WorldWideScience

Sample records for pump-to-stokes rin transfer

  1. Frequency dependence of the pump-to-signal RIN transfer in fiber optical parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakarzadeh Dezfuli Nezhad, Hassan; Rottwitt, Karsten; Zakery, A.

    2009-01-01

    Using a numerical model, the frequency dependence of the pump-to-signal RIN transfer in FOPAs has been investigated. The model includes fiber loss, pump depletion as well as difference in group velocity among interacting beams.......Using a numerical model, the frequency dependence of the pump-to-signal RIN transfer in FOPAs has been investigated. The model includes fiber loss, pump depletion as well as difference in group velocity among interacting beams....

  2. Pump RIN-induced impairments in unrepeatered transmission systems using distributed Raman amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jingchi; Tang, Ming; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Lu, Chao; Wang, Liang; Dong, Zhenhua; Bilal, Syed Muhammad; Fu, Songnian; Shum, Perry Ping; Liu, Deming

    2015-05-04

    High spectral efficiency modulation format based unrepeatered transmission systems using distributed Raman amplifier (DRA) have attracted much attention recently. To enhance the reach and optimize system performance, careful design of DRA is required based on the analysis of various types of impairments and their balance. In this paper, we study various pump RIN induced distortions on high spectral efficiency modulation formats. The vector theory of both 1st and higher-order stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) effect using Jones-matrix formalism is presented. The pump RIN will induce three types of distortion on high spectral efficiency signals: intensity noise stemming from SRS, phase noise stemming from cross phase modulation (XPM), and polarization crosstalk stemming from cross polarization modulation (XPolM). An analytical model for the statistical property of relative phase noise (RPN) in higher order DRA without dealing with complex vector theory is derived. The impact of pump RIN induced impairments are analyzed in polarization-multiplexed (PM)-QPSK and PM-16QAM-based unrepeatered systems simulations using 1st, 2nd and 3rd-order forward pumped Raman amplifier. It is shown that at realistic RIN levels, negligible impairments will be induced to PM-QPSK signals in 1st and 2nd order DRA, while non-negligible impairments will occur in 3rd order case. PM-16QAM signals suffer more penalties compared to PM-QPSK with the same on-off gain where both 2nd and 3rd order DRA will cause non-negligible performance degradations. We also investigate the performance of digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms to mitigate such impairments.

  3. Effects of moderate pump and Stokes chirp on chirped-probe pulse femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Mingming; Satija, Aman; Lucht, Robert P.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of moderate levels of chirp in the pump and Stokes pulses on chirped-probe-pulse femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CPP fs CARS) were investigated. The frequency chirp in the pump and Stokes pulses was introduced

  4. Effects of moderate pump and Stokes chirp on chirped-probe pulse femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Mingming

    2018-01-08

    The effects of moderate levels of chirp in the pump and Stokes pulses on chirped-probe-pulse femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CPP fs CARS) were investigated. The frequency chirp in the pump and Stokes pulses was introduced by placing SF11 glass disks with thicknesses of 10 mm or 20 mm in the optical path for these beams. The magnitude of the chirp in the probe beam was much greater and was induced by placing a 30-cm rod of SF10 glass in the beam path. The temperature measurements were performed in hydrogen/air non-premixed flames stabilized on a Hencken burner at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0. We performed measurements with no disks in pump and Stokes beam paths, and then with disks of 10 mm and 20 mm placed in both beam paths. The spectrum of the nonresonant background four-wave mixing signal narrowed considerably with increasing pump and Stokes chirp, while the resonant CARS signal was relatively unaffected. Consequently, the interference of the nonresonant background with the resonant CARS signal in the frequency-spread dephasing region of the spectrum was minimized. The increased rate of decay of the resonant CARS signal with increasing temperature was thus readily apparent. We have started to analyze the CPP fs CARS thermometry data and initial results indicate improved accuracy and precision are obtained due to moderate chirp in the pump and Stokes laser pulses.

  5. Numerical modelling of the pump-to-signal relative intensity noise ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An accurate numerical model to investigate the pump-to-signal relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer in two-pump fibre optical parametric amplifiers (2-P FOPAs) for low modulation frequencies is presented. Compared to other models in the field, this model takes into account the fibre loss, pump depletion as well as the gain ...

  6. Intensity Noise Transfer Through a Diode-pumped Titanium Sapphire Laser System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tawfieq, Mahmoud; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2017-01-01

    higher RIN than a setup with only a single nonlinear crystal. The Ti:S is shown to have a cut-off frequency around 500 kHz, which means that noise structures of the pump laser above this frequency are strongly suppressed. Finally, the majority of the Ti:S noise seems to originate from the laser itself......In this paper, we investigate the noise performance and transfer in a titanium sapphire (Ti:S) laser system. This system consists of a DBR tapered diode laser, which is frequency doubled in two cascaded nonlinear crystals and used to pump the Ti:S laser oscillator. This investigation includes...... electrical noise characterizations of the utilized power supplies, the optical noise of the fundamental light, the second harmonic light, and finally the optical noise of the femtosecond pulses emitted by the Ti:S laser. Noise features originating from the electric power supply are evident throughout...

  7. Interpreting coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectra measured with multimode Nd:YAG pump lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrow, R.L.; Rahn, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    We report comparisons of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurements using single-axial-and multiaxial-mode Nd:YAG lasers. Our results demonstrate the validity of a recently proposed convolution expression for unresolved CARS spectra. The results also support the use of a relative delay of several coherence lengths between pump-beam paths for reducing the effects of pump-field statistics on the CARS spectral profile

  8. Capillary-Condenser-Pumped Heat-Transfer Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Calvin C.

    1989-01-01

    Heat being transferred supplies operating power. Capillary-condenser-pumped heat-transfer loop similar to heat pipe and to capillary-evaporator-pumped heat-transfer loop in that heat-transfer fluid pumped by evaporation and condensation of fluid at heat source and sink, respectively. Capillary condenser pump combined with capillary evaporator pump to form heat exchanger circulating heat-transfer fluids in both loops. Transport of heat more nearly isothermal. Thermal stress in loop reduced, and less external surface area needed in condenser section for rejection of heat to heat sink.

  9. Large eddy simulation in a rotary blood pump: Viscous shear stress computation and comparison with unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Benjamin; Konnigk, Lucas; Hallier, Sebastian; Kumar, Jitendra; Witte, Matthias; Wurm, Frank-Hendrik

    2018-06-01

    Numerical flow analysis (computational fluid dynamics) in combination with the prediction of blood damage is an important procedure to investigate the hemocompatibility of a blood pump, since blood trauma due to shear stresses remains a problem in these devices. Today, the numerical damage prediction is conducted using unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations. Investigations with large eddy simulations are rarely being performed for blood pumps. Hence, the aim of the study is to examine the viscous shear stresses of a large eddy simulation in a blood pump and compare the results with an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation. The simulations were carried out at two operation points of a blood pump. The flow was simulated on a 100M element mesh for the large eddy simulation and a 20M element mesh for the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation. As a first step, the large eddy simulation was verified by analyzing internal dissipative losses within the pump. Then, the pump characteristics and mean and turbulent viscous shear stresses were compared between the two simulation methods. The verification showed that the large eddy simulation is able to reproduce the significant portion of dissipative losses, which is a global indication that the equivalent viscous shear stresses are adequately resolved. The comparison with the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation revealed that the hydraulic parameters were in agreement, but differences for the shear stresses were found. The results show the potential of the large eddy simulation as a high-quality comparative case to check the suitability of a chosen Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes setup and turbulence model. Furthermore, the results lead to suggest that large eddy simulations are superior to unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations when instantaneous stresses are applied for the blood damage prediction.

  10. Pump to signal noise transfer in parametric fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, Toke; Rottwitt, Karsten; Peucheret, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Fiber optic parametric amplifiers have been suggested due to their potential low spontaneous emission. However, by nature the parametric amplifier only work in a forward pumped configuration, which result in transfer of relative intensity noise in the pump to the signal.......Fiber optic parametric amplifiers have been suggested due to their potential low spontaneous emission. However, by nature the parametric amplifier only work in a forward pumped configuration, which result in transfer of relative intensity noise in the pump to the signal....

  11. Stimulated-emission pumping enabling sub-diffraction-limited spatial resolution in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleff, C.; Gross, P.; Fallnich, C.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Kruse, K.; Beeker, W.P.; Lee, Christopher James; Boller, Klaus J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of stimulated emission pumping to achieve sub-diffraction-limited spatial resolution in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. A pair of control light fields is used to prepopulate the Raman state involved in the CARS process prior to the CARS

  12. About Navier-Stokes Equation in the Theory of Convective Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidzon, M. Y.

    2017-10-01

    A system of differential equations (Navier-Stokes, continuity, heat conductivity) is used to solve convective heat transfer problems. While solving Navier-Stokes equation, it is usually assumed that tangent stress is proportional to the velocity gradient. This assumption is valid with a small velocity gradient, for example, near an axis of the channel, but velocity gradient can be very large near the channel wall. Our paper shows that if we accept power law instead of linear law for tangential stress, then the velocity profile for creeping, laminar, and turbulent flow in the channel can be calculated without using Navier-Stokes equation. Also, in this case Navier-Stokes equation itself changes: the coefficient of dynamic viscosity changes its value from normal (in case of the creeping flow) to tending to infinity (in case of the well-developed turbulent flow).

  13. Remote process cell mercury transfer pumps for DWPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, M.G.; Vaughn, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    Final design and the results of the testing performed thus far show that the water displacement of mercury to a height of 40 feet is feasible with just 6 gallons of motive water. Control of the transfer is achieved by monitoring the pump discharge pressure. An air actuated plug valve configuration successfully contained the required discharge pressure of 260 psi. The requirements of low flow and maximum separation of mercury from particulates are achieved due to the configuration of the pressure canister. The pump is capable of transferring a discrete amount of mercury with little additional slurry particulates. The success of this new pumping configuration is highlighted by the fact that it was the inspiration for other remote transfer applications tested at SRP. These application include the dual canister sample pump shown in Figure 7, as well as a successful prototype pump designed at Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL). The PNL pump was designed for the purpose of metering waste slurries to an electric melter. Upon completion of final pump fabrication, the Defense Waste Processing facility (DWPF) facility will have a simple and highly reliable method of remotely transferring small discrete batches of mercury as required from radioactive process vessels. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  14. Pumped energy transfer stations (STEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournery, Jean-Francois

    2015-12-01

    As objectives of development are high for renewable energies (they are supposed to cover 50 per cent of new energy needs by 2035), pumped energy transfer stations are to play an important role in this respect. The author first discusses the consequences of the development of renewable energies on the exploitation of electric grids: issue of intermittency for some of them, envisaged solutions. Then, he addresses one of the solutions: the storage of electric power. He notices that increasing the potential energy of a volume of water is presently the most mature solution to face massive needs of the power system. Dams and pumped energy transfer stations represent now almost the whole installed storage power in the world. The author then presents these pumped energy transfer stations: principle, brief history (the first appeared in Italy and Switzerland at the end of the 1890's). He indicates the various parameters of assessment of such stations: maximum stored energy, installed power in pumping mode and turbine mode, time constant, efficiency, level of flexibility. He discusses economic issues. He describes and comments the operation of turbine-pump groups: ternary groups, reversible binary groups. He discusses barriers to be overcome and technical advances to be made for varying speed groups and for marine stations. He finally gives an overview (table with number of stations belonging to different power ranges, remarkable installations) of existing stations in China, USA, Japan, Germany, Austria, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Switzerland, France and UK, and indicate predictions regarding storage needs at the world level. Some data are finally indicated for the six existing French installations

  15. Analysis of detection limit to time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering nanoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Liu Shuang-Long; Chen Dan-Ni; Niu Han-Ben

    2014-01-01

    In the implementation of CARS nanoscopy, signal strength decreases with focal volume size decreasing. A crucial problem that remains to be solved is whether the reduced signal generated in the suppressed focal volume can be detected. Here reported is a theoretical analysis of detection limit (DL) to time-resolved CARS (T-CARS) nanoscopy based on our proposed additional probe-beam-induced phonon depletion (APIPD) method for the low concentration samples. In order to acquire a detailed shot-noise limited signal-to-noise (SNR) and the involved parameters to evaluate DL, the T-CARS process is described with full quantum theory to estimate the extreme power density levels of the pump and Stokes beams determined by saturation behavior of coherent phonons, which are both actually on the order of ∼ 10 9 W/cm 2 . When the pump and Stokes intensities reach such values and the total intensity of the excitation beams arrives at a maximum tolerable by most biological samples in a certain suppressed focal volume (40-nm suppressed focal scale in APIPD method), the DL correspondingly varies with exposure time, for example, DL values are 10 3 and 10 2 when exposure times are 20 ms and 200 ms respectively. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  16. Observation of correlated anti-Stokes emissions by multiwave mixing in sodium vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motomura, Koji; Tsukamoto, Mayumi; Wakiyama, Akira; Harada, Ken-ichi; Mitsunaga, Masaharu

    2005-01-01

    We study experimentally nonlinear optical processes in which Stokes and anti-Stokes fields build up under strong, resonant, counterpropagating pump laser excitation in atomic sodium vapor. We find that, at some pump frequency, two off-axis anti-Stokes emissions propagating along reflection-symmetric directions are strongly temporally correlated, with a correlation time of 0.5 μs and a correlation range of 1 mrad. It is shown by the numerical analysis based on six-wave mixing process involving pump, Stokes, and anti-Stokes waves in the forward and the backward directions that such correlated anti-Stokes emissions are possible when the medium is opaque for the Stokes field and transparent for the anti-Stokes field. Possibilities of quantum correlation for entangled photon generation using this system are discussed

  17. Experimental investigation of saturation effect on pump-to-signal intensity modulation transfer in single-pump phase-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristofori, Valentina; Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Lund-Hansen, Toke

    2013-01-01

    We present an experimental characterization of how signal gain saturation affects the transfer of intensity modulation from the pump to the signal in single-pump, phase-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifiers (FOPAs). In this work, we demonstrate experimentally for the first time, to our...... knowledge, how gain saturation of a FOPA reduces the noise contribution due to the transfer of pump power fluctuations to the signal. In a particular example, it is shown that the transferred noise is significantly reduced by a factor of 3, while the FOPA gain remains above 10 dB....

  18. Double Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Pump Subsystem Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LESHIKAR, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied to the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Pump Subsystem which supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery (WFD). This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides the references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during the design of the DST Transfer Pump Subsystem that supports the first phase of (WFD). The DST Transfer Pump Subsystem consists of a pump for supernatant and or slurry transfer for the DSTs that will be retrieved during the Phase 1 WFD operations. This system is used to transfer low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) to designated DST staging tanks. It also will deliver blended LAW and HLW feed from these staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor facility where it will be processed into an immobilized waste form. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program

  19. Superconducting bearings for a LHe transfer pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeppel, S.; Muehsig, C.; Funke, T.; Haberstroh, C.; Hesse, U.; Lindackers, D.; Zielke, S.; Sass, P.; Schoendube, R.

    2017-12-01

    Superconducting bearings are used in a number of applications for high speed, low loss suspension. Most of these applications suspend a warm shaft and thus require continuous cooling, which leads to additional power consumption. Therefore, it seems advantageous to use these bearings in systems that are inherently cold. One respective application is a submerged pump for the transfer of liquid helium into mobile dewars. Centrifugal pumps require tight sealing clearances, especially for low viscosity fluids and small sizes. This paper covers the design and qualification of superconducting YBCO bearings for a laboratory sized liquid helium transfer pump. Emphasis is given to the axial positioning, which strongly influences the achievable volumetric efficiency.

  20. Turbomachinery Heat Transfer and Loss Modeling for 3D Navier-Stokes Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Kenneth; Ameri, Ali

    2005-01-01

    This report's contents focus on making use of NASA Glenn on-site computational facilities,to develop, validate, and apply models for use in advanced 3D Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes to enhance the capability to compute heat transfer and losses in turbomachiney.

  1. Functional check of telescoping transfer pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    Activities are defined which constitute a functional check of a telescoping transfer pump (TTP). This report is written to the Procedures group of HLW and particularly applies to those TTP's which are the sole means of emergency transfer from a HLW waste tank

  2. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.; Nyilas, C.P.; Denmeade, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    A transfer pump is described which is used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank. 17 figs

  3. High-efficiency pump for space helium transfer. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenbein, R.; Izenson, M.G.; Swift, W.L.; Sixsmith, H.

    1991-12-01

    A centrifugal pump was developed for the efficient and reliable transfer of liquid helium in space. The pump can be used to refill cryostats on orbiting satellites which use liquid helium for refrigeration at extremely low temperatures. The pump meets the head and flow requirements of on-orbit helium transfer: a flow rate of 800 L/hr at a head of 128 J/kg. The overall pump efficiency at the design point is 0.45. The design head and flow requirements are met with zero net positive suction head, which is the condition in an orbiting helium supply Dewar. The mass transfer efficiency calculated for a space transfer operation is 0.99. Steel ball bearings are used with gas fiber-reinforced teflon retainers to provide solid lubrication. These bearings have demonstrated the longest life in liquid helium endurance tests under simulated pumping conditions. Technology developed in the project also has application for liquid helium circulation in terrestrial facilities and for transfer of cryogenic rocket propellants in space

  4. Double Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Pump Subsystem Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRAVES, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides the references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Pump Subsystem that supports the first phase of waste feed delivery (WFD). The DST Transfer Pump Subsystem consists of a pump for supernatant and/or slurry transfer for the DSTs that will be retrieved during the Phase 1 WFD operations. This system is used to transfer low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) to designated DST staging tanks. It also will deliver blended LAW and HLW feed from these staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Waste Treatment Plant where it will be processed into an immobilized waste form. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program

  5. Chaotic advection and heat transfer enhancement in Stokes flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, A.; Mota, J.P.B.; Rodrigo, A.J.S.; Saatdjian, E.

    2003-01-01

    The heat transfer rate from a solid boundary to a highly viscous fluid can be enhanced significantly by a phenomenon which is called chaotic advection or Lagrangian turbulence. Although the flow is laminar and dominated by viscous forces, some fluid particle trajectories are chaotic due either to a suitable boundary displacement protocol or to a change in geometry. As in turbulent flow, the heat transfer rate enhancement between the boundary and the fluid is intimately linked to the mixing of fluid in the system. Chaotic advection in real Stokes flows, i.e. flows governed by viscous forces and that can be constructed experimentally, is reviewed in this paper. An emphasis is made on recent new results on 3-D time-periodic open flows which are particularly important in industry

  6. Causes and proposed resolutions of high vibration in NWTF transfer pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trawinski, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This Technical Report is intended to communicate the findings from the latest phase of New Waste Transfer Facility (NWTF) transfer pump testing. These tests have identified causes for the high pump vibrations that have been observed during previous phases of transfer pump startup testing, and have led to recommendations for resolving the vibration problem. The paper describes the problem, the test methodology, observations, and recommend actions to correct the vibration problem

  7. Pumped two-phase heat transfer loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Fred

    1988-01-01

    A pumped loop two-phase heat transfer system, operating at a nearly constant temperature throughout, includes several independently operating grooved capillary heat exchanger plates supplied with working fluid through independent flow modulation valves connected to a liquid supply line, a vapor line for collecting vapor from the heat exchangers, a condenser between the vapor and the liquid lines, and a fluid circulating pump between the condenser and the heat exchangers.

  8. Stokes flow heat transfer in an annular, rotating heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saatdjian, E.; Rodrigo, A.J.S.; Mota, J.P.B.

    2011-01-01

    The heat transfer rate into highly viscous, low thermal-conductivity fluids can be enhanced significantly by chaotic advection in three-dimensional flows dominated by viscous forces. The physical effect of chaotic advection is to render the cross-sectional temperature field uniform, thus increasing both the wall temperature gradient and the heat flux into the fluid. A method of analysis for one such flow-the flow in the eccentric, annular, rotating heat exchanger-and a procedure to determine the best heat transfer conditions, namely the optimal values of the eccentricity ratio and time-periodic rotating protocol, are discussed. It is shown that in continuous flows, such as the one under consideration, there exists an optimum frequency of the rotation protocol for which the heat transfer rate is a maximum. - Highlights: → The eccentric, annular, rotating heat exchanger is studied for periodic Stokes flow. → Counter-rotating the inner tube with a periodic velocity enhances the heat transfer. → The heat-transfer enhancement under such conditions is due to chaotic advection. → For a given axial flow rate there is a frequency that maximizes the heat transfer. → There is also an optimum value of the eccentricity ratio.

  9. Pump-to-Signal Intensity Modulation Transfer in Saturated- Gain Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    The pump-to-signal intensity modulation transfer in saturated degenerate FOPAs is numerically investigated over the whole gain bandwidth. The intensity modulation transfer decreases and the OSNR improves when the amplifier operates in the saturation regime....

  10. Detailed Balance Limit of Efficiency of Broadband-Pumped Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechayev, Sergey; Rotschild, Carmel

    2017-09-13

    Broadband light sources are a wide class of pumping schemes for lasers including LEDs, sunlight and flash lamps. Recently, efficient coupling of broadband light to high-quality micro-cavities has been demonstrated for on-chip applications and low-threshold solar-pumped lasers via cascade energy transfer. However, the conversion of incoherent to coherent light comes with an inherent price of reduced efficiency, which has yet to be assessed. In this paper, we derive the detailed balance limit of efficiency of broadband-pumped lasers and discuss how it is affected by the need to maintain a threshold population inversion and thermodynamically dictated minimal Stokes' shift. We show that lasers' slope efficiency is analogous to the nominal efficiency of solar cells, limited by thermalisation losses and additional unavoidable Stokes' shift. The lasers' power efficiency is analogous to the detailed balance limit of efficiency of solar cells, affected by the cavity mirrors and impedance matching factor, respectively. As an example we analyze the specific case of solar-pumped sensitized Nd 3+ :YAG-like lasers and define the conditions to reach their thermodynamic limit of efficiency. Our work establishes an upper theoretical limit for the efficiency of broadband-pumped lasers. Our general, yet flexible model also provides a way to incorporate other optical and thermodynamic losses and, hence, to estimate the efficiency of non-ideal broadband-pumped lasers.

  11. rinänmittauslaitteisto

    OpenAIRE

    Haataja, Jani

    2007-01-01

    Insinöörityön aiheena oli suunnitella ja toteuttaa ihmisen kehotärinänmittauslaitteisto. Tarkoituksena oli mitata ihmiseen penkin kautta siirtyvää työkoneentärinää. Laitteisto perustui EU-tärinädirektiiviin, joka taas pohjautui ISO 2631 -standardiin. Kansainvälinen ISO 8041 -standardi asettaa mittauksissa käytettäville antureille ja laitteistolle erilaisia vaatimuksia, joiden avulla laitteisto valittiin. ISO 2631-1 -standardi määrittelee laskutavat ja mittausvaatimukset kehotärinä...

  12. 76 FR 43218 - Commercial and Industrial Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    .... EERE-2011-BT-STD-0031] RIN 1904-AC54 Commercial and Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Department of Energy... efficient product designs for commercial and industrial pumps. The comment period closed on July 13, 2011... commercial and industrial pumps. The comment period is extended to September 16, 2011. DATES: The comment...

  13. Pump-To-Signal Intensity Modulation Transfer Characteristics in FOPAs: Modulation Frequency and Saturation Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Cristofori, Valentina; Lund-Hansen, Toke

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a comprehensive study of pump- to-signal intensity modulation transfer (IMT) in single-pump fiber optic parametric amplifiers (FOPAs). In particular, the IMT is studied for the first time for high-frequency fluctuations of the pump as well as in the saturated gain regime. The IMT...... cut-off frequency in typical single-pump FOPAs is around 100–200 GHz. The possibilities to shift this frequency based on dispersion and nonlinearities involved in the parametric gain are discussed. The severe IMT to the signal at low modulation frequencies can be suppressed by more than 50...

  14. Smart Markets for Transferable Pumping Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozovic, N.; Young, R.

    2016-12-01

    While no national policy on groundwater use exists in the United States, local groundwater management is emerging across the country in response to concerns and conflicts over declining well yields, land subsidence, and the depletion of hydrologically connected surface waters. Management strategies include well drilling moratoria, pumping restrictions, and restrictions on the expansion of irrigated land. To provide flexibility to groundwater users, local regulatory authorities increasingly have begun to allow the transfer of groundwater rights as a cost-effective management tool. Markets can be a versatile risk management tool, helping communities to cope with scarcity, to meet goals for sustainability, and to grow resilient local economies. For example, active groundwater rights transfers exist in the High Plains region of the United States. Yet, several barriers to trade exist: high search costs for interested parties, complicated requirements for regulatory compliance, and reluctance to share sensitive financial information. Additionally, groundwater pumping leads to several kinds of spatial and intertemporal externalities such as stream depletion. Indeed, groundwater management schemes that reallocate water between alternate pumping locations are often explicitly designed to change the distribution and magnitude of pumping externalities. Reallocation may be designed to minimize unwanted impacts on third parties or to encourage trades that reduce the magnitude of externalities. We discuss how smart markets can deal with complex biophysical constraints while also encouraging active trading, therefore ensuring local goals for aquifer sustainability while growing local economies. Smart markets address these issues by providing a centralized hub for trading, automating the process of regulatory compliance by only matching buyers and sellers eligible to trade as specified in the regulations, and maintaining anonymous, confidential bidding.

  15. Picosecond anti-Stokes generation in a photonic-crystal fiber for interferometric CARS microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Søren Rud

    2006-01-01

    We generate tunable picosecond anti-Stokes pulses by four-wave mixing of two picosecond pump and Stokes pulse trains in a photonic-crystal fiber. The visible, spectrally narrow anti-Stokes pulses with shifts over 150 nm are generated without generating other spectral features. As a demonstration,...

  16. Three-pulse multiplex coherent anti-Stokes/Stokes Raman scattering (CARS/CSRS) microspectroscopy using a white-light laser source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bito, Kotatsu; Okuno, Masanari; Kano, Hideaki; Leproux, Philippe; Couderc, Vincent; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have developed a simultaneous measurement system of CARS and CSRS. ► We can obtain information on the electronic resonance effect with the measurement. ► The simultaneous measurement provides us with more reliable spectral information. - Abstract: We have developed a three-pulse non-degenerate multiplex coherent Raman microspectroscopic system using a white-light laser source. The fundamental output (1064 nm) of a Nd:YAG laser is used for the pump radiation with the white-light laser output (1100–1700 nm) for the Stokes radiation to achieve broadband multiplex excitations of vibrational coherences. The second harmonic (532 nm) of the same Nd:YAG laser is used for the probe radiation. Thanks to the large wavelength difference between the pump and probe radiations, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and coherent Stokes Raman scattering (CSRS) can be detected simultaneously. Simultaneous detection of CARS and CSRS enables us to obtain information on the electronic resonance effect that affects differently the CARS and CSRS signals. Simultaneous analysis of the CARS and CSRS signals provides us the imaginary part of χ (3) without introducing any arbitrary parameter in the maximum entropy method (MEM)

  17. Multiphonon-assisted anti-Stokes and Stokes fluorescence of triply ionized rare-earth ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzel, F.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental demonstration of multiphonon-assisted anti-Stokes and Stokes excitation of rare-earth ions (R 3+ ) in different hosts, that is, in a weak-coupling ion-lattice interaction case, is obtained. An exponential behavior of excitation probabilities with respect to energy difference between excitation and electronic line is found just as for multiphonon-assisted nonradiative decay and energy transfer. Exponential parameters α/sub As/ and α/sub S/ for anti-Stokes and Stokes excitation are measured and linked to the Miyakawa-Dexter α parameter for decay, leading to estimates for Pekar-Huang-Rhys coupling parameter S 0 of about 0.04, in agreement with values obtained from one-phonon spectra or nonradiative-decay measurements. A semiempirical formula is deduced to obtain α from only one parameter, an effective phonon energy

  18. Origins of Stokes shift in PbS nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Voznyy, Oleksandr

    2017-10-27

    Stokes shift, an energy difference between the excitonic absorption and emission, is a property of colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) typically ascribed to splitting between dark and bright excitons. In some materials, e.g., PbS, CuInS2, CdHgTe, a Stokes shift of up to 200 meV is observed, substantially larger than the estimates of dark-bright state splitting or vibronic relaxations. The shift origin remains highly debated, as contradictory signatures of both surface and bulk character were reported for the Stokes-shifted electronic state. Here we show that the energy transfer among CQDs in a polydispersed ensemble in solution suffices to explain the excess Stokes shift. This energy transfer is primarily due to CQD aggregation, and can be substantially eliminated by extreme dilution, higher-viscosity solvent, or better-dispersed colloids. Our findings highlight that ensemble polydispersity remains the primary source of the Stokes shift in CQDs in solution, propagating into the Stokes shift in films and the open-circuit voltage deficit in CQD solar cells. Improved synthetic control can bring notable advancements in CQD photovoltaics, and the Stokes shift continues to provide a sensitive and significant metric to monitor ensemble size distribution.

  19. Design acceptance summary report for the new generation transfer pump (NGTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRONS, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents design review of the New Generation Transfer Pump versus the functions and requirements of the SY-101 Rapid Mitigation Project. Previously unpublished documentation for the pump is included in support of the design

  20. Design acceptance summary report for the new generation transfer pump (NGTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IRONS, J.

    1999-10-27

    This report documents design review of the New Generation Transfer Pump versus the functions and requirements of the SY-101 Rapid Mitigation Project. Previously unpublished documentation for the pump is included in support of the design.

  1. Pressure fluctuation prediction in pump mode using large eddy simulation and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes in a pump–turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-You Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For pump–turbines, most of the instabilities couple with high-level pressure fluctuations, which are harmful to pump–turbines, even the whole units. In order to understand the causes of pressure fluctuations and reduce their amplitudes, proper numerical methods should be chosen to obtain the accurate results. The method of large eddy simulation with wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity model was chosen to predict the pressure fluctuations in pump mode of a pump–turbine compared with the method of unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes with two-equation turbulence model shear stress transport k–ω. Partial load operating point (0.91QBEP under 15-mm guide vane opening was selected to make a comparison of performance and frequency characteristics between large eddy simulation and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes based on the experimental validation. Good agreement indicates that the method of large eddy simulation could be applied in the simulation of pump–turbines. Then, a detailed comparison of variation for peak-to-peak value in the whole passage was presented. Both the methods show that the highest level pressure fluctuations occur in the vaneless space. In addition, the propagation of amplitudes of blade pass frequency, 2 times of blade pass frequency, and 3 times of blade pass frequency in the circumferential and flow directions was investigated. Although the difference exists between large eddy simulation and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes, the trend of variation in different parts is almost the same. Based on the analysis, using the same mesh (8 million, large eddy simulation underestimates pressure characteristics and shows a better result compared with the experiments, while unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes overestimates them.

  2. Packaging design criteria, transfer and disposal of 102-AP mixer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    A mixer pump installed in storage tank 241-AP-102 (102-AP) has failed. This pump is referred to as the 102-AP mixer pump (APMP). The APMP will be removed from 102-AP 1 and a new pump will be installed. The main purpose of the Packaging Design Criteria (PDC) is to establish criteria necessary to design and fabricate a shipping container for the transfer and storage of the APMP from 102-AP. The PDC will be used as a guide to develop a Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP)

  3. Broadband multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy employing photonic-crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Esben Ravn; Paulsen, Henrik Nørgaard; Birkedal, Victoria

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate spectral multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy and microscopy based on a single Ti:sapphire oscillator and a nonlinear photonic-crystal fiber (PCF). The Stokes pulse is generated by spectral conversion of the laser pulse in a PCF. The pump pulse is eit...

  4. Cascaded a-cut Nd:YVO4 self-Raman with second-Stokes laser at 1313 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhi; Duan, Yanmin; Guo, Junhong; Huang, Xiaohong; Yan, Lifen; Zhu, Haiyong

    2017-11-01

    A diode-end-pumped, acousto-optic Q-switched second-Stokes self-Raman laser at 1313 nm was demonstrated in a common a-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal, with the primary Raman shift of 890 cm-1. At the incident pump power of 17.1 W, the maximum average output power up to 2.51 W and pulse width of 5 ns for second-Stokes were obtained with the pulse repetition frequency of 50 kHz. The slope efficiency and conversion efficiency with respect to the incident pump power are about 23.7% and 14.7%. The efficient output should be attributed to suitable transmittance of the output coupler used.

  5. RIN4 functions with plasma membrane H+-ATPases to regulate stomatal apertures during pathogen attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jun; Elmore, James M.; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Pathogen perception by the plant innate immune system is of central importance to plant survival and productivity. The Arabidopsis protein RIN4 is a negative regulator of plant immunity. In order to identify additional proteins involved in RIN4- mediated immune signal transduction, we...... purified components of the RIN4 protein complex. We identified six novel proteins that had not previously been implicated in RIN4 signaling, including the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPases AHA1 and/or AHA2. RIN4 interacts with AHA1 and AHA2 both in vitro and in vivo. RIN4 overexpression and knockout lines...... exhibit differential PM H+-ATPase activity. PM H+-ATPase activation induces stomatal opening, enabling bacteria to gain entry into the plant leaf; inactivation induces stomatal closure thus restricting bacterial invasion. The rin4 knockout line exhibited reduced PM H+-ATPase activity and, importantly, its...

  6. The Stokes number approach to support scale-up and technology transfer of a mixing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsz, Tofan A; Hooijmaijers, Ricardo; Rubingh, Carina M; Frijlink, Henderik W; Vromans, Herman; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

    2012-09-01

    Transferring processes between different scales and types of mixers is a common operation in industry. Challenges within this operation include the existence of considerable differences in blending conditions between mixer scales and types. Obtaining the correct blending conditions is crucial for the ability to break up agglomerates in order to achieve the desired blend uniformity. Agglomerate break up is often an abrasion process. In this study, the abrasion rate potential of agglomerates is described by the Stokes abrasion (St(Abr)) number of the system. The St(Abr) number equals the ratio between the kinetic energy density of the moving powder bed and the work of fracture of the agglomerate. In this study, the St(Abr) approach demonstrates to be a useful tool to predict the abrasion of agglomerates during blending when technology is transferred between mixer scales/types. Applying the St(Abr) approach revealed a transition point between parameters that determined agglomerate abrasion. This study gave evidence that (1) below this transition point, agglomerate abrasion is determined by a combination of impeller effects and by the kinetic energy density of the powder blend, whereas (2) above this transition point, agglomerate abrasion is mainly determined by the kinetic energy density of the powder blend.

  7. A multi-phase ferrofluid flow model with equation of state for thermomagnetic pumping and heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aursand, Eskil, E-mail: eskil.aursand@sintef.no; Gjennestad, Magnus Aa.; Yngve Lervåg, Karl; Lund, Halvor

    2016-03-15

    A one-dimensional multi-phase flow model for thermomagnetically pumped ferrofluid with heat transfer is proposed. The thermodynamic model is a combination of a simplified particle model and thermodynamic equations of state for the base fluid. The magnetization model is based on statistical mechanics, taking into account non-uniform particle size distributions. An implementation of the proposed model is validated against experiments from the literature, and found to give good predictions for the thermomagnetic pumping performance. However, the results reveal a very large sensitivity to uncertainties in heat transfer coefficient predictions. - Highlights: • A multi-phase flow model for thermomagnetically pumped ferrofluid is proposed. • An implementation is validated against experiments from the literature. • Predicted thermomagnetic pumping effect agrees with experiments. • However, a very large sensitivity to heat transfer coefficient is revealed.

  8. Analytical analysis of heat transfer and pumping power of laminar nanofluid developing flow in microchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mital, Manu

    2013-01-01

    Thermal management issues are limiting barriers to high density electronics packaging and miniaturization. Liquid cooling using micro and mini channels is an attractive alternative to large and bulky aluminum or copper heat sinks. These channels can be integrated directly into a chip or a heat spreader, and cooling can be further enhanced using nanofluids (liquid solutions with dispersed nanometer-sized particles) due to their enhanced heat transfer effects reported in literature. The goals of this study are to evaluate heat transfer improvement of a nanofluid heat sink with developing laminar flow forced convection, taking into account the pumping power penalty. The phrase heat transfer enhancement ratio (HTR) is used to denote the ratio of average heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid to water at the same pumping power. The proposed model uses semi-empirical correlations to calculate nanofluid thermophysical properties. The predictions of the model are found to be in good agreement with experimental studies. The validated model is used to identify important design variables (Reynolds number, volume fraction and particle size) related to thermal and flow characteristics of the microchannel heat sink with nanofluids. Statistical analysis of the model showed that the volume fraction is the most significant factor impacting the HTR, followed by the particle diameter. The impact of the Reynolds number and other interaction terms is relatively weak. The HTR is maximized at smallest possible particle diameter (since smaller particles improve heat transfer but do not impact pumping power). Then, for a given Reynolds number, an optimal value of volume fraction can be obtained to maximize HTR. The overall aim is to present results that would be useful for understanding and optimal design of microchannel heat sinks with nanofluid flow. - Highlights: ► Validated model is used to investigate heat transfer and pumping power in nanofluids. ► Particles improve heat transfer

  9. Efficient and broadband Stokes wave generation by degenerate four-wave mixing at the mid-infrared wavelength in a silica photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinhui; Sang, Xinzhu; Wu, Qiang; Zhou, Guiyao; Yu, Chongxiu; Wang, Kuiru; Yan, Binbin; Han, Ying; Farrell, Gerald; Hou, Lantian

    2013-12-15

    Based on degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM), the broadband Stokes waves are efficiently generated at the mid-infrared wavelength above 2 μm, for the first time to our knowledge, by coupling the femtosecond pulses into the fundamental mode of a silica photonic crystal fiber designed and fabricated in our laboratory. Influences of the power and wavelength of pump pulses on the phase-matched frequency conversion process are discussed. When pump pulses with central wavelength of 815 nm and average power of 300 mW are used, the output power ratio of the Stokes wave generated at 2226 nm and the residual pump wave P(s)/P(res) is estimated to be 10.8:1, and the corresponding conversion efficiency η(s) and bandwidth B(s) of the Stokes wave can be up to 26% and 33 nm, respectively. The efficient and broadband Stokes waves can be used as the ultrashort pulse sources for mid-infrared photonics and spectroscopy.

  10. Tunable KTA Stokes laser based on stimulated polariton scattering and its intracavity frequency doubling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jie; Cong, Zhenhua; Chen, Xiaohan; Zhang, Xingyu; Qin, Zengguang; Liu, Zhaojun; Lu, Jianren; Wu, Dong; Fu, Qiang; Jiang, Shiqi; Zhang, Shaojun

    2016-04-04

    This paper presents the tunable Stokes laser characteristics of KTiOAsO4 (KTA) crystal based on stimulated polariton scattering (SPS). When the pumping laser wavelength is 1064.2 nm, the KTA Stokes wave can be discontinuously tuned from 1077.9 to 1088.4 nm with four gaps from 1079.0 to 1080.1 nm, from 1080.8 to 1082.8 nm, from 1083.6 to 1085.5 nm, and from 1085.8 to 1086.8 nm. When a frequency doubling crystal LiB3O5 (LBO) is inserted into the Stokes laser cavity, the frequency-doubled wave can be discontinuously tuned from 539.0 to 539.5 nm, from 540.1 to 540.4 nm, from 541.3 to 541.8 nm, from 542.7 to 542.9 nm and from 543.4 to 544.2 nm. With a pumping pulse energy of 130.0 mJ and an output coupler reflectivity of about 30%, the obtained maximum Stokes laser pulse energy at 1078.6 nm is 33.9 mJ and the obtained maximum frequency-doubled laser pulse energy at 543.8 nm is 15.7 mJ. By using the most probably coupled transverse optical modes obtained from the literature, the polariton refractive indexes, and the simplified polariton Sellmeier equations, the polariton dispersion curve is obtained. The formation of the Stokes frequency gaps is explained.

  11. Tuberculose du col utérin simulant un cancer du col utérin : à propos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculose du col utérin simulant un cancer du col utérin : à propos d'un cas, au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Souro Sanou de Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. A. Dembélé, V. Konségré, E. Birba, D.A. Somé, H. Zamané, A.S. Ouédraogo, S. Kiemtoré, S. Ouattara, A. Lamien-Sanou, M. Bambara, B. Bonané/Thiéba ...

  12. Parametric Raman crystalline anti-Stokes laser at 503 nm with collinear beam interaction at tangential phase matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanin, S. N.; Jelínek, M.; Kubeček, V.

    2017-07-01

    Stimulated-Raman-scattering in crystals can be used for the single-pass frequency-conversion to the Stokes-shifted wavelengths. The anti-Stokes shift can also be achieved but the phase-matching condition has to be fulfilled because of the parametric four-wave mixing process. To widen the angular-tolerance of four-wave mixing and to obtain high-conversion-efficiency into the anti-Stokes, we developed a new scheme of the parametric Raman anti-Stokes laser at 503 nm with phase-matched collinear beam interaction of orthogonally-polarized Raman components in calcite oriented at the phase-matched angle under 532 nm 20 ps laser excitation. The excitation laser beam was split into two orthogonally-polarized components entering the calcite at the certain incidence angles to fulfill the nearly collinear phase-matching and also to compensate walk-off of extraordinary waves for collinear beam interaction. The phase matching of parametric Raman interaction is tangential and insensitive to the angular mismatch if the Poynting vectors of the biharmonic pump and parametrically generated (anti-Stokes) waves are collinear. For the first time it allows to achieve experimentally the highest conversion efficiency into the anti-Stokes wave (503 nm) up to 30% from the probe wave and up to 3.5% from both pump and probe waves in the single-pass picosecond parametric calcite Raman laser. The highest anti-Stokes pulse energy was 1.4 μJ.

  13. From Dark to Light to Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET): Polarity-Sensitive Aggregation-Induced Emission (AIE)-Active Tetraphenylethene-Fused BODIPY Dyes with a Very Large Pseudo-Stokes Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Esra; Meral, Kadem; Atılgan, Serdar

    2016-01-11

    The work presented herein is devoted to the fabrication of large Stokes shift dyes in both organic and aqueous media by combining dark resonance energy transfer (DRET) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in one donor-acceptor system. In this respect, a series of donor-acceptor architectures of 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY) dyes substituted by one, two, or three tetraphenylethene (TPE) luminogens were designed and synthesised. The photophysical properties of these three chromophore systems were studied to provide insight into the nature of donor-acceptor interactions in both THF and aqueous media. Because the generation of emissive TPE donor(s) is strongly polarity dependent, due to its aggregation-induced emission (AIE) feature, one might expect the formation of appreciable fluorescence emission intensity with a very large pseudo-Stokes shift in aqueous media when considering FRET process. Interestingly, similar results were also recorded in THF for the chromophore systems, although the TPE fragment(s) of the dyes are non-emissive. The explanation for this photophysical behaviour lies in the DRET. This is the first report on combining two energy-transfer processes, namely, FRET and DRET, in one polarity-sensitive donor-acceptor pair system. The accuracy of the dark-emissive donor property of the TPE luminogen is also presented for the first time as a new feature for AIE phenomena. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Heat or mass transfer from a sphere in Stokes flow at low Péclet number

    KAUST Repository

    Bell, Christopher G.

    2013-04-01

    We consider the low Péclet number, Pe≪1, asymptotic solution for steady-state heat or mass transfer from a sphere immersed in Stokes flow with a Robin boundary condition on its surface, representing Newton cooling or a first-order chemical reaction. The application of Van Dyke\\'s rule up to terms of O(Pe3) shows that the O(Pe3logPe) terms in the expression for the average Nusselt/Sherwood number are twice those previously derived in the literature. Inclusion of the O(Pe3) terms is shown to increase the range of validity of the expansion. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of atmospheric oxygen and ozone on ripening indices of normal (Rin) and ripening inhibited (rin) tomato cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Y.P.; Solberg, M.; Haard, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Ethylene (10 ppm) dependent mediation of normal and mutant (rin) tomato fruit ripening was promoted by 100% oxygen, 3.7 pphm ozone, or their combination. All ripening indices studied (respiration, chlorophyll degradation, carotenoid accumulation, softening, and aroma development) were promoted by oxygen and/or ozone. Ozone also acted independent of ethylene in promoting chlorophyll degradation and aroma development in normal fruit, but did not appreciably affect these quality attributes in mutant fruit. Lycopene accumulation in normal and mutant fruit and aroma formation in normal fruit were promoted to a greater extent by ozone than were other ripening indices. Mutant (rin) fruit contained 27% of the lycopene that was present in normal (Rin) fruit after ripening in O/sub 2/ containing 10ppm ethylene and 3.7 pphm ozone, whereas they contained only 3% of the lycopene in normal fruit after ripening in air containing 10ppm ethylene.

  16. Heat transfer enhancement and pumping power optimization using CuO-water nanofluid through rectangular corrugated pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehin, Musfequs; Ehsan, Mohammad Monjurul; Islam, A. K. M. Sadrul

    2017-06-01

    Heat transfer enhancement by corrugation in fluid domain is a popular method. The rate of improvement is more when it is used highly thermal conductive fluid as heating or cooling medium. In this present study, heat transfer augmentation was investigated numerically by implementing corrugation in the fluid domain and nanofluid as the base fluid in the turbulent forced convection regime. Finite volume method (FVM) was applied to solve the continuity, momentum and energy equations. All the numerical simulations were considered for single phase flow. A rectangle corrugated pipe with 5000 W/m2 constant heat flux subjected to the corrugated wall was considered as the fluid domain. In the range of Reynolds number 15000 to 40000, thermo-physical and hydrodynamic behavior was investigated by using CuO-water nanofluid from 1% to 5% volume fraction as the base fluid through the corrugated fluid domain. Corrugation justification was performed by changing the amplitude of the corrugation and the corrugation wave length for obtaining the increased heat transfer rate with minimum pumping power. For using CuO-water nanofluid, augmentation was also found more in the rectangle corrugated pipe both in heat transfer and pumping power requirement with the increase of Reynolds number and the volume fraction of nanofluid. For the increased pumping power, optimization of pumping power by using nanofluid was also performed for economic finding.

  17. Overall conductance and heat transfer area minimization of refrigerators and heat pumps with finite heat reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, J.; Bhattacharyya, Souvik

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the overall conductance and the overall heat transfer area per unit capacity of refrigeration and heat pump systems have been minimized analytically considering both internal and external irreversibilities with variable temperature (finite capacity) heat reservoirs. Hot and cold side refrigerant temperatures, conductance and heat transfer area ratios have been optimized to attain this goal. The results have been verified with the more elaborate numerical optimization results obtained for ammonia based vapour compression refrigeration and heat pump systems working with variable temperature reservoirs. It is observed that the analytical results for optimum refrigerant temperatures, minimum overall conductance and heat transfer area deviate marginally from the numerically optimized results (within 1%), if one assumes a constant heat rejection temperature. The deviation of minimum overall conductance and heat transfer area is more (about 20%), if one considers both the desuperheating and condensation regions separately. However, in the absence of complex and elaborate numerical models, the simple analytical results obtained here can be used as reasonably accurate preliminary guidelines for optimization of refrigeration and heat pump systems

  18. High-order Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman generation in monoisotopic CVD {sup 12}C-diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminskii, Alexander A. [Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lux, Oliver; Rhee, Hanjo; Eichler, Hans J. [Institute of Optics and Atomic Physics, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Ralchenko, Victor G.; Bolshakov, Andrey P. [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shirakawa, Akira; Yoneda, Hitoki [Institute for Laser Science, University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    We determined, for the first time, the room temperature phonon energy related to the F{sub 2g} vibration mode (ω{sub SRS(12C)} ∝ 1333.2 cm{sup -1}) in a mono-crystalline single-isotope CVD {sup 12}C-diamond crystal by means of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) spectroscopy. Picosecond one-micron excitation using a Nd{sup 3+}:Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}-laser generates a nearly two-octave spanning SRS frequency comb (∝12000 cm{sup -1}) consisting of higher-order Stokes and anti-Stokes components. The spacing of the spectral lines was found to differ by Δω{sub SRS} ∝ 0.9 cm{sup -1} from the comb spacing (ω{sub SRS(natC)} ∝ 1332.3 cm{sup -1}) when pumping a conventional CVD diamond crystal with a natural composition of the two stable carbon isotopes {sup 12}C (98.93%) and {sup 13}C (1.07%). (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. The SRC homology 2 domain of Rin1 mediates its binding to the epidermal growth factor receptor and regulates receptor endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, M Alejandro; Kong, Chen; Chen, Pin-I; Horazdovsky, Bruce F; Stahl, Philip D

    2003-08-22

    Activated epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) recruit intracellular proteins that mediate receptor signaling and endocytic trafficking. Rin1, a multifunctional protein, has been shown to regulate EGFR internalization (1). Here we show that EGF stimulation induces a specific, rapid, and transient membrane recruitment of Rin1 and that recruitment is dependent on the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of Rin1. Immunoprecipitation of EGFR is accompanied by co-immunoprecipitation of Rin1 in a time- and ligand-dependent manner. Association of Rin1 and specifically the SH2 domain of Rin1 with the EGFR was dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation of the intracellular domain of the EGFR. The recruitment of Rin1, observed by light microscopy, indicated that although initially cytosolic, Rin1 was recruited to both plasma membrane and endosomes following EGF addition. Moreover, the expression of the SH2 domain of Rin1 substantially impaired the internalization of EGF without affecting internalization of transferrin. Finally, we found that Rin1 co-immunoprecipitated with a number of tyrosine kinase receptors but not with cargo endocytic receptors. These results indicate that Rin1 provides a link via its SH2 domain between activated tyrosine kinase receptors and the endocytic pathway through the recruitment and activation of Rab5a.

  20. Generation of sub-100-fs Stokes pulses upon SRS in a barium nitrate crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V; Losev, Leonid L; Tenyakov, S Yu

    2010-01-01

    72-fs pulses are generated at the first Stokes component frequency upon stimulated Raman scattering in a barium nitrate crystal for the radiation of the Ti 3+ :Al 2 O 3 laser with the pulse duration of 50 fs. The energy efficiency of conversion is 20%. The barium nitrate crystal was optically pumped by two consecutive orthogonally polarised chirped pulses with the following time compression of the Stokes radiation pulse. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  1. A treatment of the Zeeman effect using Stokes formalism and its implementation in the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Richard; Buehler, Stefan A.; Eriksson, Patrick; Mendrok, Jana

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the practical theory that was used to implement the Zeeman effect using Stokes formalism in the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS). ARTS now treats the Zeeman effect in a general manner for several gas species for all polarizations and takes into account variations in both magnetic and atmospheric fields along a full 3D geometry. We present how Zeeman splitting affects polarization in radiative transfer simulations and find that the effect may be large in Earth settings for polarized receivers in limb observing geometry. We find that not taking a spatially varying magnetic field into account can result in absolute errors in the measurement vector of at least 10 K in Earth magnetic field settings. The paper also presents qualitative tests for O 2 lines against previous models (61.15 GHz line) and satellite data from Odin-SMR (487.25 GHz line), and the overall consistency between previous models, satellite data, and the new ARTS Zeeman module seems encouraging. -- Highlights: • We implement the Zeeman effect with Stokes formalism in ARTS. • We give a practical theory for the implementation. • Examples of how the Zeeman effect change RT are presented. • Qualitative Odin-SMR O 2 limb sounding model indicates the Zeeman effect is necessary

  2. Single-mode Brillouin fiber laser passively stabilized at resonance frequency with self-injection locked pump laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirin, V V; Lopez-Mercado, C A; Megret, P; Fotiadi, A A

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a single-mode Brillouin fiber ring laser, which is passively stabilized at pump resonance frequency by using self-injection locking of semiconductor pump laser. Resonance condition for Stokes radiation is achieved by length fitting of Brillouin laser cavity. The laser generate single-frequency Stokes wave with linewidth less than 0.5 kHz using approximately 17-m length cavity

  3. Numerical simulation of magnetic heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaili, A.; Masson, C.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents a numerical method for performance predictions of magnetic heat pump (MHP) devices. Such devices consist primarily of a magnetic regenerator (solid refrigerant media) and circulating fluid. Unlike conventional gas-cycles, MHP devices function according to thermomagnetic cycles which do not require neither compressor nor expander. In this paper, the flow field throughout the regenerator is described by continuity and unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The heat transfer between fluid and solid is introduced by considering the corresponding energy equations. The proposed mathematical model has been solved using a control volume finite element method. The fully implicit scheme is used for time discretization. Simulation results including heating capacity and coefficient of performance are presented for a given MHP cycle. Mainly, the effects of cycle frequency, mass flow rate and the magnetic regenerator mass are investigated. (author)

  4. Heat transfer enhancement of NBI vacuum pump cryopanels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa Guaman, Santiago; Hanke, Stefan; Day, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cryopanel is optimized minimizing its maximal temperature rise and heat capacity. ► Copper coating on the cryopanels is necessary to reach a high thermal efficiency. ► The copper coating is achieved using an electroplating technique. ► A thermal shield for the cryopump 4 K manifold would reduce heat leaks down to 10%. ► The manufacturability and operation of the thermal shield is discussed. -- Abstract: Huge cryogenic pumps are installed inside neutral beam injectors in order to manage the typically very large gas flows. This paper deals with the aspect of passive cooling in NBI cryopump design development and discusses design considerations in two example areas. One is the design of cryopanels consisting of a pipe, centrally supplied with cryogenic helium, and a welded fin, passively cooled, to provide the necessary pumping surface below a given maximum temperature. The results of several parametric simulations in ANSYS are presented using different copper thicknesses and cryopanel geometries to discuss the thermal capability (heat transfer characteristics and heat capacities) of a number of design variants. The optimum design solution is based on copper-coated fins, using an electroplating technique, and thereby improving the heat transfer of the cryopanels while attaining an overall reduction in weight. The other area is the sound design of the manifold shielding system with a weld contact between copper and stainless steel. Weld samples were manufactured and investigated to raise awareness of the demands and risks during manufacturing and to demonstrate that readily applicable weld procedures exist

  5. A tunable dual-wavelength pump source based on simulated polariton scattering for terahertz-wave generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Bo; Liu, Jinsong; Yao, Jianquan; Li, Enbang

    2013-01-01

    We propose a dual-wavelength pump source by utilizing stimulated polariton scattering in a LiNbO 3 crystal. The residual pump and the generated tunable Stokes waves can be combined to generate THz-wave generation via difference frequency generation (DFG). With a pump energy of 49 mJ, Stokes waves with a tuning range from 1067.8 to 1074 nm have been generated, and an output energy of up to 14.9 mJ at 1070 nm has been achieved with a conversion efficiency of 21.7%. A sum frequency generation experiment was carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme for THz-wave DFG. (paper)

  6. Transfer plate radioassay using adsorbed anti-insulin antibody to detect insulin secreted by islet cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scearce, R.M.; Oie, H.K.; Gazdar, A.F.; Chick, W.L.; Eisenbarth, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for detection of insulin synthesized by islet cell clones is described. This assay employs anti-insulin antibody adsorbed onto fenestrated polyvinyl chloride 96-well plates ('transfer plates'). The calibrated aperture in the bottom of each transfer plate well permits fluid to enter the wells when transfer plates are lowered into microculture wells containing insulin. With this assay it is possible to rapidly screen hundreds of islet cell cultures for insulin production. The authors have used this assay to facilitate cloning of the RIN rat insulinoma cell line. The assay readily detects insulin synthesis by RIN cells and [ 125 I]insulin is not displaced by culture medium from cells which do not produce insulin. The transfer plate format should be applicable to semiautomate other radioimmunoassays. (Auth.)

