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Sample records for pump-probe spectroscopy experiments

  1. Development of an X-ray delay unit for correlation spectroscopy and pump-probe experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roseker, Wojciech

    2008-07-15

    Probing condensed matter on time scales ranging from femtoseconds to nanoseconds will be one of the key topics for future X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) sources. The accessible time windows are, however, compromised by the intrinsic time structure of the sources. One way to overcome this limitation is the usage of a time delay unit. A prototype device capable of splitting an X-ray pulse into two adjustable fractions, delaying one of them with the aim to perform X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and pump-probe type studies was designed and manufactured. The device utilizes eight perfect crystals in vertical 90 scattering geometry. Its performance has been verified with 8.39 keV and 12.4 keV Xrays at various synchrotron sources. The measured throughput of the device with a Si(333) monochromator at 8.39 keV under ambient conditions is 0.6%. The stability was verified at 12.4 keV and operation without realignment and feedback was possible for more than 30 minutes. Time delays up to 2.95 ns have been achieved. The highest resolution achieved in an experiment was 15.4 ps, a value entirely determined by the diagnostics system. The influence of the delay unit optics on the coherence properties of the beam was investigated by means of Fraunhofer diffraction and static speckle analysis. The obtained high fringe visibility and contrast values larger than 23% indicate the feasibility of performing coherence based experiments with the delay line. (orig.)

  2. Theoretical Simulations and Ultrafast Pump-probe Spectroscopy Experiments in Pigment-protein Photosynthetic Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, D. R. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2000-09-12

    Theoretical simulations and ultrafast pump-probe laser spectroscopy experiments were used to study photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes and antennae found in green sulfur bacteria such as Prosthecochloris aestuarii, Chloroflexus aurantiacus, and Chlorobium tepidum. The work focused on understanding structure-function relationships in energy transfer processes in these complexes through experiments and trying to model that data as we tested our theoretical assumptions with calculations. Theoretical exciton calculations on tubular pigment aggregates yield electronic absorption spectra that are superimpositions of linear J-aggregate spectra. The electronic spectroscopy of BChl c/d/e antennae in light harvesting chlorosomes from Chloroflexus aurantiacus differs considerably from J-aggregate spectra. Strong symmetry breaking is needed if we hope to simulate the absorption spectra of the BChl c antenna. The theory for simulating absorption difference spectra in strongly coupled photosynthetic antenna is described, first for a relatively simple heterodimer, then for the general N-pigment system. The theory is applied to the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) BChl a protein trimers from Prosthecochloris aestuarii and then compared with experimental low-temperature absorption difference spectra of FMO trimers from Chlorobium tepidum. Circular dichroism spectra of the FMO trimer are unusually sensitive to diagonal energy disorder. Substantial differences occur between CD spectra in exciton simulations performed with and without realistic inhomogeneous distribution functions for the input pigment diagonal energies. Anisotropic absorption difference spectroscopy measurements are less consistent with 21-pigment trimer simulations than 7-pigment monomer simulations which assume that the laser-prepared states are localized within a subunit of the trimer. Experimental anisotropies from real samples likely arise from statistical averaging over states with diagonal energies shifted by

  3. Pump probe spectroscopy of quasiparticle dynamics in cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segre, Gino P.

    2001-01-01

    Pump probe spectroscopy is used to examine the picosecond response of a BSCCO thin film, and two YBCO crystals in the near infrared. The role of pump fluence and temperature have been closely examined in an effort to clarify the mechanism by which the quasiparticles rejoin the condensate. BSCCO results suggest that the recombination behavior is consistent with the d-wave density of states in that quasiparticles appear to relax to the nodes immediately before they rejoin the condensate. The first substantial investigation of polarized pump probe response in detwinned YBCO crystals is also reported. Dramatic doping dependent anisotropies along the a and b axes are observed in time and temperature resolved studies. Among many results, we highlight the discovery of an anomalous temperature and time dependence of a- axis response in optimally doped YBCO. We also report on the first observation of the photoinduced response in a magnetic field. We find the amplitude of the response, and in some cases, the dynamics considerably changed with the application of a 6T field. Finally, we speculate on two of the many theoretical directions stimulated by our results. We find that the two-fluid model suggests a mechanism to explain how changes at very low energies are visible to a high-energy probe. Also discussed are basic recombination processes which may play a role in the observed decay

  4. A new approach for a pump-probe photothermal experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcano O, A.; Castillo, J.

    1992-01-01

    Calculations of the signal, observed in a pump-probe photo-thermal experimental, are performed using a close field nonlinear geometrical optics approximation. Dependence of the thermo-optical signal from the position of the detector and magnitude of the beams spots size is studied. It is shown that the possibilities of the thermo-optical experiment, as a highly sensitive technique for light detection, can be substantially improved by increasing the probe beam spot size and varying the position of the detector in the vicinity of the sample cell. preliminary experimental results are shown for the situation of weak absorbing liquids. A good qualitative agreement between theory and experiments is obtained. (author)

  5. Time-resolved pump-probe experiments at the LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glownia, James; /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Cryan, J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Andreasson, J.; /Uppsala U.; Belkacem, A.; /LBNL, Berkeley; Berrah, N.; /Western Michigan U.; Blaga, C.L.; /Ohio State U.; Bostedt, C.; Bozek, J.; /SLAC; DiMauro, L.F.; /Ohio State U.; Fang, L.; /Western Michigan U.; Frisch, J.; /SLAC; Gessner, O.; /LBNL; Guhr, M.; /SLAC; Hajdu, J.; /Uppsala U.; Hertlein, M.P.; /LBNL; Hoener, M.; /Western Michigan U. /LBNL; Huang, G.; Kornilov, O.; /LBNL; Marangos, J.P.; /Imperial Coll., London; March, A.M.; /Argonne; McFarland, B.K.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /IRAMIS, Saclay /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Georgia Tech /Argonne /Kansas State U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC /LBNL /Argonne /SLAC /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-12

    The first time-resolved x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments at the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) used a combination of feedback methods and post-analysis binning techniques to synchronize an ultrafast optical laser to the linac-based x-ray laser. Transient molecular nitrogen alignment revival features were resolved in time-dependent x-ray-induced fragmentation spectra. These alignment features were used to find the temporal overlap of the pump and probe pulses. The strong-field dissociation of x-ray generated quasi-bound molecular dications was used to establish the residual timing jitter. This analysis shows that the relative arrival time of the Ti:Sapphire laser and the x-ray pulses had a distribution with a standard deviation of approximately 120 fs. The largest contribution to the jitter noise spectrum was the locking of the laser oscillator to the reference RF of the accelerator, which suggests that simple technical improvements could reduce the jitter to better than 50 fs.

  6. Effective temporal resolution in pump-probe spectroscopy with strongly chirped pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polli, D.; Lanzani, G.; Brida, D.; Cerullo, G.; Mukamel, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a general theoretical description of femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy with chirped pulses whose joint spectral and temporal profile is expressed by Wigner spectrograms. We demonstrate that the actual experimental time resolution intimately depends on the pulse-sample interaction and that the commonly used instrumental response function needs to be replaced by a sample-dependent effective response function. We also show that, using the proper configurations in excitation and/or detection, it is possible to overcome the temporal smearing of the measured dynamics due to chirp-induced pulse broadening and recover the temporal resolution that would be afforded by the transform-limited pulses. We verify these predictions with experiments using broadband chirped pump and probe pulses. Our results allow optimization of the temporal resolution in the common case when the chirp of the pump and/or probe pulse is not corrected and may be extended to a broad range of time-resolved experiments.

  7. Pump-probe surface photovoltage spectroscopy measurements on semiconductor epitaxial layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, Dipankar; Porwal, S.; Sharma, T. K.; Oak, S. M.; Kumar, Shailendra

    2014-01-01

    Pump-probe Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy (SPS) measurements are performed on semiconductor epitaxial layers. Here, an additional sub-bandgap cw pump laser beam is used in a conventional chopped light geometry SPS setup under the pump-probe configuration. The main role of pump laser beam is to saturate the sub-bandgap localized states whose contribution otherwise swamp the information related to the bandgap of material. It also affects the magnitude of Dember voltage in case of semi-insulating (SI) semiconductor substrates. Pump-probe SPS technique enables an accurate determination of the bandgap of semiconductor epitaxial layers even under the strong influence of localized sub-bandgap states. The pump beam is found to be very effective in suppressing the effect of surface/interface and bulk trap states. The overall magnitude of SPV signal is decided by the dependence of charge separation mechanisms on the intensity of the pump beam. On the contrary, an above bandgap cw pump laser can be used to distinguish the signatures of sub-bandgap states by suppressing the band edge related feature. Usefulness of the pump-probe SPS technique is established by unambiguously determining the bandgap of p-GaAs epitaxial layers grown on SI-GaAs substrates, SI-InP wafers, and p-GaN epilayers grown on Sapphire substrates

  8. Holography and thermalization in optical pump-probe spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrov, A.; Craps, B.; Galli, F.; Keränen, V.; Keski-Vakkuri, E.; Zaanen, J.

    2018-04-01

    Using holography, we model experiments in which a 2 +1 D strange metal is pumped by a laser pulse into a highly excited state, after which the time evolution of the optical conductivity is probed. We consider a finite-density state with mildly broken translation invariance and excite it by oscillating electric field pulses. At zero density, the optical conductivity would assume its thermalized value immediately after the pumping has ended. At finite density, pulses with significant dc components give rise to slow exponential relaxation, governed by a vector quasinormal mode. In contrast, for high-frequency pulses the amplitude of the quasinormal mode is strongly suppressed, so that the optical conductivity assumes its thermalized value effectively instantaneously. This surprising prediction may provide a stimulus for taking up the challenge to realize these experiments in the laboratory. Such experiments would test a crucial open question faced by applied holography: are its predictions artifacts of the large N limit or do they enjoy sufficient UV independence to hold at least qualitatively in real-world systems?

  9. Pump-probe experiments in atoms involving laser and synchrotron radiation: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuilleumier, F J; Meyer, M

    2006-01-01

    The combined use of laser and synchrotron radiations for atomic photoionization studies started in the early 1980s. The strong potential of these pump-probe experiments to gain information on excited atomic states is illustrated through some exemplary studies. The first series of experiments carried out with the early synchrotron sources, from 1960 to about 1995, are reviewed, including photoionization of unpolarized and polarized excited atoms, and time-resolved laser-synchrotron studies. With the most advanced generation of synchrotron sources, a whole new class of pump-probe experiments benefiting from the high brightness of the new synchrotron beams has been developed since 1996. A detailed review of these studies as well as possible future applications of pump-probe experiments using third generation synchrotron sources and free electron lasers is presented. (topical review)

  10. Infrared-x-ray pump-probe spectroscopy of the NO molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, F.F.; Felicissimo, V.C.; Kimberg, V.; Gel'mukhanov, F.; Aagren, H.; Cesar, A.

    2005-01-01

    Two color infrared-x-ray pump-probe spectroscopy of the NO molecule is studied theoretically and numerically in order to obtain a deeper insight of the underlying physics and of the potential of this suggested technology. From the theoretical investigation a number of conclusions could be drawn: It is found that the phase of the infrared field strongly influences the trajectory of the nuclear wave packet, and hence, the x-ray spectrum. The trajectory experiences fast oscillations with the vibrational frequency with a modulation due to the anharmonicity of the potential. The dependences of the x-ray spectra on the delay time, the duration, and the shape of the pulses are studied in detail. It is shown that the x-ray spectrum keep memory about the infrared phase after the pump field left the system. This memory effect is sensitive to the time of switching-off the pump field and the Rabi frequency. The phase effect takes maximum value when the duration of the x-ray pulse is one-fourth of the infrared field period, and can be enhanced by a proper control of the duration and intensity of the pump pulse. The manifestation of the phase is different for oriented and disordered molecules and depends strongly on the intensity of the pump radiation

  11. Infrared x-ray pump-probe spectroscopy of the NO molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, F. F.; Kimberg, V.; Felicíssimo, V. C.; Gel'Mukhanov, F.; Cesar, A.; Ågren, H.

    2005-07-01

    Two color infrared x-ray pump-probe spectroscopy of the NO molecule is studied theoretically and numerically in order to obtain a deeper insight of the underlying physics and of the potential of this suggested technology. From the theoretical investigation a number of conclusions could be drawn: It is found that the phase of the infrared field strongly influences the trajectory of the nuclear wave packet, and hence, the x-ray spectrum. The trajectory experiences fast oscillations with the vibrational frequency with a modulation due to the anharmonicity of the potential. The dependences of the x-ray spectra on the delay time, the duration, and the shape of the pulses are studied in detail. It is shown that the x-ray spectrum keep memory about the infrared phase after the pump field left the system. This memory effect is sensitive to the time of switching-off the pump field and the Rabi frequency. The phase effect takes maximum value when the duration of the x-ray pulse is one-fourth of the infrared field period, and can be enhanced by a proper control of the duration and intensity of the pump pulse. The manifestation of the phase is different for oriented and disordered molecules and depends strongly on the intensity of the pump radiation.

  12. Time-resolved pump-probe X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of Gaq3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicke, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Gallium(tris-8-hydroxyquinoline) (Gaq 3 ) belongs to a class of metal organic compounds, used as electron transport layer and emissive layer in organic light emitting diodes. Many research activities have concentrated on the optical and electronic properties, especially of the homologue molecule aluminum(tris-8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq 3 ). Knowledge of the first excited state S 1 structure of these molecules could provide deeper insight into the processes involved into the operation of electronic devices, such as OLEDs and, hence, it could further improve their efficiency and optical properties. Until now the excited state structure could not be determined experimentally. Most of the information about this structure mainly arises from theoretical calculations. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy is a well developed technique to determine both, the electronic and the geometric properties of a sample. The connection of ultrashort pulsed X-ray sources with a pulsed laser system offers the possibility to use XAFS as a tool for studying the transient changes of a sample induced by a laser pulse. In the framework of this thesis a new setup for time-resolved pump-probe X-ray absorption spectroscopy at PETRA III beamline P11 was developed for measuring samples in liquid form. In this setup the sample is pumped into its photo-excited state by a femtosecond laser pump pulse with 343 nm wavelength and after a certain time delay probed by an X-ray probe pulse. In this way the first excited singlet state S 1 of Gaq 3 dissolved in benzyl alcohol was analyzed. A structural model for the excited state structure of the Gaq 3 molecule based on the several times reproduced results of the XAFS experiments is proposed. According to this model it was found that the Ga-N A bond length is elongated, while the Ga-O A bond length is shortened upon photoexcitation. The dynamics of the structural changes were not the focus of this thesis. Nevertheless the excited state lifetime

  13. Synchronized and configurable source of electrical pulses for x-ray pump-probe experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J. P.; Chembrolu, V.; Yu, X. W.; Tyliszczak, T.; Acremann, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A method is described for the generation of software tunable patterns of nanosecond electrical pulses. The bipolar, high repetition rate (up to 250 MHz), fast rise time (<30 ps), square pulses are suitable for applications such as the excitation sequence in dynamic pump-probe experiments. Synchronization with the time structure of a synchrotron facility is possible as well as fine control of the relative delay in steps of 10 ps. The pulse generator described here is used to excite magnetic nanostructures with current pulses. Having an excitation system which can match the high repetition rate of a synchrotron allows for utilization of the full x-ray flux and is needed in experiments which require a large photon flux. The fast rise times allow for picosecond time resolution in pump-probe experiments. All pulse pattern parameters are configurable by software

  14. Light Driven Energy Research at LCLS: Planned Pump-Probe X-ray Spectroscopy Studies on Photosynthetic Water Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Uwe

    2010-02-01

    Arguably the most important chemical reaction on earth is the photosynthetic splitting of water to molecular oxygen by the Mn-containing oxygen-evolving complex (Mn-OEC) in the protein known as photosystem II (PSII). It is this reaction which has, over the course of some 3.8 billion years, gradually filled our atmosphere with O2 and consequently enabled and sustained the evolution of complex aerobic life. Coupled to the reduction of carbon dioxide, biological photosynthesis contributes foodstuffs for nutrition while recycling CO2 from the atmosphere and replacing it with O2. By utilizing sunlight to power these energy-requiring reactions, photosynthesis also serves as a model for addressing societal energy needs as we enter an era of diminishing fossil hydrocarbon resources. Understanding, at the molecular level, the dynamics and mechanism of how nature has solved this problem is of fundamental importance and could be critical to aid in the design of manufactured devices to accomplish the conversion of sunlight into useful electrochemical energy and transportable fuel in the foreseeable future. In order to understand the photosynthetic splitting of water by the Mn-OEC we need to be able to follow the reaction in real time at an atomic level. A powerful probe to study the electronic and molecular structure of the Mn-OEC is x-ray spectroscopy. Here, in particular x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) has two crucial qualities for LCLS based time-dependent pump-probe studies of the Mn-OEC: a) it directly probes the Mn oxidation state and ligation, b) it can be performed with wavelength dispersive optics to avoid the necessity of scanning in pump probe experiments. Recent results and the planned time dependent experiments at LCLS will be discussed. )

  15. Ultra-Broadband Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy and Pump-Probe Microscopy of Molecular Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokoyny, Boris M.

