001-01-01

    Heat pumps, mainly the compression type, grant high energy savings together with environment protection because of the free low temperature energy from environment or wasted heat they use. Their large employment depends on the appreciation of the above properties that are will be done. To grant economic savings on using heat pumps, electric energy and natural gas should have fixed and predictable prices [it

  3. Heat pumps in field test; Waermepumpen im Feldtest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, R. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Miara, M.; Russ, C.

    2007-09-15

    The Fraunhofer ISE has launched two field tests of newly installed heat pumps in 2006. Both deal with the measurement of a high number of heat pump units under real conditions in small houses. Values of volume flows, temperatures, heat quantity and electricity consumption are collected and daily saved and analysed at the Fraunhofer ISE. (orig.)

  4. Heat pump applications in Dutch flower bulb farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.B. de

    1999-01-01

    Increasing numbers of flower bulb fanns in the Netherlands are using heat pumps for conditioning bulbs. The main advantage of the (electric) heat pump is that it combines all conditioning steps (drying, cooling and heating) in one device. Another advantage is that it makes process control simple and

  5. Pumps for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The guide describes how the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls pumps and their motors at nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities. The scope of the control is determined by the Safety Class of the pump in question. The various phases of the control are: (1) review of construction plan, (2) control of manufacturing, and construction inspection, (3) commissioning inspection, and (4) control during operation. STUK controls Safety Class 1, 2 and 3 pumps at nuclear facilities as described in this guide. STUK inspects Class EYT (non-nuclear) pumps separately or in connection with the commissioning inspections of the systems. This guide gives the control procedure and related requirements primarily for centrifugal pumps. However, it is also applied to the control of piston pumps and other pump types not mentioned in this guide

  6. Internal pump monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Toshikazu.

    1996-01-01

    In the present invention, a thermometer is disposed at the upper end of an internal pump casing of a coolant recycling system in a BWR type reactor to detect leakage of reactor water thereby ensuring the improvement of reliability of the internal pump. Namely, a thermometer is disposed, which can detect temperature elevation occurred when water in the internal pump leaked from a reactor pressure vessel passes through the gap between a stretch tube and an upper end of the pump casing. Signals from the thermometer are transmitted to a signal processing device by an instrumentation cable. The signal processing device generates an alarm when the temperature signal exceeds a predetermined value and announces that leakage of reactor water occurs in the internal pump. Since the present invention can detect the leakage of the reactor water in the pump casing in an early stage, it can contribute to the improvement of the safety and reliability of the internal pump. (I.S.)

  7. Variations in battery life of a heart-lung machine using different pump speeds, pressure loads, boot material, centrifugal pump head, multiple pump usage, and battery age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marshall, Cornelius

    2012-02-03

    Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has previously been reported to occur in 1 of every 1500 cases. Most heart-lung machine pump consoles are equipped with built-in battery back-up units. Battery run times of these devices are variable and have not been reported. Different conditions of use can extend battery life in the event of electrical failure. This study was designed to examine the run time of a fully charged battery under various conditions of pump speed, pressure loads, pump boot material, multiple pump usage, and battery life. Battery life using a centrifugal pump also was examined. The results of this study show that battery life is affected by pump speed, circuit pressure, boot stiffness, and the number of pumps in service. Centrifugal pumps also show a reduced drain on battery when compared with roller pumps. These elements affect the longevity and performance of the battery. This information could be of value to the individual during power failure as these are variables that can affect the battery life during such a challenging scenario.

  8. Solar assisted heat pumps: A possible wave of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, F. O.

    1976-01-01

    With the higher costs of electric power and the widespread interest to use solar energy to reduce the national dependence on fossil fuels, heat pumps are examined to determine their suitability for use with solar energy systems.

  9. Pump element for a tube pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a tube pump comprising a tube and a pump element inserted in the tube, where the pump element comprises a rod element and a first and a second non-return valve member positioned a distance apart on the rod element. The valve members are oriented in the same direction...... relative to the rod element so as to allow for a fluid flow in the tube through the first valve member, along the rod element, and through the second valve member. The tube comprises an at least partly flexible tube portion between the valve members such that a repeated deformation of the flexible tube...... portion acts to alternately close and open the valve members thereby generating a fluid flow through the tube. The invention further relates to a pump element comprising at least two non-return valve members connected by a rod element, and for insertion in an at least partly flexible tube in such tube...

  10. Pumping behavior of sputtering ion pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, T.S.; Bittner, J.; Schuchman, J.

    1991-12-31

    To optimize the design of a distributed ion pump (DIP) for the Superconducting X-Ray Lithography Source (SXLS) the stability of the rotating electron cloud at very high magnetic field beyond transition, must be re-examined. In this work the pumping speed and frequency spectrum of a DIP at various voltages (1 to 10 KV) and various magnetic fields (0.1 to 4 Tesla) are measured. Three cell diameters 10 mm, 5 mm and 2.5 mm, each 8 mm long, and with 3 or 4 mm gaps between anode and cathode are investigated. In this study both the titanium cathodes and the stainless steel anode plates are perforated with holes comparable in size to the anode cell diameters. Only the partially saturated pumping behavior is under investigation. The ultimate pressure and conditioning of the pump will be investigated at a later date when the stability criterion for the electron cloud is better understood.

  11. Pumping behavior of sputtering ion pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, T.S.; Bittner, J.; Schuchman, J.

    1991-01-01

    To optimize the design of a distributed ion pump (DIP) for the Superconducting X-Ray Lithography Source (SXLS) the stability of the rotating electron cloud at very high magnetic field beyond transition, must be re-examined. In this work the pumping speed and frequency spectrum of a DIP at various voltages (1 to 10 KV) and various magnetic fields (0.1 to 4 Tesla) are measured. Three cell diameters 10 mm, 5 mm and 2.5 mm, each 8 mm long, and with 3 or 4 mm gaps between anode and cathode are investigated. In this study both the titanium cathodes and the stainless steel anode plates are perforated with holes comparable in size to the anode cell diameters. Only the partially saturated pumping behavior is under investigation. The ultimate pressure and conditioning of the pump will be investigated at a later date when the stability criterion for the electron cloud is better understood.

  12. Necessity for usage of geothermal heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, Konstantin; Armenski, Slave; Gacevski, Marijan

    2004-01-01

    Every day we are witnesses of constantly rapid increase of consumption of Electric energy in R. of Macedonia as so as in the other countries in all the world. This rapid increase of consumption of Electric energy independent of a lot of electrical units, which are applying in human life like: homes, administration and publication objects, as well as in industry. All of this conditions make us to thinking how is possible more rational consumption of electric energy in all areas in human life. One of the possible manners to reduce the consumption of electrical energy for heating and cooling is to use geothermal heat pumps. In this paper will be proposed geothermal heat pump, which is going to use the heat of earth by vertical and horizontal cupper pipe heat exchanger with data from-GHP (Geothermal Heat Pump) NORDIC, factory in Canada. Also, it will be examined all parameters and done comparison with already existing ones. It is analyzed comparison of GHP with other energy units and what it means for rational consumption of electric energy, economic saving and ecology saving. (Author)

  13. Solar photovoltaic water pumping for remote locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meah, Kala; Fletcher, Steven; Ula, Sadrul

    2008-01-01

    Many parts of the world as well as the western US are rural in nature and consequently do not have electrical distribution lines in many parts of villages, farms, and ranches. Distribution line extension costs can run from USD 10,000 to USD 16,000/km, thereby making availability of electricity to small water pumping projects economically unattractive. But, ground water and sunlight are available, which make solar photovoltaic (SPV) powered water pumping more cost effective in these areas' small scale applications. Many western states including Wyoming are passing through the sixth year of drought with the consequent shortages of water for many applications. The Wyoming State Climatologist is predicting a possible 5-10 years of drought. Drought impacts the surface water right away, while it takes much longer to impact the underground aquifers. To mitigate the effect on the livestock and wildlife, Wyoming Governor Dave Freudenthal initiated a solar water pumping initiative in cooperation with the University of Wyoming, County Conservation Districts, Rural Electric Cooperatives, and ranching organizations. Solar water pumping has several advantages over traditional systems; for example, diesel or propane engines require not only expensive fuels, they also create noise and air pollution in many remote pristine areas. Solar systems are environment friendly, low maintenance, and have no fuel cost. In this paper the design, installation, site selection, and performance monitoring of the solar system for small-scale remote water pumping will be presented. This paper also presents technical, environmental, and economic benefits of the SPV water pumping system compared to stand alone generator and electric utility. (author)

  14. Smart Grid enabled heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Detlefsen, Nina; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2014-01-01

    The transition towards a 100 % fossil-free energy system, while achieving extreme penetration levels of intermittent wind and solar power in electricity generation, requires demand-side technologies that are smart (intermittency-friendly) and efficient. The integration of Smart Grid enabling...... with an empirical study in order to achieve a number of recommendations with respect to technology concepts and control strategies that would allow residential vapor-compression heat pumps to support large-scale integration of intermittent renewables. The analysis is based on data gathered over a period of up to 3...

  15. Efficiency assessment of a wind pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, David D.; Merino, Gabriel G.; Pavez, Boris J.; Tapia, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    The combined efficiency of the components determines overall system performance in electric wind pumping systems. We evaluated a system composed of a 3 kW wind generator feeding a battery bank of 48 V/880 Ah by means of a non-controlled 6-pulse rectifier. Connected to this battery bank was a 1.5 kW inverter that generated 220 V at 50 Hz, which powers a 1.1 kW single-phase electric pump. At the University of Concepcion, Chile, energy losses in each electrical component was determined using a data collection system configured to measure electrical variables in real time. The electrical power generated by the wind generator for different wind speeds averaged 38% lower than the power curve provided by the manufacturer. Electromechanical tests performed in a lab showed the operation efficiency of the electric generator of the wind turbine averaged 80%. This information, along with the electrical power output, and the wind velocity measured during field operation allowed us to determine the rotor's power coefficient C p , which had a maximum value of 35%. For the stored energy components measured data indicated that the rectifier, the battery bank, and the inverter operated with average efficiencies of 95%, 78% and 86% respectively. The combined component efficiencies showed a maximum of 17% of the wind energy would be available for water pumping. Since a large amount of wind energy was dissipated during the energy conversion process, new configurations should be analyzed that could avoid such losses in wind pumping systems.

  16. Efficiency assessment of a wind pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, David D.; Merino, Gabriel G. [Department of Mechanization and Energy, University of Concepcion, Avenida Vicente Mendez 595, Chillan (Chile); Pavez, Boris J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of La Frontera, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile); Tapia, Juan A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

    2011-02-15

    The combined efficiency of the components determines overall system performance in electric wind pumping systems. We evaluated a system composed of a 3 kW wind generator feeding a battery bank of 48 V/880 Ah by means of a non-controlled 6-pulse rectifier. Connected to this battery bank was a 1.5 kW inverter that generated 220 V at 50 Hz, which powers a 1.1 kW single-phase electric pump. At the University of Concepcion, Chile, energy losses in each electrical component was determined using a data collection system configured to measure electrical variables in real time. The electrical power generated by the wind generator for different wind speeds averaged 38% lower than the power curve provided by the manufacturer. Electromechanical tests performed in a lab showed the operation efficiency of the electric generator of the wind turbine averaged 80%. This information, along with the electrical power output, and the wind velocity measured during field operation allowed us to determine the rotor's power coefficient C{sub p}, which had a maximum value of 35%. For the stored energy components measured data indicated that the rectifier, the battery bank, and the inverter operated with average efficiencies of 95%, 78% and 86% respectively. The combined component efficiencies showed a maximum of 17% of the wind energy would be available for water pumping. Since a large amount of wind energy was dissipated during the energy conversion process, new configurations should be analyzed that could avoid such losses in wind pumping systems. (author)

  17. Control device for recycling pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Yoshihiro.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to control the recycling flow rate by the variation coefficient of the recycling flow rate corresponding to the state of the reactor power. Constitution: A number of rotation of an electric power generator for supplying a driving power to recycling pump is calculated in a rotational number setting section such that the deviation between the actual measurement signal for the flow rate of steams from the reactor and an instruction signal for the steam flow rate is reduced to zero. The velocity ratio of the fluid coupling for connecting the motor with the electric power generator is calculated in a rotational number adjusting section such that the deviation between the output signal from the setting section and the measuring signal from the electric power generator is reduced to zero, and a set velocity ratio signal is outputted. The set velocity ratio signal, set velocity ratio measurement signal from the fluid coupling and the rotational number measuring signal for the electric power generator are inputted into a velocity ratio control section to control the velocity ratio of the fluid coupling such that the deviation between both of the velocity ratio signal inputs is reduced to zero by the variation coefficient depending on the number of rotation of the electric power generator. (Sekiya, K.)

  18. Electrokinetic pumps and actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillip M. Paul

    2000-01-01

    Flow and ionic transport in porous media are central to electrokinetic pumping as well as to a host of other microfluidic devices. Electrokinetic pumping provides the ability to create high pressures (to over 10,000 psi) and high flow rates (over 1 mL/min) with a device having no moving parts and all liquid seals. The electrokinetic pump (EKP) is ideally suited for applications ranging from a high pressure integrated pump for chip-scale HPLC to a high flow rate integrated pump for forced liquid convection cooling of high-power electronics. Relations for flow rate and current fluxes in porous media are derived that provide a basis for analysis of complex microfluidic systems as well as for optimization of electrokinetic pumps

  19. Electrokinetic pumps and actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip M. Paul

    2000-03-01

    Flow and ionic transport in porous media are central to electrokinetic pumping as well as to a host of other microfluidic devices. Electrokinetic pumping provides the ability to create high pressures (to over 10,000 psi) and high flow rates (over 1 mL/min) with a device having no moving parts and all liquid seals. The electrokinetic pump (EKP) is ideally suited for applications ranging from a high pressure integrated pump for chip-scale HPLC to a high flow rate integrated pump for forced liquid convection cooling of high-power electronics. Relations for flow rate and current fluxes in porous media are derived that provide a basis for analysis of complex microfluidic systems as well as for optimization of electrokinetic pumps.

  20. EFFICIENCY OF THE USE OF HEAT PUMPS ON THE CHP PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravleov A.A.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The work is dedicated to the calculus of the efficiency of the use of heat pumps on the CHP plants. There are presented the interdependences between the pay-back period and NPV of heat pump and the price of 1 kWt of thermal power of heat pump and of the tariff of electricity.

  1. Variable speed drives for pumps used in intensive pond culture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to about 2010, the only large pumps on most catfish farms were those associated with the water supply. Water from wells is usually pumped to the surface using single-speed, vertical, lineshaft turbine pumps powered by three phase, electric motors. Since 2010, several catfish farmers have bui...

  2. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented

  3. Detection of pump degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

  4. Using Variable Speed Control on Pump Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Aida Spahiu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pumps are one of the most common variable speed drive (VSD system applications and special interest has focused on improving their energy efficiency by using variable speed control instead of throttling or other less efficient flow control methods. Pumps are the single largest user of electricity in industry in the European Union, consuming 160 TWh per annum of electricity and accounting for 79 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions [1]. Centrifugal pumps are the most likely pump style to provide a favorable return based on energy savings when applied with a variable speed drive. To help illustrate this, are conducted benchmark testing to document various head and flow scenarios and their corresponding effect on energy savings. Paper shows the relationship of static and friction head in the energy efficiency equation and the effect of motor, pump and VSD efficiencies. The received results are good reference points for engineers and managers of water sector in Albania to select the best prospects for maximizing efficiency and energy savings.

  5. Pumps for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, L.

    1978-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of nuclear industry for the transfer of corrosive, toxic, humidity sensitive or very pure gases, different types of pumps were developped and commercialized. Their main characteristics are to prevent pollution of the transfered fluid by avoiding any contact between this fluid and the lubricated parts of the machine, and to prevent a contamination of the atmosphere or of the fluid by a total tightness. Patellar pumps have been particularly developped because the metallic bellows are quite reliable and resistant in this configuration. Two types are described: patellar pumps without friction and barrel pumps whose pistons are provided with rings sliding in the cylinders without lubrication [fr

  6. Pump safety device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermans, Francis; Vandervorst, Jean.

    1981-01-01

    Safety device for longitudinally leak proofing the shaft of a pump in the event of the fracture of the dynamic seal separating the pump fluid high pressure chamber from the low pressure chamber. It is designed for fitting to the primary pumps of nuclear reactors. It includes a hollow cyclindrical piston located coaxially around the pump shaft and normally housed in a chamber provided for this purpose in the fixed housing of the dynamic seal, and means for moving this piston coaxially so as to compress a safety O ring between the shaft and the piston in the event of the dynamic seal failing [fr

  7. Optically pumped atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Happer, William; Walker, Thad

    2010-01-01

    Covering the most important knowledge on optical pumping of atoms, this ready reference is backed by numerous examples of modelling computation for optical pumped systems. The authors show for the first time that modern scientific computing software makes it practical to analyze the full, multilevel system of optically pumped atoms. To make the discussion less abstract, the authors have illustrated key points with sections of MATLAB codes. To make most effective use of contemporary mathematical software, it is especially useful to analyze optical pumping situations in the Liouville spa

  8. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.

    1995-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous special vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Pump head and flow rate are also monitored, per code requirements. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition; advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed

  9. Champagne Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2004-01-01

    The term champagne heat pump denotes a developmental heat pump that exploits a cycle of absorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in an alcohol or other organic liquid. Whereas most heat pumps in common use in the United States are energized by mechanical compression, the champagne heat pump is energized by heating. The concept of heat pumps based on other absorption cycles energized by heat has been understood for years, but some of these heat pumps are outlawed in many areas because of the potential hazards posed by leakage of working fluids. For example, in the case of the water/ammonia cycle, there are potential hazards of toxicity and flammability. The organic-liquid/carbon dioxide absorption/desorption cycle of the champagne heat pump is similar to the water/ammonia cycle, but carbon dioxide is nontoxic and environmentally benign, and one can choose an alcohol or other organic liquid that is also relatively nontoxic and environmentally benign. Two candidate nonalcohol organic liquids are isobutyl acetate and amyl acetate. Although alcohols and many other organic liquids are flammable, they present little or no flammability hazard in the champagne heat pump because only the nonflammable carbon dioxide component of the refrigerant mixture is circulated to the evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, which are the only components of the heat pump in direct contact with air in habitable spaces.

  10. Heat pumps in Denmark - From ugly duckling to white swan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyborg, Sophie; Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, the smart grid and heat pumps have increasingly gained attention in Denmark as an integral part of the low carbon transition of the energy system. The main reason being that the smart grid enables the integration of large amounts of intermittent wind energy...... into the electricity system via, among other things, intelligent interoperation with domestic heat pumps, which consume the 'green' electricity. Unfortunately, recent years' sales of heat pumps have been disappointing. Several studies have investigated the 'dissemination potential' of heat pumps in Denmark, primarily...... through conventional market research approaches. However, there is clearly a lack of studies that take a more socio-technical approach to understanding how technologies such as the heat pump develop and how they come to have a place in society as a result of contingent, emergent and complex historical...

  11. HEAT PUMP USING SUBSOIL WATERS AS LOW TEMPERATURE HEAT SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysova Alla

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic directions of perfection of heat supply systems is the tendency of transition to the low-temperature heating systems based on application of heat pump installations. We consider heat supply system with heat pump installations using subsoil waters. Numerical simulation of thermal processes in the elements of a single-stage and double-stage heat pump systems has been worked out. Values of depths of wells and their quantity, necessary for effective operation of the offered installations, and values of capacity of electric water pumps for subsoil waters unit are calculated. Capacity of compressor electric drive and coefficient of performance of heat pump for the conditions of the city of Odessa are presented.

  12. Nano-electro-mechanical pump: Giant pumping of water in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farimani, Amir Barati; Heiranian, Mohammad; Aluru, Narayana R.

    2016-05-01

    A fully controllable nano-electro-mechanical device that can pump fluids at nanoscale is proposed. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that an applied electric field to an ion@C60 inside a water-filled carbon nanotube can pump water with excellent efficiency. The key physical mechanism governing the fluid pumping is the conversion of electrical energy into hydrodynamic flow with efficiencies as high as 64%. Our results show that water can be compressed up to 7% higher than its bulk value by applying electric fields. High flux of water (up to 13,000 molecules/ns) is obtained by the electro-mechanical, piston-cylinder-like moving mechanism of the ion@C60 in the CNT. This large flux results from the piston-like mechanism, compressibility of water (increase in density of water due to molecular ordering), orienting dipole along the electric field and efficient electrical to mechanical energy conversion. Our findings can pave the way towards efficient energy conversion, pumping of fluids at nanoscale, and drug delivery.