  7. Quantitative assessment of spinal cord injury using circularly polarized coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kideog; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2017-08-01

    We report the quantitative assessment of spinal cord injury using the circularly polarized coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CP-CARS) technique together with Stokes parameters in the Poincaré sphere. The pump and Stokes excitation beams are circularly polarized to suppress both the linear polarization-dependent artifacts and the nonresonant background of tissue CARS imaging, enabling quantitative CP-CARS image analysis. This study shows that CP-CARS imaging uncovers significantly increased phase retardance of injured spinal cord tissue as compared to normal tissue, suggesting that CP-CARS is an appealing label-free imaging tool for determining the degree of tissue phase retardance, which could serve as a unique diagnostic parameter associated with nervous tissue injury.

  8. Homogenization of Stokes and Navier-Stokes equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaire, G.

    1990-04-01

    This thesis is devoted to homogenization of Stokes and Navier-Stokes equations with a Dirichlet boundary condition in a domain containing many tiny obstacles. Tipycally those obstacles are distributed at the modes of a periodic lattice with same small period in each axe's direction, and their size is always asymptotically smaller than the lattice's step. With the help of the energy method, and thanks to a suitable pressure's extension, we prove the convergence of the homogenization process when the lattice's step tends to zero (and thus the number of obstacles tends to infinity). For a so-called critical size of the obstacles, the homogenized problem turns out to be a Brinkman's law (i.e. Stokes or Navier-Stokes equation plus a linear zero-order term for the velocity in the momentum equation). For obstacles which have a size smaller than the critical one, the limit problem reduces to the initial Stokes or Navier-Stokes equations, while for larger sizes the homogenized problem a Darcy's law. Furthermore, those results have been extended to the case of obstacles included in a hyperplane, and we establish a simple model of fluid flows through grids, which is based on a special form of Brinkman's law [fr

  9. A phenomenological model for collisional coherence transfer in an optically pumped atomic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanbekyan, K; Bevilaqua, G; Mariotti, E; Moi, L [Universita degli Studi di Siena, Siena, 53100 (Italy); Khanbekyan, A; Papoyan, A, E-mail: karen.khanbekyan@gmail.com [Institute for Physical Research, National Academy of Sciences, Ashtarak 2 (Armenia)

    2011-03-14

    We consider a dual {Lambda}-system under double laser excitation to investigate the possibility of indirect coherence transfer between atomic ground states through an excited state. The atomic system is excited by a frequency modulated pump laser and probed by a low-power cw laser. All the decoherence mechanisms are discussed and taken into account. Adjustment of parameters of the two radiations aimed at maximization of coherence transfer is addressed. The study can help to understand the phenomena as collisional transfer of coherence and can find application in the experimental realization of atomic sensors.

  10. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kai; Lee, Soo-Y.

    2015-12-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms.

  11. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Kai; Lee, Soo-Y.

    2015-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms

  12. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Kai [School of Science, Tianjin University of Technology and Education, Tianjin, 300222 (China); Lee, Soo-Y., E-mail: sooying@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics & Applied Physics, and Division of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, School of Physical & Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2015-12-15

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms.

  13. An All-Fiber Gas Raman Light Source Based on a Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Pumped with a Q-Switched Fiber Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiao-Dong; Mao Qing-He; Sun Qing; Zhao Jia-Sheng; Li Pan; Feng Su-Juan

    2011-01-01

    A gas Raman light source based on a H 2 -filled hollow-core photonic-crystal-fiber cell with a Q-switched fiber laser followed by a fiber amplifier as the Raman pump source is demonstrated. The Stokes frequency-shift lasing line is observed at 1135.7 nm with the Q-switched pump pulses at 1064.7 nm. Our experimental results show that the generated Stokes pulse is much narrower than the pump pulse, and the generated Stokes pulse duration is increased with the single pulse energy for the same duration pump pulses. For the 125 ns pump pulses with a repetition rate of 5 kHz, the Raman threshold pump energy and the conversion efficiency at the Raman threshold are 2.13 μJ and 9.82%. Moreover, by choosing narrower pump pulses, the Raman threshold pump energy may be reduced and the conversion efficiency may be improved. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  14. Energy transfer efficiency from Cr(3+) to Nd(3+) in solar-pumped laser using transparent Nd/Cr:Y(3)Al(5)O(12) ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Mizuno, Shintaro; Takeda, Yasuhiko; Ito, Hiroshi; Ikesue, Akio; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi; Yamaga, Mitsuo

    2015-06-01

    We report energy transfer efficiency from Cr3+ to Nd3+ in Nd (1.0 at.%)/Cr (0.4 at.%) co-doped Y3Al5O12 (YAG) transparent ceramics in the laser oscillation states. The laser oscillation has performed using two pumping lasers operating at 808 nm and 561 nm; the former pumps Nd3+ directly to create the 1064 nm laser oscillation, whereas the latter assists the performance via Cr3+ absorption and sequential energy transfer to Nd3+. From the laser output power properties and laser mode analysis, the energy transfer efficiency was determined to be around 65%, which is close to that obtained from the spontaneous Nd3+ emission.

  15. Pump--probe measurements of state-to-state rotational energy transfer rates in N2 (v=1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitz, G.O.; Farrow, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    We report direct measurements of the state-to-state rotational energy transfer rates for N 2 (υ=1) at 298 K. Stimulated Raman pumping of Q-branch (υ=1 left-arrow 0) transitions is used to prepare a selected rotational state of N 2 in the υ=1 state. After allowing an appropriate time interval for collisions to occur, 2+2 resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization is used (through the a 1 Π g left-arrow X 1 Σ + g transition) to detect the relative population of the pumped level and other levels to which rotational energy transfer has occurred. We have performed a series of measurements in which a single even rotational level (J i =0--14) is excited and the time-dependent level populations are recorded at three or more delay times. This data set is then globally fit to determine the best set of state-to-state rate constants. The fitting procedure does not place any constraints (such as an exponential gap law) on the J or energy dependence of the rates. We compare our measurements and best-fit rates with results predicted from phenomenological rate models and from a semiclassical scattering calculation of Koszykowski et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 91, 41 (1987)]. Excellent agreement is obtained with two of the models and with the scattering calculation. We also test the validity of the energy-corrected sudden (ECS) scaling theory for N 2 by using our experimental transfer rates as basis rates (J=L→0), finding that the ECS scaling expressions accurately predict the remaining rates

  16. Coherent population transfer in multilevel systems with magnetic sublevels. II. Algebraic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Shore, B.W.; Bergmann, K.

    1995-01-01

    We extend previous theoretical work on coherent population transfer by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage for states involving nonzero angular momentum. The pump and Stokes fields are either copropagating or counterpropagating with the corresponding linearly polarized electric-field vectors lying in a common plane with the magnetic-field direction. Zeeman splitting lifts the magnetic sublevel degeneracy. We present an algebraic analysis of dressed-state properties to explain the behavior noted in numerical studies. In particular, we discuss conditions which are likely to lead to a failure of complete population transfer. The applied strategy, based on simple methods of linear algebra, will also be successful for other types of discrete multilevel systems, provided the rotating-wave and adiabatic approximation are valid

  17. Coherent population transfer in multilevel systems with magnetic sublevels. II. Algebraic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J.; Shore, B. W.; Bergmann, K.

    1995-07-01

    We extend previous theoretical work on coherent population transfer by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage for states involving nonzero angular momentum. The pump and Stokes fields are either copropagating or counterpropagating with the corresponding linearly polarized electric-field vectors lying in a common plane with the magnetic-field direction. Zeeman splitting lifts the magnetic sublevel degeneracy. We present an algebraic analysis of dressed-state properties to explain the behavior noted in numerical studies. In particular, we discuss conditions which are likely to lead to a failure of complete population transfer. The applied strategy, based on simple methods of linear algebra, will also be successful for other types of discrete multilevel systems, provided the rotating-wave and adiabatic approximation are valid.

  18. Identification of potential target genes for the tomato fruit-ripening regulator RIN by chromatin immunoprecipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Masaki; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-30

    During ripening, climacteric fruits increase their ethylene level and subsequently undergo various physiological changes, such as softening, pigmentation and development of aroma and flavor. These changes occur simultaneously and are caused by the highly synchronized expression of numerous genes at the onset of ripening. In tomatoes, the MADS-box transcription factor RIN has been regarded as a key regulator responsible for the onset of ripening by acting upstream of both ethylene- and non-ethylene-mediated controls. However, except for LeACS2, direct targets of RIN have not been clarified, and little is known about the transcriptional cascade for ripening. Using immunoprecipitated (IPed) DNA fragments recovered by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with anti-RIN antibody from ripening tomato fruit, we analyzed potential binding sites for RIN (CArG-box sites) in the promoters of representative ripening-induced genes by quantitative PCR. Results revealed nearly a 5- to 20-fold enrichment of CArG boxes in the promoters of LeACS2, LeACS4, PG, TBG4, LeEXP1, and LeMAN4 and of RIN itself, indicating direct interaction of RIN with their promoters in vivo. Moreover, sequence analysis and genome mapping of 51 cloned IPed DNAs revealed potential RIN binding sites. Quantitative PCR revealed that four of the potential binding sites were enriched 4- to 17-fold in the IPed DNA pools compared with the controls, indicating direct interaction of RIN with these sites in vivo. Near one of the four CArG boxes we found a gene encoding a protein similar to thioredoxin y1. An increase in the transcript level of this gene was observed with ripening in normal fruit but not in the rin mutant, suggesting that RIN possibly induces its expression. The presented results suggest that RIN controls fruit softening and ethylene production by the direct transcriptional regulation of cell-wall-modifying genes and ethylene biosynthesis genes during ripening. Moreover, the binding of RIN to its own

  19. A path to practical Solar Pumped Lasers via Radiative Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusswig, Philip D; Nechayev, Sergey; Scherer, Jennifer M; Hwang, Gyu Weon; Bawendi, Moungi G; Baldo, Marc A; Rotschild, Carmel

    2015-10-05

    The optical conversion of incoherent solar radiation into a bright, coherent laser beam enables the application of nonlinear optics to solar energy conversion and storage. Here, we present an architecture for solar pumped lasers that uses a luminescent solar concentrator to decouple the conventional trade-off between solar absorption efficiency and the mode volume of the optical gain material. We report a 750-μm-thick Nd(3+)-doped YAG planar waveguide sensitized by a luminescent CdSe/CdZnS (core/shell) colloidal nanocrystal, yielding a peak cascade energy transfer of 14%, a broad spectral response in the visible portion of the solar spectrum, and an equivalent quasi-CW solar lasing threshold of 23 W-cm(-2), or approximately 230 suns. The efficient coupling of incoherent, spectrally broad sunlight in small gain volumes should allow the generation of coherent laser light from intensities of less than 100 suns.

  20. A quantum chemical study of the mechanism for proton-coupled electron transfer leading to proton pumping in cytochrome c oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Margareta R. A.; Siegbahn, Per E. M.

    2010-10-01

    The proton pumping mechanism in cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal enzyme in the respiratory chain, has been investigated using hybrid DFT with large chemical models. In previous studies, a gating mechanism was suggested based on electrostatic interpretations of kinetic experiments. The predictions from that analysis are tested here. The main result is that the suggestion of a positively charged transition state for proton transfer is confirmed, while some other suggestions for the gating are not supported. It is shown that a few critical relative energy values from the earlier studies are reproduced with quite high accuracy using the present model calculations. Examples are the forward barrier for proton transfer from the N-side of the membrane to the pump-loading site when the heme a cofactor is reduced, and the corresponding back leakage barrier when heme a is oxidised. An interesting new finding is an unexpected double-well potential for proton transfer from the N-side to the pump-loading site. In the intermediate between the two transition states found, the proton is bound to PropD on heme a. A possible purpose of this type of potential surface is suggested here. The accuracy of the present values are discussed in terms of their sensitivity to the choice of dielectric constant. Only one energy value, which is not critical for the present mechanism, varies significantly with this choice and is therefore less certain.

  1. Change of Rin1 and Stathmin in the Animal Model of Traumatic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiu Shi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanism of fear memory is poorly understood. Therefore, the pathogenesis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, whose symptom presentation can enhance fear memory, remains largely unclear. Recent studies with knockout animals have reported that Rin1 and stathmin regulate fear memory. Rin1 inhibits acquisition and promotes memory extinction, whereas stathmin regulates innate and basal fear. The aim of our study was to examine changes in the expression of Rin1 and stathmin in different animal models of stress, particluarly traumatic stress. We used three animal traumatic stresses: single prolonged stress (SPS, which is a rodent model of PTSD, an immobilization-stress (IM and a Loud sound stress (LSS, to examine the change and uniqueness in Rin1/stathmin expression. Behavioral tests of SPS rats demonstrated increased anxiety and contextual fear-conditioning. They showed decreased long-term potentiation (LTP, as well as decreased stathmin and increased Rin1 expression in the hippocampus and the amygdala. Expression of the stathmin effector, tubulin, and downstream molecules Rin1, Rab5, and Abl, appeared to increase. Rin1 and EphA4 were endogenously coexpressed in primary neurons after SPS stimulation. IM rats exhibited increased anxiety behavior and enhanced fear-conditioning to contextual and auditory stimuli. Similar changes in expression of Rin1/stathmin were observed in IM rats whereas no changes were observed in rats exposed to a loud sound. These data suggest that changes in expression of the Rin1 and stathmin genes may be involved in rodents with SPS and IM stresses, which provide valuable insight into fear memories under abnormal conditions, particularly in PTSD.

  2. Ion-atom charge-transfer system for a heavy-ion-beam pumped laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, A.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Kroetz, W.; Wieser, J.; Murnick, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    An Ar target to which Cs vapor could be added, excited by a pulsed beam of 100-MeV 32 S ions, was studied as a prototype ion-atom charge-transfer system for pumping short-wavelength lasers. Low-velocity Ar 2+ ions were efficiently produced; a huge increase in the intensity of the Ar II 4d-4p spectral lines was observed when Cs vapor was added to the argon. This observation is explained by a selective charge transfer of the Cs 6s electron into the upper levels of the observed transitions. A rate constant of (1.4±0.2)x10 -9 cm 3 /s for the transfer process was determined

  3. An axial heat transfer analytical model for capillary-pumped loop vapor line temperature distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.-W.; Lin, W.-K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to study the capillary-pumped loop (CPL) vapor line temperature distributions. A simple axial heat transfer method is developed to predict the vapor line temperature from evaporator outlet to condenser inlet. CPL is a high efficiency two-phase heat transfer device. Since it does not need any other mechanical force such as pump, furthermore, it might be used to do the thermal management of high power electronic component such as spacecraft, notebook and computer servers. It is a cyclic circulation pumped by capillary force, and this force is generated from the fine porous structure in evaporator. A novel semi-arc porous evaporator to CPL in 1U server is designed on the ground with a horizontal position and scale down the whole device to the miniature size. From the experimental results, the CPL could remove heat 90 W in steady-state and keep the heat source temperature about 70 deg. C. Finally, a good agreement between the simulation and experimental values has been achieved. Comparing with experiment and simulation results, the deviation values of the distributions of the condenser inlet temperature are less than 8%

  4. Identification of potential target genes for the tomato fruit-ripening regulator RIN by chromatin immunoprecipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakano Toshitsugu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During ripening, climacteric fruits increase their ethylene level and subsequently undergo various physiological changes, such as softening, pigmentation and development of aroma and flavor. These changes occur simultaneously and are caused by the highly synchronized expression of numerous genes at the onset of ripening. In tomatoes, the MADS-box transcription factor RIN has been regarded as a key regulator responsible for the onset of ripening by acting upstream of both ethylene- and non-ethylene-mediated controls. However, except for LeACS2, direct targets of RIN have not been clarified, and little is known about the transcriptional cascade for ripening. Results Using immunoprecipitated (IPed DNA fragments recovered by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP with anti-RIN antibody from ripening tomato fruit, we analyzed potential binding sites for RIN (CArG-box sites in the promoters of representative ripening-induced genes by quantitative PCR. Results revealed nearly a 5- to 20-fold enrichment of CArG boxes in the promoters of LeACS2, LeACS4, PG, TBG4, LeEXP1, and LeMAN4 and of RIN itself, indicating direct interaction of RIN with their promoters in vivo. Moreover, sequence analysis and genome mapping of 51 cloned IPed DNAs revealed potential RIN binding sites. Quantitative PCR revealed that four of the potential binding sites were enriched 4- to 17-fold in the IPed DNA pools compared with the controls, indicating direct interaction of RIN with these sites in vivo. Near one of the four CArG boxes we found a gene encoding a protein similar to thioredoxin y1. An increase in the transcript level of this gene was observed with ripening in normal fruit but not in the rin mutant, suggesting that RIN possibly induces its expression. Conclusions The presented results suggest that RIN controls fruit softening and ethylene production by the direct transcriptional regulation of cell-wall-modifying genes and ethylene biosynthesis genes

  5. A path to practical Solar Pumped Lasers via Radiative Energy Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusswig, Philip D.; Nechayev, Sergey; Scherer, Jennifer M.; Hwang, Gyu Weon; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Baldo, Marc. A.; Rotschild, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    The optical conversion of incoherent solar radiation into a bright, coherent laser beam enables the application of nonlinear optics to solar energy conversion and storage. Here, we present an architecture for solar pumped lasers that uses a luminescent solar concentrator to decouple the conventional trade-off between solar absorption efficiency and the mode volume of the optical gain material. We report a 750-μm-thick Nd3+-doped YAG planar waveguide sensitized by a luminescent CdSe/CdZnS (core/shell) colloidal nanocrystal, yielding a peak cascade energy transfer of 14%, a broad spectral response in the visible portion of the solar spectrum, and an equivalent quasi-CW solar lasing threshold of 23 W-cm−2, or approximately 230 suns. The efficient coupling of incoherent, spectrally broad sunlight in small gain volumes should allow the generation of coherent laser light from intensities of less than 100 suns. PMID:26434400

  6. Nonlinear behavior of micro bubbles under ultrasound due to heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chan Soo; Kwak, Ho Young; Kim, Jeong Eun; Lee, Jae Young

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the nonlinear behavior of a microbubble under ultrasound, taking into account the heat transfer inside the bubble and through the bubble wall. The polytropic relation, which has been used for the process of pressure change depending on the volume variation of ideal gases, cannot properly treat heat transfer involving the oscillating bubble under ultrasound. In this study, a set of solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for the gas inside the bubble along with an analytical treatment of the Navier-Stokes equations for the liquid adjacent to the bubble wall was used to treat properly the heat transfer process for the oscillating bubble under ultrasound. Entropy generation due to finite heat transfer, which induces the lost work during bubble evolution, reduces the collapsing process and considerably affects the nonlinear behavior of the bubble

  7. Hydration induced material transfer in membranes of osmotic pump tablets measured by synchrotron radiation based FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Yin, Xianzhen; Guo, Zhen; Tong, Yajun; Feng, Jing; York, Peter; Xiao, Tiqiao; Chen, Min; Gu, Jingkai; Zhang, Jiwen

    2016-03-10

    Osmotic pump tablets are reliable oral controlled drug delivery systems based on their semipermeable membrane coating. This research used synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy and imaging to investigate the hydration induced material transfer in the membranes of osmotic pump tablets. SR-FTIR was applied to record and map the chemical information of a micro-region of the membranes, composed of cellulose acetate (CA, as the water insoluble matrix) and polyethylene glycol (PEG, as the soluble pore forming agent and plasticizing agent). The microstructure and chemical change of membranes hydrated for 0, 5, 10 and 30min were measured using SR-FTIR, combined with scanning electronic microscopy and atom force microscopy. The SR-FTIR microspectroscopy results indicated that there was a major change at the absorption range of 2700-3100cm(-1) in the membranes after different periods of hydration time. The absorption bands at 2870-2880cm(-1) and 2950-2960cm(-1) were assigned to represent CA and PEG, respectively. The chemical group signal distribution illustrated by the ratio of PEG to CA demonstrated that the trigger of drug release in the preliminary stage was due to the rapid transfer of PEG into liquid medium with a sharp decrease of PEG in the membranes. The SR-FTIR mapping results have demonstrated the hydration induced material transfer in the membranes of osmotic pump tablets and enabled reassessment of the drug release mechanism of membrane controlled osmotic pump systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermally induced diffraction losses for a Gaussian pump beam and optimization of the mode-to-pump ratio in an end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y T; Li, W J; Pan, L L; Yu, J T; Zhang, R H

    2013-01-01

    The analytical model of thermally induced diffraction losses for a Gaussian pump beam are derived as functions of the mode-to-pump ratio and pump power in end-pumped Nd-doped lasers considering the energy transfer upconversion effects. The mode-to-pump ratio is optimized based on it. The results show that the optimum mode-to-pump ratio with the thermally induced diffraction losses is less than 0.65, and it is less than the results in which the thermally induced diffraction losses are neglected. The theoretical model is applied to a diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO 4 laser operating at 1342 nm, and the theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results. (paper)

  9. Energy transfer in isolated LHC II studied by femtosecond pump-probe technique

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Yi; Liu Yuan; Liu Wei Min; Zhu Rong Yi; Qian Shi Xiong; Xu Chun He

    2003-01-01

    Excitation energy transfer in the isolated light-harvesting chlorophyll (Chl)-a/b protein complex of photosystem II (LHC II) was studied by the one-colour pump-probe technique with femtosecond time resolution. After exciting Chl-b by 638nm beam, the dynamic behaviour shows that the ultrafast energy transfer from Chl-b at positions of B2, B3, and B5 to the corresponding Chl-a molecules in monomeric subunit of LHC II is in the time scale of 230fs. While with the excitation of Chl-a at 678nm, the energy transfer between excitons of Chl-a molecules has the lifetime of about 370 fs, and two other slow decay components are due to the energy transfer between different Chl-a molecules in a monomeric subunit of LHC II or in different subunits, or due to change of molecular conformation. (20 refs).

  10. 16.7 W 885 nm diode-side-pumped actively Q -switched Nd:YAG/YVO4 intracavity Raman laser at 1176 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Pengbo; Zhang, Guizhong; Liu, Jian; Ding, Xin; Sheng, Quan; Sun, Bing; Shi, Rui; Wu, Liang; Yao, Jianquan; Yu, Xuanyi; Wang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    We proposed and experimentally demonstrated the generation of high-power 1176 nm Stokes wave by frequency shifting of a 885 nm diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG laser using a YVO 4 crystal in a Z -shaped cavity configuration. Employing the 885 nm diode-side-pumped scheme and the Z -shaped cavity, for the first time to our knowledge, we realized the thermal management effectively, achieving excellent 1176 nm Stokes wave consequently. With an incident pump power of ∼190.0 W, a maximum average output power of 16.7 W was obtained at the pulse repetition frequency of 10 kHz. The pulse duration and spectrum linewidth of the Stokes wave at the maximum output power were 20.3 ns and ∼0.08 nm, respectively. (paper)

  11. Stokes drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bremer, T. S.; Breivik, Ø.

    2017-12-01

    During its periodic motion, a particle floating at the free surface of a water wave experiences a net drift velocity in the direction of wave propagation, known as the Stokes drift (Stokes 1847 Trans. Camb. Philos. Soc. 8, 441-455). More generally, the Stokes drift velocity is the difference between the average Lagrangian flow velocity of a fluid parcel and the average Eulerian flow velocity of the fluid. This paper reviews progress in fundamental and applied research on the induced mean flow associated with surface gravity waves since the first description of the Stokes drift, now 170 years ago. After briefly reviewing the fundamental physical processes, most of which have been established for decades, the review addresses progress in laboratory and field observations of the Stokes drift. Despite more than a century of experimental studies, laboratory studies of the mean circulation set up by waves in a laboratory flume remain somewhat contentious. In the field, rapid advances are expected due to increasingly small and cheap sensors and transmitters, making widespread use of small surface-following drifters possible. We also discuss remote sensing of the Stokes drift from high-frequency radar. Finally, the paper discusses the three main areas of application of the Stokes drift: in the coastal zone, in Eulerian models of the upper ocean layer and in the modelling of tracer transport, such as oil and plastic pollution. Future climate models will probably involve full coupling of ocean and atmosphere systems, in which the wave model provides consistent forcing on the ocean surface boundary layer. Together with the advent of new space-borne instruments that can measure surface Stokes drift, such models hold the promise of quantifying the impact of wave effects on the global atmosphere-ocean system and hopefully contribute to improved climate projections. This article is part of the theme issue 'Nonlinear water waves'.

  12. From Petrov-Einstein to Navier-Stokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysov, Vyacheslav

    The fluid/gravity correspondence relates solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation to metrics which solve the Einstein equations. We propose propose two possible approaches to establish this correspondence: perturbative expansion for shear modes and large mean curvature expansion for algebraically special metrics. We show by explicit construction that for every solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation in p+1 dimensions, there is an associated "dual" solution of the vacuum Einstein equations in p+2 dimensions. The dual geometry has an intrinsically flat time-like boundary segment whose extrinsic curvature is given by the stress tensor of the Navier-Stokes fluid. We consider a "near-horizon" limit in which hypersurface becomes highly accelerated. The near-horizon expansion in gravity is shown to be mathematically equivalent to the hydrodynamic expansion in fluid dynamics, and the Einstein equation reduces to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. It is shown that imposing a Petrov type I condition on the hypersurface geometry reduces the degrees of freedom in the extrinsic curvature to those of a fluid. Moreover, expanding around a limit in which the mean curvature of the embedding diverges, the leading-order Einstein constraint equations on hypersurface are shown to reduce to the non-linear incompressible Navier-Stokes equation for a fluid moving in hypersurface. We extend the fluid/gravity correspondence to include the magnetohydrodynamics/gravity correspondence, which translates solutions of the equations of magnetohydrodynamics (describing charged fluids) into geometries that satisfy the Einstein-Maxwell equations. We present an explicit example of this new correspondence in the context of flat Minkowski space. We show that a perturbative deformation of the Rindler wedge satisfies the Einstein-Maxwell equations provided that the parameters appearing in the expansion, which we interpret as fluid fields, satisfy the

  13. Overview of ground coupled heat pump research and technology transfer activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, V. D.; Mei, V. C.

    Highlights of DOE-sponsored ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are presented. ORNL, in cooperation with Niagara Mohawk Power Company, Climate Master, Inc., and Brookhaven National Laboratory developed and demonstrated an advanced GCHP design concept with shorter ground coils that can reduce installed costs for northern climates. In these areas it can also enhance the competitiveness of GCHP systems versus air-source heat pumps by lowering their payback from 6 to 7 years to 3 to 5 years. Ground coil heat exchanger models (based primarily on first principles) have been developed and used by others to generate less conservative ground coil sizing methods. An aggressive technology transfer initiative was undertaken to publicize results of this research and make it available to the industry. Included in this effort were an international workshop, trade press releases and articles, and participation in a live teleconference on GCHP technology.

  14. Dual-Pump CARS Development and Application to Supersonic Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnotti, Gaetano; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    A dual-pump Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) instrument has been developed to obtain simultaneous measurements of temperature and absolute mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in supersonic combustion and generate databases for validation and development of CFD codes. Issues that compromised previous attempts, such as beam steering and high irradiance perturbation effects, have been alleviated or avoided. Improvements in instrument precision and accuracy have been achieved. An axis-symmetric supersonic combusting coaxial jet facility has been developed to provide a simple, yet suitable flow to CFD modelers. Approximately one million dual-pump CARS single shots have been collected in the supersonic jet for varying values of flight and exit Mach numbers at several locations. Data have been acquired with a H2 co-flow (combustion case) or a N2 co-flow (mixing case). Results are presented and the effects of the compressibility and of the heat release are discussed.

  15. Pump Jet Mixing and Pipeline Transfer Assessment for High-Activity Radioactive Wastes in Hanford Tank 241-AZ-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Onishi; KP Recknagle; BE Wells

    2000-08-09

    The authors evaluated how well two 300-hp mixer pumps would mix solid and liquid radioactive wastes stored in Hanford double-shell Tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) and confirmed the adequacy of a three-inch (7.6-cm) pipeline system to transfer the resulting mixed waste slurry to the AP Tank Farm and a planned waste treatment (vitrification) plant on the Hanford Site. Tank AZ-102 contains 854,000 gallons (3,230 m{sup 3}) of supernatant liquid and 95,000 gallons (360 m{sup 3}) of sludge made up of aging waste (or neutralized current acid waste). The study comprises three assessments: waste chemistry, pump jet mixing, and pipeline transfer. The waste chemical modeling assessment indicates that the sludge, consisting of the solids and interstitial solution, and the supernatant liquid are basically in an equilibrium condition. Thus, pump jet mixing would not cause much solids precipitation and dissolution, only 1.5% or less of the total AZ-102 sludge. The pump jet mixing modeling indicates that two 300-hp mixer pumps would mobilize up to about 23 ft (7.0 m) of the sludge nearest the pump but would not erode the waste within seven inches (0.18 m) of the tank bottom. This results in about half of the sludge being uniformly mixed in the tank and the other half being unmixed (not eroded) at the tank bottom.

  16. Pump Jet Mixing and Pipeline Transfer Assessment for High-Activity Radioactive Wastes in Hanford Tank 241-AZ-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Recknagle, K.P.; Wells, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    The authors evaluated how well two 300-hp mixer pumps would mix solid and liquid radioactive wastes stored in Hanford double-shell Tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) and confirmed the adequacy of a three-inch (7.6-cm) pipeline system to transfer the resulting mixed waste slurry to the AP Tank Farm and a planned waste treatment (vitrification) plant on the Hanford Site. Tank AZ-102 contains 854,000 gallons (3,230 m 3 ) of supernatant liquid and 95,000 gallons (360 m 3 ) of sludge made up of aging waste (or neutralized current acid waste). The study comprises three assessments: waste chemistry, pump jet mixing, and pipeline transfer. The waste chemical modeling assessment indicates that the sludge, consisting of the solids and interstitial solution, and the supernatant liquid are basically in an equilibrium condition. Thus, pump jet mixing would not cause much solids precipitation and dissolution, only 1.5% or less of the total AZ-102 sludge. The pump jet mixing modeling indicates that two 300-hp mixer pumps would mobilize up to about 23 ft (7.0 m) of the sludge nearest the pump but would not erode the waste within seven inches (0.18 m) of the tank bottom. This results in about half of the sludge being uniformly mixed in the tank and the other half being unmixed (not eroded) at the tank bottom

  17. An experimental and numerical study of the flow and mass transfer in a model of the wearable artificial kidney dialyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenfeld Moshe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Published studies of the past decades have established that mass transfer across the dialyzer membrane is governed by diffusion, convection and osmosis. While the former is independent of the pressure in the liquids, the latter two are pressure dependent and are enhanced when the pressure difference across the membrane is increased. The goal of the present study is to examine the impact of pulsatile flow on the transport phenomena across the membrane of a high-flux dialyzer in a wearable artificial kidney (WAK with a novel single small battery-operated pulsatile pump that drives both the blood and dialysate in a counter-phased manner, maximizing the trans-membrane pressure. Methods Both in-vitro experimental and numerical tools are employed to compare the performance of the pulsatile WAK dialyzer with a traditional design of a single-channel roller blood pump together with a centrifugal pump that drives the dialysate flow. The numerical methods utilize the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes and mass transfer equations to model the flow in the fibers of the dialyzer. Results While diffusion is still the dominating transport regime, the WAK pump enhances substantially the trans-membrane pressure and thus increases mass convection that might be as high as 30% of the overall transfer. This increase is obtained due to the design of the pulsatile WAK pump that increases ultrafiltration by increasing the trans-membrane pressure. Conclusions The experimental and numerical results revealed that when pumping at similar flow rates, a small battery-operated pulsatile pump provides clearances of urea and creatinine similar as or better than a large heavy AC-powered roller pump.

  18. Improvements in or relating to pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, R E; Boyle, K

    1976-06-30

    A pump is described that has what is termed a fluid diode in the inlet and outlet. Each such diode has non-moving parts and is operable to allow fluid to flow therethrough easily in one direction and to give restricted flow in the reverse direction. A suction leg is provided, connected to an ejector having a passage for compressed gas, and a valve is provided in the passage downstream of the ejector operable to open and close the passage periodically, thereby creating alternate negative and positive pumping pressures within the pump chamber. The valve may take the form of a solenoid valve and may include electrically linked means for sensing liquid levels. The pump is stated to be particularly attractive for plants in which it is desirable to avoid pump maintenance. Examples of its application includes the transfer of toxic and radioactive liquids. The exhaust from the ejector can be fed into a containment vessel from which it can be extracted through a normal venting system for plant handling such materials. It is also suitable for sludge pumping. The solenoid valve does not come into contact with the fluid being pumped, and can be located so that it is accessible for maintenance. Stainless steel is normally a convenient constructional material.

  19. About local fractional three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations in Cantor-type cylindrical co-ordinate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Guo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we investigate the local fractional 3-D compressible Navier-Stokes equation via local fractional derivative. We use the Cantor-type cylindrical co-ordinate method to transfer 3-D compressible Navier-Stokes equation from the Cantorian co-ordinate system to the Cantor-type cylindrical co-ordinate system.

  20. Reactor coolant purification system circulation pumps (CUW pumps)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsui, Toshiaki

    1979-01-01

    Coolant purification equipments for BWRs have been improved, and the high pressure purifying system has become the main type. The quantity of purifying treatment also changed to 2% of the flow rate of reactor feed water. As for the circulation pumps, canned motor pumps are adopted recently, and the improvements of reliability and safety are attempted. The impurities carried in by reactor feed water and the corrosion products generated in reactors and auxiliary equipments are activated by neutron irradiation or affect heat transfer adversely, adhering to fuel claddings are core structures. Therefore, a part of reactor coolant is led to the purification equipments, and returned to reactors after the impurities are eliminated perfectly. At the time of starting and stopping reactors, excess reactor water and the contaminated water from reactors are transferred to main condenser hot wells or waste treatment systems. Thus the prescribed water quality is maintained. The operational modes of and the requirements for the CUW pumps, the construction and the features of the canned motor type CUW pumps are explained. Recently, a pump operated for 11 months without any maintenance has been disassembled and inspected, but the wear of bearings has not been observed, and the high reliability of the pump has been proved. (Kako, I.)

  1. 78 FR 11996 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    .... EERE-2011-BT-STD-0031] RIN 1904-AC54 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... CONTACT: Mr. Charles Llenza, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

  2. Surgical Complications of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical Complications of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Infection in HIV infected children. J Karpelowsky, A Alexander, SD Peek, A Millar, H Rode. Abstract. Aim. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunisation is well established as part of the South African national expanded programme for immunisation (EPI). The World ...

  3. Continuous anti-Stokes Raman laser operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feitisch, A.; Muller, T.; Welling, H.; Wellegehausen, B.

    1988-01-01

    The anti-Stokes Raman laser (ASRL) process has proved to be a method that works well for frequency upconversion and for the generation of powerful tunable narrowband (pulsed) laser radiation in the UV and VUV spectral range. This conversion process allows large-frequency shifts in single step, high output energies, and high efficiencies. A basic requirement is population inversion on a two-photon transition, where, in general, the upper level of the transition should be metastable. Up to now the ASRL technique has only been demonstrated for the pulsed regime, where the necessary population inversion was generated by photodissociation or inner shell photoionization. These inversion techniques, however, cannot be transferred to cw operation of an ASRL, and, therefore, other inversion techniques have to be developed. Here a novel approach for the creation of the necessary population inversion is proposed, that uses well-known cw gas lasers as the active material for the conversion process. The basic idea is to use either existing two-photon population inversions in a cw laser material or to generate the necessary population inversion by applying a suitable population transfer process to the material. A natural two-photon inversion situation in a laser material is evident whenever a cascade laser can be operated. Cascade laser-based anti-Stokes schemes are possible in a He-Ne laser discharge, and investigations of these schemes are discussed

  4. Stokes profile analysis and vector magnetic fields. III. Extended temperature minima of sunspot umbrae as inferred from Stokes profiles of Mg I 4571 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lites, B.W.; Skumanich, A.; Rees, D.E.; Murphy, G.A.; Carlsson, M.; Sydney Univ., Australia; Oslo Universitetet, Norway)

    1987-01-01

    Observed Stokes profiles of Mg I 4571 A are analyzed as a diagnostic of the magnetic field and thermal structure at the temperature minimum of sunspot umbrae. Multilevel non-LTE transfer calculations of the Mg I-II-III excitation and ionization balance in model umbral atmospheres show: (1) Mg I to be far less ionized in sunspot umbrae than in the quiet sun, leading to greatly enhanced opacity in 4571 A, and (2) LTE excitation of 4571 A. Existing umbral models predict emission cores of the Stokes I profile due to the chromospheric temperature rise. This feature is not present in observed umbral profiles. Moreover, such an emission reversal causes similar anomalous features in the Stokes Q, U, V profiles, which are also not observed. Umbral atmospheres with extended temperature minima are suggested. Implications for chromospheric heating mechanisms and the utility of this line for solar vector magnetic field measurements are discussed. 35 references

  5. Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Institute, 30th, California State University, Sacramento, May 28, 29, 1987, Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reardon, F.H.; Thinh, N.D.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental and analytical techniques in heat transfer and fluid dynamics and state-of-the-art applications are examined in reviews and reports. Topics discussed include the recirculation characteristics of a vortex pump, simulation of radial-flow impellers using the Navier-Stokes equations, the transient effect in composite-medium conduction or diffusion, flow in a tube with a porous obstruction, the measurement of the physical heat-transfer coefficient, and a penalty FEM for combined forced and free convection in a rectangular enclosure. Consideration is given to heat transfer in the entrance region of multiply connected ducts, working-fluid selection for low-temperature Rankine cycles, a computational-experimental method for monitoring particulate flux in fluid streams, medical applications of a vortex aerosol generator, and the interaction of unlike propellant droplets in various reactive environments

  6. The distinct economic effects of the ethanol blend wall, RIN prices and ethanol price premium due to the RFS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, de H.; Drabik, D.

    2015-01-01

    The ethanol blend wall and high RIN prices has become a controversial policy issue. We develop a model showing how RIN prices reflect the costs of overcoming the blend wall, namely biodiesel consumed in excess of its mandate and expansion of E85 sales. These costs are very high and are shown to be

  7. Pumps for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, L.

    1978-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of nuclear industry for the transfer of corrosive, toxic, humidity sensitive or very pure gases, different types of pumps were developped and commercialized. Their main characteristics are to prevent pollution of the transfered fluid by avoiding any contact between this fluid and the lubricated parts of the machine, and to prevent a contamination of the atmosphere or of the fluid by a total tightness. Patellar pumps have been particularly developped because the metallic bellows are quite reliable and resistant in this configuration. Two types are described: patellar pumps without friction and barrel pumps whose pistons are provided with rings sliding in the cylinders without lubrication [fr

  8. Two-beam ultrabroadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for high resolution gas-phase multiplex imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    We propose and develop a method for wideband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in the gas phase and demonstrate the single-shot measurement of N 2 , H 2 , CO 2 , O 2 , and CH 4 . Pure-rotational and vibrational O-, Q-, and S- branch spectra are collected simultaneously, with high spectral and spatial resolution, and within a single-laser-shot. The relative intensity of the rotational and vibrational signals can be tuned arbitrarily using polarization techniques. The ultrashort 7 fs pump and Stokes pulses are automatically overlapped temporally and spatially using a two-beam CARS technique, and the crossed probe beam allows for excellent spatial sectioning of the probed location

  9. Navier-Stokes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koren, B.

    2013-01-01

    De Navier-Stokes-vergelijkingen behoren tot de meest gebruikte vergelijkingen voor de berekening van gas- en vloeistofstromingen. Op de Vakantiecursus 2013 van het Platform Wiskunde Nederland vertelt Barry Koren over de Navier-Stokes-vergelijkingen, over stromingsleer en over openstaande

  10. On a theorem of Cattabriga related to Stokes equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, V.

    1978-01-01

    We study the ''generalized Stokes boundary value problem'', which is a (generalization of a) linearized version of Navier-Stokes equations and we show the existence and unicity of the weak solution. It is known that these results can be used to prove the existence of weak (local) solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations. However, we are mainly interested in the method of proving it will be seen how easy the result follows from some general theorems about differential forms on a Riemannian manifold. (author)

  11. Low-voltage electroosmotic pumping using polyethylene terephthalate track-etched membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Ceming; Wang Lin [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xue Jianming, E-mail: jmxue@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-09-01

    We present experimental investigations of electroosmotic (EO) pumping using polyethylene terephthalate (PET) track-etched membrane at a low applied voltage. An EO pump based on PET track-etched membrane has been designed and fabricated. Pumping performance of the device is experimentally studied in terms of flow rate as a function of applied voltage and KCl aqueous concentration. The PET track-etched membrane EO pump can generate flow rates on the order of 10 {mu}l min{sup -1} cm{sup -2} at several applied volts. The measured flow rate tends to decrease with increasing KCl aqueous concentration. In addition, we study the EO flow in cylindrical nanopore with use of a continuum model, composed of Nernst Planck equations, Poisson equation and Navier Stokes equations.

  12. Proposal for probing energy transfer pathway by single-molecule pump-dump experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Ming-Jie; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung

    2016-01-01

    The structure of Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) light-harvesting complex has long been recognized as containing seven bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecules. Recently, an additional BChl molecule was discovered in the crystal structure of the FMO complex, which may serve as a link between baseplate and the remaining seven molecules. Here, we investigate excitation energy transfer (EET) process by simulating single-molecule pump-dump experiment in the eight-molecules complex. We adopt the coherent m...

  13. Development and Optimized Design of Propeller Pump System & Structure with VFD in Low-head Pumping Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentian, Zhang; Honggeng, Zhu; Arnold, Jaap; Linbi, Yao

    2010-06-01

    Compared with vertical-installed pumps, the propeller (bulb tubular) pump systems can achieve higher hydraulic efficiencies, which are particularly suitable for low-head pumping stations. More than four propeller pumping stations are being, or will be built in the first stage of the S-to-N Water Diversion Project in China, diverting water from Yangtze River to the northern part of China to alleviate water-shortage problems and develop the economy. New structures of propeller pump have been developed for specified pumping stations in Jiangsu and Shandong Provinces respectively and Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) are used in those pumping stations to regulate operating conditions. Based on the Navier-Stokes equations and the standard k-e turbulent model, numerical simulations of the flow field and performance prediction in the propeller pump system were conducted on the platform of commercial software CFX by using the SIMPLEC algorithm. Through optimal design of bulb dimensions and diffuser channel shape, the hydraulic system efficiency has improved evidently. Furthermore, the structures of propeller pumps have been optimized to for the introduction of conventional as well as permanent magnet motors. In order to improve the hydraulic efficiency of pumping systems, both the pump discharge and the motor diameter were optimized respectively. If a conventional motor is used, the diameter of the pump casing has to be increased to accommodate the motor installed inside. If using a permanent magnet motor, the diameter of motor casing can be decreased effectively without decreasing its output power, thus the cross-sectional area is enlarged and the velocity of flowing water decreased favorably to reduce hydraulic loss of discharge channel and thereby raising the pumping system efficiency. Witness model tests were conducted after numerical optimization on specific propeller pump systems, indicating that the model system hydraulic efficiencies can be improved by 0.5%˜3.7% in

  14. A new nonlinear turbulence model based on Partially-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J T; Wu, Y L; Cai, C; Liu, S H; Wang, L Q

    2013-01-01

    Partially-averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) Model was recognized as a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to direct numerical simulation (DNS) bridging method. PANS model was purported for any filter width-from RANS to DNS. PANS method also shared some similarities with the currently popular URANS (unsteady RANS) method. In this paper, a new PANS model was proposed, which was based on RNG k-ε turbulence model. The Standard and RNG k-ε turbulence model were both isotropic models, as well as PANS models. The sheer stress in those PANS models was solved by linear equation. The linear hypothesis was not accurate in the simulation of complex flow, such as stall phenomenon. The sheer stress here was solved by nonlinear method proposed by Ehrhard. Then, the nonlinear PANS model was set up. The pressure coefficient of the suction side of the NACA0015 hydrofoil was predicted. The result of pressure coefficient agrees well with experimental result, which proves that the nonlinear PANS model can capture the high pressure gradient flow. A low specific centrifugal pump was used to verify the capacity of the nonlinear PANS model. The comparison between the simulation results of the centrifugal pump and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) results proves that the nonlinear PANS model can be used in the prediction of complex flow field

  15. Identification of small molecules that disrupt signaling between ABL and its positive regulator RIN1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Y Ting

    Full Text Available Constitutively active BCR-ABL kinase fusions are causative mutations in the pathogenesis of hematopoietic neoplasias including chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML. Although these fusions have been successfully targeted with kinase inhibitors, drug-resistance and relapse continue to limit long-term survival, highlighting the need for continued innovative drug discovery. We developed a time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET -based assay to identify compounds that disrupt stimulation of the ABL kinase by blocking its ability to bind the positive regulator RIN1. This assay was used in a high throughput screen (HTS of two small molecule libraries totaling 444,743 compounds. 708 confirmed hits were counter-screened to eliminate off-target inhibitors and reanalyzed to prioritize compounds with IC50 values below 10 μM. The CML cell line K562 was then used to identify five compounds that decrease MAPK1/3 phosphorylation, which we determined to be an indicator of RIN1-dependent ABL signaling. One of these compounds is a thiadiazole, and the other four are structurally related acyl piperidine amides. Notably, these five compounds lower cellular BCR-ABL1 kinase activity by blocking a positive regulatory interaction rather than directly inhibiting ABL catalytic function.

  16. Femtosecond pump probe spectroscopy for the study of energy transfer of light-harvesting complexes from extractions of spinach leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. van Rensburg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of ultrafast transient processes, of temporal durations in the picosecond and femtosecond regime, are made possible by femtosecond pump probe transient absorption spectroscopy. Such an ultrafast pump probe transient absorption setup has been implemented at the CSIR National Laser Centre and has been applied to investigate energy transfer processes in different parts of photosynthetic systems. In this paper we report on our first results obtained with Malachite green as a benchmark. Malachite green was chosen because the lifetime of its excited state is well known. We also present experimental results of the ultrafast energy transfer of light-harvesting complexes in samples prepared from spinach leaves. Various pump wavelengths in the range 600–680 nm were used; the probe was a white light continuum spanning 420–700 nm. The experimental setup is described in detail in this paper. Results obtained with these samples are consistent with those expected and achieved by other researchers in this field.

  17. Effective temperatures and the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation for particle suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Carlos I; Santamaría-Holek, I; Pérez-Madrid, A

    2015-09-14

    The short- and long-time breakdown of the classical Stokes-Einstein relation for colloidal suspensions at arbitrary volume fractions is explained here by examining the role that confinement and attractive interactions play in the intra- and inter-cage dynamics executed by the colloidal particles. We show that the measured short-time diffusion coefficient is larger than the one predicted by the classical Stokes-Einstein relation due to a non-equilibrated energy transfer between kinetic and configuration degrees of freedom. This transfer can be incorporated in an effective kinetic temperature that is higher than the temperature of the heat bath. We propose a Generalized Stokes-Einstein relation (GSER) in which the effective temperature replaces the temperature of the heat bath. This relation then allows to obtain the diffusion coefficient once the viscosity and the effective temperature are known. On the other hand, the temporary cluster formation induced by confinement and attractive interactions of hydrodynamic nature makes the long-time diffusion coefficient to be smaller than the corresponding one obtained from the classical Stokes-Einstein relation. Then, the use of the GSER allows to obtain an effective temperature that is smaller than the temperature of the heat bath. Additionally, we provide a simple expression based on a differential effective medium theory that allows to calculate the diffusion coefficient at short and long times. Comparison of our results with experiments and simulations for suspensions of hard and porous spheres shows an excellent agreement in all cases.

  18. Entransy analysis of irreversible heat pump using Newton and Dulong–Petit heat transfer laws and relations with its performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Açıkkalp, Emin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Entransy analysis was made for irreversible heat pump. • Newton and Dulong–Petit heat transfer laws were used. • Entransy dissipations were defined and determined. • Relations between entransy and other thermodynamic parameters were determined. - Abstract: An irreversible heat pump was investigated via entransy analysis and performance criteria. In the analyses, two different convective heat transfer laws were applied to the considered system: the Newton and Dulong–Petit heat transfer laws. The irreversibilities in the system are the result of a finite heat transfer rate, a heat leak and internal irreversibilities, including friction, turbulence etc. In this study, a thermodynamic analysis was performed in detail, and the numerical solutions were used for the conducted analysis. The maximum entransy dissipation (critical points) ranges from 18436.7 kW K to 18855.3 kW K according to y for Newton’s law; however, there is no maximum point for the Dulon–Petit law. It can be concluded from this study that entransy should be used among the basic thermodynamic criteria

  19. Two-beam ultrabroadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for high resolution gas-phase multiplex imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J., E-mail: cjkliew@sandia.gov [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    We propose and develop a method for wideband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in the gas phase and demonstrate the single-shot measurement of N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}. Pure-rotational and vibrational O-, Q-, and S- branch spectra are collected simultaneously, with high spectral and spatial resolution, and within a single-laser-shot. The relative intensity of the rotational and vibrational signals can be tuned arbitrarily using polarization techniques. The ultrashort 7 fs pump and Stokes pulses are automatically overlapped temporally and spatially using a two-beam CARS technique, and the crossed probe beam allows for excellent spatial sectioning of the probed location.

  20. On three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes fluid on cantor sets in spherical Cantor type co-ordinate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the systems of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on Cantor sets without the external force involving the fractal heat-conduction problem vial local fractional derivative. The spherical Cantor type co-ordinate method is used to transfer the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation from the Cantorian co-ordinate system into the spherical Cantor type co-ordinate system.

  1. Development of the Glenn Heat-Transfer (Glenn-HT) Computer Code to Enable Time-Filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) Simulations and Application to Film Cooling on a Flat Plate Through Long Cooling Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Ali; Shyam, Vikram; Rigby, David; Poinsatte, Phillip; Thurman, Douglas; Steinthorsson, Erlendur

    2014-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) formulation for turbomachinery-related flows has enabled improved engine component designs. RANS methodology has limitations that are related to its inability to accurately describe the spectrum of flow phenomena encountered in engines. Examples of flows that are difficult to compute accurately with RANS include phenomena such as laminar/turbulent transition, turbulent mixing due to mixing of streams, and separated flows. Large eddy simulation (LES) can improve accuracy but at a considerably higher cost. In recent years, hybrid schemes that take advantage of both unsteady RANS and LES have been proposed. This study investigated an alternative scheme, the time-filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) method applied to compressible flows. The method developed by Shih and Liu was implemented in the Glenn-Heat-Transfer (Glenn-HT) code and applied to film-cooling flows. In this report the method and its implementation is briefly described. The film effectiveness results obtained for film cooling from a row of 30deg holes with a pitch of 3.0 diameters emitting air at a nominal density ratio of unity and two blowing ratios of 0.5 and 1.0 are shown. Flow features under those conditions are also described.

  2. Development of the Glenn-Heat-Transfer (Glenn-HT) Computer Code to Enable Time-Filtered Navier Stokes (TFNS) Simulations and Application to Film Cooling on a Flat Plate Through Long Cooling Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Ali A.; Shyam, Vikram; Rigby, David; Poinsatte, Phillip; Thurman, Douglas; Steinthorsson, Erlendur

    2014-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) formulation for turbomachinery-related flows has enabled improved engine component designs. RANS methodology has limitations that are related to its inability to accurately describe the spectrum of flow phenomena encountered in engines. Examples of flows that are difficult to compute accurately with RANS include phenomena such as laminar/turbulent transition, turbulent mixing due to mixing of streams, and separated flows. Large eddy simulation (LES) can improve accuracy but at a considerably higher cost. In recent years, hybrid schemes that take advantage of both unsteady RANS and LES have been proposed. This study investigated an alternative scheme, the time-filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) method applied to compressible flows. The method developed by Shih and Liu was implemented in the Glenn-Heat-Transfer (Glenn-HT) code and applied to film-cooling flows. In this report the method and its implementation is briefly described. The film effectiveness results obtained for film cooling from a row of 30deg holes with a pitch of 3.0 diameters emitting air at a nominal density ratio of unity and two blowing ratios of 0.5 and 1.0 are shown. Flow features under those conditions are also described.

  3. A study of unsteady physiological magneto-fluid flow and heat transfer through a finite length channel by peristaltic pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Dharmendra; Bég, O Anwar

    2012-08-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic peristaltic flows arise in controlled magnetic drug targeting, hybrid haemodynamic pumps and biomagnetic phenomena interacting with the human digestive system. Motivated by the objective of improving an understanding of the complex fluid dynamics in such flows, we consider in the present article the transient magneto-fluid flow and heat transfer through a finite length channel by peristaltic pumping. Reynolds number is small enough and the wavelength to diameter ratio is large enough to negate inertial effects. Analytical solutions for temperature field, axial velocity, transverse velocity, pressure gradient, local wall shear stress, volume flowrate and averaged volume flowrate are obtained. The effects of the transverse magnetic field, Grashof number and thermal conductivity on the flow patterns induced by peristaltic waves (sinusoidal propagation along the length of channel) are studied using graphical plots. The present study identifies that greater pressure is required to propel the magneto-fluid by peristaltic pumping in comparison to a non-conducting Newtonian fluid, whereas, a lower pressure is required if heat transfer is effective. The analytical solutions further provide an important benchmark for future numerical simulations.