    Ultrafast spectroscopy offers an unprecedented view on the dynamic nature of chemical reactions. From charge transfer in semiconductors to folding and isomerization of proteins, these all important processes can now be monitored and in some instances even controlled on real, physical timescales. One of the biggest challenges of ultrafast science is the incredible energetic complexity of most systems. It is not uncommon to encounter macromolecules or materials with absorption spectra spanning significant portions of the visible spectrum. Monitoring a multitude of electronic and vibrational transitions, all dynamically interacting with each other on femtosecond timescales poses a truly daunting experimental task. The first part of this thesis deals with the development of a novel Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy (2DES) and its associated, advanced detection methodologies. Owing to its ultra-broadband implementation, this technique enables us to monitor femtosecond chemical dynamics that span the energetic landscape of the entire visible spectrum. In order to demonstrate the utility of our method, we apply it to two laser dye molecules, IR-144 and Cresyl Violet. Variation of photophysical properties on a microscopic scale in either man-made or naturally occurring systems can have profound implications on how we understand their macroscopic properties. Recently, inorganic hybrid perovskites have been tapped as the next generation solar energy harvesting materials. Their remarkable properties include low exciton binding energy, low exciton recombination rates and long carrier diffusion lengths. Nevertheless, considerable variability in device properties made with nearly identical preparation methods has puzzled the community. In the second part of this thesis we use non-linear pump probe microscopy to study the heterogeneous nature of femtosecond carrier dynamics in thin film perovskites. We show that the local morphology of the perovskite thin films has a

  16. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in bilayer graphene studied by broadband infrared pump-probe spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Thomas; da Como, Enrico; Niggebaum, Alexander; Feldmann, Jochen

    2010-03-01

    Recently, bilayer graphene gained a large interest because of its electrically tunable gap appearing in the middle infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. This feature is expected to open a number of applications of bilayer graphene in optoelectronics. In this communication we report on the first pump-probe experiment on a single bilayer flake with an unprecedented probe photon energy interval (0.25 -- 1.3 eV). Single flakes were prepared by mechanical exfoliation of graphite and transferred to calcium fluoride substrates. When illuminated with 800 nm (1.5 eV) pump pulses the induced change in transmission shows an ultrafast saturation of the interband transitions from 1.3 to 0.5 eV. In this energy range the saturation recovery occurs within 3 ps and is consistent with an ultrafast relaxation of hot carriers. Interestingly, we report on the observation of a resonance at 0.4 eV characterized by a longer dynamics. The results are discussed considering many-body interactions.

  17. Femtosecond pump probe spectroscopy for the study of energy transfer of light-harvesting complexes from extractions of spinach leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. van Rensburg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of ultrafast transient processes, of temporal durations in the picosecond and femtosecond regime, are made possible by femtosecond pump probe transient absorption spectroscopy. Such an ultrafast pump probe transient absorption setup has been implemented at the CSIR National Laser Centre and has been applied to investigate energy transfer processes in different parts of photosynthetic systems. In this paper we report on our first results obtained with Malachite green as a benchmark. Malachite green was chosen because the lifetime of its excited state is well known. We also present experimental results of the ultrafast energy transfer of light-harvesting complexes in samples prepared from spinach leaves. Various pump wavelengths in the range 600–680 nm were used; the probe was a white light continuum spanning 420–700 nm. The experimental setup is described in detail in this paper. Results obtained with these samples are consistent with those expected and achieved by other researchers in this field.

  18. Probing Dynamics in Colloidal Crystals with Pump-Probe Experiments at LCLS: Methodology and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastasia Mukharamova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present results of the studies of dynamics in colloidal crystals performed by pump-probe experiments using an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL. Colloidal crystals were pumped with an infrared laser at a wavelength of 800 nm with varying power and probed by XFEL pulses at an energy of 8 keV with a time delay up to 1000 ps. The positions of the Bragg peaks, and their radial and azimuthal widths were analyzed as a function of the time delay. The spectral analysis of the data did not reveal significant enhancement of frequencies expected in this experiment. This allowed us to conclude that the amplitude of vibrational modes excited in colloidal crystals was less than the systematic error caused by the noise level.

  19. A two-parameter nondiffusive heat conduction model for data analysis in pump-probe experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanbao

    2014-12-01

    Nondiffusive heat transfer has attracted intensive research interests in last 50 years because of its importance in fundamental physics and engineering applications. It has unique features that cannot be described by the Fourier law. However, current studies of nondiffusive heat transfer still focus on studying the effective thermal conductivity within the framework of the Fourier law due to a lack of a well-accepted replacement. Here, we show that nondiffusive heat conduction can be characterized by two inherent material properties: a diffusive thermal conductivity and a ballistic transport length. We also present a two-parameter heat conduction model and demonstrate its validity in different pump-probe experiments. This model not only offers new insights of nondiffusive heat conduction but also opens up new avenues for the studies of nondiffusive heat transfer outside the framework of the Fourier law.

  20. Two-color pump-probe laser spectroscopy instrument with picosecond time-resolved electronic delay and extended scan range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anchi; Ye, Xiong; Ionascu, Dan; Cao, Wenxiang; Champion, Paul M.

    2005-11-01

    An electronically delayed two-color pump-probe instrument was developed using two synchronized laser systems. The instrument has picosecond time resolution and can perform scans over hundreds of nanoseconds without the beam divergence and walk-off effects that occur using standard spatial delay systems. A unique picosecond Ti :sapphire regenerative amplifier was also constructed without the need for pulse stretching and compressing optics. The picosecond regenerative amplifier has a broad wavelength tuning range, which suggests that it will make a significant contribution to two-color pump-probe experiments. To test this instrument we studied the rotational correlation relaxation of myoglobin (τr=8.2±0.5ns) in water as well as the geminate rebinding kinetics of oxygen to myoglobin (kg1=1.7×1011s-1, kg2=3.4×107s-1). The results are consistent with, and improve upon, previous studies.

  1. Detecting strain wave propagation through quantum dots by pump-probe spectroscopy: A theoretical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huneke, J; Kuhn, T; Axt, V M

    2010-01-01

    The influence of strain waves traveling across a quantum dot structure on its optical response is studied for two different situations: First, a strain wave is created by the optical excitation of a single quantum dot near a surface which, after reflection at the surface, reenters the dot; second, a phonon wave packet is emitted by the excitation of a nearby second dot and then travels across the quantum dot. Pump-probe type excitations are simulated for quantum dots in the strong confinement limit. We show that the optical signals allow us to monitor crossing strain waves for both structures in the real-time response as well as in the corresponding pump-probe spectra. In the time-derivative of the phase of the polarization a distinct trace reflects the instantaneous shifts of the transition energy during the passage while in the spectra pronounced oscillations reveal the passage of the strain waves.

  2. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy of Zinc Phthalocynine (ZnPc) and light harvesting complex II (LHC II)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ombinda-Lemboumba, Saturnin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available pump-probe spectroscopy of Zinc Phthalocynine (ZnPc) and light harvesting complex II (LHC II) SAIP 7-10 July 2009, University of Kwazulu Natal. S. Ombinda-Lemboumba1, 2 A. du Plessis1, L. Botha1, D.E. Roberts1, P. Molukanele1, 3, R.W. Sparrow3, E... and phtobiology (2008) Page 12 Conclusion SAIP 7-10 July 2009, University of Kwazulu natal Femto group © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za • Presented our method of correcting chirp induced by white light generation. • Pump...

  3. Jitter-correction for IR/UV-XUV pump-probe experiments at the FLASH free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savelyev, Evgeny; Boll, Rebecca; Bomme, Cedric; Schirmel, Nora; Redlin, Harald

    2017-01-01

    In pump-probe experiments employing a free-electron laser (FEL) in combination with a synchronized optical femtosecond laser, the arrival-time jitter between the FEL pulse and the optical laser pulse often severely limits the temporal resolution that can be achieved. Here, we present a pump-probe experiment on the UV-induced dissociation of 2,6-difluoroiodobenzene C 6 H 3 F 2 I) molecules performed at the FLASH FEL that takes advantage of recent upgrades of the FLASH timing and synchronization system to obtain high-quality data that are not limited by the FEL arrival-time jitter. Here, we discuss in detail the necessary data analysis steps and describe the origin of the time-dependent effects in the yields and kinetic energies of the fragment ions that we observe in the experiment.

  4. Femtosecond resolution timing jitter correction on a TW scale Ti:sapphire laser system for FEL pump-probe experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csatari Divall, Marta; Mutter, Patrick; Divall, Edwin J; Hauri, Christoph P

    2015-11-16

    Intense ultrashort pulse lasers are used for fs resolution pump-probe experiments more and more at large scale facilities, such as free electron lasers (FEL). Measurement of the arrival time of the laser pulses and stabilization to the machine or other sub-systems on the target, is crucial for high time-resolution measurements. In this work we report on a single shot, spectrally resolved, non-collinear cross-correlator with sub-fs resolution. With a feedback applied we keep the output of the TW class Ti:sapphire amplifier chain in time with the seed oscillator to ~3 fs RMS level for several hours. This is well below the typical pulse duration used at FELs and supports fs resolution pump-probe experiments. Short term jitter and long term timing drift measurements are presented. Applicability to other wavelengths and integration into the timing infrastructure of the FEL are also covered to show the full potential of the device.

  5. Pump-probe spectroscopy of spin-injection dynamics in double quantum wells of diluted magnetic semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishibayashi, K.; Aoshima, I.; Souma, I.; Murayama, A.; Oka, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamics of spin injection has been investigated in a double quantum well (DQW) composed of a diluted magnetic semiconductor by the pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy in magnetic field. The DQW consists of a non-magnetic well (NMW) of CdTe and a magnetic well (MW) of Cd 0.92 Mn 0.08 Te. The MW shows a transient absorption saturation in the exciton band for more than 200 ps after the optical pumping, while the exciton photoluminescence does not arise from the MW. In the NMW, the circular polarization degree of the transient absorption saturation shows an increase with increasing time. The results are interpreted by the individual tunneling of spin-polarized electrons and holes from the MW to the NMW with different tunneling times. Depolarization processes of the carrier spins in the MW and the NMW are also discussed

  6. Broadband pump-probe spectroscopy with sub-10-fs resolution for probing ultrafast internal conversion and coherent phonons in carotenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polli, D.; Antognazza, M.R.; Brida, D.; Lanzani, G.; Cerullo, G.; De Silvestri, S.

    2008-01-01

    We use pump-probe spectroscopy with broadband detection to study electronic energy relaxation and coherent vibrational dynamics in carotenoids. A fast optical multichannel analyzer combined with a non-collinear optical parametric amplifier allows simultaneous acquisition of the differential transmission dynamics on the 500-700 nm wavelength range with sub-10-fs temporal resolution. The broad spectral coverage enables on the one hand a detailed study of the ultrafast bright-to-dark state internal conversion process; on the other hand, the tracking of the motion of the vibrational wavepacket launched on the ground state multidimensional potential energy surface. We present results on all-trans β-carotene and on a long-chain polyene in solution. The developed experimental setup enables the straightforward acquisition and analysis of coherent vibrational dynamics, highlighting time-frequency domain features with extreme resolution

  7. Ultrafast pump-probe reflectance spectroscopy: Why sodium makes Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells better

    KAUST Repository

    Eid, Jessica; Usman, Anwar; Gereige, Issam; Duren, Jeroen Van; Lyssenko, Vadim; Leo, Karl; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2015-01-01

    Although Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells have the highest efficiency of any thin-film solar cell, especially when sodium is incorporated, the fundamental device properties of ultrafast carrier transport and recombination in such cells remain not fully understood. Here, we explore the dynamics of charge carriers in CIGS absorber layers with varying concentrations of Na by femtosecond (fs) broadband pump-probe reflectance spectroscopy with 120 fs time resolution. By analyzing the time-resolved transient spectra in a different time domain, we show that a small amount of Na integrated by NaF deposition on top of sputtered Cu(In,Ga) prior to selenization forms CIGS, which induces slower recombination of the excited carriers. Here, we provide direct evidence for the elongation of carrier lifetimes by incorporating Na into CIGS.

  8. Ultrafast pump-probe reflectance spectroscopy: Why sodium makes Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells better

    KAUST Repository

    Eid, Jessica

    2015-04-14

    Although Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells have the highest efficiency of any thin-film solar cell, especially when sodium is incorporated, the fundamental device properties of ultrafast carrier transport and recombination in such cells remain not fully understood. Here, we explore the dynamics of charge carriers in CIGS absorber layers with varying concentrations of Na by femtosecond (fs) broadband pump-probe reflectance spectroscopy with 120 fs time resolution. By analyzing the time-resolved transient spectra in a different time domain, we show that a small amount of Na integrated by NaF deposition on top of sputtered Cu(In,Ga) prior to selenization forms CIGS, which induces slower recombination of the excited carriers. Here, we provide direct evidence for the elongation of carrier lifetimes by incorporating Na into CIGS.

  9. An electro-optical timing diagnostic for pump-probe experiments at the free-electron laser in Hamburg FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azima, Armin

    2009-07-15

    Femtosecond pump-probe experiments have extensively been used to follow atomic and molecular motion in time. The very intense extreme ultraviolet XUV light of the Free electron LASer in Hamburg FLASH facility allows to investigate fundamental processes such as direct one or few photon inner shell ionizations. A supplementary Ti:Sapphire near infrared femtosecond laser system allows to perform two-color pump-probe experiments with FLASH involving intense laser fields of hugely different photon energies. Within this work a bunch arrival measurement system has been built, which assists these two-color pump-probe experiments to reduce the temporal jitter of FLASH and to increase the temporal resolution. The diagnostic is based upon an electro-optical detection scheme and measures the relative arrival time between the Ti:Sapphire femtosecond pulse and the electron bunch, which generates the self-amplified by stimulated emission SASE XUV pulse in the undulator section of FLASH. Key feature of the diagnostic is a 150 m long glass fiber pulse transport line, which inflicts non-linear dispersion. A dispersion control system to compensate for this higher order dispersion has been developed including the control and programming of a spatial light phase modulator. It was possible to transport a 90 fs FWHM short near infrared femtosecond laser pulse Fourier limited by the dispersion compensated glass fiber. The electro-optical signal induced by the FLASH electron bunch was generated, characterized and optimized. The signal features beside the designated bunch arrival timing capability the additional possibility to measure the longitudinal electron bunch density distribution of an arbitrary bunch of FLASH in a single shot with a temporal resolution of below 100 fs RMS. Timing and bunch analysis capabilities of the developed diagnostic have been cross-checked with other comparable diagnostics at FLASH like the transversal deflecting cavity structure named LOLA. Finally, the

  10. An electro-optical timing diagnostic for pump-probe experiments at the free-electron laser in Hamburg FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azima, Armin

    2009-07-01

    Femtosecond pump-probe experiments have extensively been used to follow atomic and molecular motion in time. The very intense extreme ultraviolet XUV light of the Free electron LASer in Hamburg FLASH facility allows to investigate fundamental processes such as direct one or few photon inner shell ionizations. A supplementary Ti:Sapphire near infrared femtosecond laser system allows to perform two-color pump-probe experiments with FLASH involving intense laser fields of hugely different photon energies. Within this work a bunch arrival measurement system has been built, which assists these two-color pump-probe experiments to reduce the temporal jitter of FLASH and to increase the temporal resolution. The diagnostic is based upon an electro-optical detection scheme and measures the relative arrival time between the Ti:Sapphire femtosecond pulse and the electron bunch, which generates the self-amplified by stimulated emission SASE XUV pulse in the undulator section of FLASH. Key feature of the diagnostic is a 150 m long glass fiber pulse transport line, which inflicts non-linear dispersion. A dispersion control system to compensate for this higher order dispersion has been developed including the control and programming of a spatial light phase modulator. It was possible to transport a 90 fs FWHM short near infrared femtosecond laser pulse Fourier limited by the dispersion compensated glass fiber. The electro-optical signal induced by the FLASH electron bunch was generated, characterized and optimized. The signal features beside the designated bunch arrival timing capability the additional possibility to measure the longitudinal electron bunch density distribution of an arbitrary bunch of FLASH in a single shot with a temporal resolution of below 100 fs RMS. Timing and bunch analysis capabilities of the developed diagnostic have been cross-checked with other comparable diagnostics at FLASH like the transversal deflecting cavity structure named LOLA. Finally, the

  11. Detection of hydrodynamic expansion in ultrashort pulse laser ellipsometric pump-probe experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikami, Hidetoshi; Yoneda, Hitoki; Ueda, Ken-ichi; More, Richard M.

    2004-01-01

    In ultrashort-pulse laser interaction with solid target materials, the target rapidly heats, melts, evaporates, and begins to expand as a vapor or plasma. The onset of hydrodynamic expansion following surface evaporation is a switching point, where the dominant physics changes from temperature dependence of the solid dielectric function to refraction by the dense vapor cloud. We propose and demonstrate a method to analyze reflection data to identify this onset of target expansion. We use two of the Stokes parameters obtained from ellipsometric pump-probe measurements to determine a dielectric function with an assumption of no expansion. We use this dielectric function to predict the full set of reflectivity measurements. If there is a sharply defined target interface, this method reproduces the experimental data. When the plasma expansion is no longer negligible, the prediction deviates from the experimental measurements. This comparison shows when the plasma expansion is no longer negligible

  12. Optical afterburner for an x-ray free electron laser as a tool for pump-probe experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Saldin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new scheme for two-color operation of an x-ray self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser (SASE FEL. The scheme is based on an intrinsic feature of such a device: chaotic modulations of electron beam energy and energy spread on the scale of FEL coherence length are converted into large density modulations on the same scale with the help of a dispersion section, installed behind the x-ray undulator. Powerful radiation is then generated with the help of a dedicated radiator (like an undulator that selects a narrow spectral line, or one can simply use, for instance, broadband edge radiation. A typical radiation wavelength can be as short as a FEL coherence length, and can be redshifted by increasing the dispersion section strength. In practice it means the wavelength ranges from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared. The long-wavelength radiation pulse is naturally synchronized with the x-ray pulse and can be either directly used in pump-probe experiments or cross correlated with a high-power pulse from a conventional laser system. In this way experimenters overcome jitter problems and can perform pump-probe experiments with femtosecond resolution. Additional possibilities like on-line monitoring of x-ray pulse duration (making “optical replica” of an x-ray pulse are also discussed in the paper. The proposed scheme is very simple, cheap, and robust, and therefore can be easily realized in facilities like FLASH, European XFEL, LCLS, and SCSS.