  13. Gyro-effect stabilizes unstable permanent maglev centrifugal pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun-Xi

    2007-03-01

    According to Earnshaw's Theorem (1839), the passive maglev cannot achieve stable equilibrium and thus an extra coil is needed to make the rotor electrically levitated in a heart pump. The author had developed a permanent maglev centrifugal pump utilizing only passive magnetic bearings, to keep the advantages but to avoid the disadvantages of the electric maglev pumps. The equilibrium stability was achieved by use of so-called "gyro-effect": a rotating body with certain high speed can maintain its rotation stably. This pump consisted of a rotor (driven magnets and an impeller), and a stator with motor coil and pump housing. Two passive magnetic bearings between rotor and stator were devised to counteract the attractive force between the motor coil iron core and the rotor driven magnets. Bench testing with saline demonstrated a levitated rotor under preconditions of higher than 3,250 rpm rotation and more than 1 l/min pumping flow. Rotor levitation was demonstrated by 4 Hall sensors on the stator, with evidence of reduced maximal eccentric distance from 0.15 mm to 0.07 mm. The maximal rotor vibration amplitude was 0.06 mm in a gap of 0.15 mm between rotor and stator. It concluded that Gyro-effect can help passive maglev bearings to achieve stabilization of permanent maglev pump; and that high flow rate indicates good hydraulic property of the pump, which helps also the stability of passive maglev pump.

  14. A Linear Electromagnetic Piston Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Paul H.

    Advancements in mobile hydraulics for human-scale applications have increased demand for a compact hydraulic power supply. Conventional designs couple a rotating electric motor to a hydraulic pump, which increases the package volume and requires several energy conversions. This thesis investigates the use of a free piston as the moving element in a linear motor to eliminate multiple energy conversions and decrease the overall package volume. A coupled model used a quasi-static magnetic equivalent circuit to calculate the motor inductance and the electromagnetic force acting on the piston. The force was an input to a time domain model to evaluate the mechanical and pressure dynamics. The magnetic circuit model was validated with finite element analysis and an experimental prototype linear motor. The coupled model was optimized using a multi-objective genetic algorithm to explore the parameter space and maximize power density and efficiency. An experimental prototype linear pump coupled pistons to an off-the-shelf linear motor to validate the mechanical and pressure dynamics models. The magnetic circuit force calculation agreed within 3% of finite element analysis, and within 8% of experimental data from the unoptimized prototype linear motor. The optimized motor geometry also had good agreement with FEA; at zero piston displacement, the magnetic circuit calculates optimized motor force within 10% of FEA in less than 1/1000 the computational time. This makes it well suited to genetic optimization algorithms. The mechanical model agrees very well with the experimental piston pump position data when tuned for additional unmodeled mechanical friction. Optimized results suggest that an improvement of 400% of the state of the art power density is attainable with as high as 85% net efficiency. This demonstrates that a linear electromagnetic piston pump has potential to serve as a more compact and efficient supply of fluid power for the human scale.

  15. Motor-pump unit provided with a lifting appliance of the motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, Luciano; Francis, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to lifting appliances and particularly concerns a 'pump and motor set' or motor-pump unit fitted with a lifting appliance enabling the motor to be separated from the pump. In nuclear power stations the reactor discharges heat that is carried by the coolant to a distant point away from the reactor to generate steam and electricity conventionally. In order to cause the reactor coolant to flow through the system, coolant motor-pump units are provided in the cooling system. These units are generally of the vertical type with an electric motor fitted vertically on the pump by means of a cylindrical or conical structure called motor support [fr

  16. BWR recirculation pump diagnostic expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, S.C.; Morimoto, C.N.; Torres, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    At General Electric (GE), an on-line expert system to support maintenance decisions for BWR recirculation pumps for nuclear power plants has been developed. This diagnostic expert system is an interactive on-line system that furnishes diagnostic information concerning BWR recirculation pump operational problems. It effectively provides the recirculation pump diagnostic expertise in the plant control room continuously 24 hours a day. The expert system is interfaced to an on-line monitoring system, which uses existing plant sensors to acquire non-safety related data in real time. The expert system correlates and evaluates process data and vibration data by applying expert rules to determine the condition of a BWR recirculation pump system by applying knowledge based rules. Any diagnosis will be automatically displayed, indicating which pump may have a problem, the category of the problem, and the degree of concern expressed by the validity index and color hierarchy. The rules incorporate the expert knowledge from various technical sources such as plant experience, engineering principles, and published reports. These rules are installed in IF-THEN formats and the resulting truth values are also expressed in fuzzy terms and a certainty factor called a validity index. This GE Recirculation Pump Expert System uses industry-standard software, hardware, and network access to provide flexible interfaces with other possible data acquisition systems. Gensym G2 Real-Time Expert System is used for the expert shell and provides the graphical user interface, knowledge base, and inference engine capabilities. (author)

  17. Solar-thermal jet pumping for irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, L. D.; Dellenback, P. A.; Bell, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a novel concept in solar powered irrigation pumping, gives measured performance data for the pump unit, and projected system performance. The solar-thermal jet pumping concept is centered around a conventional jet eductor pump which is commercially available at low cost. The jet eductor pump is powered by moderate temperature, moderate pressure Refrigerant-113 vapor supplied by a concentrating solar collector field. The R-113 vapor is direct condensed by the produced water and the two fluids are separated at the surface. The water goes on to use and the R-113 is repressurized and returned to the solar field. The key issue in the solar-thermal jet eductor concept is the efficiency of pump operation. Performance data from a small scale experimental unit which utilizes an electrically heated boiler in place of the solar field is presented. The solar-thermal jet eductor concept is compared with other solar irrigation concepts and optimal application situations are identified. Though having lower efficiencies than existing Rankine cycle solar-thermal irrigation systems, the mechanical and operational simplicity of this concept make it competitive with other solar powered irrigation schemes.

  18. Regulating vacuum pump speed with feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludington, D.C.; Aneshansley, D.J.; Pellerin, R.; Guo, F.

    1992-01-01

    Considerable energy is wasted by the vacuum pump/motor on dairy farms. The output capacity (m 3 /min or cfm) of the vacuum pump always exceeds the capacity needed to milk cows and wash pipelines. Vacuum pumps run at full speed and load regardless of actual need for air. Excess air is admitted through a controller. Energy can be saved from electrical demand reduced by regulating vacuum pump speed according to air based on air usage. An adjustable speed drive (ASD) on the motor and controlled based upon air usage, can reduce the energy used by the vacuum pump. However, the ASD unit tested could not maintain vacuum levels within generally accepted guidelines when air usage changed. Adding a high vacuum reserve and a dual vacuum controller between the vacuum pump and the milking pipeline brought vacuum stability within guidelines. The ASD/dual vacuum system can reduce energy consumption and demand by at least 50 percent during milking and provide better vacuum stability than conventional systems. Tests were not run during washing cycles. Using 1990 costs and only the energy saved during milking, the simple payback on investment in new equipment for a 5 hp motor, speed controller and vacuum regulator would be about 5 years

  19. Geothermal energy. Ground source heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal energy can be harnessed in 2 different ways: electricity or heat generation. The combined net electrical geothermal power of the European Union countries reached 719.3 MWe in 2008 (4.8 MW up on 2007) for 868.1 MWe of installed capacity. Gross electrical production contracted slightly in 2008 (down 1% on the 2007 level) and stood at 5809.5 GWh in 2008. Italy has a overwhelming position with a production of 5520.3 GWh. Geothermal heat production concerning aquifers whose temperature is 30-150 C. degrees generally at a depth of 1-3 km is called low- and medium-enthalpy energy. 18 of the 27 EU members use low- and medium-enthalpy energy totaling 2560.0 MWth of installed capacity that yielded 689.2 ktoe in 2008 and 3 countries Hungary, Italy and France totaling 480.3 ktoe. Very low-enthalpy energy concerns the exploitation of shallow geothermal resources using geothermal heat pumps. In 2008, 114452 ground heat pumps were sold in Europe. At the end of 2008, the installed capacity was 8955.4 MWth (16.5% up on 2007 level, it represented 785206 pumps. Over one million ground heat pumps are expected to be operating in 2010 in Europe. (A.C.)

  20. Performance of Wind Pump Prototype

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mulu

    Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia (*mul_at@yahoo.com). ABSTRACT. A wind ... balanced rotor power and reciprocating pump, hence did not consider the effect of pump size. ... Keywords: Wind pump, Windmill, Performance testing, Pump efficiency, Pump discharge, ... Unfortunately, in rural places, where the houses are.

  1. Pump power plants for wind age; Pumpekraftverk for vindalderen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Marte

    2010-07-01

    Power giant Sira-Kvina, Norway, prepares to expand Tonstad power station with pump options to save energy and benefit from price fluctuations in the electricity market. How pump power plant works; Consists mainly of two reservoirs at different heights. Bottom placed a turbine that can run both ways, or a pump and turbine mounted on the generator. The generator acts as an engine of pumping. When saving energy, water is pumped up to the highest magazine. The energy is extracted by letting the water run back through the turbine. Amount of energy that can be saved depends on the height difference between the magazines and magazine size, while the effect is determined by the size of the pump turbine.(AG)

  2. Aggregated Control of Domestic Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten M.; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2013-01-01

    A challenge in Denmark in the near future is to balance the electrical grid due to a large increase in the renewable energy production mainly from wind turbines. In this work an aggregated control system using heat pumps in single family houses to help balancing the grid is investigated....... The control system is able to adjust the consumptions of the heat pump without affecting the comfort in the houses and uses this ability to shift the total consumption to hours with high wind energy production....

  3. Proton Pumps: Mechanism of Action and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, Janos K.; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in understanding molecular structures and mechanisms of action of proton pumps has paved the way to their novel applications in biotechnology. Proton pumps, in particular bacteriorhodopsin and ATP synthases, are capable of continuous, renewable conversion of light to chemical, mechanical or electrical energy, which can be used in macro- or nano-scale devices. The capability of protein systems incorporated into liposomes to generate ATP, which can be further used to drive chemical reactions, and to act as molecular motors has been already demonstrated. Other possible applications of such biochemical devices include targeted drug delivery and biocatalytic re actors. All these devices might prove superior to their inorganic alternatives.

  4. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous spectral vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition: advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed

  5. Designing an Electro-Hydraulic Control Module for an Open-Circuit Variable Displacement Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2005-01-01

    , in the form of an electric control signal, under varying working conditions, when having access to engine speed and actual pump pressure. The paper presents a model of both the pump and the control module, along with design considerations on which linear controllers are developed for a worst point......This paper deals with the problem of designing an electric control module for a Sauer-Danfoss Series 45 H-frame open circuit axial piston pump. The purpose of the electric control module is to replace the existing hydro-mechanical (LS) regulator, and enable the pump to follow a reference pressure...

  6. Normetex Pump Alternatives Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2013-01-01

    A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying

  7. Circulation pump mounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalicky, A.

    1976-01-01

    The suspension is described of nuclear reactor circulating pumps enabling their dilatation with a minimum reverse force consisting of spacing rods supported with one end in the anchor joints and provided with springs and screw joints engaging the circulating pump shoes. The spacing rods are equipped with side vibration dampers anchored in the shaft side wall and on the body of the circulating pump drive body. The negative reverse force F of the spacing rods is given by the relation F=Q/l.y, where Q is the weight of the circulating pump, l is the spatial distance between the shoe joints and anchor joints, and y is the deflection of the circulating pump vertical axis from the mean equilibrium position. The described suspension is advantageous in that that the reverse force for the deflection from the mean equilibrium position is minimal, dynamic behaviour is better, and construction costs are lower compared to suspension design used so far. (J.B.)

  8. BWR series pump recirculation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillmann, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a recirculation system for driving reactor coolant water contained in an annular downcomer defined between a boiling water reactor vessel and a reactor core spaced radially inwardly therefrom. It comprises a plurality of circumferentially spaced second pumps disposed in the downcomer, each including an inlet for receiving from the downcomer a portion of the coolant water as pump inlet flow, and an outlet for discharging the pump inlet flow pressurized in the second pump as pump outlet flow; and means for increasing pressure of the pump inlet flow at the pump inlet including a first pump disposed in series flow with the second pump for first receiving the pump inlet flow from the downcomer and discharging to the second pump inlet flow pressurized in the first pump

  9. High pressure liquid gas pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acres, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Design and development of two types of pumps for handling liquefied gases are discussed. One pump uses mechanical valve shift and other uses pneumatic valve shift. Illustrations of pumps are provided and detailed description of operation is included.

  10. Integration of Heat Pumps in Distribution Grids: Economic Motivation for Grid Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Toersche, Hermen; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Electric heat pumps combined with heat buffers are important elements in smart grids since they together allow to shift the consumption of electricity in time. In this paper the effects of different control algorithms for heat pumps on the investment costs for distribution grids are investigated.

  11. Integration of heat pumps in distribution grids: economic motivation for grid control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Toersche, Hermen; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Electric heat pumps combined with heat buffers are important elements in smart grids since they together allow to shift the consumption of electricity in time. In this paper the effects of different control algorithms for heat pumps on the investment costs for distribution grids are investigated.

  12. Technical Information to Support Double Shell Tank (DST) Emergency Annulus Pumping [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REBERGER, D.W.

    2000-09-14

    This document provides the design calculations for the DST Annulus Emergency Pumping Project. This document also contains essential information relative to DST annulus emergency pumping that may not be found in other documents. This information consists of the following: Index drawing for annulus pumping; References to the Acceptance Test Report, DST Emergency Pumping Guide, Time Deployment study, etc.; Statements of work; and Reference CEIS and RMIS numbers. A Vendor Information document, VI-50121, is not included in this document, but a copy can be obtained by contacting Document Control Services. This document contains various information regarding the Hydrostar pumps, such as the air motor, cylinder size, pump installation and operation manual. It also contains information regarding the Flygt BS2060 submersible pump, such as parts list, pump handling, preventative maintenance, overhaul and repair. In addition, this document also has information on 3-way PM ball valves, electrical skid components and the alternate Gurman-Rupp stainless steel submersible pump.

  13. Solar pumped continuous wave carbon dioxide laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesil, O.; Christiansen, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    In an effort to demonstrate the feasibility of a solar pumped laser concept, gain has been measured in a CO2-He laser medium optically pumped by blackbody radiation. Various gas mixtures of CO2 and He have been pumped by blackbody radiation emitted from an electrically heated oven. Using a CO2 laser as a probe, an optical gain coefficient of 1.8 x 10 to the -3rd/cm has been measured at 10.6 microns for a 9:1 CO2-He mixture at an oven temperature of about 1500 K, a gas temperature of about 400 K and a pressure of about 1 torr. This corresponds to a small signal gain coefficient when allowance is made for saturation effects due to the probe beam, in reasonable agreement with a theoretical value.

  14. Pumping machinery theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Badr, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Pumping Machinery Theory and Practice comprehensively covers the theoretical foundation and applications of pumping machinery. Key features: Covers characteristics of centrifugal pumps, axial flow pumps and displacement pumpsConsiders pumping machinery performance and operational-type problemsCovers advanced topics in pumping machinery including multiphase flow principles, and two and three-phase flow pumping systemsCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine efficiency and energy consumptionCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine effi

  15. Electricity and Man (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asimov, Isaac

    1974-01-01

    Our whole industrial civilization depends upon cheap energy streaking out in all directions and under fingertip controls—and that would be very difficult without electric current. It would take enormous ingenuity to find substitutes. If all electricity were shut off, then all electronic devices would be dead. Electric lights would darken. Aluminum would become a rare metal. All factories would have to develop power sources on the spot and would have to switch to primitive, mechanical controls. Every house and every farm would have to give up items we have come to take for granted—not only electric lights, but electric irons, electric toasters, electric water pumps, electric control of furnaces, and so on.

  16. Absorption heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formigoni, C.

    1998-01-01

    A brief description of the difference between a compression and an absorption heat pump is made, and the reasons why absorption systems have spread lately are given. Studies and projects recently started in the field of absorption heat pumps, as well as criteria usually followed in project development are described. An outline (performance targets, basic components) of a project on a water/air absorption heat pump, running on natural gas or LPG, is given. The project was developed by the Robur Group as an evolution of a water absorption refrigerator operating with a water/ammonia solution, which has been on the market for a long time and recently innovated. Finally, a list of the main energy and cost advantages deriving from the use of absorption heat pumps is made [it

  17. Nuclear-pumped lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Prelas, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on Nuclear-Pumped Laser (NPL) technology and provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of NPLs, a review of research in the field, and exploration of large scale NPL system design and applications. Early chapters look at the fundamental properties of lasers, nuclear-pumping and nuclear reactions that may be used as drivers for nuclear-pumped lasers. The book goes on to explore the efficient transport of energy from the ionizing radiation to the laser medium and then the operational characteristics of existing nuclear-pumped lasers. Models based on Mathematica, explanations and a tutorial all assist the reader’s understanding of this technology. Later chapters consider the integration of the various systems involved in NPLs and the ways in which they can be used, including beyond the military agenda. As readers will discover, there are significant humanitarian applications for high energy/power lasers, such as deflecting asteroids, space propulsion, power transmission and mining....

  18. Gas fired heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    2006-01-01

    The condensing gas boiler is now state of the art and there is no more room for improvement in performance, technically speaking. The next logical step to improve the overall efficiency is to exploit ambient heat in combination with the primary source of energy, natural gas. That means using natural-gas driven heat pumps and gas-fired heat pumps. Based on this, the Swiss Gas Industry decided to set up a practical test programme enjoying a high priority. The aim of the project 'Gas-fired heat pump practical test' is to assess by field tests the characteristics and performance of the foreign serial heat pumps currently on the market and to prepare and promote the introduction on the market place of this sustainable natural-gas technology. (author)

  19. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  20. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  1. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air

  2. Mechanical vaccum pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Chew, A D

    2007-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the technology of contemporary primary and secondary mechanical vacuum pumps. For reference a brief history of vacuum and a summary of important and basic vacuum concepts are first presented.

  3. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.; Abdelghany, Mohamed A.; Elsayed, Mohannad Yomn; Elshurafa, Amro M; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  4. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  5. GAS METERING PUMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  6. JET pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenberg, K.; Deksnis, E.; Shaw, R.; Reiter, D.

    1988-01-01

    JET plans to install two pump limiter modules which can be used for belt-limiter, inner-wall and X-point discharges and, also, for 1-2s as the main limiter. A design is presented which is compatible with two diagnostic systems, and which allows partial removal of the pump limiter to provide access for remote-handling operations. The high heat-flux components are initially cooled during a pulse. Heat is removed between discharges by radiation and pressure contacts to a water-cooled support structure. The pumping edge will be made of annealed pyrolytic graphite. Exhaust efficiency has been estimated, for a 1-d edge model, using a Monte-Carlo calculation of neutral gas transport. When the pump limiter is operated together with other wall components we expect an efficiency of ≅ 5% (2.5 x 10 21 part/s). As a main limiter the efficiency increases to about 10%. (author)

  7. Types of Breast Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called a bicycle horn pump, consists of a hollow rubber ball attached to a breast-shield. Some ... and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888- ...

  8. Wind energy for water pumping in rural areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechang, S.

    1991-01-01

    After 1980, as the supply of conventional energy has not been able to follow the tremendous increase of the production demand in rural areas of China, a renewed interest for the application of wind energy was shown in many places. Therefore, the Chinese government began to pay more attention to wind energy utilization in rural areas. During the last ten years, several R ampersand D tasks for new modern wind pumps were carried out. Among them, three projects are the developments of wind energy screw pump systems (FDG-5 wind pump, FDG-7 wind pump and TFS-5 wind pump). At present, 50 of these wind pumps are working successfully in the rural areas for farmland drainage, salt ponds water lifting and aquatic product breeding, etc. The field tests show that these wind energy screw pump systems are suitable for low lifting head (< 3 meter) and large water flow (50 m/hr to 120 m/hr) operation in the coastal areas. Because the wind energy resource in many rural areas is sufficient for attractive application of wind pumps, and the supply of electricity as well as fuels is insufficient in these areas, the wind pumps will be spread on a rather large scale in the near future. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  9. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  10. Resorption heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, L.L.; Mishkinis, D.A.; Antukh, A.A.; Kulakov, A.G.; Vasiliev, L.L.

    2004-01-01

    Resorption processes are based on at least two solid-sorption reactors application. The most favorable situation for the resorption heat pumps is the case, when the presence of a liquid phase is impossible. From simple case--two reactors with two salts to complicated system with two salts + active carbon fiber (fabric) and two branch of the heat pump acting out of phase to produce heat and cold simultaneously, this is the topic of this research program

  11. Tokamak pump limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been done with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a region may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased edge electron temperature are observed in discharges with improved confinement. The injection of small amounts of neon into ISX-B has more clearly shown an improved electron core energy confinement during neutral beam injection. While carried out with a regular limiter, this Z-mode of operation is ideal for use with pump limiters and should be a way to achieve energy confinement times similar to values for H-mode tokamak plasmas. The implication of all these results for the design of a reactor pump limiter is described

  12. Tokamak pump limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; California Univ., Los Angeles

    1984-01-01

    Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6 MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been performed with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scrape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a regime may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased edge electron temperature are observed in discharges with improved confinement. The injection of small amounts of neon into ISX-B has more clearly shown an improved electron core energy confinement during neutral beam injection. While carried out with a regular limiter, this 'Z-mode' of operation is ideal for use with pump limiters and should be a way to achieve energy confinement times similar to values for H-mode tokamak plasmas. The implication of all these results for the design of a reactor pump limiter is described. (orig.)