  4. Application of computational fluid dynamics and surrogate-coupled evolutionary computing to enhance centrifugal-pump performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ahmed Imran Bellary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the total design and optimization time, numerical analysis with surrogate-based approaches is being used in turbomachinery optimization. In this work, multiple surrogates are coupled with an evolutionary genetic algorithm to find the Pareto optimal fronts (PoFs of two centrifugal pumps with different specifications in order to enhance their performance. The two pumps were used a centrifugal pump commonly used in industry (Case I and an electrical submersible pump used in the petroleum industry (Case II. The objectives are to enhance head and efficiency of the pumps at specific flow rates. Surrogates such as response surface approximation (RSA, Kriging (KRG, neural networks and weighted-average surrogates (WASs were used to determine the PoFs. To obtain the objective functions’ values and to understand the flow physics, Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations were solved. It is found that the WAS performs better for both the objectives than any other individual surrogate. The best individual surrogates or the best predicted error sum of squares (PRESS surrogate (BPS obtained from cross-validation (CV error estimations produced better PoFs but was still unable to compete with the WAS. The high CV error-producing surrogate produced the worst PoFs. The performance improvement in this study is due to the change in flow pattern in the passage of the impeller of the pumps.

  5. A method to calculate Stokes parameters and angle of polarization of skylight from polarized CIMEL sun/sky radiometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Li, Z.; Li, K.; Blarel, L.; Wendisch, M.

    2014-01-01

    The polarized CIMEL sun/sky radiometers have been routinely operated within the Sun/sky-radiometer Observation NETwork (SONET) in China and some sites of the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) around the world. However, the polarization measurements are not yet widely used due to in a certain degree the lack of Stokes parameters derived directly from these polarization measurements. Meanwhile, it have been shown that retrievals of several microphysical properties of aerosol particles can be significantly improved by using degree of linear polarization (DoLP) measurements of polarized CIMEL sun/sky radiometers (CE318-DP). The Stokes parameters Q and U, as well as angle of polarization (AoP) contain additional information about linear polarization and its orientation. A method to calculate Stokes parameters Q, U, and AoP from CE318-DP polarized skylight measurements is introduced in this study. A new polarized almucantar geometry based on CE318-DP is measured to illustrate abundant variation features of these parameters. The polarization parameters calculated in this study are consistent with previous results of DoLP and I, and also comparable to vector radiative transfer simulations. - Highlights: • The CE318-DP polarized measurements are not yet widely used except DoLP. • Compared with DoLP and I, difficulty in calculating Stokes Q and U is discussed. • A new polarized almucantar observation geometry based on CE318-DP is executed. • We derive Stokes Q, U, and AoP both in principal and almucantar plane geometries. • The results are comparable with previous DoLP and I, as well as model simulations

  6. All-solid-state, synchronously pumped, ultrafast BaWO4 Raman laser with long and short Raman shifts generating at 1180, 1225, and 1323 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Milan; Jelínek, Michal; Kubeček, Václav; Ivleva, Lyudmila I.; Zverev, Petr G.; Smetanin, Sergei

    2017-12-01

    A lot of attention is currently focused on synchronously pumped, extra-cavity crystalline Raman lasers generating one or two Stokes Raman components in KGW or diamond Raman-active crystals, and also generating additional components of stimulated polariton scattering in lithium niobate crystal having both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities. In this contribution we report on generation of more than two Stokes components of stimulated Raman scattering with different Raman shifts in the all-solid-state, synchronously pumped, extra-cavity Raman laser based on the Raman-active a-cut BaWO4 crystal excited by a mode-locked, 220 nJ, 36 ps, 150 MHz diode sidepumped Nd:GdVO4 laser generating at the wavelength of 1063 nm. Excitation by the pumping radiation polarized along the BaWO4 crystal optical axis resulted in the Raman generation with not only usual (925cm - 1), but also additional (332cm - 1) Raman shift. Besides the 1180-nm first and 1323 nm second Stokes components with the Raman shift of 925cm - 1 from the 1063nm fundamental laser wavelength, we have achieved generation of the additional 1227 nm Raman component with different Raman shift of 332cm - 1 from the 1180nm component. At the 1227 nm component the strongest 12-times pulse shortening from 36ps down to 3ps was obtained due to shorter dephasing time of this additional Raman line (3ps for the 332-cm - 1 line instead of 6.5ps for the 925cm - 1 line). It has to be also noted that the 1225 nm generation is intracavity pumped by the 1179 nm first Stokes component resulting in the strongest pulse shortening close to the 332cm -1 line dephasing time (3ps). Slope efficiency of three Stokes components generation exceeded 20%.

  7. Two-tint pump-probe measurements using a femtosecond laser oscillator and sharp-edged optical filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kwangu; Koh, Yee Kan; Chiritescu, Catalin; Zheng, Xuan; Cahill, David G

    2008-11-01

    We describe a simple approach for rejecting unwanted scattered light in two types of time-resolved pump-probe measurements, time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) and time-resolved incoherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (TRIARS). Sharp edged optical filters are used to create spectrally distinct pump and probe beams from the broad spectral output of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser oscillator. For TDTR, the diffusely scattered pump light is then blocked by a third optical filter. For TRIARS, depolarized scattering created by the pump is shifted in frequency by approximately 250 cm(-1) relative to the polarized scattering created by the probe; therefore, spectral features created by the pump and probe scattering can be easily distinguished.

  8. Pipe Flow and Wall Turbulence Using a Modified Navier-Stokes Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirkovsky, L.; Muriel, A.

    2012-01-01

    We use a derived incompressible modified Navier-Stokes equation to model pipe flow and wall turbulence. We reproduce the observed flattened paraboloid velocity profiles of turbulence that cannot be obtained directly using standard incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. The solutions found are in harmony with multi-valued velocity fields as a definition of turbulence. Repeating the procedure for the flow of turbulent fluid between two parallel flat plates we find similar flattened velocity profiles. We extend the analysis to the turbulent flow along a single wall and compare the results with experimental data and the established controversial von Karman logarithmic law of the wall. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  9. Observation of anomalous Stokes versus anti-Stokes ratio in MoTe2 atomic layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Thomas; Chen, Shao-Yu; Xiao, Di; Ramasubramaniam, Ashwin; Yan, Jun

    We grow hexagonal molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2), a prototypical transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) semiconductor, with chemical vapor transport methods and investigate its atomic layers with Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman scattering. We report observation of all six types of zone center optical phonons. Quite remarkably, the anti-Stokes Raman intensity of the low energy layer-breathing mode becomes more intense than the Stokes peak under certain experimental conditions, creating an illusion of 'negative temperature'. This effect is tunable, and can be switched from anti-Stokes enhancement to suppression by varying the excitation wavelength. We interpret this observation to be a result of resonance effects arising from the C excitons in the vicinity of the Brillouin zone center, which are robust even for multiple layers of MoTe2. The intense anti-Stokes Raman scattering provides a cooling channel for the crystal and opens up opportunities for laser cooling of atomically thin TMDC semiconductor devices. Supported by the University of Massachusetts Amherst, the National Science Foundation Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing (CMMI-1025020) and Office of Emerging Frontiers in Research and Innovation (EFRI-1433496).

  10. MODELING OF THE HEAT PUMP STATION ADJUSTABLE LOOP OF AN INTERMEDIATE HEAT-TRANSFER AGENT (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit B.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available There are examined equations of dynamics and statics of an adjustable intermediate loop of heat pump carbon dioxide station in this paper. Heat pump station is a part of the combined heat supply system. Control of transferred thermal capacity from the source of low potential heat source is realized by means of changing the speed of circulation of a liquid in the loop and changing the area of a heat-transmitting surface, both in the evaporator, and in the intermediate heat exchanger depending on the operating parameter, for example, external air temperature and wind speed.

  11. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscope/microscope based on a widely tunable laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dementjev, A.; Gulbinas, V.; Serbenta, A.; Kaucikas, M.; Niaura, G.

    2010-03-01

    We present a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope based on a robust and simple laser source. A picosecond laser operating in a cavity dumping regime at the 1 MHz repetition rate was used to pump a traveling wave optical parametric generator, which serves as a two-color excitation light source for the CARS microscope. We demonstrate the ability of the presented CARS microscope to measure CARS spectra and images by using several detection schemes.

  12. 76 FR 709 - Electronic Funds Transfer of Depository Taxes; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40 and 301 [TD 9507] RIN 1545-BJ13 Electronic Funds Transfer of Depository Taxes; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS...) providing guidance relating to Federal tax deposits (FTDs) by Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT). The temporary...

  13. Charge-pump voltage converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, John P [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd R [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  14. Precision Deployable Mast for the SWOT KaRIn Instrument

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Design and prototype a lightweight, precision-deployable mast for the Ka-band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn) antennas in the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT)...

  15. 78 FR 49365 - Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E); Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1005 [Docket No. CFPB-2012-0050] RIN 3170-AA33 Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E); Correction AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION... 2013 Final Rule, which along with three other final rules \\1\\ implements the Electronic Fund Transfer...

  16. Arachidonic acid and lipoxin A4 attenuate alloxan-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5F cells in vitro and type 1 diabetes mellitus in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundala, Naveen K V; Naidu, Vegi G M; Das, Undurti N

    2017-03-01

    We studied whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can protect rat insulinoma (RIN5F) cells against alloxan-induced apoptosis in vitro and type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM) in vivo and if so, mechanism of this beneficial action. In vitro study was conducted using RIN5F cells while in vivo study was performed in Wistar rats. The effect of PUFAs, cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors, various eicosanoids and PUFAs metabolites: lipoxin A4 (LXA4), resolvin D2 and protectin against alloxan-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5F cells and type 1 DM was studied. Expression of PDX1, P65 NF-kB and IKB in RIN5F cells and Nrf2, GLUT2, COX2, iNOS protein levels in the pancreatic tissue and plasma glucose, insulin and tumor necrosis factor-α and antioxidants, lipid peroxides and nitric oxide were measured. Of all, arachidonic acid (AA) was found to be the most effective against alloxan-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5F cells and preventing type 1 DM. Both cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors did not block the beneficial actions of AA in vitro and in vivo. Alloxan inhibited LXA4 production by RIN5F cells and in alloxan-induced type 1 DM Wistar rats. AA-treatment restored LXA4 levels to normal both in vitro and in vivo. LXA4 protected RIN5F cells against alloxan-induced cytotoxicity and prevented type 1 DM and restored expression of Nrf2, Glut2, COX2, and iNOS genes and abnormal antioxidants to near normal. AA seems to bring about its beneficial actions against alloxan-induced cytotoxicity and type 1 DM by enhancing the production of LXA4. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(2):251-271, 2017. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  17. Numerical research on the effects of impeller pump-out vanes on axial force in a solid-liquid screw centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X R; Li, R N; Gao, Y; Guo, W L

    2013-01-01

    A commercial CFD code has been used to predict the performance of a screw centrifugal pump with pump-out vanes, especially when changing regularity of impeller axial force based on the solid-liquid two-phase flow. The Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) approach has been applied to solve the unsteady, incompressible, three-dimensional turbulent. The SIMPLEC algorithm, standard wall functions and mix two-phase flow model were applied. The RNG k ε-model was used to account the turbulence effects. By changing the number of impeller pump-out vanes and width, six different screw centrifugal pump numerical simulation projects were given, and each scheme in the different solid volume fraction were calculated respectively. The change rules of axial force, velocity and pressure distribution of flow field were obtained on the different condition and different volume fraction. The results showed that the axial forces values based solid-fluid two-phase greater than based single-phase clear water, but both changing regularity of the axial force were consistent; as same condition, the same solid-phase volume concentration, with the increase of pump-out vanes number or width, the impeller axial force increased as well. Meanwhile the number of the pump-out vanes and the width of pump-out vanes in balancing the impeller axial force, there are the most optimal value

  18. High-efficiency design optimization of a centrifugal pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Man Woong; Ma, Sang Bum; Shim, Hyeon Seok; Kim, Kwang Yong [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Design optimization of a backward-curved blades centrifugal pump with specific speed of 150 has been performed to improve hydraulic performance of the pump using surrogate modeling and three-dimensional steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes analysis. The shear stress transport model was used for the analysis of turbulence. Four geometric variables defining the blade hub inlet angle, hub contours, blade outlet angle, and blade angle profile of impeller were selected as design variables, and total efficiency of the pump at design flow rate was set as the objective function for the optimization. Thirty-six design points were chosen using the Latin hypercube sampling, and three different surrogate models were constructed using the objective function values calculated at these design points. The optimal point was searched from the constructed surrogate model by using sequential quadratic programming. The optimum designs of the centrifugal pump predicted by the surrogate models show considerable increases in efficiency compared to a reference design. Performance of the best optimum design was validated compared to experimental data for total efficiency and head.

  19. Generalized Stokes eignefunctions: a new trial basis for the solution of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcho, P.F.; Karniadakis, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    The present study focuses on the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in general, non-separable domains, and employs a Galerkin projection of divergence-free vector functions as a trail basis. This basis is obtained from the solution of a generalized constrained Stokes eigen-problem in the domain of interest. Faster convergence can be achieved by constructing a singular Stokes eigen-problem in which the Stokes operator is modified to include a variable coefficient which vanishes at the domain boundaries. The convergence properties of such functions are advantageous in a least squares sense and are shown to produce significantly better approximations to the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in post-critical states where unsteadiness characterizes the flowfield. Solutions for the eigen-systems are efficiently accomplished using a combined Lanczos-Uzawa algorithm and spectral element discretizations. Results are presented for different simulations using these global spectral trial basis on non-separable and multiply-connected domains. It is confirmed that faster convergence is obtained using the singular eigen-expansions in approximating stationary Navier-Stokes solutions in general domains. It is also shown that 100-mode expansions of time-dependent solutions based on the singular Stokes eigenfunctions are sufficient to accurately predict the dynamics of flows in such domains, including Hopf bifurcations, intermittency, and details of flow structures

  20. Diode-pumped Tm:YAP/YVO4 intracavity Raman laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jiaqun; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Wang, Guodong; Cheng, Ping; Xu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The laser performance based on YVO 4 Raman conversion in a diode-pumped actively Q-switched Tm:YAP laser is demonstrated for the first time. With an incident diode power of 10.9 W and a pulse repetition rate of 1 kHz, the average output powers for the first Stokes laser at 2.4 μm is about 270 mW. (paper)

  1. Heat transfer, velocity-temperature correlation, and turbulent shear stress from Navier-Stokes computations of shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. R.; Hingst, W. R.; Porro, A. R.

    1991-01-01

    The properties of 2-D shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flows were calculated by using a compressible turbulent Navier-Stokes numerical computational code. Interaction flows caused by oblique shock wave impingement on the turbulent boundary layer flow were considered. The oblique shock waves were induced with shock generators at angles of attack less than 10 degs in supersonic flows. The surface temperatures were kept at near-adiabatic (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) and cold wall (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) conditions. The computational results were studied for the surface heat transfer, velocity temperature correlation, and turbulent shear stress in the interaction flow fields. Comparisons of the computational results with existing measurements indicated that (1) the surface heat transfer rates and surface pressures could be correlated with Holden's relationship, (2) the mean flow streamwise velocity components and static temperatures could be correlated with Crocco's relationship if flow separation did not occur, and (3) the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model should be modified for turbulent shear stress computations in the interaction flows.

  2. Stokes vector and its relationship to Discrete Wigner Functions of multiqubit states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, K., E-mail: sriniphysics@gmail.com; Raghavan, G.

    2016-07-29

    A Stokes vectors and Discrete Wigner Functions (DWF) provide two alternate ways of representing the state of multiqubit systems. A general relationship between the Stokes vector and the DWF is derived for arbitrary n-qubit states for all possible choices of quantum nets. The Stokes vector and the DWF are shown to be related through a Hadamard Matrix. Using these results, a relationship between the Stokes vector of a spin-flipped state and the DWF is derived. Finally, we also present a method to express the Minkowskian squared norm of the Stokes vector, corresponding to n-concurrence in terms of the DWF. - Highlights: • Relationship between Stokes vector (SV) and discrete Wigner function (DWF) for arbitrary multiqubit states is presented. • It is shown that SV and DWF are related to one another through Hadamard matrices. • We show that the Hadamard matrices depend on the choice of the quantum net. • Relationship between SV of the spin flipped state and the DWF is derived. • Expression to compute n-concurrence of the pure n-qubit systems purely in terms of DWF is given.

  3. Stokes vector and its relationship to Discrete Wigner Functions of multiqubit states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, K.; Raghavan, G.

    2016-01-01

    A Stokes vectors and Discrete Wigner Functions (DWF) provide two alternate ways of representing the state of multiqubit systems. A general relationship between the Stokes vector and the DWF is derived for arbitrary n-qubit states for all possible choices of quantum nets. The Stokes vector and the DWF are shown to be related through a Hadamard Matrix. Using these results, a relationship between the Stokes vector of a spin-flipped state and the DWF is derived. Finally, we also present a method to express the Minkowskian squared norm of the Stokes vector, corresponding to n-concurrence in terms of the DWF. - Highlights: • Relationship between Stokes vector (SV) and discrete Wigner function (DWF) for arbitrary multiqubit states is presented. • It is shown that SV and DWF are related to one another through Hadamard matrices. • We show that the Hadamard matrices depend on the choice of the quantum net. • Relationship between SV of the spin flipped state and the DWF is derived. • Expression to compute n-concurrence of the pure n-qubit systems purely in terms of DWF is given.

  4. Three-beam double stimulated Raman scatterings: Cascading configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. Jayachander; Cho, Minhaeng

    2018-03-01

    Two-beam stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) has been used in diverse label-free spectroscopy and imaging applications of live cells, biological tissues, and functional materials. Recently, we developed a theoretical framework for the three-beam double SRS processes that involve pump, Stokes, and depletion beams, where the pump-Stokes and pump-depletion SRS processes compete with each other. It was shown that the net Stokes gain signal can be suppressed by increasing the depletion beam intensity. The theoretical prediction has been experimentally confirmed recently. In the previous scheme for a selective suppression of one SRS by making it compete with another SRS, the two SRS processes occur in a parallel manner. However, there is another possibility of three-beam double SRS scheme that can be of use to suppress either Raman gain of the Stokes beam or Raman loss of the pump beam by depleting the Stokes photons with yet another SRS process induced by the pair of Stokes and another (second) Stokes beam. This three-beam double SRS process resembles a cascading energy transfer process from the pump beam to the first Stokes beam (SRS-1) and subsequently from the first Stokes beam to the second Stokes beam (SRS-2). Here, the two stimulated Raman gain-loss processes are associated with two different Raman-active vibrational modes of solute molecule. In the present theory, both the radiation and the molecules are treated quantum mechanically. We then show that the cascading-type three-beam double SRS can be described by coupled differential equations for the photon numbers of the pump and Stokes beams. From the approximate solutions as well as exact numerical calculation results for the coupled differential equations, a possibility of efficiently suppressing the stimulated Raman loss of the pump beam by increasing the second Stokes beam intensity is shown and discussed. To further prove a potential use of this scheme for developing a super-resolution SRS microscopy, we

  5. Performance Optimization of Centrifugal Pump for Crude Oil Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A.I. Bellary

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil transport is an essential task in oil and gas industries, where centrifugal pumps are extensively used. The design of a centrifugal pump involves a number of independent parameters which affect the pump performance. Altering some of the parameters within a realistic range improves pump performance and saves a significant amount of energy. The present research investigated the pump characteristics by modifying the number of blades and the exit blade-angles. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with standard k-ε two-equation turbulence closure were used for steady and incompressible flow of crude oil through the pump. The experimental set-up was installed and the pump performance calculated numerically  was compared with the experiments.   The investigations showed that the number of blades and the exit blade-angles have a significant influence on the head, shaft power, and efficiency. The vortical flow structures, recirculation and reverse flow characteristics around the impeller were investigated to explain the flow dynamics of impeller and casing. A larger number of blades on the rotor showed dominant streamlined flow without any wake phenomena. The combined effect of the number of blades and exit blade angle has led to an increase in head and efficiency through the parametric optimization.

  6. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, B.A.; Zawacki, T.S.

    1998-07-21

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use, as the heat transfer medium, the working fluid of the absorption system taken from the generator at a location where the working fluid has a rich liquor concentration. 5 figs.

  7. Incompressible Navier-Stokes and parabolized Navier-Stokes solution procedures and computational techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, S. G.

    1982-01-01

    Recent developments with finite-difference techniques are emphasized. The quotation marks reflect the fact that any finite discretization procedure can be included in this category. Many so-called finite element collocation and galerkin methods can be reproduced by appropriate forms of the differential equations and discretization formulas. Many of the difficulties encountered in early Navier-Stokes calculations were inherent not only in the choice of the different equations (accuracy), but also in the method of solution or choice of algorithm (convergence and stability, in the manner in which the dependent variables or discretized equations are related (coupling), in the manner that boundary conditions are applied, in the manner that the coordinate mesh is specified (grid generation), and finally, in recognizing that for many high Reynolds number flows not all contributions to the Navier-Stokes equations are necessarily of equal importance (parabolization, preferred direction, pressure interaction, asymptotic and mathematical character). It is these elements that are reviewed. Several Navier-Stokes and parabolized Navier-Stokes formulations are also presented.

  8. High-efficiency, 154  W CW, diode-pumped Raman fiber laser with brightness enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Yaakov; Fromzel, Viktor; Zhang, Jun; Ter-Gabrielyan, Nikolay; Dubinskii, Mark

    2017-01-20

    We demonstrate a high-power, high-efficiency Raman fiber laser pumped directly by laser diode modules at 978 nm. 154 W of CW power were obtained at a wavelength of 1023 nm with an optical to optical efficiency of 65%. A commercial graded-index (GRIN) core fiber acts as the Raman fiber in a power oscillator configuration, which includes spectral selection to prevent generation of the second Stokes. In addition, brightness enhancement of the pump beam by a factor of 8.4 is attained due to the Raman gain distribution profile in the GRIN fiber. To the best of our knowledge this is the highest power and highest efficiency Raman fiber laser demonstrated in any configuration allowing brightness enhancement (i.e., in either cladding-pumped configuration or with GRIN fibers, excluding step-index core pumped), regardless of pumping scheme (i.e., either diode pumped or fiber laser pumped).

  9. Solar-pumped electronic-to-vibrational energy transfer lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, W. L.; Wilson, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using solar-pumped lasers as solar energy converters is examined. The absorbing media considered are halogens or halogen compounds, which are dissociated to yield excited atoms, which then hand over energy to a molecular lasing medium. Estimates of the temperature effects for a Br2-CO2-He system with He as the cooling gas are given. High temperatures can cause the lower energy levels of the CO2 laser transition to be filled. The inverted populations are calculated and lasing should be possible. However, the efficiency is less than 0.001. Examination of other halogen-molecular lasant combinations (where the rate coefficients are known) indicate efficiencies in all cases of less than 0.005.

  10. Transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obarski, Gregory E.; Splett, Jolene D.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise (RIN) of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), when it is optically filtered over a narrow band (<5 nm), yields a stable RIN spectrum that is practically constant to several tens of gigahertz. The RIN is calculated from the power spectral density as measured with a calibrated optical spectrum analyzer. For a typical device it is -110 dB/Hz, with uncertainty ≤0.12 dB/Hz. The invariance of the RIN under attenuation yields a considerable dynamic range with respect to rf noise levels. Results are compared with those from a second method that uses a distributed-feedback laser (DFB) that has a Poisson-limited RIN. Application of each method to the same RIN measurement system yields frequency-dependent calibration functions that, when they are averaged, differ by ≤0.2 dB. [copyright] 2001 Optical Society of America

  11. Pumping liquid metal at high temperatures up to 1,673 kelvin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy, C.; Budenstein, D.; Bagepalli, M.; England, D.; Deangelis, F.; Wilk, G.; Jarrett, C.; Kelsall, C.; Hirschey, J.; Wen, H.; Chavan, A.; Gilleland, B.; Yuan, C.; Chueh, W. C.; Sandhage, K. H.; Kawajiri, Y.; Henry, A.

    2017-10-01

    Heat is fundamental to power generation and many industrial processes, and is most useful at high temperatures because it can be converted more efficiently to other types of energy. However, efficient transportation, storage and conversion of heat at extreme temperatures (more than about 1,300 kelvin) is impractical for many applications. Liquid metals can be very effective media for transferring heat at high temperatures, but liquid-metal pumping has been limited by the corrosion of metal infrastructures. Here we demonstrate a ceramic, mechanical pump that can be used to continuously circulate liquid tin at temperatures of around 1,473-1,673 kelvin. Our approach to liquid-metal pumping is enabled by the use of ceramics for the mechanical and sealing components, but owing to the brittle nature of ceramics their use requires careful engineering. Our set-up enables effective heat transfer using a liquid at previously unattainable temperatures, and could be used for thermal storage and transport, electric power production, and chemical or materials processing.

  12. Capillary Pumped Heat Transfer (CHT) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Kevin P.; Allen, J. S.

    1998-01-01

    The operation of Capillary Pumped Loops (CPL's) in low gravity has generally been unable to match ground-based performance. The reason for this poorer performance has been elusive. In order to investigate the behavior of a CPL in low-gravity, an idealized, glass CPL experiment was constructed. This experiment, known as the Capillary-driven Heat Transfer (CHT) experiment, was flown on board the Space Shuttle Columbia in July 1997 during the Microgravity Science Laboratory mission. During the conduct of the CHT experiment an unexpected failure mode was observed. This failure mode was a result of liquid collecting and then eventually bridging the vapor return line. With the vapor return line blocked, the condensate was unable to return to the evaporator and dry-out subsequently followed. The mechanism for this collection and bridging has been associated with long wavelength instabilities of the liquid film forming in the vapor return line. Analysis has shown that vapor line blockage in present generation CPL devices is inevitable. Additionally, previous low-gravity CPL tests have reported the presence of relatively low frequency pressure oscillations during erratic system performance. Analysis reveals that these pressure oscillations are in part a result of long wavelength instabilities present in the evaporator pores, which likewise lead to liquid bridging and vapor entrapment in the porous media. Subsequent evaporation to the trapped vapor increases the vapor pressure. Eventually the vapor pressure causes ejection of the bridged liquid. Recoil stresses depress the meniscus, the vapor pressure rapidly increases, and the heated surface cools. The process then repeats with regularity.

  13. 76 FR 708 - Electronic Funds Transfer of Depository Taxes; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1, 31, 40, and 301 [TD 9507] RIN 1545-BJ13 Electronic Funds Transfer of Depository Taxes; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT). The temporary and final regulations provide rules under which depositors...

  14. Diode-side-pumped intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YAG/BaWO4 Raman laser generating average output power of 3.14 W at 590 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shutao; Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Qingpu; Zhang, Xiaolei; Cong, Zhenhua; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Jiyang

    2007-10-15

    We report a linear-cavity high-power all-solid-state Q-switched yellow laser. The laser source comprises a diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG module that produces 1064 nm fundamental radiation, an intracavity BaWO(4) Raman crystal that generates a first-Stokes laser at 1180 nm, and a KTP crystal that frequency doubles the first-Stokes laser to 590 nm. A convex-plane cavity is employed in this configuration to counteract some of the thermal effect caused by high pump power. An average output power of 3.14 W at 590 nm is obtained at a pulse repetition frequency of 10 kHz.

  15. MODELING OF THE HEAT PUMP STATION CONTROLABLE LOOP OF AN INTERMEDIATE HEAT-TRANSFER AGENT (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available It is studied the model of the heat pump station controllable loop of an intermediate heat-transfer agent for the use in wineries. There are demonstrated transients after the disturbing action of the temperature on the input of cooling jacket of the fermentation stirred tank. There are compared different control laws of the object.

  16. Effects of pump recycling technique on stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold: a theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asadi, H A; Al-Mansoori, M H; Ajiya, M; Hitam, S; Saripan, M I; Mahdi, M A

    2010-10-11

    We develop a theoretical model that can be used to predict stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold in optical fibers that arises through the effect of Brillouin pump recycling technique. Obtained simulation results from our model are in close agreement with our experimental results. The developed model utilizes single mode optical fiber of different lengths as the Brillouin gain media. For 5-km long single mode fiber, the calculated threshold power for SBS is about 16 mW for conventional technique. This value is reduced to about 8 mW when the residual Brillouin pump is recycled at the end of the fiber. The decrement of SBS threshold is due to longer interaction lengths between Brillouin pump and Stokes wave.

  17. Pump station for radioactive waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, John P.; Klos, Dean M.; Carrara, Danny T.; Minno, John J.

    2003-11-18

    A pump station for transferring radioactive particle containing waste water, includes: (a.) an enclosed sump having a vertically elongated right frusto conical wall surface and a bottom surface and (b.) a submersible volute centrifugal pump having a horizontally rotating impeller and a volute exterior surface. The sump interior surface, the bottom surface and the volute exterior surface are made of stainless steel having a 30 Ra or finer surface finish. A 15 Ra finish has been found to be most cost effective. The pump station is used for transferring waste water, without accumulation of radioactive fines.

  18. The dynamics of pulse compression in synchronously pumped fiber Raman lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, Y.B.; Ackerhalt, J.R.; Heller, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    Dynamical equations describing the amplification and propagation of an initial Stokes seed pulse in a synchronously pumped fiber Raman laser configuration are formulated and analytic solutions are derived. A train of Stokes shifted pulses are produced, whose individual characteristics eventually evolve on successive round-trips through the fiber into subpicosecond pulses having constant fluence and decreasing temporal duration. Raman pulse compression stops when it is counterbalanced by the effects of group velocity dispersion and phase modulation in the normal dispersion regime. Pulse breakup due to soliton formation can occur in the anomalous dispersion regime. Simple expressions for the rate of pulse compression, steady-state pulse fluence, and for the minimum steady-state pulse duration are obtained

  19. 46 CFR 98.30-11 - Cargo pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps. 98.30-11 Section 98.30-11 Shipping COAST..., ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-11 Cargo pumps. No person may operate a cargo pump to transfer a product to or from a portable tank unless the pump...

  20. Structuring Stokes correlation functions using vector-vortex beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Anwar, Ali; Singh, R. P.

    2018-01-01

    Higher order statistical correlations of the optical vector speckle field, formed due to scattering of a vector-vortex beam, are explored. Here, we report on the experimental construction of the Stokes parameters covariance matrix, consisting of all possible spatial Stokes parameters correlation functions. We also propose and experimentally realize a new Stokes correlation functions called Stokes field auto correlation functions. It is observed that the Stokes correlation functions of the vector-vortex beam will be reflected in the respective Stokes correlation functions of the corresponding vector speckle field. The major advantage of proposing Stokes correlation functions is that the Stokes correlation function can be easily tuned by manipulating the polarization of vector-vortex beam used to generate vector speckle field and to get the phase information directly from the intensity measurements. Moreover, this approach leads to a complete experimental Stokes characterization of a broad range of random fields.

  1. Comparison between syringe irrigation and RinsEndo in reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in experimentally infected root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Mousavi Zahed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: To ensure root canal treatment success, endodontic microbiota should be efficiently reduced. Several irrigation devices have been recently introduced with the main objective of improving root canal disinfection.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rinsing effect of RinsEndo system in reduction of enterococcus faecalis in comparison with conventional hand syringe in infected root canals.   Materials and Methods: 60 extracted single canal anterior teeth were infected with enterococcus faecalis and divided into 3 groups: RinsEndo system, conventional hand syringe and control group. The enterococcus faecalis colonies were counted in each group before and after rinsing. Data were analyzed using Variance and Kruskal Wallis test.   Results: The mean of enterococcus faecalis growth after rinsing was 3.50×103 in group with conventional syring rinsing, 2.04×103 in group with RinsEndo washing and 6.11×103 in control group. Reduction of enterococcus faecalis after rinsing was statistically significant in each group (P<0.001. The amount of reduction in number of colonies with RinsEndo and conventional syringe rinsing was higher in comparison with control group and this difference was significant (P<0.001. RinsEndo rinsing effect was statistically significantly higher in comparison to conventional syringe as well (P<0.001.   Conclusion: Rinsing with RinsEndo system was significantly more efficient in reduction of enterococcus faecalis from root canal in comparison with hand syringe washing.

  2. Electromagnetically induced absorption due to transfer of coherence and to transfer of population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goren, C.; Rosenbluh, M.; Wilson-Gordon, A.D.; Friedmann, H.

    2003-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a weak probe, interacting with a driven degenerate two-level atomic system, whose ground and excited hyperfine states are F g,e , can exhibit narrow peaks at line center. When the pump and probe polarizations are different, F e =F g +1 and F g >0, the electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) peak has been shown to be due to the transfer of coherence (TOC) between the excited and ground states via spontaneous decay. We give a detailed explanation of why the TOC that leads to EIA (EIA-TOC) can only take place when ground-state population trapping does not occur, that is, when F e =F g +1. We also explain why EIA-TOC is observed in open systems. We show that EIA can also occur when the pump and probe polarizations are identical and F e =F g +1. This EIA is analogous to an effect that occurs in simple two-level systems when the collisional transfer of population (TOP) from the ground state to a reservoir is greater than that from the excited state. For a degenerate two-level system, the reservoir consists of the Zeeman sublevels of the ground hyperfine state, and of other nearby hyperfine states that do not interact with the pump. We will also discuss the four-wave mixing spectrum under the conditions where EIA-TOC and EIA-TOP occur

  3. New Stokes' line in WKB theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Nevins, W.M.; Roberts, K.V.

    1982-01-01

    The WKB theory for differential equations of arbitrary order or integral equations in one dimension is investigated. The rules previously stated for the construction of Stokes' lines for Nth-order differential equations, N> or =3, or integral equations are found to be incomplete because these rules lead to asymptotic forms of the solutions that depend on path. This paradox is resolved by the demonstration that new Stokes' lines can arise when previously defined Stokes' lines cross. A new formulation of the WKB problem is given to justify the new Stokes' lines. With the new Stokes' lines, the asymptotic forms can be shown to be independent of path. In addition, the WKB eigenvalue problem is formulated, and the global dispersion relation is shown to be a functional of loop integrals of the action

  4. K-Basin sludge treatment facility pump test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SQUIER, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Tests of a disc pump and a dual diaphragm pump are stymied by pumping a metal laden fluid. Auxiliary systems added to a diaphragm pump might enable the transfer of such fluids, but the additional system complexity is not desirable for remotely operated and maintained systems

  5. An experimental and theoretical investigation on the effects of adding hybrid nanoparticles on heat transfer efficiency and pumping power of an oil-based nanofluid as a coolant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadi, Meisam; Asadi, Amin; Aberoumand, Sadegh

    2018-01-01

    The present work aims to study heat transfer performance and pumping power of MgO-MWCNT/ thermal oil hybrid nanofluid. Using a KD2 Pro thermal analyzer, the thermal conductivity of the samples have been measured. The results showed an increasing trend for the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid...... nanofluid is highly efficient in heat transfer applications as a coolant fluid in both the laminar and turbulent flow regimes, although it causes a certain penalty in the pumping power....... efficiency and pumping power in all the studied range of solid concentrations and temperatures have been theoretically investigated, based on the experimental data of dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity, for both the internal laminar and turbulent flow regimes. It was observed that the studied......The present work aims to study heat transfer performance and pumping power of MgO-MWCNT/ thermal oil hybrid nanofluid. Using a KD2 Pro thermal analyzer, the thermal conductivity of the samples have been measured. The results showed an increasing trend for the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid...

  6. Evaluation of Failed Crane Chempumps Used During Salt Well Pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELSEN, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Interim Stabilization Project is responsible for removing pumpable interstitial liquid from remaining single shelled tanks and transferring the waste to safer double-shelled tanks. This waste transfer is conducted by installing a saltwell pumping system within the designated single shell tank, and transferring the waste to double shelled tank using approved transfer lines. The saltwell pumping system is placed within a saltwell screen installed into the tank waste, the screen is designed to allow gravity flow of liquid into the screen and prevent solids from entering the pumping system. A foot valve consisting of a venturi jet and nozzle creates a suction, picking up waste at an equal rate as the out flow transfer rate of the saltwell system. A centrifugal pump is used to create the motive force across the eductor and drive the waste through the associated system piping and transfer lines leading to the double shelled tanks. The centrifugal pump that has typically been used in the saltwell pumping system installations is the Crane Chempump, model GA-1 1/2 K with 4 3/4 inch impeller. The following evaluation is not intended to be an all inclusive analysis of the operation of a saltwell system and associated pump. This evaluation will detail some of the noted failures in specific saltwell systems and document those findings. Due to the large number of saltwell systems installed over the duration of the Stabilization Project, only those saltwell systems installed over the last two years within S, SX, U, A and AX tank farms, shall be included in this evaluation. After identification of the pump failures mechanism, recommendations shall be identified to address potential means of improving overall operational efficiency and reducing overall equipment failures

  7. Proposal for probing energy transfer pathway by single-molecule pump-dump experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ming-Jie; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung

    2016-06-01

    The structure of Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) light-harvesting complex had long been recognized as containing seven bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecules. Recently, an additional BChl molecule was discovered in the crystal structure of the FMO complex, which may serve as a link between baseplate and the remaining seven molecules. Here, we investigate excitation energy transfer (EET) process by simulating single-molecule pump-dump experiment in the eight-molecules complex. We adopt the coherent modified Redfield theory and non-Markovian quantum jump method to simulate EET dynamics. This scheme provides a practical approach of detecting the realistic EET pathway in BChl complexes with currently available experimental technology. And it may assist optimizing design of artificial light-harvesting devices.

  8. Research on energy conversion mechanism of a screw centrifugal pump under the water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, H; Li, R N; Han, W; Cheng, X R; Shen, Z J; Su, Q M

    2013-01-01

    In order to research screw centrifugal pump impeller power capability and energy conversion mechanism, we used Navier-Stokes equation and standard k-ε equation turbulence model on the basis of the Euler equations to carry out screw centrifugal pump internal flow numerical simulation. This was explored by simulating specific design conditions; the medium is water, variation of speed and pressure of flow filed under the action of the impeller, and the screw centrifugal impeller shroud line and wheel line segment take monitoring sites. The monitoring points are between dynamic head and static head change to analyze the energy conversion capability along the impeller corners of screw centrifugal pump. The results show that the energy of fluid of the screw centrifugal pump is provided by spiral segment, the spiral segment in front of the impeller has played a multi-level role, it has significant reference value to research the energy conversion mechanism of screw centrifugal pump under solid-liquid two phase

  9. Dual-Pump CARS Development and Application to Supersonic Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnotti, Gaetano

    Successful design of hypersonic air-breathing engines requires new computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for turbulence and turbulence-chemistry interaction in supersonic combustion. Unfortunately, not enough data are available to the modelers to develop and validate their codes, due to difficulties in taking measurements in such a harsh environment. Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is a non-intrusive, non-linear, laser-based technique that provides temporally and spatially resolved measurements of temperature and absolute mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in H2-air flames. A dual-pump CARS instrument has been developed to obtain measurements in supersonic combustion and generate databases for the CFD community. Issues that compromised previous attempts, such as beam steering and high irradiance perturbation effects, have been alleviated or avoided. Improvements in instrument precision and accuracy have been achieved. An axis-symmetric supersonic combusting coaxial jet facility has been developed to provide a simple, yet suitable flow to CFD modelers. The facility provides a central jet of hot "vitiated air" simulating the hot air entering the engine of a hypersonic vehicle flying at Mach numbers between 5 and 7. Three different silicon carbide nozzles, with exit Mach number 1, 1.6 and 2, are used to provide flows with the effects of varying compressibility. H2 co-flow is available in order to generate a supersonic combusting free jet. Dual-pump CARS measurements have been obtained for varying values of flight and exit Mach numbers at several locations. Approximately one million Dual-pump CARS single shots have been collected in the supersonic jet for varying values of flight and exit Mach numbers at several locations. Data have been acquired with a H2 co-flow (combustion case) or a N 2 co-flow (mixing case). Results are presented and the effects of the compressibility and of the heat release are discussed.

  10. Thermal Stress Analysis of a Continuous and Pulsed End-Pumped Nd:YAG Rod Crystal Using Non-Classic Conduction Heat Transfer Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojahedi, Mahdi; Shekoohinejad, Hamidreza

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, temperature distribution in the continuous and pulsed end-pumped Nd:YAG rod crystal is determined using nonclassical and classical heat conduction theories. In order to find the temperature distribution in crystal, heat transfer differential equations of crystal with consideration of boundary conditions are derived based on non-Fourier's model and temperature distribution of the crystal is achieved by an analytical method. Then, by transferring non-Fourier differential equations to matrix equations, using finite element method, temperature and stress of every point of crystal are calculated in the time domain. According to the results, a comparison between classical and nonclassical theories is represented to investigate rupture power values. In continuous end pumping with equal input powers, non-Fourier theory predicts greater temperature and stress compared to Fourier theory. It also shows that with an increase in relaxation time, crystal rupture power decreases. Despite of these results, in single rectangular pulsed end-pumping condition, with an equal input power, Fourier theory indicates higher temperature and stress rather than non-Fourier theory. It is also observed that, when the relaxation time increases, maximum amounts of temperature and stress decrease.

  11. Direct pumping of ultrashort Ti:sapphire lasers by a frequency doubled diode laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Unterhuber, Angelika

    2011-01-01

    electro-optical efficiency of the diode laser. Autocorrelation measurements show that pulse widths of less than 20 fs can be expected with an average power of 52 mW when using our laser. These results indicate the high potential of direct diode laser pumped Ti: sapphire lasers to be used in applications....... When using our diode laser system, the optical conversion efficiencies from green to near-infrared light reduces to 75 % of the values achieved with the commercial pump laser. Despite this reduction the overall efficiency of the Ti: sapphire laser is still increased by a factor > 2 due to the superior...... like retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) or pumping of photonic crystal fibers for CARS (coherent anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy) microscopy....

  12. Evaluation of micronozzle performance through DSMC, navier-stokes and coupled dsmc/navier-stokes approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torre, F. la; Kenjeres, S.; Kleijn, C.R.; Moerel, J.L.P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Both the particle based Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method and a compressible Navier-Stokes based continuum method are used to investigate the flow inside micronozzles and to predict the performance of such devices. For the Navier-Stokes approach, both slip and no-slip boundary conditions

  13. Non-Gaussian statistics of extreme events in stimulated Raman scattering: The role of coherent memory and source noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfared, Yashar E.; Ponomarenko, Sergey A.

    2017-10-01

    We explore theoretically and numerically extreme event excitation in stimulated Raman scattering in gases. We consider gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers as a particular system realization. We show that moderate amplitude pump fluctuations obeying Gaussian statistics lead to the emergence of heavy-tailed non-Gaussian statistics as coherent seed Stokes pulses are amplified on propagation along the fiber. We reveal the crucial role that coherent memory effects play in causing non-Gaussian statistics of the system. We discover that extreme events can occur even at the initial stage of stimulated Raman scattering when one can neglect energy depletion of an intense, strongly fluctuating Gaussian pump source. Our analytical results in the undepleted pump approximation explicitly illustrate power-law probability density generation as the input pump noise is transferred to the output Stokes pulses.

  14. Transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obarski, Gregory E.; Splett, Jolene D.

    2001-06-01

    We have developed a transfer standard for the spectral density of relative intensity noise (RIN) of optical fiber sources near 1550 nm. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), when it is optically filtered over a narrow band ({lt}5 nm), yields a stable RIN spectrum that is practically constant to several tens of gigahertz. The RIN is calculated from the power spectral density as measured with a calibrated optical spectrum analyzer. For a typical device it is {minus}110 dB/Hz, with uncertainty {le}0.12 dB/Hz. The invariance of the RIN under attenuation yields a considerable dynamic range with respect to rf noise levels. Results are compared with those from a second method that uses a distributed-feedback laser (DFB) that has a Poisson-limited RIN. Application of each method to the same RIN measurement system yields frequency-dependent calibration functions that, when they are averaged, differ by {le}0.2 dB. {copyright} 2001 Optical Society of America

  15. Heat pumping in nanomechanical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chamon, Claudio; Mucciolo, Eduardo R.; Arrachea, Liliana; Capaz, Rodrigo B.

    2010-01-01

    We propose using a phonon pumping mechanism to transfer heat from a cold to a hot body using a propagating modulation of the medium connecting the two bodies. This phonon pump can cool nanomechanical systems without the need for active feedback. We compute the lowest temperature that this refrigerator can achieve.

  16. Utilization of IR laser pumped anti-Stokes emission of Er-Yb doped systems for identification of securities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmin, A.N.; Ryabtsev, G.I.; Ketko, G.A.; Gorelenko, A.Yu.; Demidovich, A.A.; Strek, W.; Maruszewicz, K.; Deren, P.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present a utilization of anti-Stokes luminescence of Er-Yb systems for identification of securities. A simple method of detection of an up-conversion phenomenon in such system by means of IR laser operating in the region 960-1010 nm is proposed. (author)

  17. ASSESSMENT OF THE ABILITY OF STANDARD SLURRY PUMPS TO MIX SOLIDS WITH LIQUIDS IN TANK 50H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.

    2011-11-11

    Tank 50H is the feed tank for the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). In the summer of 2011, Tank 50H contained two standard slurry pumps and two quad volute slurry pumps. Current requirements for mixing operation is to run three pumps for one hour prior to initiating a feed transfer to SPF. Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste moved both of the Quad Volute pumps from Tank 50H to Tank 51H to replace pumps in Tank 51H that were failing. In addition, one of the standard pumps in Tank 50H exhibits high seal leakage and vibration. SRS Liquid Waste requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a study to evaluate the feasibility of mixing the contents of Tank 50H with one to three standard slurry pumps. To determine the pump requirements to mix solids with liquids in Tank 50H, the author reviewed the pilot-scale blending work performed for the Small Column Ion Exchange Process (SCIX), SRNL computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, Tank 50H operating experience, and the technical literature, and applied the results to Tank 50H to determine the number, size, and operating parameters of pumps needed to mix the solid particles with the liquid in Tank 50H. The analysis determined pump requirements to suspend the solids with no 'dead zones', but did not determine the pump requirements to produce a homogeneous suspension. In addition, the analysis determined the pump requirements to prevent the accumulation of a large amount of solid particles under the telescoping transfer pump. The conclusions from this analysis follow: (1) The analysis shows that three Quad Volute pumps should be able to suspend the solid particles expected ({approx}0.6 g/L insoluble solids, {approx}5 micron) in Tank 50H. (2) Three standard slurry pumps may not be able to suspend the solid particles in Tank 50H; (3) The ability of two Quad Volute pumps to fully suspend all of the solid particles in Tank 50H is marginal; and (4) One standard slurry pump should be able to

  18. vSmartMOM: A vector matrix operator method-based radiative transfer model linearized with respect to aerosol properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghavi, Suniti; Davis, Anthony B.; Eldering, Annmarie

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we build up on the scalar model smartMOM to arrive at a formalism for linearized vector radiative transfer based on the matrix operator method (vSmartMOM). Improvements have been made with respect to smartMOM in that a novel method of computing intensities for the exact viewing geometry (direct raytracing) without interpolation between quadrature points has been implemented. Also, the truncation method employed for dealing with highly peaked phase functions has been changed to a vector adaptation of Wiscombe's delta-m method. These changes enable speedier and more accurate radiative transfer computations by eliminating the need for a large number of quadrature points and coefficients for generalized spherical functions. We verify our forward model against the benchmarking results of Kokhanovsky et al. (2010) [22]. All non-zero Stokes vector elements are found to show agreement up to mostly the seventh significant digit for the Rayleigh atmosphere. Intensity computations for aerosol and cloud show an agreement of well below 0.03% and 0.05% at all viewing angles except around the solar zenith angle (60°), where most radiative models demonstrate larger variances due to the strongly forward-peaked phase function. We have for the first time linearized vector radiative transfer based on the matrix operator method with respect to aerosol optical and microphysical parameters. We demonstrate this linearization by computing Jacobian matrices for all Stokes vector elements for a multi-angular and multispectral measurement setup. We use these Jacobians to compare the aerosol information content of measurements using only the total intensity component against those using the idealized measurements of full Stokes vector [I,Q,U,V] as well as the more practical use of only [I,Q,U]. As expected, we find for the considered example that the accuracy of the retrieved parameters improves when the full Stokes vector is used. The information content for the full Stokes

  19. Effect of non-condensable gas on heat transfer in steam turbine condenser and modelling of ejector pump system by controlling the gas extraction rate through extraction tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strušnik, Dušan; Golob, Marjan; Avsec, Jurij

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Control of the amount of the pumped gases through extraction tubes. The connecting locations interconnect the extraction tubes for STC gas pumping. The extraction tubes are fitted with 3 control valves to control the amount of the pumped gas depending on the temperature of the pumped gas. The amount of the pumped gas increases through the extraction tubes, where the pumped gases are cooler and decreases, at the same time, through the extraction tubes, where the pumped gases are warmer. As a result, pumping of a larger amount of NCG is ensured and of a smaller amount of CG, given that the NCG concentration is the highest on the colder places. This way, the total amount of the pumped gases from the STC can be reduced, the SEPS operates more efficiently and consumes less energy for its operation. - Highlights: • Impact of non-condensable gas on heat transfer in a steam turbine condenser. • The ejector system is optimised by selecting a Laval nozzle diameter. • Simulation model of the control of the amount of pumped gases through extraction tubes. • Neural network and fuzzy logic systems used to control gas extraction rate. • Simulation model was designed by using real process data from the thermal power plant. - Abstract: The paper describes the impact of non-condensable gas (NCG) on heat transfer in a steam turbine condenser (STC) and modelling of the steam ejector pump system (SEPS) by controlling the gas extraction rate through extraction tubes. The ideal connection points for the NCG extraction from the STC are identified by analysing the impact of the NCG on the heat transfer and measuring the existing system at a thermal power plant in Slovenia. A simulation model is designed using the Matlab software and Simulink, Neural Net Work, Fuzzy Logic and Curve Fitting Toolboxes, to control gas extraction rate through extraction tubes of the gas pumped from the STC, thus optimising the operation of the steam ejector pump system (SEPS). The

  20. Numerical Simulation of Tubular Pumping Systems with Different Regulation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Honggeng; Zhang, Rentian; Deng, Dongsheng; Feng, Xusong; Yao, Linbi

    2010-06-01

    Since the flow in tubular pumping systems is basically along axial direction and passes symmetrically through the impeller, most satisfying the basic hypotheses in the design of impeller and having higher pumping system efficiency in comparison with vertical pumping system, they are being widely applied to low-head pumping engineering. In a pumping station, the fluctuation of water levels in the sump and discharge pool is most common and at most time the pumping system runs under off-design conditions. Hence, the operation of pump has to be flexibly regulated to meet the needs of flow rates, and the selection of regulation method is as important as that of pump to reduce operation cost and achieve economic operation. In this paper, the three dimensional time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are closed by RNG κ-ɛ turbulent model, and two tubular pumping systems with different regulation methods, equipped with the same pump model but with different designed system structures, are numerically simulated respectively to predict the pumping system performances and analyze the influence of regulation device and help designers make final decision in the selection of design schemes. The computed results indicate that the pumping system with blade-adjusting device needs longer suction box, and the increased hydraulic loss will lower the pumping system efficiency in the order of 1.5%. The pumping system with permanent magnet motor, by means of variable speed regulation, obtains higher system efficiency partly for shorter suction box and partly for different structure design. Nowadays, the varied speed regulation is realized by varied frequency device, the energy consumption of which is about 3˜4% of output power of the motor. Hence, when the efficiency of variable frequency device is considered, the total pumping system efficiency will probably be lower.

  1. Disentangling the triadic interactions in Navier-Stokes equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Ganapati; Biferale, Luca

    2015-10-01

    We study the role of helicity in the dynamics of energy transfer in a modified version of the Navier-Stokes equations with explicit breaking of the mirror symmetry. We select different set of triads participating in the dynamics on the basis of their helicity content. In particular, we remove the negative helically polarized Fourier modes at all wave numbers except for those falling on a localized shell of wave number, |k| ~ k(m). Changing k(m) to be above or below the forcing scale, k(f), we are able to assess the energy transfer of triads belonging to different interaction classes. We observe that when the negative helical modes are present only at a wave number smaller than the forced wave numbers, an inverse energy cascade develops with an accumulation of energy on a stationary helical condensate. Vice versa, when negative helical modes are present only at a wave number larger than the forced wave numbers, a transition from backward to forward energy transfer is observed in the regime when the minority modes become energetic enough.

  2. Heat Transfer Computations of Internal Duct Flows With Combined Hydraulic and Thermal Developing Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. R.; Towne, C. E.; Hippensteele, S. A.; Poinsatte, P. E.

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated the Navier-Stokes computations of the surface heat transfer coefficients of a transition duct flow. A transition duct from an axisymmetric cross section to a non-axisymmetric cross section, is usually used to connect the turbine exit to the nozzle. As the gas turbine inlet temperature increases, the transition duct is subjected to the high temperature at the gas turbine exit. The transition duct flow has combined development of hydraulic and thermal entry length. The design of the transition duct required accurate surface heat transfer coefficients. The Navier-Stokes computational method could be used to predict the surface heat transfer coefficients of a transition duct flow. The Proteus three-dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical computational code was used in this study. The code was first studied for the computations of the turbulent developing flow properties within a circular duct and a square duct. The code was then used to compute the turbulent flow properties of a transition duct flow. The computational results of the surface pressure, the skin friction factor, and the surface heat transfer coefficient were described and compared with their values obtained from theoretical analyses or experiments. The comparison showed that the Navier-Stokes computation could predict approximately the surface heat transfer coefficients of a transition duct flow.

  3. Dual-pump CARS of Air in a Heated Pressure Vessel up to 55 Bar and 1300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Luca; Gallo, Emanuela; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-pump Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements have been performed in a heated pressure vessel at NASA Langley Research Center. Each measurement, consisting of 500 single shot spectra, was recorded at a fixed location in dry air at various pressures and temperatures, in a range of 0.03-55×10(exp 5) Pa and 300-1373 K, where the temperature was varied using an electric heater. The maximum output power of the electric heater limited the combinations of pressures and temperatures that could be obtained. Charts of CARS signal versus temperature (at constant pressure) and signal versus pressure (at constant temperature) are presented and fit with an empirical model to validate the range of capability of the dual-pump CARS technique; averaged spectra at different conditions of pressure and temperature are also shown.