  13. Ultrafast S1 and ICT state dynamics of a marine carotenoid probed by femtosecond one- and two-photon pump-probe spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosumi, Daisuke; Kusumoto, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Ritsuko; Sugisaki, Mitsuru; Iinuma, Yoshiro; Oka, Naohiro; Takaesu, Yuki; Taira, Tomonori; Iha, Masahiko; Frank, Harry A.; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    Ultrafast relaxation kinetics of fucoxanthin in polar and non-polar solvents have been studied by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. Transient absorption associated with S 1 or intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) excited state has been observed following either one-photon excitation to the optically allowed S 2 state or two-photon excitation to the symmetry-forbidden S 1 state. The results suggest that the ICT state formed after excitation of fucoxanthin in a polar solvent is a distinct excited state from S 1 .

  14. Ultrafast S{sub 1} and ICT state dynamics of a marine carotenoid probed by femtosecond one- and two-photon pump-probe spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosumi, Daisuke, E-mail: kosumi@sci.osaka-cu.ac.j [CREST/JST and Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Kusumoto, Toshiyuki [CREST/JST and Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Fujii, Ritsuko; Sugisaki, Mitsuru [CREST/JST and Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Osaka City University Advanced Research Institute for Natural Science and Technology (OCARINA), Osaka (Japan); Iinuma, Yoshiro; Oka, Naohiro; Takaesu, Yuki; Taira, Tomonori; Iha, Masahiko [South Product Co. Ltd., 12-75 Suzaki, Uruma-shi, Okinawa 904-2234 (Japan); Frank, Harry A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3060 (United States); Hashimoto, Hideki, E-mail: hassy@sci.osaka-cu.ac.j [CREST/JST and Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Osaka City University Advanced Research Institute for Natural Science and Technology (OCARINA), Osaka (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Ultrafast relaxation kinetics of fucoxanthin in polar and non-polar solvents have been studied by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. Transient absorption associated with S{sub 1} or intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) excited state has been observed following either one-photon excitation to the optically allowed S{sub 2} state or two-photon excitation to the symmetry-forbidden S{sub 1} state. The results suggest that the ICT state formed after excitation of fucoxanthin in a polar solvent is a distinct excited state from S{sub 1}.

  15. Optical beam transport to a remote location for low jitter pump-probe experiments with a free electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cinquegrana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a scheme that allows a strong reduction of the timing jitter between the pulses of a free electron laser (FEL and external laser pulses delivered simultaneously at the FEL experimental stations for pump-probe–type experiments. The technique, applicable to all seeding-based FEL schemes, relies on the free-space optical transport of a portion of the seed laser pulse from its optical table to the experimental stations. The results presented here demonstrate that a carefully designed laser beam transport, incorporating also a transverse beam position stabilization, allows one to keep the timing fluctuations, added by as much as 150 m of free space propagation and a number of beam folding mirrors, to less than 4 femtoseconds rms. By its nature our scheme removes the major common timing jitter sources, so the overall jitter in pump-probe measurements done in this way will be below 10 fs (with a margin to be lowered to below 5 fs, much better than the best results reported previously in the literature amounting to 33 fs rms.

  16. Toward sub-femtosecond pump-probe experiments: a dispersionless autocorrelator with attosecond resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constant, E.; Mevel, E.; Zair, A.; Bagnoud, V.; Salin, F. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Talence (FR). Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications (CELIA)

    2001-07-01

    We designed a dispersionless autocorrelator with a sub-femtosecond resolution suitable for the characterization of ultrashort X-UV pulses. We present a proof of feasibility experiment with 11 fs infrared pulses. (orig.)

  17. Gauge invariance in the theoretical description of time-resolved angle-resolved pump/probe photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freericks, J. K.; Krishnamurthy, H. R.; Sentef, M. A.; Devereaux, T. P.

    2015-10-01

    Nonequilibrium calculations in the presence of an electric field are usually performed in a gauge, and need to be transformed to reveal the gauge-invariant observables. In this work, we discuss the issue of gauge invariance in the context of time-resolved angle-resolved pump/probe photoemission. If the probe is applied while the pump is still on, one must ensure that the calculations of the observed photocurrent are gauge invariant. We also discuss the requirement of the photoemission signal to be positive and the relationship of this constraint to gauge invariance. We end by discussing some technical details related to the perturbative derivation of the photoemission spectra, which involve processes where the pump pulse photoexcites electrons due to nonequilibrium effects.

  18. High-repetition-rate setup for pump-probe time-resolved XUV-IR experiments employing ion and electron momentum imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Shashank; Robatjazi, Seyyed Javad; Wright Lee, Pearson; Raju Pandiri, Kanaka; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem

    2017-04-01

    J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan KS, USA We report on the development of a versatile experimental setup for XUV-IR pump-probe experiments using a 10 kHz high-harmonic generation (HHG) source and two different charged-particle momentum imaging spectrometers. The HHG source, based on a commercial KM Labs eXtreme Ultraviolet Ultrafast Source, is capable of delivering XUV radiation of less than 30 fs pulse duration in the photon energy range of 17 eV to 100 eV. It can be coupled either to a conventional velocity map imaging (VMI) setup with an atomic, molecular, or nanoparticle target; or to a novel double-sided VMI spectrometer equipped with two delay-line detectors for coincidence studies. An overview of the setup and results of first pump-probe experiments including studies of two-color double ionization of Xe and time-resolved dynamics of photoionized CO2 molecule will be presented. This project is supported in part by National Science Foundation (NSF-EPSCOR) Award No. IIA-1430493 and in part by the Chemical science, Geosciences, and Bio-Science division, Office of Basic Energy Science, Office of science, U.S. Department of Energy. K.

  19. Ultrafast spin injection from Cd1-x Mn x Te magnetic barriers into a CdTe quantum well studied by pump-probe spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoshima, I.; Nishibayashi, K.; Souma, I.; Murayama, A.; Oka, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Spin injection from diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) barriers of Cd 1- x Mn x Te into a quantum well (QW) of CdTe is studied, by means of pump-probe absorption spectroscopy in magnetic fields. Fast decay characteristics of circularly polarized differential absorbances of spin-polarized excitons in the DMS barrier show the exciton injection time of 6 ps from the barriers into the QW. In accordance with the fast relaxation of the spin-polarized excitons from the barrier, we observe the rise of circular polarization degree for the differential absorption of the CdTe QW in magnetic fields, evidently indicating the spin injection. In addition, the circular polarization degree up to 0.3 is developed in the well immediately after pumping, originating from the fast relaxation of a heavy hole (hh) spin less than 0.2 ps, due to the giant Zeeman effect caused by the penetration of the hh wave function into the DMS barriers

  20. In-Situ Probing Plasmonic Energy Transfer in Cu(In, Ga)Se2 Solar Cells by Ultrabroadband Femtosecond Pump-Probe Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Chen; Wu, Kaung-Hsiung; Li, Jia-Xing; Yabushita, Atsushi; Tang, Shih-Han; Luo, Chih Wei; Juang, Jenh-Yih; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2015-12-18

    In this work, we demonstrated a viable experimental scheme for in-situ probing the effects of Au nanoparticles (NPs) incorporation on plasmonic energy transfer in Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells by elaborately analyzing the lifetimes and zero moment for hot carrier relaxation with ultrabroadband femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The signals of enhanced photobleach (PB) and waned photoinduced absorption (PIA) attributable to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Au NPs were in-situ probed in transient differential absorption spectra. The results suggested that substantial carriers can be excited from ground state to lower excitation energy levels, which can reach thermalization much faster with the existence of SPR. Thus, direct electron transfer (DET) could be implemented to enhance the photocurrent of CIGS solar cells. Furthermore, based on the extracted hot carrier lifetimes, it was confirmed that the improved electrical transport might have been resulted primarily from the reduction in the surface recombination of photoinduced carriers through enhanced local electromagnetic field (LEMF). Finally, theoretical calculation for resonant energy transfer (RET)-induced enhancement in the probability of exciting electron-hole pairs was conducted and the results agreed well with the enhanced PB peak of transient differential absorption in plasmonic CIGS film. These results indicate that plasmonic energy transfer is a viable approach to boost high-efficiency CIGS solar cells.

  1. Ultrafast Dynamics of the VO2 Insulator-to-Metal Transition Observed by Nondegenerate Pump-Probe Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haglund R. F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-degenerate pump (1.5 eV-probe (0.4 eV transmission spectroscopy on vanadium dioxide films grown on glass and three different sapphire substrates shows systematic variations with substrate that correlate with VO2 grain size and laser fluence. Temperature dependent measurements showed changes in the electronic response that is proportional to the metallic fraction.

  2. Scheme for femtosecond-resolution pump-probe experiments at XFELs with two-color ten GW-level X-ray pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a scheme for pump-probe experiments that can be performed at LCLS and at the European XFEL and determines what additional hardware development will be required to bring these experiments to fruition. It is proposed to derive both pump and probe pulses from the same electron bunch, but from different parts of the tunable-gap baseline undulator. This eliminates the need for synchronization and cancels jitter problems. The method has the further advantage to make a wide frequency range accessible at high peak-power and high repetition-rate. An important feature of the proposed scheme is that the hardware requirement is minimal. Our technique is based in essence on the ''fresh'' bunch technique. For its implementation it is sufficient to substitute a single undulator module with short magnetic delay line, i.e. a weak magnetic chicane, which delays the electron bunch with respect to the SASE pulse of half of the bunch length in the linear stage of amplification. This installation does not perturb the baseline mode of operation. We present a feasibility study and we make exemplifications with the parameters of the SASE2 line of the European XFEL. (orig.)

  3. Intraminiband Relaxation In Doped GaAs/AlGaAs Superlattices Studied By Two-Color Infrared Pump-Probe Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.; Stehr, D.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Andrews, A. M.; Roch, T.; Strasser, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we report on two-color pump-probe measurements to investigate the intraminiband dynamics of doped GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices with different miniband widths smaller or larger than the optical phonon energy. For a miniband with a width larger than the optical phonon energy we found a fast relaxation, independent of the excitation intensity. For narrow minibands this relaxation takes longer and shows a strong temperature and intensity dependence.

  4. In vivo pump-probe microscopy of melanoma and pigmented lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jesse W.; Degan, Simone; Mitropoulos, Tanya; Selim, M. Angelica; Zhang, Jennifer Y.; Warren, Warren S.

    2012-03-01

    A growing number of dermatologists and pathologists are concerned that the rapidly rising incidence of melanoma reflects not a true 'epidemic' but an increasing tendency to overdiagnose pigmented lesions. Addressing this problem requires both a better understanding of early-stage melanoma and new diagnostic criteria based on more than just cellular morphology and architecture. Here we present a method for in-vivo optical microscopy that utilizes pump-probe spectroscopy to image the distribution of the two forms of melanin in skin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. Images are acquired in a scanning microscope with a sensitive modulation transfer technique by analyzing back-scattered probe light with a lock-in amplifier. Early-stage melanoma is studied in a human skin xenografted mouse model. Individual melanocytes have been observed, in addition to pigmented keratinocytes. Combining the pump-probe images simultaneously with other noninvasive laser microscopy methods (confocal reflectance, multiphoton autofluorescence, and second harmonic generation) allows visualization of the skin architecture, framing the functional pump-probe image in the context of the surrounding tissue morphology. It is found that pump-probe images of melanin can be acquired with low peak intensities, enabling wide field-of-view pigmentation surveys. Finally, we investigate the diagnostic potential of the additional chemical information available from pump-probe microscopy.

  5. Frequency-resolved pump-probe characterization of femtosecond infrared pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeremenko, S.; Baltuška, A.; Haan, F. de; Pshenichnikov, M.S.; Wiersma, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    A novel method for ultrashort IR pulse characterization is presented. The technique utilizes a frequency-resolved pump-probe geometry that is common in applications of ultrafast spectroscopy, without any modifications of the setup. The experimental demonstration of the method was carried out to

  6. Effect of an ultrafast laser induced plasma on a relativistic electron beam to determine temporal overlap in pump-probe experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoby, Cheyne M; Li, R K; Musumeci, P

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we report on a simple and robust method to measure the absolute temporal overlap of the laser and the electron beam at the sample based on the effect of a laser induced plasma on the electron beam transverse distribution, successfully extending a similar method from keV to MeV electron beams. By pumping a standard copper TEM grid to form the plasma, we gain timing information independent of the sample under study. In experiments discussed here the optical delay to achieve temporal overlap between the pump electron beam and probe laser can be determined with ~1 ps precision. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Invited Review Article: Pump-probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jesse W.; Robles, Francisco E.; Warren, Warren S.

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has rapidly gained popularity in biomedical imaging and materials science because of its ability to provide three-dimensional images at high spatial and temporal resolution even in optically scattering environments. Currently the majority of commercial and home-built devices are based on two-photon fluorescence and harmonic generation contrast. These two contrast mechanisms are relatively easy to measure but can access only a limited range of endogenous targets. Recent developments in fast laser pulse generation, pulse shaping, and detection technology have made accessible a wide range of optical contrasts that utilize multiple pulses of different colors. Molecular excitation with multiple pulses offers a large number of adjustable parameters. For example, in two-pulse pump-probe microscopy, one can vary the wavelength of each excitation pulse, the detection wavelength, the timing between the excitation pulses, and the detection gating window after excitation. Such a large parameter space can provide much greater molecular specificity than existing single-color techniques and allow for structural and functional imaging without the need for exogenous dyes and labels, which might interfere with the system under study. In this review, we provide a tutorial overview, covering principles of pump-probe microscopy and experimental setup, challenges associated with signal detection and data processing, and an overview of applications. PMID:27036751

  8. Invited Review Article: Pump-probe microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Martin C., E-mail: Martin.Fischer@duke.edu; Wilson, Jesse W.; Robles, Francisco E. [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Warren, Warren S. [Departments of Chemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Physics, and Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Multiphoton microscopy has rapidly gained popularity in biomedical imaging and materials science because of its ability to provide three-dimensional images at high spatial and temporal resolution even in optically scattering environments. Currently the majority of commercial and home-built devices are based on two-photon fluorescence and harmonic generation contrast. These two contrast mechanisms are relatively easy to measure but can access only a limited range of endogenous targets. Recent developments in fast laser pulse generation, pulse shaping, and detection technology have made accessible a wide range of optical contrasts that utilize multiple pulses of different colors. Molecular excitation with multiple pulses offers a large number of adjustable parameters. For example, in two-pulse pump-probe microscopy, one can vary the wavelength of each excitation pulse, the detection wavelength, the timing between the excitation pulses, and the detection gating window after excitation. Such a large parameter space can provide much greater molecular specificity than existing single-color techniques and allow for structural and functional imaging without the need for exogenous dyes and labels, which might interfere with the system under study. In this review, we provide a tutorial overview, covering principles of pump-probe microscopy and experimental setup, challenges associated with signal detection and data processing, and an overview of applications.

  9. Exciton lifetime and spin dynamics in type-I In1−xAlxAs/Ga0.67Al0.33As quantum dots: Photoluminescence and pump-probe experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Daly, A.; Bernardot, F.; Barisien, T.; Galopin, E.; Lemaître, A.; Maaref, M.A.; Testelin, C.

    2015-01-01

    The exciton lifetime and spin relaxation have been studied in self-assembled In 1−x Al x As/Ga 0.67 Al 0.33 As quantum dots (QDs). Time-resolved photoluminescence and resonant pump-probe measurements were performed, at variable temperature and for different QD aluminium compositions. At low temperature, a long exciton-spin relaxation time has been measured, in agreement with the QD zero-dimensional confinement and the quenching of the relaxation mechanisms. The existence of a quasi-2D regime, in sample with a high QD density, has been observed. The importance of thermally-activated processes toward excited states is also evidenced, for QDs with different compositions and sizes. - Highlights: • The exciton lifetime and spin relaxation have been studied in In 1−x Al x As/Ga 0.67 Al 0.33 As quantum dot (QD). • Time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) and pump-probe measurements were performed, at variable temperature and for different QD aluminium compositions. • From the PL decay time, several thermal activation processes, related to 0D or 2D regime, or dependending on collective mechanisms. • The importance of thermal activated processes toward excited states is also evidenced, for QD with different compositions and sizes

  10. Analysis of femtosecond pump-probe photoelectron-photoion coincidence measurements applying Bayesian probability theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumetshofer, M.; Heim, P.; Thaler, B.; Ernst, W. E.; Koch, M.; von der Linden, W.