  13. Pump trials for charged liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroni, J.C.; Niver, A.

    1964-01-01

    The pumps intended for the circulation of charged and radioactive liquids have particular qualities. The choice of such a pump has called for endurance tests with various types of equipment: a Goodyear volumetric screw pumps, and RICHIER, Klein and SCHABAVER centrifugal pumps. The latter, fitted with a special oakum, gave the best results. (authors) [fr

  14. BIOMATERIALS FOR ROTARY BLOOD PUMPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOEVEREN, W

    Rotary blood pumps are used for cardiac assist and cardiopulmonary support since mechanical blood damage is less than with conventional roller pumps. The high shear rate in the rotary pump and the reduced anticoagulation of the patient during prolonged pumping enforces high demands on the

  15. Pumps in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that pumps play an important role in nuclear plant operation. For instance, reactor coolant pumps (RCPs) should provide adequate cooling for reactor core in both normal operation and transient or accident conditions. Pumps such as Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI) pump in the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) play a crucial role during an accident, and their reliability is of paramount importance. Some key issues involved with pumps in nuclear plant system include the performance of RCP under two-phase flow conditions, piping vibration due to pump operating in two-phase flows, and reliability of LPSI pumps

  16. Inservice testing of vertical pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornman, R.E. Jr.; Schumann, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper focuses on the problems that may occur with vertical pumps while inservice tests are conducted in accordance with existing American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code, Section XI, standards. The vertical pump types discussed include single stage, multistage, free surface, and canned mixed flow pumps. Primary emphasis is placed on the hydraulic performance of the pump and the internal and external factors to the pump that impact hydraulic performance. In addition, the paper considers the mechanical design features that can affect the mechanical performance of vertical pumps. The conclusion shows how two recommended changes in the Code standards may increase the quality of the pump's operational readiness assessment during its service life

  17. Residential heat pumps in the future Danish energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2016-01-01

    for politically agreed targets which include: at least 50% of electricity consumption from wind power starting from 2020, fossil fuel free heat and power sector from 2035 and 100% renewable energy system starting from 2050. Residential heat pumps supply around 25% of total residential heating demand after 2035......Denmark is striving towards 100% renewable energy system in 2050. Residential heat pumps are expected to be a part of that system.We propose two novel approaches to improve the representation of residential heat pumps: Coefficients of performance (COPs) are modelled as dependent on air and ground...... temperature while installation of ground-source heat pumps is constrained by available ground area. In this study, TIMES-DK model is utilised to test the effects of improved modelling of residential heat pumps on the Danish energy system until 2050.The analysis of the Danish energy system was done...

  18. Method for eliminating gas blocking in electrokinetic pumping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Don W.; Paul, Phillip H.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.

    2001-09-11

    A method for eliminating gas bubble blockage of current flow during operation of an electrokinetic pump. By making use of the ability to modify the surface charge on the porous dielectric medium used in electrokinetic pumps, it becomes possible to place electrodes away from the pressurized region of the electrokinetic pump. While gas is still generated at the electrodes they are situated such that the generated gas can escape into a larger buffer reservoir and not into the high pressure region of the pump where the gas bubbles can interrupt current flow. Various combinations of porous dielectric materials and ionic conductors can be used to create pumps that have desirable electrical, material handling, and flow attributes.

  19. Liquid metal flow control by DC electromagnetic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Eduardo Madeira; Braz Filho, Francisco Antonio; Guimaraes, Lamartine Nogueira Frutuoso

    2006-01-01

    The cooling system of high-density thermal power requires fluids of high thermal conductivity, such as liquid metals. Electromagnetic pumps can be used to liquid metal fluid flow control in cooling circuits. The operation of electromagnetic pumps used to flow control is based on Lorentz force. This force can be achieved by magnetic field and electric current interaction, controlled by external independent power supplies. This work presents the electromagnetic pump operational principles, the IEAv development scheme and the BEMC-1 simulation code. The theoretical results of BEMC-1 simulation are compared to electromagnetic pump operation experimental data, validating the BEMC-1 code. This code is used to evaluate the DC electromagnetic pump performance applied to Mercury flow control and others liquid metal such as Sodium, Lead and Bismuth, used in nuclear fast reactors. (author)

  20. Water-to-water heat pump operating with biogas for heating and cooling on dairy farms in order to rationalize the use of electric energy; Bomba de calor agua-agua acionada a biogas para aquecimento e resfriamento em fazendas leiteiras visando a racionalizacao no uso da energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Rodrigo Aparecido; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa; Pacco, Honorato Ccali [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Dept. de Construcoes Rurais], e-mail: jordan@agr.unicamp.br, e-mail: cortez@reitoria.unicamp.br, e-mail: honorato.pacco@agr.unicamp.br; Baldassin Junior, Ricardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: baldassin@fem.unicamp.br; Neves Filho, Lincoln de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia de Alimentos. Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos], e-mail: neves-lin@fea.unicamp.br; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], e-mail: jlucas@fcav.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    This work presents some preliminary results for the development of a water-to-water heat pump used dairy farms for simultaneous milk cooling and water heating. The general idea in this project is to eliminate the electric heater and use the heating effect, usually wasted, in existing refrigeration systems. In this project it was also studied the use of the dairy cows for biogas production. The generated biogas is to be used to fuel an Otto engine which will power in substitution of the electric energy. Usually, dairy farms, electric energy is intensely used in the generation of thermal energy for milk cooling to extend its shelf life, and water heating used in the pasteurization, cleaning and equipment disinfection and working rooms. The direct use of electric energy results in high energy costs representing a major concern nowadays in Brazil. Therefore, it is expected with this work, to develop an equipment that con-tributes to the most efficient use of the energy and also, to look for a more efficient use of energy in dairy farms, increasing its self-sufficiency, with the production and use of the biogas to meet all thermal energy requirements. The results here obtained show an economic viability for use of the proposed equipment. (author)

  1. Wind energy conversion systems with electric transmission to the water pumping with field control to constant flow; Sistema de conversao de energia eolica com transmissao eletrica para bombeamento de agua com controle de campo a fluxo constante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Juraci Carlos de Castro

    1989-07-01

    The stead-state analysis of a Wind Energy Conversion Systems, consisting on a Windmill, Synchronous Generator, transmission Line and Induction Motor driving a Centrifugal Pump is developed. The performance of the system operating at variable Speed with a flux control is examined using mathematical and digital simulation. The control scheme is proposed and tested in laboratory and a tested in laboratory and a test centre to be compared with simulation results. (author)

  2. Ion channels versus ion pumps: the principal difference, in principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadsby, David C

    2009-05-01

    The incessant traffic of ions across cell membranes is controlled by two kinds of border guards: ion channels and ion pumps. Open channels let selected ions diffuse rapidly down electrical and concentration gradients, whereas ion pumps labour tirelessly to maintain the gradients by consuming energy to slowly move ions thermodynamically uphill. Because of the diametrically opposed tasks and the divergent speeds of channels and pumps, they have traditionally been viewed as completely different entities, as alike as chalk and cheese. But new structural and mechanistic information about both of these classes of molecular machines challenges this comfortable separation and forces its re-evaluation.

  3. Advanced solar energy conversion. [solar pumped gas lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    An atomic iodine laser, a candidate for the direct solar pumped lasers, was successfully excited with a 4 kW beam from a xenon arc solar simulator, thus proving the feasibility of the concept. The experimental set up and the laser output as functions of operating conditions are presented. The preliminary results of the iodine laser amplifier pumped with the HCP array to which a Q switch for giant pulse production was coupled are included. Two invention disclosures - a laser driven magnetohydrodynamic generator for conversion of laser energy to electricity and solar pumped gas lasers - are also included.

  4. Solar photovoltaic water pumping system using a new linear actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Andrada Gascón, Pedro; Castro, Javier

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a photovoltaic solar pumping system using a new linear actuator is presented. This linear actuator is a double-sided flat two-phase variable-reluctance linear stepper motor that moves a piston-type water pump with the help of a rope, a pulley and a counterweight. The entire actuator pump ensemble is controlled by a simple electronic unit that manages the electric power generated by a photovoltaic array. The proposed system is suitable for rural communities in developing...

  5. Self-sustaining nuclear pumped laser-fusion reactor experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boody, F.P.; Choi, C.K.; Miley, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    The features of a neutron feedback nuclear pumped (NFNP) laser-fusion reactor equipment were studied with the intention of establishing the feasibility of the concept. The NFNP laser-fusion concept is compared schematically to electrically pumped laser fusion. The study showed that, once a method of energy storage has been demonstrated, a self-sustaining fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a ''blanket multiplication'' of two would be feasible using nuclear pumped Xe F* excimer lasers having efficiencies of 1 to 2 percent and D-D-T pellets with gains of 50 to 100

  6. Review of RSG-GAS secondary cooling pump performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsahala, Y.B.

    1999-01-01

    The control system of RSG-GAS secondary pump is the study for the operation existence of RSG-GAS secondary pump. The research is about characteristic of the secondary pump and its control system. The measuring of characteristic parameter of secondary cooling pump was being done while the pump running. The pump was loading with capacity 1950 m3/hr. with ambient temperature 28.5 oC. The fault effect of public grid (PLN) such as the fluctuation of both voltage and frequency likes voltage drops (dip). Supply block out that effect of the electric motor performances directly will be analyzed. How far those faults will effect the overall performance of secondary cooling system. Analyzing. Will be done according to the control system was installed. Has be done to find the direct effects of the motor performances against the motor rotation fluctuation which run from 1450 rpm to 1475 rpm. The using of start-delta starting method with delay time about 6 seconds, is enough or not to reduce the inrush starting current also analyzed in this paper. From the research can be obtained that in the steady state condition , the electric motor runs with both power and current are still under tolerances permitted. According to the analyzed data above, it will be consider that the control system of secondary pump would be modified or not. Therefore the analyzed data can show the characteristic curve of the secondary cooling system performance

  7. Heat driven pulse pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Steve M (Inventor); Martins, Mario S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A heat driven pulse pump includes a chamber having an inlet port, an outlet port, two check valves, a wick, and a heater. The chamber may include a plurality of grooves inside wall of the chamber. When heated within the chamber, a liquid to be pumped vaporizes and creates pressure head that expels the liquid through the outlet port. As liquid separating means, the wick, disposed within the chamber, is to allow, when saturated with the liquid, the passage of only liquid being forced by the pressure head in the chamber, preventing the vapor from exiting from the chamber through the outlet port. A plurality of grooves along the inside surface wall of the chamber can sustain the liquid, which is amount enough to produce vapor for the pressure head in the chamber. With only two simple moving parts, two check valves, the heat driven pulse pump can effectively function over the long lifetimes without maintenance or replacement. For continuous flow of the liquid to be pumped a plurality of pumps may be connected in parallel.

  8. Entropy, pricing and productivity of pumped-storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Tyralis, Hristos; Tzouka, Katerina

    2016-04-01

    Pumped-storage constitutes today a mature method of bulk electricity storage in the form of hydropower. This bulk electricity storability upgrades the economic value of hydropower as it may mitigate -or even neutralize- stochastic effects deriving from various geophysical and socioeconomic factors, which produce numerous load balance inefficiencies due to increased uncertainty. Pumped-storage further holds a key role for unifying intermittent renewable (i.e. wind, solar) units with controllable non-renewable (i.e. nuclear, coal) fuel electricity generation plants into integrated energy systems. We develop a set of indicators for the measurement of performance of pumped-storage, in terms of the latter's energy and financial contribution to the energy system. More specifically, we use the concept of entropy in order to examine: (1) the statistical features -and correlations- of the energy system's intermittent components and (2) the statistical features of electricity demand prediction deviations. In this way, the macroeconomics of pumped-storage emerges naturally from its statistical features (Karakatsanis et al. 2014). In addition, these findings are combined to actual daily loads. Hence, not only the amount of energy harvested from the pumped-storage component is expected to be important, but the harvesting time as well, as the intraday price of electricity varies significantly. Additionally, the structure of the pumped-storage market proves to be a significant factor as well for the system's energy and financial performance (Paine et al. 2014). According to the above, we aim at postulating a set of general rules on the productivity of pumped-storage for (integrated) energy systems. Keywords: pumped-storage, storability, economic value of hydropower, stochastic effects, uncertainty, energy systems, entropy, intraday electricity price, productivity References 1. Karakatsanis, Georgios et al. (2014), Entropy, pricing and macroeconomics of pumped-storage systems

  9. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear pumped laser is described comprising: a toroidal fusion reactor, the reactor generating energetic neutrons; an annular gas cell disposed around the outer periphery of the reactor, the cell including an annular reflecting mirror disposed at the bottom of the cell and an annular output window disposed at the top of the cell; a gas lasing medium disposed within the annular cell for generating output laser radiation; neutron reflector material means disposed around the annular cell for reflecting neutrons incident thereon back into the gas cell; neutron moderator material means disposed between the reactor and the gas cell and between the gas cell and the neutron reflector material for moderating the energy of energetic neutrons from the reactor; converting means for converting energy from the moderated neutrons to energy pumping means for pumping the gas lasing medium; and beam compactor means for receiving output laser radiation from the annular output window and generating a single output laser beam therefrom

  10. The EU directive for eco-design of circulation pumps; Die EG-Verordnung fuer die umweltgerechte Gestaltung von Umwaelzpumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuberth, Jens [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany); Akkermann, Floris [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    The EU directive belongs to a bundle of measures concerning electrical equipment such as circulation pumps, heating systems, electric motors, filament bulbs and refrigerators. It was issued with the intention to significantly reduce energy consumption of these appliances. (AKB)

  11. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  12. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

  13. Heat pump planning handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bonin, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The Heat Pump Planning Handbook contains practical information and guidance on the design, planning and selection of heat pump systems, allowing engineers, designers, architects and construction specialists to compare a number of different systems and options. Including detailed descriptions of components and their functions and reflecting the current state of technology this guide contains sample tasks and solutions as well as new model calculations and planning evaluations. Also economic factors and alternative energy sources are covered, which are essential at a time of rising heat costs. T

  14. Carbon sheet pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Sagara, A.; Kawamura, T.; Motojima, O.; Ono, T.

    1993-07-01

    A new hydrogen pumping scheme has been proposed which controls recycling of the particles for significant improvement of the energy confinement in toroidal magnetic fusion devices. In this scheme, a part of the vacuum vessel surface near the divertor is covered with carbon sheets of a large surface area. Before discharge initiation, the sheets are baked up to 700 ∼ 1000degC to remove the previously trapped hydrogen atoms. After being cooled down to below ∼ 200degC, the unsaturated carbon sheets trap high energy charge exchange hydrogen atoms effectively during a discharge and overall pumping efficiency can be as high as ∼ 50 %. (author)

  15. Vacuum pumping concepts for ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homeyer, W.G.

    1980-09-01

    The Engineering Test Facility (ETF) poses unique vacuum pumping requirements due to its large size and long burn characteristics. These requirements include torus vacuum pumping initially and between burns and pumping of neutralized gas from divertor collector chambers. It was found that the requirements could be met by compound cryopumps in which molecular sieve 5A is used as the cryosorbent. The pumps, ducts, and vacuum valves required are large but fit with other ETF components and do not require major advances in vacuum pumping technology. Several additional design, analytical, and experimental studies were identified as needed to optimize designs and provide better design definition for the ETF vacuum pumping systems

  16. Evaluation of a Prototype Hybrid Vacuum Pump to Provide Vacuum-Assisted Suspension for Above-Knee Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Matthew J; Caldwell, Ryan; Fatone, Stefania

    2015-12-01

    Vacuum-assisted suspension (VAS) of prosthetic sockets utilizes a pump to evacuate air from between the prosthetic liner and socket, and are available as mechanical or electric systems. This technical note describes a hybrid pump that benefits from the advantages of mechanical and electric systems, and evaluates a prototype as proof-of-concept. Cyclical bench testing of the hybrid pump mechanical system was performed using a materials testing system to assess the relationship between compression cycles and vacuum pressure. Phase 1 in vivo testing of the hybrid pump was performed by an able-bodied individual using prosthesis simulator boots walking on a treadmill, and phase 2 involved an above-knee prosthesis user walking with the hybrid pump and a commercial electric pump for comparison. Bench testing of 300 compression cycles produced a maximum vacuum of 24 in-Hg. In vivo testing demonstrated that the hybrid pump continued to pull vacuum during walking, and as opposed to the commercial electric pump, did not require reactivation of the electric system during phase 2 testing. The novelty of the hybrid pump is that while the electric system provides rapid, initial vacuum suspension, the mechanical system provides continuous air evacuation while walking to maintain suspension without reactivation of the electric system, thereby allowing battery power to be reserved for monitoring vacuum levels.

  17. Solar Pumped Lasers and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja H.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1980, NASA has been pursuing high power solar lasers as part of the space power beaming program. Materials in liquid, solid, and gas phases have been evaluated against the requirements for solar pumping. Two basic characteristics of solar insolation, namely its diffuse irradiance and 5800 K blackbody-like spectrum, impose rather stringent requirements for laser excitation. However, meeting these requirements is not insurmountable as solar thermal energy technology has progressed today, and taking advantage of solar pumping lasers is becoming increasingly attractive. The high density photons of concentrated solar energy have been used for mainly electric power generation and thermal processing of materials by the DOE Solar Thermal Technologies Program. However, the photons can interact with materials through many other direct kinetic paths, and applications of the concentrated photons could be extended to processes requiring photolysis, photosynthesis, and photoexcitation. The use of solar pumped lasers on Earth seems constrained by economics and sociopolitics. Therefore, prospective applications may be limited to those that require use of quantum effects and coherency of the laser in order to generate extremely high value products and services when conventional and inexpensive means are ineffective or impossible. The new applications already proposed for concentrated solar photons, such as destruction of hazardous waste, production of renewable fuel, production of fertilizer, and air/water pollution controls, may benefit from the use of inexpensive solar pumped laser matched with the photochemical kinetics of these processes.

  18. Submersible fans and pumps for cryogenic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Submersible electric motor driven fans of three sizes have been designed, built and operated at 21 0 K at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The largest is a 100-mm diameter, 2 stage vaneaxial fan with a nominal capacity of 6 L/s at 2 m head. It is driven by a 4 pole, 3 phase induction motor that runs at 1750 rpm. The next smaller one is an 85-mm diameter centrifugal pump. It pumps 3 L/s at a head of 5 m. The third is a 75-mm single stage vaneaxial fan with a nominal capacity is 3 L/s at a head of 2 m. The 85-mm pump and the 75-mm fan are driven by 2 pole, 3 phase induction motors running at 3550 rpm. The motors were modified to operate submerged in the cryogenic fluid. The pumps have been operated in liquid hydrogen, liquid deuterium, and pressurized helium gas at 21 0 K. They can also operate with denser fluids such as liquid nitrogen, but rotational speed, capacity, and head will be reduced. They have been operated while submerged in liquid helium

  19. PUMPED STORAGE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS: ASSESSMENT OF RESEARCH NEEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DH. Fickeisen

    1979-09-01

    Pumped storage hydroelectric systems convert large quantities of electrical energy to a form that may be stored and efficiently reconverted to electricity. Water is pumped from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir during periods of low power demand. The stored water is then used to generate additional power when demand peaks. Since the basic requirements of the system are simple, the design of individual plants and their locations vary widely. These variations make assessment of the generic environmental impact of the pumped storage systems difficult. In addition, most studies have not examined the impacts of an operating plant comprehensively. Assessment of the environmental effects of development and operation of a pumped storage plant requires an extensive set of baseline information, which is deficient in several aspects at the present state of the art. Additional research is needed to: • identify species groups likely to survive and reproduce in pumped storage reservoirs, their relationships and habitat preferences, and the basis for their production; • characterize anticipated reservoir ecosystem community development and relate it to physical characteristics of pumped storage reservoirs; • define effects of plant design and operating parameters on transport of organisms through the pump/turbine facility, accounting for behavior of the organisms potentially impacted; • access the mortality rate of organisms likely to pass through pump-turbines; • identify the relative advantages and disadvantages of screening intake structures to prevent passage of large organisms through the plant; • assess the effects of currents and water withdrawal on migration and movement of aquatic species; • investigate the effects of fluctuating water levels on the littoral zone and riparian communities, effects of stranding on entrapment of fishes, and effects on fish spawning; and • review the applicability of water quality and ecosystem models to pumped storage

  20. Study of Hydrogen Pumping through Condensed Argon in Cryogenic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadeja, K A; Bhatt, S B

    2012-01-01

    In ultra high vacuum (UHV) range, hydrogen is a dominant residual gas in vacuum chamber. Hydrogen, being light gas, pumping of hydrogen in this vacuum range is limited with widely used UHV pumps, viz. turbo molecular pump and cryogenic pump. Pre condensed argon layers in cryogenic pump create porous structure on the surface of the pump, which traps hydrogen gas at a temperature less than 20° K. Additional argon gas injection in the cryogenic pump, at lowest temperature, generates multiple layers of condensed argon as a porous frost with 10 to 100 A° diameters pores, which increase the pumping capacity of hydrogen gas. This pumping mechanism of hydrogen is more effective, to pump more hydrogen gas in UHV range applicable in accelerator, space simulation etc. and where hydrogen is used as fuel gas like tokamak. For this experiment, the cryogenic pump with a closed loop refrigerator using helium gas is used to produce the minimum cryogenic temperature as ∼ 14° K. In this paper, effect of cryosorption of hydrogen is presented with different levels of argon gas and hydrogen gas in cryogenic pump chamber.