  4. Solutions to three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorma Jormakka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article gives explicit solutions to the space-periodic Navier-Stokes problem with non-periodic pressure. These type of solutions are not unique and by using such solutions one can construct a periodic, smooth, divergence-free initial vector field allowing a space-periodic and time-bounded external force such that there exists a smooth solution to the 3-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid with those initial conditions, but the solution cannot be continued to the whole space.

  5. Analysis of Influence of the Thermal Dependence of Air Thermophysical Properties on the Accuracy of Simulation of Heat Transfer in a Turbulent Flow in Case of Applying Different Methods of Averaging Navier-Stokes Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kliukvin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is theoretically investigated the influence of thermal dependence of air thermophysical properties on accuracy of heat transfer problems solution in a turbulent flow when using different methods of averaging the Navier-Stokes equations.There is analyzed the practicability of using particular method of averaging the NavierStokes equations when it’s necessary to clarify the solution of heat transfer problem taking into account the variability of air thermophysical properties.It’s shown that Reynolds and Favre averaging (the most common methods of averaging the Navier-Stokes equations are not effective in this case because these methods inaccurately describe behavior of large scale turbulent structures which strongly depends on geometry of particular flow. Thus it’s necessary to use more universal methods of turbulent flow simulation which are not based on averaging of all turbulent scales.In the article it’s shown that instead of Reynold and Favre averaging it’s possible to use large eddy simulation whereby turbulent structures are divided into small-scale and large-scale ones with subsequent modelling of small-scale ones only. But this approach leads to the necessarity of increasing the computational power by 2-3 orders.For different methods of averaging the form of additional terms of averaged Navier-Stokes equations in case of accounting pulsation of thermophysical properties of the air is obtained.On the example of a submerged heated air jet the errors (which occur when neglecting the thermal dependence of air thermophysical properties on averaged flow temperature in determination of convectional and conductive components of heat flux and viscous stresses are evaluated. It’s shown that the greatest increase of solution accuracy can be obtained in case of the flows with high temperature gradients.Finally using infinite Teylor series it’s found that underestimation of convective and conductive components of heat flux and

  6. Intrinsic character of Stokes matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Jean-François; Rousseau, Christiane

    2017-02-01

    Two germs of linear analytic differential systems x k + 1Y‧ = A (x) Y with a non-resonant irregular singularity are analytically equivalent if and only if they have the same eigenvalues and equivalent collections of Stokes matrices. The Stokes matrices are the transition matrices between sectors on which the system is analytically equivalent to its formal normal form. Each sector contains exactly one separating ray for each pair of eigenvalues. A rotation in S allows supposing that R+ lies in the intersection of two sectors. Reordering of the coordinates of Y allows ordering the real parts of the eigenvalues, thus yielding triangular Stokes matrices. However, the choice of the rotation in x is not canonical. In this paper we establish how the collection of Stokes matrices depends on this rotation, and hence on a chosen order of the projection of the eigenvalues on a line through the origin.

  7. Heat pumping in nanomechanical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamon, Claudio; Mucciolo, Eduardo R; Arrachea, Liliana; Capaz, Rodrigo B

    2011-04-01

    We propose using a phonon pumping mechanism to transfer heat from a cold to a hot body using a propagating modulation of the medium connecting the two bodies. This phonon pump can cool nanomechanical systems without the need for active feedback. We compute the lowest temperature that this refrigerator can achieve. © 2011 American Physical Society

  8. Energy transfer of excitons between quantum wells separated by a wide barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyo, S. K.

    2000-01-01

    We present a microscopic theory of the excitonic Stokes and anti-Stokes energy-transfer mechanisms between two widely separated unequal quantum wells with a large energy mismatch (Δ) at low temperatures (T). Several important intrinsic energy-transfer mechanisms have been examined, including dipolar coupling, real and virtual photon-exchange coupling, and over-barrier ionization of the excitons via exciton-exciton Auger processes. The transfer rate is calculated as a function of T and the center-to-center distance d between the wells. The rates depend sensitively on T for plane-wave excitons. For localized excitons, the rates depend on T only through the T dependence of the exciton localization radius. For Stokes energy transfer, the dominant energy transfer occurs through a photon-exchange interaction, which enables the excitons from the higher-energy wells to decay into free electrons and holes in the lower-energy wells. The rate has a slow dependence on d, yielding reasonable agreement with recent data from GaAs/Al x Ga 1-x As quantum wells. The dipolar rate is about an order of magnitude smaller for large d (e.g., d=175Aa) with a stronger range dependence proportional to d -4 . However, the latter can be comparable to the radiative rate for small d (e.g., d≤80Aa). For anti-Stokes transfer through exchange-type (e.g., dipolar and photon-exchange) interactions, we show that thermal activation proportional to exp(-Δ/k B T) is essential for the transfer, contradicting a recent nonactivated result based on the Fo''rster-Dexter's spectral-overlap theory. Phonon-assisted transfer yields a negligibly small rate. On the other hand, energy transfer through over-barrier ionization of excitons via Auger processes yields a significantly larger nonactivated rate which is independent of d. The result is compared with recent data

  9. Approximate Stokes Drift Profiles in Deep Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Øyvind; Janssen, Peter A. E. M.; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond

    2014-09-01

    A deep-water approximation to the Stokes drift velocity profile is explored as an alternative to the monochromatic profile. The alternative profile investigated relies on the same two quantities required for the monochromatic profile, viz the Stokes transport and the surface Stokes drift velocity. Comparisons with parametric spectra and profiles under wave spectra from the ERA-Interim reanalysis and buoy observations reveal much better agreement than the monochromatic profile even for complex sea states. That the profile gives a closer match and a more correct shear has implications for ocean circulation models since the Coriolis-Stokes force depends on the magnitude and direction of the Stokes drift profile and Langmuir turbulence parameterizations depend sensitively on the shear of the profile. The alternative profile comes at no added numerical cost compared to the monochromatic profile.

  10. Ultrashort-pulse-train pump and dump excitation of a diatomic molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Luís E. E.

    2010-09-01

    An excitation scheme is proposed for transferring population between ground-vibrational levels of a molecule. The transfer is accomplished by pumping and dumping population with a pair of coherent ultrashort-pulse trains via a stationary state. By mismatching the teeth of the frequency combs associated with the pulse trains to the vibrational levels, high selectivity in the excitation, along with high transfer efficiency, is predicted. The pump-dump scheme does not suffer from spontaneous emission losses, it is insensitive to the pump-dump-train delay, and it requires only basic pulse shaping.

  11. Nonazeotropic Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.

  12. Pumping power of nanofluids in a flowing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routbort, Jules L.; Singh, Dileep; Timofeeva, Elena V.; Yu, Wenhua; France, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanofluids have the potential to increase thermal conductivities and heat transfer coefficients compared to their base fluids. However, the addition of nanoparticles to a fluid also increases the viscosity and therefore increases the power required to pump the fluid through the system. When the benefit of the increased heat transfer is larger than the penalty of the increased pumping power, the nanofluid has the potential for commercial viability. The pumping power for nanofluids has been considered previously for flow in straight tubes. In this study, the pumping power was measured for nanofluids flowing in a complete system including straight tubing, elbows, and expansions. The objective was to determine the significance of two-phase flow effects on system performance. Two types of nanofluids were used in this study: a water-based nanofluid containing 2.0–8.0 vol% of 40-nm alumina nanoparticles, and a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture-based nanofluid containing 2.2 vol% of 29-nm SiC nanoparticles. All experiments were performed in the turbulent flow region in the entire test system simulating features typically found in heat exchanger systems. Experimental results were compared to the pumping power calculated from a mathematical model of the system to evaluate the system effects. The pumping power results were also combined with the heat transfer enhancement to evaluate the viability of the two nanofluids.

  13. Analytical study of nonlinear phase shift through stimulated Brillouin scattering in single mode fiber with the pump power recycling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Asadi, H A; Mahdi, M A; Bakar, A A A; Adikan, F R Mahamd

    2011-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of nonlinear phase shift through stimulated Brillouin scattering in single mode optical fiber. Analytical expressions describing the nonlinear phase shift for the pump and Stokes waves in the pump power recycling technique have been derived. The dependence of the nonlinear phase shift on the optical fiber length, the reflectivity of the optical mirror and the frequency detuning coefficient have been analyzed for different input pump power values. We found that with the recycling pump technique, the nonlinear phase shift due to stimulated Brillouin scattering reduced to less than 0.1 rad for 5 km optical fiber length and 0.65 reflectivity of the optical mirror, respectively, at an input pump power equal to 30 mW

  14. The derivation of vector magnetic fields from Stokes profiles - Integral versus least squares fitting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronan, R. S.; Mickey, D. L.; Orrall, F. Q.

    1987-01-01

    The results of two methods for deriving photospheric vector magnetic fields from the Zeeman effect, as observed in the Fe I line at 6302.5 A at high spectral resolution (45 mA), are compared. The first method does not take magnetooptical effects into account, but determines the vector magnetic field from the integral properties of the Stokes profiles. The second method is an iterative least-squares fitting technique which fits the observed Stokes profiles to the profiles predicted by the Unno-Rachkovsky solution to the radiative transfer equation. For sunspot fields above about 1500 gauss, the two methods are found to agree in derived azimuthal and inclination angles to within about + or - 20 deg.

  15. Experimental Evaluation of Impairments in Unrepeatered DP-16QAM Link with Distributed Raman Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Pang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission impairments of a Raman amplified link using dual-polarization 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (DP-16QAM are experimentally characterized. The impact of amplitude and phase noise on the signal due to relative intensity noise (RIN transfer from the pump are compared for two pumping configurations: first-order backward pumping and bi-directional pumping. Experimental results indicate that with increased Raman backward pump power, though the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR is increased, so is the pump-induced amplitude and phase noise. The transmission performance is firstly improved by the enhanced OSNR at a low pump power until an optimum point is reached, and then the impairments due to pump-induced noise start to dominate. However, the introduction of a low pump power in the forward direction can further improve the system’s performance.

  16. Capillary pumped loop body heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Theodore D. (Inventor); Wren, deceased, Paul (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A capillary pumped loop for transferring heat from one body part to another body part, the capillary pumped loop comprising a capillary evaporator for vaporizing a liquid refrigerant by absorbing heat from a warm body part, a condenser for turning a vaporized refrigerant into a liquid by transferring heat from the vaporized liquid to a cool body part, a first tube section connecting an output port of the capillary evaporator to an input of the condenser, and a second tube section connecting an output of the condenser to an input port of the capillary evaporator. A wick may be provided within the condenser. A pump may be provided between the second tube section and the input port of the capillary evaporator. Additionally, an esternal heat source or heat sink may be utilized.

  17. On the Coupling of Incompressible Stokes or Navier–Stokes and Darcy Flows Through Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Girault, V.; Kanschat, G.; Riviè re, B.

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we present the theoretical analysis of coupled incompressible Navier-Stokes (or Stokes) flows and Darcy flows with the Beavers-Joseph-Saffman interface condition. We discuss alternative interface and porous media models. We review

  18. Double-shell tank emergency pumping guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    This Double-Shell Tank Emergency Pumping Guide provides the preplanning necessary to expeditiously remove any waste that may leak from the primary tank to the secondary tank for Hanfords 28 DSTs. The strategy is described, applicable emergency procedures are referenced, and transfer routes and pumping equipment for each tank are identified

  19. Double-shell tank emergency pumping guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    This Double-Shell Tank Emergency Pumping Guide provides the preplanning necessary to expeditiously remove any waste that may leak from the primary tank to the secondary tank for Hanford's 28 DSTS. The strategy is described, applicable emergency procedures are referenced, and transfer routes and pumping equipment for each tank are identified

  20. 78 FR 12157 - RFS Renewable Identification Number (RIN) Quality Assurance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... chemical manufacturing. Industry 424690 5169 Chemical and allied products merchant wholesalers. Industry... for Proposal 4. QAP Plans and Independent Engineering Reviews 5. Request for Comments D. Proposed..., in reaction to the fraudulent RIN cases, many regulated parties have reported that obligated parties...

  1. Measurement of the surface-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (SECARS) due to the 1574 cm(-1) surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) mode of benzenethiol using low-power (CW diode lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Roshan L; Farrar, Lewis W; Greeneltch, Nathan G; Van Duyne, Richard P; Polla, Dennis L

    2013-02-01

    The surface-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (SECARS) from a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of benzenethiol on a silver-coated surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate has been measured for the 1574 cm(-1) SERS mode. A value of 9.6 ± 1.7×10(-14) W was determined for the resonant component of the SECARS signal using 17.8 mW of 784.9 nm pump laser power and 7.1 mW of 895.5 nm Stokes laser power; the pump and Stokes lasers were polarized parallel to each other but perpendicular to the grooves of the diffraction grating in the spectrometer. The measured value of resonant component of the SECARS signal is in agreement with the calculated value of 9.3×10(-14) W using the measured value of 8.7 ± 0.5 cm(-1) for the SERS linewidth Γ (full width at half-maximum) and the value of 5.7 ± 1.4×10(-7) for the product of the Raman cross section σSERS and the surface concentration Ns of the benzenethiol SAM. The xxxx component of the resonant part of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility |3 χxxxx((3)R)| for the 1574 cm(-1) SERS mode has been determined to be 4.3 ± 1.1×10(-5) cm·g(-1)·s(2). The SERS enhancement factor for the 1574 cm(-1) mode was determined to be 3.6 ± 0.9×10(7) using the value of 1.8×10(15) molecules/cm(2) for Ns.

  2. FIX-II. Loca-blowdown heat transfer and pump trip experiments. Summary report of phase 1: Design of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waaranperae, Y.; Nilsson, L.; Gustafsson, P.Aa.; Jonsson, N.O.

    1979-06-01

    FIX-II is a loss of coolant blowdown heat transfer experiment, performed under contract for The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI. The purpose of the experiments is to provide measurements from simulations of a pipe rupture on an external recirculation line in a Swedish BWR. Pump trips in BWRs with internal recirculation pumps will also be simulated. The existing FIX-loop at the Thermal Engineering Laboratory of Studsvik Energiteknik AB will be modified and used for the experiments. Components are included to simulate the steam dome, downcomer, two recirculation lines with one pump each, lower plenum, core (36-rod full length bundle), control rod guide tubes, core bypass, upper plenum and steam separators. The results of the first phase of the project are reported here. The following tasks are included in Phase 1: reactor reference analysis, scaling calculations of the FIX loop, development of fuel rod simulators, design of test section and test loop layout and proposal for test program. Further details of the work and results obtained for the different sub-projects are published in a number ofdetailed reports. (author)

  3. Performance characteristics of a continuous-flow fluidic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Counce, R.M.; Smith, G.V.

    1987-01-01

    The fluidic pump is a type of positive-displacement pump in which basic fluid mechanics phenomena are utilized to eliminate valves and other moving parts that are exposed to the fluid being transferred. The version described in this article is powered by gas pressure serving as gas pistons and is virtually maintenance-free. It utilizes two displacement vessels and is designed to produce a steady and continuous liquid flow. This type of pump may be very useful for the transfer of radioactive or hazardous liquids where mechanical maintenance may be difficult or exposure of personnel to the fluid is undesirable. This paper presents experimental and model-predicted characteristics of such systems. The effects of several geometric parameters and operating conditions on the performance of the pump are briefly discussed

  4. Temporal overlap estimation based on interference spectrum in CARS microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongning; Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Kun; Huang, Can; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Xuezhi; Liu, Tiegen

    2018-01-01

    Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy has attracted lots of attention because of the advantages, such as noninvasive, label-free, chemical specificity, intrinsic three-dimension spatial resolution and so on. However, the temporal overlap of pump and Stokes has not been solved owing to the ultrafast optical pulse used in CARS microscopy. We combine interference spectrum of residual pump in Stokes path and nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) to realize the temporal overlap of pump pulse and Stokes pulse. At first, based on the interference spectrum of pump pulse and residual pump in Stokes path, the optical delay is defined when optical path difference between pump path and Stokes path is zero. Then the relative optical delay between Stokes pulse and residual pump in PCF can be calculated by NLSE. According to the spectrum interference and NLSE, temporal overlap of pump pulse and Stokes pulse will be realized easily and the imaging speed will be improved in CARS microscopy.

  5. Stochastic 2-D Navier-Stokes Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menaldi, J.L.; Sritharan, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we prove the existence and uniqueness of strong solutions for the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation in bounded and unbounded domains. These solutions are stochastic analogs of the classical Lions-Prodi solutions to the deterministic Navier-Stokes equation. Local monotonicity of the nonlinearity is exploited to obtain the solutions in a given probability space and this significantly improves the earlier techniques for obtaining strong solutions, which depended on pathwise solutions to the Navier-Stokes martingale problem where the probability space is also obtained as a part of the solution

  6. Matter, energy, and heat transfer in a classical ballistic atom pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Tommy A; Das, Kunal K; Mitchell, Kevin A; Aubin, Seth; Delos, John B

    2014-11-01

    A ballistic atom pump is a system containing two reservoirs of neutral atoms or molecules and a junction connecting them containing a localized time-varying potential. Atoms move through the pump as independent particles. Under certain conditions, these pumps can create net transport of atoms from one reservoir to the other. While such systems are sometimes called "quantum pumps," they are also models of classical chaotic transport, and their quantum behavior cannot be understood without study of the corresponding classical behavior. Here we examine classically such a pump's effect on energy and temperature in the reservoirs, in addition to net particle transport. We show that the changes in particle number, of energy in each reservoir, and of temperature in each reservoir vary in unexpected ways as the incident particle energy is varied.

  7. Four-wave-mixing and nonlinear cavity dumping of 280 picosecond 2nd Stokes pulse at 1.3 μm from Nd:SrMoO4 self-Raman laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetanin, S N; Ivleva, L I; Jelínek, M Jr; Kubeček, V; Jelínková, H; Shurygin, A S

    2016-01-01

    The 280 picosecond 2nd Stokes Raman pulses at 1.3 μm were generated directly from the miniature diode-pumped Nd:SrMoO 4 self-Raman laser. Using the 90° phase matching insensitive to the angular mismatch, the self-Raman laser allowed for the achievement of the four-wave-mixing generation of the 2nd Stokes Raman pulse directly in the active Nd:SrMoO 4 crystal at stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) self-conversion of the laser radiation. The passive Cr:YAG Q-switching and nonlinear cavity dumping was used without any phase locking device. (letter)

  8. Rin4 causes hybrid necrosis and race-specific resistance in an interspecific lettuce hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuken, Marieke J W; Zhang, Ningwen W; McHale, Leah K; Pelgrom, Koen; den Boer, Erik; Lindhout, Pim; Michelmore, Richard W; Visser, Richard G F; Niks, Rients E

    2009-10-01

    Some inter- and intraspecific crosses may result in reduced viability or sterility in the offspring, often due to genetic incompatibilities resulting from interactions between two or more loci. Hybrid necrosis is a postzygotic genetic incompatibility that is phenotypically manifested as necrotic lesions on the plant. We observed hybrid necrosis in interspecific lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Lactuca saligna) hybrids that correlated with resistance to downy mildew. Segregation analysis revealed a specific allelic combination at two interacting loci to be responsible. The allelic interaction had two consequences: (1) a quantitative temperature-dependent autoimmunity reaction leading to necrotic lesions, lethality, and quantitative resistance to an otherwise virulent race of Bremia lactucae; and (2) a qualitative temperature-independent race-specific resistance to an avirulent race of B. lactucae. We demonstrated by transient expression and silencing experiments that one of the two interacting genes was Rin4. In Arabidopsis thaliana, RIN4 is known to interact with multiple R gene products, and their interactions result in hypersensitive resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. Site-directed mutation studies on the necrosis-eliciting allele of Rin4 in lettuce showed that three residues were critical for hybrid necrosis.

  9. Least squares inversion of Stokes profiles in the presence of velocity gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skumanich, A.; Rees, D.E.; Lites, B.W.; Sacramento Peak Observatory, Sunspot, NM)

    1985-01-01

    The Auer, Heasley and House Stokes inversion procedure in use at High Altitude Observatory is based on the analytic solution of the equation of transfer for polarized light where the representation of the thermodynamic and magnetic structure of the atmosphere is assumed to have a high degree of invariance, namely, a Milne-Eddington (ME) structure with a constant magnetic field. In the presence of invariance breaking gradients the resultant Stokes profiles are represented only approximately, if at all, by analytic forms. The accuracy of the inversion parameters and their significance as measures of actual structure are explored for the ME and the Landman-Finn sunspot models under the effects of velocity gradients. The resulting field parameters are good to a few percent and prove to be insensitive to the errors committed by the use of a ME-representation, but the resulting ME parameters yield a less precise measure of thermal structure

  10. A single-longitudinal-mode Brillouin fiber laser passively stabilized at the pump resonance frequency with a dynamic population inversion grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirin, V V; López-Mercado, C A; Kinet, D; Mégret, P; Fotiadi, A A; Zolotovskiy, I O

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a single-longitudinal-mode Brillouin ring fiber laser passively stabilized at the resonance frequency with a 1.7 m section that is an unpumped polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber. The two coupled all-fiber Fabry–Perot interferometers that comprise the cavity, in combination with the dynamical population inversion gratings self-induced in the active fiber, provide adaptive pump-mode selection and Stokes wave generation at the same time. The laser is shown to emit a single-frequency Stokes wave with a linewidth narrower than 100 Hz. (letter)

  11. 75 FR 7551 - Transfer of Accumulated Benefit Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ...-1213 or TTY 1-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at http://www... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Parts 404 and 416 [Docket No. SSA-2009-0067] RIN 0960-AH08 Transfer of Accumulated Benefit Payments AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Final rule...

  12. New photoionization lasers pumped by laser-induced plasma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hube, M.; Dieckmann, M.; Beigang, R.; Welling, H.; Wellegehausen, B.

    1988-01-01

    Innershell photoionization of atomic gases and vapors by soft x rays from a laser-produced plasma is a potential method for making lasers at short wavelengths. Normally, in such experiments only a single plasma spot or plasma line is created for the excitation. This gives high excitation rates but only a short excitation length. At high excitation rates detrimental influences, such as amplified spontaneous emission, optical saturation, or quenching processes, may decrease or even destroy a possible inversion. Therefore, it seems to be more favorable to use a number of separated plasma spots with smaller excitation rates and larger excitation lengths. As a test, a three-plasma spot device was constructed and used in the well-known Cd-photoionization laser at 442 nm. With a 600-mJ Nd:YAH laser (pulse length, 8 ns) for plasma production, output energies up to 300 μJ have been measured, which is more than a doubling of so far obtained data. On innershell excitation, levels may be populated that allow direct lasers as in the case of Cd or that are metastable and cannot be directly coupled to lower levels. In this case modifications in the excitation process are necessary. Such modifications may be an optical pump process in the atom prior to the innershell photoionization or an optical pump process (population transfer process) after the innershell ionization, leading to Raman or anti-Stokes Raman-type laser emissions. With these techniques and the developed multiplasma spot excitation device a variety of new laser emissions in K and Cs ions have been achieved which are indicated in the level schemes

  13. Engineering: Liquid metal pumped at a record temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinou, Konstantina

    2017-10-01

    Although liquid metals are effective fluids for heat transfer, pumping them at high temperatures is limited by their corrosiveness to solid metals. A clever pump design addresses this challenge using only ceramics. See Article p.199

  14. RIN4 recruits the exocyst subunit EXO70B1 to the plasma membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sabol, P.; Kulich, I.; Žárský, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 12 (2017), s. 3253-3265 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14886S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : oligomeric golgi-complex * powdery mildew fungus * pseudomonas-syringae * cell polarity * arabidopsis * protein * plants * resistance * expression * transport * Autophagy * exo70b1 * exo70b2 * exocyst * plant immunity * rin4 * secretion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.830, year: 2016

  15. Functional and biocompatibility performances of an integrated Maglev pump-oxygenator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Cheng, Guangming; Koert, Andrew; Zhang, Juntao; Gellman, Barry; Yankey, G Kwame; Satpute, Aditee; Dasse, Kurt A; Gilbert, Richard J; Griffith, Bartley P; Wu, Zhongjun J

    2009-01-01

    To provide respiratory support for patients with lung failure, a novel compact integrated pump-oxygenator is being developed. The functional and biocompatibility performances of this device are presented. The pump-oxygenator is designed by combining a magnetically levitated pump/rotor with a uniquely configured hollow fiber membrane bundle to create an assembly free, ultracompact, all-in-one system. The hemodynamics, gas transfer and biocompatibility performances of this novel device were investigated both in vitro in a circulatory flow loop and in vivo in an ovine animal model. The in vitro results showed that the device was able to pump blood flow from 2 to 8 L/min against a wide range of pressures and to deliver an oxygen transfer rate more than 300 mL/min at a blood flow of 6 L/min. Blood damage tests demonstrated low hemolysis (normalized index of hemolysis [NIH] approximately 0.04) at a flow rate of 5 L/min against a 100-mm Hg afterload. The data from five animal experiments (4 h to 7 days) demonstrated that the device could bring the venous blood to near fully oxygen-saturated condition (98.6% +/- 1.3%). The highest oxygen transfer rate reached 386 mL/min. The gas transfer performance was stable over the study duration for three 7-day animals. There was no indication of blood damage. The plasma free hemoglobin and platelet count were within the normal ranges. No gross thrombus is found on the explanted pump components and fiber surfaces. Both in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that the newly developed pump-oxygenator can achieve sufficient blood flow and oxygen transfer with excellent biocompatibility.

  16. Industrinio paveldo konversijos į kultūrinės paskirties objektus vizualiosios formos

    OpenAIRE

    Tautavičiūtė, Eglė

    2013-01-01

    Darbe apibrėžiamos industrinių erdvių paveldo konversijos ir pritaikymo idėjos, būdai ir formos vizualiniu aspektu; analizuojami Klaipėdos pramoninės architektūros paveldo objektai, jų architektūrinė specifika, išsidėstymas urbanistinėje miesto struktūroje. Pramoninės funkcijos išsaugojimo ir realizuotų konversijų atvejų studijos rodo dabartinę Klaipėdos pramoninės architektūros objektų situaciją, industrinio paveldo pritaikymo naujoms kultūrinėms veikloms vykti pranašumus ir trūkumus. Analiz...

  17. Toward a CFD nose-to-tail capability - Hypersonic unsteady Navier-Stokes code validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas A.; Flores, Jolen

    1989-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) research for hypersonic flows presents new problems in code validation because of the added complexity of the physical models. This paper surveys code validation procedures applicable to hypersonic flow models that include real gas effects. The current status of hypersonic CFD flow analysis is assessed with the Compressible Navier-Stokes (CNS) code as a case study. The methods of code validation discussed to beyond comparison with experimental data to include comparisons with other codes and formulations, component analyses, and estimation of numerical errors. Current results indicate that predicting hypersonic flows of perfect gases and equilibrium air are well in hand. Pressure, shock location, and integrated quantities are relatively easy to predict accurately, while surface quantities such as heat transfer are more sensitive to the solution procedure. Modeling transition to turbulence needs refinement, though preliminary results are promising.

  18. An experimental and theoretical investigation on the effects of adding hybrid nanoparticles on heat transfer efficiency and pumping power of an oil-based nanofluid as a coolant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadi, Meisam; Asadi, Amin; Aberoumand, Sadegh

    2018-01-01

    The present work aims to study heat transfer performance and pumping power of MgO-MWCNT/ thermal oil hybrid nanofluid. Using a KD2 Pro thermal analyzer, the thermal conductivity of the samples have been measured. The results showed an increasing trend for the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid...... by increasing the mass concentration and temperature, in which the maximum enhancement of thermal conductivity was approximately 65%. Predicting the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid, a highly accurate correlation in terms of solid concentration and temperature has been proposed. Moreover, the heat transfer...... nanofluid is highly efficient in heat transfer applications as a coolant fluid in both the laminar and turbulent flow regimes, although it causes a certain penalty in the pumping power....

  19. Some general properties of stimulated Raman propagation with pump depletion, transiency and dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, B.W.; Lowder, S.; Johnson, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This note considers some of the properties of the Stokes pulse that grows from a specified seed pulse in the presence of a strong pump pulse as it propagates through a dispersive atomic vapor. We first present an generic dimensionless form for the coupled equations that govern the propagation of pump and Stokes fields or collinear plane-wave pulses. By treating the two fields we permit pump depletion. We include transient atomic response (as embodied in the Raman coherence), but neglect changes in atomic populations. (Thus our equations pertain to the regime in which atoms are more numerous than photons). The equations employ a gain length, a dispersion time τ dis , and a Raman coherence time (or memory time) τ R as basic parameters: these two times, together with a single-photon stationary-atom detuning Δ, subsume the details of a particular atomic Raman transition and particular operating conditions. (The effects of Doppler shifts enters the equations through the coherence time). We discuss some general properties of these generic Raman propagation equations, and present illustrations of their solutions in the absence of dispersion. We comment on departures from exponential growth. We than show examples of behavior when dispersion is present and the pump pulse has a bandwidth that exceeds the transform limit. The illustrations presented here do not pertain to any specific atom (i.e. specific wavelengths and oscillator strengths) or to specific experimental conditions (i.e. number densities and pulse intensities). To permit the connection between the present generic results and particular experiments we conclude by providing expressions for the gain length and dispersion time in terms of atomic number density, polarizabilities, oscillator strengths, statistical weights, transition frequencies, and polarization directions. 11 figs

  20. 77 FR 46855 - Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Chapter I RIN 3245-AF45 Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final policy directive with request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is amending its Small Business...

  1. Modeling the Performance of Water-Zeolite 13X Adsorption Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Kinga; Ambrożek, Bogdan

    2017-12-01

    The dynamic performance of cylindrical double-tube adsorption heat pump is numerically analysed using a non-equilibrium model, which takes into account both heat and mass transfer processes. The model includes conservation equations for: heat transfer in heating/cooling fluids, heat transfer in the metal tube, and heat and mass transfer in the adsorbent. The mathematical model is numerically solved using the method of lines. Numerical simulations are performed for the system water-zeolite 13X, chosen as the working pair. The effect of the evaporator and condenser temperatures on the adsorption and desorption kinetics is examined. The results of the numerical investigation show that both of these parameters have a significant effect on the adsorption heat pump performance. Based on computer simulation results, the values of the coefficients of performance for heating and cooling are calculated. The results show that adsorption heat pumps have relatively low efficiency compared to other heat pumps. The value of the coefficient of performance for heating is higher than for cooling

  2. The Performance Evaluation of Overall Heat Transfer and Pumping Power of γ-Al2O3/water Nanofluid as Coolant in Automotive Diesel Engine Radiator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Bozorgan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of γ-Al2O3/water nanofluid as coolant is investigated in the present study. γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles with diameters of 20 nm dispersed in water with volume concentrations up 2% are selected and their performance in a radiator of Chevrolet Suburban diesel engine under turbulent flow conditions are numerically studied. The performance of an automobile radiator is a function of overall heat transfer coefficient and total heat transfer area. The heat transfer relations between nanofluid and airflow have been investigated to evaluate the overall heat transfer and the pumping power of γ-Al2O3/water nanofluid in the radiator with a given heat exchange capacity. In the present paper, the effects of the automotive speed and Reynolds number of the nanofluid in the different volume concentrations on the radiator performance are also investigated. As an example, the results show that for 2% γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles in water with Renf=6000 in the radiator while the automotive speed is 50 mph, the overall heat transfer coefficient and pumping power are approximately 11.11% and 29.17% more than that of water for given conditions, respectively. These results confirm that γ-Al2O3/water nanofluid offers higher overall heat transfer performance than water and can be reduced the total heat transfer area of the radiator.

  3. Research and development on process components for hydrogen production. (1) Test-fabrication of sulfuric acid transfer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsuki, Jin; Terada, Atsuhiko; Hino, Ryutaro; Kubo, Shinji; Onuki, Kaoru; Watanabe, Yutaka

    2009-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting a research and development on hydrogen production system using High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor. As a part of this effort, thermochemical water-splitting cycle featuring iodine- and sulfur-compounds (IS process) is under development considering its potential of large-scale economical hydrogen production. The IS process constitutes very severe environments to the materials of construction because of the corrosive nature of process chemicals, especially of the high temperature acidic solutions of sulfuric acid and hydriodic acid dissolving iodine. Therefore, selection of the corrosion-resistant materials and development of the components have been the crucial subjects of process development. This paper concerns the sulfuric acid transfer pump. The development has been implemented of a pump for transporting concentrated sulfuric acid at temperatures of higher than 300degC and at elevated pressure. Recent progress of these activities will be reported. (author)

  4. The mechanism of electron gating in proton pumping cytochrome c oxidase: the effect of pH and temperature on internal electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, P; Malmström, B G

    1987-10-29

    Electron-transfer reactions following flash photolysis of the mixed-valence cytochrome oxidase-CO complex have been measured at 445, 598 and 830 nm between pH 5.2 and 9.0 in the temperature range of 0-25 degrees C. There is a rapid electron transfer from the cytochrome a3-CuB pair to CuA (time constant: 14200 s-1), which is followed by a slower electron transfer to cytochrome a. Both the rate and the amplitude of the rapid phase are independent of pH, and the rate in the direction from CuA to cytochrome a3-CuB is practically independent of temperature. The second phase depends strongly on pH due to the titration of an acid-base group with pKa = 7.6. The equilibrium at pH 7.4 corresponds to reduction potentials of 225 and 345 mV for cytochrome a and a3, respectively, from which it is concluded that the enzyme is in a different conformation compared to the fully oxidized form. The results have been used to suggest a series of reaction steps in a cycle of the oxidase as a proton pump. Application of the electron-transfer theory to the temperature-dependence data suggests a mechanism for electron gating in the pump. Reduction of both cytochrome a and CuA leads to a conformational change, which changes the structure of cytochrome a3-CuB in such a way that the reorganizational barrier for electron transfer is removed and the driving force is increased.

  5. On the Coupling of Incompressible Stokes or Navier–Stokes and Darcy Flows Through Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Girault, V.

    2012-11-03

    In this chapter, we present the theoretical analysis of coupled incompressible Navier-Stokes (or Stokes) flows and Darcy flows with the Beavers-Joseph-Saffman interface condition. We discuss alternative interface and porous media models. We review some finite element methods used by several authors in this coupling and present numerical experiments.

  6. Optimization of air-curtain sealing efficiency with respect to heat transfer in naturally ventilated buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khayrullina, A.; Hooff, van T.A.J.; Blocken, B.J.E.; van Heijst, G.J.F.; Sun, Y.; Pei, J.; Zhao, X

    This study presents results of coupled 3D steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of an isolated naturally-ventilated building with the application of an air curtain to prevent heat transfer across a doorway. The considered parameters include air

  7. FIRST ZEEMAN DOPPLER IMAGING OF A COOL STAR USING ALL FOUR STOKES PARAMETERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosén, L.; Kochukhov, O.; Wade, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields are ubiquitous in active cool stars, but they are in general complex and weak. Current Zeeman Doppler imaging (ZDI) studies of cool star magnetic fields chiefly employ circular polarization observations because linear polarization is difficult to detect and requires a more sophisticated radiative transfer modeling to interpret. But it has been shown in previous theoretical studies, and in the observational analyses of magnetic Ap stars, that including linear polarization in the magnetic inversion process makes it possible to correctly recover many otherwise lost or misinterpreted magnetic features. We have obtained phase-resolved observations in all four Stokes parameters of the RS CVn star II Peg at two separate epochs. Here we present temperature and magnetic field maps reconstructed for this star using all four Stokes parameters. This is the very first such ZDI study of a cool active star. Our magnetic inversions reveal a highly structured magnetic field topology for both epochs. The strength of some surface features is doubled or even quadrupled when linear polarization is taken into account. The total magnetic energy of the reconstructed field map also becomes about 2.1–3.5 times higher. The overall complexity is also increased as the field energy is shifted toward higher harmonic modes when four Stokes parameters are used. As a consequence, the potential field extrapolation of the four Stokes parameter ZDI results indicates that magnetic field becomes weaker at a distance of several stellar radii due to a decrease of the large-scale field component

  8. Augmented Lagrangian methods to solve Navier-Stokes equations for a Bingham fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscardin, Laetitia

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to develop one or more methods for the numerical resolution of equations of movement obtained for a Bingham fluid. The resolution of Navier-Stokes equations is processed by splitting elliptic and hyperbolic operators (Galerkin transport). In this purpose, the author first studied the Stokes problem, and then addressed issues of stability and consistency of the global scheme. The variational formulation of the Stokes problem can be expressed under the form of a minimisation problem under the constraint of non linear and non differentiable functions. Then, the author proposes a discretization of the Stokes problem based on a hybrid finite element method. Then he extends the demonstrations of stability and consistency of the Galerkin-transport scheme which have been established for a Newtonian fluid, to the case of a Bingham fluid. A relaxation algorithm and a Newton-GMRES algorithm are developed to solve the problem, and their convergence is studied. To ensure this convergence, some constraints must be verified. In order to do so, a specific speed element has been developed [fr

  9. Topological charge algebra of optical vortices in nonlinear interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, Alexandra A; Shutova, Mariia; Bahari, Aysan; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei V

    2015-12-28

    We investigate the transfer of orbital angular momentum among multiple beams involved in a coherent Raman interaction. We use a liquid crystal light modulator to shape pump and Stokes beams into optical vortices with various integer values of topological charge, and cross them in a Raman-active crystal to produce multiple Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands. We measure the resultant vortex charges using a tilted-lens technique. We verify that in every case the generated beams' topological charges obey a simple relationship, resulting from angular momentum conservation for created and annihilated photons, or equivalently, from phase-matching considerations for multiple interacting beams.

  10. High and ultra-high vacuum pumping techniques: applications in accelerators and storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, G.

    1988-01-01

    A survey is given on gas transfer pumps, especially Turbomolecular pumps, and entrapment pumps (cryopumps and getter pumps) mainly with regard to their application in evacuating particle accelerators and storage rings. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  11. Ultrashort-pulse-train pump and dump excitation of a diatomic molecule

    OpenAIRE

    de Araujo, LEE

    2010-01-01

    An excitation scheme is proposed for transferring population between ground-vibrational levels of a molecule. The transfer is accomplished by pumping and dumping population with a pair of coherent ultrashort-pulse trains via a stationary state. By mismatching the teeth of the frequency combs associated with the pulse trains to the vibrational levels, high selectivity in the excitation, along with high transfer efficiency, is predicted. The pump-dump scheme does not suffer from spontaneous emi...

  12. Rin4 Causes Hybrid Necrosis and Race-Specific Resistance in an Interspecific Lettuce Hybrid[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuken, Marieke J.W.; Zhang, Ningwen W.; McHale, Leah K.; Pelgrom, Koen; den Boer, Erik; Lindhout, Pim; Michelmore, Richard W.; Visser, Richard G.F.; Niks, Rients E.

    2009-01-01

    Some inter- and intraspecific crosses may result in reduced viability or sterility in the offspring, often due to genetic incompatibilities resulting from interactions between two or more loci. Hybrid necrosis is a postzygotic genetic incompatibility that is phenotypically manifested as necrotic lesions on the plant. We observed hybrid necrosis in interspecific lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Lactuca saligna) hybrids that correlated with resistance to downy mildew. Segregation analysis revealed a specific allelic combination at two interacting loci to be responsible. The allelic interaction had two consequences: (1) a quantitative temperature-dependent autoimmunity reaction leading to necrotic lesions, lethality, and quantitative resistance to an otherwise virulent race of Bremia lactucae; and (2) a qualitative temperature-independent race-specific resistance to an avirulent race of B. lactucae. We demonstrated by transient expression and silencing experiments that one of the two interacting genes was Rin4. In Arabidopsis thaliana, RIN4 is known to interact with multiple R gene products, and their interactions result in hypersensitive resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. Site-directed mutation studies on the necrosis-eliciting allele of Rin4 in lettuce showed that three residues were critical for hybrid necrosis. PMID:19855048

  13. Stokes line width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiskov, A.I.; Ritus, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of Stokes line width is introduced for the asymptotic expansions of functions near an essential singularity. Explicit expressions are found for functions (switching functions) that switch on the exponentially small terms for the Dawson integral, Airy function, and the gamma function. A different, more natural representation of a function, not associated with expansion in an asymptotic series, in the form of dominant and recessive terms is obtained by a special division of the contour integral which represents the function into contributions of higher and lower saddle points. This division leads to a narrower, natural Stokes line width and a switching function of an argument that depends on the topology of the lines of steepest descent from the saddle point

  14. The impacts of groundwater heat pumps on urban shallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... In order to assess the impacts of groundwater heat pumps on urban shallow groundwater ... thermal transfer systems that use the ground water as a ... Abbreviations: GWHPs, Groundwater heat pumps; GHGs, ... Areas (Mm2).

  15. Stokes Space in Direct-Detection Data Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Lu, Xiaofeng; Zibar, Darko

    2015-01-01

    Stokes-based processing permits complete and phase-insensitive characterization of the field’s SOP, readily unlocking polarization diversity in transmission systems where DD is desired. We present an overview on Stokes notions and most recent achievements in this context.......Stokes-based processing permits complete and phase-insensitive characterization of the field’s SOP, readily unlocking polarization diversity in transmission systems where DD is desired. We present an overview on Stokes notions and most recent achievements in this context....

  16. Performance optimization of grooved slippers for aero hydraulic pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation method based on 3-D Navier–Stokes equation and Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE method is presented to analyze the grooved slipper performance of piston pump. The moving domain of grooved slipper is transformed into a fixed reference domain by the ALE method, which makes it convenient to take the effects of rotate speed, body force, temperature, and oil viscosity into account. A geometric model to express the complex structure, which covers the orifice of piston and slipper, vented groove and the oil film, is constructed. Corresponding to different oil film thicknesses calculated in light of hydrostatic equilibrium theory and boundary conditions, a set of simulations is conducted in COMSOL to analyze the pump characteristics and effects of geometry (groove width and radius, orifice size on these characteristics. Furthermore, the mechanics and hydraulics analyses are employed to validate the CFD model, and there is an excellent agreement between simulation and analytical results. The simulation results show that the sealing land radius, orifice size and groove width all dramatically affect the slipper behavior, and an optimum tradeoff among these factors is conducive to optimizing the pump design.

  17. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-05-05

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms.

  18. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms

  19. A possible extension to the RInChI as a means of providing machine readable process data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Philipp-Maximilian; Lan, Tian; Goodman, Jonathan M; Lapkin, Alexei A

    2017-04-11

    The algorithmic, large-scale use and analysis of reaction databases such as Reaxys is currently hindered by the absence of widely adopted standards for publishing reaction data in machine readable formats. Crucial data such as yields of all products or stoichiometry are frequently not explicitly stated in the published papers and, hence, not reported in the database entry for those reactions, limiting their usefulness for algorithmic analysis. This paper presents a possible extension to the IUPAC RInChI standard via an auxiliary layer, termed ProcAuxInfo, which is a standardised, extensible form in which to report certain key reaction parameters such as declaration of all products and reactants as well as auxiliaries known in the reaction, reaction stoichiometry, amounts of substances used, conversion, yield and operating conditions. The standard is demonstrated via creation of the RInChI including the ProcAuxInfo layer based on three published reactions and demonstrates accurate data recoverability via reverse translation of the created strings. Implementation of this or another method of reporting process data by the publishing community would ensure that databases, such as Reaxys, would be able to abstract crucial data for big data analysis of their contents.

  20. Adiabatic quantum pumping and charge quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashcheyevs, V; Aharony, A.; Entin-Wohlmanl, O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text:Modern techniques for coherent manipulation of electrons at the nano scale (electrostatic gating, surface acoustic waves) allow for studies of the adiabatic quantum pumping effect - a directed current induced by a slowly varying external perturbation. Scattering theory of pumping predicts transfer of an almost integer number of electrons per cycle if instantaneous transmission is determined by a sequence of resonances. We show that this quantization can be explained in terms of loading/unloading quasi-bound virtual states, and derive a tool for analyzing quantized pumping induced by a general potential. This theory is applied to a simple model of pumping due to surface acoustic waves. The results reproduce all the qualitative features observed in actual experiments

  1. Unsteady Stokes equations: Some complete general solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    homogeneous unsteady Stokes equations are examined. A necessary and sufficient condition for a divergence-free vector to represent the velocity field of a possible unsteady Stokes flow in the absence of body forces is derived. Keywords. Complete ...

  2. Modeling the Performance of Water-Zeolite 13X Adsorption Heat Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalska Kinga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic performance of cylindrical double-tube adsorption heat pump is numerically analysed using a non-equilibrium model, which takes into account both heat and mass transfer processes. The model includes conservation equations for: heat transfer in heating/cooling fluids, heat transfer in the metal tube, and heat and mass transfer in the adsorbent. The mathematical model is numerically solved using the method of lines. Numerical simulations are performed for the system water-zeolite 13X, chosen as the working pair. The effect of the evaporator and condenser temperatures on the adsorption and desorption kinetics is examined. The results of the numerical investigation show that both of these parameters have a significant effect on the adsorption heat pump performance. Based on computer simulation results, the values of the coefficients of performance for heating and cooling are calculated. The results show that adsorption heat pumps have relatively low efficiency compared to other heat pumps. The value of the coefficient of performance for heating is higher than for cooling

  3. Navier-Stokes equations an introduction with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Łukaszewicz, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    This volume is devoted to the study of the Navier–Stokes equations, providing a comprehensive reference for a range of applications: from students to engineers and mathematicians involved in research on fluid mechanics, dynamical systems, and mathematical modeling. Equipped with only a basic knowledge of calculus, functional analysis, and partial differential equations, the reader is introduced to the concept and applications of the Navier–Stokes equations through a series of fully self-contained chapters. Including lively illustrations that complement and elucidate the text, and a collection of exercises at the end of each chapter, this book is an indispensable, accessible, classroom-tested tool for teaching and understanding the Navier–Stokes equations. Incompressible Navier–Stokes equations describe the dynamic motion (flow) of incompressible fluid, the unknowns being the velocity and pressure as functions of location (space) and time variables. A solution to these equations predicts the behavior o...

  4. Intrinsic uncoupling of mitochondrial proton pumps. 2. Modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrobon, D; Zoratti, M; Azzone, G F; Caplan, S R

    1986-02-25

    The thermodynamic and kinetic properties associated with intrinsic uncoupling in a six-state model of a redox proton pump have been studied by computing the flow-force relations for different degrees of coupling. Analysis of these relations shows the regulatory influence of the thermodynamic forces on the extent and relative contributions of redox slip and proton slip. Inhibition has been introduced into the model in two different ways, corresponding to possible modes of action of experimental inhibitors. Experiments relating the rate of electron transfer to delta microH at static head upon progressive inhibition of the pumps have been simulated considering (1) the limiting case that the nonzero rate of electron transfer at static head is only due to intrinsic uncoupling (no leaks) and (2) the experimentally observed case that about 30% of the nonzero rate of electron transfer at static head is due to a constant proton leakage conductance in parallel with the pumps, the rest being due to intrinsic uncoupling. The same simulations have been performed for experiments in which the rate of electron transfer is varied by varying the substrate concentration rather than by using an inhibitor. The corresponding experimental results obtained by measuring delta microH and the rate of electron transfer at different succinate concentrations in rat liver mitochondria are presented. Comparison between simulated behavior and experimental results leads to the general conclusion that the typical relationship between rate of electron transfer and delta microH found in mitochondria at static head could certainly be a manifestation of some degree of intrinsic uncoupling in the redox proton pumps.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Tritium evacuataion performance of a large oil-free reciprocating pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Yamada, M.; Konishi, S.

    1994-01-01

    In fusion reactors large dry vacuum and transfer pumps are needed for various applications such as backing and roughing for torus evacuation, gas transfer and processing in the fuel cycle, and facility vacuum for safety systems. There are some commercial use oil-free pumps, however, most of all these pumps have low pumping function for hydrogen gases and also at high discharge pressure. A large oil-free reciprocating pump has been developed for high tritium services at the Tritium Process Laboratory (TPL) in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). This pump is mainly composed four-stage compression vertical cylinders, a single acting piston with piston rings made by carbon polyimide composite and two buffer tanks. Each stage in the cylinder has 16 special check valves. The process line is isolated completely to crank-case oil by dynamic metal bellows. Design pumping speed is 54 m 3 /hr for hydrogen gas at 5 Torr of discharge pressures. After cold testing in TPL, this pump was shipped and installed in the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) loop of the Los Alamos National Laboratory under the US-Japan Collaboration program on fusion technology

  6. Effects of variable thermal conductivity on Stokes' flow of a thermoelectric fluid with fractional order of heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezzat, M.A.; El-Bary, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the constitutive relation for the heat flux vector is derived to be the Fourier's law of heat conduction with a variable thermal conductivity and time-fractional order. The Stokes' flow of unsteady incompressible thermoelectric fluid due to a moving plate in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is molded. Stokes' first problem is solved by applying Laplace transform with respect to time variable and evaluating the inverse transform integrals by using a numerical approach. Numerical results for the temperature and the velocity distributions are given and illustrated graphically for given problem. The results indicate that the thermal conductivity and time-fractional order play a major role in the temperature and velocity distributions. (authors)

  7. On the fluid-dynamical approximation to the Boltzmann equation at the level of the Navier-Stokes equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, S.; Matsumara, A.; Nishida, T.

    1979-01-01

    The compressible and heat-conductive Navier-Stokes equation obtained as the second approximation of the formal Chapman-Enskog expansion is investigated on its relations to the original nonlinear Boltzmann equation and also to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. The solutions of the Boltzmann equation and the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation for small initial data are proved to be asymptotically equivalent (mod decay rate tsup(-5/4)) as t → + infinitely to that of the compressible Navier-Stokes equation for the corresponding initial data. (orig.) 891 HJ/orig. 892 MKO

  8. Adrian Stokes and the portrait of Melanie Klein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Janet

    2015-08-01

    This paper focuses on the offer by the art writer Adrian Stokes to commission and pay for a portrait of the psychoanalyst Melanie Klein by the artist William Coldstream. It details some of the precursors of this offer in Stokes's preceding involvement first with Klein and then with Coldstream; her response to this offer; and its outcome and aftermath in Stokes's subsequent writing about Klein and Coldstream. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  9. On entanglement of light and Stokes parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Żukowski, Marek; Laskowski, Wiesław; Wieśniak, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    We present a new approach to Stokes parameters, which enables one to see better non-classical properties of bright quantum light, and of undefined overall photon numbers. The crucial difference is as follows. The standard quantum optical Stokes parameters are averages of differences of intensities of light registered at the two exits of polarization analyzers, and one gets their normalized version by dividing them by the average total intensity. The new ones are averages of the registered normalized Stokes parameters, for the duration of the experiment. That is, we redefine each Stokes observable as the difference of photon number operators at the two exits of a polarizing beam splitter multiplied by the inverse of their sum. The vacuum eigenvalue of the operator is defined a zero. We show that with such an approach one can obtain more sensitive entanglement indicators based on polarization measurements. (paper)

  10. On entanglement of light and Stokes parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żukowski, Marek; Laskowski, Wiesław; Wieśniak, Marcin

    2016-08-01

    We present a new approach to Stokes parameters, which enables one to see better non-classical properties of bright quantum light, and of undefined overall photon numbers. The crucial difference is as follows. The standard quantum optical Stokes parameters are averages of differences of intensities of light registered at the two exits of polarization analyzers, and one gets their normalized version by dividing them by the average total intensity. The new ones are averages of the registered normalized Stokes parameters, for the duration of the experiment. That is, we redefine each Stokes observable as the difference of photon number operators at the two exits of a polarizing beam splitter multiplied by the inverse of their sum. The vacuum eigenvalue of the operator is defined a zero. We show that with such an approach one can obtain more sensitive entanglement indicators based on polarization measurements.

  11. Dynamic simulation of periodic adsorption heat pumps. Dynamische Simulation periodischer Adsorptionswaermepumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foellinger, T.

    1989-01-01

    Periodic asorption heat pumps with water as working fluid and two types of zeolites as adsorption agents were studied theoretically by a dynamic simulation analysis in order to find out whether they are suited as high-temperature heat pumps for heat recovery. Variants with one and two pairs of containers were investigated. Internal heat transfer is possible between the containers of each pair, and shifting temperature and load profiles (zoned sorption) are generated inside the containers in order to raise the heat ratio (efficience). The heat ratios are clearly higher than in ammonia/water heat pumps of the same size. The external heat transfer is kept constant by means of control elements and buffer systems, so that the periodic heat pump can be integrated in a continuous process. A pilot plant was developed on the basis of the results, with particular interest taken in the design of the liquid/solid heat transfer media. (orig.) With 47 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Development and numerical analysis of low specific speed mixed-flow pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H F; Huo, Y W; Pan, Z B; Zhou, W C; He, M H

    2012-01-01

    With the development of the city, the market of the mixed flow pump with large flux and high head is prospect. The KSB Shanghai Pump Co., LTD decided to develop low speed specific speed mixed flow pump to meet the market requirements. Based on the centrifugal pump and axial flow pump model, aiming at the characteristics of large flux and high head, a new type of guide vane mixed flow pump was designed. The computational fluid dynamics method was adopted to analyze the internal flow of the new type model and predict its performances. The time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations were closed by SST k-ω turbulent model to adapt internal flow of guide vane with larger curvatures. The multi-reference frame(MRF) method was used to deal with the coupling of rotating impeller and static guide vane, and the SIMPLEC method was adopted to achieve the coupling solution of velocity and pressure. The computational results shows that there is great flow impact on the head of vanes at different working conditions, and there is great flow separation at the tailing of the guide vanes at different working conditions, and all will affect the performance of pump. Based on the computational results, optimizations were carried out to decrease the impact on the head of vanes and flow separation at the tailing of the guide vanes. The optimized model was simulated and its performance was predicted. The computational results show that the impact on the head of vanes and the separation at the tailing of the guide vanes disappeared. The high efficiency of the optimized pump is wide, and it fit the original design destination. The newly designed mixed flow pump is now in modeling and its experimental performance will be getting soon.

  13. Development and numerical analysis of low specific speed mixed-flow pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. F.; Huo, Y. W.; Pan, Z. B.; Zhou, W. C.; He, M. H.