    2018-06-01

    Ultrafast dynamical processes in photoexcited molecules can be observed with pump-probe measurements, in which information about the dynamics is obtained from the transient signal associated with the excited state. Background signals provoked by pump and/or probe pulses alone often obscure these excited-state signals. Simple subtraction of pump-only and/or probe-only measurements from the pump-probe measurement, as commonly applied, results in a degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio and, in the case of coincidence detection, the danger of overrated background subtraction. Coincidence measurements additionally suffer from false coincidences, requiring long data-acquisition times to keep erroneous signals at an acceptable level. Here we present a probabilistic approach based on Bayesian probability theory that overcomes these problems. For a pump-probe experiment with photoelectron-photoion coincidence detection, we reconstruct the interesting excited-state spectrum from pump-probe and pump-only measurements. This approach allows us to treat background and false coincidences consistently and on the same footing. We demonstrate that the Bayesian formalism has the following advantages over simple signal subtraction: (i) the signal-to-noise ratio is significantly increased, (ii) the pump-only contribution is not overestimated, (iii) false coincidences are excluded, (iv) prior knowledge, such as positivity, is consistently incorporated, (v) confidence intervals are provided for the reconstructed spectrum, and (vi) it is applicable to any experimental situation and noise statistics. Most importantly, by accounting for false coincidences, the Bayesian approach allows us to run experiments at higher ionization rates, resulting in a significant reduction of data acquisition times. The probabilistic approach is thoroughly scrutinized by challenging mock data. The application to pump-probe coincidence measurements on acetone molecules enables quantitative interpretations

  11. Pump-probe study of atoms and small molecules with laser driven high order harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei

    A commercially available modern laser can emit over 1015 photons within a time window of a few tens of femtoseconds (10-15second), which can be focused into a spot size of about 10 mum, resulting in a peak intensity above 1014W/cm2. This paves the way for table-top strong field physics studies such as above threshold ionization (ATI), non-sequential double ionization (NSDI), high order harmonic generation (HHG), etc.. Among these strong laser-matter interactions, high order harmonic generation, which combines many photons of the fundamental laser field into a single photon, offers a unique way to generate light sources in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) or extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region. High order harmonic photons are emitted within a short time window from a few tens of femtoseconds down to a few hundreds of attoseconds (10 -18second). This highly coherent nature of HHG allows it to be synchronized with an infrared (IR) laser pulse, and the pump-probe technique can be adopted to study ultrafast dynamic processes in a quantum system. The major work of this thesis is to develop a table-top VUV(EUV) light source based on HHG, and use it to study dynamic processes in atoms and small molecules with the VUV(EUV)-pump IR-probe method. A Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) apparatus is used for momentum imaging of the interaction products. Two types of high harmonic pump pulses are generated and applied for pump-probe studies. The first one consists of several harmonics forming a short attosecond pulse train (APT) in the EUV regime (around 40 eV). We demonstrate that, (1) the auto-ionization process triggered by the EUV in cation carbon-monoxide and oxygen molecules can be modified by scanning the EUV-IR delay, (2) the phase information of quantum trajectories in bifurcated high harmonics can be extracted by performing an EUV-IR cross-correlation experiment, thus disclosing the macroscopic quantum control in HHG. The second type of high harmonic source

  12. Techniques for Pump-Probe Synchronisation of Fsec Radiation Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Schlarb, Holger

    2005-01-01

    The increasing interest on the production of ultra-short photon pulses in future generations of Free-Electron Lasers operating in the UV, VUV or X-ray regime demands new techniques to reliably measure and control the arrival time of the FEL-pulses at the experiment. For pump-probe experiments using external optical lasers the desired synchronisation is in the order of tens of femtoseconds, the typical duration of the FEL pulse. Since, the accelerators are large scale facilities of the length of several hundred meters or even kilometers, the problem of synchronisation has to be attacked twofold. First, the RF acceleration sections upstream of the magnetic bunch compressors need to be stabilised in amplitude and phase to high precision. Second, the remain electron beam timing jitter needs to be determined with femtosecond accuracy for off-line analysis. In this talk, several techniques using the electron or the FEL beam to monitor the arrival time are presented, and the proposed layout of the synchronisation sy...

  13. Femtosecond pump-probe studies of phonons and carriers in bismuth under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasami, M.; Ogino, T.; Mishina, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Nakahara, J.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the high-pressure phase of Bi under hydrostatic pressure using pump-probe spectroscopy at pressures up to 3.0 GPa, and we observe coherent phonons signal and relaxation signal of photo-excited carriers at Bi(II) and Bi(III) phases. The pressure dependence of the coherent phonons shows that the amplitude of coherent phonons is extremely small and the frequency of coherent phonons changes at high-pressure phases. As results from our experiment, we obtain its frequencies are 2.5 and 2.2 THz at Bi(II) and Bi(III), respectively. Furthermore, photo-excited carrier relaxation indicates drastic changes near 2.5 GPa. Bismuth transforms from semimetal to semiconductor near 2.5 GPa, and band-overlapping between at L-point and at T-point disappears. We consider that the drastic changes of the photo-excited carrier relaxation are strongly correlated with the band-overlapping disappearing

  14. Development of a Pump-Probe System using a Non-Coated ZnSe Beam Splitter Cube for an MIR-FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Heya, Manabu; Horiike, Hiroshi; Ishii, Katsonuri; Suzuki, Sachiko

    2004-01-01

    A pump-probe technique is essential for a proper understanding of laser interaction with tissue and material. Our pump-probe system divides the incident mid-infrared Free Electron Laser (MIR-FEL) into two beams with equal intensity, and crosses simultaneously the two incoming beams at the same position. One is for a pump beam, another is for a probe beam. Time-resolved absorption spectroscopy involving this technique gives us information on the vibrational dynamics of molecules. We have developed this system for an MIR-FEL using a non-coating ZnSe beam splitter cube. The beam splitter cube is composed of two ZnSe prisms in the shape like a trapezoid. The two pulses with equal intensity are generated due to Fresnel reflection and transmission at the boundary between two prisms, then are reflected due to total reflection at other side boundaries between each prism and air, and illuminate simultaneously the same spot. We have conducted a proof-of-concept of experiment of this system using an MIR-FEL. We showed t...

  15. User oriented end-station on VUV pump-probe magneto-optical ellipsometry at ELI beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Shirly; Neuber, Gerd; Brooks, Christopher D.; Besner, Bastian; Hashemi, Maryam; Rübhausen, Michael; Andreasson, Jakob

    2017-11-01

    A state of the art ellipsometer for user operations is being implemented at ELI Beamlines in Prague, Czech Republic. It combines three of the most promising and exotic forms of ellipsometry: VUV, pump-probe and magneto-optical ellipsometry. This new ellipsometer covers a spectral operational range from the NIR up to the VUV, with high through-put between 1 and 40 eV. The ellipsometer also allows measurements of magneto-optical spectra with a 1 kHz switchable magnetic field of up to 1.5 T across the sample combining ellipsometry and Kerr spectroscopy measurements in an unprecedented spectral range. This form of generalized ellipsometry enables users to address diagonal and off-diagonal components of the dielectric tensor within one measurement. Pump-probe measurements enable users to study the dynamic behaviour of the dielectric tensor in order to resolve the time-domain phenomena in the femto to 100 ns range.

  16. Antihydrogen Experiment Gravity Interferometry Spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Trezzi, D; Dassa, L; Rienacker, B; Khalidova, O; Ferrari, G; Krasnicky, D; Perini, D; Cerchiari, G; Belov, A; Boscolo, I; Sacerdoti, M G; Ferragut, R O; Nedelec, P; Hinterberger, A; Al-qaradawi, I; Malbrunot, C L S; Brusa, R S; Prelz, F; Manuzio, G; Riccardi, C; Fontana, A; Genova, P; Haider, S; Haug, F; Turbabin, A; Castelli, F; Testera, G; Lagomarsino, V E; Doser, M; Penasa, L; Gninenko, S; Cataneo, F; Zenoni, A; Cabaret, L; Comparat, D P; Zmeskal, J; Scampoli, P; Nesteruk, K P; Dudarev, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Mariazzi, S; Carraro, C; Zavatarelli, S M

    The AEGIS experiment (Antihydrogen Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) has the aim of carrying out the first measurement of the gravitational interaction of antimatter to a precision of 1%, by applying techniques from atomic physics, laser spectroscopy and interferometry to a beam of antihydrogen atoms. A further goal of the experiment is to carry out spectroscopy of the antihydrogen atoms in flight.

  17. Heterodyne pump-probe and four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers using balanced lock-in detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang; Mørk, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate a new detection scheme for pump-probe and four-wave mixing heterodyne experiments, using balanced detection and a dual-phase lock-in for spectral filtering. The technique allows the use of low repetition-rate laser systems, as is demonstrated on an InGaAsP/InP bulk optical amplifier...... at 1.53 mym. Ultrafast pump-induced changes in the amplitude and phase of the transmitted probe signal are simultaneously measured, going from small to large signal changes and with no need of an absolute phase calibration, showing the versatility and the sensitivity of this detection scheme....... The results for small perturbations are consistent with previous pump-probe experiments reported in literature. Time-resolved four-wave mixing in the absorption regime of the device is measured, and compared with numerical simulations, indicating a 100 fs dephasing time....

  18. Helium nanodroplets. Pump-probe ionization of alkali dopings and spin-echo scattering on undoped drops; Helium-Nanotroepfchen. Pump-Probe-Ionisation von Alkalidotierungen und Spinechostreuung an undotierten Tropfen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droppelmann, G.

    2005-09-15

    In the framework of this thesis several aspects of the properties of helium nanodroplets and their dopings. The formation of the exciplexes RbHe and KHe on helium droplets was studied by means of pump-probe ionization in real time, whereby the main interest lied on the influence of the applied helium isotopes. The experiments with cesium atoms on the droplet surface aimed on the elucidation of the relaxation dynamics of the surface under regardment both of isotope and size effects. From the pump-probe measurements on the formation of the exciplex RbHe on helium nanodroplets performed in the framework of this thesis formation times of 8.5 ps for Rb{sup 4}He and 11.6 ps for Rb{sup 3}He resulted.

  19. Vibrational dynamics of adsorbed molecules under conditions of photodesorption: Pump-probe SFG spectra of CO/Pt(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Frédéric; Zheng, Wanquan; Carrez, Serge; Dubost, Henri; Bourguignon, Bernard

    2004-09-01

    Interaction of CO adsorbed on Pt(111) with electrons and phonons is studied experimentally by means of a pump-probe experiment where CO is probed by IR+visible sum frequency generation under a pump laser intensity that allows photodesorption. Vibrational spectra of CO internal stretch are obtained as a function of pump-probe delay. A two-temperature and anharmonic coupling model is used to extract from the spectra the real time variations of CO peak frequency and dephasing time. The main conclusions are the following: (i) The CO stretch is perturbed by two low-frequency modes, assigned to frustrated rotation and frustrated translation. (ii) The frustrated rotation is directly coupled to electrons photoexcited in Pt(111) by the pump laser. (iii) There is no evidence of Pt-CO stretch excitation in the spectra. The implications for the photodesorption dynamics are discussed.

  20. Helium nanodroplets. Pump-probe ionization of alkali dopings and spin-echo scattering on undoped drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppelmann, G.

    2005-09-01

    In the framework of this thesis several aspects of the properties of helium nanodroplets and their dopings. The formation of the exciplexes RbHe and KHe on helium droplets was studied by means of pump-probe ionization in real time, whereby the main interest lied on the influence of the applied helium isotopes. The experiments with cesium atoms on the droplet surface aimed on the elucidation of the relaxation dynamics of the surface under regardment both of isotope and size effects. From the pump-probe measurements on the formation of the exciplex RbHe on helium nanodroplets performed in the framework of this thesis formation times of 8.5 ps for Rb 4 He and 11.6 ps for Rb 3 He resulted

  1. Femtosecond visible/visible and visible/mid-IR pump-probe study of the photosystem II core antenna complex CP47

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.L.; Breton, J.; van Wilderen, L.; Dekker, J.P.; van Grondelle, R.

    2004-01-01

    CP47 is one of the two core antenna proteins of Photosystem II involved in the transfer of solar energy toward the photochemically active reaction center, the D1D2cytb559 complex. We have performed vis/vis and vis/mid-IR pump-probe experiments at room temperature as a first step in linking the

  2. Pump-probe study of the formation of rubidium molecules by ultrafast photoassociation of ultracold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, David J.; England, Duncan G.; Martay, Hugo E. L.; Friedman, Melissa E.; Petrovic, Jovana; Dimova, Emiliya; Chatel, Béatrice; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2009-09-01

    An experimental pump-probe study of the photoassociative creation of translationally ultracold rubidium molecules is presented together with numerical simulations of the process. The formation of loosely bound excited-state dimers is observed as a first step toward a fully coherent pump-dump approach to the stabilization of Rb2 into its lowest ground vibrational states. The population that contributes to the pump-probe process is characterized and found to be distinct from a background population of preassociated molecules.

  3. Evanescent spectroscopy - theory and experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Karabchevsky, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Outline1 Introduction2 Literature Overview3 Photonic-Plasmonic WaveguideStructureModellingTheory4 ResultsOptical TransmittanceLoss of Fundamental Mode in a Gold RegionOptical Surface Intensity5 NIR Spectroscopy - Experiment6 Conclusions7 Acknowledgements

  4. Resolution enhancement of pump-probe microscope with an inverse-annular filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Kawasumi, Koshi; Miyazaki, Jun; Nakata, Kazuaki

    2018-04-01

    Optical pump-probe microscopy can provide images by detecting changes in probe light intensity induced by stimulated emission, photoinduced absorbance change, or photothermal-induced refractive index change in either transmission or reflection mode. Photothermal microscopy, which is one type of optical pump-probe microscopy, has intrinsically super resolution capability due to the bilinear dependence of signal intensity of pump and probe. We introduce new techniques for further resolution enhancement and fast imaging in photothermal microscope. First, we introduce a new pupil filter, an inverse-annular pupil filter in a pump-probe photothermal microscope, which provides resolution enhancement in three dimensions. The resolutions are proved to be improved in lateral and axial directions by imaging experiment using 20-nm gold nanoparticles. The improvement in X (perpendicular to the common pump and probe polarization direction), Y (parallel to the polarization direction), and Z (axial direction) are by 15 ± 6, 8 ± 8, and 21 ± 2% from the resolution without a pupil filter. The resolution enhancement is even better than the calculation using vector field, which predicts the corresponding enhancement of 11, 8, and 6%. The discussion is made to explain the unexpected results. We also demonstrate the photothermal imaging of thick biological samples (cells from rabbit intestine and kidney) stained with hematoxylin and eosin dye with the inverse-annular filter. Second, a fast, high-sensitivity photothermal microscope is developed by implementing a spatially segmented balanced detection scheme into a laser scanning microscope using a Galvano mirror. We confirm a 4.9 times improvement in signal-to-noise ratio in the spatially segmented balanced detection compared with that of conventional detection. The system demonstrates simultaneous bi-modal photothermal and confocal fluorescence imaging of transgenic mouse brain tissue with a pixel dwell time of 20 µs. The

  5. Theory for Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Vibrational Polaritons

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, RF; Dunkelberger, AD; Xiang, B; Xiong, W; Simpkins, BS; Owrutsky, JC; Yuen-Zhou, J

    2017-01-01

    Molecular polaritons have gained considerable attention due to their potential to control nanoscale molecular processes by harnessing electromagnetic coherence. Although recent experiments with liquid-phase vibrational polaritons have shown great promise for exploiting these effects, significant challenges remain in interpreting their spectroscopic signatures. In this letter, we develop a quantum-mechanical theory of pump-probe spectroscopy for this class of polaritons based on the quantum La...

  6. Pump-probe studies of travelling coherent longitudinal acoustic phonon oscillations in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.; Qi, J.; Tolk, Norman [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 37235 (United States); Miller, J. [Naval air Warfare Center Weapons Division, China Lake, CA 93555 (United States); Cho, Y.J.; Liu, X.; Furdyna, J.K. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Shahbazyan, T.V. [Department of Physics, Jackson State University, MS 39217 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    We report comprehensive studies of long-lived oscillations in femtosecond optical pump-probe measurements on GaAs based systems. The oscillations arise from a photo-generated coherent longitudinal acoustic phonon wave at the sample surface, which subsequently travels from the surface into the GaAs substrate, thus providing information on the optical properties of the material as a function of time/depth. Wavelength-dependent studies of the oscillations near the bandgap of GaAs indicate strong correlations to the optical properties of GaAs. We also use the coherent longitudinal acoustic phonon waves to probe a thin buried Ga{sub 0.1}In{sub 0.9}As layers non-invasively. The observed phonon oscillations experience a reduction in amplitude and a phase change at wavelengths near the bandgap of the GaAs, when it passes through the thin Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}As layer. The layer depth and thicknesses can be extracted from the oscillation responses. A model has been developed that satisfactorily characterizes the experimental results. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. High Speed Pump-Probe Apparatus for Observation of Transitional Effects in Ultrafast Laser Micromachining Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Alexeev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A pump-probe experimental approach has been shown to be a very efficient tool for the observation and analysis of various laser matter interaction effects. In those setups, synchronized laser pulses are used to create an event (pump and to simultaneously observe it (probe. In general, the physical effects that can be investigated with such an apparatus are restricted by the temporal resolution of the probe pulse and the observation window. The latter can be greatly extended by adjusting the pump-probe time delay under the assumption that the interaction process remains fairly reproducible. Unfortunately, this assumption becomes invalid in the case of high-repetition-rate ultrafast laser material processing, where the irradiation history strongly affects the ongoing interaction process. In this contribution, the authors present an extension of the pump-probe setup that allows to investigate transitional and dynamic effects present during ultrafast laser machining performed at high pulse repetition frequencies.