  1. Solar pumped laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F.; Weaver, W. R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A solar pumped laser is described in which the lasant is a gas that will photodissociate and lase when subjected to sunrays. Sunrays are collected and directed onto the gas lasant to cause it to lase. Applications to laser propulsion and laser power transmission are discussed.

  2. Cryogenic vacuum pump design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, A.J.; Lessard, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is a review of the problems and tradeoffs involved in cryogenic vacuum pump analysis, design and manufacture. Particular attention is paid to the several issues unique to cryopumps, e.g., radiation loading, adsorption of noncondensible gases, and regeneration. A general algorithm for cryopump design is also proposed. 12 references

  3. Pump monitoring and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes how to set up a periodic vibration monitoring program implemented with electronic data loggers. Acquired data will be analyzed and evaluated to determine pump condition. Periodic measuring frequency, reporting procedures, and conditions of mechanical components are discussed in detail based on the actual case study

  4. Magnetic-flux pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Elleman, D. D.; Whitmore, F. C. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    A magnetic flux pump is described for increasing the intensity of a magnetic field by transferring flux from one location to the magnetic field. The device includes a pair of communicating cavities formed in a block of superconducting material, and a piston for displacing the trapped magnetic flux into the secondary cavity producing a field having an intense flux density.

  5. Putzmeister pumps for Tchernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Self-propelling concrete pumps are briefly described in this article, they comprise a 52-meter boom, a radiation protection, remote control, videocameras. Several units were ordered by the Soviet Union. The truck cabin is protected against radiation by a 10 millimeter thick shield in lead. 3 photographs [fr

  6. Scroll vacuum pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Etsuo; Suganami, Takuya; Nishida, Mitsuhiro; Kitora, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Sakuei; Fujii, Kosaburo

    1988-02-25

    An effort is made to apply a scroll machine to development of a vacuum pump. In view of mechanical simplification and load patterns, the vacuum pump uses a rotating mechanism to produce paired vortices rotating around each center. Chip seal and atmospheric pressure are utilized for axial gap sealing while a spring and atmospheric pressure for the radial gap sealing. In both gaps, the sealing direction is stationary relative to the environment during rotation, making it much easier to achieve effective sealing as compared to oscillating pumps. Since the compression ratio is high in vacuum pumps, a zero top clearance form is adopted for the central portion of vortices and an gas release valve is installed in the rotating axis. A compact Oldham coupling with a small inertia force is installed behind the vortices to maintain the required phase relations between the vortices. These improvements result in a vacuum of 1 Pa for dry operation and 10/sup -2/ Pa for oil flooded operation of a single-stage scroll machine at 1800 rpm. (5 figs, 1 tab, 4 refs)

  7. Centrifugal blood pump 603

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Centrifugal blood pump 603 pressure obtained for real blood, as shown in figure 6, is a little higher than that for glycerin aqua Solution with the same viscosity as blood. This may indicate the effect of slight non-. Newtonian turbulent flow. The radial whirl motion of the impeller was observed by dual laser position sensors.

  8. Lunar base heat pump, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Harvey, A.; Lovell, T.; Walker, David H.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the Phase 1 process and analysis used to select a refrigerant and thermodynamic cycle as the basis of a vapor compression heat pump requiring a high temperature lift, then to perform a preliminary design to implement the selected concept, including major component selection. Use of a vapor compression heat pump versus other types was based on prior work performed for the Electric Power Research Institute. A high lift heat pump is needed to enable a thermal control system to remove heat down to 275 K from a habitable volume when the external thermal environment is severe. For example, a long-term lunar base habitat will reject heat from a space radiator to a 325 K environment. The first step in the selection process was to perform an optimization trade study, quantifying the effect of radiator operating temperature and heat pump efficiency on total system mass; then, select the radiator operating temperature corresponding to the lowest system mass. Total system mass included radiators, all heat pump components, and the power supply system. The study showed that lunar night operation, with no temperature lift, dictated the radiator size. To operate otherwise would require a high mass penalty to store power. With the defined radiation surface, and heat pump performances assumed to be from 40 percent to 60 percent of the Carnot ideal, the optimum heat rejection temperature ranged from 387 K to 377 K, as a function of heat pump performance. Refrigerant and thermodynamic cycles were then selected to best meet the previously determined design conditions. The system was then adapted as a ground-based prototype lifting temperature to 360 K (versus 385 K for flight unit) and using readily available commercial-grade components. Over 40 refrigerants, separated into wet and dry compression behavioral types, were considered in the selection process. Refrigerants were initially screened for acceptable critical temperature. The acceptable refrigerants were

  9. Impulse pumping modelling and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre, B; Gudmundsson, J S

    2010-01-01

    Impulse pumping is a new pumping method based on propagation of pressure waves. Of particular interest is the application of impulse pumping to artificial lift situations, where fluid is transported from wellbore to wellhead using pressure waves generated at wellhead. The motor driven element of an impulse pumping apparatus is therefore located at wellhead and can be separated from the flowline. Thus operation and maintenance of an impulse pump are facilitated. The paper describes the different elements of an impulse pumping apparatus, reviews the physical principles and details the modelling of the novel pumping method. Results from numerical simulations of propagation of pressure waves in water-filled pipelines are then presented for illustrating impulse pumping physical principles, and validating the described modelling with experimental data.

  10. Wind power integration in Aalborg Municipality using compression heat pumps and geothermal absorption heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2013-01-01

    -temperature geothermal resources. The analyses have also demonstrated that the municipality will still rely heavily on surrounding areas for electric load balancing assistance. With a departure in a previously elaborated 100% renewable energy scenario, this article investigates how absorption heat pumps (AHP......Aalborg Municipality, Denmark is investigating ways of switching to 100% renewable energy supply over the next 40 years. Analyses so far have demonstrated a potential for such a transition through energy savings, district heating (DH) and the use of locally available biomass, wind power and low......) and compression heat pumps (HP) for the supply of DH impact the integration of wind power. Hourly scenario-analyses made using the EnergyPLAN model reveal a boiler production and electricity excess which is higher with AHPs than with HPs whereas condensing mode power generation is increased by the application...

  11. An atoll for the offshore storage of the electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maincent, G.

    2009-01-01

    This project proposes to use for sea the technique of pumped Storage Hydroelectric, implemented in mountain areas. The method stores energy in form of water, pumped from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation. Low-cost off-peak electric power is used to run the pumps. During periods of high electrical demand, the stored water is released through turbines. This new concept in pumped storage is to use wind turbines to drive water pumps directly, providing a more efficient process and usefully smooth out the variabilities of energy captured from the wind. (A.L.B.)

  12. Diaphragm Pump With Resonant Piezoelectric Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Kline-Schoder, Robert J.; Shimko, Martin A.

    2007-01-01

    A diaphragm pump driven by a piezoelectric actuator is undergoing development. This pump is intended to be a prototype of lightweight, highly reliable pumps for circulating cooling liquids in protective garments and high-power electronic circuits, and perhaps for some medical applications. The pump would be highly reliable because it would contain no sliding seals or bearings that could wear, the only parts subject to wear would be two check valves, and the diaphragm and other flexing parts could be designed, by use of proven methods, for extremely long life. Because the pump would be capable of a large volumetric flow rate and would have only a small dead volume, its operation would not be disrupted by ingestion of gas, and it could be started reliably under all conditions. The prior art includes a number piezoelectrically actuated diaphragm pumps. Because of the smallness of the motions of piezoelectric actuators (typical maximum strains only about 0.001), the volumetric flow rates of those pumps are much too small for typical cooling applications. In the pump now undergoing development, mechanical resonance would be utilized to amplify the motion generated by the piezoelectric actuator and thereby multiply the volumetric flow rate. The prime mover in this pump would be a stack of piezoelectric ceramic actuators, one end of which would be connected to a spring that would be part of a spring-and-mass resonator structure. The mass part of the resonator structure would include the pump diaphragm (see Figure 1). Contraction of the spring would draw the diaphragm to the left, causing the volume of the fluid chamber to increase and thereby causing fluid to flow into the chamber. Subsequent expansion of the spring would push the diaphragm to the right, causing the volume of the fluid chamber to decrease, and thereby expelling fluid from the chamber. The fluid would enter and leave the chamber through check valves. The piezoelectric stack would be driven electrically to

  13. Sludge pumping in water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar Manuel, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    In water treatment processes is frequent to separate residual solids, with sludge shape, and minimize its volume in a later management. the technologies to applicate include pumping across pipelines, even to long distance. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), the management of these sludges is very important because their characteristics affect load losses calculation. Pumping sludge can modify its behavior and pumping frequency can concern treatment process. This paper explains advantages and disadvantages of different pumps to realize transportation sludge operations. (Author) 11 refs.

  14. Vivitron dead section pumping tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heugel, J.; Bayet, J.P.; Brandt, C.; Delhomme, C.; Krieg, C.; Kustner, F.; Meiss, R.; Riehl, R.; Roth, C.; Schlewer, B.; Six, P.; Weber, A.

    1990-10-01

    Pumping tests have been conducted on a simulated accelerator dead section. The behavior of different pump types are compared and analyzed. Vacuum conditions to be expected in the Vivitron are reached and several parameters are verified. Selection of a pump for the Vivitron dead section is confirmed

  15. Heat pumps are a dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    The fact that heat pumps do not achieve what their manufacturers promise in costs efficiency has been realized by the market. In 1981 the sales of heat pumps decreased by 50% of the 1980 market. Public utilities give the reason as economic, since fuel oil is too cheap. The author refutes this argument and presents arguments against heat pumps.

  16. Inventory of existing heat pump projects and the use of solar energy for heat pumps in the Dutch house construction sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the title inventory is to learn from the experiences with heat pump projects in the Netherlands. Descriptions are given of practical experiences with heat pump applications in the last 15 years in the housing sector. Possible and feasible heat pump system concepts are analyzed and energy balances and energy consumption are calculated. Special attention is paid to the use of solar energy in combination with electric (compression) heat pumps. One of the most important bottlenecks is the method and availability of heat extraction: the choice for the different options is determined by investment costs, permission, regulations, and local conditions. 14 refs., 4 appendices

  17. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Dannemand, Mark; Perers, Bengt

    elements/heat pump, advanced heat storage tanks and advanced control systems. Heat is produced by solar collectors in sunny periods and by electrical heating elements/heat pump. The electrical heating elements/heat pump will be in operation in periods where the heat demand cannot be covered by solar energy....... The aim is to use the auxiliary heating units when the electricity price is low, e.g. due to large electricity production by wind turbines. The unit is equipped with an advanced control system where the control of the auxiliary heating is based on forecasts of the electricity price, the heat demand...

  18. Miniature reciprocating heat pumps and engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesen, Jack H. (Inventor); Willen, Gary S. (Inventor); Mohling, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention discloses a miniature thermodynamic device that can be constructed using standard micro-fabrication techniques. The device can be used to provide cooling, generate power, compress gases, pump fluids and reduce pressure below ambient (operate as a vacuum pump). Embodiments of the invention relating to the production of a cooling effect and the generation of electrical power, change the thermodynamic state of the system by extracting energy from a pressurized fluid. Energy extraction is attained using an expansion process, which is as nearly isentropic as possible for the appropriately chosen fluid. An isentropic expansion occurs when a compressed gas does work to expand, and in the disclosed embodiments, the gas does work by overcoming either an electrostatic or a magnetic force.

  19. Affordable Hybrid Heat Pump Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butterfield, Andrew [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Caldwell, Dustin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crook, Alexander [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project was successful in demonstrating the feasibility of a step change in residential clothes dryer energy efficiency by demonstrating heat pump technology capable of 50% energy savings over conventional standard-size electric dryers with comparable drying times. A prototype system was designed from off-the-shelf components that can meet the project’s efficiency goals and are affordable. An experimental prototype system was built based on the design that reached 50% energy savings. Improvements have been identified that will reduce drying times of over 60 minutes to reach the goal of 40 minutes. Nevertheless, the prototype represents a step change in efficiency over heat pump dryers recently introduced to the U.S. market, with 30% improvement in energy efficiency at comparable drying times.

  20. A charge-driven molecular water pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaojing; Li, Jingyuan; Lu, Hangjun; Wan, Rongzheng; Li, Jichen; Hu, Jun; Fang, Haiping

    2007-11-01

    Understanding and controlling the transport of water across nanochannels is of great importance for designing novel molecular devices, machines and sensors and has wide applications, including the desalination of seawater. Nanopumps driven by electric or magnetic fields can transport ions and magnetic quanta, but water is charge-neutral and has no magnetic moment. On the basis of molecular dynamics simulations, we propose a design for a molecular water pump. The design uses a combination of charges positioned adjacent to a nanopore and is inspired by the structure of channels in the cellular membrane that conduct water in and out of the cell (aquaporins). The remarkable pumping ability is attributed to the charge dipole-induced ordering of water confined in the nanochannels, where water can be easily driven by external fields in a concerted fashion. These findings may provide possibilities for developing water transport devices that function without osmotic pressure or a hydrostatic pressure gradient.

  1. An energy and cost analysis of residential heat pumps in northern climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. K.; Oneal, D. L.

    1980-04-01

    Lack of natural gas and high oil prices, combined with the large energy costs of electric resistance heat have forced renewed attention to the heat pump in colder climates. The diversity in heating energy use and cost effectiveness of forty-one currently retailed heat pumps in three northern cities, Boston, Denver, and Minneapolis, were examined. Heat pump heating energy use and annualized life cycle costs were compared with other forms of space heating equipment in those same cities.

  2. Variable flow controls of closed system pumps for energy savings in maritime power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Chun-Lien; Liao, Chi-Hsiang; Chou, Tso-Chu; Chou, Ming-Hung; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Pumps are extensively used in maritime industries as marine vessels utilize a wide range of pumps and pumping techniques to transfer and distribute all types of air and fluids. The electrical energy consumed by the various motors accounts for about 70% of a vessel’s total power consumption, and this presents a problem in unique marine environments. Such situations are especially conducive to energy-saving strategies using variable frequency drives (VFDs) in centrifugal load service. This pape...

  3. Pumping characteristics of roots blower pumps for light element gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroki, Seiji; Abe, Tetsuya; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Nakamura, Jun-ichi; Ohbayashi, Tetsuro

    2002-07-01

    The pumping speed and compression ratio of the two-stage roots blower pumping system were measured for light element gases (H 2 , D 2 and He) and for N 2 , in order to assess validity of the ITER torus roughing system as an ITER R and D task (T234). The pumping system of an Edwards EH1200 (nominal pumping speed of 1200 m 3 /s), two EH250s (ibid. 250 m 3 /s) and a backing pump (ibid. 100 m 3 /s) in series connection was tested under PNEUROP standards. The maximum pumping speeds of the two-stage system for D 2 and N 2 were 1200 and 1300 m 3 /h, respectively at 60 Hz, which satisfied the nominal pumping speed. These experimental data support the design validity of the ITER torus roughing system. (author)

  4. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads.

  5. Performance of a solar augmented heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, A. F. G.; Tomlinson, J. J.; Reid, R. L.; Chaffin, D. J.

    Performance of a residential size solar augmented heat pump is reported for the 1979-1980 heating season. The facility located in Knoxville, Tennessee, has a measured heat load coefficient of 339.5 watt/C (644 BTU/hr- F). The solar augmented heat pump system consists of 7.4 cu m of one inch diameter crushed limestone. The heat pump is a nominal 8.8 KW (2 1/2 ton) high efficiency unit. The system includes electric resistance heaters to give the option of adding thermal energy to the pebble bed storage during utility off-peak periods, thus offering considerable load management capability. A 15 KW electric resistance duct heater is used to add thermal energy to the pebble bin as required during off-peak periods. Hourly thermal performance and on site weather data was taken for the period November 1, 1979, to April 13, 1980. Thermal performance data consists of heat flow summations for all modes of the system, pebble bed temperatures, and space temperature. Weather data consists of dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, total global insolation (in the plane of the collector), and wind speed and direction. An error analysis was performed and the least accurate of the measurements was determined to be the heat flow at 5%. Solar system thermal performance factor was measured to be 8.77. The heat pump thermal performance factor was 1.64. Total system seasonal performance factor was measured to be 1.66. Using a modified version of TRNSYS, the thermal performance of this system was simulated. When simulation results were compared with data collected onsite, the predicted heat flow and power consumption generally were within experimental accuracy.

  6. One dimensional analysis of the end effect of an EM pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Reyoung; Nam, Ho Yun; Kim, Yong Kyun; Choi, Byoung Hae; Lee, Yong Bum; Kim, Min Joon; Hong, Sang Hee

    1998-01-01

    Longitudinal end effect due to finite length of the pump are analyzed one dimensionally on an annular linear induction electromagnetic (EM) pump for the transportation of the electrically conducting liquid metal. The mathematical regions of the modeled pump is divided into three of the inlet, outlet and developing zone in large parts. Solving governing equations with the applied boundary condition, the distributions of magnetic field and developing force are investigated according to the coordinate of axial direction and compared with those of the pump with infinite length. At both ends of the pump, it is shown that the radial magnetic field is distorted and even the opposite force, which may cause local separation of the flow as the velocity of the pumping fluid is increased, is generated at the inlet region. In the present study, frequency control is suggested as one of the methods for the reduction of the end effect of the pump

  7. Design technology development of the main coolant pump for an integral reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. S.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, M. H.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, J. I.