    2012-11-01

    With the development of the city, the market of the mixed flow pump with large flux and high head is prospect. The KSB Shanghai Pump Co., LTD decided to develop low speed specific speed mixed flow pump to meet the market requirements. Based on the centrifugal pump and axial flow pump model, aiming at the characteristics of large flux and high head, a new type of guide vane mixed flow pump was designed. The computational fluid dynamics method was adopted to analyze the internal flow of the new type model and predict its performances. The time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations were closed by SST k-ω turbulent model to adapt internal flow of guide vane with larger curvatures. The multi-reference frame(MRF) method was used to deal with the coupling of rotating impeller and static guide vane, and the SIMPLEC method was adopted to achieve the coupling solution of velocity and pressure. The computational results shows that there is great flow impact on the head of vanes at different working conditions, and there is great flow separation at the tailing of the guide vanes at different working conditions, and all will affect the performance of pump. Based on the computational results, optimizations were carried out to decrease the impact on the head of vanes and flow separation at the tailing of the guide vanes. The optimized model was simulated and its performance was predicted. The computational results show that the impact on the head of vanes and the separation at the tailing of the guide vanes disappeared. The high efficiency of the optimized pump is wide, and it fit the original design destination. The newly designed mixed flow pump is now in modeling and its experimental performance will be getting soon.

  14. Ground source heat pump performance in case of high humidity soil and yearly balanced heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schibuola, Luigi; Tambani, Chiara; Zarrella, Angelo; Scarpa, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • GSHPs are simulated in case of humid soil and yearly balanced heat transfer. • Humid soil and yearly balanced heat transfer imply higher compactness of GSHPs. • Resulting GSHPs are compared with other traditional and innovative HVAC systems. • GSHPs score best, especially in case of inverter-driven compressors. - Abstract: Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are spreading also in Southern Europe, due to their high energy efficiency both in heating and in cooling mode. Moreover, they are particularly suitable in historical cities because of difficulties in the integration of heating/cooling systems into buildings subjected to historical preservation regulations. In these cases, GSHP systems, especially the ones provided with borehole heat exchangers, are a suitable solution instead of gas boilers, air-cooled chillers or cooling towers. In humid soils, GSHP systems are even more interesting because of their enhanced performance due to higher values of soil thermal conductivity and capacity. In this paper, GSHP systems operating under these boundary conditions are analyzed through a specific case study set in Venice and related to the restoration of an historical building. With this analysis the relevant influences of soil thermal conductivity and yearly balanced heat transfer in the design of the borehole field are shown. In particular, the paper shows the possibility to achieve higher compactness of the borehole field footprint area when yearly balanced heat transfer in the borehole field is expected. Then, the second set of results contained in the paper shows how GSHP systems designed for high humidity soils and yearly balanced heat loads at the ground side, even if characterized by a compact footprint area, may still ensure better performance than other available and more common technologies such as boilers, air-cooled chillers, chillers coupled with cooling towers and heat pumps and chillers coupled with lagoon water. As a consequence

  15. A high-resolution two-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectrum using a spectral amplitude modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Chenhui; Zhang, Shian; Wu, Meizhen; Jia, Tianqing; Sun, Zhenrong; Qiu, Jianrong

    2013-01-01

    Femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectra suffer from low spectral resolution because of the broadband laser spectrum. In this paper, we propose a feasible scheme to achieve a high-resolution two-pulse CARS spectrum by shaping both the pump and probe pulses using rectangular amplitude modulation. We show that a narrowband hole in the CARS spectrum can be created by the amplitude-shaped laser pulse, the position of which is correlated with the Raman resonant frequency of the molecule. Thus, by observing holes in the CARS spectrum, we are able to obtain a high-resolution CARS spectrum and the energy-level diagram of the molecule. (paper)

  16. Centrifugal Pump Monitoring and Determination of Pump Characteristic Curves Using Experimental and Analytical Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Stan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal pumps are widely used in the industry, especially in the oil and gas sector for fluids transport. Classically, these are designed to transfer single phase fluids (e.g., water at high flow rates and relatively low pressures when compared with other pump types. As part of their constructive feature, centrifugal pumps rely on seals to prevent air entrapment into the rotor during its normal operation. Although this is a constructive feature, water should pass through the pump inlet even when the inlet manifold is damaged. Modern pumps are integrated in pumping units which consist of a drive (normally electric motor, a transmission (when needed, an electronic package (for monitoring and control, and the pump itself. The unit also has intake and outlet manifolds equipped with valves. Modern systems also include electronic components to measure and monitor pump working parameters such as pressure, temperature, etc. Equipment monitoring devices (vibration sensors, microphones are installed on modern pumping units to help users evaluate the state of the machinery and detect deviations from the normal working condition. This paper addresses the influence of air-water two-phase mixture on the characteristic curve of a centrifugal pump; pump vibration in operation at various flow rates under these conditions; the possibilities of using the results of experimental investigations in the numerical simulations for design and training purposes, and the possibility of using vibration and sound analysis to detect changes in the equipment working condition. Conclusions show that vibration analysis provides accurate information about the pump’s functional state and the pumping process. Moreover, the acoustic emission also enables the evaluation of the pump status, but needs further improvements to better capture and isolate the usable sounds from the environment.

  17. Experimental studies of the influence of fuel properties and operational conditions on stoking when combusting fuels in a fixed-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Fabiana; Kolb, T.; Seifert, H.; Gehrmann, Hans-Joachim [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Technical Chemistry (ITC)

    2013-09-01

    Besides from knowledge about pollutant emission, knowledge of the combustion behavior of fuels plays a major role in the operation and optimization of combustion plants for waste and biomass. If the fuel is exchanged partly or completely in existing or newly designed grate-type combustion plants, adaptation of technical parameters is usually based on purely empirical studies. In the KLEAA fixed-bed reactor of KIT, Institute for Technical Chemistry (ITC), quantitative data on the combustion behavior can be determined from experimental investigations on the laboratory scale. Based on the characteristics obtained, the combustion behavior on a continuous grate can be estimated, This estimation is based on the assumption that no back mixing of the fuel occurs on the grate. Depending on the type of grate, however, stoking and back mixing play an important role. To improve the quality of the characteristics determined in KLEAA and enhance their transferability to the continuous process, it is necessary to determine the influence of fuel properties and operation conditions on stoking. Work is aimed at further developing the characteristics model taking into account a stoking factor describing the combustion behavior of a non-stoked fixed bed compared to a stoked fixed bed. The main task is to make a systematic study of the major parameters influencing stoking (e.g. stroke length, stroke frequency, geometry of the stoking unit, and fuel properties) in a fixed-bed reactor. The results shall be presented in the form of a semi-empirical equation. It is recommended to first study a model fuel, whose fuel properties are defined exactly and can be adjusted variably. Then, a stoking factor shall be derived from the studies. Possibly, a dimension analysis may be helpful. Finally, the results obtained are to be verified for residue-derived fuel. (orig.)

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic generator and pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birzvalk, Yu.A.; Karasev, B.G.; Lavrentyev, I.V.; Semikov, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    The MHD generator-pump system, or MHD coupling, is designed to pump liquid-metal coolant in the primary circuit of a fast reactor. It contains a number of generator and pump channels placed one after another and forming a single electrical circuit, but hydraulically connected parallel to the second and first circuits of the reactor. All the generator and pump channels are located in a magnetic field created by the magnetic system with an excitation winding that is fed by a regulated direct current. In 500 to 2000 MW reactors, the flow rate of the coolant in each loop of the primary circuit is 3 to 6 m 3 /s and the hydraulic power is 2 to 4 MW. This paper examines the primary characteristics of an MHD generator-pump system with various dimensions and number of channels, wall thicknesses, coolant flow rates, and magnetic fields. It is shown that its efficiency may reach 60 to 70%. The operating principle of the MHD generator-pump system is explained in the referenced patent and involves the transfer of hydraulic power from generator channels to pump channels using a magnetic field and electrical circuit common to both channels. Variations of this system may be analyzed using an equivalent circuit. 7 refs., 5 figs

  19. A liquid helium piston pump with a superconducting drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, C.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes a bellows pump where the driving force is achieved by an arrangement of three superconducting coils. The pump was designed for use in the supercritical helium flow circuit of the LCT-conductor test facility. The main advantage of the superconducting drive, compared to conventional pumps with external drive, is the compact design. Force transferring parts between 4.2 K and room temperature are not necessary. The pump was tested in a closed loop arrangement. The superconducting drive for a piston pump consists of a moving coil in a constant background field. Other coil configurations and the upscaling of the pump design are discussed

  20. A review of selected pumping systems in nature and engineering--potential biomimetic concepts for improving displacement pumps and pulsation damping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, D; Schmich, F; Masselter, T; Speck, T

    2015-09-03

    The active transport of fluids by pumps plays an essential role in engineering and biology. Due to increasing energy costs and environmental issues, topics like noise reduction, increase of efficiency and enhanced robustness are of high importance in the development of pumps in engineering. The study compares pumps in biology and engineering and assesses biomimetic potentials for improving man-made pumping systems. To this aim, examples of common challenges, applications and current biomimetic research for state-of-the art pumps are presented. The biomimetic research is helped by the similar configuration of many positive displacement pumping systems in biology and engineering. In contrast, the configuration and underlying pumping principles for fluid dynamic pumps (FDPs) differ to a greater extent in biology and engineering. However, progress has been made for positive displacement as well as for FDPs by developing biomimetic devices with artificial muscles and cilia that improve energetic efficiency and fail-safe operation or reduce noise. The circulatory system of vertebrates holds a high biomimetic potential for the damping of pressure pulsations, a common challenge in engineering. Damping of blood pressure pulsation results from a nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of the artery walls which represent a complex composite material. The transfer of the underlying functional principle could lead to an improvement of existing technical solutions and be used to develop novel biomimetic damping solutions. To enhance efficiency or thrust of man-made fluid transportation systems, research on jet propulsion in biology has shown that a pulsed jet can be tuned to either maximize thrust or efficiency. The underlying principle has already been transferred into biomimetic applications in open channel water systems. Overall there is a high potential to learn from nature in order to improve pumping systems for challenges like the reduction of pressure pulsations, increase of jet

  1. Nosocomial Mycobacterium bovis-bacille Calmette-Guérin infections due to contamination of chemotherapeutics: case finding and route of transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Margreet C.; de Haas, Petra E. W.; Verbrugh, Henri A.; Renders, Nicole H. M.; Hartwig, Nico G.; de Man, Peter; Kolk, Arend H. J.; van Deutekom, Henk; Yntema, J. L.; Vulto, Arnold G.; Messemaker, Marja; van Soolingen, Dick

    2003-01-01

    We studied nosocomial infections due to Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Onco-TICE bacteria, transmitted by contamination of medication prepared in BCG Onco-TICE-contaminated hoods in the pharmacy, in 5 immunocompromised patients at 3 hospitals. The BCG strains cultured from the

  2. 78 FR 64182 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    .... 130104009-3416-02] RIN 0648-XC921 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota... Jersey is transferring a portion of its 2013 commercial bluefish quota to the State of New York. By this... Management Specialist, 978-281-9224. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulations governing the bluefish fishery...

  3. 77 FR 76424 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    .... 120201086-2418-02] RIN 0648-XC394 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota... Florida is transferring a portion of its 2012 commercial bluefish quota to the State of New York. By this... Management Specialist, 978-281-9224. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulations governing the bluefish fishery...

  4. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  5. Development of liquid nitrogen Centrifugal Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, M; Sagiyama, R; Tsuchiya, H; Takayama, T; Torii, Y; Nakamura, M; Hoshino, Y; Odashima, Y

    2009-01-01

    Usually liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ) transfer from a container to a laboratory equipment takes place by applying pressure to the container to push out liquid or pouring liquid into the cryostat directly by lifting the container. In order to overcome inconvenience of pressuring or lifting containers, we have been developing the Liquid Nitrogen Centrifugal Pump of a small electric turbine pump. Significant advantages that both reducing time to fill LN 2 and controlling the flow rate of liquid into the cryostat are obtained by introducing this pump. We have achieved the lift of about 800mm with the vessel's opening diameter of 28mm.

  6. Statistics in a Trilinear Interacting Stokes-Antistokes Boson System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tänzler, W.; Schütte, F.-J.

    The statistics of a system of four boson modes is treated with simultaneous Stokes-Antistokes interaction taking place. The time evolution is calculated in full quantum manner but in short time approximation. Mean photon numbers and correlations of second order are calculated. Antibunching can be found in the laser mode and in the system of Stokes and Antistokes mode.Translated AbstractStatistik in einem trilinear wechselwirkenden Stokes-Antistokes-BosonensystemDie Statistik eines Systems von vier Bosonenmoden mit gleichzeitiger Stokes-Antistokes-Wechselwirkung wird bei vollquantenphysikalischer Beschreibung in Kurzzeitnäherung untersucht. Mittlere Photonenzahlen und Korrelationen zweiter Ordnung werden berechnet. Dabei wird Antibunching sowohl in der Lasermode allein als auch im System aus Stokes- und Antistokesmode gefunden.

  7. Heat Pumps With Direct Expansion Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Sadasuke

    In this paper, the studies of heat pump systems using solar collectors as the evaporators, which have been done so far by reserchers, are reviwed. Usually, a solar collector without any cover is preferable to one with ac over because of the necessity of absorbing heat from the ambient air when the intensity of the solar energy on the collector is not enough. The performance of the collector depends on its area and the intensity of the convective heat transfer on the surface. Fins are fixed on the backside of the collector-surface or on the tube in which the refrigerant flows in order to increase the convective heat transfer. For the purpose of using a heat pump efficiently throughout year, a compressor with variable capacity is applied. The solar assisted heat pump can be used for air conditioning at night during the summer. Only a few groups of people have studied cooling by using solar assisted heat pump systems. In Japan, a kind of system for hot water supply has been produced commercially in a company and a kind of system for air conditioning has been installed in buildings commercially by another company.

  8. Algorithm to determine electrical submersible pump performance considering temperature changes for viscous crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valderrama, A. [Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A., Distrito Socialista Tecnologico (Venezuela); Valencia, F. [Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A., Instituto de Tecnologia Venezolana para el Petroleo (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, electrical submersible pumps (ESPs) are used to transfer energy to fluids through stages made up of one impeller and one diffuser. Since liquid temperature increases through the different stages, viscosity might change between the inlet and outlet of the pump, thus affecting performance. The aim of this research was to create an algorithm to determine ESPs' performance curves considering temperature changes through the stages. A computational algorithm was developed and then compared with data collected in a laboratory with a CG2900 ESP. Results confirmed that when the fluid's viscosity is affected by the temperature changes, the stages of multistage pump systems do not have the same performance. Thus the developed algorithm could help production engineers to take viscosity changes into account and optimize the ESP design. This study developed an algorithm to take into account the fluid viscosity changes through pump stages.

  9. 78 FR 54399 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    .... 130104009-3416-02] RIN 0648-XC815 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota... North Carolina is transferring a portion of its 2013 commercial bluefish quota to the Commonwealth of... governing the bluefish fishery are found at 50 CFR part 648. The regulations require annual specification of...

  10. NORTH PORTAL-HOT WATER CIRCULATION PUMP CALCULATION-SHOP BUILDING NO.5006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstone, R.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis and calculation is to size a circulating pump for the service hot water system in the Shop Building 5006, in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and U.S. Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2). The method used for the calculation is based on Reference 5.2. This consists of determining the total heat transfer from the service hot water system piping to the surrounding environment. The heat transfer is then used to define the total pumping capacity based on a given temperature change in the circulating hot water as it flows through the closed loop piping system. The total pumping capacity is used to select a pump model from manufacturer's literature. This established the head generation for that capacity and particular pump model. The total length of all hot water supply and return piping including fittings is then estimated from the plumbing drawings which defines the pipe friction losses that must fit within the available pump head. Several iterations may be required before a pump can be selected that satisfies the head-capacity requirements

  11. LD-pumped actively Q-switched c-cut Nd:GdVO4 self-Raman laser operating at 1166 and 1176 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinzhi; Zhang, Xihe; Li, Shutao; Dong, Yuan

    2017-12-01

    A laser diode pumped actively Q-switched c-cut Nd:GdVO4 self-Raman laser is experimentally investigated. Simultaneous pulse outputs at 1166 nm and 1176 nm corresponding to the Raman shifts of 807 and 882 cm-1 are acquired. At the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 20 kHz, the maximum output power is 103 mW at 1166 nm with the incident pump power of 2.31 W, while 1176 nm output power reaches 530 mW with the incident pump power of 4.11 W. The maximum output power of Raman laser is 570 mW with the incident pump power of 4.11 W and the PRF of 30 kHz. With the incident pump power of 3.67 W and the PRF of 30 kHz, the highest diode-to-Stokes optical conversion efficiency of 14.9% is obtained with the corresponding average output power of 547 mW.

  12. Solar pumped laser technology options for space power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of long-range options for in-space laser power transmission is presented. The focus is on the new technology and research status of solar-pumped lasers and their solar concentration needs. The laser options include gas photodissociation lasers, optically-pumped solid-state lasers, and blackbody-pumped transfer lasers. The paper concludes with a summary of current research thrusts.

  13. Heat transfer in an evaporation-condensation system in simulated weightlessness conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bologa, M. K.; Grosu, F. P.; Kozhevnikov, I. V.; Motorin, O. V.; Polikarpov, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The process of heat transfer in an evaporation-condensation system (ECS) at circulation of dielectric liquid in a closed thermoelectrohydrodynamic (TEHD) loop consisting of an evaporator, a condenser and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) pump for pumping of heat carrier, is considered. Previously, the authors studied the dependence of heat transfer on the angle of rotation of TEHD loop in a vertical plane. The report contains the results of studies of heat transfer at electrohydrodynamic pumping of the heat carrier (8% solution of acetone in Freon 113) in the condenser area by means of EHD pump of “cone-cone” type. All elements of the ECS are arranged in a horizontal plane and the heat transfer from the heater to the condenser without EHD pumping is impossible. A pulsating heat carrier flow mode, depending on the heat input and the voltage applied to the pump, takes place at EHD pumping. As the input power is decreasing the frequency of the coolant pulsations as well as the departure diameter and number of vapour bubbles are also decreasing. At some critical heat input the pulsations disappear and the transition from turbulent mode to the laminar one takes place causing the decrease of the heat transfer coefficient. The increase of the pumping flow rate by raising the voltage applied to the EHD pump, results in a partial suppression of boiling. The maximum intensification of heat transfer is reached at pulsation frequency of 1.25 Hz. The maximum heat flow from the heater was 4.2·104 W/m2. Graphical representation and the physical interpretation of the results, which reflect the essence of the process, are given.

  14. Pulsatile fluidic pump demonstration and predictive model application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.G.; Holland, W.D.

    1986-04-01

    Pulsatile fluidic pumps were developed as a remotely controlled method of transferring or mixing feed solutions. A test in the Integrated Equipment Test facility demonstrated the performance of a critically safe geometry pump suitable for use in a 0.1-ton/d heavy metal (HM) fuel reprocessing plant. A predictive model was developed to calculate output flows under a wide range of external system conditions. Predictive and experimental flow rates are compared for both submerged and unsubmerged fluidic pump cases

  15. Improvements relating to electromagnetic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, D.F.

    1975-01-01

    Reference is made to electromagnetic pumps suitable for use in pumping molten Na, and particularly to annular linear induction pumps that may for example be used to pump molten Na at temperatures up to 650 0 in situations where it is not possible to provide cooling. Previous designs of such pumps have employed disk-shaped coils around the outside of the annulus, the coils being energised from a three-phase power supply to produce a travelling radial field. The pump system described obviates the necessity for joints between the coils. It also allows the use of all types of high temperature insultation, simplified manufacture, and enables the windings to be located on the inside of the annulus. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  16. Pump/heat exchanger assembly for pool-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathenson, R.D.; Slepian, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a heat exchanger and pump assembly for transferring thermal energy from a heated, first electrically conductive fluid to a pumped, second electrically conductive fluid and for transferring internal energy from the pumped, second electrically conductive fluid to the first electrically conductive fluid, the assembly adapted to be disposed within a pool of the first electrically conductive fluid and comprising: a heat exchanger comprising means for defining a first annularly shaped cavity for receiving a flow of the second electrically conductive fluid and a plurality of tubes disposed within the cavity, whereby the second electrically conductive fluid in the cavity is heated, each of the tubes having an input and an output end. The input ends being disposed at the top of the heat exchanger for receiving from the pool a flow of the first electrically conductive fluid therein. The output ends being disposed at the bottom of and free of the cavity defining means for discharging the first electrically conductive fluid directly into the pool; a pump disposed beneath the heat exchanger and comprised of a plurality of flow couplers disposed in a circular array, each flow coupler comprised of a pump duct for receiving the first electrically conductive fluid and a generator duct for receiving the second electrically conductive fluid

  17. 75 FR 82295 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    .... 100204079-0199-02] RIN 0648-XA084 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery... the Commonwealth of Virginia is transferring commercial bluefish quota to the State of North Carolina... INFORMATION: Regulations governing the Atlantic bluefish fishery are found at 50 CFR part 648. The regulations...

  18. Compact, Lightweight Electromagnetic Pump for Liquid Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Palzin, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    A proposed direct-current electromagnetic pump for circulating a molten alkali metal alloy would be smaller and lighter and would demand less input power, relative to currently available pumps of this type. (Molten alkali metals are used as heat-transfer fluids in high-temperature stages of some nuclear reactors.) The principle of operation of this or any such pump involves exploitation of the electrical conductivity of the molten metal: An electric current is made to pass through the liquid metal along an axis perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the flow channel, and a magnetic field perpendicular to both the longitudinal axis and the electric current is superimposed on the flowchannel region containing the electric current. The interaction between the electric current and the magnetic field produces the pumping force along the longitudinal axis. The advantages of the proposed pump over other such pumps would accrue from design features that address overlapping thermal and magnetic issues.

  19. Use of ultrafast dispersed pump-dump-probe and pump-repump-probe spectroscopies to explore the light-induced dynamics of peridinin in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannakis, Emmanouil; Vengris, Mikas; Larsen, Delmar S; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; Hiller, Roger G; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2006-01-12

    Optical pump-induced dynamics of the highly asymmetric carotenoid peridinin in methanol was studied by dispersed pump-probe, pump-dump-probe, and pump-repump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy in the visible region. Dispersed pump-probe measurements show that the decay of the initially excited S2 state populates two excited states, the S1 and the intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) state, at a ratio determined by the excitation wavelength. The ensuing spectral evolution occurs on the time scale of a few picoseconds and suggests the equilibration of these states. Dumping the stimulated emission of the ICT state with an additional 800-nm pulse after 400- and 530-nm excitation preferentially removes the ICT state contribution from the broad excited-state absorption, allowing for its spectral characterization. At the same time, an unrelaxed ground-state species, which has a subpicosecond lifetime, is populated. The application of the 800-nm pulse at early times, when the S2 state is still populated, led to direct generation of the peridinin cation, observed for the first time in a transient absorption experiment. The excited and ground electronic states manifold of peridinin has been reconstructed using target analysis; this approach combined with the measured multipulse spectroscopic data allows us to estimate the spectra and time scales of the corresponding transient states.

  20. Numerical prediction and performance experiment in a deep-well centrifugal pump with different impeller outlet width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weidong; Zhou, Ling; Lu, Weigang; Pei, Bing; Lang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    The existing research of the deep-well centrifugal pump mainly focuses on reduce the manufacturing cost and improve the pump performance, and how to combine above two aspects together is the most difficult and important topic. In this study, the performances of the deep-well centrifugal pump with four different impeller outlet widths are studied by the numerical, theoretical and experimental methods in this paper. Two stages deep-well centrifugal pump equipped with different impellers are simulated employing the commercial CFD software to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for three-dimensional incompressible steady flow. The sensitivity analyses of the grid size and turbulence model have been performed to improve numerical accuracy. The flow field distributions are acquired and compared under the design operating conditions, including the static pressure, turbulence kinetic energy and velocity. The prototype is manufactured and tested to certify the numerical predicted performance. The numerical results of pump performance are higher than the test results, but their change trends have an acceptable agreement with each other. The performance results indicted that the oversize impeller outlet width leads to poor pump performances and increasing shaft power. Changing the performance of deep-well centrifugal pump by alter impeller outlet width is practicable and convenient, which is worth popularizing in the engineering application. The proposed research enhances the theoretical basis of pump design to improve the performance and reduce the manufacturing cost of deep-well centrifugal pump.

  1. Irreversible absorption heat-pump and its optimal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lingen; Qin Xiaoyong; Sun Fengrui; Wu Chih

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of an endoreversible absorption heat-pump cycle, a generalized irreversible four-heat-reservoir absorption heat-pump cycle model is established by taking account of the heat resistances, heat leak and irreversibilities due to the internal dissipation of the working substance. The heat transfer between the heat reservoir and the working substance is assumed to obey the linear (Newtonian) heat-transfer law, and the overall heat-transfer surface area of the four heat-exchangers is assumed to be constant. The fundamental optimal relations between the coefficient of performance (COP) and the heating-load, the maximum COP and the corresponding heating-load, the maximum heating load and the corresponding COP, as well as the optimal temperatures of the working substance and the optimal heat-transfer surface areas of the four heat-exchangers are derived by using finite-time thermodynamics. Moreover, the effects of the cycle parameters on the characteristics of the cycle are studied by numerical examples

  2. Approximate Stokes Drift Profiles and their use in Ocean Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Oyvind; Bidlot, Jea-Raymond; Janssen, Peter A. E. M.; Mogensen, Kristian

    2016-04-01

    Deep-water approximations to the Stokes drift velocity profile are explored as alternatives to the monochromatic profile. The alternative profiles investigated rely on the same two quantities required for the monochromatic profile, viz the Stokes transport and the surface Stokes drift velocity. Comparisons against parametric spectra and profiles under wave spectra from the ERA-Interim reanalysis and buoy observations reveal much better agreement than the monochromatic profile even for complex sea states. That the profiles give a closer match and a more correct shear has implications for ocean circulation models since the Coriolis-Stokes force depends on the magnitude and direction of the Stokes drift profile and Langmuir turbulence parameterizations depend sensitively on the shear of the profile. Of the two Stokes drift profiles explored here, the profile based on the Phillips spectrum is by far the best. In particular, the shear near the surface is almost identical to that influenced by the f-5 tail of spectral wave models. The NEMO general circulation ocean model was recently extended to incorporate the Stokes-Coriolis force along with two other wave-related effects. The ECWMF coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean ensemble forecast system now includes these wave effects in the ocean model component (NEMO).

  3. Magnetic-flux pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Elleman, D. D.; Whitmore, F. C. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    A magnetic flux pump is described for increasing the intensity of a magnetic field by transferring flux from one location to the magnetic field. The device includes a pair of communicating cavities formed in a block of superconducting material, and a piston for displacing the trapped magnetic flux into the secondary cavity producing a field having an intense flux density.

  4. LOX/LH2 vane pump for auxiliary propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminger, J. A.; Ulbricht, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    Positive displacement pumps offer potential efficiency advantages over centrifugal pumps for future low thrust space missions. Low flow rate applications, such as space station auxiliary propulsion or dedicated low thrust orbiter transfer vehicles, are typical of missions where low flow and high head rise challenge centrifugal pumps. The positive displacement vane pump for pumping of LOX and LH2 is investigated. This effort has included: (1) a testing program in which pump performance was investigated for differing pump clearances and for differing pump materials while pumping LN2, LOX, and LH2; and (2) an analysis effort, in which a comprehensive pump performance analysis computer code was developed and exercised. An overview of the theoretical framework of the performance analysis computer code is presented, along with a summary of analysis results. Experimental results are presented for pump operating in liquid nitrogen. Included are data on the effects on pump performance of pump clearance, speed, and pressure rise. Pump suction performance is also presented.

  5. LD pumped Nd: YLF amplification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Xingwu; Li Mingzhong; Luo Yiming; Sui Zhan; Ding Lei; Liang Yue; Zhao Runchang; Chen Lianming

    2003-01-01

    A Ring-LD-pumped Nd: YLF laser amplifier system is theoretically and experimentally discussed. A structure of off-axes double passes amplifier is used. The results of experiment shown that 109 mJ output energy with a net gain of 1115 is obtained under 150 μJ input energy; a compact side-pumped structure is used to obtain a high transferring efficiency of LD array, 1.01 J output energy is achieved at 1053 nm. (authors)

  6. 77 FR 58969 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    .... 120201086-2418-02] RIN 0648-XC235 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota... North Carolina is transferring a portion of its 2012 commercial bluefish quota to the State of New... governing the bluefish fishery are found at 50 CFR part 648. The regulations require annual specification of...

  7. Analyticity estimates for the Navier-Stokes equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, I.; Skibsted, Erik

    We study spatial analyticity properties of solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation and obtain new growth rate estimates for the analyticity radius. We also study stability properties of strong global solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation with data in and prove a stability result...

  8. Transition from fractional to classical Stokes-Einstein behaviour in simple fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coglitore, Diego; Edwardson, Stuart P; Macko, Peter; Patterson, Eann A; Whelan, Maurice

    2017-12-01

    An optical technique for tracking single particles has been used to evaluate the particle diameter at which diffusion transitions from molecular behaviour described by the fractional Stokes-Einstein relationship to particle behaviour described by the classical Stokes-Einstein relationship. The results confirm a prior prediction from molecular dynamic simulations that there is a particle size at which transition occurs and show it is inversely dependent on concentration and viscosity but independent of particle density. For concentrations in the range 5 × 10 -3 to 5 × 10 -6  mg ml -1 and viscosities from 0.8 to 150 mPa s, the transition was found to occur in the diameter range 150-300 nm.

  9. Pump failure leads to alternative vertical pump condition monitoring technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVilliers, Adriaan; Glandon, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Condition monitoring and detecting early signs of potential failure mechanisms present particular problems in vertical pumps. Most often, the majority of the pump assembly is not readily accessible for visual or audible inspection or conventional vibration monitoring techniques using accelerometers and/or proximity sensors. The root cause failure analysis of a 2-stage vertical centrifugal service-water pump at a nuclear power generating facility in the USA is presented, highlighting this long standing challenge in condition monitoring of vertical pumps. This paper will summarize the major findings of the root cause analysis (RCA), highlight the limitations of traditional monitoring techniques, and present an expanded application of motor current monitoring as a means to gain insight into the mechanical performance and condition of a pump. The 'real-world' example of failure, monitoring and correlation of the monitoring technique to a detailed pump disassembly inspection is also presented. This paper will explain some of the reasons behind well known design principles requiring natural frequency separation from known forcing frequencies, as well as explore an unexpected submerged brittle fracture failure mechanism, and how such issues may be avoided. (author)

  10. Boundary Shape Control of the Navier-Stokes Equations and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaitai LI; Jian SU; Aixiang HUANG

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,the geometrical design for the blade's surface(s)in an impeller or for the profile of an aircraft,is modeled from the mathematical point of view by a boundary shape control problem for the Navier-Stokes equations.The objective function is the sum of a global dissipative function and the power of the fluid.The control variables are the geometry of the boundary and the state equations are the Navier-Stokes equations.The Euler-Lagrange equations of the optimal control problem are derived,which are an elliptic boundary value system of fourth order,coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations.The authors also prove the existence of the solution of the optimal control problem,the existence of the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations with mixed boundary conditions,the weak continuity of the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations with respect to the geometry shape of the blade's surface and the existence of solutions of the equations for the G(a)teaux derivative of the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations with respect to the geometry of the boundary.

  11. Strong plasma shock structures based on the Navier--Stokes equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.

    1975-01-01

    The structure of a plasma collisional shock wave is examined on the basis of the Navier--Stokes equations and simultaneously on the basis of the Fokker--Planck equation. The resultant structures are compared to check the validity of the Navier--Stokes equations applied to the structures of strong shock waves. The Navier--Stokes equations give quite correct structures for weak shock waves. For the strong shock waves, the detailed structures obtained from the Navier--Stokes equations differ from the results of the Fokker--Planck equation, but the shock thicknesses of the two shock waves are in relatively close agreement

  12. 3D Topology optimization of Stokes flow problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Allan; Dammann, Bernd

    of energy efficient devices for 2D Stokes flow. Creeping flow problems are described by the Stokes equations which model very viscous fluids at macro scales or ordinary fluids at very small scales. The latter gives the motivation for topology optimization problems based on the Stokes equations being a model......The present talk is concerned with the application of topology optimization to creeping flow problems in 3D. This research is driven by the fact that topology optimization has proven very successful as a tool in academic and industrial design problems. Success stories are reported from such diverse...

  13. Femtosecond Pump-Push-Probe and Pump-Dump-Probe Spectroscopy of Conjugated Polymers: New Insight and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Tak W

    2014-09-18

    Conjugated polymers are an important class of soft materials that exhibit a wide range of applications. The excited states of conjugated polymers, often referred to as excitons, can either deactivate to yield the ground state or dissociate in the presence of an electron acceptor to form charge carriers. These interesting properties give rise to their luminescence and the photovoltaic effect. Femtosecond spectroscopy is a crucial tool for studying conjugated polymers. Recently, more elaborate experimental configurations utilizing three optical pulses, namely, pump-push-probe and pump-dump-probe, have been employed to investigate the properties of excitons and charge-transfer states of conjugated polymers. These studies have revealed new insight into femtosecond torsional relaxation and detrapping of bound charge pairs of conjugated polymers. This Perspective highlights (1) the recent achievements by several research groups in using pump-push-probe and pump-dump-probe spectroscopy to study conjugated polymers and (2) future opportunities and potential challenges of these techniques.

  14. Selective pumping in a network: insect-style microscale flow transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboelkassem, Yasser; Staples, Anne E

    2013-01-01

    A new paradigm for selective pumping of fluids in a complex network of channels in the microscale flow regime is presented. The model is inspired by internal flow distributions produced by the rhythmic wall contractions observed in many insect tracheal networks. The approach presented here is a natural extension of previous two-dimensional modeling of insect-inspired microscale flow transport in a single channel, and aims to manipulate fluids efficiently in microscale networks without the use of any mechanical valves. This selective pumping approach enables fluids to be transported, controlled and precisely directed into a specific branch in a network while avoiding other possible routes. In order to present a quantitative analysis of the selective pumping approach presented here, the velocity and pressure fields and the time-averaged net flow that are induced by prescribed wall contractions are calculated numerically using the method of fundamental solutions. More specifically, the Stokeslets-meshfree method is used in this study to solve the Stokes equations that govern the flow motions in a network with moving wall contractions. The results presented here might help in understanding some features of the insect respiratory system function and guide efforts to fabricate novel microfluidic devices for flow transport and mixing, and targeted drug delivery applications. (paper)

  15. Finite elements volumes methods: applications to the Navier-Stokes equations and convergence results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emonot, P.

    1992-01-01

    In the first chapter are described the equations modeling incompressible fluid flow and a quick presentation of finite volumes method. The second chapter is an introduction to the finite elements volumes method. The box model is described and a method adapted to Navier-Stokes problems is proposed. The third chapter shows a fault analysis of the finite elements volumes method for the Laplacian problem and some examples in one, two, three dimensional calculations. The fourth chapter is an extension of the error analysis of the method for the Navier-Stokes problem

  16. Numerical simulation and design optimization of an electrohydrodynamic pump for dielectric liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, D.V.; Suh, Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: • We firstly demonstrated that optimized set of parameters exists in the design of an electrohydrodynamic(EHD) pump. • We applied recently developed techniques of optimization to the EHD pump composed of a pair of flat plates and one circular cylinder. • Our work serves as driving knowledge for the research area on EHD pumping. - Abstract: With an ever increasing demand for more effective heat sinks, liquid based electronic cooling has become a new prospect in the field. The present study introduces an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) pump with a simple design for dielectric liquids which have potential applications for electronic cooling. The pump consists of an eccentrically sandwiched wire electrode placed at the horizontal centerline between two parallel flat-plate electrodes. The EHD flow of dielectric liquid induced by the space charge generated due to the Onsager effect was obtained by the numerical solution of the Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations for ion transport and the Navier–Stokes equations for fluid flow. Good agreement obtained in the comparison of the numerical and the experimental results of velocity for the centrally sandwiched wire electrode case confirmed the validity of the numerical results. For a fixed voltage, the pump flow rate depends on the eccentricity of the wire electrode with respect to the plate electrodes and also with the electrode dimensions. By using the Taguchi method an optimum design for the EHD pump is obtained considering the wire electrode diameter, the flat plate electrode length and the eccentricity (the horizontal distance between the centers of wire and flat-plate electrodes) as the design parameters for fixed channel dimensions.

  17. Expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.M.; Humenik, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    An expert system for determining the operability of a specified pump is described comprising: a set of pumps of which the specified pump is a member; means for measuring physical parameters representative to the operations condition each pump of said set of pumps; means for acquiring data generated by said measuring means; an artificial-intelligence based inference engine coupled to said data acquiring means where said inference engine applies a sequential probability ratio test to statistically evaluate said acquired data to determine a status for the specified pump and its respective measuring means by continually monitoring and comparing changes in a specific operational parameter signal acquired from a plurality of measurement means; means for transferring said status generated by said interference engine to an output system

  18. Low birth weight infants and Calmette-Guérin bacillus vaccination at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Jensen, Henrik; Garly, May-Lill

    2004-01-01

    In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW) children are often not vaccinated with Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG) at birth. Recent studies have suggested that BCG may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant mortality. We evaluated the consequences of not vaccinating LBW children at birth...

  19. A review of magnetic heat pump technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The area of technology classified as heat pumps generally refers to refrigerators, heat pumps and heat engines. This review is restricted to the literature on magnetic refrigerators and magnetic heat pumps which are referred to interchangeably. Significant progress has been made on the development of engineering prototypes of cryogenic, nonregenerative magnetic refrigerators utilizing conductive heat transfer in the 0.1 K to 20 K temperature range. Advances have also been made in analysis of regenerative magnetic refrigerators and heat pumps utilizing the active magnetic regeneration (AMR) concept. Units based on AMR are being modeled, designed and/or built to operate in various temperature ranges including 1.8-4.5 K, 4-15 K, 15-85 K, and 270-320 K. The near room temperature units have been scaled to 50 kW as both refrigerators and heat pumps. The progress of magnetic refrigeration over the last three years is summarized and discussed

  20. Turbine Internal and Film Cooling Modeling For 3D Navier-Stokes Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Kenneth; Garg Vijay; Ameri, Ali

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research project is to make use of NASA Glenn on-site computational facilities in order to develop, validate and apply aerodynamic, heat transfer, and turbine cooling models for use in advanced 3D Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes such as the Glenn-" code. Specific areas of effort include: Application of the Glenn-HT code to specific configurations made available under Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC), and Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) projects. Validating the use of a multi-block code for the time accurate computation of the detailed flow and heat transfer of cooled turbine airfoils. The goal of the current research is to improve the predictive ability of the Glenn-HT code. This will enable one to design more efficient turbine components for both aviation and power generation. The models will be tested against specific configurations provided by NASA Glenn.

  1. Tip loss correction for actuator / Navier Stokes computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2004-01-01

    The new tip loss correction, initially developed for ID BEM computations [1], is now extended to 2D Actuator Disc / Navier-Stokes (AD/NS) computations and 3D Actuator Line / Navier-Stokes (AL/NS) computations. As shown in the paper, the tip loss correction is an important and necessary step...

  2. The Classical Version of Stokes' Theorem Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2005-01-01

    Using only fairly simple and elementary considerations - essentially from first year undergraduate mathematics - we prove that the classical Stokes' theorem for any given surface and vector field in $\\mathbb{R}^{3}$ follows from an application of Gauss' divergence theorem to a suitable modification...... of the vector field in a tubular shell around the given surface. The intuitive appeal of the divergence theorem is thus applied to bootstrap a corresponding intuition for Stokes' theorem. The two stated classical theorems are (like the fundamental theorem of calculus) nothing but shadows of the general version...... to above. Our proof that Stokes' theorem follows from Gauss' divergence theorem goes via a well known and often used exercise, which simply relates the concepts of divergence and curl on the local differential level. The rest of the paper uses only integration in $1$, $2$, and $3$ variables together...

  3. Synthesis and inversion of Stokes spectral profiles. Thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of Stokes spectral profiles enable the magnetic fields on the Sun's surface to be determined. Inversion is the process whereby the profiles are reduced to magnetic field vectors. One of the most robust, accurate and rapid methods available for inversion uses the least-squares fitting of analytical Stokes profiles. As this technique is suitable for the automated reduction of large sets of data, it has been adopted for use with the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter, presently under development. The limitations of inversion by analytical profile fitting have not been firmly established. Confident analysis of magnet field vectors depends upon the precise interpretation of reduced data. In this work, a framework is introduced which allows such an assessment to be made. The magnetofluid-static sunspot models presented here provide a self-consistent range of physical conditions similar to those in sunspots. Inversion can then be carried out on Stokes profiles synthesized from these known realistic conditions. The capabilities of an inversion technique can be evaluated by comparison between the models and the deduced values

  4. Some issues related to polarized radiative transfer in a multilayer medium with a changing index of refraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R D M

    2012-01-01

    A couple of issues raised in a recent work on Fresnel boundary and interface conditions for polarized radiative transfer are discussed. The first issue concerns a normalization that has to be performed on the transmission matrix relating the transmitted and incident Stokes vectors at a smooth interface between different materials. It was found that the normalization step is not performed in a correct way in many existing works and so the effects of the two most frequent discrepancies encountered in these works are evaluated for a simple model of an atmosphere-water system. The second issue has to do with a choice of the sign of the parallel component of the amplitude coefficient of reflection R l when constructing the reflection matrix that relates the reflected and incident Stokes vectors at a smooth interface. A computational approach based on the limit to the case with constant index of refraction is used to determine the appropriate sign of R l for polarized radiative transfer calculations in multilayers with different indices of refraction.

  5. Nonlinear performances of dual-pump amplifiers in silicon waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Fan; Yu Chong-Xiu; Deng Yun-Yi; Yuan Jin-Hui

    2012-01-01

    The performances of a dual-pump parametric and Raman amplification process and the wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides are investigated. By setting the Raman contribution fraction f to be 0.043 in our analytical model, the amplification gain of the probe signal can be obtained to be over 10 dB. The pump transfer noise (PTN), the quantum noise (QN), and the total noise figure (TNF) are discussed, and the TNF has a constant value of about 4 dB in the gain bandwidth. An idler signal generated during the parametric amplification (PA) process can be used to realize the wavelength conversion in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems. In addition, the pump signal parameters, the generated free carrier lifetime and effective mode area (EMA) of the waveguide are analysed for the optimization of signal gain and noise characteristics. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  6. Energy Performance and Pressure Fluctuation of a Multiphase Pump with Different Gas Volume Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Large petroleum resources in deep sea, and huge market demands for petroleum need advanced petroleum extraction technology. The multiphase pump, which can simultaneously transport oil and gas with considerable efficiency, has been a crucial technology in petroleum extraction. A numerical approach with mesh generation and a Navier-Stokes equation solution is employed to evaluate the effects of gas volume fraction on energy performance and pressure fluctuations of a multiphase pump. Good agreement of experimental and calculation results indicates that the numerical approach can accurately simulate the multiphase flow in pumps. The pressure rise of a pump decreases with the increasing of flow rate, and the pump efficiency decreases with the increasing of GVF (the ratio of the gas volume to the whole volume. Results show that the dominant frequencies of pressure fluctuation in the impeller and diffuser are eleven and three times those of the impeller rotational frequency, respectively. Due to the larger density of water and centrifugal forces, the water aggregates to the shroud and the gas gathers to the hub, which renders the distribution of GVF in the pump uneven. A vortex develops at the blade suction side, near the leading edge, induced by the leakage flow, and further affects the pressure fluctuation in the impeller. The obvious vortex in the diffuser indicates that the design of the divergence angle of the diffuser is not optimal, which induces flow separation due to large diffusion ratio. A uniform flow pattern in the impeller indicates good hydraulic performance of the pump.

  7. Solutions of Navier-Stokes Equation with Coriolis Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunggeun Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the Navier-Stokes equation in the presence of Coriolis force in this article. First, the vortex equation with the Coriolis effect is discussed. It turns out that the vorticity can be generated due to a rotation coming from the Coriolis effect, Ω. In both steady state and two-dimensional flow, the vorticity vector ω gets shifted by the amount of -2Ω. Second, we consider the specific expression of the velocity vector of the Navier-Stokes equation in two dimensions. For the two-dimensional potential flow v→=∇→ϕ, the equation satisfied by ϕ is independent of Ω. The remaining Navier-Stokes equation reduces to the nonlinear partial differential equations with respect to the velocity and the corresponding exact solution is obtained. Finally, the steady convective diffusion equation is considered for the concentration c and can be solved with the help of Navier-Stokes equation for two-dimensional potential flow. The convective diffusion equation can be solved in three dimensions with a simple choice of c.

  8. The incompressible non-relativistic Navier-Stokes equation from gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; Minwalla, Shiraz; Wadia, Spenta R.

    2009-01-01

    We note that the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics reduce to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in a particular scaling limit. In this limit boundary metric fluctuations of the underlying relativistic system turn into a forcing function identical to the action of a background electromagnetic field on the effectively charged fluid. We demonstrate that special conformal symmetries of the parent relativistic theory descend to 'accelerated boost' symmetries of the Navier-Stokes equations, uncovering a conformal symmetry structure of these equations. Applying our scaling limit to holographically induced fluid dynamics, we find gravity dual descriptions of an arbitrary solution of the forced non-relativistic incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. In the holographic context we also find a simple forced steady state shear solution to the Navier-Stokes equations, and demonstrate that this solution turns unstable at high enough Reynolds numbers, indicating a possible eventual transition to turbulence.

  9. Abnormal anti-Stokes Raman emission as a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering-like process in disordered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltog, Ioan; Baibarac, Mihaela; Smaranda, Ion; Lefrant, Serge

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that, by continuous single beam excitation, one can generate an abnormal anti-Stokes Raman emission (AASRE) whose properties are similar to a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). The effect has been observed in materials which possess intrinsically nonlinear properties (LiNbO 3 and CdS), which have the electric susceptibility of third order different from zero, χ (3) ≠ 0, as well as in materials that become nonlinear under resonant optical excitation. In the latter case, we used poly-3,4-ethylendioxythiophene (PEDOT) in its undoped state deposited electrochemically on Au support. Raman studies corroborated with images of optical microscopy demonstrate that the production of AASRE is conditioned by the existence of a particular morphology of the sample able to ensure efficient transport of the light inside the sample through a multiple light scattering mechanism. In this context, it was found that LiNbO 3 and CdS in powder form as well as the PEDOT films layered on a rough Au substrate are suitable morphological forms. We explain AASRE as resulting from a wave-mixing mechanism of the incident laser light ω l with a Stokes-shifted Raman light ω S produced by a spontaneous Raman light scattering process, both strongly scattered inside the sample. As a CARS process, AASRE is conditioned by the achievement of phase-matching requirements, which makes the difference between the wave vectors of mixing light close to zero, Δk =/2k l - k S - k CARS /∼ 0. In condensed media, the small dispersion of the refractive index makes Δk ∼ 0 so that the formation of a favourable phase-matching geometry may be accomplished even at a crossing angle θ of travelling scattered light ω l and ω S . For tightly focused beams, the requirement of phase matching relaxes; it is no longer sensitive to the Raman shift, so that a wide intense anti-Stokes Raman spectrum is observed at an angle larger than the Stokes Raman spectrum.

  10. Statistics of the Navier–Stokes-alpha-beta regularization model for fluid turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, Denis F; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Fried, Eliot

    2014-01-01

    We explore one-point and two-point statistics of the Navier–Stokes-αβ regularization model at moderate Reynolds number (Re ≈ 200) in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The results are compared to the limit cases of the Navier–Stokes-α model and the Navier–Stokes-αβ model without subgrid-scale stress, as well as with high-resolution direct numerical simulation. After reviewing spectra of different energy norms of the Navier–Stokes-αβ model, the Navier–Stokes-α model, and Navier–Stokes-αβ model without subgrid-scale stress, we present probability density functions and normalized probability density functions of the filtered and unfiltered velocity increments along with longitudinal velocity structure functions of the regularization models and direct numerical simulation results. We highlight differences in the statistical properties of the unfiltered and filtered velocity fields entering the governing equations of the Navier–Stokes-α and Navier–Stokes-αβ models and discuss the usability of both velocity fields for realistic flow predictions. The influence of the modified viscous term in the Navier–Stokes-αβ model is studied through comparison to the case where the underlying subgrid-scale stress tensor is neglected. Whereas, the filtered velocity field is found to have physically more viable probability density functions and structure functions for the approximation of direct numerical simulation results, the unfiltered velocity field is found to have flatness factors close to direct numerical simulation results. (paper)

  11. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marina sewage pump-out... OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.403 Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks. All pump... purposes of inspection; (i) Spill-proof features adequate for transfer of sewage from all movable floating...

  12. Incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Theory and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjesdal, T.

    1996-12-31

    This paper contains notes from a seminar presented at the Dept. of Mathematics in the University of Bergen, Norway, Oct. 1996. It first introduces the theory of existence and uniqueness of solutions to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation and defines a well-posed initial-boundary value problem. It then discusses different methods for solving numerically the Navier-Stokes equations in velocity-pressure formulation. The emphasis is on pressure correction methods. 19 refs.

  13. Heat pumps in western Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freymond, A.

    2003-01-01

    The past ten years have seen an extraordinary expansion of heat-pump market figures in the western (French speaking) part of Switzerland. Today, more than 14,000 units are in operation. This corresponds to about 18% of all the machines installed in the whole country, compared to only 10 to 12% ten years ago. This success illustrates the considerable know-how accumulated by the leading trade and industry during these years. It is also due to the promotional program 'Energy 2000' of the Swiss Federal Department of Energy that included the heat pump as a renewable energy source. Already in 1986, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne was equipped with a huge heat pump system comprising two electrically driven heat pumps of 3.5 MW thermal power each. The heat source is water drawn from the lake of Geneva at a depth of 70 meters. An annual coefficient of performance of 4.5 has been obtained since the commissioning of the plant. However, most heat pump installations are located in single-family dwellings. The preferred heat source is geothermal heat, using borehole heat exchangers and an intermediate heat transfer fluid. The average coefficient of performance of these installations has been increased from 2.5 in 1995 to 3.1 in 2002

  14. Arachidonic acid and lipoxinA4 attenuate streptozotocin-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5 F cells in vitro and type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundala, Naveen K V; Naidu, Vegi G M; Das, Undurti N

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to observe whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can protect rat insulinoma (RIN5 F) cells against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced apoptosis in vitro and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 DM (T2DM) in vivo and if so, what would be the mechanism of this action. RIN5 F cells were used for the in vitro study, whereas the in vivo study was performed in Wistar rats. STZ was used to induce apoptosis of RIN5 F cells in vitro and T1- and T2DM in vivo. The effect of PUFAs: γ-linolenic acid (GLA), arachidonic acid (AA) of ω-6 series, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) of ω-3 series; cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors and antiinflammatory metabolite of AA and DHA, lipoxin A4 (LXA4), and resolvin D2 and protectin, respectively against STZ-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5 F cells in vitro and LXA4 against T1- and T2DM in vivo was studied. Changes in the antioxidant content, lipid peroxides, nitric oxide, and expression of PDX1, P65, nuclear factor-κb (NF-κb), and IKB genes in STZ-treated RIN5 F cells in vitro and Nrf2, GLUT2, COX2, iNOS protein levels in the pancreatic tissue of T1- and T2DM and LPCLN2 (lipocalin 2), NF-κb, IKB I in adipose tissue of T2DM after LXA4 treatment were studied. Plasma glucose, insulin, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels also were measured in STZ-induced T1- and T2DM Wistar rats. Among all PUFAs tested, AA and EPA are the most effective against STZ-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5 F cells in vitro. Neither COX nor LOX inhibitors blocked the cytoprotective action of AA in vitro and T1- and T2DM by STZ. LXA4 production by RIN5 F cells in vitro and plasma LXA4 levels in STZ-induced T1- and T2DM animals were decreased by STZ that reverted to normal after AA treatment. AA prevented both T1- and T2DM induced by STZ. Antiinflammatory metabolite of AA and LXA4 prevented both T1- and T2DM induced by STZ. The expression of Pdx1, NF-κb, IKB genes in the

  15. DOUBLE SHELL TANK EMERGENCY PUMPING GUIDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REBERGER, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    This document provides preplanning necessary to expeditiously remove any waste that may leak from the primary tank to the secondary tank for Hanford's 28 DSTs. The strategy is described, applicable emergency procedures are referenced, and transfer routes and pumping equipment for each tank are identified

  16. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  17. An analytical method for defining the pump`s power optimum of a water-to-water heat pump heating system using COP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyers Jozsef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the energy efficiency of the heat pump and the complete heat pump heating system. Essentially, the maximum of the coefficient of performance of the heat pump and the heat pump heating system are investigated and determined by applying a new analytical optimization procedure. The analyzed physical system consists of the water-to-water heat pump, circulation and well pump. In the analytical optimization procedure the "first derivative equal to zero" mathematical method is applied. The objective function is the coefficient of performance of the heat pump, and the heat pump heating system. By using the analytical optimization procedure and the objective function, as the result, the local and the total energy optimum conditions with respect to the mass flow rate of hot and cold water i. e. the power of circulation or well pump are defined.

  18. Pump spot size dependent lasing threshold in organic semiconductor DFB lasers fabricated via nanograting transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Klinkhammer, Sönke; Wang, Ziyao; Wienhold, Tobias; Vannahme, Christoph; Jakobs, Peter-Jürgen; Bacher, Andreas; Muslija, Alban; Mappes, Timo; Lemmer, Uli

    2013-11-18

    Optically excited organic semiconductor distributed feedback (DFB) lasers enable efficient lasing in the visible spectrum. Here, we report on the rapid and parallel fabrication of DFB lasers via transferring a nanograting structure from a flexible mold onto an unstructured film of the organic gain material. This geometrically well-defined structure allows for a systematic investigation of the laser threshold behavior. The laser thresholds for these devices show a strong dependence on the pump spot diameter. This experimental finding is in good qualitative agreement with calculations based on coupled-wave theory. With further investigations on various DFB laser geometries prepared by different routes and based on different organic gain materials, we found that these findings are quite general. This is important for the comparison of threshold values of various devices characterized under different excitation areas.

  19. Pump spot size dependent lasing threshold in organic semiconductor DFB lasers fabricated via nanograting transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xin; Klinkhammer, Sönke; Wang, Ziyao

    2013-01-01

    material. This geometrically well-defined structure allows for a systematic investigation of the laser threshold behavior. The laser thresholds for these devices show a strong dependence on the pump spot diameter. This experimental finding is in good qualitative agreement with calculations based on coupled......Optically excited organic semiconductor distributed feedback (DFB) lasers enable efficient lasing in the visible spectrum. Here, we report on the rapid and parallel fabrication of DFB lasers via transferring a nanograting structure from a flexible mold onto an unstructured film of the organic gain......-wave theory. With further investigations on various DFB laser geometries prepared by different routes and based on different organic gain materials, we found that these findings are quite general. This is important for the comparison of threshold values of various devices characterized under different...