  8. Time zero determination for FEL pump-probe studies based on ultrafast melting of bismuth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Epp

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A common challenge for pump-probe studies of structural dynamics at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs is the determination of time zero (T0—the time an optical pulse (e.g., an optical laser arrives coincidently with the probe pulse (e.g., a XFEL pulse at the sample position. In some cases, T0 might be extracted from the structural dynamics of the sample's observed response itself, but generally, an independent robust method is required or would be superior to the inferred determination of T0. In this paper, we present how the structural dynamics in ultrafast melting of bismuth can be exploited for a quickly performed, reliable and accurate determination of T0 with a precision below 20 fs and an overall experimental accuracy of 50 fs to 150 fs (estimated. Our approach is potentially useful and applicable for fixed-target XFEL experiments, such as serial femtosecond crystallography, utilizing an optical pump pulse in the ultraviolet to near infrared spectral range and a pixelated 2D photon detector for recording crystallographic diffraction patterns in transmission geometry. In comparison to many other suitable approaches, our method is fairly independent of the pumping wavelength (UV–IR as well as of the X-ray energy and offers a favorable signal contrast. The technique is exploitable not only for the determination of temporal characteristics of the experiment at the interaction point but also for investigating important conditions affecting experimental control such as spatial overlap and beam spot sizes.

  9. Time zero determination for FEL pump-probe studies based on ultrafast melting of bismuth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, S W; Hada, M; Zhong, Y; Kumagai, Y; Motomura, K; Mizote, S; Ono, T; Owada, S; Axford, D; Bakhtiarzadeh, S; Fukuzawa, H; Hayashi, Y; Katayama, T; Marx, A; Müller-Werkmeister, H M; Owen, R L; Sherrell, D A; Tono, K; Ueda, K; Westermeier, F; Miller, R J D

    2017-09-01

    A common challenge for pump-probe studies of structural dynamics at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) is the determination of time zero (T 0 )-the time an optical pulse (e.g., an optical laser) arrives coincidently with the probe pulse (e.g., a XFEL pulse) at the sample position. In some cases, T 0 might be extracted from the structural dynamics of the sample's observed response itself, but generally, an independent robust method is required or would be superior to the inferred determination of T 0 . In this paper, we present how the structural dynamics in ultrafast melting of bismuth can be exploited for a quickly performed, reliable and accurate determination of T 0 with a precision below 20 fs and an overall experimental accuracy of 50 fs to 150 fs (estimated). Our approach is potentially useful and applicable for fixed-target XFEL experiments, such as serial femtosecond crystallography, utilizing an optical pump pulse in the ultraviolet to near infrared spectral range and a pixelated 2D photon detector for recording crystallographic diffraction patterns in transmission geometry. In comparison to many other suitable approaches, our method is fairly independent of the pumping wavelength (UV-IR) as well as of the X-ray energy and offers a favorable signal contrast. The technique is exploitable not only for the determination of temporal characteristics of the experiment at the interaction point but also for investigating important conditions affecting experimental control such as spatial overlap and beam spot sizes.

  10. Heterodyne pump probe measurements of nonlinear dynamics in an indium phosphide photonic crystal cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuck, Mikkel; Combrié, S.; Lehoucq, G.

    2013-01-01

    Using a sensitive two-color heterodyne pump-probe technique, we investigate the carrier dynamics of an InP photonic crystal nanocavity. The heterodyne technique provides unambiguous results for all wavelength configurations, including the degenerate case, which cannot be investigated with the wid......Using a sensitive two-color heterodyne pump-probe technique, we investigate the carrier dynamics of an InP photonic crystal nanocavity. The heterodyne technique provides unambiguous results for all wavelength configurations, including the degenerate case, which cannot be investigated...... with the widely used homodyne technique. A model based on coupled mode theory including two carrier distributions is introduced to account for the relaxation dynamics, which is assumed to be governed by both diffusion and recombination....

  11. Controlling the optical bistability and multistability in a two-level pumped-probe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoudi, Mohammad; Sahrai, Mostafa; Masoumeh Mousavi, Seyede

    2010-01-01

    We study the behavior of the optical bistability (OB) and multistability (OM) in a two-level pumped-probe atomic system by means of a unidirectional ring cavity. We show that the optical bistability in a two-level atomic system can be controlled by adjusting the intensity of the pump field and the detuning between two fields. We find that applying the pumping field decreases the threshold of the optical bistability.

  12. Dynamic characterization of silicon nanowires using a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer-based pump-probe scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Hua; Cleary, C. S.; Dailey, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic phase and amplitude all-optical responses of silicon nanowires are characterized using a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based pump-probe scheme. Ultra-fast recovery is observed for moderate pump powers....

  13. Femtosecond spectroscopy on alkali-doped helium nanodroplets; Femtosekundenspektroskopie an alkalidotierten Helium-Nanotroepfchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claas, P.

    2006-01-15

    In the present thesis first studies on the short-time dynamics in alkali dimers and microclusters, which were bound on the surface of superfluid helium droplets, were presented. The experiments comprehended pump-probe measurements on the fs scale on the vibration dynamics on the dimers and on the fragmentation dynamics on the clusters. Generally by the studies it was shown that such extremely short slopes can also be observed on helium droplets by means of the femtosecond spectroscopy.

  14. Diagnosis and staging of female genital tract melanocytic lesions using pump-probe microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Francisco E.; Selim, Maria A.; Warren, Warren S.

    2016-02-01

    Melanoma of the vulva is the second most common type of malignancy afflicting that organ. This disease caries poor prognosis, and shows tendencies to recur locally and develop distant metastases through hematogenous dissemination. Further, there exists significant clinical overlap between early-stage melanomas and melanotic macules, benign lesions that are believed to develop in about 10% of the general female population. In this work we apply a novel nonlinear optical method, pump-probe microscopy, to quantitatively analyze female genitalia tract melanocytic lesions. Pump-probe microscopy provides chemical information of endogenous pigments by probing their electronic excited state dynamics, with subcellular resolution. Using unstained biopsy sections from 31 patients, we find significant differences between melanin type and structure in tissue regions with invasive melanoma, melanoma in-situ and non-malignant melanocytic proliferations (e.g., nevi, melanocytic macules). The molecular images of non-malignant lesion have a well-organized structure, with relatively homogenous pigment chemistry, most often consistent with that of eumelanin with large aggregate size or void of metals, such as iron. On the other hand, pigment type and structure observed in melanomas in-situ and invasive melanomas is typically much more heterogeneous, with larger contributions from pheomelanin, melanins with larger metal content, and/or melanins with smaller aggregate size. Of most significance, clear differences can be observed between melanocytic macules and vulvar melanoma in-situ, which, as discussed above, can be difficult to clinically distinguish. This initial study demonstrates pump-probe microscopy's potential as an adjuvant diagnostic tool by revealing systematic chemical and morphological differences in melanin pigmentation among invasive melanoma, melanoma in-situ and non-malignant melanocytic lesions.

  15. Anomalous phase behavior and apparent anharmonicity of the pump-probe signal in a two-dimensional harmonic potential system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneichi, T.; Kobayashi, T.

    2007-01-01

    Discussion on wavelength dependent 'anharmonic' effects in a pump-probe signal for a system of wavepacket on one- and two-dimensional harmonic potentials was given. The Fourier power spectrum of the signal, calculated for a model composed of a three-state electronic system coupled to a set of displaced harmonic oscillators, depends on the pulse duration. Condition under which the wavepacket motion in the harmonic potential substantially deviates from that of the classical point mass is derived. The Fourier power spectrum has enhanced components with frequencies of harmonics even in a system composed of ideally harmonic potentials. Utility of the Fourier analysis of the spectrum for clarification of the squeezed molecular vibrational state is discussed. Calculated oscillatory behavior in phase of a pump-probe signal, as a function of probe frequency, was discussed in terms of a two-dimensional effect on a pump-probe signal

  16. Pump-probe differencing technique for cavity-enhanced, noise-canceling saturation laser spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vine, Glenn; McClelland, David E; Gray, Malcolm B; Close, John D

    2005-05-15

    We present an experimental technique that permits mechanical-noise-free, cavity-enhanced frequency measurements of an atomic transition and its hyperfine structure. We employ the 532-nm frequency-doubled output from a Nd:YAG laser and an iodine vapor cell. The cell is placed in a folded ring cavity (FRC) with counterpropagating pump and probe beams. The FRC is locked with the Pound-Drever-Hall technique. Mechanical noise is rejected by differencing the pump and probe signals. In addition, this differenced error signal provides a sensitive measure of differential nonlinearity within the FRC.

  17. Patterning effects in quantum dot amplifiers characterized through pump probe spectroscopy using two pump pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Poel, Mike van der; Laemmlin, M.

    2004-01-01

    Patterning effects at ultrahigh bitrates in quantum dot amplifiers are investigated by a novel experimental technique. Slow carrier dynamics in the excited states and wetting layer are found to limit the potential for ultrahigh-speed signal processing....

  18. Real-time ultrafast dynamics of dense, hot matter measured by pump-probe Doppler spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lad, Amit D; Mondal, S; Narayanan, V; Ahmed, Saima; Kumar, G Ravindra; Rajeev, P P; Robinson, A P L [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Pasley, J, E-mail: amitlad@tifr.res.i [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-01

    A detailed understanding of the critical surface motion of high intensity laser produced plasma is very crucial for understanding the interaction. We employ the two colour pump-probe technique to report the first ever femtosecond scale ultrafast dynamics measurement of the critical surface of a solid plasma produced by a relativistically intense, femtosecond pump laser beam (10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}, 30 fs, 800 nm) on an aluminium target. We observe the Doppler shift of a time delayed probe laser beam (10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}, 80 fs, 400 nm) up to delays of 30 ps. Such unravelling of dynamics has not been possible in earlier measurements, which typically used the self reflection of a powerful pump pulse. We observe time dependent red and blue shifts and measure their magnitudes to infer plasma expansion velocity and acceleration and thereby the plasma profile. Our results are very well reproduced by 1D hydrodynamic simulation (HYADES code).

  19. Energy transfer in isolated LHC II studied by femtosecond pump-probe technique

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Yi; Liu Yuan; Liu Wei Min; Zhu Rong Yi; Qian Shi Xiong; Xu Chun He

    2003-01-01

    Excitation energy transfer in the isolated light-harvesting chlorophyll (Chl)-a/b protein complex of photosystem II (LHC II) was studied by the one-colour pump-probe technique with femtosecond time resolution. After exciting Chl-b by 638nm beam, the dynamic behaviour shows that the ultrafast energy transfer from Chl-b at positions of B2, B3, and B5 to the corresponding Chl-a molecules in monomeric subunit of LHC II is in the time scale of 230fs. While with the excitation of Chl-a at 678nm, the energy transfer between excitons of Chl-a molecules has the lifetime of about 370 fs, and two other slow decay components are due to the energy transfer between different Chl-a molecules in a monomeric subunit of LHC II or in different subunits, or due to change of molecular conformation. (20 refs).

  20. Determination of hot carrier energy distributions from inversion of ultrafast pump-probe reflectivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilpern, Tal; Manjare, Manoj; Govorov, Alexander O; Wiederrecht, Gary P; Gray, Stephen K; Harutyunyan, Hayk

    2018-05-10

    Developing a fundamental understanding of ultrafast non-thermal processes in metallic nanosystems will lead to applications in photodetection, photochemistry and photonic circuitry. Typically, non-thermal and thermal carrier populations in plasmonic systems are inferred either by making assumptions about the functional form of the initial energy distribution or using indirect sensors like localized plasmon frequency shifts. Here we directly determine non-thermal and thermal distributions and dynamics in thin films by applying a double inversion procedure to optical pump-probe data that relates the reflectivity changes around Fermi energy to the changes in the dielectric function and in the single-electron energy band occupancies. When applied to normal incidence measurements our method uncovers the ultrafast excitation of a non-Fermi-Dirac distribution and its subsequent thermalization dynamics. Furthermore, when applied to the Kretschmann configuration, we show that the excitation of propagating plasmons leads to a broader energy distribution of electrons due to the enhanced Landau damping.

  1. Near shot-noise limited time-resolved circular dichroism pump-probe spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnytskyi, Valentyn; Orf, Gregory S.; Blankenship, Robert E.; Savikhin, Sergei

    2018-03-01

    We describe an optical near shot-noise limited time-resolved circular dichroism (TRCD) pump-probe spectrometer capable of reliably measuring circular dichroism signals in the order of μdeg with nanosecond time resolution. Such sensitivity is achieved through a modification of existing TRCD designs and introduction of a new data processing protocol that eliminates approximations that have caused substantial nonlinearities in past measurements and allows the measurement of absorption and circular dichroism transients simultaneously with a single pump pulse. The exceptional signal-to-noise ratio of the described setup makes the TRCD technique applicable to a large range of non-biological and biological systems. The spectrometer was used to record, for the first time, weak TRCD kinetics associated with the triplet state energy transfer in the photosynthetic Fenna-Matthews-Olson antenna pigment-protein complex.

  2. A split-beam probe-pump-probe scheme for femtosecond time resolved protein X-ray crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper J. van Thor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to exploit the femtosecond pulse duration of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFEL operating in the hard X-ray regime for ultrafast time-resolved protein crystallography experiments, critical parameters that determine the crystallographic signal-to-noise (I/σI must be addressed. For single-crystal studies under low absorbed dose conditions, it has been shown that the intrinsic pulse intensity stability as well as mode structure and jitter of this structure, significantly affect the crystallographic signal-to-noise. Here, geometrical parameters are theoretically explored for a three-beam scheme: X-ray probe, optical pump, X-ray probe (or “probe-pump-probe” which will allow experimental determination of the photo-induced structure factor amplitude differences, ΔF, in a ratiometric manner, thereby internally referencing the intensity noise of the XFEL source. In addition to a non-collinear split-beam geometry which separates un-pumped and pumped diffraction patterns on an area detector, applying an additional convergence angle to both beams by focusing leads to integration over mosaic blocks in the case of well-ordered stationary protein crystals. Ray-tracing X-ray diffraction simulations are performed for an example using photoactive yellow protein crystals in order to explore the geometrical design parameters which would be needed. The specifications for an X-ray split and delay instrument that implements both an offset angle and focused beams are discussed, for implementation of a probe-pump-probe scheme at the European XFEL. We discuss possible extension of single crystal studies to serial femtosecond crystallography, particularly in view of the expected X-ray damage and ablation due to the first probe pulse.

  3. Thirteen pump-probe resonances of the sodium D1 line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Vincent; Boyd, Robert W.; Stroud, C. R. Jr.; Bennink, Ryan S.; Marino, Alberto M.

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a pump-probe laser spectroscopic investigation of the Doppler-broadened sodium D1 resonance line. We find 13 resonances in the resulting spectra. These observations are well described by the numerical predictions of a four-level atomic model of the hyperfine structure of the sodium D1 line. We also find that many, but not all, of these features can be understood in terms of processes originating in a two-level or three-level subset of the full four-level model. The processes we observed include forward near-degenerate four-wave mixing and saturation in a two-level system, difference-frequency crossing and nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a three-level V system, electromagnetically induced transparency and optical pumping in a three-level lambda system, cross-transition resonance in a four-level double-lambda system, and conventional optical pumping. Most of these processes lead to sub-Doppler or even subnatural linewidths. The dependence of these resonances on the pump intensity and pump detuning from atomic resonance are also studied

  4. Label-Free Imaging of Female Genital Tract Melanocytic Lesions With Pump-Probe Microscopy: A Promising Diagnostic Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Francisco E; Deb, Sanghamitra; Fischer, Martin C; Warren, Warren S; Selim, Maria Angelica

    2017-04-01

    Melanomas of the female genital tract present a unique clinical challenge. Not only are these lesions in an anatomically sensitive area, but also they tend to be multifocal and have high recurrence rates. Furthermore, several benign melanocytic proliferations resemble early-stage melanoma clinically and/or histopathologically. Thus, there is a significant need for additional tools that can help correctly diagnose and stage these lesions. Here, we quantitatively and nondestructively analyze the chemical composition of melanin in excised pigmented lesions of the female genital tract using pump-probe microscopy, a high-resolution optical imaging technique that is sensitive to many biochemical properties of melanin. Thirty-one thin (~5 μm) tissue sections previously excised from female genital tract melanocytic lesions were imaged with pump-probe microscopy and analyzed. We find significant quantitative differences in melanin type and structure between melanoma and nonmalignant melanocytic proliferations. Our analysis also suggests a link between the molecular signatures of melanins and lesion-specific genetic mutations. Finally, significant differences are found between metastatic and nonmetastatic melanomas. The limitations of this work include the fact that molecular information is restricted to melanin pigment and the sample size is relatively small. Pump-probe microscopy provides unique information regarding the biochemical composition of genital tract melanocytic lesions, which can be used to improve the diagnosis and staging of vulvar melanomas.

  5. Use of ultrafast dispersed pump-dump-probe and pump-repump-probe spectroscopies to explore the light-induced dynamics of peridinin in solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papagiannakis, E.; Vengris, M.; Larsen, D.S.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Hiller, R.G.; van Grondelle, R.

    2006-01-01

    Optical pump-induced dynamics of the highly asymmetric carotenoid peridinin in methanol was studied by dispersed pump-probe, pump-dump-probe, and pump-repump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy in the visible region. Dispersed pump-probe measurements show that the decay of the initially excited

  6. Temperature dependence of the hydrated electron's excited-state relaxation. I. Simulation predictions of resonance Raman and pump-probe transient absorption spectra of cavity and non-cavity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zho, Chen-Chen; Farr, Erik P.; Glover, William J.; Schwartz, Benjamin J.