    2004-01-01

    All of the reactor coolant pump currently used in commercial nuclear power plant were imported from foreign country. Now, the developing program of design technology for the reactor coolant pump will be started in a few future by domestic researchers. At this stage, the design technology of the main coolant pump for an integral reactor is developed based on the regulation of domestic nuclear power plant facilities. The main coolant pump is a canned motor axial pump, which accommodates all constraints required from the integral reactor system. The main coolant pump does not have mechanical seal device because the rotor of motor and the shaft of impeller are the same one. There is no flywheel on the rotating shaft of main coolant pump so that the coastdown duration time is short when the electricity supply is cut off

  8. Reactor coolant pump seal leakage monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, D.M.; Spencer, J.W.; Morris, D.J.; James, W.; Shugars, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    Problems with reactor coolant pump seals have historically accounted for a large percentage of unscheduled outages. Studies performed for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have shown that the replacement of coolant pump seals has been one of the leading causes of nuclear plant unavailability over the last ten years. Failures of coolant pump seals can lead to primary coolant leakage rates of 200-500 gallons per minute into the reactor building. Airborne activity and high surface contamination levels following these failures require a major cleanup effort and increases the time and personnel exposure required to refurbish the pump seals. One of the problems in assessing seal integrity is the inability to accurately measure seal leakage. Because seal leakage flow is normally very small, it cannot be sensed directly with normal flow instrumentation, but must be inferred from several other temperature and flow measurements. In operating plants the leakage rate has been quantified with a tipping-bucket gauge, a device which indicates when one quart of water has been accumulated. The tipping-bucket gauge has been used for most rainfall-intensity monitoring. The need for a more accurate and less expensive gauge has been addressed. They have developed a drop-counter precipitation sensor has been developed and optimized. The applicability of the drop-counter device to the problem of measuring seal leakage is being investigated. If a review of system specification and known drop-counter performance indicates that this method is feasible for measuring seal leak rates, a drop-counter gauge will be fabricated and tested in the laboratory. If laboratory tests are successful the gauge will be demonstrated in a pump test loop at Ontario Hydro and evaluated under simulated plant conditions. 3 references, 2 figures

  9. The utilization of induction generators working with PATs (pumps working as turbines) in electric energy generation; A utilizacao de geradores de inducao acionados por BFTs (bombas funcionando como turbinas) na geracao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Augusto Nelson Carvalho; Rezek, Angelo Jose Junqueira; Medeiros, Daniel de Macedo [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia da Energia], e-mail: augusto@unifei.edu.br, e-mail: rezek@iee.efei.br, e-mail: macedo@unifei.edu.br

    2004-07-01

    The utilization of the Pumps working as Turbines (PATs) in micro hydro-energy resources to replace the conventional turbines as Pelton, Francis and Propeller have been used in countries as USA, Germany and France. In the mean time, in Brazil this practice and the utilization of induction generators working with PATs is still in the scope of the laboratory experiments. This work, based on experimental results carried on in Laboratory of Hydromechanics for Small Hydro Power Plants (Laboratorio Hidromecanico para Pequenas Centrais Hidroeletricas - LHPCH - UNIFEI), (VIANA, 1987), (VIANA e NOGUEIRA, 1990), propose the utilization of asynchronous generator groups operating with PATs. To show the investment cost decrease in micro hydro power plants (MHPs), is showed the Boa Esperanca MPH example, in which is presented a comparison between the synchronous generator group cost working with a Michell-Banki turbine and a asynchronous generator group operating with a PAT. (author)

  10. Electroosmotic pumps for microflow analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiayan; Wang, Shili; Gendhar, Brina; Cheng, Chang; Byun, Chang Kyu; Li, Guanbin; Zhao, Meiping; Liu, Shaorong

    2009-01-01

    With rapid development in microflow analysis, electroosmotic pumps are receiving increasing attention. Compared to other micropumps, electroosmotic pumps have several unique features. For example, they are bi-directional, can generate constant and pulse-free flows with flow rates well suited to microanalytical systems, and can be readily integrated with lab-on-chip devices. The magnitude and the direction of flow of an electroosmotic pump can be changed instantly. In addition, electroosmotic pumps have no moving parts. In this article, we discuss common features, introduce fabrication technologies and highlight applications of electroosmotic pumps. PMID:20047021

  11. Bearing for liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, R.J.; Pennell, W.E.; Wasko, J.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance

  12. Na,K-pump modulates intercellular communication in vascular wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Nilsson, Holger; Aalkjær, Christian

      Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of the Na,K-pump, has previously been shown to interfere with intercellular communication. Here we test the hypothesis that the communication between vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is regulated through an interaction between the Na,K-pump and the Na...... were used as a model for electrical coupling of SMCs by measuring membrane capacitance (Cm). SMCs were uncoupled (evaluated by inhibition of vasomotion and desynchronization of calcium transients in vascular wall, or by reduction to half of Cm measured in paired A7r5 cells) when the Na,K-pump...... was inhibited either by a low concentration of ouabain or by ATP depletion. Uncoupling with ouabain was associated with a localized increase of intracellular calcium in discrete sites near the plasma membrane. Reduction of Na,K-pump activity by removal of extracellular potassium also uncoupled cells, but only...

  13. In situ performance curves measurements of large pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, A

    2010-01-01

    The complex energetic system on the river Lotru in Romania comprises of a series of lakes and pumping stations and a major hydroelectric power plant: Lotru-Ciunget. All the efforts have been oriented towards the maintenance of the Pelton turbines and very little attention has been directed to the pumps. In the system, there are three large pumping stations and only in the last 5 years, the pump performances have become a concern. The performances where determined using portable ultrasonic flow meters, a Yates meter, precision manometers and appropriate electrical equipment for power measurement (Power Analiser - NORMA D4000 LEM). The measurements are not supposed to interfere with the normal operation so only a limited number of tests could be performed. Based on those tests, portions of the test curves have been measured and represented in specific diagrams.

  14. In situ performance curves measurements of large pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, A.

    2010-08-01

    The complex energetic system on the river Lotru in Romania comprises of a series of lakes and pumping stations and a major hydroelectric power plant: Lotru-Ciunget. All the efforts have been oriented towards the maintenance of the Pelton turbines and very little attention has been directed to the pumps. In the system, there are three large pumping stations and only in the last 5 years, the pump performances have become a concern. The performances where determined using portable ultrasonic flow meters, a Yates meter, precision manometers and appropriate electrical equipment for power measurement (Power Analiser - NORMA D4000 LEM). The measurements are not supposed to interfere with the normal operation so only a limited number of tests could be performed. Based on those tests, portions of the test curves have been measured and represented in specific diagrams.

  15. Impact of Spatial Pumping Patterns on Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J.; Tsai, F. T. C.

    2017-12-01

    Challenges exist to manage groundwater resources while maintaining a balance between groundwater quantity and quality because of anthropogenic pumping activities as well as complex subsurface environment. In this study, to address the impact of spatial pumping pattern on groundwater management, a mixed integer nonlinear multi-objective model is formulated by integrating three objectives within a management framework to: (i) maximize total groundwater withdrawal from potential wells; (ii) minimize total electricity cost for well pumps; and (iii) attain groundwater level at selected monitoring locations as close as possible to the target level. Binary variables are used in the groundwater management model to control the operative status of pumping wells. The NSGA-II is linked with MODFLOW to solve the multi-objective problem. The proposed method is applied to a groundwater management problem in the complex Baton Rouge aquifer system, southeastern Louisiana. Results show that (a) non-dominated trade-off solutions under various spatial distributions of active pumping wells can be achieved. Each solution is optimal with regard to its corresponding objectives; (b) operative status, locations and pumping rates of pumping wells are significant to influence the distribution of hydraulic head, which in turn influence the optimization results; (c) A wide range of optimal solutions is obtained such that decision makers can select the most appropriate solution through negotiation with different stakeholders. This technique is beneficial to finding out the optimal extent to which three objectives including water supply concern, energy concern and subsidence concern can be balanced.

  16. Remote process cell mercury transfer pumps for DWPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, M.G.; Vaughn, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    Final design and the results of the testing performed thus far show that the water displacement of mercury to a height of 40 feet is feasible with just 6 gallons of motive water. Control of the transfer is achieved by monitoring the pump discharge pressure. An air actuated plug valve configuration successfully contained the required discharge pressure of 260 psi. The requirements of low flow and maximum separation of mercury from particulates are achieved due to the configuration of the pressure canister. The pump is capable of transferring a discrete amount of mercury with little additional slurry particulates. The success of this new pumping configuration is highlighted by the fact that it was the inspiration for other remote transfer applications tested at SRP. These application include the dual canister sample pump shown in Figure 7, as well as a successful prototype pump designed at Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL). The PNL pump was designed for the purpose of metering waste slurries to an electric melter. Upon completion of final pump fabrication, the Defense Waste Processing facility (DWPF) facility will have a simple and highly reliable method of remotely transferring small discrete batches of mercury as required from radioactive process vessels. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  17. Water displacement mercury pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  18. Pocket pumped image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, I.V., E-mail: kotov@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); O' Connor, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Murray, N. [Centre for Electronic Imaging, Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    The pocket pumping technique is used to detect small electron trap sites. These traps, if present, degrade CCD charge transfer efficiency. To reveal traps in the active area, a CCD is illuminated with a flat field and, before image is read out, accumulated charges are moved back and forth number of times in parallel direction. As charges are moved over a trap, an electron is removed from the original pocket and re-emitted in the following pocket. As process repeats one pocket gets depleted and the neighboring pocket gets excess of charges. As a result a “dipole” signal appears on the otherwise flat background level. The amplitude of the dipole signal depends on the trap pumping efficiency. This paper is focused on trap identification technique and particularly on new methods developed for this purpose. The sensor with bad segments was deliberately chosen for algorithms development and to demonstrate sensitivity and power of new methods in uncovering sensor defects.

  19. FTU pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrini, C.; Ciotti, M.; Mattei, A. De; Maddaluno, G.; Mazzitelli, G.

    1989-01-01

    The control of the refuelling and recycling of the plasma is crucial in providing enhanced performances in tokamaks and steady-state operation in future reactors. In this paper, we report details of the design and analysis for the pump limiter to be incorporated into the FTU tokamak. The FTU, presently under commissioning, is a compact high field (B=8T), medium high density, circular cross section machine with small accesses. The dimensions of the equatorial port (width 8 cm) would reduce the length of the entrance throat to a few centimeters, which is unacceptable for efficient particle trapping. We have, therefore, designed a rotating blade of the pump limiter head that, in the working position, extends in the toroidal direction inside the vacuum chamber. (author) 8 refs., 4 figs

  20. Geothermal heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, R.; Tinti, F.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, for several types of buildings and users, the choice of conditioning by heat pump and low enthalpy geothermal reservoir has been increasing in the Italian market. In fact, such systems are efficient in terms of energy and consumption, they can perform, even at the same time, both functions, heating and cooling and they are environmentally friendly, because they do not produce local emissions. This article will introduce the technology and will focus on critical points of a geothermal field design, from actual practice, to future perspectives for the geo exchanger improvement. Finally, the article presents a best practice case in Bologna district, with an economic analysis showing the convenience of a geothermal heat pump. Conclusions of the real benefits of these plants can be drawn: compared to a non-negligible initial cost, the investment has a pay-back period almost always acceptable, usually less than 10 years. [it

  1. 21 CFR 880.5725 - Infusion pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Infusion pump. (a) Identification. An infusion pump is a device used in a health care facility to pump fluids into a patient in a controlled manner. The device may use a piston pump, a roller pump, or a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infusion pump. 880.5725 Section 880.5725 Food and...

  2. 14 CFR 23.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 23.991 Section 23.991... § 23.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. For main pumps, the following apply: (1) For reciprocating engine installations having fuel pumps to supply fuel to the engine, at least one pump for each engine must be directly...

  3. Simultaneous Imbalance Reduction and Peak Shaving using a Field Operational Virtual Power Plant with Pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruissen, O.P. van; Kok, J.K.; Eisma, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch electricity infrastructure is challenged by the deployment of large numbers of heat pumps in newly-built domestic residences. An example is the apartment complex of Couperus in The Hague where 300 apartments are heated by individual heat pumps. This building was operated as a Virtual Power

  4. Upscaling a district heating system based on biogas cogeneration and heat pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; de Wit, Jan B.

    2015-01-01

    The energy supply of the Meppel district Nieuwveense landen is based on biogas cogeneration, district heating, and ground source heat pumps. A centrally located combined heat and power engine (CHP) converts biogas from the municipal wastewater treatment facility into electricity for heat pumps and

  5. Controlling the heating mode of heat pumps with the TRIANA three step methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toersche, Hermen; Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Nykamp, Stefan; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Heat pump based heating systems are increasingly becoming an economic and efficient alternative for domestic gas heating systems. Concentrations of heat pump installations do consume large amounts of electricity, causing significant grid distribution and stability issues when the diversity factor is

  6. Energy alternatives for irrigation pumping: an economic analysis for northern India.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia R

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper presenting an economic analysis of alternative energy sources for irrigation pumping in Northern India - considers economic and technical aspects of photovoltaic pumping systems, solar energy systems, electric power, dual-fuel and diesel engines, Biogas and wind power; discusses economic and social development aspects. Abbreviations, bibliography, glossary and tables.

  7. Operation of heat pumps for smart grid integrated buildings with thermal energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finck, C.J.; Li, R.; Zeiler, W.

    2017-01-01

    A small scale office building consisting of radiant heating, a heat pump, and a water thermal energy storage tank is implemented in an optimal control framework. The optimal control aims to minimize operational electricity costs of the heat pump based on real-time power spot market prices. Optimal

  8. Nonazeotropic Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.

  9. IRRIGATION USING SOLAR PUMP

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Nitin P.Choudhary*1 & Ms. Komal Singne2

    2017-01-01

    In this report the described design of a PV and soil moisture sensor based automated irrigation system is introduced. This project aims to provide a human friendly, economical and automated water pumping system which eliminates the problems of over irrigation and helps in irrigation water optimization and manage it in accordance with the availability of water. Our project not only tries to modernize the irrigation practices and ensure the optimum yield by carefully fulfilling the requirements...

  10. Small size ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyranski, R.; Kiliszek, Cz.R.; Marks, J.; Sobolewski, A.; Magielko, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes some designs of the two versions ion pumps and their range operation for various magnetic fields. The first version is made with different cell size in the anode element and titanium cathode operating in magnetic field from 600 to 650 Gs and the second version with the same anode element but differential Ti/Ta cathode working in magnetic field above 1200 Gs

  11. Pumping potential wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Forest, C.; Wang, E. Y.; Intrator, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nonmonotonic plasma potential structures are a common feature of many double layers and sheaths. Steady state plasma potential wells separating regions having different plasma potentials are often found in laboratory experiments. In order to exist, such structures all must find a solution to a common problem. Ions created by charge exchange or ionization in the region of the potential well are electrostatically confined and tend to accumulate and fill up the potential well. The increase in positive charge should eliminate the well. Nevertheless, steady state structures are found in which the wells do not fill up. This means that it is important to take into account processes which 'pump' ions from the well. As examples of ion pumping of plasma wells, potential dips in front of a positively biased electro collecting anode in a relatively cold, low density multidipole plasma is considered. Pumping is provided by ion leaks from the edges of the potential dip or by oscillating the applied potential. In the former case the two dimensional character of the problem is shown to be important.

  12. Pumping potential wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Forest, C.; Wang, E.Y.; Intrator, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nonmonotonic plasma potential structures are a common feature of many double layers and sheaths. Steady state plasma potential wells separating regions having different plasma potentials are often found in laboratory experiments. In order to exist, all such structures must find a solution to a common problem. Ions created by charge exchange or ionization in the region of the potential well are electrostatically confined and tend to accumulate and fill up the potential well. The increase in positive charge should eliminate the well. Nevertheless, steady state structures are found in which the wells do not fill up. This means that it is important to take into account processes which pump ions from the well. As examples of ion pumping of plasma wells, potential dips in front of a positively biased electron collecting anode in a relatively cold, low density, multidipole plasma are considered. Pumping is provided by ion leaks from the edges of the potential dip or by oscillating the applied potential. In the former case the two-dimensional character of the problem is shown to be important

  13. Pumping potential wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Forest, C.; Wang, E.Y.; Intrator, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nonmonotonic plasma potential structures are a common feature of many double layers and sheaths. Steady state plasma potential wells separating regions having different plasma potentials are often found in laboratory experiments. In order to exist, such structures all must find a solution to a common problem. Ions created by charge exchange or ionization in the region of the potential well are electrostatically confined and tend to accumulate and fill up the potential well. The increase in positive charge should eliminate the well, but steady state structures are found in which the wells do not fill up. This means that it is important to take into account processes which 'pump' ions from the well. As examples of ion pumping of plasma wells, potential dips in front of a positively biased electron collecting anode in a relatively cold, low density multidipole plasma are considered. Pumping is provided by ion leaks from the edges of the potential dip or by oscillating the applied potential. In the former case the two dimensional character of the problem is shown to be important. (author)

  14. Jet operated heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    A jet pump system is shown that utilizes waste heat to provide heating and/or cooling. Waste heat diverted through a boiler causes a refrigerant to evaporate and expand for supersonic discharge through a nozzle thereby creating a vacuum in an evaporator coil. The vacuum draws the refrigerant in a gaseous state into a condensing section of a jet pump along with refrigerant from a reservoir in a subcooled liquid form. This causes condensation of the gas in a condensation section of the jet pump, while moving at constant velocity. The change in momentum of the fluid overcomes the system high side pressure. Some of the condensate is cooled by a subcooler. Refrigerant in a subcooled liquid state from the subcooler is fed back into the evaporator and the condensing section with an adequate supply being insured by the reservoir. The motive portion of the condensate is returned to the boiler sans subcooling. By proper valving start-up is insured, as well as the ability to switch from heating to cooling

  15. Liquid sodium pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    The pump for use in a nuclear reactor cooling system comprises a booster stage impeller for drawing the liquid through the inlet. A diffuser is affixedly disposed within the pump housing to convert the kinetic pressure imparted to the liquid into increased static pressure. A main stage impeller is rotatively driven by a pump motor at a relatively high speed to impart a relatively high static pressure to the liquid and for discharging the liquid at a relatively high static pressure. A hydraulic coupling is disposed remotely from the liquid path for hydraulically coupling the main stage impeller and the booster stage impeller to rotate the booster stage impeller at a relatively low speed to maintain the low net positive suction pressure applied to the liquid at the inlet greater than the vapor pressure of the liquid and to ensure that the low net positive suction heat, as established by the main stage impeller exceeds the vapor pressure. The coupling comprises a grooved drum which rotates between inner and outer drag coupling members. In a modification the coupling comprises a torque converter. (author)

  16. Electrocentrifugal pumping; Bombeo electrocentrifugo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Perez, Guillermo; Medellin Otero, Hector [Instituto Mexicano del Peroleo (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    The exploitation of isolated oil deposits, in losing their own energy, enter a phase of secondary recovery. One of the technologies of new development in Mexico is the one of electrocentrifugal pumping , which consists of introducing the motor-pump as an integral part of the production pipe down to the well bottom and pumping directly up to central complexes, from where it is sent inland. In the present paper is intended to explain what this type of secondary recovery consists of. [Spanish] La explotacion de yacimientos aislados de petroleo, al perder su energia propia, entran en una fase de recuperacion secundaria. Una de las tecnologias de nuevo desarrollo en Mexico es la de bombeo electrocentrifugo, la cual consiste en introducir la motobomba como parte integral de la tuberia de produccion hasta el fondo del pozo y bombearlo directamente hasta los complejos centrales, de donde se envia a tierra. En el presente trabajo se pretende explicar en que consiste este tipo de recuperacion secundaria.

  17. Optically pumped terahertz sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Kai; SHI Wei; XU DeGang; LIU PengXiang; WANG YuYe; MEI JiaLin; YAN Chao; FU ShiJie; YAO JianQuan

    2017-01-01

    High-power terahertz (THz) generation in the frequency range of0.1-10 THz has been a fast-developing research area ever since the beginning of the THz boom two decades ago,enabling new technological breakthroughs in spectroscopy,communication,imaging,etc.By using optical (laser) pumping methods with near-or mid-infrared (IR) lasers,flexible and practical THz sources covering the whole THz range can be realized to overcome the shortage of electronic THz sources and now they are playing important roles in THz science and technology.This paper overviews various optically pumped THz sources,including femtosecond laser based ultrafast broadband THz generation,monochromatic widely tunable THz generation,single-mode on-chip THz source from photomixing,and the traditional powerful THz gas lasers.Full descriptions from basic principles to the latest progress are presented and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed as well.It is expected that this review gives a comprehensive reference to researchers in this area and additionally helps newcomers to quickly gain understanding of optically pumped THz sources.

  18. Comparative analysis of DG and solar PV water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharani, Kusum; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    Looking at present day electricity scenario, there is a major electricity crisis in rural areas. The farmers are still dependant on the monsoon rains for their irrigation needs and livestock maintenance. Some of the agrarian population has opted to use Diesel Generators for pumping water in their fields. But taking into consideration the economics and environmental conditions, the above choice is not suitable for longer run. An effort to shift from non-renewable sources such as diesel to renewable energy source such as solar has been highlighted. An approximate comparative analysis showing the life cycle costs of a PV pumping system with Diesel Generator powered water pumping is done using MATLAB/STMULTNK.

  19. Electricity Storage. Technology Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbolotti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Kempener, R. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Electricity storage is a key technology for electricity systems with a high share of renewables as it allows electricity to be generated when renewable sources (i.e. wind, sunlight) are available and to be consumed on demand. It is expected that the increasing price of fossil fuels and peak-load electricity and the growing share of renewables will result in electricity storage to grow rapidly and become more cost effective. However, electricity storage is technically challenging because electricity can only be stored after conversion into other forms of energy, and this involves expensive equipment and energy losses. At present, the only commercial storage option is pumped hydro power where surplus electricity (e.g. electricity produced overnight by base-load coal or nuclear power) is used to pump water from a lower to an upper reservoir. The stored energy is then used to produce hydropower during daily high-demand periods. Pumped hydro plants are large-scale storage systems with a typical efficiency between 70% and 80%, which means that a quarter of the energy is lost in the process. Other storage technologies with different characteristics (i.e. storage process and capacity, conversion back to electricity and response to power demand, energy losses and costs) are currently in demonstration or pre-commercial stages and discussed in this brief report: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, Flywheels; Electrical batteries; Supercapacitors; Superconducting magnetic storage; and Thermal energy storage. No single electricity storage technology scores high in all dimensions. The technology of choice often depends on the size of the system, the specific service, the electricity sources and the marginal cost of peak electricity. Pumped hydro currently accounts for 95% of the global storage capacity and still offers a considerable expansion potential but does not suit residential or small-size applications. CAES expansion is limited due to the lack of suitable

  20. Synchronization modulation increases transepithelial potentials in MDCK monolayers through Na/K pumps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Tran

    Full Text Available Transepithelial potential (TEP is the voltage across a polarized epithelium. In epithelia that have active transport functions, the force for transmembrane flux of an ion is dictated by the electrochemical gradient in which TEP plays an essential role. In epithelial injury, disruption of the epithelial barrier collapses the TEP at the wound edge, resulting in the establishment of an endogenous wound electric field (∼100 mV/mm that is directed towards the center of the wound. This endogenous electric field is implicated to enhance wound healing by guiding cell migration. We thus seek techniques to enhance the TEP, which may increase the wound electric fields and enhance wound healing. We report a novel technique, termed synchronization modulation (SM using a train of electric pulses to synchronize the Na/K pump activity, and then modulating the pumping cycles to increase the efficiency of the Na/K pumps. Kidney epithelial monolayers (MDCK cells maintain a stable TEP and transepithelial resistance (TER. SM significantly increased TEP over four fold. Either ouabain or digoxin, which block Na/K pump, abolished SM-induced TEP increases. In addition to the pump activity, basolateral distribution of Na/K pumps is essential for an increase in TEP. Our study for the first time developed an electrical approach to significantly increase the TEP. This technique targeting the Na/K pump may be used to modulate TEP, and may have implication in wound healing and in diseases where TEP needs to be modulated.