  20. Polarization speckles and generalized Stokes vector wave: a review [invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeda, Mitsuo; Wang, Wei; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2010-01-01

    We review some of the statistical properties of polarization-related speckle phenomena, with an introduction of a less known concept of polarization speckles and their spatial degree of polarization. As a useful means to characterize twopoint vector field correlations, we review the generalized...... Stokes parameters proposed by Korotkova and Wolf, and introduce its time-domain representation to describe the space-time evolution of the correlation between random electric vector fields at two different space-time points. This time-domain generalized Stokes vector, with components similar to those...... of the beam coherence polarization matrix proposed by Gori, is shown to obey the wave equation in exact analogy to a coherence function of scalar fields. Because of this wave nature, the time-domain generalized Stokes vector is referred to as generalized Stokes vector wave in this paper....

  1. Solid-state laser pumping with a planar compound parabolic concentrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteli, D V; Pani, B M; Beli, L Z

    1997-10-20

    A novel solid-state laser-pumping scheme is proposed that combines a reflective lamp chamber and a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) as a light guide. The CPC is made of a transparent material of high refractive index, and light is guided by the total internal reflection, with drastically reduced reflection losses. Material is chosen so that the absorption losses are minimized in the pumping wavelength range. The lamp chamber is designed with the principles of nonimaging optics, which ensures that the radiation is efficiently transferred from the lamp to the input aperture of the CPC. The pumping efficiency was first estimated theoretically, which gave us enough justification for the more accurate calculations with ray tracing. Single as well as multiple pumping cavities are discussed. New pumping geometry results in significantly increased pumping efficiency compared with conventional geometries. Also the lamp and the laser rod are separated, leading to reduced thermal load. We found that the proposed pumping method is also applicable to diode-pumped lasers.

  2. Wavefront sensing with all-digital Stokes measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2014-09-25

    Full Text Available to wavefront sensing [8] based on Stokes polarimetry which makes use of the amplitude and phase relationship between orthogonal states of polarization. With our approach a field of interest is generated by encoding an appropriate hologram on a spatial light... modulator (SLM). Since SLMs are diffraction-inefficient, we can exploit the amplitude relationship between the orthogonal polarization states allowing the execution of Stokes polarimetry of the co-linear superposition of the reference beam and the beam...

  3. The Stokes-Einstein relation at moderate Schmidt number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboa Usabiaga, Florencio; Xie, Xiaoyi; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Donev, Aleksandar

    2013-12-07

    The Stokes-Einstein relation for the self-diffusion coefficient of a spherical particle suspended in an incompressible fluid is an asymptotic result in the limit of large Schmidt number, that is, when momentum diffuses much faster than the particle. When the Schmidt number is moderate, which happens in most particle methods for hydrodynamics, deviations from the Stokes-Einstein prediction are expected. We study these corrections computationally using a recently developed minimally resolved method for coupling particles to an incompressible fluctuating fluid in both two and three dimensions. We find that for moderate Schmidt numbers the diffusion coefficient is reduced relative to the Stokes-Einstein prediction by an amount inversely proportional to the Schmidt number in both two and three dimensions. We find, however, that the Einstein formula is obeyed at all Schmidt numbers, consistent with linear response theory. The mismatch arises because thermal fluctuations affect the drag coefficient for a particle due to the nonlinear nature of the fluid-particle coupling. The numerical data are in good agreement with an approximate self-consistent theory, which can be used to estimate finite-Schmidt number corrections in a variety of methods. Our results indicate that the corrections to the Stokes-Einstein formula come primarily from the fact that the particle itself diffuses together with the momentum. Our study separates effects coming from corrections to no-slip hydrodynamics from those of finite separation of time scales, allowing for a better understanding of widely observed deviations from the Stokes-Einstein prediction in particle methods such as molecular dynamics.

  4. Compliance of the Stokes-Einstein model and breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein-Debye model for a urea-based supramolecular polymer of high viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świergiel, Jolanta; Bouteiller, Laurent; Jadżyn, Jan

    2014-11-14

    Impedance spectroscopy was used for the study of the static and dynamic behavior of the electrical conductivity of a hydrogen-bonded supramolecular polymer of high viscosity. The experimental data are discussed in the frame of the Stokes-Einstein and Stokes-Einstein-Debye models. It was found that the translational movement of the ions is due to normal Brownian diffusion, which was revealed by a fulfillment of Ohm's law by the electric current and a strictly exponential decay of the current after removing the electric stimulus. The dependence of the dc conductivity on the viscosity of the medium fulfills the Stokes-Einstein model quite well. An extension of the model, by including in it the conductivity relaxation time, is proposed in this paper. A breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein-Debye model is revealed by the relations of the dipolar relaxation time to the viscosity and to the dc ionic conductivity. The importance of the C=O···H-N hydrogen bonds in that breakdown is discussed.

  5. Inviscid limit of stochastic damped 2D Navier–Stokes equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessaih, Hakima; Ferrario, Benedetta

    2014-01-01

    We consider the inviscid limit of the stochastic damped 2D Navier–Stokes equations. We prove that, when the viscosity vanishes, the stationary solution of the stochastic damped Navier–Stokes equations converges to a stationary solution of the stochastic damped Euler equation and that the rate of dissipation of enstrophy converges to zero. In particular, this limit obeys an enstrophy balance. The rates are computed with respect to a limit measure of the unique invariant measure of the stochastic damped Navier–Stokes equations. (paper)

  6. Optimal distribution of integration time for intensity measurements in Stokes polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobo; Liu, Tiegen; Huang, Bingjing; Song, Zhanjie; Hu, Haofeng

    2015-10-19

    We consider the typical Stokes polarimetry system, which performs four intensity measurements to estimate a Stokes vector. We show that if the total integration time of intensity measurements is fixed, the variance of the Stokes vector estimator depends on the distribution of the integration time at four intensity measurements. Therefore, by optimizing the distribution of integration time, the variance of the Stokes vector estimator can be decreased. In this paper, we obtain the closed-form solution of the optimal distribution of integration time by employing Lagrange multiplier method. According to the theoretical analysis and real-world experiment, it is shown that the total variance of the Stokes vector estimator can be significantly decreased about 40% in the case discussed in this paper. The method proposed in this paper can effectively decrease the measurement variance and thus statistically improves the measurement accuracy of the polarimetric system.

  7. Crystallographic Structure of Xanthorhodopsin, the Light-Driven Proton Pump With a Dual Chromophore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecke, H.; Schobert, B.; Stagno, J.; Imasheva, E.S.; Wang, J.M.; Balashov, S.P.; Lanyi, J.K

    2008-01-01

    Homologous to bacteriorhodopsin and even more to proteorhodopsin, xanthorhodopsin is a light-driven proton pump that, in addition to retinal, contains a noncovalently bound carotenoid with a function of a light-harvesting antenna. We determined the structure of this eubacterial membrane protein-carotenoid complex by X-ray diffraction, to 1.9-(angstrom) resolution. Although it contains 7 transmembrane helices like bacteriorhodopsin and archaerhodopsin, the structure of xanthorhodopsin is considerably different from the 2 archaeal proteins. The crystallographic model for this rhodopsin introduces structural motifs for proton transfer during the reaction cycle, particularly for proton release, that are dramatically different from those in other retinal-based transmembrane pumps. Further, it contains a histidine-aspartate complex for regulating the pK a of the primary proton acceptor not present in archaeal pumps but apparently conserved in eubacterial pumps. In addition to aiding elucidation of a more general proton transfer mechanism for light-driven energy transducers, the structure defines also the geometry of the carotenoid and the retinal. The close approach of the 2 polyenes at their ring ends explains why the efficiency of the excited-state energy transfer is as high as ∼45%, and the 46 o angle between them suggests that the chromophore location is a compromise between optimal capture of light of all polarization angles and excited-state energy transfer

  8. The pineapple AcMADS1 promoter confers high level expression in tomato and arabidopsis flowering and fruiting tissues, but AcMADS1 does not complement the tomato LeMADS-RIN (rin) mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A previous EST study identified a MADS box transcription factor coding sequence, AcMADS1, that is strongly induced during non-climacteric pineapple fruit ripening. Phylogenetic analyses place the AcMADS1 protein in the same superclade as LeMADS-RIN, a master regulator of fruit ripening upstream of e...

  9. Exergy costs analysis of groundwater use and water transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasquer, Beatriz; Uche, Javier; Martínez-Gracia, Amaya

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology to estimate the unit exergy cost of water supply alternatives is provided. • Two alternatives (water transfers and groundwaters) are defined. • The unit exergy costs are given as a function of design and operating parameters. • Unit exergy cost of groundwaters go from 1.01 to 2.67 and from 1 to 4.06 in water transfers. • Unit exergy costs are calculated and contrasted for the medium course of the Ebro. - Abstract: In the search for new alternatives to meet the water demands, it is interesting to analyze the cost of using alternatives different from those such as desalination and pumping. The exergy cost analysis can be a useful tool to estimate costs of those alternatives as a function of its energy efficiency and its relative abundance with respect to existing resources in their surroundings. This study proposes a methodology for assessing the costs of groundwaters and water transfers from surplus basins within the exergy perspective. An equation to assess the exergy costs of these alternatives is proposed. System boundaries are first identified to the assessment of input and output currents to the system in exergy values for the design and certain operating conditions. Next, an equation to assess water supply costs depending on design and operational parameters is proposed, from the analysis of different examples. Pumping efficiency, altitude gap and flow among other features are introduced in the calculations as those characteristics parameters. In the developed examples, unit exergy costs of groundwaters go from 1.01 to 2.67, and from 1 to 4.06 in case of water transfers. Maximum values, as expected within this perspective, are found at high pumped/transferred flows and high pumping levels and/or low pumping efficiency if pumping is required.

  10. An introduction to the mathematical theory of the Navier-Stokes equations

    CERN Document Server

    Galdi, Giovanni P

    1994-01-01

    Undoubtedly, the Navier-Stokes equations are of basic importance within the context of modern theory of partial differential equations. Although the range of their applicability to concrete problems has now been clearly recognised to be limited, as my dear friend and bright colleague K.R. Ra­ jagopal has showed me by several examples during the past six years, the mathematical questions that remain open are of such a fascinating and challenging nature that analysts and applied mathematicians cannot help being attracted by them and trying to contribute to their resolution. Thus, it is not a coincidence that over the past ten years more than seventy sig­ nificant research papers have appeared concerning the well-posedness of boundary and initial-boundary value problems. In this monograph I shall perform a systematic and up-to-date investiga­ tion of the fundamental properties of the Navier-Stokes equations, including existence, uniqueness, and regularity of solutions and, whenever the region of flow is unbou...

  11. Two-Step Multi-Physics Analysis of an Annular Linear Induction Pump for Fission Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Steven M.; Reid, Terry V.

    2016-01-01

    One of the key technologies associated with fission power systems (FPS) is the annular linear induction pump (ALIP). ALIPs are used to circulate liquid-metal fluid for transporting thermal energy from the nuclear reactor to the power conversion device. ALIPs designed and built to date for FPS project applications have not performed up to expectations. A unique, two-step approach was taken toward the multi-physics examination of an ALIP using ANSYS Maxwell 3D and Fluent. This multi-physics approach was developed so that engineers could investigate design variations that might improve pump performance. Of interest was to determine if simple geometric modifications could be made to the ALIP components with the goal of increasing the Lorentz forces acting on the liquid-metal fluid, which in turn would increase pumping capacity. The multi-physics model first calculates the Lorentz forces acting on the liquid metal fluid in the ALIP annulus. These forces are then used in a computational fluid dynamics simulation as (a) internal boundary conditions and (b) source functions in the momentum equations within the Navier-Stokes equations. The end result of the two-step analysis is a predicted pump pressure rise that can be compared with experimental data.

  12. Intrinsic coincident full-Stokes polarimeter using stacked organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruonan; Sen, Pratik; O'Connor, B T; Kudenov, M W

    2017-02-20

    An intrinsic coincident full-Stokes polarimeter is demonstrated by using strain-aligned polymer-based organic photovoltaics (OPVs) that can preferentially absorb certain polarized states of incident light. The photovoltaic-based polarimeter is capable of measuring four Stokes parameters by cascading four semitransparent OPVs in series along the same optical axis. This in-line polarimeter concept potentially ensures high temporal and spatial resolution with higher radiometric efficiency as compared to the existing polarimeter architecture. Two wave plates were incorporated into the system to modulate the S3 Stokes parameter so as to reduce the condition number of the measurement matrix and maximize the measured signal-to-noise ratio. Radiometric calibration was carried out to determine the measurement matrix. The polarimeter presented in this paper demonstrated an average RMS error of 0.84% for reconstructed Stokes vectors after normalized to S0. A theoretical analysis of the minimum condition number of the four-cell OPV design showed that for individually optimized OPV cells, a condition number of 2.4 is possible.

  13. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.

    2016-05-17

    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  14. Free convection effects and radiative heat transfer in MHD Stokes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... radiative heat transfer is useful for predicting the heat feedback to the burning surface ... petroleum technology, to study the movement of natural gas, oil and water ... (e.g. sea water, rain water, and sewage) past an impulsively started infinite ...

  15. Does the U.S. biofuels mandate increase the price at the pump?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotin, Stephen R.

    The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) as amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 created a federal mandate for blending conventional biofuels like corn-based ethanol and advanced biofuels like biodiesel and renewable gasoline into the United States transportation fuel supply. The RFS established yearly blending standards for the obligated parties--refiners and importers of petroleum products--that increase progressively until reaching a high of 36 billion gallons by 2022. Each ethanol-equivalent gallon of biofuel blended is assigned a unique Renewable Identification Number (RIN) through the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Moderated Transaction System (EMTS). At year's close, obligated parties must submit their allotted RIN obligations to the EPA to demonstrate compliance. In the case of under-compliance or over-compliance, RINs can be traded between obligated parties freely through the EMTS or carried over for use in the next year. It follows, then, that a RIN carries a market value reflective of the cost of complying with RFS regulations. Indeed, most biofuels cost more than their fossil-based equivalents. When the price of a corn ethanol RIN went from 2-3 cents each in 2012 to nearly $1.50 in July of 2013 due to a perceived shortage in corn ethanol RINs, obligated parties faced the prospect of multimillion-dollar compliance cost increases. Arguing that RFS makes fuel significantly more expensive for consumers, petroleum companies have begun to advocate for the full repeal of the RFS, winning over some allies in Congress. The future of this program is uncertain. In an attempt to quantify the concerns of RFS critics, this thesis estimated the effect that RIN prices have on the wholesale cost of diesel fuel. Using daily price data from January 2011 through August of 2013 on RINs and crude oil, I specified twelve OLS regression models that predict the passthrough of the diesel RIN price to wholesale diesel price. My statistical analysis

  16. Optimal control of compressible Navier-Stokes equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, K.; Ravindran, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    Optimal control for the viscous incompressible flows, which are governed by incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, has been the subject of extensive study in recent years, see, e.g., [AT], [GHS], [IR], and [S]. In this paper we consider the optimal control of compressible isentropic Navier-Stokes equations. We develop the weak variational formulation and discuss the existence and necessary optimality condition characterizing the optimal control. A numerical method based on the mixed-finite element method is also discussed to compute the control and numerical results are presented

  17. Measurement of the Stokes parameters of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.G.; Gabrielse, G.; Livingston, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    We describe a measuring system for determing the state of polarization of a beam of light in terms of its Stokes parameters. The technique which can be fully automated incorporates a monochromator and single photon counting detection and can thus be applied over a large wavelength range for very weak optical signals. Fourier transformation of the data by an on-line minicomputer allows immediate calculation of the Stokes parameters. We discuss special applications to light emitted from excited atomic systems with and without cylindrical symmetry

  18. Superluminescence from an optically pumped molecular tunneling junction by injection of plasmon induced hot electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Braun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Here, we demonstrate a bias-driven superluminescent point light-source based on an optically pumped molecular junction (gold substrate/self-assembled molecular monolayer/gold tip of a scanning tunneling microscope, operating at ambient conditions and providing almost three orders of magnitude higher electron-to-photon conversion efficiency than electroluminescence induced by inelastic tunneling without optical pumping. A positive, steadily increasing bias voltage induces a step-like rise of the Stokes shifted optical signal emitted from the junction. This emission is strongly attenuated by reversing the applied bias voltage. At high bias voltage, the emission intensity depends non-linearly on the optical pump power. The enhanced emission can be modelled by rate equations taking into account hole injection from the tip (anode into the highest occupied orbital of the closest substrate-bound molecule (lower level and radiative recombination with an electron from above the Fermi level (upper level, hence feeding photons back by stimulated emission resonant with the gap mode. The system reflects many essential features of a superluminescent light emitting diode.

  19. Rapid spectro-polarimetry to probe molecular symmetry in multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würthwein, Thomas; Brinkmann, Maximilian; Hellwig, Tim; Fallnich, Carsten

    2017-11-21

    We present the simultaneous detection of the spectrum and the complete polarization state of a multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signal with a fast division-of-amplitude spectro-polarimeter. The spectro-polarimeter is based on a commercial imaging spectrograph, a birefringent wedge prism, and a segmented polarizer. Compared to the standard rotating-retarder fixed-analyzer spectro-polarimeter, only a single measurement is required and an up to 21-fold reduced acquisition time is shown. The measured Stokes parameters allow us to differentiate between vibrational symmetries and to determine the depolarization ratio ρ by data post-processing.

  20. Carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer through vibronic coupling in LH2 from Phaeosprillum molischianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyrhaug, Erling; Lincoln, Craig N; Branchi, Federico; Cerullo, Giulio; Perlík, Václav; Šanda, František; Lokstein, Heiko; Hauer, Jürgen

    2018-03-01

    The peripheral light-harvesting antenna complex (LH2) of purple photosynthetic bacteria is an ideal testing ground for models of structure-function relationships due to its well-determined molecular structure and ultrafast energy deactivation. It has been the target for numerous studies in both theory and ultrafast spectroscopy; nevertheless, certain aspects of the convoluted relaxation network of LH2 lack a satisfactory explanation by conventional theories. For example, the initial carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer step necessary on visible light excitation was long considered to follow the Förster mechanism, even though transfer times as short as 40 femtoseconds (fs) have been observed. Such transfer times are hard to accommodate by Förster theory, as the moderate coupling strengths found in LH2 suggest much slower transfer within this framework. In this study, we investigate LH2 from Phaeospirillum (Ph.) molischianum in two types of transient absorption experiments-with narrowband pump and white-light probe resulting in 100 fs time resolution, and with degenerate broadband 10 fs pump and probe pulses. With regard to the split Q x band in this system, we show that vibronically mediated transfer explains both the ultrafast carotenoid-to-B850 transfer, and the almost complete lack of transfer to B800. These results are beyond Förster theory, which predicts an almost equal partition between the two channels.

  1. Implications of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory for plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, David

    1977-01-01

    A brief discussion of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory is given with particular reference to the two dimensional case. The MHD turbulence is introduced with possible applications of techniques developed in Navier-Stokes theory. Turbulence in Vlasov plasma is also discussed from the point of view of the ''direct interaction approximation'' (DIA). (A.K.)

  2. Stokes vector based interpolation method to improve the efficiency of bio-inspired polarization-difference imaging in turbid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jinge; Ren, Wei; Cheng, Yaoyu

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate an efficient polarization-difference imaging system in turbid conditions by using the Stokes vector of light. The interaction of scattered light with the polarizer is analyzed by the Stokes-Mueller formalism. An interpolation method is proposed to replace the mechanical rotation of the polarization axis of the analyzer theoretically, and its performance is verified by the experiment at different turbidity levels. We show that compared with direct imaging, the Stokes vector based imaging method can effectively reduce the effect of light scattering and enhance the image contrast.

  3. Energy efficient ammonia heat pump. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, Claus; Pijnenburg, B.; Schumann Grindorf, H. [Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark); Christensen, Rolf [Alfa Laval, Lund (Sweden); Rasmussen, Bjarne D. [Grundfos, Bjerringbro (Denmark); Gram, S.; Fredborg Jakobsen, D. [Svedan Industri Koeleanlaeg, Greve (Denmark)

    2013-09-15

    The report describes the development of a highly effective ammonia heat pump. Heat pumps play an increasingly important role in the search for more effective use of energy in our society. Highly efficient heat pumps can contribute to reduced energy consumption and improved economy of the systems which they are a part of. An ammonia heat pump with high pressure reciprocating compressor and a novel split condenser was developed to prove potential for efficiency optimization. The split of the condenser in two parts can be utilized to obtain smaller temperature approaches and, thereby, improved heat pump efficiency at an equal heat exchanger area, when compared to the traditional solution with separate condenser and de-superheater. The split condenser design can also be exploited for heating a significant share of the total heating capacity to a temperature far above the condensing temperature. Furthermore, the prototype heat pump was equipped with a plate type evaporator combined with a U-turn separator with a minimum liquid height and a liquid pump with the purpose of creating optimum liquid circulation ratio for the highest possible heat transfer coefficients at the lowest possible pressure drop. The test results successfully confirmed the highest possible efficiency; a COP of 4.3 was obtained when heating water from 40 deg. C to 80 deg. C while operating with evaporating/condensing temperatures of +20 deg C/+73 deg C. (Author)

  4. Coupling nonlinear Stokes and Darcy flow using mortar finite elements

    KAUST Repository

    Ervin, Vincent J.; Jenkins, Eleanor W.; Sun, Shuyu

    2011-01-01

    We study a system composed of a nonlinear Stokes flow in one subdomain coupled with a nonlinear porous medium flow in another subdomain. Special attention is paid to the mathematical consequence of the shear-dependent fluid viscosity for the Stokes

  5. Rovibrational optical pumping of a molecular beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournol, A.; Pillet, P.; Lignier, H.; Comparat, D.

    2018-03-01

    The preparation of molecules in well-defined internal states is essential for various studies in fundamental physics and physical chemistry. It is thus of particular interest to find methods that increase the brightness of molecular beams. Here, we report on rotational and vibrational pumpings of a supersonic beam of barium monofluoride molecules. With respect to previous works, the time scale of optical vibrational pumping has been greatly reduced by enhancing the spectral power density in the vicinity of the appropriate molecular transitions. We demonstrate a complete transfer of the rovibrational populations lying in v″=1 -3 into the vibrational ground-state v″=0 . Rotational pumping, which requires efficient vibrational pumping, has been also demonstrated. According to a Maxwell-Boltzmann description, the rotational temperature of our sample has been reduced by a factor of ˜8 . In this fashion, the population of the lowest rotational levels increased by more than one order of magnitude.

  6. A note on the Stokes operator and its powers

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc; Salgado, Abner

    2010-01-01

    The so-called Stokes operator is an important tool in the analysis of the solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations and their numerical approximation. The aim of this note is to clarify certain properties of the fractional powers of this operator which are sometimes misused. © 2010 Korean Society for Computational and Applied Mathematics.

  7. A note on the Stokes operator and its powers

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc

    2010-04-28

    The so-called Stokes operator is an important tool in the analysis of the solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations and their numerical approximation. The aim of this note is to clarify certain properties of the fractional powers of this operator which are sometimes misused. © 2010 Korean Society for Computational and Applied Mathematics.

  8. Electron pumping of the ground state of 21Ne. Transfers and multiple diffusion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeckel, F.; Lombardi, M.

    1978-01-01

    The electron-pumping process of the ground state of 21 Ne has been studied. It is demonstrated how in a neon cell at a pressure of 10 -4 to 10 -2 torr, a high frequency discharge can create a nuclear spin alignment in the fundamental level (I=3/2) when the excited levels are themselves aligned. The nuclear alignment is observed by monitoring the change of the linear polarization of several optical transitions during the magnetic resonance of the fundamental level. Various transfers of the alignments are investigated and a detailed study of the influence of the multiple diffusion is carried out. The multiple diffusion produces a depolarization and a relaxation of the nuclear spin. A theoretical calculation has been made for a two-level system with a J=1 radiative level and a J=0 ground state. Experimentally a relaxation time of the nuclear alignment varying from 37 ms to 240 ms is observed when the neon pressure decreases from 10 -2 to 10 -4 torr [fr

  9. Numerical resolution of Navier-Stokes equations coupled to the heat equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenouda, Jean-Claude

    1970-08-01

    The author proves a uniqueness theorem for the time dependent Navier-Stokes equations coupled with heat flow in the two-dimensional case. He studies stability and convergence of several finite - difference schemes to solve these equations. Numerical experiments are done in the case of a square domain. (author) [fr

  10. Development of a Wind Directly Forced Heat Pump and Its Efficiency Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jwo, Ching-Song; Chien, Zi-Jie; Chen, Yen-Lin; Chien, Chao-Chun

    2013-01-01

    The requirements of providing electric energy through the wind-forced generator to the heat pump for water cooling and hot water heating grow significantly by now. This study proposes a new technique to directly adopt the wind force to drive heat pump systems, which can effectively reduce the energy conversion losses during the processes of wind force energy converting to electric energy and electric energy converting to kinetic energy. The operation of heat pump system transfers between chil...

  11. Sodium pumping: pump problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, M.; Guiton, P.

    Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads

  12. Self-similarity in incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Ali; Kavvas, M Levent

    2015-12-01

    The self-similarity conditions of the 3-dimensional (3D) incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are obtained by utilizing one-parameter Lie group of point scaling transformations. It is found that the scaling exponents of length dimensions in i = 1, 2, 3 coordinates in 3-dimensions are not arbitrary but equal for the self-similarity of 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. It is also shown that the self-similarity in this particular flow process can be achieved in different time and space scales when the viscosity of the fluid is also scaled in addition to other flow variables. In other words, the self-similarity of Navier-Stokes equations is achievable under different fluid environments in the same or different gravity conditions. Self-similarity criteria due to initial and boundary conditions are also presented. Utilizing the proposed self-similarity conditions of the 3D hydrodynamic flow process, the value of a flow variable at a specified time and space can be scaled to a corresponding value in a self-similar domain at the corresponding time and space.

  13. Analysis of the pump-turbine S characteristics using the detached eddy simulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Xiao, Ruofu; Wang, Fujun; Xiao, Yexiang; Liu, Weichao

    2015-01-01

    Current research on pump-turbine units is focused on the unstable operation at off-design conditions, with the characteristic curves in generating mode being S-shaped. Unlike in the traditional water turbines, pump-turbine operation along the S-shaped curve can lead to difficulties during load rejection with unusual increases in the water pressure, which leads to machine vibrations. This paper describes both model tests and numerical simulations. A reduced scale model of a low specific speed pump-turbine was used for the performance tests, with comparisons to computational fluid dynamics(CFD) results. Predictions using the detached eddy simulation(DES) turbulence model, which is a combined Reynolds averaged Naviers-Stokes(RANS) and large eddy simulation(LES) model, are compared with the two-equation turbulence mode results. The external characteristics as well as the internal flow are for various guide vane openings to understand the unsteady flow along the so called S characteristics of a pump-turbine. Comparison of the experimental data with the CFD results for various conditions and times shows that DES model gives better agreement with experimental data than the two-equation turbulence model. For low flow conditions, the centrifugal forces and the large incident angle create large vortices between the guide vanes and the runner inlet in the runner passage, which is the main factor leading to the S-shaped characteristics. The turbulence model used here gives more accurate simulations of the internal flow characteristics of the pump-turbine and a more detailed force analysis which shows the mechanisms controlling of the S characteristics.

  14. Nuclear radiation detected optical pumping of neutron deficient Hg isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonn, J.

    1975-01-01

    The extension of the Nuclear Radiation Detected Optical Pumping method to mass-separated samples of isotopes far off stability is presented for a series of light Hg isotopes produced at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The isotope under investigation is transferred by an automatic transfer system into the optical pumping apparatus. Zeeman scanning of an isotopically pure Hg spectral lamp is used to reach energetic coincidence with the hyperfine structure components of the 6s 2 1 S 0 -6s6p 3 P 1 (lambda = 2537 A) resonance line of the investigated isotope and the Hg lamp. The orientation build up by optical pumping is monitored via the asymmetry or anisotropy of the nuclear radiation. Nuclear spins, magnetic moments, electric quadrupole moments and isotopic shift are obtained for 181 Hg- 191 Hg using the β-asymmetry as detector. The extension of the method using the γ-anisotropy is discussed and measurements on 193 Hg are presented. (orig./HK)

  15. In-Situ Probing Plasmonic Energy Transfer in Cu(In, Ga)Se2 Solar Cells by Ultrabroadband Femtosecond Pump-Probe Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Chen; Wu, Kaung-Hsiung; Li, Jia-Xing; Yabushita, Atsushi; Tang, Shih-Han; Luo, Chih Wei; Juang, Jenh-Yih; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2015-12-18

    In this work, we demonstrated a viable experimental scheme for in-situ probing the effects of Au nanoparticles (NPs) incorporation on plasmonic energy transfer in Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells by elaborately analyzing the lifetimes and zero moment for hot carrier relaxation with ultrabroadband femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The signals of enhanced photobleach (PB) and waned photoinduced absorption (PIA) attributable to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Au NPs were in-situ probed in transient differential absorption spectra. The results suggested that substantial carriers can be excited from ground state to lower excitation energy levels, which can reach thermalization much faster with the existence of SPR. Thus, direct electron transfer (DET) could be implemented to enhance the photocurrent of CIGS solar cells. Furthermore, based on the extracted hot carrier lifetimes, it was confirmed that the improved electrical transport might have been resulted primarily from the reduction in the surface recombination of photoinduced carriers through enhanced local electromagnetic field (LEMF). Finally, theoretical calculation for resonant energy transfer (RET)-induced enhancement in the probability of exciting electron-hole pairs was conducted and the results agreed well with the enhanced PB peak of transient differential absorption in plasmonic CIGS film. These results indicate that plasmonic energy transfer is a viable approach to boost high-efficiency CIGS solar cells.

  16. Picosecond rotationally resolved stimulated emission pumping spectroscopy of nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanjaroon, Chakree; Reeve, Scott W.; Ford, Alan; Murry, W. Dean; Lyon, Kevin; Yount, Bret; Britton, Dan; Burns, William A.; Allen, Susan D.; Bruce Johnson, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Stimulated emission pumping for nitric oxide was studied using picosecond lasers. ► Weak and tightly focused pulses provide sufficient energy for population transfer. ► Selective excitation at the bandhead yields strong fluorescence depletion signals. ► We observe 19% population transfer to v″ = 2 of the X 2 Π 1/2 ground electronic state. - Abstract: Stimulated emission pumping (SEP) experiments were performed on the nitric oxide molecule in a flow cell environment using lasers with pulse widths of 17–25 ps. A lambda excitation scheme, or ‘‘pump–dump” arrangement, was employed with the pump laser tuned to the T 00 vibronic band origin (λ pump =226.35(1)nm) of the A 2 Σ + (v′ = 0, J′) ← X 2 Π 1/2 (v″ = 0, J″) and the dump laser scanned from 246–248 nm within the A 2 Σ + (v′ = 0, J′) → X 2 Π 1/2 (v″ = 2, J″) transition. The rotationally resolved SEP spectra were measured by observing the total fluorescence within the A 2 Σ + (v′ = 0, J′) → X 2 Π 1/2 (v″ = 1, J″) transition between 235 nm and 237.2 nm while scanning the dump laser wavelengths. Multiple rotational states were excited due to the broad laser bandwidth. Measurements showed that the resolved rotational structure depended on the energy and bandwidth of the applied pump and dump laser pulses. Analysis of the observed fluorescence depletion signals yielded an average percent fluorescence depletion of about 19% when λ pump =226.35(1)nm and λ dump =247.91(1)nm. This value reflects the percent transfer of the NO population from the A 2 Σ + (V′ = 0, J′) excited electronic state to the X 2 Π 1/2 (v″ = 2, J″) ground electronic state. The maximum expected depletion is 50% in the limit of dump saturation. Selective excitation of NO at the bandhead provides good spectral discrimination from the background emission and noise and unambiguously confirms the identity of the emitter.

  17. Enhanced 1.53 μm emission of Er{sup 3+} ions in phosphate glass via energy transfer from Cu{sup +} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez, José A., E-mail: jose.jimenez@unf.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, Florida 32224 (United States); Sendova, Mariana [Optical Spectroscopy and Nano-Materials Lab, New College of Florida, Sarasota, Florida 34243 (United States)

    2014-07-21

    Optimizing the efficiency of Er{sup 3+} emission in the near-infrared telecommunication window in glass matrices is currently a subject of great interest in photonics research. In this work, Cu{sup +} ions are shown to be successfully stabilized at a high concentration in Er-containing phosphate glass by a single-step melt-quench method, and demonstrated to transfer energy to Er{sup 3+} thereby enhancing the near-infrared emission about 15 times. The spectroscopic data indicate an energy conversion process where Cu{sup +} ions first absorb photons broadly around 360 nm and subsequently transfer energy from the Stokes-shifted emitting states to resonant Er{sup 3+} absorption transitions in the visible. Consequently, the Er{sup 3+} electronic excited states decay and the {sup 4}I{sub 3/2} metastable state is populated, leading to the enhanced emission at 1.53 μm. Monovalent copper ions are thus recognized as sensitizers of Er{sup 3+} ions, suggesting the potential of Cu{sup +} co-doping for applications in the telecommunications, solar cells, and solid-state lasing realizable under broad band near-ultraviolet optical pumping.

  18. Pump Coastdown with the Submerged Flywheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyun-Gi; Seo, KyoungWoo; Kim, Seong Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many research reactors are generally designed as open pool types in consideration of the heat removal of the nuclear fuels, reactor operation and accessibility. Reactor structure assembly is generally placed at the pool bottom as shown in Fig. 1. Primary cooling system pump circulates the coolant from the reactor structure to the heat exchanger in order to continuously remove the heat generated from the reactor core in the research reactor as shown in Fig. 1. The secondary cooling system releases the transferred heat to the atmosphere by the cooling tower. Coastdown flow rate of the primary cooling system pump with the submerged flywheel are calculated analytically in case of the accident situation. Coastdown flow rate is maintained until almost 80 sec when the pump stops normally. But, coastdown flow rate is rapidly decreased when the flywheel is submerged because of the friction load on the flywheel surface.

  19. A Modular Approach to Model Oscillating Control Surfaces Using Navier Stokes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.; Lee, Henry

    2014-01-01

    The use of active controls for rotorcraft is becoming more important for modern aerospace configurations. Efforts to reduce the vibrations of helicopter blades with use of active-controls are in progress. Modeling oscillating control surfaces using the linear aerodynamics theory is well established. However, higher-fidelity methods are needed to account for nonlinear effects, such as those that occur in transonic flow. The aeroelastic responses of a wing with an oscillating control surface, computed using the transonic small perturbation (TSP) theory, have been shown to cause important transonic flow effects such as a reversal of control surface effectiveness that occurs as the shock wave crosses the hinge line. In order to account for flow complexities such as blade-vortex interactions of rotor blades higher-fidelity methods based on the Navier-Stokes equations are used. Reference 6 presents a procedure that uses the Navier-Stokes equations with moving-sheared grids and demonstrates up to 8 degrees of control-surface amplitude, using a single grid. Later, this procedure was extended to accommodate larger amplitudes, based on sliding grid zones. The sheared grid method implemented in EulerlNavier-Stokes-based aeroelastic code ENS AERO was successfully applied to active control design by industry. Recently there are several papers that present results for oscillating control surface using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. References 9 and 10 report 2-D cases by filling gaps with overset grids. Reference 9 compares integrated forces with the experiment at low oscillating frequencies whereas Ref. 10 reports parametric studies but with no validation. Reference II reports results for a 3D case by modeling the gap region with a deformed grid and compares force results with the experiment only at the mid-span of flap. In Ref. II grid is deformed to match the control surface deflections at the section where the measurements are made. However, there is no

  20. Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface Controls Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josh A. Salmond

    2009-08-07

    The modernization of the Mold Heating and Cooling Pump Package Operator Interface (MHC PP OI) consisted of upgrading the antiquated single board computer with a proprietary operating system to off-the-shelf hardware and off-the-shelf software with customizable software options. The pump package is the machine interface between a central heating and cooling system that pumps heat transfer fluid through an injection or compression mold base on a local plastic molding machine. The operator interface provides the intelligent means of controlling this pumping process. Strict temperature control of a mold allows the production of high quality parts with tight tolerances and low residual stresses. The products fabricated are used on multiple programs.

  1. Heat pump having improved defrost system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F.C.; Mei, V.C.; Murphy, R.W.

    1998-12-08

    A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger. 2 figs.

  2. Robustness of strong solutions to the compressible Navier-Stokes system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bella, P.; Feireisl, Eduard; Jin, B.J.; Novotný, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 362, 1-2 (2015), s. 281-303 ISSN 0025-5831 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible Navier-Stokes system * smooth solution * stability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.366, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00208-014-1119-2

  3. Variational principles in terms of entransy for heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Mingtian

    2012-01-01

    A variational principle for heat conduction is formulated which results in the steady state heat conduction equation established from the Fourier law. Furthermore based on the thermodynamics in terms of entransy a more general functional is defined for incompressible fluids. We show that extremizing this functional gives rise to the state described by the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations with vanishing substantive derivatives of the temperature and velocity field. In this sense one may conclude that this variational principle is consistent with the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations. Therefore the variational principle developed in the present work demonstrates a great advantage over the minimum entropy production principle. -- Highlights: ► A variational principle for heat transfer of incompressible fluid is established in terms of entransy. ► For pure heat conduction the variational principle leads to the classical steady state heat conduction equation. ► For heat convection the variational principle is consistent with the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations.

  4. Dynamic response analysis of DFB fibre lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yujun, Qian; Varming, Poul; Povlsen, Jørn Hedegaard

    1998-01-01

    We present a model for relative intensity noise (RIN) in DFB fibre lasers which predicts measured characteristics accurately. Calculation results implies that the RIN decreases rapidly with stronger Bragg grating and higher pump power. We propose here a simplified model based on three spatially...... independent rate equations to describe the dynamic response of erbium doped DFB fibre lasers on pump power fluctuations, using coupled-mode theory to calculate the steady-state hole-burning of the erbium ion inversion...

  5. Computational design and in vitro characterization of an integrated maglev pump-oxygenator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juntao; Taskin, M Ertan; Koert, Andrew; Zhang, Tao; Gellman, Barry; Dasse, Kurt A; Gilbert, Richard J; Griffith, Bartley P; Wu, Zhongjun J

    2009-10-01

    For the need for respiratory support for patients with acute or chronic lung diseases to be addressed, a novel integrated maglev pump-oxygenator (IMPO) is being developed as a respiratory assist device. IMPO was conceptualized to combine a magnetically levitated pump/rotor with uniquely configured hollow fiber membranes to create an assembly-free, ultracompact system. IMPO is a self-contained blood pump and oxygenator assembly to enable rapid deployment for patients requiring respiratory support or circulatory support. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computer-aided design were conducted to design and optimize the hemodynamics, gas transfer, and hemocompatibility performances of this novel device. In parallel, in vitro experiments including hydrodynamic, gas transfer, and hemolysis measurements were conducted to evaluate the performance of IMPO. Computational results from CFD analysis were compared with experimental data collected from in vitro evaluation of the IMPO. The CFD simulation demonstrated a well-behaved and streamlined flow field in the main components of this device. The results of hydrodynamic performance, oxygen transfer, and hemolysis predicted by computational simulation, along with the in vitro experimental data, indicate that this pump-lung device can provide the total respiratory need of an adult with lung failure, with a low hemolysis rate at the targeted operating condition. These detailed CFD designs and analyses can provide valuable guidance for further optimization of this IMPO for long-term use.

  6. Investigation on chemical heat pump using calcium-chloride; Enka calcium no suiwa dassui hanno wo mochiita solar chemical heat pump ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, I; Arai, T; Saito, Y [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    With an objective of developing a room heating system utilizing a solar chemical heat pump, an experimental system was fabricated to evaluate its performance. Steam was employed as a working gas, and for a reaction material, calcium-chloride was used, which has a reaction temperature zone permitting safe use and fitting the purpose among other hydrate systems and has high standard enthalpy in hydration. Water was used as a solar heat transferring medium. The system operates under the following principle: a container I is filled with hydrated salt and a container II with water, the two containers being linked with a pipe interposed with a valve; heat is inputted and outputted by performing charging and discharging alternately; and the role of a heat pump is played by deriving from environment the heat of water evaporation in the container II during discharging. The COP must take into account the electric power consumption of the water circulation pump to transfer solar heat. A COP of 0.256 was derived as a result of the experiment. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Estudio comparativo de flujo de fluido a través de una placa de orificio usando las ecuaciones de Stokes y de Navier-Stokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miryam Lucía Guerra-Mazo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Presenta los resultados de la comparación entre las ecuaciones de Stokes y de Navier-Stokes para la simulación del flujo de agua líquida, a condiciones atmosféricas, a través de una placa orificio concéntrica. A partir de los datos experimentales que fueron tomados en el banco de fluidos, se evaluaron las simulaciones de ambas ecuaciones, usando el software libre Freefem++cs, que se basa en el método de los elementos finitos; las variables evaluadas son velocidad y presión en un intervalo de tiempo. Al analizar los resultados obtenidos con las simulaciones y comparar con los datos experimentales se encontró que las ecuaciones de Navier-Stokes representan mejor el sistema que la ecuación de Stokes.

  8. Pumps and pump facilities. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, W.; Bauerfeind, H.; Gutmann, G.; Leuschner, G.; Matthias, H.B.; Mengele, R.; Neumaier, R.; Vetter, G.; Wagner, W.

    1981-01-01

    This book deals with the common fundamental aspects of liquid pumps and gives an exemplary choice of the most important kinds of pumps. The scientific matter is dealt with by means of practical mathematical examples among other ways of presenting the matter. Survey of contents: Division on main operational data of pumps - pipe characteristics - pump characteristics - suction behaviour of the pumps - projecting and operation of rotary pumps - boiler feed pumps - reactor feed pumps - oscillating positive-displacement pumps - eccentric spiral pumps. (orig./GL) [de

  9. Experimental Waterflow Determination of the Dynamic Hydraulic Transfer Function for the J-2X Oxidizer Turbopump. Part Two; Results and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Tom; Patel, Sandeep; Lee, Erik; Karon, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Experimental results describing the hydraulic dynamic pump transfer matrix (Yp) for a cavitating J-2X oxidizer turbopump inducer+impeller tested in subscale waterflow are presented. The transfer function is required for integrated vehicle pogo stability analysis as well as optimization of local inducer pumping stability. Dynamic transfer functions across widely varying pump hydrodynamic inlet conditions are extracted from measured data in conjunction with 1D-model based corrections. Derived Dynamic transfer functions are initially interpreted relative to traditional Pogo pump equations. Water-to-liquid oxygen scaling of measured cavitation characteristics are discussed. Comparison of key dynamic transfer matrix terms derived from waterflow testing are made with those implemented in preliminary Ares Upper Stage Pogo stability modeling. Alternate cavitating pump hydraulic dynamic equations are suggested which better reflect frequency dependencies of measured transfer matrices.

  10. Pumping behavior of sputter ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.; McCafferty, D.

    The ultrahigh vacuum requirements of ISABELLE is obtained by distributed pumping stations. Each pumping station consists of 1000 l/s titanium sublimation pump for active gases (N 2 , H 2 , O 2 , CO, etc.), and a 20 l/s sputter ion pump for inert gases (methane, noble gases like He, etc.). The combination of the alarming production rate of methane from titanium sublimation pumps (TSP) and the decreasing pumping speed of sputter ion pumps (SIP) in the ultrahigh vacuum region (UHV) leads us to investigate this problem. In this paper, we first describe the essential physics and chemistry of the SIP in a very clean condition, followed by a discussion of our measuring techniques. Finally measured methane, argon and helium pumping speeds are presented for three different ion pumps in the range of 10 -6 to 10 -11 Torr. The virtues of the best pump are also discussed

  11. Hydride heat pump with heat regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative hydride heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system. A series of at least four canisters containing a lower temperature performing hydride and a series of at least four canisters containing a higher temperature performing hydride is provided. Each canister contains a heat conductive passageway through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated so that sensible heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  12. Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with congestive heart failure: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Genta, Pedro R; Figueiredo, Adelaide C; Inoue, Daniel

    2005-08-01

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration is a form of periodic breathing in which central apneas and hypopneas alternate with periods of hyperventilation, producing a waxing and waning pattern of tidal volume. This review focuses on the causes and consequences of Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with congestive heart failure, in whom the prevalence is strikingly high and ranges from 30% to 50%. Several factors have been implicated in the genesis of Cheyne-Stokes respiration, including low cardiac output and recurrent hypoxia. The key pathophysiological mechanism triggering Cheyne-Stokes respiration is hyperventilation and low arterial CO2 (PaCO2) that when below the apneic threshold triggers a central apnea. Hyperventilation is associated with pulmonary congestion, and Cheyne-Stokes respiration is more prone to occur during sleep, when the respiratory system is mainly dependent on chemical control. It is associated with recurrent dips in oxygen saturation and arousals from sleep, with oscillations in blood pressure and heart rate, sympathetic activation and increased risk of ventricular tachycardia. Cheyne-Stokes respiration is an independent marker of poor prognosis and may participate in a vicious cycle, further stressing the failing heart.

  13. Mycobacterial Brain Tuberculomas due to Bacille Calmette-Guérin Intravesical Chemotherapy for Bladder Cancer: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Golub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunotherapy is widely used for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer. The authors believe that the present report is one of the first to document cerebral BCG tuberculoma in a 73-year-old immunocompetent man, three years after intra-vesical BCG immunotherapy. His workup revealed no identifiable extracranial source. He responded well to treatment with rifampin, ethambutol and moxifloxacin.

  14. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Birk, Nina Marie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) induces a complex, pro-inflammatory immune response. Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation. AIMS: The purpose of the study was to test whether BCG at birth has effects on infant growth and body composition. STUDY DESIGN, SUBJECTS......, AND OUTCOME MEASURES: The Danish Calmette Study is a randomized, clinical trial. The study was conducted at three university hospitals and randomized 4262 children of gestational age ≥32weeks to receive BCG within seven days of birth or to a no-intervention control group. Follow-up consisted of clinical......-up was 94% complete at 3 and 13months after birth. The children were bigger than the WHO reference population. There was no effect of BCG on weight z-score at 13months (-0.028 [95% confidence interval: -0.085 to 0.029], p=0.34). There was no effect on weight and length at 3months, or length, mid...

  15. Acceptance for Beneficial Use Pumping Instrumentation and Control Skid L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOCH, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    This is a final Acceptance for Beneficial Use (ABU) for Pumping and Instrumentation Control (PIC) skid ''L''. PIC skid ''L'' is ready for pumping tank U-105. All the testing and documentation has been completed as required on the ABU checklist. This ABU covers only the readiness of the PIC skid ''L''. Other U-farm preparations including dilution tank fabrication, portable exhauster readiness, leak detection, valve pit preparation, and the Operation Control Station readiness are not part of this ABU. PIC skid ''L'' is a new skid fabricated and tested at Site Fabrication Services. The skid controls the jet pump and monitors various instruments associated with the pumping operation. This monitoring includes leak detection along the waste transfer route and flammable gases in the pump pit

  16. Local strong solutions to the stochastic compressible Navier-Stokes system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Breit, D.; Feireisl, Eduard; Hofmanová, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 2 (2018), s. 313-345 ISSN 0360-5302 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible fluids * local strong solutions * Navier-Stokes system Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.608, year: 2016 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03605302.2018.1442476

  17. Granulomas do pênis: uma complicação rara da terapia intravesical com Bacilo Calmette-Guérin Granulomas of the penis: a rare complication of intravesical therapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Isabel Alcântara Lestre

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A imunoterapia com o Bacilo Calmette-Guérin é amplamente usada no tratamento e profilaxia da neoplasia urotelial superficial. As complicações associadas ao tratamento são comuns. Os autores relatam um caso de inflamação granulomatosa do pênis, associada à terapia intravesical com Bacilo Calmette-Guérin, com múltiplos nódulos eritematosos indolores localizados na glande. É também efetuada uma revisão da literatura. A balanopostite granulomatosa é uma complicação rara associada à imunoterapia com Bacilo Calmette-Guérin, com uma apresentação clinicamente heterogênea que pode dificultar o diagnóstico. O seu reconhecimento clínico é essencial para o início precoce de tuberculostáticos e interrupção de Bacilo Calmette-GuérinImmunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin is widely used for treatment and prophylaxis of superficial urothelial cancer. Complications associated with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin treatment are common. The authors describe a case of granulomatous inflammation of the penis associated with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy, presenting with multiple erythematous and painless nodules located on the glans. A review of the literature is also performed. Granulomatous balanoposthitis is a rare complication of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunotherapy, with heterogeneous clinical presentation, which can make the diagnosis difficult. Its clinical recognition is essential for early start of therapy with antitubercular agents and interruption of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin

  18. Application of an upwind Navier-Stokes code to two-dimensional transonic airfoil flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumsey, C.L.; Thomas, J.L.; Anderson, W.K.; Taylor, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    An upwind-biased implicit approximate factorization Navier-Stokes algorithm is applied to a variety of steady transonic airfoil cases, using the NACA 0012, RAE 2822, and Jones supercritical airfoils. The thin-layer form of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is used. Both the CYBER 205 and CRAY 2 supercomputers are utilized, with average computational speeds of about 18 and 16 microsec/gridpoint/iteration, respectively. Lift curves, drag polars, and variations in drag coefficient with Mach number are determined for the NACA 0012 and Jones supercritical airfoils. Also, several cases are computed for comparison with experiment. The effect of grid density and grid extent on a typical turbulent airfoil solution is shown. An algebraic eddy-viscosity turbulence model is used for all of the computations. 10 references

  19. Pseudo-stokes vector from complex signal representation of a speckle pattern and its applications to micro-displacement measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, W.; Ishijima, R.; Matsuda, A.

    2010-01-01

    As an improvement of the intensity correlation used widely in conventional electronic speckle photography, we propose a new technique for displacement measurement based on correlating Stokes-like parameters derivatives for transformed speckle patterns. The method is based on a Riesz transform of ...... are presented that demonstrate the validity and advantage of the proposed pseudo-Stokes vector correlation technique over conventional intensity correlation technique....... of the intensity speckle pattern, which converts the original real-valued signal into a complex signal. In closest analogy to the polarisation of a vector wave, the Stokes-like vector constructed from the spatial derivative of the generated complex signal has been applied for correlation. Experimental results...

  20. Thermodynamic performance of multi-stage gradational lead screw vacuum pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Shiwei; Sun, Kun; Zhang, Zhijun

    2018-02-01

    As a kind of dry mechanical vacuum pump, the twin-screw vacuum pump has an outstanding pumping performance during operation, widely used in the semiconductor industry. Compared with the constant lead screw (CLS) vacuum pump, the gradational lead screw (GLS) vacuum pump is more popularly applied in recent years. Nevertheless, not many comparative studies on the thermodynamic performance of GLS vacuum pump can be found in the literature. Our study focuses on one type of GLS vacuum pump, the multi-stage gradational lead screw (MGLS) vacuum pump, gives a detailed description of its construction and illustrates it with the drawing. Based on the structural analysis, the thermodynamic procedure is divided into four distinctive processes, including sucking process, transferring (compressing) process, backlashing process and exhausting process. The internal mechanism of each process is qualitatively illustrated and the mathematical expressions of seven thermodynamic parameters are given under the ideal situation. The performance curves of MGLS vacuum pump are plotted by MATLAB software and compared with those of the CLS vacuum pump in the same case. The results can well explain why the MGLS vacuum pump has more favorable pumping performance than the CLS vacuum pump in saving energy, reducing noise and heat dissipation.

  1. Cavitation Modeling in Euler and Navier-Stokes Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Manish; Feng, Jinzhang; Merkle, Charles L.

    1993-01-01

    Many previous researchers have modeled sheet cavitation by means of a constant pressure solution in the cavity region coupled with a velocity potential formulation for the outer flow. The present paper discusses the issues involved in extending these cavitation models to Euler or Navier-Stokes codes. The approach taken is to start from a velocity potential model to ensure our results are compatible with those of previous researchers and available experimental data, and then to implement this model in both Euler and Navier-Stokes codes. The model is then augmented in the Navier-Stokes code by the inclusion of the energy equation which allows the effect of subcooling in the vicinity of the cavity interface to be modeled to take into account the experimentally observed reduction in cavity pressures that occurs in cryogenic fluids such as liquid hydrogen. Although our goal is to assess the practicality of implementing these cavitation models in existing three-dimensional, turbomachinery codes, the emphasis in the present paper will center on two-dimensional computations, most specifically isolated airfoils and cascades. Comparisons between velocity potential, Euler and Navier-Stokes implementations indicate they all produce consistent predictions. Comparisons with experimental results also indicate that the predictions are qualitatively correct and give a reasonable first estimate of sheet cavitation effects in both cryogenic and non-cryogenic fluids. The impact on CPU time and the code modifications required suggests that these models are appropriate for incorporation in current generation turbomachinery codes.

  2. Free convection effects and radiative heat transfer in MHD Stokes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present note deals with the effects of radiative heat transfer and free convection in MHD for a flow of an electrically conducting, incompressible, dusty viscous fluid past an impulsively started vertical non-conducting plate, under the influence of transversely applied magnetic field. The heat due to viscous dissipation and ...

  3. Decay Properties of Axially Symmetric D-Solutions to the Steady Navier-Stokes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Shangkun

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the decay properties of smooth axially symmetric D-solutions to the steady Navier-Stokes equations. The achievements of this paper are two folds. One is improved decay rates of u_{θ } and \

  4. Incompressible limit of compressible Navier-Stokes equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessaih, H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we study the system which describes the motion of compressible viscous fluid in a bounded domain Ω of R 3 . When we introduce a parameter λ, that is the inverse of the Mach number, we prove, under small initial data and external force (for barotropic flows), that the solution of Navier-Stokes equations is the incompressible limit of the solution of compressible Navier-Stokes equations, as the Mach number becomes small. For this, we show the existence of a solution verifying estimates independent of λ. Compactness argument allow us to pass to the limit on λ in the nonlinear terms. (author). 17 refs

  5. Determination of Ground Heat Exchangers Temperature Field in Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhurmilova, I.; Shtym, A.