    2017-08-01

    We use one-electron non-adiabatic mixed quantum/classical simulations to explore the temperature dependence of both the ground-state structure and the excited-state relaxation dynamics of the hydrated electron. We compare the results for both the traditional cavity picture and a more recent non-cavity model of the hydrated electron and make definite predictions for distinguishing between the different possible structural models in future experiments. We find that the traditional cavity model shows no temperature-dependent change in structure at constant density, leading to a predicted resonance Raman spectrum that is essentially temperature-independent. In contrast, the non-cavity model predicts a blue-shift in the hydrated electron's resonance Raman O-H stretch with increasing temperature. The lack of a temperature-dependent ground-state structural change of the cavity model also leads to a prediction of little change with temperature of both the excited-state lifetime and hot ground-state cooling time of the hydrated electron following photoexcitation. This is in sharp contrast to the predictions of the non-cavity model, where both the excited-state lifetime and hot ground-state cooling time are expected to decrease significantly with increasing temperature. These simulation-based predictions should be directly testable by the results of future time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. Finally, the temperature-dependent differences in predicted excited-state lifetime and hot ground-state cooling time of the two models also lead to different predicted pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy of the hydrated electron as a function of temperature. We perform such experiments and describe them in Paper II [E. P. Farr et al., J. Chem. Phys. 147, 074504 (2017)], and find changes in the excited-state lifetime and hot ground-state cooling time with temperature that match well with the predictions of the non-cavity model. In particular, the experiments

  7. Recent status of meson spectroscopy experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuru, Tsuneaki

    1986-01-01

    Recent meson spectroscopy experiments are reviewed centering on glueballs and it is insisted as follows. Something may lie near 750 MeV. Scalar glueball at 750 - 1000 MeV should be studied. The G(1590) is to be investigated. Multiquark states need to be studied to establish the scalar nonet. We have some tensor glueball candidates, θ, 3 g T 's and ζ, which are to be further examined. Pseudoscalar states include many interesting physics. Some puzzles were solved. However, many problems remain unsolved and new puzzles appeared. Whether the E and l are the same state or not, and whether the E/l is a glueball or not are the major interests at present. Systematical experimental and theoretical works are required. In an experimental field, radial excitations, especially a radial excitation of η', should be confirmed. In general higher statistics data are necessary to perform a complete partial wave analysis. A 1 ++ isoscalar member, a partner of D(1280), is missing and required to be confirmed as soon as possible. A confirmation of this state will serve to solve the E/l puzzle. The state will be probably an (santi s) state. 1 +- H', a partner of H(1190), is required to be confirmed. Multiquark states are to be investigated. ''Oddballs'' are to be challenged. Recent experiments require high statistics data enough to perform a model-independent partial wave analysis. The (qanti q) - (gg) mixing and hybrids are to be further studied in experimental and theoretical fields. (Nogami, K.)

  8. Ultra-fast pump-probe determination of electron-phonon coupling in cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailovic, Dragan

    2010-03-01

    Fresh femtosecond spectroscopy experiments show the electron-phonon interaction strength λ to be 0.7 and 1.4 for YBCO and LSCO respectively and not around 0.2 as previously reported [1]. The revised estimates arise primarily from improved time-resolution, and also partly from improved modeling. Comparison with classical superconductors and pnictides shows non-monotonic correlation of λ with Tc. Systematic new measurements of the condensate vaporization energy (Uv) in cuprates [2] and pnictides reveals a power-law dependence on Tc with exponent 2. However, Uc is 16-18 times greater than the BCS condensation energy Uc, implying that a significant heat capacity of the ``bosonic glue.'' In contrast, charge-density wave systems with electronically driven ordering transitions have Uv˜Uc. The data suggest BCS and Eliashberg-based models to be inappropriate for describing the physics of high-temperature superconductors, and point towards polaron models which consider strong or intermediate λ.[4pt] [1] C.Gadermeier et al., arXiv:0902.1636[0pt] [2] P.Kusar et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 227001 (2008)

  9. Two-tint pump-probe measurements using a femtosecond laser oscillator and sharp-edged optical filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kwangu; Koh, Yee Kan; Chiritescu, Catalin; Zheng, Xuan; Cahill, David G

    2008-11-01

    We describe a simple approach for rejecting unwanted scattered light in two types of time-resolved pump-probe measurements, time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) and time-resolved incoherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (TRIARS). Sharp edged optical filters are used to create spectrally distinct pump and probe beams from the broad spectral output of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser oscillator. For TDTR, the diffusely scattered pump light is then blocked by a third optical filter. For TRIARS, depolarized scattering created by the pump is shifted in frequency by approximately 250 cm(-1) relative to the polarized scattering created by the probe; therefore, spectral features created by the pump and probe scattering can be easily distinguished.

  10. Innovation and optimization of a method of pump-probe polarimetry with pulsed laser beams in view of a precise measurement of parity violation in atomic cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvat, D.

    1997-10-01

    While Parity Violation (PV) experiments on highly forbidden transitions have been using detection of fluorescence signals; our experiment uses a pump-probe scheme to detect the PV signal directly on a transmitted probe beam. A pulsed laser beam of linear polarisation ε 1 excites the atoms on the 6S-7S cesium transition in a colinear electric field E || k(ex). The probe beam (k(pr) || k(ex)) of linear polarisation ε 2 tuned to the transition 7S-6P(3/2) is amplified. The small asymmetry (∼ 10 -6 ) in the gain that depends on the handedness of the tri-hedron (E, ε 1 , ε 2 ) is the manifestation of the PV effect. This is measured as an E-odd apparent rotation of the plane of polarization of the probe beam; using balanced mode polarimetry. New criteria of selection have been devised, that allow us to distinguish the true PV-signal against fake rotations due to electromagnetic interferences, geometrical effects, polarization imperfections, or stray transverse electric and magnetic fields. These selection criteria exploit the symmetry of the PV-rotation - linear dichroism - and the revolution symmetry of the experiment. Using these criteria it is not only possible to reject fake signals, but also to elucidate the underlying physical mechanisms and to measure the relevant defects of the apparatus. The present signal-to-noise ratio allows embarking in PV measurements to reach the 10% statistical accuracy. A 1% measurement still requires improvements. Two methods have been demonstrated. The first one exploits the amplification of the asymmetry at high gain - one major advantage provided by our detection method based on stimulated emission. The second method uses both a much higher incident intensity and a special dichroic component which magnifies tiny polarization rotations. (author)

  11. Photoinduced charge transfer in a transition metal complex investigated by time-resolved X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Setup and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeries, Dennis

    2015-02-01

    In the framework of this thesis the development of a time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiment and its application to fac-Ir(ppy) 3 is described. Such experiments require a very stable setup in terms of spatial and temporal accuracy. Therefore, the stability properties of the present installation were investigated in detail and continuously improved, in particular the synchronization of the ultrashort pulse laser system to the storage ring as well as the spatial stability of both X-ray and laser beam. Experiments utilizing the laser pump and X-ray probe configuration were applied on the green phosphorescence emitter complex fac-Ir(ppy) 3 dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. Structural and electronic changes were triggered by photoexcitation of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer band with ultrashort laser pulses at a wavelength of 343 nm. The excited triplet state spectrum was extracted from the measured pump-probe X-ray absorption spectrum using an ionic approximation. The results con rm the anticipated metal-to-ligand charge transfer as shown by an ionization potential shift of the iridium atom. The symmetry of the complex was found to be pseudo-octahedral. This allowed the first experimental determination of the bond length of fac-Ir(ppy) 3 in an octahedral approximation and revealed a decrease of bond length of the first coordination shell in the triplet state. The first and second-order decay kinetics of the triplet state were investigated in a combination of X-ray and laser based experiments and revealed self-quenching as well as triplet-triplet annihilation rate constants.

  12. Hadron Spectroscopy in Double Pomeron Exchange Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrow, Michael [Fermilab

    2016-11-15

    Central exclusive production in hadron-hadron collisions at high energies, for example p + p -> p + X + p, where the "+" represents a large rapidity gap, is a valuable process for spectroscopy of mesonic states X. At collider energies the gaps can be large enough to be dominated by pomeron exchange, and then the quantum numbers of the state X are restricted. Isoscalar JPC = 0++ and 2++ mesons are selected, and our understanding of these spectra is incomplete. In particular, soft pomeron exchanges favor gluon-dominated states such as glueballs, which are expected in QCD but not yet well established. I will review some published data.

  13. Femtosecond pump probe spectroscopy for the study of energy transfer of light-harvesting complexes from extractions of spinach leaves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ombinda-Lemboumba, Saturnin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available been implemented at the CSIR National Laser Centre and has been applied to investigate energy transfer processes in different parts of photosynthetic systems. In this paper, researchers report on the first results obtained with Malachite green as a...

  14. Real time observation of the excimer formation dynamics of a gas phase benzene dimer by picosecond pump-probe spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Mitsuhiko; Fujii, Masaaki

    2015-10-21

    We observed the real-time excimer (EXC) formation dynamics of a gas phase benzene dimer (Bz2) cluster after photo-excitation to the S1 state by applying an ionization detected picosecond transient absorption method for probing the visible EXC absorption for the first time. The time evolution of the EXC absorption from the S1 0(0) level shows a rise that is well fitted by a single exponential function with a time constant of 18 ± 2 ps. The structure of the Bz dimer has a T-shaped structure in the ground electronic state, and that in the EXC state is a parallel sandwich (SW) structure. Thus, the observed rise time corresponds to the structural change from the T to the SW structures, which directly shows the EXC formation. On the other hand, the EXC formation after excitation of the S1 6(1) vibrational level of the stem site showed a faster rise of the time constant of 10 ± 2 ps. Supposing equilibrium between the EXC and the local excited states, it followed that the intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution rate of the 6(1) level is largely enhanced and becomes faster than the EXC formation reaction.

  15. The pump-probe coupling of matter wave packets to remote lattice states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherson, Jacob F; Park, Sung Jong; Pedersen, Poul Lindholm

    2012-01-01

    containing a Bose–Einstein condensate. The evolution of these wave packets is monitored in situ and their six-photon reflection at a band gap is observed. In direct analogy with pump–probe spectroscopy, a probe pulse allows for the resonant de-excitation of the wave packet into states localized around...... selected lattice sites at a long, controllable distance of more than 100 lattice sites from the main component. This precise control mechanism for ultra-cold atoms thus enables controlled quantum state preparation and splitting for quantum dynamics, metrology and simulation....

  16. "FluSpec": A Simulated Experiment in Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigger, Stephen W.; Bigger, Andrew S.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    The "FluSpec" educational software package is a fully contained tutorial on the technique of fluorescence spectroscopy as well as a simulator on which experiments can be performed. The procedure for each of the experiments is also contained within the package along with example analyses of results that are obtained using the software.

  17. Ultrafast Photodissociation Dynamics of the F State of Sulfur Dioxide by Femtosecond Time-Resolved Pump-Probe Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dong-Dong; Ni Qiang; Luo Si-Zuo; Zhang Jing; Liu Hang; Xu Hai-Feng; Jin Ming-Xing; Ding Da-Jun

    2011-01-01

    A femtosecond pump-probe method is employed to study the dissociation dynamics of sulfur dioxide. SO 2 molecules are excited to the F state by absorbing two photons of 267 nm femtosecond laser pulses, and ionized by 400 nm laser pulses at different delay times between the two lasers. Transients of both parent ions (SO + 2 ) and the fragment ions (SO + , S + and O + ) are observed. The SO + 2 transient can be well fitted to a biexponential decay comprising a fast and a slow component of 280 fs and 2.97 ps lifetimes, respectively. The SO + transient consists of two growth components of 270 fs and 2.50 ps. The results clearly show that the F state of SO 2 dissociates along an S-O bond. The transients of S + and O + , however, have different behavior, which consist of a fast growth and a long decay component. A possible mechanism of the fragment formation is discussed to understand the dissociation dynamics of the F state of SO 2 . (atomic and molecular physics)

  18. Case study on the dynamics of ultrafast laser heating and ablation of gold thin films by ultrafast pump-probe reflectometry and ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, T.; Wang, J.; Olbrich, M.; Frank, M.; Horn, A.

    2018-02-01

    To increase the comprehension of ultrafast laser ablation, the ablation process has to be portrayed with sufficient temporal resolution. For example, the temporal modification of the complex refractive index {\\tilde{n}} and the relative reflectance of a sample material after irradiation with ultrafast single-pulsed laser radiation can be measured with a pump-probe setup. This work describes the construction and validation of a pump-probe setup enabling spatially, temporally, and spectroscopically resolved Brewster angle microscopy, reflectometry, ellipsometry, and shadow photography. First pump-probe reflectometry and ellipsometry measurements are performed on gold at λ _{probe}= 440 nm and three fluences of the single-pulsed pump radiation at λ _{pump}= 800 nm generating no, gentle, and strong ablation. The relative reflectance overall increases at no and gentle ablation. At strong ablation, the relative reflectance locally decreases, presumable caused by emitted thermal electrons, ballistic electrons, and ablating material. The refractive index n is slightly decreasing after excitation, while the extinction coefficient k is increasing.

  19. Recent progress of laser spectroscopy experiments on antiprotonic helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Masaki

    2018-03-01

    The Atomic Spectroscopy and Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons (ASACUSA) collaboration is currently carrying out laser spectroscopy experiments on antiprotonic helium ? atoms at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator facility. Two-photon spectroscopic techniques have been employed to reduce the Doppler width of the measured ? resonance lines, and determine the atomic transition frequencies to a fractional precision of 2.3-5 parts in 109. More recently, single-photon spectroscopy of buffer-gas cooled ? has reached a similar precision. By comparing the results with three-body quantum electrodynamics calculations, the antiproton-to-electron mass ratio was determined as ?, which agrees with the known proton-to-electron mass ratio with a precision of 8×10-10. The high-quality antiproton beam provided by the future Extra Low Energy Antiproton Ring (ELENA) facility should enable further improvements in the experimental precision. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Antiproton physics in the ELENA era'.

  20. Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglieri, M.; Briscoe, B. J.; Celentano, A.; Chung, S.-U.; D'Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; Döring, M.; Dudek, J.; Eidelman, S.; Fegan, S.; Ferretti, J.; Filippi, A.; Fox, G.; Galata, G.; García-Tecocoatzi, H.; Glazier, D. I.; Grube, B.; Hanhart, C.; Hoferichter, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ireland, D. G.; Ketzer, B.; Klein, F. J.; Kubis, B.; Liu, B.; Masjuan, P.; Mathieu, V.; McKinnon, B.; Mitchel, R.; Nerling, F.; Paul, S.; Peláez, J. R.; Rademacker, J.; Rizzo, A.; Salgado, C.; Santopinto, E.; Sarantsev, A. V.; Sato, T.; Schlüter, T.; [Silva]da Silva, M. L. L.; Stankovic, I.; Strakovsky, I.; Szczepaniak, A.; Vassallo, A.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Zana, L.

    The series of workshops on New Partial-Wave Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments was initiated with the ATHOS 2012 meeting, which took place in Camogli, Italy, June 20-22, 2012. It was followed by ATHOS 2013 in Kloster Seeon near Munich, Germany, May 21-24, 2013. The third, ATHOS3, meeting is planned for April 13-17, 2015 at The George Washington University Virginia Science and Technology Campus, USA. The workshops focus on the development of amplitude analysis tools for meson and baryon spectroscopy, and complement other programs in hadron spectroscopy organized in the recent past including the INT-JLab Workshop on Hadron Spectroscopy in Seattle in 2009, the International Workshop on Amplitude Analysis in Hadron Spectroscopy at the ECT*-Trento in 2011, the School on Amplitude Analysis in Modern Physics in Bad Honnef in 2011, the Jefferson Lab Advanced Study Institute Summer School in 2012, and the School on Concepts of Modern Amplitude Analysis Techniques in Flecken-Zechlin near Berlin in September 2013. The aim of this document is to summarize the discussions that took place at the ATHOS 2012 and ATHOS 2013 meetings. We do not attempt a comprehensive review of the field of amplitude analysis, but offer a collection of thoughts that we hope may lay the ground for such a document.

  1. Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglieri, Marco; Briscoe, William; Celentano, Andrea; Chung, Suh-Urk; D'Angelo, Annalisa; De Vita, Rafaella; Döring, Michael; Dudek, Jozef; Eidelman, S.; Fegan, Stuart; Ferretti, J.; Filippi, A.; Fox, G.; Galata, G.; Garcia-Tecocoatzi, H.; Glazier, Derek; Grube, B.; Hanhart, C.; Hoferichter, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ireland, David G.; Ketzer, B.; Klein, Franz J.; Kubis, B.; Liu, B.; Masjuan, P.; Mathieu, Vincent; McKinnon, Brian; Mitchel, R.; Nerling, F.; Paul, S.; Peláez, J. R.; Rademacker, J.; Rizzo, Alessandro; Salgado, Carlos; Santopinto, E.; Sarantsev, Andrey V.; Sato, Toru; Schlüter, T.; Da Silva, M. L.L.; Stankovic, I.; Strakovsky, Igor; Szczepaniak, Adam; Vassallo, A.; Walford, Natalie K.; Watts, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    The series of workshops on New Partial-Wave Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments was initiated with the ATHOS 2012 meeting, which took place in Camogli, Italy, June 20-22, 2012. It was followed by ATHOS 2013 in Kloster Seeon near Munich, Germany, May 21-24, 2013. The third, ATHOS3, meeting is planned for April 13-17, 2015 at The George Washington University Virginia Science and Technology Campus, USA. The workshops focus on the development of amplitude analysis tools for meson and baryon spectroscopy, and complement other programs in hadron spectroscopy organized in the recent past including the INT-JLab Workshop on Hadron Spectroscopy in Seattle in 2009, the International Workshop on Amplitude Analysis in Hadron Spectroscopy at the ECT*-Trento in 2011, the School on Amplitude Analysis in Modern Physics in Bad Honnef in 2011, the Jefferson Lab Advanced Study Institute Summer School in 2012, and the School on Concepts of Modern Amplitude Analysis Techniques in Flecken-Zechlin near Berlin in September 2013. The aim of this document is to summarize the discussions that took place at the ATHOS 2012 and ATHOS 2013 meetings. We do not attempt a comprehensive review of the field of amplitude analysis, but offer a collection of thoughts that we hope may lay the ground for such a document

  2. Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation time structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeard, N.; Silly, M.G.; Chauvet, C.; Guzzo, M.; Ricaud, J.P.; Izquierdo, M.; Sirotti, F.; Krizmancic, D.; Guzzo, M.; Stebel, L.; Pittana, P.; Sergo, R.; Cautero, G.; Dufour, G.; Rochet, F.