  1. Life cycle assessment of domestic heat pump hot water systems in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water heating accounts for 23% of residential energy consumption in Australia, and, as over half is provided by electric water heaters, is a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. Due to inclusion in rebate schemes heat pump water heating systems are becoming increasingly popular, but do they result in lower greenhouse gas emissions? This study follows on from a previous life cycle assessment study of domestic hot water systems to include heat pump systems. The streamlined life cycle assessment approach used focused on the use phase of the life cycle, which was found in the previous study to be where the majority of global warming potential (GWP impacts occurred. Data was collected from an Australian heat pump manufacturer and was modelled assuming installation within Australian climate zone 3 (AS/NZS 4234:2011. Several scenarios were investigated for the heat pumps including different sources of electricity (grid, photovoltaic solar modules, and batteries and the use of solar thermal panels. It was found that due to their higher efficiency heat pump hot water systems can result in significantly lower GWP than electric storage hot water systems. Further, solar thermal heat pump systems can have lower GWP than solar electric hot water systems that use conventional electric boosting. Additionally, the contributions of HFC refrigerants to GWP can be significant so the use of alternative refrigerants is recommended. Heat pumps combined with PV and battery technology can achieve the lowest GWP of all domestic hot water systems.

  2. Linear programming control of a group of heat pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, J.; van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2015-01-01

    For a new district in the Dutch city Meppel, a hybrid energy concept is developed based on bio-gas co-generation. The generated electricity is used to power domestic heat pumps which supply thermal energy for domestic hot water and space heating demand of households. In this paper, we investigate

  3. Efficient diode pumped ytterbium-doped fibre laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harun, S.W.; Paul, M.C.; Moghaddam, M.R.A.; Das, S.; Sen, R.; Dhar, Anirban; Pal, M.; Bhadra, S.K.; Ahmad, H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2010), s. 68-69 ISSN 0013-5194 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : Fibre lasers * Oscillator * Diode-pumped Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.001, year: 2010

  4. Mechanical design of the recirculating, terminal pumping in the Lund ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An extremly limited space in the high voltage terminal and the absence of electrical power in the terminal, forced us to provide a unique design for the installation and powering of the new pumps. Details of the technical design, as well as experience of the use of the new system for accelerator mass spectrometry, will be ...

  5. Pumped Storage Hydro Power Plant Cierny Vah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regula, E.

    1998-01-01

    In this leaflet the pump-storage power plant Cierny Vah is presented. A Cierny Vah pumped storage power plant (PSP) has been designed and built for providing the reliable and quality electric energy supply and for covering load changes of an electrification system. (ES). It is mainly the pumped storage hydro power plants plants which in our conditions are the sources operatively covering the sudden changes of the ES load from the ecological, economic but mainly from the operational point of view. The electric energy generation volume is not the primary standpoint but especially their control functions in the ES. During the building of the Cierny Vah PSP the peak operation with the daily accumulation, participation in frequency control and output in ES and the compensation function in ES were to be its main tasks. After putting it into operation by especially after its becoming independent of the Slovak ES in 1994 the static functions (energy generation from pumping, balance output reserves, daily control, ...) gave way to dynamic functions which gained greater importance. After interconnection of the ES with the UCPTE West European Association in which there are besides other things, the strict criteria for observing balance outputs, the main functions of PSPs are as follows: (1) Dynamic services for ES; (2) Dispatching reserve for the fall out of the greatest ES block; (3) Observing the foreign cooperation balance agreed; (4) Compensation of peaks and also of sudden daily load diagram reductions. Technical parameters of the upper and lower reservoir are described. The hydro power plant is a body lower reservoir. In it there are six vertical pumping aggregates in the three machine layout: the motor-generator - the turbine - the pump. Between the turbine and the pump there is a hydraulically controlled claw clutch engaging at rest and disengaging also during the aggregate operation. During pumping air is involved inside the turbine. The Francis turbines have a

  6. Design, in-sodium testing and performance evaluation of annular linear induction pump for a sodium cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashine, B.K.; Rao, B.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Derivation of applicable design equations. • Design of an annular induction pump based on these equations. • Testing of the designed pump in a sodium test facility. • Performance evaluation of the designed pump. - Abstract: Annular linear induction pumps (ALIPs) are used for pumping electrically conducting liquid metals. These pumps find wide application in fast reactors since the coolant in fast reactors is liquid sodium which a good conductor of electricity. The design of these pumps is usually done using equivalent circuit approach in combination with numerical simulation models. The equivalent circuit of ALIP is similar to that of an induction motor. This paper presents the derivation of equivalent circuit parameters using first principle approach. Sodium testing of designed ALIP using the equivalent circuit approach is also described and experimental results of the testing are presented. Comparison between experimental and analytical calculations has also been carried out. Some of the reasons for variation have also been listed in this paper

  7. Example of a wind turbine project: pumping drinking water on Cape Verde Islands. Voorbeeld van een CWD-projekt: drinkwater met behulp van windmolens op de Kaap Verdische eilanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieterse, N

    1985-01-01

    In the framework of development aid The Netherlands are technically supporting wind energy activities on Cape Verde Islands. The activities are directed to pumping drinking water. A local production line for 5 m rotor diameter wind pumps is in preparation. Besides mechanical wind pumps there seems to be a potential for wind-electric pump systems too. The cost of 1 m/sup 3/ pumped water, especially if it concerns small capacities (up to 100 m/sup 3/ per day), turns out to be considerably lower for a wind pump than for a motor pump. The difference increases if the wind pump is produced locally. 8 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  8. Functional studies of sodium pump isoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Michael Jakob

    The Na+,K+-ATPase is an essential ion pump found in all animal cells. It uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to export three Na+ and import two K+, both against their chemical gradients and for Na+ also against the electrical potential. Mammals require four Na+,K+-ATPase isoforms that each have...... unique expression profiles and specialized functional features. We use a Two Electrode Voltage Clamp setup to determine pre-steady-state and steady-state characteristics of each isoform and design chimeras to pin-point the structural elements responsible for observed differences. With this strategy we...

  9. Solid state radiative heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  10. Supercritical waste oxidation pump investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurston, G.; Garcia, K.

    1993-02-01

    This report investigates the pumping techniques and pumping equipment that would be appropriate for a 5,000 gallon per day supercritical water oxidation waste disposal facility. The pumps must boost water, waste, and additives from atmospheric pressure to approximately 27.6 MPa (4,000 psia). The required flow ranges from 10 gpm to less than 0.1 gpm. For the higher flows, many commercial piston pumps are available. These pumps have packing and check-valves that will require periodic maintenance; probably at 2 to 6 month intervals. Several commercial diaphragm pumps were also discovered that could pump the higher flow rates. Diaphragm pumps have the advantage of not requiring dynamic seals. For the lower flows associated with the waste and additive materials, commercial diaphragm pumps. are available. Difficult to pump materials that are sticky, radioactive, or contain solids, could be injected with an accumulator using an inert gas as the driving mechanism. The information presented in this report serves as a spring board for trade studies and the development of equipment specifications

  11. Experimental Study on Series Operation of Sliding Vane Pump and Centrifugal Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tao; Zhang, Weiming; Jiang, Ming; Li, Zhengyang

    2013-01-01

    A platform for sliding vane pump and centrifugal pump tests is installed to study the series operation of them under different characteristics of pipeline. Firstly, the sliding vane pump and the centrifugal pump work independently, and the performance is recorded. Then, the two types of pumps are combined together, with the sliding vane pump acting as the feeding pump. Comparison is made between the performance of the independently working pump and the performance of series operation pump. Re...

  12. Expert system for the diagnosis of the condition and performance of centrifugal pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantunen, E; Vaehae-Pietilae, K; Pesonen, K [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    A brief description of the results of a study concerning the maintenance and downtime costs in Finnish pumping is given. The leakage of seals was found to be the fault that causes the highest downtime and maintenance costs. A small laboratory arrangement has been used to test the effectiveness of various condition monitoring methods. This information has been used in the development of a diagnostic expert system called CEPDIA, which can be used for diagnosing the condition of a pump and its components. The diagnosis is based on measuring results obtained from sensors and on information about maintenance actions carried out with the pump and its components. The principles of the CEPDIA expert system are described. A database is included in the system for handling and saving the measurement results, technical information on the pumps and maintenance actions carried out with the pumps. The diagnosis can also be based on vibration signature analysis, which is quite effective in determining which fault is the actual cause of malfunction of the pump or its components. CEPDIA can also be used to calculate of the efficiency of the electrical motor and the pump. CEPDIA has been tested in the diagnosis of 63 pumps. The average efficiency in pumping was less than 40 %, and more than 10 % of the pumps were pumping with less than 10 % efficiency. (orig.) 11 refs.

  13. Expert system for the diagnosis of the condition and performance of centrifugal pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantunen, E.; Vaehae-Pietilae, K.; Pesonen, K. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    A brief description of the results of a study concerning the maintenance and downtime costs in Finnish pumping is given. The leakage of seals was found to be the fault that causes the highest downtime and maintenance costs. A small laboratory arrangement has been used to test the effectiveness of various condition monitoring methods. This information has been used in the development of a diagnostic expert system called CEPDIA, which can be used for diagnosing the condition of a pump and its components. The diagnosis is based on measuring results obtained from sensors and on information about maintenance actions carried out with the pump and its components. The principles of the CEPDIA expert system are described. A database is included in the system for handling and saving the measurement results, technical information on the pumps and maintenance actions carried out with the pumps. The diagnosis can also be based on vibration signature analysis, which is quite effective in determining which fault is the actual cause of malfunction of the pump or its components. CEPDIA can also be used to calculate of the efficiency of the electrical motor and the pump. CEPDIA has been tested in the diagnosis of 63 pumps. The average efficiency in pumping was less than 40 %, and more than 10 % of the pumps were pumping with less than 10 % efficiency. (orig.) 11 refs.

  14. Air-source heat pump carbon footprints: HFC impacts and comparison to other heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Eric P.

    2011-01-01

    European governments see that heat pumps could reduce carbon emissions in space- and hot-water heating. EU's Renewable Energy Directive designates heat pumps as renewable - eligible for various subsidies - if their carbon footprints are below an implied, average threshold. This threshold omits carbon generated by manufacture and emission of a heat-pump's fluorocarbon refrigerant. It also omits the footprint of the heat pump's hardware. To see if these omissions are significant, this study calculated carbon footprints of representative, residential heat pumps in the UK. Three findings emerged. First, in relation to power generation, which accounts for most of a heat-pump's greenhouse-gas emissions, fluorocarbons add another 20% to the footprint. Second, at UK efficiencies a heat-pump footprint (in kg CO 2 e emitted per kWh delivered) is comparable or higher than footprints of gaseous fuels used in heating. It is lower than the footprint of heating oil and far lower than the footprints of solid fuels. Third, production and disposal of a heat pump's hardware is relatively insignificant, accounting for only 2-3% of the overall heat-pump footprint. Sensitivities to the results were assessed: key factors are footprint of electricity generation, F-gas composition and leak rates and type of wall construction. - Research highlights: → Refrigerant emissions add 20% to a UK air-source heat pump's carbon footprint. → This contribution is so far ignored by regulations. → UK heat pump footprints are comparable to those of gaseous fuels.

  15. Energetic and financial evaluation of solar assisted heat pump space heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellos, Evangelos; Tzivanidis, Christos; Moschos, Konstantinos; Antonopoulos, Kimon A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Four solar heating systems are presented in this work. • Various combinations between solar collectors and heat pumps are presented. • The systems are compared energetically and financially. • The use of PV and an air source heat pump is the best choice financially. • The use of PVT with a water source heat pump is the best solution energetically. - Abstract: Using solar energy for space heating purposes consists an alternative way for substituting fossil fuel and grid electricity consumption. In this study, four solar assisted heat pump heating systems are designed, simulated and evaluated energetically and financially in order to determine the most attractive solution. The use of PV collectors with air source heat pump is compared to the use of FPC, PVT and FPC with PV coupled with a water source heat pump. A sensitivity analysis for the electricity cost is conducted because of the great variety of this parameter over the last years. The final results proved that for electricity cost up to 0.23 €/kW h the use of PV coupled with an air source heat pump is the most sustainable solution financially, while for higher electricity prices the coupling of PVT with an water source heat pump is the best choice. For the present electricity price of 0.2 €/kW h, 20 m"2 of PV is able to drive the air source heat pump with a yearly solar coverage of 67% leading to the most sustainable solution. Taking into account energetic aspects, the use of PVT leads to extremely low grid electricity consumption, fact that makes this technology the most environmental friendly.

  16. Operating experience with an on-line vibration control system for PWR main coolant pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runkel, J.; Stegemann, D.; Vortriede, A.

    1996-01-01

    The main circulation pumps are key components of nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors, because the availability of the main circulation pumps has a direct influence on the availability and electrical output of the entire plant. The on-line automatic vibration control system ASMAS was developed for early failure detection during the normal operation of the main circulation pumps in order to avoid unexpected outages and to establish the possibility of preventive maintenance of the pumps. This system is permanently and successfully operating in three German 1300 MW el NPP's with PWR and has been successfully tested in a 350 MW el NPP with a PWR. (orig.)

  17. Operating experience with an on-line vibration control system for PWR main coolant pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runkel, J.; Stegemann, D.; Vortriede, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main circulation pumps are key components of nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors (PWRs), because the availability of the main circulation pumps has a direct influence on the availability and electrical output of the entire plant. The on-line automatic vibration control system ASMAS was developed for early failure detection during the normal operation of the main circulation pumps in order to avoid unexpected outages and to establish the possibility of preventive maintenance of the pumps. This system is permanently and successfully operating in three German 1300 MW e1 NPP's with PWR and has been successfully tested in a 350 MW e1 NPP with a PWR. (orig.)

  18. EFFECT OF THE CRITICAL IRRADIANCE ON PHOTOVOLTAIC WATER PUMP DISCHARGE UNDER EGYPTIAN CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh Abbas HELMY

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aimed to study the effect of critical irradiance due to changing tilt angle of PV panel and tracking sun on submersible pump discharge. The authors used solar tracker and suitable tilt angle for the panel to increase the time interval during which the water pump operates. For the same irradiance collected by the PV, all systems pump the same amount of water, although they occur at different periods of the day. The pump itself 'does not know whether the electric power comes from any processes, as long as it has the same intensity.

  19. Development of a nonazeotropic heat pump for crew hygiene water heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David H.; Deming, Glenn I.

    1991-01-01

    A heat pump system is currently under development to produce hot water for crew hygiene on future manned space missions. The heat pump uses waste heat sources and a nonazeotropic working fluid in a highly efficient cycle. The potential benefits include a reduction in peak power draw from 2 to 5 kW for electric cartridge heaters to just more than 100 W for the heat pump. As part of the heat pump development project, a unique high efficiency compressor was developed to maintain lubrication in a zero-gravity environment.

  20. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-08-19

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  1. Research of waste heat energy efficiency for absorption heat pump recycling thermal power plant circulating water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Liansheng; E, Zhijun; Wang, Kun; Wang, Ziyue; Li, Guohao; Qu, Bin

    2018-02-01

    The waste heat energy efficiency for absorption heat pump recycling thermal power plant circulating water has been analyzed. After the operation of heat pump, the influences on power generation and heat generation of unit were taken into account. In the light of the characteristics of heat pump in different operation stages, the energy efficiency of heat pump was evaluated comprehensively on both sides of benefits belonging to electricity and benefits belonging to heat, which adopted the method of contrast test. Thus, the reference of energy efficiency for same type projects was provided.

  2. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  3. Diode laser pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagerlund, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    A diode laser is pumped or pulsed by a repeated capacitive discharge. A capacitor is periodically charged from a dc voltage source via a transformer, the capacitor being discharged through the diode laser via a controlled switching means after one or more charging periods. During a first interval of each charging period the transformer, while unloaded, stores a specific amount of energy supplied from the dc voltage source. During a subsequent interval of the charging period said specific amount of energy is transmitted from the transformer to the capacitor. The discharging of the capacitor takes place during a first interval of a charging period. (auth)

  4. Novel limiter pump topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topolgies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure

  5. Novel limiter pump topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topologies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure

  6. Improvements relating to electromagnetic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, D.F.

    1975-01-01

    Reference is made to electromagnetic pumps suitable for use in pumping molten Na, and particularly to annular linear induction pumps that may for example be used to pump molten Na at temperatures up to 650 0 in situations where it is not possible to provide cooling. Previous designs of such pumps have employed disk-shaped coils around the outside of the annulus, the coils being energised from a three-phase power supply to produce a travelling radial field. The pump system described obviates the necessity for joints between the coils. It also allows the use of all types of high temperature insultation, simplified manufacture, and enables the windings to be located on the inside of the annulus. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  7. Fast breeder reactor electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araseki, Hideo; Murakami, Takahiro

    2008-01-01

    Main pumps circulating sodium in the FBR type reactor have been mechanical types, not electromagnetic pumps. Electromagnetic pump of 1-2 m 3 /min has been used as an auxiliary pump. Large sized electromagnetic pumps such as several hundred m 3 /min have not been commercialized due to technical difficulties with electromagnetic instability and pressure pulsations. This article explained electromagnetic and fluid equations and magnetic Reynolds number related with electromagnetic pumps and numerical analysis of instability characteristics and pressure pulsations and then described applications of the results to FBR system. Magnetic Reynolds number must be chosen less than one with appropriate operating frequency and optimum slip of 0.2-0.4. (T. Tanaka)

  8. Mechanical pumping at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perin, J.P.; Claudet, G.; Disdier, F.

    1994-12-31

    This new concept consists of a mechanical pump able to run at low temperature (25 K). Since gas density varies inversely with temperature, the pump could deliver much higher mass flow rate than at room temperature for a given size. Advantages of this concept are reduction of an order of magnitude in size and weight when compared to a conventional pump scaled to perform the same mass flow rate at room temperature. Results obtained at 80 K and 25 K with a Holweck type molecular drag pump of 100 mm diameter and with few stages of a turbomolecular pump running at the same temperatures, are given. This pump would be a solution to allow continuous tritium extraction and minimize the mass inventory for the ITER (International Tokamak Experiment Reactor). 5 figs., 2 tabs., 4 refs.

  9. Centrifugal pumps: fundamentals and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar Manuel, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Centrifugal pumps are usually employed to impulse water to elevate it, dose it or give it pressure or speed. They can be used with clean water or loaded with high solid concentration and don't work properly with air or another gas flow. There are another less used pumps, coming from volumetric or ram pumps to magnetic ones for specific uses. Centrifugal ones are rotokinetic pumps, like peripherical or lateral channel pumps. They work in a different way that non rotational kinetic ones and static ones. The work approaches their pre definition, selection, installation, operation and maintenance. It also review their morphology, hidromechanic principles and the basic elements pumps are made of. (Author)

  10. Considerations for reference pump curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines problems associated with inservice testing (IST) of pumps to assess their hydraulic performance using reference pump curves to establish acceptance criteria. Safety-related pumps at nuclear power plants are tested under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section 11. The Code requires testing pumps at specific reference points of differential pressure or flow rate that can be readily duplicated during subsequent tests. There are many cases where test conditions cannot be duplicated. For some pumps, such as service water or component cooling pumps, the flow rate at any time depends on plant conditions and the arrangement of multiple independent and constantly changing loads. System conditions cannot be controlled to duplicate a specific reference value. In these cases, utilities frequently request to use pump curves for comparison of test data for acceptance. There is no prescribed method for developing a pump reference curve. The methods vary and may yield substantially different results. Some results are conservative when compared to the Code requirements; some are not. The errors associated with different curve testing techniques should be understood and controlled within reasonable bounds. Manufacturer's pump curves, in general, are not sufficiently accurate to use as reference pump curves for IST. Testing using reference curves generated with polynomial least squares fits over limited ranges of pump operation, cubic spline interpolation, or cubic spline least squares fits can provide a measure of pump hydraulic performance that is at least as accurate as the Code required method. Regardless of the test method, error can be reduced by using more accurate instruments, by correcting for systematic errors, by increasing the number of data points, and by taking repetitive measurements at each data point

  11. Centrifugal pumps and allied machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, HH

    1994-01-01

    This book will be of vital interest to all engineers and designers concerned with centrifugal pumps and turbines. Including statistical information derived from 20000 pumps and 700 turbines with capacities of 5gpm to 5000000gpm, this book offers the widest range and scope of information currently available. Statistical analyses suggest practical methods of increasing pump performance and provide valuable data for new design aspects.