    2017-11-01

    For the heating and cooling supply of buildings and constructions geothermal heat pumps using low-potential ground energy are applied by means of ground exchangers. The process of heat transfer in a system of ground exchangers is a phenomenon of complex heat transfer. The paper presents a mathematical modeling of heat exchange processes, the temperature fields are built which are necessary for the determination of the ground array that ensures an adequate supply of low potential energy excluding the freezing of soil around the pipes in the ground heat exchangers and guaranteeing a reliable operation of geothermal heat pumps.

  6. Future directions in 980-nm pump lasers: submarine deployment to low-cost watt-class terrestrial pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulgazov, Vadim N.; Jackson, Gordon S.; Lascola, Kevin M.; Major, Jo S.; Parke, Ross; Richard, Tim; Rossin, Victor V.; Zhang, Kai

    1999-09-01

    The demands of global bandwidth and distribution are rising rapidly as Internet usage grows. This fundamentally means that more photons are flowing within optical cables. While transmitting sources launches some optical power, the majority of the optical power that is present within modern telecommunication systems originates from optical amplifiers. In addition, modern optical amplifiers offer flat optical gain over broad wavelength bands, thus making possible dense wavelength de-multiplexing (DWDM) systems. Optical amplifier performance, and by extension the performance of the laser pumps that drive them, is central to the future growth of both optical transmission and distribution systems. Erbium-doped amplifiers currently dominate optical amplifier usage. These amplifiers absorb pump light at 980 nm and/or 1480 nm, and achieve gain at wavelengths around 1550 nm. 980 nm pumps achieve better noise figures and are therefore used for the amplification of small signals. Due to the quantum defect, 1480 nm lasers deliver more signal photon per incident photon. In addition, 1480 nm lasers are less expensive than 980 nm lasers. Thus, 1480 nm pump lasers are used for amplification in situations where noise is not critical. The combination of these traits leads to the situation where many amplifiers contain 980 nm lasers to pump the input section of the Er- doped fiber with 1480 nm lasers being used to pump the latter section of Er fiber. This can be thought of as using 980 nm lasers to power an optical pre-amplifier with the power amplification function being pump with 1480 nm radiation. This paper will focus on 980 nm pump lasers and the impact that advances in 980 nm pump technology will have on optical amplification systems. Currently, 980 nm technology is rapidly advancing in two areas, power and reliability. Improving reliability is becoming increasingly important as amplifiers move towards employing more pump lasers and using these pump lasers without redundancy

  7. Features of rotary pump diagnostics without dismantling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeev K. О.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In ship power plants, rotor pumps have become very popular providing the transfer of various viscous fluids: fuels, oils, etc. Like all ship's mechanisms, pumps need proper maintenance and monitoring of technical condition. The most expedient is maintenance and repair carried out according to the results of dismantling diagnosis. The methods of vibrodiagnostics are mostly widespread for the diagnosis of pumps. Vibrodiagnosis of rotary pumps has a number of features due to the nature and condition of pumped fluids. The norms of the Russian Maritime Register of Shipping are used for setting standards of vibration and diagnostics of the rotary pumps' technical condition. To clarify the features of vibration diagnostics of rotary pumps some measurements have been made on a special bench that simulates various modes of ship's pumps' operation: different pressure in the system and temperature of the pumped medium. As a result of measurements one-third octave and narrow-band vibration spectra of pumps have been obtained at various developed pressures and temperatures of the pumped fluid. The performed analysis has shown that the RMRS norms for diagnostics of ship rotary pumps have insufficient informative value inasmuch they do not take into account the dependence of the vibrational signal spectrum on the developed pressure and temperature of the pumped fluid. The nature of the received signals shows that the levels of a third-octave spectrum of the vibration velocity depend significantly on the temperature of the pumped fluids, this fact must be taken into account when applying the RMRS norms. The fluid temperature has a great influence on the nature of the narrow-band vibration acceleration spectrum in the area of medium frequencies, less influence – on the nature of the vibration velocity spectrum. The conclusions have been drawn about the advisability of using the narrow-band vibration spectra and the envelope spectra of the high

  8. Modelling of arc jet plasma flow in transitional regime by Navier Stokes and state-to-state coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrova, T.; Izrar, B.; Lino da Silva, M.; Dudeck, M.

    2005-01-01

    The combination of 2D Navier-Stokes and state-to-state approaches has been used to describe the air plasma flow in an arc-jet. The gas dynamic parameters were calculated in Navier-Stokes approximation in a steady state description without chemical reaction and vibrational exchanges. And then, the set of equations of vibrational level densities and atomic species densities was locally solved. Experimental validations have been performed

  9. Fuel savings with conventional hot water space heating systems by incorporating a natural gas powered heat pump. Preliminary project: Development of heat pump technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheyden, L.; Evertz, E.

    1980-12-01

    Compression type air/water heat pumps were developed for domestic heating systems rated at 20 to 150 kW. The heat pump is driven either by a reciprocating piston or rotary piston engine modified to operate on natural gas. Particular features of natural gas engines as prime movers, such as waste heat recovery and variable speed, are stressed. Two systems suitable for heat pump operation were selected from among five different mass produced car engines and were modified to incorporate reciprocating piston compressor pairs. The refrigerants used are R 12 and R 22. Test rig data transferred to field conditions show that the fuel consumption of conventional boilers can be reduced by 50% and more by the installation of engine driven heat pumps. Pilot heat pumps based on a 1,600 cc reciprocating piston engine were built for heating four two-family houses. Pilot pump operation confirms test rig findings. The service life of rotary piston and reciprocating piston engines was investigated. The tests reveal characteristic curves for reciprocating piston engines and include exhaust composition measurements.

  10. Hazard evaluation for transfer of waste from tank 241-SY-101 to tank 241-SY-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    Tank 241-SY-101 waste level growth is an emergent, high priority issue. The purpose of this document is to record the hazards evaluation process and document potential hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the proposed transfer of a limited quantity (approximately 100,000 gallons) of waste from Tank 241-SY-101 to Tank 241-SY-102. The results of the hazards evaluation were compared to the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Basis for Interim Operation (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. Comparison to LA-UR-92-3196, A Safety Assessment for Proposed Pump Mixing Operations to Mitigate Episodic Gas Releases in Tank 241-SY-101, was also made in the case of transfer pump removal activities. Revision 1 of this document deletes hazardous conditions no longer applicable to the current waste transfer design and incorporates hazardous conditions related to the use of an above ground pump pit and overground transfer line. This document is not part of the AB and is not a vehicle for requesting authorization of the activity; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The AB Control Decision process will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis

  11. Numerical identification of blade exit angle effect on the performance for a multistage centrifugal pump impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babayigit Osman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, single and multistage centrifugal pumps are widely used in industrial and mining enterprises. One of the most important components of a centrifugal pump is the impeller. The performance characteristics are related to the pump comprising the head and the overall efficiency rely a great deal on the impeller geometry. In this work, effects of blade exit angle change on hydraulic efficiency of a multi stage pump impeller are investigated via Ansys-Fluent computational fluid dynamics software for constant width impeller entrance and exit gates, blade numbers and blade thickness. Firstly, the flow volume of a centrifugal pump impeller is generated and then mesh structure is formed for the full impeller flow volume. Secondly, rotational periodic flow model are adopted in order to examine the effect of periodic flow assumption on the performance predictions. Corresponding to the available experimental data, inlet mass flow rate, outlet static pressure and rotation of impeller are taken as 0.02m3s-1, 450 kPa and 2950 rpm, respectively for the water fluid. No slip boundary condition is exposed to all solid of surface in the flow volume. The continuity and Navier-Stokes equations with the k-ε turbulence model and the standard wall functions are used. During the study, numerical analyses are conducted for the blade exit angle values of 18°, 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°. In consequence of the performed analyses, it is determined that hydraulic efficiency of the pump impeller value is changed between 81.0-84.6%. The most convenient blade exit angle that yields 84.6% hydraulic efficiency at is 18°. The obtained results show that the blade exit angle range has an impact on the centrifugal pump performance describing the pump head and the hydraulic efficiency.

  12. The stokes number approach to support scale-up and technology transfer of a mixing process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsz, T.A.; Hooijmaijers, R.; Rubingh, C.M.; Frijlink, H.W.; Vromans, H.; Voort Maarschalk, K. van der

    2012-01-01

    Transferring processes between different scales and types of mixers is a common operation in industry. Challenges within this operation include the existence of considerable differences in blending conditions between mixer scales and types. Obtaining the correct blending conditions is crucial for

  13. The Stokes number approach to support scale-up and technology transfer of a mixing process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsz, Tofan A; Hooijmaijers, Ricardo; Rubingh, Carina M; Frijlink, Henderik W; Vromans, Herman; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

    Transferring processes between different scales and types of mixers is a common operation in industry. Challenges within this operation include the existence of considerable differences in blending conditions between mixer scales and types. Obtaining the correct blending conditions is crucial for

  14. Two-Level Iteration Penalty Methods for the Navier-Stokes Equations with Friction Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two-level iteration penalty finite element methods to approximate the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations with friction boundary conditions. The basic idea is to solve the Navier-Stokes type variational inequality problem on a coarse mesh with mesh size H in combining with solving a Stokes, Oseen, or linearized Navier-Stokes type variational inequality problem for Stokes, Oseen, or Newton iteration on a fine mesh with mesh size h. The error estimate obtained in this paper shows that if H, h, and ε can be chosen appropriately, then these two-level iteration penalty methods are of the same convergence orders as the usual one-level iteration penalty method.

  15. Mathematical geophysics an introduction to rotating fluids and the Navier-Stokes equations

    CERN Document Server

    Chemin, Jean-Yves; Gallagher, Isabelle; Grenier, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    Aimed at graduate students and researchers in mathematics, engineering, oceanography, meteorology and mechanics, this text provides a detailed introduction to the physical theory of rotating fluids, a significant part of geophysical fluid dynamics. The Navier-Stokes equations are examined in both incompressible and rapidly rotating forms.

  16. Fine structures of the ejaculatory sac and sperm pump of the scorpionfly Panorpa liui Hua (Mecoptera: Panorpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian; Hua, Baozhen

    2013-08-01

    Male adults of Panorpidae possess a special sperm pump, through which the males transfer liquid sperm to the females. However, the structures of the sperm pump and the transfer mechanism have not been satisfactorily elucidated hitherto. In this paper the structures of the ejaculatory sac and sperm pump of the scorpionfly Panorpa liui Hua were investigated using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ejaculatory sac is located between the basal end of the paired vasa deferentia and the aedeagus, comprising a small anterior part and a large posterior part. The anterior part is simple and functions only as a channel for sperm transfer. The epithelial cells of the large posterior part likely have secretory functions. The sperm pump is formed by the posterior region of the ejaculatory sac and derivates of the genital field, which enclose the pumping chamber, a piston and the associated muscles. The orifice of the ejaculatory duct lies ventrad of the piston. The piston of the sperm pump is heavily sclerotized and controlled by two antagonistic muscle pairs. A pair of simple tubular accessory glands opens to the pumping chamber. Two well-developed sex pheromone glands are located on the ventral side of the ejaculatory sac, and are composed of two fan-shaped lamellae. The epithelium of the sex pheromone glands is single-layered, and forms densely filamentous processes. The ejaculation mechanism is briefly discussed based on the morphology of ejaculatory sac and sperm pump. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Indigenously developed large pumping speed cryoadsorption cryopump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangradey, Ranjana; Mukherjee, Samiran Shanti; Agarwal, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous cryoadsorption cryopump with large pumping speeds for fusion reactor application has been developed at the Institute for Plasma Research (IPR). Towards its successful realization, technological bottlenecks were identified, studied and resolved. Hydroformed cryopanels were developed from concept leading to the design and product realization with successful technology transfer to the industry. This has led to the expertise for developing hydroformed panels for any desired shape, geometry and welding pattern. Activated sorbents were developed, characterized using an experimental set up which measures adsorption isotherms down to 4K for hydrogen and helium. Special techniques were evolved for coating sorbents on hydroformed cryopanels with suitable cryo-adhesives. Various arrangements of cryopanels at 4 K surrounded by 80 K shields and baffles (which are also hydroformed) were studied and optimized by transmission probability analysis using Monte Carlo techniques. CFD analysis was used to study the temperature distribution and flow analysis during the cryogen flow through the panels. Integration of the developed technologies to arrive at the final product was a challenging task and this was meticulously planned and executed. This resulted in a cryoadsorption cryopump offering pumping speeds as high as 50,000 to 70,000 1/s for helium and 1,50,000 1/s for hydrogen with a 3.2 m 2 of sorbent panel area. The first laboratory scale pump integrating the developed technologies was a Small Scale CryoPump (SSCP-01) with a pumping speed of 2,000 1/s for helium. Subsequently, Single Panel CryoPump (SPCP-01) with pumping speed 10,000 1/s for helium and a Multiple Panel CryoPump (MPCP-08) with a pumping speed of 70,000 1/s for helium and 1,50,000 1/s for hydrogen respectively were developed. This paper describes the efforts in realizing these products from laboratory to industrial scales. (author)

  18. A unified approach to determining forms for the 2D Navier-Stokes equations -- the general interpolants case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foias, C; Jolly, M S; Kravchenko, R; Titi, E S

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that the long-time dynamics (the global attractor) of the 2D Navier-Stokes system is embedded in the long-time dynamics of an ordinary differential equation, called a determining form, in a space of trajectories which is isomorphic to C b 1 (R;R N ) for sufficiently large N depending on the physical parameters of the Navier-Stokes equations. A unified approach is presented, based on interpolant operators constructed from various determining parameters for the Navier-Stokes equations, namely, determining nodal values, Fourier modes, finite volume elements, finite elements, and so on. There are two immediate and interesting consequences of this unified approach. The first is that the constructed determining form has a Lyapunov function, and thus its solutions converge to the set of steady states of the determining form as the time goes to infinity. The second is that these steady states of the determining form can be uniquely identified with the trajectories in the global attractor of the Navier-Stokes system. It should be added that this unified approach is general enough that it applies, in an almost straightforward manner, to a whole class of dissipative dynamical systems. Bibliography: 23 titles

  19. Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease following Bacille Calmette-Guérin and Smallpox Vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Anne Marie; Jess, Tine; Sørup, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Childhood immunology has been suggested to play a role in development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) based on the studies of childhood vaccinations, infections, and treatment with antibiotics. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and smallpox vaccinations were gradually phased-out in Denmark...... for children born between 1965 and 1976, hence allowing the study of subsequent risk of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in a unique prospective design....

  20. Quasineutral limit for the quantum Navier-Stokes-Poisson equation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Min; Pu, Xueke; Wang, Shu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the quasineutral limit and asymptotic behaviors for the quantum Navier-Stokes-Possion equation. We apply a formal expansion according to Debye length and derive the neutral incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. To establish this limit mathematically rigorously, we derive uniform (in Debye length) estimates for the remainders, for well-prepared initial data. It is demonstrated that the quantum effect do play important roles in the estimates and the norm introduced depe...

  1. INTENSIFICATION OF HEAT TRANSFER FROM THE IC CHIP TO THE HEAT SINK THROUGH THE USE OF NANOFILM THERMOELECTRIC HEAT PUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the to enhance the efficiency the thermoelectric heat pump by making the branches of semiconductor p- and n-type as nanofilms and creating conditions for the emergence of additional thermoeffect between the hot and cold junctions of dissimilar metals that will create a more efficient heat pumps with small dimensions.

  2. Molecular alignment effect on the photoassociation process via a pump-dump scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin-Bin; Han, Yong-Chang; Cong, Shu-Lin

    2015-09-01

    The photoassociation processes via the pump-dump scheme for the heternuclear (Na + H → NaH) and the homonuclear (Na + Na → Na2) molecular systems are studied, respectively, using the time-dependent quantum wavepacket method. For both systems, the initial atom pair in the continuum of the ground electronic state (X1Σ+) is associated into the molecule in the bound states of the excited state (A1Σ+) by the pump pulse. Then driven by a time-delayed dumping pulse, the prepared excited-state molecule can be transferred to the bound states of the ground electronic state. It is found that the pump process can induce a superposition of the rovibrational levels |v, j> on the excited state, which can lead to the field-free alignment of the excited-state molecule. The molecular alignment can affect the dumping process by varying the effective coupling intensity between the two electronic states or by varying the population transfer pathways. As a result, the final population transferred to the bound states of the ground electronic state varies periodically with the delay time of the dumping pulse.

  3. Application of the implicit MacCormack scheme to the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. L.; Tannehill, J. C.; Chaussee, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    MacCormack's implicit finite-difference scheme was used to solve the two-dimensional parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations. This method for solving the PNS equations does not require the inversion of block tridiagonal systems of algebraic equations and permits the original explicit MacCormack scheme to be employed in those regions where implicit treatment is not needed. The advantages and disadvantages of the present adaptation are discussed in relation to those of the conventional Beam-Warming scheme for a flat plate boundary layer test case. Comparisons are made for accuracy, stability, computer time, computer storage, and ease of implementation. The present method was also applied to a second test case of hypersonic laminar flow over a 15% compression corner. The computed results compare favorably with experiment and a numerical solution of the complete Navier-Stokes equations.

  4. Prediction of centrifugal pump-cleaning ability in waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churnetski, B.V.

    1981-01-01

    Radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is being transferred from older waste tanks to new, stress-relieved tanks for more effective waste management. The technology developed for waste removal involves the use of long-shaft, recirculating, centrifugal pumps (slurry pumps). Testing completed at the Savannah River Laboratory's 30-meter-diameter mock-up waste tank related the effective cleaning radius (ECR) of a slurry pump to critical pump and materials characteristics. Presently, this theory is being applied to radioactive waste at SRP. However, the technology can be applied to other remote handling situations where the slurry rheology can be determined. For SRP waste, an equation of the form: ECR α DV 0 (rho/tau 0 )/sup 1/2/ was determined where D is the nozzle diameter, V 0 is the average initial velocity, rho is the density of the slurry, and tau 0 is the yield stress of the slurry. Using this relationship, the cleaning performance of a pump operating in any SRP sludge environment can be predicted. Specifically, yield stress and density measurements on sludge samples can be used to predict the required number and effective location for slurry pumps in actual SRP waste tanks

  5. Water cooling thermal power measurement in a vacuum diffusion pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Cardozo Amorin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion vacuum pumps are used both in industry and in laboratory science for high vacuum production. For its operation they must be refrigerated, and it is done by circulating water in open circuit. Considering that, vacuum systems stays operating by hours, the water consumption may be avoided if the diffusion vacuum pumps refrigeration were done in closed circuit. However, it is necessary to know the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power (the heat transferred to circulate water by time units to implement one of these and get in the refrigeration system dimension. In this paper the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power was obtained by measuring water flow and temperature variation and was calculated through the heat quantity variation equation time function. The thermal power value was 935,6 W, that is 397 W smaller and 35 W bigger than, respectively, the maximum and minimum diffusion pump thermal power suggested by its operation manual. This procedure have been shown useful to precisely determine the diffusion pump thermal power or of any other system that needs to be refrigerated in water closed circuit.

  6. Discrete adjoint of fractional step Navier-Stokes solver in generalized coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengze; Mons, Vincent; Zaki, Tamer

    2017-11-01

    Optimization and control in transitional and turbulent flows require evaluation of gradients of the flow state with respect to the problem parameters. Using adjoint approaches, these high-dimensional gradients can be evaluated with a similar computational cost as the forward Navier-Stokes simulations. The adjoint algorithm can be obtained by discretizing the continuous adjoint Navier-Stokes equations or by deriving the adjoint to the discretized Navier-Stokes equations directly. The latter algorithm is necessary when the forward-adjoint relations must be satisfied to machine precision. In this work, our forward model is the fractional step solution to the Navier-Stokes equations in generalized coordinates, proposed by Rosenfeld, Kwak & Vinokur. We derive the corresponding discrete adjoint equations. We also demonstrate the accuracy of the combined forward-adjoint model, and its application to unsteady wall-bounded flows. This work has been partially funded by the Office of Naval Research (Grant N00014-16-1-2542).

  7. Mothers’ Use of Social Media to Inform Their Practices for Pumping and Providing Pumped Human Milk to Their Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rei Yamada

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite U.S. mothers’ wide adoption of pumps and bottles to provide human milk (HM to their infants, mothers lack comprehensive, evidence-based guidelines for these practices. Thus, some women use online sources to seek information from each other. We aimed to characterize the information women sought online about pumping. We used data provided by ~25,000 women in an open cohort within a discussion forum about parenting. We examined 543 posts containing questions about providing pumped HM cross-sectionally and longitudinally in three time intervals: prenatal, 0 through 1.5 months postpartum, and 1.5 to 4.5 months postpartum. We used thematic analysis with Atlas.ti to analyze the content of posts. During pregnancy, women commonly asked questions about how and where to obtain pumps, both out-of-pocket and through insurance policies. Between 0–1.5 months postpartum, many mothers asked about how to handle pumped HM to ensure its safety as fed. Between 1.5–4.5 months postpartum, mothers sought strategies to overcome constraints to pumping both at home and at work and also asked about stopping pumping and providing their milk. Women’s questions related to ensuring the safety of pumped HM represent information women need from health professionals, while their questions related to obtaining pumps suggest that women may benefit from clearer guidelines from their insurance providers. The difficulties women face at home and at work identify avenues through which families and employers can support women to meet their goals for providing HM.

  8. Optical pumping and xenon NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raftery, M.D.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping 129 Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the 131 Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen

  9. Laser pumped lasers for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, S.M.

    1976-01-01

    A study of the isotope separation laser requirements reveals that high pressure polyatomic molecular gas laser pumped lasers can attain the necessary characteristics including tunability, energy output, pulse width, and repetition rate. The results of a search, made for molecules meeting the appropriate requirements for one of several pump schemes utilizing a CO 2 laser and with output in the 12 μm or 16μm wavelength range, are presented. Several methods of pumping are reviewed and two novel pump schemes are presented. A laser pumped laser device design is given, and operation of this device and associated diagnostic equipment is confirmed by repeating experiments in OCS and NH 3 . The results of OCS laser experiments show that an improvement in pump rate and output per unit length is obtained with the device, using a wedged transverse pumping scheme. A new multi-line laser system in NH 3 pumped by a TEA CO 2 laser is reported. More than forty transitions spanning the wavelength range of 9.2 to 13.8 μm are observed and identified. A strong output at 12.08 μm is one of the closest lines yet found to the required laser isotope separation wavelength. Far infrared emission near 65 μm is observed and is responsible for populating levels which lase in pure ammonia near 12.3 μm. Buffer gas (e.g., N 2 or He) pressures of approximately 40--800 torr cause energy transfer by collision-induced rotationaltransitions from the pumped antisymmetric to the lasing symmetric levels in the nu 2 = 1 band of ammonia. Most of the observed lines are aP(J,K) transitions which originate from the nu 2 /sup s/ band. Measurements of the pressure dependence of the laser output shows that some lines lase at pressures greater than one atmosphere. Transient behavior of the 12.08 μm line is calculated from a simplified analytic model and these calculations are compared to the experimental results

  10. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, J.C.

    1997-05-13

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

  11. Three-dimensional simulation of beam propagation and heat transfer in static gas Cs DPALs using wave optics and fluid dynamics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waichman, Karol; Barmashenko, Boris D.; Rosenwaks, Salman

    2017-10-01

    Analysis of beam propagation, kinetic and fluid dynamic processes in Cs diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs), using wave optics model and gasdynamic code, is reported. The analysis is based on a three-dimensional, time-dependent computational fluid dynamics (3D CFD) model. The Navier-Stokes equations for momentum, heat and mass transfer are solved by a commercial Ansys FLUENT solver based on the finite volume discretization technique. The CFD code which solves the gas conservation equations includes effects of natural convection and temperature diffusion of the species in the DPAL mixture. The DPAL kinetic processes in the Cs/He/C2H6 gas mixture dealt with in this paper involve the three lowest energy levels of Cs, (1) 62S1/2, (2) 62P1/2 and (3) 62P3/2. The kinetic processes include absorption due to the 1->3 D2 transition followed by relaxation the 3 to 2 fine structure levels and stimulated emission due to the 2->1 D1 transition. Collisional quenching of levels 2 and 3 and spontaneous emission from these levels are also considered. The gas flow conservation equations are coupled to fast-Fourier-transform algorithm for transverse mode propagation to obtain a solution of the scalar paraxial propagation equation for the laser beam. The wave propagation equation is solved by the split-step beam propagation method where the gain and refractive index in the DPAL medium affect the wave amplitude and phase. Using the CFD and beam propagation models, the gas flow pattern and spatial distributions of the pump and laser intensities in the resonator were calculated for end-pumped Cs DPAL. The laser power, DPAL medium temperature and the laser beam quality were calculated as a function of pump power. The results of the theoretical model for laser power were compared to experimental results of Cs DPAL.

  12. Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with congestive heart failure: causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzi-Filho,Geraldo; Genta,Pedro R; Figueiredo,Adelaide C.; Inoue,Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration is a form of periodic breathing in which central apneas and hypopneas alternate with periods of hyperventilation, producing a waxing and waning pattern of tidal volume. This review focuses on the causes and consequences of Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with congestive heart failure, in whom the prevalence is strikingly high and ranges from 30% to 50%. Several factors have been implicated in the genesis of Cheyne-Stokes respiration, including low cardiac outpu...

  13. Analysis of magnetohydrodynamic flow in linear induction EM pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geun Jong Yoo; Choi, H.K.; Eun, J.J.; Bae, Y.S.

    2005-01-01

    Numerical analysis is performed for magnetic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow fields in linear induction type electromagnetic (EM) pump. A finite volume method is applied to solve magnetic field governing equations and the Navier-Stokes equations. Vector and scalar potential methods are adopted to obtain the electric and magnetic fields and the resulting Lorentz force in solving Maxwell equations. The magnetic field and velocity distributions are found to be influenced by the phase of applied electric current. Computational results indicate that the magnetic flux distribution with changing phase of input electric current is characterized by pairs of counter-rotating closed loops. The velocity distributions are affected by the intensity of Lorentz force. The governing equations for the magnetic and flow fields are only semi-coupled in this study, therefore, further study with fully-coupled governing equations are required. (authors)

  14. The Green Monster: Stokes's 1944 Modern Clinical Syphilology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    There is much information on the life and accomplishments of John Hinchman Stokes (1885-1961), the dermatologist and syphilologist. There is little detailed information on his 1944 classic text on syphilis, Modern Clinical Syphilology. To review and critique this book. A careful review of the book, his life, and the accomplishments that were undertaken in relation to the age in which he lived. The book is indeed a goldmine of information of all aspects of syphilis from pre-World War I (1905) until the late (1944) World War II era. The factors that make it a classic are as follows: (1) the disease had a specific cause; (2) Stokes's 25-year obsession with the disease; (3) there was no effective simple cure for most of the time he was studying it; (4) Stokes was an obsessive, intelligent, well-trained physician; (5) he lived in a well-developed, reasonably stable country; and (6) he was able to see how the disease could be adequately treated with penicillin and compare these events with those in the prepenicillin era.

  15. Heat transfer in a magnet C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sircilli Neto, F.; Passaro, A.; Borges, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    The cooling systems of nuclear reactors for spacial applications include direct current electromagnetic pumps, which are used to circulate the coolant fluid thru the reactor core. In this work, the transfer of the heat generated by the electrical current in a magnet C excitation coils, which is used in a prototype pump, was evaluated. Considering the processes of heat transfer by conduction, natural convection and radiation, the results of simulation with the codes HEATING5 and AUTHEATS indicate the utilization of the 180 sup(0)C thermal class conductor for a working Joule power of 4 10 sup(4) W/m sup(3) in each magnet coil. (author)

  16. Thermal spin pumping mediated by magnons in the semiclassical regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Kouki

    2012-01-01

    We microscopically analyze thermal spin pumping mediated by magnons, at the interface between a ferromagnetic insulator and a non-magnetic metal, in the semiclassical regime. The generation of a spin current is discussed by calculating the thermal spin transfer torque, which breaks the spin conservation law for conduction electrons and operates the coherent magnon state. Inhomogeneous thermal fluctuations between conduction electrons and magnons induce a net spin current, which is pumped into the adjacent non-magnetic metal. The pumped spin current is proportional to the temperature difference. When the effective temperature of magnons is lower than that of conduction electrons, localized spins lose spin angular momentum by emitting magnons and conduction electrons flip from down to up by absorbing all the emitted momentum, and vice versa. Magnons at the zero mode cannot contribute to thermal spin pumping because they are eliminated by the spin-flip condition. Consequently thermal spin pumping does not cost any kind of applied magnetic fields

  17. Multigrid and defect correction for the steady Navier-Stokes equations : application to aerodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koren, B.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical and expcrimental convergence results are presented for nonlinear multigrid and iterative defect correction applied to finite volume discretizations of the full, steady, 2D, compressible NavierStokes equations. lterative defect correction is introduced for circumventing the difficulty in

  18. Efficient SDM-MIMO Stokes-space equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, F. J.Vaquero; Zanaty, A.; Pittala, F.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel frequency-domain 6x6 MIMO Stokes-space equalizer and compare its performance to a 6x6 MIMO LMS architecture. This method is suited to overcome DSP complexity and laser linewidth issues in SDM transmission systems....

  19. Adsorption pump for helium pumping out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donde, A.L.; Semenenko, Yu.E.

    1981-01-01

    Adsorption pump with adsorbent cooling by liquid helium is described. Shuttered shield protecting adsorbent against radiation is cooled with evaporating helium passing along the coil positioned on the shield. The pump is also equipped with primed cylindrical shield, cooled with liquid nitrogen. The nitrogen shield has in the lower part the shuttered shield, on the pump casing there is a valve used for pump pre-burning, and valves for connection to recipient as well. Pumping- out rates are presented at different pressures and temperatures of adsorbent. The pumping-out rate according to air at absorbent cooling with liquid nitrogen constituted 5x10 -4 Pa-3000 l/s, at 2x10 -2 Pa-630 l/s. During the absorbent cooling with liquid hydrogen the pumping-out rate according to air was at 4x10 -4 Pa-580 l/s, at 2x10 -3 Pa-680 l/s, according to hydrogen - at 8x10 -5 Pa-2500 l/s, at 5x10 -3 Pa-4200 l/s. During adsorbent cooling with liquid helium the rate of pumping-out according to hydrogen at 3x10 5 Pa-2400% l/s, at 6x10 3 Pa-1200 l/s, and according to helium at 3.5x10 -5 Pa-2800 l/s, at 4x10 -3 Pa-1150 l/s. The limit vacuum is equal to 1x10 -7 Pa. The volume of the vessel with liquid helium is equal to 3.5 l. Helium consumption is 80 cm 3 /h. Consumption of liquid nitrogen from the shield is 400 cm 3 /h. The limit pressure in the pump is obtained after forevacuum pumping-out (adsorbent regeneration) at 300 K temperature. The pump is made of copper. The pump height together with primed tubes is 800 mm diameter-380 mm [ru

  20. Application of thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations near maximum lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. K.; Thomas, J. L.; Rumsey, C. L.

    1984-01-01

    The flowfield about a NACA 0012 airfoil at a Mach number of 0.3 and Reynolds number of 1 million is computed through an angle of attack range, up to 18 deg, corresponding to conditions up to and beyond the maximum lift coefficient. Results obtained using the compressible thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are presented as well as results from the compressible Euler equations with and without a viscous coupling procedure. The applicability of each code is assessed and many thin-layer Navier-Stokes benchmark solutions are obtained which can be used for comparison with other codes intended for use at high angles of attack. Reasonable agreement of the Navier-Stokes code with experiment and the viscous-inviscid interaction code is obtained at moderate angles of attack. An unsteady solution is obtained with the thin-layer Navier-Stokes code at the highest angle of attack considered. The maximum lift coefficient is overpredicted, however, in comparison to experimental data, which is attributed to the presence of a laminar separation bubble near the leading edge not modeled in the computations. Two comparisons with experimental data are also presented at a higher Mach number.

  1. High Precision Stokes Polarimetry for Scattering Light using Wide Dynamic Range Intensity Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibata Shuhei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Stokes polarimetry for scattering light from a sample surface. To achieve a high accuracy measurement two approaches of an intensity detector and analysis algorism of a Stokes parameter were proposed. The dynamic range of this detector can achieve up to 1010 by combination of change of neutral-density (ND filters having different density and photon counting units. Stokes parameters can be measured by dual rotating of a retarder and an analyzer. The algorism of dual rotating polarimeter can be calibrated small linear diattenuation and linear retardance error of the retarder. This system can measured Stokes parameters from −20° to 70° of its scattering angle. It is possible to measure Stokes parameters of scattering of dust and scratch of optical device with high precision. This paper shows accuracy of this system, checking the polarization change of scattering angle and influence of beam size.

  2. Cutaneous porphyrins exhibit anti-stokes fluorescence that is detectable in sebum (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Giselle; Zeng, Haishan; Zhao, Jianhua; Wu, Zhenguo; Al Jasser, Mohammed; Lui, Harvey; Mclean, David I.

    2016-02-01

    Porphyrins produced by Propionibacterium acnes represent the principal fluorophore associated with acne, and appear as orange-red luminescence under the Wood's lamp. Assessment of acne based on Wood's lamp (UV) or visible light illumination is limited by photon penetration depth and has limited sensitivity for earlier stage lesions. Inducing fluorescence with near infrared (NIR) excitation may provide an alternative way to assess porphyrin-related skin disorders. We discovered that under 785 nm CW laser excitation PpIX powder exhibits fluorescence emission in the shorter wavelength range of 600-715 nm with an intensity that is linearly dependent on the excitation power. We attribute this shorter wavelength emission to anti-Stokes fluorescence. Similar anti-Stokes fluorescence was also detected focally in all skin-derived samples containing porphyrins. Regular (Stokes) fluorescence was present under UV and visible light excitation on ex vivo nasal skin and sebum from uninflamed acne, but not on nose surface smears or sebum from inflamed acne. Co-registered CW laser-excited anti-Stokes fluorescence and fs laser-excited multi-photon fluorescence images of PpIX powder showed similar features. In the skin samples because of the anti-Stokes effect, the NIR-induced fluorescence was presumably specific for porphyrins since there appeared to be no anti-Stokes emission signals from other typical skin fluorophores such as lipids, keratins and collagen. Anti-Stokes fluorescence under NIR CW excitation is more sensitive and specific for porphyrin detection than UV- or visible light-excited regular fluorescence and fs laser-excited multi-photon fluorescence. This approach also has higher image contrast compared to NIR fs laser-based multi-photon fluorescence imaging. The anti-Stokes fluorescence of porphyrins within sebum could potentially be applied to detecting and targeting acne lesions for treatment via fluorescence image guidance.

  3. Maternal response to two electric breast pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanical characteristics of breast pumps have been shown to influence milk extraction and hormone release in laboratory settings. However, few studies evaluate impact of differences in pump design on long-term breastfeeding success. This study evaluated the impact of a novel pump design on milk ex...

  4. Topology Optimization of Large Scale Stokes Flow Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Niels; Poulsen, Thomas Harpsøe; Gersborg-Hansen, Allan

    2008-01-01

    This note considers topology optimization of large scale 2D and 3D Stokes flow problems using parallel computations. We solve problems with up to 1.125.000 elements in 2D and 128.000 elements in 3D on a shared memory computer consisting of Sun UltraSparc IV CPUs.......This note considers topology optimization of large scale 2D and 3D Stokes flow problems using parallel computations. We solve problems with up to 1.125.000 elements in 2D and 128.000 elements in 3D on a shared memory computer consisting of Sun UltraSparc IV CPUs....

  5. Oscillatory Stokes Flow Past a Slip Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, D.

    2013-11-01

    Two-dimensional transient slow viscous flow past a circular cylinder with Navier slip boundary conditions is considered in the limit of low-Reynolds number. The oscillatory Stokes flow problem around a cylinder is solved using the stream function method leading to an analytic solution in terms of modified Bessel functions of the second kind. The corresponding steady-state behavior yields the familiar paradoxical result first detected by Stokes. It is noted that the two key parameters, viz., the frequency λ, and the slip coefficient ξ have a significant impact on the flow field in the vicinity of the cylinder contour. In the limit of very low frequency, the flow is dominated by a term containing a well-known biharmonic function found by Stokes that has a singular behavior at infinity. Local streamlines for small times show interesting flow patterns. Attached eddies due to flow separation - observed in the no-slip case - either get detached or pushed away from the cylinder surface as ξ is varied. Computed asymptotic results predict that the flow exhibits inviscid behavior far away from the cylinder in the frequency range 0 < λ << 1 . Although the frequency of oscillations is finite, our exact solutions reveal fairly rapid transitions in the flow domain. Research Enhancement grant, TAMUCC.

  6. Acceptance for Beneficial Use Pumping Instrumentation and Control Skid N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOCH, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    This is a final Acceptance for Beneficial Use (ABU) for Pumping and Instrumentation Control (PIC) skid ''N''. PIC skid ''N'' is ready for pumping tank U-109. All the testing and documentation has been completed as required on the AE3U checklist. This AE3U covers only the readiness of the PIC skid ''N''. Other U-farm preparations including dilution tank fabrication, portable exhauster readiness, leak detection, valve pit preparation, and the Operation Control Station readiness are not part of this ABU. PIC skid ''N'' is a new skid fabricated and tested at Site Fabrication Services. The skid controls the jet pump and monitors various instruments associated with the pumping operation. This monitoring includes leak detection along the waste transfer route and flammable gases in the pump pit. This Acceptance for Beneficial Use documents that Pumping Instrumentation and Control (PIC) skid ''N'' is ready for field use. This document does not cover the field installation or operational testing

  7. Quantification of Stokes Drift as a Mechanism for Surface Oil Advection in the DWH Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M.

    2013-12-01

    Stokes drift has previously been qualitatively shown to be a factor in ocean surface particle transport, but has never been comprehensively quantified. In addition, most operational ocean particle advection models used during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill do not explicitly account for Stokes drift, instead using a simple parameterization based on wind drift (or ignoring it completely). This research works to quantify Stokes drift via direct calculation, with a focus on shallow water, where Stokes drift is more likely to have a relatively large impact compared to other transport processes such as ocean currents. For this study, WaveWatch III modeled waves in the Gulf of Mexico are used, from which Stokes drift is calculated using the peak wave period and significant wave height outputs. Trajectories are also calculated to examine the role Stokes drift plays in bringing surface particles (and specifically surface oil slicks) onshore. The impact of Stokes drift is compared to transport by currents and traditional estimates of wind drift.

  8. Laser optical pumping of sodium and lithium atom beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusma, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    The method of optical pumping with a continuous wave dye laser has been used to produce beams of polarized 23 Na atoms and polarized 6 Li atoms. Optical pumping of a 23 Na atom beam using either a multimode dye laser or a single frequency dye laser with a double passed acousto-optic modulator results in electron spin polarizations of 0.70-0.90 and nuclear spin polarizations of 0.75-0.90. Optical pumping of a 6 Li atom beam using a single frequency dye laser either with an acousto-optic modulator or with Doppler shift pumping results in electron spin polarizations of 0.77-0.95 and nuclear spin polarizations greater than 0.90. The polarization of the atom beam is measured using either the laser induced fluorescence in an intermediate magnetic field or a 6-pole magnet to determine the occupation probabilities of the ground hyperfine sublevels following optical pumping. The results of the laser optical pumping experiments agree with the results of a rate equation analysis of the optical pumping process which predicts that nearly all atoms are transferred into a single sublevel for our values of laser intensity and interaction time. The use of laser optical pumping in a polarized ion source for nuclear scattering experiments is discussed. The laser optical pumping method provides a means of constructing an intense source of polarized Li and Na ions

  9. Variable flow controls of closed system pumps for energy savings in maritime power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Chun-Lien; Liao, Chi-Hsiang; Chou, Tso-Chu; Chou, Ming-Hung; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Pumps are extensively used in maritime industries as marine vessels utilize a wide range of pumps and pumping techniques to transfer and distribute all types of air and fluids. The electrical energy consumed by the various motors accounts for about 70% of a vessel’s total power consumption, and this presents a problem in unique marine environments. Such situations are especially conducive to energy-saving strategies using variable frequency drives (VFDs) in centrifugal load service. This pape...

  10. Experimental results of wind powered pumping plant with electrical transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falchetta, M.; Prischich, D.; Benedetti, A.; Cara, G.

    1992-01-01

    A demonstrative application of deep well pumping system employing a wind powered pumping plant with an electric transmission was set-up and tested for two years at the test field of the Casaccia center of ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment), near Rome. The tests permitted the evaluation of the practical performance, advantages and drawbacks of a wind pumping plant of this type, in order to permit a design optimization and a proper choice of components and of control strategies for future commercial applications. The main point of investigation was the evaluation of the effectiveness of a control scheme based on a 'permanent link' between electric generator and electric motor, avoiding any electronics and switching components, and leading to a very robust and reliable means of transferring energy to the pump at variable speed, and at low cost

  11. Substrate specificity of the OqxAB multidrug resistance pump in Escherichia coli and selected enteric bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Sørensen, Heidi Iskou

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: A plasmid-encoded multidrug eff lux pump, OqxAB, identified in Escherichia coli of porcine origin, was tested for substrate specificity against selected antibiotics, detergents and disinfectants. The ability of horizontal transfer to food-borne pathogens of the Enterobacteriaceae family......: The plasmid-encoded OqxAB pump has a wide substrate specificity and can be transferred between Enterobacteriaceae conferring reduced susceptibility to a multitude of substrates. These results could indicate some dependence on the outer membrane proteins present in the different species....

  12. Pocket pumped image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, I.V., E-mail: kotov@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); O' Connor, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Murray, N. [Centre for Electronic Imaging, Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    The pocket pumping technique is used to detect small electron trap sites. These traps, if present, degrade CCD charge transfer efficiency. To reveal traps in the active area, a CCD is illuminated with a flat field and, before image is read out, accumulated charges are moved back and forth number of times in parallel direction. As charges are moved over a trap, an electron is removed from the original pocket and re-emitted in the following pocket. As process repeats one pocket gets depleted and the neighboring pocket gets excess of charges. As a result a “dipole” signal appears on the otherwise flat background level. The amplitude of the dipole signal depends on the trap pumping efficiency. This paper is focused on trap identification technique and particularly on new methods developed for this purpose. The sensor with bad segments was deliberately chosen for algorithms development and to demonstrate sensitivity and power of new methods in uncovering sensor defects.

  13. Phase change heat transfer device for process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Patterson, Mike; Utgikar, Vivek; Gunnerson, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) will most likely produce electricity and process heat, with both being considered for hydrogen production. To capture nuclear process heat, and transport it to a distant industrial facility requires a high temperature system of heat exchangers, pumps and/or compressors. The heat transfer system is particularly challenging not only due to the elevated temperatures (up to ∼1300 K) and industrial scale power transport (≥50 MW), but also due to a potentially large separation distance between the nuclear and industrial plants (100+ m) dictated by safety and licensing mandates. The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase thermosyphon heat transfer performance with alkali metals. A thermosyphon is a thermal device for transporting heat from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. In contrast to single-phased forced convective heat transfer via 'pumping a fluid', a thermosyphon (also called a wickless heat pipe) transfers heat through the vaporization/condensing process. The condensate is further returned to the hot source by gravity, i.e., without any requirement of pumps or compressors. With this mode of heat transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport heat at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. Two-phase heat transfer by a thermosyphon has the advantage of high enthalpy transport that includes the sensible heat of the liquid, the latent heat of vaporization, and vapor superheat. In contrast, single-phase forced convection transports only the sensible heat of the fluid. Additionally, vapor-phase velocities within a thermosyphon are much greater than single-phase liquid velocities within a forced convective loop. Thermosyphon performance can be limited by the sonic limit (choking) of vapor flow and/or by condensate entrainment. Proper thermosyphon requires analysis of both.

  14. Application of the parallel BDDC preconditioner to the Stokes flow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šístek, Jakub; Sousedík, Bedřich; Burda, P.; Mandel, J.; Novotný, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2011), s. 429-435 ISSN 0045-7930 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100760702; GA ČR GA106/08/0403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503; CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : BDDC * domain decomprosition * iterative substructuring * Stokes flow Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.810, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045793011000053

  15. Effects of friction on forced two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackbourn, Luke A K; Tran, Chuong V

    2011-10-01

    Large-scale dissipation mechanisms have been routinely employed in numerical simulations of two-dimensional turbulence to absorb energy at large scales, presumably mimicking the quasisteady picture of Kraichnan in an unbounded fluid. Here, "side effects" of such a mechanism--mechanical friction--on the small-scale dynamics of forced two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence are elaborated by both theoretical and numerical analysis. Given a positive friction coefficient α, viscous dissipation of enstrophy has been known to vanish in the inviscid limit ν→0. This effectively renders the scale-neutral friction the only mechanism responsible for enstrophy dissipation in that limit. The resulting dynamical picture is that the classical enstrophy inertial range becomes a dissipation range in which the dissipation of enstrophy by friction mainly occurs. For each α>0, there exists a critical viscosity ν(c), which depends on physical parameters, separating the regimes of predominant viscous and frictional dissipation of enstrophy. It is found that ν(c)=[η'(1/3)/(Ck(f)(2))]exp[-η'(1/3)/(Cα)], where η' is half the enstrophy injection rate, k(f) is the forcing wave number, and C is a nondimensional constant (the Kraichnan-Batchelor constant). The present results have important theoretical and practical implications. Apparently, mechanical friction is a poor choice in numerical attempts to address fundamental issues concerning the direct enstrophy transfer in two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence. Furthermore, as relatively strong friction naturally occurs on the surfaces and at lateral boundaries of experimental fluids as well as at the interfaces of shallow layers in geophysical fluid models, the frictional effects discussed in this study are crucial in understanding the dynamics of these systems.

  16. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  17. Dual-pump CARS measurements in a hydrogen diffusion flame in cross-flow with AC dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Munetake; Freund, Jonathan B.; Glumac, Nick G.; Elliott, Gregory S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements for simultaneous detection of flow temperature and relative concentration, applied to the characterization of a discharge-coupled reacting jet in a cross flow. The diagnostic is hydrogen Q-branch based, providing a much wider dynamic range compared to detection in the S-branch. For a previously developed dielectric barrier discharge, aligned co-axially with the fuel jet, OH planar laser induced fluorescence measurements show that the disturbance in the flame boundary leads to mixing enhancement. The H2-N2 dual-pump CARS measurement was used to map two-dimensional temperature distributions. The increase of the maximum temperature was up to 300 K, with 50% more H2 consumption, providing the reason for the decrease in the flame length by 25%. The increase of the relative H2O-H2 fraction was accompanied with a temperature increase, which indicates local equivalence ratios of below 1. The H2-O2 dual-pump measurements confirmed that the fuel-oxidizer ratios remain in the fuel-lean side at most of the probed locations.

  18. Energy transfer properties and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Since no single experimental technique is the best method for energy transfer experiments, we have used both time-dependent infrared fluorescence (IRF) and time-dependent thermal lensing (TDTL) to study energy transfer in various systems. We are investigating pump-probe techniques employing resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI). IRF was used to study benzene, azulene, and toluene. TDTL was used to study CS 2 and SO 2 (data not given for latter). Large molecule energy transfer mechanisms are discussed. 10 figs

  19. Ocean Biological Pump Sensitivities and Implications for Climate Change Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanou, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    The ocean is one of the principal reservoirs of CO2, a greenhouse gas, and therefore plays a crucial role in regulating Earth's climate. Currently, the ocean sequesters about a third of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, mitigating the human impact on climate. At the same time, the deeper ocean represents the largest carbon pool in the Earth System and processes that describe the transfer of carbon from the surface of the ocean to depth are intimately linked to the effectiveness of carbon sequestration.The ocean biological pump (OBP), which involves several biogeochemical processes, is a major pathway for transfer of carbon from the surface mixed layer into the ocean interior. About 75 of the carbon vertical gradient is due to the carbon pump with only 25 attributed to the solubility pump. However, the relative importance and role of the two pumps is poorly constrained. OBP is further divided to the organic carbon pump (soft tissue pump) and the carbonate pump, with the former exporting about 10 times more carbon than the latter through processes like remineralization.Major uncertainties about OBP, and hence in the carbon uptake and sequestration, stem from uncertainties in processes involved in OBP such as particulate organicinorganic carbon sinkingsettling, remineralization, microbial degradation of DOC and uptakegrowth rate changes of the ocean biology. The deep ocean is a major sink of atmospheric CO2 in scales of hundreds to thousands of years, but how the export efficiency (i.e. the fraction of total carbon fixation at the surface that is transported at depth) is affected by climate change remains largely undetermined. These processes affect the ocean chemistry (alkalinity, pH, DIC, particulate and dissolved organic carbon) as well as the ecology (biodiversity, functional groups and their interactions) in the ocean. It is important to have a rigorous, quantitative understanding of the uncertainties involved in the observational measurements, the models and the

  20. Stokes polarimetry probe for skin lesion evaluation: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Daniel C.; Tchvialeva, Lioudmilla; Kalia, Sunil; Lui, Harvey; Lee, Tim K.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports on the design of a prototype in-vivo Stokes polarimetry probe for skin lesion evaluation, and preliminary results from skin phantom and clinical trials of this device. The probe releases a single millisecond-long pulse from a laser diode with either linear or circular polarization. It then captures the resulting backscattered far-field polarization speckle and calculates the Stokes parameters. This probe was designed with three novel innovations in mind. First, the Stokes vector is captured quickly, using low-cost components without the use of moving parts. Second, a compact collimated laser diode was used as the light source. Third, the device and detector geometry were designed to produce and capture a uniform speckle field. In the first clinical trial of this device, measurements were taken from a variety of skin lesions, both cancerous and benign. The Stokes vector was measured and used to calculate the degree of polarization (DOP), the azimuth angle, and the ellipticity angle of the polarization ellipse for two input light polarizations. Among other findings, the DOP for circular polarized input light was consistently lower than the DOP for linear polarized input light. These findings indicate the potential for a fast and low-cost in-vivo skin cancer screening tool, and encourages the continuing development of this probe's techniques.

  1. Multiobjective Optimization of a Counterrotating Type Pump-Turbine Unit Operated at Turbine Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyuk Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A multiobjective optimization for improving the turbine output and efficiency of a counterrotating type pump-turbine unit operated at turbine mode was carried out in this work. The blade geometry of both the runners was optimized using a hybrid multiobjective evolutionary algorithm coupled with a surrogate model. Three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the shear stress transport turbulence model were discretized by finite volume approximations and solved on hexahedral grids to analyze the flow in the pump-turbine unit. As major hydrodynamic performance parameters, the turbine output and efficiency were selected as objective functions with two design variables related to the hub profiles of both the runner blades. These objectives were numerically assessed at twelve design points selected by Latin hypercube sampling in the design space. Response surface approximation models for the objectives were constructed based on the objective function values at the design points. A fast nondominated sorting genetic algorithm for the local search coupled with the response surface approximation models was applied to determine the global Pareto-optimal solutions. The trade-off between the two objectives was determined and described with respect to the Pareto-optimal solutions. The results of this work showed that the turbine outputs and efficiencies of optimized pump-turbine units were simultaneously improved in comparison to the reference unit.

  2. Review article: Numerical simulation of adsorption heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesaran, Alireza; Lee, Hoseong; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The primary advantages of the AHP (adsorption heat pump) including using environmentally friendly working fluids and their capability of using low-grade waste heat as their primary driving energy have raised a great deal of attention in recent years. In this work, computer models of AHPs and the latest relevant findings are reviewed since the performance of an AHP system greatly depends on the coupled heat and mass transfer rates inside the adsorbent bed and the design parameters of the adsorber. The nonlinearity of the coupled heat and mass transfer equations makes the qualitative analysis of such systems difficult and hence many researchers have proposed various models to predict the performance of the system and optimize the design parameters to boost the performance. The available models in the literature have been categorized into thermodynamic models, lumped-parameter models, and distributed-parameter (heat and mass transfer) models. The results of the literature review indicate that recent numerical modeling of AHPs relies on the distributed-parameter models. Majority of the modeling works are focused on validating the proposed model and used the model to optimize the adsorber design parameters and operating conditions of the system. Based on the literature review, some potential future research areas are suggested. - Highlights: • Reviewed different types of models to predict the adsorption heat pump performance. • Distributed-parameter models are identified as the most accurate models. • Linear driving force model is widely used for the internal mass transfer resistance. • Darcy's law is widely used for the external mass transfer resistance.

  3. An environmentalist's perspective on alternatives to pump and treat for ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Pump and treat is far-and-away the most prevalent technique to remediate contaminated ground water. There is, however, a growing awareness of the limitations of this remediation method to achieve either background or health-based water quality standards, particularly for petroleum hydrocarbon constituents. Given these limitations, this paper explores advantages and disadvantages of some remediation alternatives from an environmentalist's perspective. They are: Do it anyway; Quit; Use supplementary remediation technology; Set alternative concentration standards; and Transfer resources to pollution prevention

  4. Enzyme-Powered Pumps: From Fundamentals to Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rivera, Isamar

    Non-mechanical nano and microfluidic devices that function without the aid of an external power source, and can be tailored to meet specific needs, represent the next generation of smart devices. Recently, we have shown that surface-bound enzymes can act as pumps driving large-scale fluid flows in the presence of any substance that triggers the enzymatic reaction (e.g. substrate, co-factor, or biomarker). The fluid velocities attained in such systems depend directly on the enzymatic reaction rate and the concentration of the substance that initiates enzymatic catalysis. The use of biochemical reactions to power a micropump offers the advantages of specificity, sensitivity, and selectively, eliminating at the same time the need of an external power source, while providing biocompatibility. More importantly, these self-powered pumps overcome a significant obstacle in nano- and micro-fluidics: the need to use external pressure-driven pumps to push fluids through devices. Certainly, the development of enzyme-powered devices opens up new venues in biochemical engineering, particularly in the biomedical field. The work highlighted in this dissertation covers all the studies performed with enzyme-powered pumps, from the development of the micropump design, to the efforts invested in understanding the enzyme pump concept as a whole. The data collected to date, aims to expand our knowledge about enzyme-powered micropumps from the inside out: not only by exploring the different applications of these devices at the macroscale, but also by investigating in depth the mechanism of pump activation behind these systems. Specifically, we have focused on: (1) The general features that characterize the pumping behavior observed in enzyme-powered pumps, as well as the optimization of the device, (2) the possible mechanisms behind fluid motion, including the role of enzyme coverage and/or activity on the transduction of chemical energy into mechanical fluid flow in these devices

  5. An analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation for internal flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyberg, Mats D; Tryggeson, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    This paper derives a solution to the Navier-Stokes equation by considering vorticity generated at system boundaries. The result is an explicit expression for the velocity. The Navier-Stokes equation is reformulated as a divergence and integrated, giving a tensor equation that splits into a symmetric and a skew-symmetric part. One equation gives an algebraic system of quadratic equations involving velocity components. A system of nonlinear partial differential equations is reduced to algebra. The velocity is then explicitly calculated and shown to depend on boundary conditions only. This removes the need to solve the Navier-Stokes equation by a 3D numerical computation, replacing it by computation of 2D surface integrals over the boundary. (fast track communication)

  6. Impact of Seasonal Heat Accumulation on Operation of Geothermal Heat Pump System with Vertical Ground Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, D. V.; Malyavina, E. G.