    2011-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation time structure is becoming a common tool for studying dynamic properties of materials. The main limitation is often the wide time domain the user would like to access with pump-probe experiments. In order to perform photoelectron spectroscopy experiments over time scales from milliseconds to picoseconds it is mandatory to measure the time at which each measured photoelectron was created. For this reason the usual CCD camera based two-dimensional detection of electron energy analyzers has been replaced by a new delay-line detector adapted to the time structure of the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation source. The new two-dimensional delay-line detector has a time resolution of 5 ns and was installed on a Scienta SES 2002 electron energy analyzer. The first application has been to characterize the time of flight of the photo emitted electrons as a function of their kinetic energy and the selected pass energy. By repeating the experiment as a function of the available pass energy and of the kinetic energy, a complete characterization of the analyzer behaviour in the time domain has been obtained. Even for kinetic energies as low as 10 eV at 2 eV pass energy, the time spread of the detected electrons is lower than 140 ns. These results and the time structure of the SOLEIL filling modes assure the possibility of performing pump-probe photoelectron spectroscopy experiments with the time resolution given by the SOLEIL pulse width, the best performance of the beamline and of the experimental station. (authors)

  3. Semiconductor optoelectronic infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollingworth, A.R.

    2001-08-01

    We use spectroscopy to study infrared optoelectronic inter and intraband semiconductor carrier dynamics. The overall aim of this thesis was to study both III-V and Pb chalcogenide material systems in order to show their future potential use in infrared emitters. The effects of bandstructure engineering have been studied in the output characteristics of mid-IR III-V laser diodes to show which processes (defects, radiative, Auger and phonon) dominate and whether non-radiative processes can be suppressed. A new three-beam pump probe experiment was used to investigate interband recombination directly in passive materials. Experiments on PbSe and theory for non-parabolic near-mirror bands and non-degenerate statistics were in good agreement. Comparisons with HgCdTe showed a reduction in the Auger coefficient of 1-2 orders of magnitude in the PbSe. Using Landau confinement to model spatial confinement in quantum dots (QDs) 'phonon bottlenecking' was studied. The results obtained from pump probe and cyclotron resonance saturation measurements showed a clear suppression in the cooling of carriers when Landau level separation was not resonant with LO phonon energy. When a bulk laser diode was placed in a magnetic field to produce a quasi quantum wire device the resulting enhanced differential gain and reduced Auger recombination lowered I th by 30%. This result showed many peaks in the light output which occurred when the LO phonon energy was a multiple of the Landau level separation. This showed for the first time evidence of the phonon bottleneck in a working laser device. A new technique called time resolved optically detected cyclotron resonance, was used as a precursor to finding the carrier dynamics within a spatially confined quantum dot. By moving to the case of a spatial QD using an optically detected intraband resonance it was possible to measure the energy separation interband levels and conduction and valence sublevels within the dot simultaneously. Furthermore

  4. Simulations of a FIR Oscillator with Large Slippage parameter at Jefferson Lab for FIR/UV pump-probe experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, Stephen V.; Campbell, L. T.; McNeil, B.W.T.; Neil, George R.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Williams, Gwyn P.

    2014-01-01

    We previously proposed a dual FEL configuration on the UV Demo FEL at Jefferson Lab that would allow simultaneous lasing at FIR and UV wavelengths. The FIR source would be an FEL oscillator with a short wiggler providing diffraction-limited pulses with pulse energy exceeding 50 microJoules, using the exhaust beam from a UVFEL as the input electron beam. Since the UV FEL requires very short pulses, the input to the FIR FEL is extremely short compared to a slippage length and the usual Slowly Varying Envelope Approximation (SVEA) does not apply. We use a non-SVEA code to simulate this system both with a small energy spread (UV laser off) and with large energy spread (UV laser on)

  5. TIME-RESOLVED INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY IN THE U121R BEAMLINE AT THE NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARR, G.L.; LAVEIGNE, J.D.; LOBO, R.P.S.M.; REITZE, D.H.; TANNER, D.B.

    1999-01-01

    A facility for performing time-resolved infrared spectroscopy has been developed at the NSLS, primarily at beamline U12IR. The pulsed IR light from the synchrotron is used to perform pump-probe spectroscopy. The authors present here a description of the facility and results for the relaxation of photoexcitations in both a semiconductor and superconductor

  6. Meson spectroscopy experiment at KEK - E/iota puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuru, Tsuneaki

    1985-01-01

    Physics interests at the KEK (National Laboratory for High Energy Physics) are (1) search for exotic mesons such as glueballs (gg), meiktons (q anti q g) and multiquark states (q sup(2 - )q 2 ), (2) search for missing ordinary mesons (q anti q) and confirmation of unestablished mesons, and (3) new informations of quark contents of mesons, mixing angles of SU(3) singlet-octet and tests of conservations law. Special interest is in search for exotics such as glueballs and meiktons. (2) is a so-called meson spectroscopy experiment. This is important not only in itself but also in identifying newly discovered states as exotics because exotics have often same quantum numbers as ordinary mesons. Contents are the following: glueballs and E/iota puzzles, spectrometer system, experiments, performance of the spectrometer, physics outputs, E/iota puzzles and πI experiment, future plans. (Mori, K.)

  7. A Simple LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) Laboratory Experiment to Introduce Undergraduates to Calibration Functions and Atomic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinni, Rosemarie C.

    2012-01-01

    This laboratory experiment introduces students to a different type of atomic spectroscopy: laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS uses a laser-generated spark to excite the sample; once excited, the elemental emission is spectrally resolved and detected. The students use LIBS to analyze a series of standard synthetic silicate samples…

  8. Modelling multi-pulse population dynamics from ultrafast spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luuk J G W van Wilderen

    2011-03-01

    modelling is essential to model and resolve the details of physical behaviour of populations in ultrafast spectroscopy such as pump-probe, pump-dump-probe and pump-repump-probe experiments.

  9. Modelling multi-pulse population dynamics from ultrafast spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wilderen, Luuk J G W; Lincoln, Craig N; van Thor, Jasper J

    2011-03-21

    essential to model and resolve the details of physical behaviour of populations in ultrafast spectroscopy such as pump-probe, pump-dump-probe and pump-repump-probe experiments.

  10. Molecular line parameters for the atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L. R.; Farmer, C. B.; Toth, R. A.; Rinsland, Curtis P.

    1987-01-01

    During its first mission in 1985 onboard Spacelab 3, the ATMOS (atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy) instrument, a high speed Fourier transform spectrometer, produced a large number of high resolution infrared solar absorption spectra recorded in the occultation mode. The analysis and interpretation of these data in terms of composition, chemistry, and dynamics of the earth's upper atmosphere required good knowledge of the molecular line parameters for those species giving rise to the absorptions in the atmospheric spectra. This paper describes the spectroscopic line parameter database compiled for the ATMOS experiment and referenced in other papers describing ATMOS results. With over 400,000 entries, the linelist catalogs parameters of 46 minor and trace species in the 1-10,000/cm region.

  11. Recent recoil ion momentum spectroscopy experiments at KSU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, M.; Cocke, C.L.; Kravis, S.; Montenegro, E.C.; Moshammer, R.; Saleh, L.; Ullrich, J.; Varghese, S.L.; Wolff, W.; Wolf, H.

    1997-01-01

    Recoil momentum spectroscopy is used to study collisions involving both fast and slow projectiles on He targets. Experiments have been performed on electron capture and loss from fast ions from the KSU LINAC and slow ions from the KSU CRYEBIS using a supersonic jets with a momentum resolution below 0.5 au. Using fast ions, the final states populated in electron capture from He by 10 MeV F 8+ have been resolved with a Q-value resolution of 18 eV, sufficient to separate final channels in which the He + ion is left excited from those in which He + is left in its ground state. With slow ions, electron capture from He by slow bare Ne ions has been studied. A few recent results are discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. Intercomparison of the comparative reactivity method (CRM) and pump-probe technique for measuring total OH reactivity in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, R. F.; Blocquet, M.; Schoemaecker, C.; Léonardis, T.; Locoge, N.; Fittschen, C.; Hanoune, B.; Stevens, P. S.; Sinha, V.; Dusanter, S.

    2015-10-01

    The investigation of hydroxyl radical (OH) chemistry during intensive field campaigns has led to the development of several techniques dedicated to ambient measurements of total OH reactivity, which is the inverse of the OH lifetime. Three techniques are currently used during field campaigns, including the total OH loss rate method, the pump-probe method, and the comparative reactivity method. However, no formal intercomparison of these techniques has been published so far, and there is a need to ensure that measurements of total OH reactivity are consistent among the different techniques. An intercomparison of two OH reactivity instruments, one based on the comparative reactivity method (CRM) and the other based on the pump-probe method, was performed in October 2012 in a NOx-rich environment, which is known to be challenging for the CRM technique. This study presents an extensive description of the two instruments, the CRM instrument from Mines Douai (MD-CRM) and the pump-probe instrument from the University of Lille (UL-FAGE), and highlights instrumental issues associated with the two techniques. It was found that the CRM instrument used in this study underestimates ambient OH reactivity by approximately 20 % due to the photolysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) inside the sampling reactor; this value is dependent on the position of the lamp within the reactor. However, this issue can easily be fixed, and the photolysis of VOCs was successfully reduced to a negligible level after this intercomparison campaign. The UL-FAGE instrument may also underestimate ambient OH reactivity due to the difficulty to accurately measure the instrumental zero. It was found that the measurements are likely biased by approximately 2 s-1, due to impurities in humid zero air. Two weeks of ambient sampling indicate that the measurements performed by the two OH reactivity instruments are in agreement, within the measurement uncertainties for each instrument, for NOx mixing ratios

  13. Temperature dependant thermal and mechanical properties of a metal-phase change layer interface using the time resolved pump probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schick, V; Battaglia, J-L; Kusiak, A; Rossignol, C; Wiemer, C

    2011-01-01

    Time Resolved Pump Probe (TRPP) technique has been implemented to study the thermal and mechanical properties of Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 (GST) film deposited on a silicon substrate. According to the knowledge of the thermal properties of the GST layer, the temperature dependant Thermal Boundary Resistance (TBR) at the metal-GST interface is evaluated. Measuring the acoustic oscillation and more particularly its damping leads to characterize the adhesion at the metal - GST interface. This quantity can be efficiently related to the temperature dependent TBR in the 25 deg. C - 400 deg. C range. The TBR increases with temperature and follows the changes of the crystalline structure of materials. A linear relation between the acoustic reflection coefficient and the logarithm of the thermal boundary resistance is found.

  14. Polarization-dependent pump-probe studies in atomic fine-structure levels: towards the production of spin-polarized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokell, E.; Zamith, S.; Bouchene, M.A.; Girard, B.

    2000-01-01

    The precession of orbital and spin angular momentum vectors has been observed in a pump-probe study of the 4P fine-structure states of atomic potassium. A femtosecond pump pulse prepared a coherent superposition of the two fine-structure components. A time-delayed probe pulse then ionized the system after it had been allowed to evolve freely. Oscillations recorded in the ion signal reflect the evolution of the orientation of the orbital and spin angular momentum due to spin-orbit coupling. This interpretation gives physical insight into the cause of the half-period phase shift observed when the relative polarizations of the laser pulses were changed from parallel to perpendicular. Finally, it is shown that these changes in the orientation of the spin momentum vector of the system can be utilized to produce highly spin-polarized free electrons on the femtosecond scale. (author)

  15. Ultrafast multi-pulse transient absorption spectroscopy of fucoxanthin chlorophyll a protein from Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert G; Bína, David; Fuciman, Marcel; Kuznetsova, Valentyna; Litvín, Radek; Polívka, Tomáš

    2018-05-01

    We have applied femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy in pump-probe and pump-dump-probe regimes to study energy transfer between fucoxanthin and Chl a in fucoxanthin-Chl a complex from the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Experiments were carried out at room temperature and 77 K to reveal temperature dependence of energy transfer. At both temperatures, the ultrafast (pump-dump-probe regime, with the dump pulse centered in the spectral region of ICT stimulated emission at 950 nm and applied at 2 ps after excitation, proved that the S 1 and ICT states of fucoxanthin in FCP are individual, yet coupled entities. Analysis of the pump-dump-probe data suggested that the main energy donor in the slow S 1 /ICT-Chl a route is the S 1 part of the S 1 /ICT potential surface. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Probing spin-vibronic dynamics using femtosecond X-ray spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penfold, T. J.; Pápai, Mátyás Imre; Rozgonyi, T.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy within the X-ray regime is now possible owing to the development of X-ray Free Electrons Lasers (X-FELs) and is opening new opportunities for the direct probing of femtosecond evolution of the nuclei, the electronic and spin degrees of freedom. In this contributi...

  17. Use of ultrafast dispersed pump-dump-probe and pump-repump-probe spectroscopies to explore the light-induced dynamics of peridinin in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannakis, Emmanouil; Vengris, Mikas; Larsen, Delmar S; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; Hiller, Roger G; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2006-01-12

    Optical pump-induced dynamics of the highly asymmetric carotenoid peridinin in methanol was studied by dispersed pump-probe, pump-dump-probe, and pump-repump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy in the visible region. Dispersed pump-probe measurements show that the decay of the initially excited S2 state populates two excited states, the S1 and the intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) state, at a ratio determined by the excitation wavelength. The ensuing spectral evolution occurs on the time scale of a few picoseconds and suggests the equilibration of these states. Dumping the stimulated emission of the ICT state with an additional 800-nm pulse after 400- and 530-nm excitation preferentially removes the ICT state contribution from the broad excited-state absorption, allowing for its spectral characterization. At the same time, an unrelaxed ground-state species, which has a subpicosecond lifetime, is populated. The application of the 800-nm pulse at early times, when the S2 state is still populated, led to direct generation of the peridinin cation, observed for the first time in a transient absorption experiment. The excited and ground electronic states manifold of peridinin has been reconstructed using target analysis; this approach combined with the measured multipulse spectroscopic data allows us to estimate the spectra and time scales of the corresponding transient states.

  18. Two-Copy Wavelength Conversion of an 80 Gbit/s Serial Data Signal Using Cross-Phase Modulation in a Silicon Nanowire and Detailed Pump-Probe Characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Hua; Cleary, C. S.; Dailey, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate 80 Gbit/s wavelength conversion to two copies by simultaneously extracting the blue- and red-shifted sidebands from XPM in a silicon nanowire. Bit error rates of 10-9 with only ~2 dB power penalty is achieved for both sidebands. Detailed pump-probe characterisation r...

  19. Toward Femtosecond X-ray Spectroscopy at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Henry Herng Wei

    2004-01-01

    The realization of tunable, ultrashort pulse x-ray sources promises to open new venues of science and to shed new light on long-standing problems in condensed matter physics and chemistry. Fundamentally new information can now be accessed. Used in a pump-probe spectroscopy, ultrashort x-ray pulses provide a means to monitor atomic rearrangement and changes in electronic structure in condensed-matter and chemical systems on the physically-limiting time-scales of atomic motion. This opens the way for the study of fast structural dynamics and the role they play in phase transitions, chemical reactions and the emergence of exotic properties in materials with strongly interacting degrees of freedom. The ultrashort pulse x-ray source developed at the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is based on electron slicing in storage rings, and generates ∼100 femtosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation spanning wavelengths from the far-infrared to the hard x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The tunability of the source allows for the adaptation of a broad range of static x-ray spectroscopies to useful pump-probe measurements. Initial experiments are attempted on transition metal complexes that exhibit relatively large structural changes upon photo-excitation and which have excited-state evolution determined by strongly interacting structural, electronic and magnetic degrees of freedom. Specifically, iron(II) complexes undergo a spin-crossover transition upon optical irradiation. The dynamics of the transition involve a metal-to-ligand charge transfer, a ΔS = 2 change in magnetic moment and 10% bond dilation in the first coordination shell of the iron. Studies of the electronic dynamics are studied with time-resolved optical absorption measurements. The current progress of time-resolved structural studies to complete the picture of the spin-crossover transition is presented

  20. Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses spectroscopy, the study of absorption of radiation by matter, including X-ray, gamma-ray, microwave, mass spectroscopy, as well as others. Spectroscopy has produced more fundamental information to the study of the detailed structure of matter than any other tools.