  12. Deionization and desalination using electrostatic ion pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, William L.; Aines, Roger D.; Haslam, Jeffery J.; Schaldach, Charlene M.; O& #x27; Brien, Kevin C.; Cussler, Edward

    2013-06-11

    The present invention provides a new method and apparatus/system for purifying ionic solutions, such as, for example, desalinating water, using engineered charged surfaces to sorb ions from such solutions. Surface charge is applied externally, and is synchronized with oscillatory fluid movements between substantially parallel charged plates. Ions are held in place during fluid movement in one direction (because they are held in the electrical double layer), and released for transport during fluid movement in the opposite direction by removing the applied electric field. In this way the ions, such as salt, are "ratcheted" across the charged surface from the feed side to the concentrate side. The process itself is very simple and involves only pumps, charged surfaces, and manifolds for fluid collection.

  13. Residential gas-fired sorption heat pumps. Test and technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M.

    2008-12-15

    Heat pumps may be the next step in gas-fired residential space heating. Together with solar energy it is an option to combine natural gas and renewable energy. Heat pumps for residential space heating are likely to be based on the absorption or adsorption process, i.e. sorption heat pumps. Manufacturers claim that the efficiency could reach 140-160%. The annual efficiency will be lower but it is clear that gas-fired heat pumps can involve an efficiency and technology step equal to the transition from non-condensing gas boilers with atmospheric burners to condensing boilers. This report contains a review of the current sorption gas-fired heat pumps for residential space heating and also the visible development trends. A prototype heat pump has been laboratory tested. Field test results from Germany and the Netherlands are also used for a technology evaluation. The tested heat pump unit combines a small heat pump and a supplementary condensing gas boiler. Field tests show an average annual efficiency of 120% for this prototype design. The manufacturer abandoned the tested design during the project period and the current development concentrates on a heat pump design only comprising the heat pump, although larger. The heat pump development at three manufacturers in Germany indicates a commercial stage around 2010-2011. A fairly high electricity consumption compared to traditional condensing boilers was observed in the tested heat pump. Based on current prices for natural gas and electricity the cost savings were estimated to 12% and 27% for heat pumps with 120% and 150% annual efficiency respectively. There is currently no widespread performance testing procedure useful for annual efficiency calculations of gas-fired heat pumps. The situation seems to be clearer for electric compression heat pumps regarding proposed testing and calculation procedures. A German environmental label exists and gasfired sorption heat pumps are also slightly treated in the Eco-design work

  14. Report on an investigation into heat pumps in China in fiscal 1995; 1995 nendo Chugoku ni okeru heat pump system ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The paper surveyed the present status, the status of spread, and the technical development of the technology of heat pumps for residential and industrial uses in China. Main examples of installation of heat pumps are cited below: steam drive absorption type refrigerators in Beijing; sea water heat source turbo heat pumps in Qingdao; hot water drive absorption type refrigerators in Beijing; oil-fueled absorption type water cooling and heating appliances in Beijing; ice latent heat storage airconditioning systems using electrically-driven screw chiller in Beijing; temperature rising systems using electrically-driven heat pump of the solar energy utilization warm water swimming pool in Guangdong Province; cooling water supply using waste heat utilization absorption type refrigerator of the alcohol plant in Shandong Province; timber drying systems using electrically-driven heat pump, and marine product cultivation systems in Quangdong Province; distillation systems using steam turbine heat pump in Jiangxi Province. The demand for heat pumps is expected to be 20 million units under the 9th 5-year plan, and the development of equipment is thought to go toward promotion of energy conservation, low noise, multi-type or multi-functional air conditioning equipment, and computer use. 137 figs., 40 tabs.

  15. Sizing and modelling of photovoltaic water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Badi, A.; Yousef, H.; Al Mahmoudi, T.; Al-Shammaki, M.; Al-Abri, A.; Al-Hinai, A.

    2018-05-01

    With the decline in price of the photovoltaics (PVs) their use as a power source for water pumping is the most attractive solution instead of using diesel generators or electric motors driven by a grid system. In this paper, a method to design a PV pumping system is presented and discussed, which is then used to calculate the required size of the PV for an existing farm. Furthermore, the amount of carbon dioxide emissions saved by the use of PV water pumping system instead of using diesel-fuelled generators or electrical motor connected to the grid network is calculated. In addition, an experimental set-up is developed for the PV water pumping system using both DC and AC motors with batteries. The experimental tests are used to validate the developed MATLAB model. This research work demonstrates that using the PV water pumping system is not only improving the living conditions in rural areas but it is also protecting the environment and can be a cost-effective application in remote locations.

  16. Pump/heat exchanger assembly for pool-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathenson, R.D.; Slepian, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    A heat exchanger and pump assembly comprising a heat exchanger including a housing for defining an annularly shaped cavity and supporting therein a plurality of heat transfer tubes. A pump is disposed beneath the heat exchanger and is comprised of a plurality of flow couplers disposed in a circular array. Each flow coupler is comprised of a pump duct for receiving a first electrically conductive fluid, i.e. the primary liquid metal, from a pool thereof, and a generator duct for receiving a second electrically conductive fluid, i.e. the intermediate liquid metal. The primary liquid metal is introduced from the reactor pool into the top, inlet ends of the tubes, flowing downward therethrough to be discharged from the tubes' bottom ends directly into the reactor pool. The primary liquid metal is variously introduced into the pump ducts directly from the reactor pool, either from the bottom or top end of the flow coupler. The intermediate fluid introduced into the generator ducts via the inlet duct and inlet plenum and after leaving the generator ducts passes through the annular cavity of the exchanger to cool the primary liquid in the tubes. The annular magnetic field of the pump is produced by a circular array of electromagnets having hollow windings cooled by a flow of the intermediate metal. (author)

  17. Novel regulation of cardiac Na pump via phospholemman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Davor; Fuller, William; Shattock, Michael J

    2013-08-01

    As the only quantitatively significant Na efflux pathway from cardiac cells, the Na/K ATPase (Na pump) is the primary regulator of intracellular Na. The transmembrane Na gradient it establishes is essential for normal electrical excitability, numerous coupled-transport processes and, as the driving force for Na/Ca exchange, thus setting cardiac Ca load and contractility. As Na influx varies with electrical excitation, heart rate and pathology, the dynamic regulation of Na efflux is essential. It is now widely recognized that phospholemman, a 72 amino acid accessory protein which forms part of the Na pump complex, is the key nexus linking cellular signaling to pump regulation. Phospholemman is the target of a variety of post-translational modifications (including phosphorylation, palmitoylation and glutathionation) and these can dynamically alter the activity of the Na pump. This review summarizes our current understanding of the multiple regulatory mechanisms that converge on phospholemman and govern NA pump activity in the heart. The corrected Fig. 4 is reproduced below. The publisher would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused. [corrected]. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Energy performance and consumption for biogas heat pump air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenjun [Architectural Engineering College, Qingdao Agricultural University, 266109 (China); Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Wu, Huaizhi; Wu, Meiling [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Biogas engine-driven heat pump air conditioner is a new-style system which includes biogas engine-driven heat pump, primary heat exchanger, second heat exchanger, sprayed room and fans, pumps, etc. In summertime, the air can be reheated by the waste heat water from the biogas engine in the system, while the air can be reheated and humidified by the waste heat water in winter. Reducing or displacing electrical heating requirements can achieve the great opportunity for significant energy savings. This paper, therefore, aims to improve the energy performance of the AC system by using the waste heat from the biogas engine. The mathematic model was used to research the BHPAC. Explicitly, we investigated the influence of various factors including the outdoor air temperature and humidity in summer and winter. Results show that the biogas engine-driven heat pump air conditioner can save more energy than the electrical power heat pump. In summer, the minimum for percentage of primary energy saving for BHPAC is over 25%. With the outdoor air dry-bulb temperature and the relative humidity rises, the saving energy percentage rises. In winter, the minimum for percentage of primary energy saving for BHPAC is 37%. The more the outdoor air relative humidity of the outdoor air decreases, the more the BHPAC saves energy. It is proved that the system which is a highly actively fully utilizing energy technology has good partial load characteristic and good effects of energy saving. (author)

  19. Effect of pump limiter throat on pumping efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendrih, P.; Grosman, A.; Samain, A.; Capes, H.; Morera, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    The necessary control of plasma edge density has led to the development of pump limiters to achieve this task. On Tore Supra, where a large part of the program is devoted to plasma edge studies, two types of such density control apparatus have been implemented, a set of pump limiters and the pumps associated to the ergodic divertor (magnetically assisted pump limiters). Generally two different kinds of pump limiters can be used, those with a throat which drives the plasma from the open edge plasma (SOL) to the neutralizer plate, and those without or with a very short throat. We are interested here in this aspect of the pump limiter concept, i.e. on the throat effect on neutral density build-up in the vicinity of the pumping plates (and hence on pumping efficieny). The underlying idea of this throat effect can be readily understood; indeed while the neutral capture in pump limiters without throats is only a ballistic effect, on expects the plasma to improve the efficiency of pump-limiters via plasma-neutral-sidewall interactions in the throat. This problem has been studied both numerically and analytically. The paper is divided as follows. In section 2, we describe the basic features of pump-limiters which are modelized by the numerical code Cezanne. Section 3 is devoted to the throat length effect considering in particular the neutral density profile in the throat and the neutral density buil-up as a function of the throat lenght. In section 4, we show that the plugging effect occurs for reasonnable values of throat lengths. An analytical value of the plugging length is discussed and compared to the values obtained numerically

  20. Economic COP Optimization of a Heat Pump with Hierarchical Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A low-temperature heating system is studied in this paper. It consists of hydronic under-floor heating pipes and an air/ground source heat pump. The heat pump in such a setup is conventionally controlled only by feed-forwarding the ambient temperature. Having shown >10% cut-down on electricity bi....... The proposed control strategy is a leap forward towards balanced load control in Smart Grids where individual heat pumps in detached houses contribute to preserve load balance through intelligent electricity pricing policies....

  1. Pump cavitation and inducer design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heslenfeld, M.W.; Hes, M. de

    2002-01-01

    Details of past work on sodium pump development and cavitation studies executed mainly for SNR 300 were reported earlier. Among the requirements for large sodium pumps are long life (200000 hours up to 300000 hours) and small size of impeller and pump, fully meeting the process and design criteria. These criteria are the required 'Q, H, r characteristics' in combination with a low NPSH value and the avoidance of cavitation damage to the pump. The pump designer has to develop a sound hydraulic combination consisting of suction arrangement, impeller design and diffuser. On the other hand the designer is free to choose an optimal pump speed. The pump speed in its turn influences the rotor dynamic pump design and the pump drive. The introduction of the inducer as an integral part of the pump design is based on following advantages: no tip cavitation; (possible) cavitation bubbles move to the open centre due to centrifugal forces on the fluid; the head of the inducer improves the inlet conditions of the impeller. The aim of an inducer is the increase in the suction specific speed (SA value) of a pump whereby the inducer functions as a pressure source improving the impeller inlet conditions. With inducer-impeller combinations values up to SA=15000 are realistic. With the use of an inducer the overall pump sizes can be reduced with Ca. 30%. Pumps commonly available have SA values up to a maximum of ca. 10000. A development programme was executed for SNR 300 in order to reach an increase of the suction specific speed of the impeller from SA 8200 to SA 11000. Further studies to optimize pumps design for the follow up line introduced the 'inducer acting as a pre-impeller' development. This programme was executed in the period 1979-1981. At the FDO premises a scale 1 2.8 inducer impeller combination with a suction specific speed SA=15000 was developed, constructed and tested at the water test rig. This water test rig is equipped with a perspex pipe allowing also visualisation

  2. Mechanical pumping at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perin, J.P.; Claudet, G.; Disdier, F.

    1995-01-01

    This novel concept consist of a mechanical pump able to run at low temperature (25K). Since gas density varies inversely with temperature, this pump would deliver much higher mass flow rate than at room temperature for a given size. Advantages of this concept are order of magnitude reduction in size, weight, when compared to a conventional pump scaled to perform the same mass flow rate at room temperature. This pump would be a solution to allow continuously tritium extraction and minimize the mass inventory. (orig.)

  3. Mono pump equipment evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A mobile pump has been designed, developed, and tested as part of an effort to increase oil spill response time, improve oil/water recovery efficiency and reduce cleanup and reclamation costs. The pump is mounted on an engine powered track carrier, and can be detached from the carrier and skidded into remote spill sites or transported by helicopter. The pump can safely recover highly volatile flammable substances such as condensate and gasoline, as well as heavy crude oil up to 5000 centipoise viscosity. It can pump up to 30 gal/min at zero head, and up to 1000 feet in a vertical direction. 13 figs

  4. Swiss electricity statistics 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication by the Association of Swiss Electricity Enterprises for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2000. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2000, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The production of power in Switzerland is examined in detail. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2000 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The final two chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity

  5. Wireless Sensor for Measuring Pump Efficiency: Small Business Voucher Project with KCF Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL; Koopman, Gary [KCF Technologies; Fugate, David L [ORNL

    2017-01-23

    This document is to fulfill the final report requirements for the Small Business Voucher (SBV) CRADA project with ORNL and KCF Technologies (CRADA/NFE-16-06133). Pumping systems account for nearly 20% of the world’s electrical energy demand and range from 25-50% of the energy usage in many industrial and building power plants. The energy cost is the largest element in the total cost of owning a pump (~40%). In response to a recent DOE mandate for improved pump efficiency pump manufacturers are preparing for the changes that the impending regulations will bring, including design improvements. This mandate also establishes a need for new low cost pump efficiency measurement systems. The standard industry definition of pump efficiency is the mechanical water horsepower delivered divided by the electrical horsepower input to the motor. KCF Technologies has developed a new sensor measurement technique to estimate fluid pump efficiency using a thermodynamic approach. KCF Technologies applied for a SBV grant with ORNL as the research partner. KCF needed a research partner with the proper facilities to demonstrate the efficacy of its wireless sensor unit for measuring pump efficiency. The ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center (BTRIC) test resources were used to test and demonstrate the successful measurement of pump efficiency with the KCF sensor technology. KCF is now working on next steps to commercialize this sensing technology.

  6. Development of the methodology for the MHD analysis in a linear induction electro-magnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Seung Hwan; Hur, Seop; Kim, Seong O; Choi, Seok Ki; Wi, Myung Hwan; Jeon, Won Dae

    2004-01-01

    Generally, fast breeder reactors have adopted a liquid metal as a coolant for the heat transfer from the reactor to the heat exchangers. Since a liquid metal has an electrical conductivity, the pumping of the liquid metal may use an induction electro-magnetic (EM) pump which induces electrical current and body force on the metal flow. These linear induction pumps use a traveling magnetic field wave created by poly-phase currents and the induced currents and their associated magnetic field generate the Lorentz force whose effect can be actually the pumping of the liquid metal. The flow behaviors in the pump are very complex such as the existence of a rotational force, pulsation and so on, because the induction EM pump has time-varying magnetic fields and the induced convective currents which originate form the flow of the liquid metal. These phenomena generate a stability problem in the pump and depend on the changes of the magnetic field and fluid flow field due to the induced currents and the fluid flow of the liquid metal with time and complex pump geometry. Therefore, an exact flow analysis is required for designing and evaluating the stability of a pump

  7. Reflection Phenomena in Underground Pumped Storage Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pummer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage through hydropower leads to free surface water waves in the connected reservoirs. The reason for this is the movement of water between reservoirs at different elevations, which is necessary for electrical energy storage. Currently, the expansion of renewable energies requires the development of fast and flexible energy storage systems, of which classical pumped storage plants are the only technically proven and cost-effective technology and are the most used. Instead of classical pumped storage plants, where reservoirs are located on the surface, underground pumped storage plants with subsurface reservoirs could be an alternative. They are independent of topography and have a low surface area requirement. This can be a great advantage for energy storage expansion in case of environmental issues, residents’ concerns and an unusable terrain surface. However, the reservoirs of underground pumped storage plants differ in design from classical ones for stability and space reasons. The hydraulic design is essential to ensure their satisfactory hydraulic performance. The paper presents a hybrid model study, which is defined here as a combination of physical and numerical modelling to use the advantages and to compensate for the disadvantages of the respective methods. It shows the analysis of waves in ventilated underground reservoir systems with a great length to height ratio, considering new operational aspects from energy supply systems with a great percentage of renewable energies. The multifaceted and narrow design of the reservoirs leads to complex free surface flows; for example, undular and breaking bores arise. The results show excessive wave heights through wave reflections, caused by the impermeable reservoir boundaries. Hence, their knowledge is essential for a successful operational and constructive design of the reservoirs.

  8. Pump Hydro Energy Storage systems (PHES) in groundwater flooded quarries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Angélique; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Goderniaux, Pascal

    2018-04-01

    Pump storage hydroelectricity is an efficient way to temporarily store energy. This technique requires to store temporarily a large volume of water in an upper reservoir, and to release it through turbines to the lower reservoir, to produce electricity. Recently, the idea of using old flooded quarries as a lower reservoir has been evoked. However, these flooded quarries are generally connected to unconfined aquifers. Consequently, pumping or injecting large volumes of water, within short time intervals, will have an impact on the adjacent aquifers. Conversely, water exchanges between the quarry and the aquifer may also influence the water level fluctuations in the lower reservoir. Using numerical modelling, this study investigates the interactions between generic flooded open pit quarries and adjacent unconfined aquifers, during various pump-storage cyclic stresses. The propagation of sinusoidal stresses in the adjacent porous media and the amplitude of water level fluctuations in the quarry are studied. Homogeneous rock media and the presence of fractures in the vicinity of the quarry are considered. Results show that hydrological quarry - rock interactions must be considered with caution, when implementing pump - storage systems. For rock media characterized by high hydraulic conductivity and porosity values, water volumes exchanges during cycles may affect significantly the amplitude of the water level fluctuations in the quarry, and as a consequence, the instantaneous electricity production. Regarding the impact of the pump - storage cyclic stresses on the surrounding environment, the distance of influence is potentially high under specific conditions, and is enhanced with the occurrence of rock heterogeneities, such as fractures. The impact around the quarry used as a lower reservoir thus appears as an important constraining factor regarding the feasibility of pump - storage systems, to be assessed carefully if groundwater level fluctuations around the quarry

  9. History of heat pumps - Swiss contributions and international milestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zogg, M

    2008-05-15

    Compared to conventional boilers, heating by heat pumps cuts down fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions to about 50%. Compared to electric resistance heating, the energy consumption is even reduced up to 80%. Therefore, the impressive market penetration growth of heat pumps will continue. Swiss pioneers were the first to realize functioning vapour recompression plants. The first European heat pumps were realized in Switzerland. To date it remains one of the heat pump champions. Swiss pioneering work in the development of borehole heat exchangers, sewage heat recovery, oil free piston compressors and turbo compressors is well known. The biggest heat pump ever built comes from Switzerland. Although there is a fairly comprehensive natural gas distribution grid, 75% of the new single-family homes built in Switzerland are currently heated by heat pumps. This paper presents some of the highlights of this success story focusing on Swiss developments and relating them to the international milestones. In order to indicate the direction in which the future development might go to, some recent Swiss research projects are presented as well. (author)

  10. Solar assisted heat pump on air collectors: A simulation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiorgas, Michalis; Galatis, Kostas; Tsagouri, Manolis [Department of Mechanical Engineering Educators, ASPETE, N. Iraklio, GR 14121 (Greece); Tsoutsos, Theocharis [Environmental Engineering Dept., Technical University of Crete, Technical University Campus, GR 73100, Chania (Greece); Botzios-Valaskakis, Aristotelis [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), 19th km Marathon Ave., GR 19001, Pikermi (Greece)

    2010-01-15

    The heating system of the bioclimatic building of the Greek National Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES) comprises two heating plants: the first one includes an air source heat pump, Solar Air Collectors (SACs) and a heat distribution system (comprising a fan coil unit network); the second one is, mainly, a geothermal heat pump unit to cover the ground floor thermal needs. The SAC configuration as well as the fraction of the building heating load covered by the heating plant are assessed in two operation modes; the direct (hot air from the collectors is supplied directly to the heated space) and the indirect mode (warm air from the SAC or its mixture with ambient air is not supplied directly to the heated space but indirectly into the evaporator of the air source heat pump). The technique of the indirect mode of heating aims at maximizing the efficiency of the SAC, saving electrical power consumed by the compressor of the heat pump, and therefore, at optimizing the coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump due to the increased intake of ambient thermal energy by means of the SAC. Results are given for three research objectives: assessment of the heat pump efficiency whether in direct or indirect heating mode; Assessment of the overall heating plant efficiency on a daily or hourly basis; Assessment of the credibility of the suggested simulation model TSAGAIR by comparing its results with the TRNSYS ones. (author)