    2017-11-01

    The subject of the investigation was to find out the influence of heat pump operation in summer on its function in winter. For this purpose a mathematical model of a ground coupled heat pump system has been developed and programmed. The mathematical model of a system ground heat exchanger uses the finite difference method to describe the heat transfer in soil and the analytical method to specify the heat transfer in the U-tubes heat exchanger. The thermal diffusivity by the heat transfer in the soil changes during gradual freezing of the pore moisture and thus slows soil freezing. The mathematical model of a heat pump includes the description of a scroll compressor and the simplified descriptions of the evaporator and condenser. The analysis showed that heating during the cold season and cooling in the warm season affect the average heat transfer medium temperature in the soil loop in the winter season. It has been also showed that the degree of this effect depends on the clay content in the soil.

  7. Performance characteristics and parametric optimization of an irreversible magnetic Ericsson heat-pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Fang; Lin Guoxing; Chen Jincan; Brueck, Ekkes

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the finite-rate heat transfer in the heat-transfer processes, heat leak between the two external heat reservoirs, regenerative loss, regeneration time, and internal irreversibility due to dissipation of the cycle working substance, an irreversible magnetic Ericsson heat-pump cycle is presented. On the basis of the thermodynamic properties of magnetic materials, the performance characteristics of the irreversible magnetic Ericsson heat-pump are investigated and the relationship between the optimal heating load and the coefficient of performance (COP) is derived. Moreover, the maximum heating load and the corresponding COP as well as the maximum COP and the corresponding heating load are obtained. Furthermore, the other optimal performance characteristics are discussed in detail. The results obtained here may provide some new information for the optimal parameter design and the development of real magnetic Ericsson heat-pumps. -- Research Highlights: →The effects of multi-irreversibilities on the performance of a magnetic heat-pump are revealed. →Mathematical expressions of the heating load and the COP are derived and the optimal performance and operating parameters are analyzed and discussed. →Several important performance bounds are determined.

  8. Characteristics of 1.9-μm laser emission from hydrogen-filled hollow-core fiber by vibrational stimulated Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bo; Chen, Yubin; Wang, Zefeng

    2016-12-01

    We report here the characteristics of 1.9-μm laser emission from a gas-filled hollow-core fiber by stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). A 6.5-m hydrogen-filled ice-cream negative curvature hollow-core fiber is pumped with a high peak-power, narrow linewidth, linearly polarized subnanosecond pulsed 1064-nm microchip laser, generating a pulsed vibrational Stokes wave at 1908.5 nm. The maximum quantum efficiency of about 48% is obtained, which is mainly limited by the mode mismatch between the pump laser beam and the Stokes wave in the hollow-core fiber. The linewidths of the pump laser and the first-order vibrational Stokes wave are measured to be about 1 and 2 GHz, respectively, by a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer. The pressure selection phenomenon of the vibrational anti-Stokes waves is also investigated. The pulse duration of the vibrational Stokes wave is recorded to be narrower than that of the pump laser. The polarization properties of the hollow-core fiber and the polarization dependence of the vibrational and the rotational SRS are also studied. The beam profile of the vibrational Stokes wave shows good quality.

  9. Transient heat transfer analysis up to dryout in 3D fuel rods under unideal conditions through the development of a computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Rodolfo I.; Affonso, Renato R.W.; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes; Sampaio, Paulo A. B. de

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a conjugated transient heat transfer problem consisting of a nuclear reactor's fuel rod and its intrinsic coolant channel. Our analysis is made possible through a computer code being developed at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN). This code is meant to study the temperature behavior in fuel rods which exhibit deviation from their ideal conditions, that is, rods in which the cladding is deformed or the fuel is dislocated. It is also designed to avoid the use of the computationally expensive Navier-Stokes equations. For these reasons, its physical model has as basis a three-dimensional fuel rod coupled to a one-dimensional coolant channel, which are discretized using the finite element method. Intending to study accidental conditions in which the coolant (light water) transcends its saturation temperature, turning into vapor, a homogeneous mixture is used to represent the two-phase flow, and so the coolant channel's energy equation is described using enthalpy. Owing to the fact that temperature and enthalpy are used in the physical model, it became impractical to generate a fully coupled method for solving the pertinent equations. Thus, the conjugated heat transfer problem is solved in a segregated manner through the implementation of an iterative method. Finally, as study cases for this paper we present analyses concerning the behavior of the hottest fuel rod in a Pressurized Water Reactor during a shutdown wherein the residual heat removal system is lost (loss of the reactor's coolant pumps). These studies contemplate cases in which the fuel rod's geometry is ideal or curved. Analyses are also performed for two circumstances of positioning of the fuel inside the rod: concentric and eccentric. (author)

  10. Laser induced broad band anti-Stokes white emission from LiYbF4 nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Marciniak; R. Tomala; M. Stefanski; D. Hreniak; W. Strek

    2016-01-01

    Spectroscopic properties of tetragonal LiYbF4 nanocrystals under high dense NIR excitation at vacuum condition were in-vestigated. White, broad band emission covering whole visible part of the spectrum from LiYbF4 nanocrystals was observed. Its in-tensity strongly depended on the excitation power, excitation wavelength and ambient pressure. Temperature of the nanocrystals un-der 975 nm excitation was determined as a function of excitation power. Strong photo-induced current was observed from LiYbF4 pallet. The emission kinetic was analyzed. The mechanism of the anti-Stokes white emission was discussed in terms of the la-ser-induced charge transfer emission from Yb2+ states.

  11. Influence of the dispersive and dissipative scales alpha and beta on the energy spectrum of the Navier-Stokes alphabeta equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuemei; Fried, Eliot

    2008-10-01

    Lundgren's vortex model for the intermittent fine structure of high-Reynolds-number turbulence is applied to the Navier-Stokes alphabeta equations and specialized to the Navier-Stokes alpha equations. The Navier-Stokes alphabeta equations involve dispersive and dissipative length scales alpha and beta, respectively. Setting beta equal to alpha reduces the Navier-Stokes alphabeta equations to the Navier-Stokes alpha equations. For the Navier-Stokes alpha equations, the energy spectrum is found to obey Kolmogorov's -5/3 law in a range of wave numbers identical to that determined by Lundgren for the Navier-Stokes equations. For the Navier-Stokes alphabeta equations, Kolmogorov's -5/3 law is also recovered. However, granted that beta Navier-Stokes alphabeta equations may have the potential to resolve features smaller than those obtainable using the Navier-Stokes alpha equations.

  12. Analysis Mathlab / Simulink of a PV System Used for Water Pumping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOUSSAIBO Andre

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes used a photovoltaic system used for pumping water. The particularity of the system is to store water in a tank so it does not require energy storage elecrtic produced by photovoltaic conversion. Maximum power transfer from source (photovoltaic systems the consumer requires the establishment maximum operating point in the characteristic power - voltage. The influence of various parameters on water pumping system operation is done using numerical simulation method. The whole system is simulated numerically in programming environment MATLAB/ SIMULINK. The implementation of numerical model of a system of solar pumping is important to optimally solve the problem of accumulation of water management in rural areas.

  13. Velocity profiles of acoustic streaming in resulting stokes layer by acoustic standing wave in a duct; Kannai kichi shindo ni okeru stokes sonai onkyoryu ryusoku bunpu no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, M; Kawahashi, M [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-07-25

    Acoustic streaming is generated by Reynolds stress in the sense of mean acoustic momentum flux in a sound field. In the case of an acoustic standing wave produced by an air column oscillation in a closed duct, the friction and the Reynolds stress in the resulting Stokes layer are the essentials of acoustic streaming generation in the vicinity of the duct wall. The thickness of the Stokes layer decreases with the oscillatory Reynolds number. The plane wave propagation in the duct is assumed for the case of high Reynolds number except for the thin Stokes layer adjacent to the duct wall. The velocity profiles of the streaming are estimated theoretically from the steady component of the second-order term of a perturbation expansion in which the first-order approximation is a sinusoidal oscillation of the air column with plane waves. The present paper describes theoretical analysis of the velocity profiles of the acoustic streaming in the Stokes layer by means of the matched asymptotic expansion method. The results obtained show the existence of reverse streaming in a very thin layer adjacent to the wall and the effects of thermal boundary conditions at the wall on the velocity profiles of acoustic streaming in the Stokes layer. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Numerical study of heat transfer enhancement due to the use of fractal-shaped design for impingement cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a numerical analysis of a heat transfer enhancement technique that introduces fractal-shaped design for impingement cooling. Based on the gas turbine combustion chamber cooling, a fractal-shaped nozzle is designed for the constant flow area in a single impingement cooling model. The incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are applied to the system using CFD software. The numerical results are compared with the experiment results for array impingement cooling.

  15. Transient behaviour of main coolant pump in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delja, A.

    1986-01-01

    A basic concept of PWR reactor coolant pump thermo-hydraulic modelling in transient and accident operational condition is presented. The reactor coolant pump is a component of the nuclear steam supply system which forces the coolant through the reactor and steam generator, maintaining design heat transfer condition. The pump operating conditions have strong influence on the flow and thermal behaviour of NSSS, both in the stationary and nonstationary conditions. A mathematical model of the reactor coolant pump is formed by using dimensionless homologous relations in the four-quadrant regimes: normal pump, turbine, dissipation and reversed flow. Since in some operational regimes flow of mixture, liquid and steam may occur, the model has additional correction members for two-phase homologous relations. Modular concept has been used in developing computer program. The verification is performed on the simulation loss of offsite power transient and obtained results are presented. (author)

  16. Method and system to measure temperature of gases using coherent anti-stokes doppler spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark

    2013-12-17

    A method of measuring a temperature of a noble gas in a chamber includes providing the noble gas in the chamber. The noble gas is characterized by a pressure and a temperature. The method also includes directing a first laser beam into the chamber and directing a second laser beam into the chamber. The first laser beam is characterized by a first frequency and the second laser beam is characterized by a second frequency. The method further includes converting at least a portion of the first laser beam and the second laser beam into a coherent anti-Stokes beam, measuring a Doppler broadening of the coherent anti-Stokes beam, and computing the temperature using the Doppler broadening.

  17. Pumping mechanisms in sputter-ion pumps low pressure operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that significant H 2 pumping occurs in the walls of triode pumps. Also, H 2 is pumped in the anode cells of sputter-ion pumps. This pumping occurs in a manner similar to that by which the inert gases are pumped. That is, H 2 is pumped in the walls of the anode cells by high energy neutral burial. Hydrogen in the pump walls and anodes limits the base pressure of the pump

  18. Potential of enhancing a natural convection loop with a thermomagnetically pumped ferrofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aursand, Eskil; Gjennestad, Magnus Aa.; Lervåg, Karl Yngve, E-mail: karl.lervag@sintef.no; Lund, Halvor

    2016-11-01

    The feasibility of using a thermomagnetically pumped ferrofluid to enhance the performance of a natural convection cooling loop is investigated. First, a simplified analytical estimate for the thermomagnetic pumping action is derived, and then design rules for optimal solenoid and ferrofluid are presented. The design rules are used to set up a medium-scale (1 m, 10–1000 W) case study, which is modeled using a previously published and validated model (Aursand et al. [1]). The results show that the thermomagnetic driving force is significant compared to the natural convection driving force, and may in some cases greatly surpass it. The results also indicate that cooling performance can be increased by factors up to 4 and 2 in the single-phase and two-phase regimes, respectively, even when taking into the account the added heat from the solenoid. The performance increases can alternatively be used to obtain a reduction in heat-sink size by up to 75%. - Highlights: • We consider a thermomagnetically pumped ferrofluid for heat transfer. • The performance of the thermomagnetic pump is compared to natural convection. • The flow is simulated using a two-phase flow model. • The thermomagnetic driving force improves heat transfer significantly.

  19. Pattern recognition of obstructive sleep apnoea and Cheyne–Stokes respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinreich, Gerhard; Teschler, Helmut; Armitstead, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of an artificial neural network based on flow-related spectral entropy as a diagnostic test for obstructive sleep apnoea and Cheyne–Stokes respiration. A data set of 37 subjects was used for spectral analysis of the airflow by performing a fast Fourier transform. The examined intervals were divided into epochs of 3 min. Spectral entropy S was applied as a measure for the spread of the related power spectrum. The spectrum was divided into several frequency areas with various subsets of spectral entropy. We studied 11 subjects with obstructive apnoeas (n = 267 epochs), 10 subjects with obstructive hypopnoeas (n = 80 epochs), 11 subjects with Cheyne–Stokes respiration (n = 253 epochs) and 5 subjects with normal breathing in non-REM sleep (n = 174 epochs). Based on spectral entropy an artificial neural network was built, and we obtained a sensitivity of 90.2% and a specificity of 90.9% for distinguishing between obstructive apnoeas and Cheyne–Stokes respiration, and a sensitivity of 91.3% and a specificity of 94.6% for discriminating between obstructive hypopnoeas and normal breathing in non-REM sleep. This resulted in an accuracy of 91.5% for identifying flow patterns of obstructive sleep apnoea, Cheyne–Stokes respiration and normal breathing in non-REM sleep. It is concluded that the use of an artificial neural network relying on spectral analysis of the airflow could be a useful method as a diagnostic test for obstructive sleep apnoea and Cheyne–Stokes respiration

  20. Numerical Research on Effects of Splitter Blades to the Influence of Pump as Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Sun-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal pumps can be operated in reverse as small hydropower recovery turbines and are cheaper than bespoke turbines due to their ease of manufacture. Splitter blades technique is one of the techniques used in flow field optimization and performance enhancement of rotating machinery. To understand the effects of splitter blades to the steady and unsteady influence of PAT, numerical research was performed. 3D Navier-Stokes solver CFX was used in the performance prediction and analysis of PAT’s performance. Results show that splitter blades have a positive impact on PAT’s performance. With the increase of splitter blades, its required pressure head is dropped and its efficiency is increased. Unsteady pressure field analysis and comparison show that the unsteady pressure field within PAT is improved when splitter blades are added to impeller flow passage. To verify the accuracy of numerical prediction methods, an open PAT test rig was built at Jiangsu University. The PAT was manufactured and tested. Comparison between experimental and numerical results shows that the discrepancy between numerical and experimental results is acceptable. CFD can be used in the performance prediction and optimization of PAT.

  1. Pumping mechanisms in sputter-ion pumps low pressure operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that significant H 2 pumping occurs in the walls of triode pumps. Also, H 2 is pumped in the anode cells of sputter-ion pumps. This pumping occurs in a manner similar to that by which the inert gases are pumped. That is, H 2 pumped in the walls of the anode cells by high energy neutral burial. Hydrogen in the pump walls and anodes limits the base pressure of the pump. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. Performances of four magnetic heat-pump cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.C.; Murphy, R.W.; Mel, V.C.; Chen, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic heat pumps have been successfully used for refrigeration applications at near absolute-zero-degree temperatures. In these applications, a temperature lift of a few degrees in a cryogenic environment is sufficient and can be easily achieved by a simple magnetic heat-pump cycle. To extend magnetic heat pumping to other temperature ranges and other types of applications in which the temperature lift is more than just a few degrees requires more involved cycle processes. This paper investigates the characteristics of a few better-known thermomagnetic heat-pump cycles (Carnot, Ericsson, Stirling, and regenerative) in extended ranges of temperature lift. The regenerative cycle is the most efficient one. For gadolinium operating between 0 and 7 T (Tesla) in a heat pump cycle with a heat-rejection temperature of 320 K, our analysis predicted a 42% loss in coefficient of performance at 260 K cooling temperature, and a 15% loss in capacity at 232 K cooling temperature for the constant-field cycle as compared with the ideal regenerative cycle. Such substantial penalties indicate that the potential irreversibilities from this one source (the additional heat transfer that would be needed for the constant-field vs. the ideal regenerative cycle) may adversely affect the viability of certain proposed MHP concepts if the relevant loss mechanisms are not adequately addressed

  3. New Configurations of Micro Plate-Fin Heat Sink to Reduce Coolant Pumping Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, A.; Rosendahl, L. A.

    2012-06-01

    The thermal resistance of heat exchangers has a strong influence on the electric power produced by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). In this work, a real TEG device is applied to three configurations of micro plate-fin heat sink. The distance between certain microchannels is varied to find the optimum heat sink configuration. The particular focus of this study is to reduce the coolant mass flow rate by considering the thermal resistances of the heat sinks and, thereby, to reduce the coolant pumping power in the system. The three-dimensional governing equations for the fluid flow and the heat transfer are solved using the finite-volume method for a wide range of pressure drop laminar flows along the heat sink. The temperature and the mass flow rate distribution in the heat sink are discussed. The results, which are in good agreement with previous computational studies, show that using suggested heat sink configurations reduces the coolant pumping power in the system.

  4. Hydraulic development of high specific-speed pump-turbines by means of an inverse design method, numerical flow-simulation (CFD) and model testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerschberger, P; Gehrer, A

    2010-01-01

    In recent years an increased interest in pump-turbines has been recognized in the market. The rapid availability of pumped storage schemes and the benefits to the power system by peak lopping, providing reserve and rapid response for frequency control are becoming of growing advantage. In that context it is requested to develop pump-turbines that reliably stand dynamic operation modes, fast changes of the discharge rate by adjusting the variable diffuser vanes as well as fast changes from pump to turbine operation. Within the present study various flow patterns linked to the operation of a pump-turbine system are discussed. In that context pump and turbine mode are presented separately and different load cases at both operation modes are shown. In order to achieve modern, competitive pump-turbine designs it is further explained which design challenges should be considered during the geometry definition of a pump-turbine impeller. Within the present study a runner-blade profile for a low head pump-turbine has been developed. For the initial hydraulic runner-blade design, an inverse design method has been applied. Within this design procedure, a first blade geometry is generated by imposing the pressure loading-distribution and by means of an inverse 3D potential-flow-solution. The hydraulic behavior of both, pump-mode and turbine-mode is then evaluated by solving the full 3D Navier-Stokes equations in combination with a robust turbulence model. Based on this initial design the blade profile has been further optimized and redesigned considering various hydraulic pump-turbine requirements. Finally, the progress in hydraulic design is demonstrated by model test results which show a significant improvement in hydraulic performance compared to an existing reference design.

  5. Hydraulic development of high specific-speed pump-turbines by means of an inverse design method, numerical flow-simulation (CFD) and model testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschberger, P.; Gehrer, A.

    2010-08-01

    In recent years an increased interest in pump-turbines has been recognized in the market. The rapid availability of pumped storage schemes and the benefits to the power system by peak lopping, providing reserve and rapid response for frequency control are becoming of growing advantage. In that context it is requested to develop pump-turbines that reliably stand dynamic operation modes, fast changes of the discharge rate by adjusting the variable diffuser vanes as well as fast changes from pump to turbine operation. Within the present study various flow patterns linked to the operation of a pump-turbine system are discussed. In that context pump and turbine mode are presented separately and different load cases at both operation modes are shown. In order to achieve modern, competitive pump-turbine designs it is further explained which design challenges should be considered during the geometry definition of a pump-turbine impeller. Within the present study a runner-blade profile for a low head pump-turbine has been developed. For the initial hydraulic runner-blade design, an inverse design method has been applied. Within this design procedure, a first blade geometry is generated by imposing the pressure loading-distribution and by means of an inverse 3D potential-flow-solution. The hydraulic behavior of both, pump-mode and turbine-mode is then evaluated by solving the full 3D Navier-Stokes equations in combination with a robust turbulence model. Based on this initial design the blade profile has been further optimized and redesigned considering various hydraulic pump-turbine requirements. Finally, the progress in hydraulic design is demonstrated by model test results which show a significant improvement in hydraulic performance compared to an existing reference design.

  6. The Navier-Stokes-Fourier system: From weak solutions to numerical analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2015), s. 185-193 ISSN 0174-4747 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes-Fourier system * weak solution * mixed finite-volume finite-element numerical scheme Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/anly.2015.35.issue-3/anly-2014-1300/anly-2014-1300. xml

  7. A new approach for white organic light-emitting diodes of single emitting layer using large stokes shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beomjin; Park, Youngil; Kim, Seungho; Lee, Younggu; Park, Jongwook

    2014-08-01

    DPPZ showed UV-Vis. and PL maximum values of 412 and 638 nm, meaning the large stokes shift. Blue host compound, TAT was synthesized and used for co-mixed white emission. TAT exhibited UV-Vis. and PL maximum values of 403 nm and 445 nm in film state. Thus, when two compounds are used as co-mixed emitter in OLED device, there is no energy transfer from blue emission of TAT to DPPZ due to large stokes shift of DPPZ. Based on the PL result, it is available to realize two-colored white in PL and EL spectra. As a result of this, two-mixed compounds showed vivid their own PL emission peaks of 449 and 631 nm in film state. Also, white OLED device using two-mixed compounds system was fabricated. EL spectrum shows 457 and 634 nm peaks and two separate EL peaks, respectively. As the operation voltage is increased from 7 to 11 V, EL spectrum does not change the peak shape and maximum wavelength values. EL performance of white device showed 0.29 cd/A, 0.14 lm/W, and CIE (0.325, 0.195) at 7 V.

  8. Behavior of pumps conveying two-phase liquid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grison, Pierre; Lauro, J.-F.

    1979-01-01

    Determination of the two-phase flow (critical or otherwise) through a pump is an essential requirement for complete description of a loss of primary coolant accident in a PWR plant. Theoretical and experimental research at Electricite de France on this subject is described and problems associated with the introduction of a two-phase fluid (with mass transfer) are discussed, with an attempt to single out new phenomena involved and establish their effect on pump behavior. A complementary experimental investigation is described and the results of tests at pressures and temperatures up to 120 bars and 320 0 C respectively are compared with the theoretical model data [fr

  9. Behavior of pumps conveying two-phase liquid flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, P; Lauro, J F [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou. Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1979-01-01

    Determination of the two-phase flow (critical or otherwise) through a pump is an essential requirement for complete description of a loss of primary coolant accident in a PWR plant. Theoretical and experimental research at Electricite de France on this subject is described and problems associated with the introduction of a two-phase fluid (with mass transfer) are discussed, with an attempt to single out new phenomena involved and establish their effect on pump behavior. A complementary experimental investigation is described and the results of tests at pressures and temperatures up to 120 bars and 320/sup 0/C respectively are compared with the theoretical model data.

  10. Full counting statistics of a charge pump in the Coulomb blockade regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, A. V.; Mishchenko, E. G.

    2001-12-01

    We study full charge counting statistics (FCCS) of a charge pump based on a nearly open single electron transistor. The problem is mapped onto an exactly soluble problem of a nonequilibrium g=1/2 Luttinger liquid with an impurity. We obtain an analytic expression for the generating function of the transmitted charge for an arbitrary pumping strength. Although this model contains fractionally charged excitations only integer transmitted charges can be observed. In the weak pumping limit FCCS correspond to a Poissonian transmission of particles with charge e*=e/2 from which all events with odd numbers of transferred particles are excluded.

  11. 2-kW single-mode fiber laser employing bidirectional-pump scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zheng, Wenyou; Shi, Pengyang; Zhang, Xinhai

    2018-01-01

    2kW single-mode fiber laser with two cascade home-made cladding light strippers (CLSs) by employing bidirectionalpump scheme has been demonstrated. 2.009 kW signal power is obtained when pump power is 2.63 kW and the slope efficiency is 76.6%. Raman Stokes light is less than -47 dB at 2.009 kW even with a 10-m delivery fiber with core/inner cladding diameter of 20/400um. The beam quality M2<=1.2 and the spectral FWHM bandwidth is 4.34nm. There is no transverse mode instability and the output power stability of +/-0.14% is achieved by special thermal management for a more uniform temperature distribution on the Yb-doped gain fiber.

  12. Stoked nondynamos: sustaining field in magnetically non-closed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byington, B M; Brummell, N H; Stone, J M; Gough, D O

    2014-01-01

    Much effort has gone into identifying and classifying systems that might be capable of dynamo action, i.e. capable of generating and sustaining magnetic field indefinitely against dissipative effects in a conducting fluid. However, it is difficult, if not almost technically impossible, to derive a method of determining in both an absolutely conclusive and a pragmatic manner whether a system is a dynamo or not in the nonlinear regime. This problem has generally been examined only for closed systems, despite the fact that most realistic situations of interest are not strictly closed. Here we examine the even more complex problem of whether a known nondynamo closed system can be distinguished pragmatically from a true dynamo when a small input of magnetic field to the system is allowed. We call such systems ‘stoked nondynamos’ owing to the ‘stoking’ or augmentation of the magnetic field in the system. It may seem obvious that magnetic energy can be sustained in such systems since there is an external source, but crucial questions remain regarding what level is maintained and whether such nondynamo systems can be distinguished from a true dynamo. In this paper, we perform 3D nonlinear numerical simulations with time-dependent ABC forcing possessing known dynamo properties. We find that magnetic field can indeed be maintained at a significant stationary level when stoking a system that is a nondynamo when not stoked. The maintained state results generally from an eventual rough balance of the rates of input and decay of magnetic field. We find that the relevance of this state is dictated by a parameter κ representing the correlation of the resultant field with the stoking forcing function. The interesting regime is where κ is small but non-zero, as this represents a middle ground between a state where the stoking has no effect on the pre-existing nondynamo properties and a state where the effect of stoking is easily detectable. We find that in this regime, (a

  13. Stokes phenomena in discrete Painlevé II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, N; Lustri, C J; Luu, S

    2017-02-01

    We consider the asymptotic behaviour of the second discrete Painlevé equation in the limit as the independent variable becomes large. Using asymptotic power series, we find solutions that are asymptotically pole-free within some region of the complex plane. These asymptotic solutions exhibit Stokes phenomena, which is typically invisible to classical power series methods. We subsequently apply exponential asymptotic techniques to investigate such phenomena, and obtain mathematical descriptions of the rapid switching behaviour associated with Stokes curves. Through this analysis, we determine the regions of the complex plane in which the asymptotic behaviour is described by a power series expression, and find that the behaviour of these asymptotic solutions shares a number of features with the tronquée and tri-tronquée solutions of the second continuous Painlevé equation.

  14. Graphical user interface simplifies infusion pump programming and enhances the ability to detect pump-related faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syroid, Noah; Liu, David; Albert, Robert; Agutter, James; Egan, Talmage D; Pace, Nathan L; Johnson, Ken B; Dowdle, Michael R; Pulsipher, Daniel; Westenskow, Dwayne R

    2012-11-01

    Drug administration errors are frequent and are often associated with the misuse of IV infusion pumps. One source of these errors may be the infusion pump's user interface. We used failure modes-and-effects analyses to identify programming errors and to guide the design of a new syringe pump user interface. We designed the new user interface to clearly show the pump's operating state simultaneously in more than 1 monitoring location. We evaluated anesthesia residents in laboratory and simulated environments on programming accuracy and error detection between the new user interface and the user interface of a commercially available infusion pump. With the new user interface, we observed the number of programming errors reduced by 81%, the number of keystrokes per task reduced from 9.2 ± 5.0 to 7.5 ± 5.5 (mean ± SD), the time required per task reduced from 18.1 ± 14.1 seconds to 10.9 ± 9.5 seconds and significantly less perceived workload. Residents detected 38 of 70 (54%) of the events with the new user interface and 37 of 70 (53%) with the existing user interface, despite no experience with the new user interface and extensive experience with the existing interface. The number of programming errors and workload were reduced partly because it took less time and fewer keystrokes to program the pump when using the new user interface. Despite minimal training, residents quickly identified preexisting infusion pump problems with the new user interface. Intuitive and easy-to-program infusion pump interfaces may reduce drug administration errors and infusion pump-related adverse events.

  15. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughn, M.R.; Constantineau, E.J.; Groves, G.E.

    1997-08-19

    An efficient pump system is described for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers. 12 figs.

  16. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Constantineau, Edward J. (Albuquerque, NM); Groves, Gordon E. (Tijeras, NM)

    1997-01-01

    An efficient pump system for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers.

  17. CUDA GPU based full-Stokes finite difference modelling of glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brædstrup, C. F.; Egholm, D. L.

    2012-04-01

    Many have stressed the limitations of using the shallow shelf and shallow ice approximations when modelling ice streams or surging glaciers. Using a full-stokes approach requires either large amounts of computer power or time and is therefore seldom an option for most glaciologists. Recent advances in graphics card (GPU) technology for high performance computing have proven extremely efficient in accelerating many large scale scientific computations. The general purpose GPU (GPGPU) technology is cheap, has a low power consumption and fits into a normal desktop computer. It could therefore provide a powerful tool for many glaciologists. Our full-stokes ice sheet model implements a Red-Black Gauss-Seidel iterative linear solver to solve the full stokes equations. This technique has proven very effective when applied to the stokes equation in geodynamics problems, and should therefore also preform well in glaciological flow probems. The Gauss-Seidel iterator is known to be robust but several other linear solvers have a much faster convergence. To aid convergence, the solver uses a multigrid approach where values are interpolated and extrapolated between different grid resolutions to minimize the short wavelength errors efficiently. This reduces the iteration count by several orders of magnitude. The run-time is further reduced by using the GPGPU technology where each card has up to 448 cores. Researchers utilizing the GPGPU technique in other areas have reported between 2 - 11 times speedup compared to multicore CPU implementations on similar problems. The goal of these initial investigations into the possible usage of GPGPU technology in glacial modelling is to apply the enhanced resolution of a full-stokes solver to ice streams and surging glaciers. This is a area of growing interest because ice streams are the main drainage conjugates for large ice sheets. It is therefore crucial to understand this streaming behavior and it's impact up-ice.

  18. Active magnetic bearings: As applied to centrifugal pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelik, Lev; Cooper, Paul; Jones, Graham; Galecki, Dennis; Pinckney, Frank; Kirk, Gordon

    1992-05-01

    Application of magnetic bearings to boiler feed pumps presents various attractive features, such as longer bearing life, lower maintenance costs, and improved operability through control of the rotordynamics. Magnetic bearings were fitted to an eight-stage, 600 hp boiler feed pump, which generates 2600 ft of heat at 680 gpm and 3560 rpm. In addition to the varied and severe operating environment in steady state operation of this pump in a power plant, it is also subjected to transient loads during frequent starts and stops. These loads can now be measured by the in-built instrumentation of the magnetic bearings. Following site installation, a follow-up bearing tune-up was performed, and pump transient response testing was conducted. The bearing response was completely satisfactory, ensuring trouble-free pump operation even in the range of reduced load. The experience gained so far through design and testing proves feasibility of magnetic bearings for boiler feed pumps, which sets the stage for application of even higher energy centrifugal pumps equipped with magnetic bearings.

  19. The sperm pump of the hangingfly Bittacus planus Cheng (Mecoptera: Bittacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiong-Hua; Hua, Bao-Zhen

    2015-11-01

    The males of antliophoran insects usually use a sperm pump to transfer liquid sperm into the reproductive tract of the female. However, the fine structure of the sperm pump and its ejaculatory mechanism has not been thoroughly clarified in many groups of Mecoptera. In this paper, the structure of the sperm pump was investigated in the hangingfly Bittacus planus Cheng, 1949 using light and scanning electron microscopy. The sperm pump mainly consists of a piston fused with a piston-carrying sclerite, a pumping chamber enclosed by the genital folds, which comprises the posterior region of the ejaculatory sac, an ostial sclerite, a phallobase, and other associated structures and muscles. The piston crown plays a major role in the piston movement. The ostial sclerite serves as a discharge valve and is controlled by two antagonistic muscles. No depressor muscles were found attached to the piston. The sperm pumping activity is mainly controlled by the combination of the levator of the piston and the retractor and protractor of the ostial sclerite. The ejaculatory mechanism and phylogenetic significance are briefly discussed based on the structure of the sperm pump. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Incompressible limit of the degenerate quantum compressible Navier-Stokes equations with general initial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Sam; Li, Fucai

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we study the incompressible limit of the degenerate quantum compressible Navier-Stokes equations in a periodic domain T3 and the whole space R3 with general initial data. In the periodic case, by applying the refined relative entropy method and carrying out the detailed analysis on the oscillations of velocity, we prove rigorously that the gradient part of the weak solutions (velocity) of the degenerate quantum compressible Navier-Stokes equations converge to the strong solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Our results improve considerably the ones obtained by Yang, Ju and Yang [25] where only the well-prepared initial data case is considered. While for the whole space case, thanks to the Strichartz's estimates of linear wave equations, we can obtain the convergence of the weak solutions of the degenerate quantum compressible Navier-Stokes equations to the strong solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes/Euler equations with a linear damping term. Moreover, the convergence rates are also given.

  1. Impact of the inherent separation of scales in the Navier-Stokes- alphabeta equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Yeon; Cassiani, Massimo; Albertson, John D; Dolbow, John E; Fried, Eliot; Gurtin, Morton E

    2009-04-01

    We study the effect of the length scales alpha and beta in the Navier-Stokes- alphabeta equations on the energy spectrum and the alignment between the vorticity and the eigenvectors of the stretching tensor in three-dimensional homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flows in a periodic cubic domain, including the limiting cases of the Navier-Stokes- alpha and Navier-Stokes equations. A significant increase in the accuracy of the energy spectrum at large wave numbers arises for betaNavier-Stokes- alphabeta equations also improve as beta decreases away from alpha . However, optimal choices for alpha and beta depend not only on the problem of interest but also on the grid resolution.

  2. Heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A simple heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump process with rejected or waste heat from a higher temperature chemisorption circuit (HTCC) powering a lower temperature physisorption circuit (LTPC) which provides a 30% total improvement over simple regenerative physisorption compression heat pumps when ammonia is both the chemisorbate and physisorbate, and a total improvement of 50% or more for LTPC having two pressure stages. The HTCC contains ammonia and a chemisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of canisters, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, and a heater, operatively connected together. The LTPC contains ammonia and a physisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of compressors, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. A closed heat transfer circuit (CHTC) is provided which contains a flowing heat transfer liquid (FHTL) in thermal communication with each canister and each compressor for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTPC. Heat is regenerated within the LTPC by transferring heat from one compressor to another. In one embodiment the regeneration is performed by another CHTC containing another FHTL in thermal communication with each compressor. In another embodiment the HTCC powers a lower temperature ammonia water absorption circuit (LTAWAC) which contains a generator-absorber system containing the absorbent, and a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. The absorbent is water or an absorbent aqueous solution. A CHTC is provided which contains a FHTL in thermal communication with the generator for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTAWAC. Heat is regenerated within the LTAWAC by transferring heat from the generator to the absorber. The chemical composition of the chemisorbent is different than the chemical composition of the physisorbent, and the absorbent. The chemical composition of the FHTL is different than the chemisorbent, the physisorbent, the absorbent, and ammonia.

  3. p-Euler equations and p-Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2018-04-01

    We propose in this work new systems of equations which we call p-Euler equations and p-Navier-Stokes equations. p-Euler equations are derived as the Euler-Lagrange equations for the action represented by the Benamou-Brenier characterization of Wasserstein-p distances, with incompressibility constraint. p-Euler equations have similar structures with the usual Euler equations but the 'momentum' is the signed (p - 1)-th power of the velocity. In the 2D case, the p-Euler equations have streamfunction-vorticity formulation, where the vorticity is given by the p-Laplacian of the streamfunction. By adding diffusion presented by γ-Laplacian of the velocity, we obtain what we call p-Navier-Stokes equations. If γ = p, the a priori energy estimates for the velocity and momentum have dual symmetries. Using these energy estimates and a time-shift estimate, we show the global existence of weak solutions for the p-Navier-Stokes equations in Rd for γ = p and p ≥ d ≥ 2 through a compactness criterion.

  4. A review of the powderpost beetle genus, Xylopertha Guérin-Méneville, 1845, with a new species and new synonymy (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae: Bostrichinae: Xyloperthini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Yu Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the three species currently placed in the genus Xylopertha Guérin-Méneville, 1845, and describe a new species, Xylopertha elegans sp. nov., from Turkey. We propose the following new synonymy: Xylopertha Guérin-Méneville, 1845 (= Paraxylogenes Damoiseau, 1968; Xylopertha reflexicauda (Lesne, 1937 (= Paraxylogenes pistaciae Damoiseau, 1968. We give details of the sexual dimorphism, and summarise information on the distribution and biology of all species. A key to the species of Xylopertha is provided.

  5. Ultrafast excitation energy transfer from encapsulated quaterrylene to single-walled carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Takeshi, E-mail: koyama@nuap.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Tsunekawa, Takuya [Department of Applied Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Saito, Takeshi [Research Center for Advanced Carbon Materials, AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Asaka, Koji; Saito, Yahachi [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kishida, Hideo [Department of Applied Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Nakamura, Arao [Department of Applied Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Toyota Physical and Chemical Research Institute, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    We investigate excitation energy transfer from an encapsulated quaterrylene molecule to a single-walled carbon nanotube by means of femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The time constant of energy transfer becomes shorter with increasing average diameter of nanotube: 1.4±0.2 ps for 1.0 nm, 1.1±0.2 ps for 1.4 nm, and 0.4±0.1 ps for 1.8 nm. The observed behavior is discussed considering the distance of less than 1 nm between the molecule and the nanotube wall. - Highlights: • Dynamical properties of excited states in quaterrylene/SWNT composites were studied. • Excitation energy transfer occurs in the time range of 0.4-1.4 ps. • The transfer rate depends on the nanotube diameter, i.e. molecule-nanotube wall distance. • This dependence indicates the feature of excitation energy transfer on the nanoscale.

  6. A Phase-Controlled Optical Parametric Amplifier Pumped by Two Phase-Distorted Laser Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Yan, Ren; Lie-Jia, Qian; Peng, Yuan; He-Yuan, Zhu; Dian-Yuan, Fan

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically study the phase characteristic of optical parametric amplification (OPA) or chirped pulse OPA (OPCPA) pumped by two phase-distorted laser beams. In the two-beam-pumped optical parametric amplification (TBOPA), due to spatial walk-off, both of the pump phase distortions will be partly transferred to signal in a single crystal so as to degrade the signal beam-quality, which will be more serious in high-energy OPCPA. An OPA configuration with a walkoff-compensated crystal pair is demonstrated for reducing the signal phase distortion experienced in the first stage and ensuring the signal phase independent of two pump phase distortions through the second crystal, hence maintaining the signal beam-quality. Such a TBOPA is similar to the conventional quantum laser amplifier by means of eliminating its sensitivity to the phase and number of the pump beams

  7. [Selected enhancement of different order stokes lines of SRS by using fluorescence of mixed dye solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hao-yi; Gao, Jie; Yang, Jing-guo

    2007-03-01

    A new method to enhance the intensity of the different orders of Stokes lines of SRS by using mixed dye fluorescence is reported. The Stokes lines from the second-order to the fifth-order of CCl4 were enhanced by the fluorescence of mixed R6G and RB solutions in different proportions of 20:2, 20:13 and 20:40 (R6g:Rb), respectively. It is considered that the Stokes lines from the second-order to the fifth-order are near the fluorescence peaks of the three mixed solutions, and far from the absorption peaks of R6g and Rb, so the enhancement effect dominates the absorption effect; as a result, these stokes lines are enhanced. On the contrary, the first-order stokes line is near the absorption peak of RB and far from the fluorescence peaks of the mixed solutions, which leads to the weakening of this stokes line. It is also reported that the first-order, the second-order and the third-order Stokes lines of benzene were enhanced by the fluorescence of mixed solutions of R6g and DCM with of different proportions. The potential application of this method is forecasted.

  8. Transformation of EIA to EIT by incoherent pumping of the 85Rb D1 line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hoon; Kim, Jung Dong; Jung, Tae Young; Kim, Jung Bog

    2012-10-01

    We have observed a transformation from electromagnetically-induced absorption (EIA) to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in open systems of the 85Rb D1 line by adding an incoherent optical pumping laser. This result raises a new question about recent theoretical work which does not address the degree of open. The pump beam only plays a role in transferring atoms by a spontaneous transition into the interacting system for EIT observation, which is an incoherent process. The dependence of the absorption spectra on the intensity and the polarization of each laser beam were observed. We have found the same tendencies in all transitions except the F = 2 ↔ F' = 3 transition of the 85Rb D1 line, which is the system that almost satisfies conventional EIA conditions.

  9. Analysis of Fuel Cell Driven Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Community Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Keun Shin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fuel cell driven ground source heat pump (GSHP system is applied in a community building and heat pump system performance is analyzed by computational methods. Conduction heat transfer between the brine pipe and ground is analyzed by TEACH code in order to predict the performance of the heat pump system. The predicted coefficient of performance (COP of the heat pump system and the energy cost were compared with the variation of the location of the objective building, the water saturation rate of the soil, and the driven powers of the heat pump system. Compared to the late-night electricity driven system, a significant reduction of energy cost can be accomplished by employing the fuel cell driven heat pump system. This is due to the low cost of electricity production of the fuel cell system and to the application of the recovered waste heat generated during the electricity production process to the heating of the community building.

  10. A method of applying two-pump system in automatic transmissions for energy conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Dong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the hydraulic efficiency, modern automatic transmissions tend to apply electric oil pump in their hydraulic system. The electric oil pump can support the mechanical oil pump for cooling, lubrication, and maintaining the line pressure at low engine speeds. In addition, the start–stop function can be realized by means of the electric oil pump; thus, the fuel consumption can be further reduced. This article proposes a method of applying two-pump system (one electric oil pump and one mechanical oil pump in automatic transmissions based on the forward driving simulation. A mathematical model for calculating the transmission power loss is developed. The power loss transfers to heat which requires oil flow for cooling and lubrication. A leakage model is developed to calculate the leakage of the hydraulic system. In order to satisfy the flow requirement, a flow-based control strategy for the electric oil pump is developed. Simulation results of different driving cycles show that there is a best combination of the size of electric oil pump and the size of mechanical oil pump with respect to the optimal energy conservation. Besides, the two-pump system can also satisfy the requirement of the start–stop function. This research is extremely valuable for the forward design of a two-pump system in automatic transmissions with respect to energy conservation and start–stop function.

  11. Spin pumping through a topological insulator probed by x-ray detected ferromagnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, A.I., E-mail: aifigueg@gmail.com [Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Baker, A.A. [Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Collins-McIntyre, L.J.; Hesjedal, T. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Laan, G. van der [Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    In the field of spintronics, the generation of a pure spin current (without macroscopic charge flow) through spin pumping of a ferromagnetic (FM) layer opens up the perspective of a new generation of dissipation-less devices. Microwave driven ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) can generate a pure spin current that enters adjacent layers, allowing for both magnetization reversal (through spin-transfer torque) and to probe spin coherence in non-magnetic materials. However, standard FMR is unable to probe multilayer dynamics directly, since the measurement averages over the contributions from the whole system. The synchrotron radiation-based technique of x-ray detected FMR (XFMR) offers an elegant solution to this drawback, giving access to element-, site-, and layer-specific dynamical measurements in heterostructures. In this work, we show how XFMR has provided unique information to understand spin pumping and spin transfer torque effects through a topological insulator (TI) layer in a pseudo-spin valve heterostructure. We demonstrate that TIs function as efficient spin sinks, while also allowing a limited dynamic coupling between ferromagnetic layers. These results shed new light on the spin dynamics of this novel class of materials, and suggest future directions for the development of room temperature TI-based spintronics. - Highlights: • X-ray detected ferromagnetic resonance is used to study the spin pumping phenomenon. • We show a powerful way to get information of spin transfer between magnetic layers. • We observe spin pumping through a topological insulators at room temperature. • Topological insulators function as efficient spin sinks.

  12. Spin pumping through a topological insulator probed by x-ray detected ferromagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, A.I.; Baker, A.A.; Collins-McIntyre, L.J.; Hesjedal, T.; Laan, G. van der

    2016-01-01

    In the field of spintronics, the generation of a pure spin current (without macroscopic charge flow) through spin pumping of a ferromagnetic (FM) layer opens up the perspective of a new generation of dissipation-less devices. Microwave driven ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) can generate a pure spin current that enters adjacent layers, allowing for both magnetization reversal (through spin-transfer torque) and to probe spin coherence in non-magnetic materials. However, standard FMR is unable to probe multilayer dynamics directly, since the measurement averages over the contributions from the whole system. The synchrotron radiation-based technique of x-ray detected FMR (XFMR) offers an elegant solution to this drawback, giving access to element-, site-, and layer-specific dynamical measurements in heterostructures. In this work, we show how XFMR has provided unique information to understand spin pumping and spin transfer torque effects through a topological insulator (TI) layer in a pseudo-spin valve heterostructure. We demonstrate that TIs function as efficient spin sinks, while also allowing a limited dynamic coupling between ferromagnetic layers. These results shed new light on the spin dynamics of this novel class of materials, and suggest future directions for the development of room temperature TI-based spintronics. - Highlights: • X-ray detected ferromagnetic resonance is used to study the spin pumping phenomenon. • We show a powerful way to get information of spin transfer between magnetic layers. • We observe spin pumping through a topological insulators at room temperature. • Topological insulators function as efficient spin sinks.

  13. Nonequilibrium Supersonic Freestream Studied Using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Andrew D.; Cantu, Luca M.; Gallo, Emanuela C. A.; Baurle, Rob; Danehy, Paul M.; Rockwell, Robert; Goyne, Christopher; McDaniel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Measurements were conducted at the University of Virginia Supersonic Combustion Facility of the flow in a constant-area duct downstream of a Mach 2 nozzle. The airflow was heated to approximately 1200 K in the facility heater upstream of the nozzle. Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy was used to measure the rotational and vibrational temperatures of N2 and O2 at two planes in the duct. The expectation was that the vibrational temperature would be in equilibrium, because most scramjet facilities are vitiated air facilities and are in vibrational equilibrium. However, with a flow of clean air, the vibrational temperature of N2 along a streamline remains approximately constant between the measurement plane and the facility heater, the vibrational temperature of O2 in the duct is about 1000 K, and the rotational temperature is consistent with the isentropic flow. The measurements of N2 vibrational temperature enabled cross-stream nonuniformities in the temperature exiting the facility heater to be documented. The measurements are in agreement with computational fluid dynamics models employing separate lumped vibrational and translational/rotational temperatures. Measurements and computations are also reported for a few percent steam addition to the air. The effect of the steam is to bring the flow to thermal equilibrium, also in agreement with the computational fluid dynamics.

  14. Ultrafast Charge Photogeneration in MEH-PPV Charge-Transfer Complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakulin, Artem A.; Paraschuk, Dmitry Yu; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; van Loosdrecht, Paul H. M.; Corkum, P; DeSilvestri, S; Nelson, KA; Riedle, E; Schoenlein, RW

    2009-01-01

    Visible-pump - IR-probe spectroscopy is used to study the ultrafast charge dynamics in MEH-PPV based charge-transfer complexes and donor-acceptor blends. Transient anisotropy of the polymer polaron band provides invaluable insights into excitation localisation and charge-transfer pathways.

  15. First results of photovoltaic water pimp in the south region of Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I. M. Saleh; Abolgasim, A.

    2006-01-01

    The use of PV for water pumping in Libya is a new of PV applications, the PV pump are efficient and cost effective for those area where the water are not so deep. PV pumps are suitable for water pumping in rural areas for horticulture, live stoke, and agriculture, many crops require regular watering to achieve good yields and high quality, and so the live stoke, while dates threes do not need regular irrigation, PV pumps can be used to supply these applications with water. Photovoltaic water pumps (PVP) are always an alternative worth considering when the object is to pump irrigation water to crops or live stoke at locations with no access to grid power. PV-based irrigation systems were able to demonstrate both their technical reliability and their economic competitiveness. In this paper we will introduce the PV water pump installed in the Sahara Research Center located in the south of Libya, which is used for irrigation, give the productivity through two years of work, and discuss the suitability of this type of applications in Libya.(Author)

  16. Convergence acceleration of Navier-Stokes equation using adaptive wavelet method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyung Min; Ghafoor, Imran; Lee, Do Hyung

    2010-01-01

    An efficient adaptive wavelet method is proposed for the enhancement of computational efficiency of the Navier-Stokes equations. The method is based on sparse point representation (SPR), which uses the wavelet decomposition and thresholding to obtain a sparsely distributed dataset. The threshold mechanism is modified in order to maintain the spatial accuracy of a conventional Navier-Stokes solver by adapting the threshold value to the order of spatial truncation error. The computational grid can be dynamically adapted to a transient solution to reflect local changes in the solution. The flux evaluation is then carried out only at the points of the adapted dataset, which reduces the computational effort and memory requirements. A stabilization technique is also implemented to avoid the additional numerical errors introduced by the threshold procedure. The numerical results of the adaptive wavelet method are compared with a conventional solver to validate the enhancement in computational efficiency of Navier-Stokes equations without the degeneration of the numerical accuracy of a conventional solver

  17. Pulse Star Inertial Confinement Fusion Reactor: Heat transfer loop and balance-of-plant considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, M.W.; Blink, J.A.; Curlander, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual heat transfer loop and balance-of-plant design for the Pulse Star Inertial Confinement Fusion Reactor has been investigated and the results are presented. The Pulse Star reaction vessel, a perforated steel bell jar about11 m in diameter, is immersed in Li 17 Pb 83 coolant, which flows through the perforations and forms a 1.5-m-thick plenum of droplets around a 8-m-diameter inner chamber. The bell jar and associated pumps, piping, and steam generators are contained within a 17-m-diameter pool of Li 17 Pb 83 coolant to minimize structural requirements and occupied space, resulting in reduced cost. Four parallel heat transfer loops, each with a flow rate of 5.5 m 3 /s, are necessary to transfer 3300 MWt of power. Liquid metal is pumped to the top of the pool, where it flows downward through eight vertical steam generators. Double-walled tubes are used in the steam generators to assure tritium containment without intermediate heat transfer loops. Each pump is a mixed flow type and has a required NPSH of 3.4 m, a speed of 278 rpm, and an impeller diameter of 1.2 m. The steam generator design was optimized by finding the most cost-effective combination of heat exchanger area and pumping power. The design minimizes the total cost (heat exchanger area plus pumping) for the plant lifetime. The power required for the pumps is 36 MWe. Each resulting steam generator is 12 m high and 1.6 m in diameter, with 2360 tubes. The steam generators and pumps fit easily in the pool between the reactor chamber and the pool wall

  18. Assessment of tissue polarimetric properties using Stokes polarimetric imaging with circularly polarized illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; He, Honghui; Lin, Jianyu; Dong, Yang; Chen, Dongsheng; Ma, Hui; Elson, Daniel S

    2018-04-01

    Tissue-depolarization and linear-retardance are the main polarization characteristics of interest for bulk tissue characterization, and are normally interpreted from Mueller polarimetry. Stokes polarimetry can be conducted using simpler instrumentation and in a shorter time. Here, we use Stokes polarimetric imaging with circularly polarized illumination to assess the circular-depolarization and linear-retardance properties of tissue. Results obtained were compared with Mueller polarimetry in transmission and reflection geometry, respectively. It is found that circular-depolarization obtained from these 2 methods is very similar in both geometries, and that linear-retardance is highly quantitatively similar for transmission geometry and qualitatively similar for reflection geometry. The majority of tissue circular-depolarization and linear-retardance image information (represented by local image contrast features) obtained from Mueller polarimetry is well preserved from Stokes polarimetry in both geometries. These findings can be referred to for further understanding tissue Stokes polarimetric data, and for further application of Stokes polarimetry under the circumstances where short acquisition time or low optical system complexity is a priority, such as polarimetric endoscopy and microscopy. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A cryocondensation pump for the DIII-D Advanced Divertor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Baxi, C.; Reis, E.; Sevier, L.

    1992-03-01

    A cryocondensation pump was designed for the baffle chamber of General Atomics DIII-D tokamak and will be installed in the fall of 1992. The purpose of the pump is to study plasma density control by pumping the divertor. The pump is toroidally continuous, approximately 10 m long and located in the lower outer corner of the vacuum chamber of the machine. It consists of a 1 m 2 liquid helium-cooled surface surrounded by a liquid nitrogen-cooled shield to limit the heat load on the helium-cooled surface. The liquid nitrogen-cooled surface is surrounded by a radiation/particle shield to prevent energetic particles from impacting and releasing condensed water molecules. A thermal enhancement coating was applied to the nitrogen shell to lower the maximum temperature of the shell. The coating is non-continuous to keep the toroidal electrical resistance high. The whole pump is supported off the water-cooled vacuum vessel wall. Supports for the pump were designed to accommodate the thermal differences between the 4 K helium surface, the 77 K nitrogen shells, and the 300 K vacuum vessel supporting the pump and to provide a low heat leak structural support. Disruption loading on the pump was analyzed and a finite element structural analysis of the pump was completed. A testing program was completed to evaluate coating techniques to enhance heat transfer and emissivity of the various surfaces. Fabrication tests were performed to determine the best method of attaching the liquid nitrogen flow tubes to their shield surfaces and to determine the best alternative to fabricating the different shells of the pump. A prototype sector of the pump was built to verify fabrication and assembly techniques

  20. On convergence of trajectory attractors of the 3D Navier-Stokes-α model as α approaches 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishik, M I; Chepyzhov, V V; Titi, E S

    2007-01-01

    We study the relations between the long-time dynamics of the Navier-Stokes-α model and the exact 3D Navier-Stokes system. We prove that bounded sets of solutions of the Navier-Stokes-α model converge to the trajectory attractor A 0 of the 3D Navier-Stokes system as the time approaches infinity and α approaches zero. In particular, we show that the trajectory attractor A α of the Navier-Stokes-α model converges to the trajectory attractor A 0 of the 3D Navier-Stokes system as α→0+. We also construct the minimal limit A min (subset or equal A 0 ) of the trajectory attractor A α as α→0+ and prove that the set A min is connected and strictly invariant. Bibliography: 35 titles.