  11. A new concept of submersed centrifugal pump protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Fabiano U.; Aguiar, Jose Luiz de M.; Hamdan, Adel C.; Doerwald, Bruno K.; Dutra, Diogenes; Ghiotto, Edson Carlos da S.; Meira, Marco Antonio A. de

    2000-01-01

    The present article is related to the development of one motor protection relay, which features include the electrical and mechanical device protection of machine. The main focus the purpose of this development, was the monitoring of the phenomena called 'Back Spin', which is common in oil production plant where 'Electrical Submersible Pump' (ESP) Technologies is used. The final results of this job is to present one equipment which is capable to completely protect the ESP Set, electrically and mechanically, and with additional functions of monitoring the mechanical set, with graphic interface to set all protection and monitoring functions using 'windows based' tools. (author)

  12. Survey of pumps for tritium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, T.M.

    1983-05-01

    This report considers many different types of pumps for their possible use in pumping tritium gas in the low, intermediate and high vacuum ranges. No one type of pump is suitable for use over the wide range of pumping pressure required in a typical pumping system. The favoured components for such a system are: bellows pump (low vacuum); orbiting scroll pump (intermediate vacuum); magnetically suspended turbomolecular pump (high vacuum); cryopump (high vacuum). Other pumps which should be considered for possible future development are: mound modified vane pump; SRTI wobble pump; roots pump with canned motor. It is proposed that a study be made of a future tritium pumping system in a Canadian tritium facility, e.g. a tritium laboratory

  13. LMR [liquid metal reactor] centrifugal pump coastdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, F.E.; Malloy, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    A centrifugal pump model which describes the interrelationships of the pump discharge flowrate, pump speed, shaft torque and dynamic head has been implemented based upon existing models. Specifically, the pump model is based upon the dimensionless-homologous pump theory of Wylie and Streeter. Given data from a representative pump, homologous theory allows one to predict the transient characteristics of similarly sized pumps. This homologous pump model has been implemented into both the one-dimensional SASSYS-1 systems analysis code and the three-dimensional COMMIX-1A code. Comparisons have been made both against other pump models (CRBR) and actual pump coastdown data (EBR-II and FFTF). Agreement with this homologous pump model has been excellent. Additionally, these comparisons indicate the validity of applying the medium size pump data of Wylie and Streeter to a range of typical LMR centrifugal pumps

  14. Work plan, AP-102 mixer pump removal and pump replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work plan is to plan the steps and estimate the costs required to remove the failed AP-102 mixer pump, and to plan and estimate the cost of the necessary design and specification work required to order a new, but modified, mixer pump including the pump and pump pit energy absorbing design. The main hardware required for the removal of the mixer is as follows: a flexible receiver and blast shield; a metal container for the pulled mixer pump; and a trailer and strongback to haul and manipulate the container. Additionally: a gamma scanning device will be needed to detect the radioactivity emanating from the mixer as it is pulled from the tank; a water spray system will be required to remove tank waste from the surface of the mixer as it is pulled from the AP-102 tank; and a lifting yoke to lift the mixer from the pump pit (the SY-101 Mixer Lifting Yoke will be used). A ''green house'' will have to be erected over the AP-102 pump pit and an experienced Hoisting and Rigging crew must be assembled and trained in mixer pump removal methods before the actual removal is undertaken

  15. Diode-pumped laser with improved pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jim J.

    2004-03-09

    A laser wherein pump radiation from laser diodes is delivered to a pump chamber and into the lasing medium by quasi-three-dimensional compound parabolic concentrator light channels. The light channels have reflective side walls with a curved surface and reflective end walls with a curved surface. A flow tube between the lasing medium and the light channel has a roughened surface.

  16. Pumps in wearable ultrafiltration devices: pumps in wuf devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armignacco, Paolo; Garzotto, Francesco; Bellini, Corrado; Neri, Mauro; Lorenzin, Anna; Sartori, Marco; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The wearable artificial kidney (WAK) is a device that is supposed to operate like a real kidney, which permits prolonged, frequent, and continuous dialysis treatments for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Its functioning is mainly related to its pumping system, as well as to its dialysate-generating and alarm/shutoff ones. A pump is defined as a device that moves fluids by mechanical action. In such a context, blood pumps pull blood from the access side of the dialysis catheter and return the blood at the same rate of flow. The main aim of this paper is to review the current literature on blood pumps, describing the way they have been functioning thus far and how they are being engineered, giving details about the most important parameters that define their quality, thus allowing the production of a radar comparative graph, and listing ideal pumps' features. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid.......KEYWORDS: water, pump, design, vane, gear....

  18. 46 CFR 119.520 - Bilge pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge pumps. 119.520 Section 119.520 Shipping COAST... Ballast Systems § 119.520 Bilge pumps. (a) Each vessel must be provided with bilge pumps in accordance... have a portable hand bilge pump that must be: (1) Capable of pumping water, but not necessarily...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1135 - Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumps. 154.1135 Section 154.1135 Shipping COAST GUARD... Pumps. (a) Water to the water spray system must be supplied by: (1) A pump that is only for the use of the system; (2) A fire pump; or (3) A pump specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522). (b...

  20. 33 CFR 157.126 - Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pumps. 157.126 Section 157.126... Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.126 Pumps. (a) Crude oil must be supplied to the COW machines by COW system pumps or cargo pumps. (b) The pumps under paragraph...

  1. Multiphysics Modeling of an Annular Linear Induction Pump With Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbane, J.; Polzin, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    An annular linear induction pump (ALIP) that could be used for circulating liquid-metal coolant in a fission surface power reactor system is modeled in the present work using the computational COMSOL Multiphysics package. The pump is modeled using a two-dimensional, axisymmetric geometry and solved under conditions similar to those used during experimental pump testing. Real, nonlinear, temperature-dependent material properties can be incorporated into the model for both the electrically-conducting working fluid in the pump (NaK-78) and structural components of the pump. The intricate three-phase coil configuration of the pump is implemented in the model to produce an axially-traveling magnetic wave that is qualitatively similar to the measured magnetic wave. The model qualitatively captures the expected feature of a peak in efficiency as a function of flow rate.

  2. Innovative application of air ejector as a pump for continuous air monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhanasekaran, A.; Ajoy, K.C.; Santhanam, R.; Rajagopal, V.; Jose, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Workplace monitoring, one of the key components of the radiation protection program is generally carried out by means of instruments installed permanently in respective areas or through portable air sampling instruments. Continuous air monitor (CAM) is one such monitor that constantly monitors the radionuclide concentration in air and triggers alarm as and when the air concentration goes above the pre-set levels. Conventional CAM system has a filter head, detector, display unit and a pump as four major parts. Pump may be either rotary vane or a vibrating diaphragm which are electrically driven using motors. Air lift pumps using ejectors are widely used where pump reliability and low maintenance are required, and where corrosive, abrasive, or radioactive fluids are handled. Since ejectors are uncomplicated alternative to vacuum pumps, an attempt was made to use the same as a pump for conventional CAMs. An ejector based sampling set up was made, tested and the results are represented in this paper

  3. Low-flow operation and testing of pumps in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    Low-flow operation of centrifugal pumps introduces hydraulic instability and other factors that can cause damage to these machines. The resulting degradation has been studied and recorded for pumps in electric power plants. The objectives of this paper are to (1) describe the damage-producing phenomena, including their sources and consequences; (2) relate these observations to expectations for damage caused by low-flow operation of pumps in nuclear power plants; and (3) assess the utility of low-flow testing. Hydraulic behavior during low-flow operation is reviewed for a typical centrifugal pump stage, and the damage-producing mechanisms are described. Pump monitoring practices, in conjunction with pump performance characteristics, are considered; experience data are reviewed; and the effectiveness of low-flow surveillance monitoring is examined. Degradation caused by low-flow operation is shown to be an important factor, and low-flow surveillance testing is shown to be inadequate. 18 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Hydraulic design of a boiler feed pump to ensure stable operation at reduced flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singal, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    The boiler feed pumps for industrial and power station boilers have to operate often at reduced capacities to meet the changing demand of steam and electricity. The operation of centrifugal pumps at reduced capacities lead to a number of unfavourable results seriously affecting the pump reliability. Some of these, such as internal recirculation of flow inside the pump have been recently studied. The paper discusses these unfavourable results and analyses various design factors which can control unstable operation of the pumps at reduced flows. The commissioning problems of boiler feed pumps faced at Rajasthan Atomic Power Plant at Kota and modifications carried out in the light of the above studies are described in the paper. (author). 2 tabs

  5. Development of a mercury electromagnetic centrifugal pump for the SNAP-8 refractory boiler development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, R. A.; Schnacke, A. W.

    1974-01-01

    An electromagnetic pump, in which pressure is developed in mercury because of the interaction of the magnetic field and current which flows as a result of the voltage induced in the mercury contained in the pump duct, was developed for the SNAP-8 refractory boiler test facility. Pump performance results are presented for ten duct configurations and two stator sizes. These test results were used to design and fabricate a pump which met the SNAP-8 criteria of 530 psi developed pressure at 12,500 lb/hr. The pump operated continuously for over 13,000 hours without failure or performance degradation. Included in this report are descriptions of the experimental equipment, measurement techniques, all experimental data, and an analysis of the electrical losses in the pump.

  6. Dynamic analysis of a pumped-storage hydropower plant with random power load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Chen, Diyi; Xu, Beibei; Patelli, Edoardo; Tolo, Silvia

    2018-02-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamic response of a pumped-storage hydropower plant in generating mode. Considering the elastic water column effects in the penstock, a linearized reduced order dynamic model of the pumped-storage hydropower plant is used in this paper. As the power load is always random, a set of random generator electric power output is introduced to research the dynamic behaviors of the pumped-storage hydropower plant. Then, the influences of the PI gains on the dynamic characteristics of the pumped-storage hydropower plant with the random power load are analyzed. In addition, the effects of initial power load and PI parameters on the stability of the pumped-storage hydropower plant are studied in depth. All of the above results will provide theoretical guidance for the study and analysis of the pumped-storage hydropower plant.

  7. IEA HPT ANNEX 41 – Cold climate heat pumps: US country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groll, Eckhard A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    In 2012 the International Energy Agency (IEA) Heat Pump Programme (now the Heat Pump Technologies (HPT) program) established Annex 41 to investigate technology solutions to improve performance of heat pumps for cold climates. Four IEA HPT member countries are participating in the Annex – Austria, Canada, Japan, and the United States (U.S.). The principal focus of Annex 41 is on electrically driven air-source heat pumps (ASHP) since that system type has the lowest installation cost of all heat pump alternatives. They also have the most significant performance challenges given their inherent efficiency and capacity issues at cold outdoor temperatures. Availability of ASHPs with improved low ambient performance would help bring about a much stronger heat pump market presence in cold areas, which today rely predominantly on fossil fuel furnace heating systems.

  8. Spin Pumping in Electrodynamically Coupled Magnon-Photon Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lihui; Harder, M; Chen, Y P; Fan, X; Xiao, J Q; Hu, C-M

    2015-06-05

    We use electrical detection, in combination with microwave transmission, to investigate both resonant and nonresonant magnon-photon coupling at room temperature. Spin pumping in a dynamically coupled magnon-photon system is found to be distinctly different from previous experiments. Characteristic coupling features such as modes anticrossing, linewidth evolution, peculiar line shape, and resonance broadening are systematically measured and consistently analyzed by a theoretical model set on the foundation of classical electrodynamic coupling. Our experimental and theoretical approach paves the way for pursuing microwave coherent manipulation of pure spin current via the combination of spin pumping and magnon-photon coupling.

  9. Diode-pumped solid state laser for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Orth, C.D.

    1994-11-01

    The authors evaluate the prospect for development of a diode-pumped solid-state-laser driver in an inertial fusion energy power plant. Using a computer code, they predict that their 1 GWe design will offer electricity at 8.6 cents/kW · hr with the laser operating at 8.6% efficiency and the recycled power level at 31%. The results of their initial subscale experimental testbed of a diode-pumped solid state laser are encouraging, demonstrating good efficiencies and robustness

  10. Improvement in motor performance during high pressure pump starting at NDDP, Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaraj, R.; Murugan, V.; Thalor, K.L.; Saxena, A.K.; Dangore, A.Y.; Prabhakar, S.; Tiwari, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    The major energy requirement required for a Sea Water Reverse Osmosis is in the form of Electrical Energy. The primary energy requirement in the process is the electrical energy fed to High Pressure Pumps to pressurize the feed sea water to membranes. This High pressure pump being a high inertia load requires very high torque at the time of starting. This high starting torque requirement results in increased acceleration time of the motor which subsequently increases the strain on the upstream electrical system from motor feeder to transformer. Such starting characteristic necessitates provision of special starting scheme for the high pressure pump motors. Sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant of Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Project (NDDP) was commissioned in October 2002 at Kalpakkam, India. This paper presents the experiences of problems faced due to the typical starting characteristics of High Pressure pumps and provision of series reactor type motor starter for the same. (author)

  11. Viability of using different types of main oil pipelines pump drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirzakov, A. G.; Zemenkov, Yu D.; Akulov, K. A.

    2018-05-01

    The choice of the pumping units' drive of main oil pipelines is of great importance both for design of pipelines and for modernization of existing ones. At the beginning of oil pipeline transport development, due to the limited number and types of energy sources, the choice was not difficult. The combustion energy of the pumped product was often the only available energy resource for its transportation. In this regard, the pipelines that had autonomous energy sources favorably differed from other energy consumers in the sector. With the passage of time, with the development of the country's electricity supply system, the electric drive for power-line equipment of oil pipelines becomes the dominant type of a pumping station drive. Nowadays, the traditional component is an essential factor when choosing some type of the drive. For many years, oil companies have been using electric drives for pumps, while gas transport enterprises prefer self-contained gas turbines.

  12. Direct solar pumping of semiconductor lasers: A feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Neal G.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes results of NASA Grant NAG-1-1148, entitled Direct Solar Pumping of Semiconductor Lasers: A Feasibility Study. The goals of this study were to provide a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of pumping semiconductor lasers in space with directly focused sunlight and to identify semiconductor laser structures expected to operate at the lowest possible focusing intensities. It should be emphasized that the structures under consideration would provide direct optical-to-optical conversion of sunlight into laser light in a single crystal, in contrast to a configuration consisting of a solar cell or storage battery electrically pumping a current injection laser. With external modulation, such lasers could perhaps be efficient sources for intersatellite communications. We proposed specifically to develop a theoretical model of semiconductor quantum-well lasers photopumped by a broadband source, test it against existing experimental data where possible, and apply it to estimating solar pumping requirements and identifying optimum structures for operation at low pump intensities. These tasks have been accomplished, as described in this report of our completed project. The report is organized as follows: Some general considerations relevant to the solar-pumped semiconductor laser problem are discussed in Section 2, and the types of structures chosen for specific investigation are described. The details of the laser model we developed for this work are then outlined in Section 3. In Section 4, results of our study are presented, including designs for optimum lattice-matched and strained-layer solar-pumped quantum-well lasers and threshold pumping estimates for these structures. It was hoped at the outset of this work that structures could be identified which could be expected to operate continuously at solar photoexcitation intensities of several thousand suns, and this indeed turned out to be the case as described in this section. Our project is

  13. Study of brushless fuel pump (improvement of pump and motor parts). 2nd Report. Blushless dendo fuel pump no kento. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mine, K; Takada, S; Tatematsu, M; Takeuchi, H [Aisan Industry Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1992-10-01

    A methanol use electrically driven fuel pump was developed as reported in the present report. Mixed fuel of gasoline with alcohol can be handled by a brushless fuel pump which was proposed and improved as reported. The flow rate performance was heightened to 25g/sec by heightening in output power of motor, while the high temperature performance was 17% heightened against the conventional ratio of lowering in flow rate by heightening in vapor jet capacity. Against the corrosiveness of methanol, an in-tank type was applied to the pump, and all its electrically conductive and other mechanical parts were made to be both anti-corrosive and anti-abrasive. It is structurally of a two-stage series turbine type of non-volume form. A sensor method was applied to the motor by confining the miniaturized control circuit of brushless motor in the motor so that the transistor is controlled against the heightening in temperature. The motor is a three-phase half-wave driving motor. Also developed was a fuel supply system which is useful for the mixed fuel covering a range of 100% methanol through 100% gasoline. The present pump is dimensionally interchangeable with the conventional gasoline use one. Its operational life is more than 10000 hours. 3 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  14. High temperature thermoacoustic heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijani, H.; Spoelstra, S. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    Thermoacoustic technology can provide new types of heat pumps that can be deployed in different applications. A thermoacoustic heat pumps can for example be applied in dwellings to generate cooling or heating. Typically, space and water heating makes up about 60% of domestics and offices energy consumption. The application of heat pumps can contribute to achieve energy savings and environmental benefits by reducing CO2 and NOx emissions. This paper presents the study of a laboratory scale thermoacoustic-Stirling heat pump operating between 10C and 80C which can be applied in domestics and offices. The heat pump is driven by a thermoacoustic-Stirling engine. The experimental results show that the heat pump pumps 250 W of heat at 60C at a drive ratio of 3.6% and 200 W at 80C at a drive ratio of 3.5 %. The performance for both cases is about 40% of the Carnot performance. The design, construction, and performance measurements of the heat pump will be presented and discussed.

  15. Review of magnetohydrodynamic pump applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Al-Habahbeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD principle is an important interdisciplinary field. One of the most important applications of this effect is pumping of materials that are hard to pump using conventional pumps. In this work, the progress achieved in this field is surveyed and organized according to the type of application. The literature of the past 27 years is searched for the major developments of MHD applications. MHD seawater thrusters are promising for a variety of applications requiring high flow rates and velocity. MHD molten metal pump is important replacement to conventional pumps because their moving parts cannot stand the molten metal temperature. MHD molten salt pump is used for nuclear reactor coolants due to its no-moving-parts feature. Nanofluid MHD pumping is a promising technology especially for bioapplications. Advantages of MHD include silence due to no-moving-parts propulsion. Much progress has been made, but with MHD pump still not suitable for wider applications, this remains a fertile area for future research.

  16. Direct solar-pumped lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Shiu, Y. J.; Weaver, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of direct solar pumping of an iodine photodissociation laser at lambda = 1.315 microns was investigated. Threshold inversion density and effect of elevated temperature (up to 670 K) on the laser output were measured. These results and the concentration of solar radiation required for the solar pumped iodine laser are discussed.

  17. Heat pumping in nanomechanical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamon, Claudio; Mucciolo, Eduardo R; Arrachea, Liliana; Capaz, Rodrigo B

    2011-04-01

    We propose using a phonon pumping mechanism to transfer heat from a cold to a hot body using a propagating modulation of the medium connecting the two bodies. This phonon pump can cool nanomechanical systems without the need for active feedback. We compute the lowest temperature that this refrigerator can achieve. © 2011 American Physical Society

  18. Heat pumping in nanomechanical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chamon, Claudio; Mucciolo, Eduardo R.; Arrachea, Liliana; Capaz, Rodrigo B.

    2010-01-01

    We propose using a phonon pumping mechanism to transfer heat from a cold to a hot body using a propagating modulation of the medium connecting the two bodies. This phonon pump can cool nanomechanical systems without the need for active feedback. We compute the lowest temperature that this refrigerator can achieve.

  19. High Temperature Thermoacoustic Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijani, H.; Spoelstra, S. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    Thermoacoustic technology can provide new types of heat pumps that can be deployed in different applications. Thermoacoustic heat pumps can for example be applied in dwellings to generate cooling or heating. Typically, space and water heating makes up about 60% of domestic and office energy consumption. The application of heat pumps can contribute to achieve energy savings and environmental benefits by reducing CO2 and NOx emissions. This paper presents the study of a laboratory scale thermoacoustic-Stirling heat pump operating between 10C and 80C which can be applied in domestics and offices. The heat pump is driven by a thermoacoustic-Stirling engine. The experimental results show that the heat pump pumps 250 W of heat at 60C at a drive ratio of 3.6 % and 200 W at 80C at a drive ratio of 3.5 %. The performance for both cases is about 40% of the Carnot performance. The design, construction, and performance measurements of the heat pump will be presented and discussed.

  20. Reflection of centrifugal pumps maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozos Fernandez, V.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to prove that is not necessary a deep and complex knowledge to manage the centrifugal pumps maintenance. According to the author, only deep but single technical knowledge about causes of breakdowns in the different and simple component parts of the pumps, are required. (Author)