  1. Direct Imaging of Transient Fano Resonances in N_{2} Using Time-, Energy-, and Angular-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Martin; Yang, Chung-Hsin; Frassetto, Fabio; Poletto, Luca; Sansone, Giuseppe; Vrakking, Marc J J; Kornilov, Oleg

    2016-04-22

    Autoionizing Rydberg states of molecular N_{2} are studied using time-, energy-, and angular-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. A femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulse with a photon energy of 17.5 eV excites the resonance and a subsequent IR pulse ionizes the molecule before the autoionization takes place. The angular-resolved photoelectron spectra depend on pump-probe time delay and allow for the distinguishing of two electronic states contributing to the resonance. The lifetime of one of the contributions is determined to be 14±1  fs, while the lifetime of the other appears to be significantly shorter than the time resolution of the experiment. These observations suggest that the Rydberg states in this energy region are influenced by the effect of interference stabilization and merge into a complex resonance.

  2. X-Ray Emission Spectrometer Design with Single-Shot Pump-Probe and Resonant Excitation Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoth, Katherine; /SUNY, Buffalo /SLAC

    2012-08-28

    Core-level spectroscopy in the soft X-ray regime is a powerful tool for the study of chemical bonding processes. The ultrafast, ultrabright X-ray pulses generated by the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) allow these reactions to be studied in greater detail than ever before. In this study, we investigated a conceptual design of a spectrometer for the LCLS with imaging in the non-dispersive direction. This would allow single-shot collection of X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) measurements with varying laser pump X-ray probe delay or a variation of incoming X-ray energy over the illuminated area of the sample. Ray-tracing simulations were used to demonstrate how the components of the spectrometer affect its performance, allowing a determination of the optimal final design. These simulations showed that the spectrometer's non-dispersive focusing is extremely sensitive to the size of the sample footprint; the spectrometer is not able to image a footprint width larger than one millimeter with the required resolution. This is compatible with a single shot scheme that maps out the laser pump X-ray probe delay in the non-dispersive direction as well as resonant XES applications at normal incidence. However, the current capabilities of the Soft X-Ray (SXR) beamline at the LCLS do not produce the required energy range in a small enough sample footprint, hindering the single shot resonant XES application at SXR for chemical dynamics studies at surfaces. If an upgraded or future beamline at LCLS is developed with lower monochromator energy dispersion the width can be made small enough at the required energy range to be imaged by this spectrometer design.

  3. Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, S

    1976-01-01

    The three volumes of Spectroscopy constitute the one comprehensive text available on the principles, practice and applications of spectroscopy. By giving full accounts of those spectroscopic techniques only recently introduced into student courses - such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy - in addition to those techniques long recognised as being essential in chemistry teaching - sucha as e.s.r. and infrared spectroscopy - the book caters for the complete requirements of undergraduate students and at the same time provides a sound introduction to special topics for graduate students.

  4. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy on organic semiconductors : experiment and model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemerink, M.; Alvarado, S.F.; Müller, P.; Koenraad, P.M.; Salemink, H.W.M.; Wolter, J.H.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Scanning-tunneling spectroscopy expts. performed on conjugated polymer films are compared with three-dimensional numerical model calcns. for charge injection and transport. It is found that if a sufficiently sharp tip is used, the field enhancement near the tip apex leads to a significant increase

  5. Problems in communication between heavy flavor experiment and hadron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H. J.

    1997-01-01

    The implications of hadron spectroscopy are generally overlooked both by experimenters presenting results and theorists making predictions. Two examples are (1) possible effects of nodes in wave functions of final state mesons produced in B decay; (2) dependence of predictions for B decays into final states containing η or ηprime on models and mixing angles for these states

  6. Relaxation dynamics of the LH2 complex from a photosynthetic purple bacterium Thiorhodospira sibirica studied by the near-IR femtosecond pump-probe method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razjivin, A P; Pishchal'nikov, R Yu; Kozlovskii, V S; Kompanets, V O; Chekalin, Sergei V; Moskalenko, A A; Makhneva, Z K

    2005-01-01

    Photoinduced changes in the absorption spectrum of the LH2 (B800-830-850) complex from a Thiorhodospira sibirica (Trs. sibirica) bacterium are studied by the pump-probe method. The complex has the anomalous absorption spectrum exhibiting three bands in the near-IR region at 793, 826.5, and 846.5 nm. At room temperature, the excitation energy transfer from the B800, B830, and B859 bands was detected with the time constants τ 1 ∼0.5 ps, τ 2 ∼2.5 ps, and τ 3 of the order of a few hundreds of picoseconds, respectively. A rapid energy transfer from the B830 band compared to energy transfer from the B850 band (τ 2 ||τ 3 ) suggests that all the three bands belong to the same complex (i.e., that the LH2 complex from Trs. sibirica is homogeneous). A slower energy transfer (by three - five times) from the B830 band of the LH2 complex from Trs. sibirica compared to energy transfer from the B800 band of the LH2 complexes (B800-850 and especially B800-820) from other purple bacteria suggests that the electronic structures of ensembles of bacteriochlorophyll molecules in these complexes are substantially different. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  7. Study of Carrier Dynamics in Self-Assembled InAs QDs and InAs/InGaSb Superlattices Using Pump Probe Spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishna, Sanjay

    2006-01-01

    .... The proposed duration of the project is three years. In this period (1 Jan 2003-31 Dec 2003), metamorphic InGaSb structures were grown and their optical and structural properties were characterized...

  8. A new sample holder for laser-excited pump-probe magnetic measurements on a Focus photoelectron emission microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, Jorge; Bernien, Matthias; Kuch, Wolfgang; Bayer, Daniela; Aeschlimann, Martin; Sanchez-Barriga, Jaime; Kronast, Florian; Duerr, Hermann A.

    2008-01-01

    A custom-made Omicron-compatible sample holder for time-resolved photoelectron emission microscopy experiments is presented. It comprises a sample plate with four contacts that hosts a chip carrier where the semiconductor substrate is mounted. Covering the sample holder, a 6 mm diameter mask protects electrostatically the sample from the extractor lens voltage while keeping the imaging quality unperturbed. The improvements are a greater sample lifetime and the ability to withstand much higher currents in the stripline that provides the magnetic pulse to the magnetic microstructure

  9. Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules.......This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules....

  10. TILDA. Fast experiment control and data acquisition in collinear laser spectroscopy experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, Simon [Inst. fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Inst. fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: TRIGA-SPEC-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The TRIGA-Laser Data Acqusition (TILDA) is a custom development for the collinear laser spectroscopy (CLS) experiment TRIGA-Laser. Situated at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz, the TRIGA-Laser experiment benefits from the possibility to create short-lived nuclides by neutron-induced fission of a heavy actinide target, e.g. {sup 249}Cf. The beam-line is equipped with a radio-frequency cooler and buncher emitting bunches with lengths in the order of 500 ns to 10 μs, which allows a drastical reduction of the background in CLS. In order to benefit from this bunched beam structure a time resolved data acquisition system is essential. The real time computing in TILDA is realized by field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), which are synchronized via the backplane of a PXI-crate. This gives the user a great flexibility in adapting to different measurement schemes. This flexibility in hardware must therefore be given in equivalent way to the user in software. Due to that, high level programming languages were chosen (Labview and Python) and TILDA will provide the user with a solid framework around it. TILDAs main features, specifications, programming schematics and status will be presented.

  11. Femtosecond infrared spectroscopy: study, development and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvalet, Adeline

    1997-01-01

    This work has been devoted to the development and the applications of a new technique of infrared (5-20 μm) spectroscopy allowing a temporal resolution of 100 fs. This technique relies on a source of ultrashort infrared pulses obtained by frequency mixing in a nonlinear material. In particular, the optical rectification of 12-fs visible pulses in gallium arsenide has allowed us to obtain 40-fs infrared pulses with a spectrum extending from 5 pm up to 15 μm. Spectral resolution has been achieved by Fourier transform spectroscopy, using a novel device we have called Diffracting FTIR. These developments allow to study inter-subband transitions in quantum-well structures. The inter-subband relaxation time has been measured by a pump-probe experiment, in which the sample was excited with a visible pulse, and the variations of inter-subband absorption probed with an infrared pulse. Besides, we have developed a method of coherent emission spectroscopy allowing to monitor the electric field emitted by coherent charge oscillations in quantum wells. The decay of the oscillations due to the loss of coherence between excited levels yields a direct measurement of the dephasing time between these levels. Other applications include biological macromolecules like reaction centers of photosynthetic bacteria. We have shown that we were able to monitor variations of infrared absorption of about 10 -4 optical densities with a temporal resolution of 100 fs. This would constitute a relevant tool to study the role of molecular vibrations during the primary steps of biological processes. (author) [fr

  12. The Equilibrium Constant for Bromothymol Blue: A General Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Using Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Elsbeth; Doyle, Robert; Gross, Erin; Mattson, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly undergraduate laboratory experiment is described in which students use visible spectroscopy to determine a numerical value for an equilibrium constant, K[subscript c]. The experiment correlates well with the lecture topic of equilibrium even though the subject of the study is an acid-base…

  13. The HKS experiment on {lambda}-hypernuclear spectroscopy via electroproduction at JLab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, L. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton, VA 23668, U.S.A. (United States); Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606, U.S.A. (United States); Yuan, L. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton, VA 23668 (United States); Acha, A.; Ahmidouch, A.; Androic, D.; Asaturyan, A.; Asaturyan, R.; Baker, O.K.; Baturin, P.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bosted, P.; Carlini, R.; Chen, X.; Christy, M.; Cole, L.; Danagoulian, S.; Daniel, A.; Dharmawardane, V.; Egiyan, K.; Elaasar, M.; Ent, R.; Fenker, H.; Fujii, Y.; Furic, M.; Gan, L.; Gaskell, D.; Gasparian, A.; Gibson, Ed.F.; Gueye, P.; Halkyard, R.; Hashimoto, O.; Honda, D.; Horn, T.; Hu, B.; Hu, S.; Hungerford, Ed.V.; Ispiryan, M.; Johnston, K.; Jones, M.; Kalantarians, N.; Kaneta, M.; Kato, F.; Kato, S.; Kawama, D.; Kepple, C.; Li, Y.; Luo, W.; Mack, D.; Margaryan, A.; Marikyan, G.; Maruyama, N.; Matsumura, A.; Miyoshi, T.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Nakamura, S.N.; Navasardyan, T.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, M.-I.; Nomura, H.; Nonaka, K.; Ohtani, A.; Okayasu, Y.; Pamela, P.; Perez, N.; Petkovic, T.; Randeniya, S.; Reinhold, J.; Rivera, R.; Roche, J.; Rodriguez, V.M.; Sato, Y.; Seva, T.; Simicevic, N.; Smith, G.; Sumihama, M.; Song, Y.; Tadevosyan, V.; Takahashi, T.; Tamura, H.; Tvaskis, V.; Vulcan, W.; Wang, B.; Wells, S.; Wood, S.; Yan, C.; Zamkochian, S

    2007-06-15

    The HKS (Jlab E01-011) experiment on spectroscopy of {lambda}-hypernuclei using (e,e'K{sup +}) reaction was successfully carried out in 2005. This paper gives a brief description of the experiment and its technique and shows some of the preliminary spectra that are still under analysis.

  14. The HKS experiment on Lambda--hypernuclear spectroscopy via electroproduction at JLab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Liguang; Yuan, Lulin; Acha Quimper, Armando; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Androic, Darko; Asaturyan, Arshak; Asaturyan, Razmik; Baker, O.; Baturin, Pavlo; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bosted, Peter; Carlini, Roger; Chen, X.; Christy, Michael; Cole, Leon; Danagoulian, Samuel; Daniel, Aji; Dharmawardane, Kahanawita; Egiyan, Kim; Elaasar, Mostafa; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard; Fujii, Yu; Furic, Miroslav; Gan, Liping; Gaskell, David; Gasparian, Ashot; Gibson, Edward; Gueye, Paul; Halkyard, Rebekah; Hashimoto, Osamu; Honda, D.; Horn, Tanja; Hu, Bitao; Hu, S.; Hungerford, Ed; Ispiryan, Mikayel; Johnston, Kathleen; Jones, Mark; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kaneta, M.; Kato, F.; Kato, Seigo; Kawama, Daisuke; Keppel, Cynthia; Li, Y.; Luo, Wei; Mack, David; Margaryan, Amur; Marikyan, Gagik; Maruyama, Nayuta; Matsumura, Akihiko; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Mkrtchyan, Arthur; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Nakamura, Satoshi; Navasardyan, Tigran; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Nomura, Hiroshi; Nonaka, Kenichi; Ohtani, Atsushi; Okayasu, Yuichi; Pamela, Priscilla; Perez, Naipy; Petkovic, Tomislav; Randeniya, Kapugodage; Reinhold, Joerg; Rivera Castillo, Roberto; Roche, Julie; Rodriguez, Victor; Sato, Yoshinori; Seva, Tomislav; Simicevic, Neven; Smith, Gregory; Sumihama, Mizuki; Song, Yujun; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Tamura, Hirokazu; Tvaskis, Vladas; Vulcan, William; Wang, B.; Wells, Stephen; Wood, Stephen; Yan, Chen; Zamkochian, S.

    2008-01-01

    The HKS (Jlab E01-011) experiment on spectroscopy of Lambda-hypernuclei using (e,e'K+) reaction was successfully carried out in 2005. This paper gives a brief description of the experiment and its technique and shows some of the preliminary spectra that are still under analysis.

  15. Screening experiments of ecstasy street samples using near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondermann, N; Kovar, K A

    1999-12-20

    Twelve different sets of confiscated ecstasy samples were analysed applying both near infrared spectroscopy in reflectance mode (1100-2500 nm) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The sets showed a large variance in composition. A calibration data set was generated based on the theory of factorial designs. It contained 221 N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA) samples, 167 N-ethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDE), 111 amphetamine and 106 samples without a controlled substance, which will be called placebo samples thereafter. From this data set, PLS-1 models were calculated and were successfully applied for validation of various external laboratory test sets. The transferability of these results to confiscated tablets is demonstrated here. It is shown that differentiation into placebo, amphetamine and ecstasy samples is possible. Analysis of intact tablets is practicable. However, more reliable results are obtained from pulverised samples. This is due to ill-defined production procedures. The use of mathematically pretreated spectra improves the prediction quality of all the PLS-1 models studied. It is possible to improve discrimination between MDE and MDMA with the help of a second model based on raw spectra. Alternative strategies are briefly discussed.

  16. spectroscopy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-10-14

    Oct 14, 2015 ... characterized by using phenotypic, API and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods. One hundred and fifty-seven (157) strains were isolated from 13 cheese samples, and identification test was performed for 83 strains. At the end of the study, a total of 22 Lactococcus sp., 36 Enterecoccus ...

  17. New results in meson spectroscopy from the crystal barrel experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, C.A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Recent observations by the Crystal Barrel experiment of two scalar resonances, f{sub o}(1365) and a{sub o}(1450) have allowed the authors to clarify the members of the scalar nonet. In addition, a third scalar, f{sub o}(1500), appears to be supernumerary, and is a candidate for the scalar glueball expected near 1500 MeV.

  18. Perspective: Electrospray photoelectron spectroscopy: From multiply-charged anions to ultracold anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) has become an essential tool in chemical physics and physical chemistry for the production of novel molecular ions from solution samples for a variety of spectroscopic experiments. ESI was used to produce free multiply-charged anions (MCAs) for photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) in the late 1990 s, allowing many interesting properties of this class of exotic species to be investigated. Free MCAs are characterized by strong intramolecular Coulomb repulsions, which create a repulsive Coulomb barrier (RCB) for electron emission. The RCB endows many fascinating properties to MCAs, giving rise to meta-stable anions with negative electron binding energies. Recent development in the PES of MCAs includes photoelectron imaging to examine the influence of the RCB on the electron emission dynamics, pump-probe experiments to examine electron tunneling through the RCB, and isomer-specific experiments by coupling PES with ion mobility for biological MCAs. The development of a cryogenically cooled Paul trap has led to much better resolved PE spectra for MCAs by creating vibrationally cold anions from the room temperature ESI source. Recent advances in coupling the cryogenic Paul trap with PE imaging have allowed high-resolution PE spectra to be obtained for singly charged anions produced by ESI. In particular, the observation of dipole-bound excited states has made it possible to conduct vibrational autodetachment spectroscopy and resonant PES, which yield much richer vibrational spectroscopic information for dipolar free radicals than traditional PES

  19. TESIS experiment on EUV imaging spectroscopy of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, S. V.; Bogachev, S. A.; Zhitnik, I. A.; Pertsov, A. A.; Ignatiev, A. P.; Mitrofanov, A. M.; Slemzin, V. A.; Shestov, S. V.; Sukhodrev, N. K.; Bugaenko, O. I.

    2009-03-01

    TESIS is a set of solar imaging instruments in development by the Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, to be launched aboard the Russian spacecraft CORONAS-PHOTON in December 2008. The main goal of TESIS is to provide complex observations of solar active phenomena from the transition region to the inner and outer solar corona with high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution in the EUV and Soft X-ray spectral bands. TESIS includes five unique space instruments: the MgXII Imaging Spectroheliometer (MISH) with spherical bent crystal mirror, for observations of the Sun in the monochromatic MgXII 8.42 Å line; the EUV Spectoheliometer (EUSH) with grazing incidence difraction grating, for the registration of the full solar disc in monochromatic lines of the spectral band 280-330 Å; two Full-disk EUV Telescopes (FET) with multilayer mirrors covering the band 130-136 and 290-320 Å; and the Solar EUV Coronagraph (SEC), based on the Ritchey-Chretien scheme, to observe the inner and outer solar corona from 0.2 to 4 solar radii in spectral band 290-320 Å. TESIS experiment will start at the rising phase of the 24th cycle of solar activity. With the advanced capabilities of its instruments, TESIS will help better understand the physics of solar flares and high-energy phenomena and provide new data on parameters of solar plasma in the temperature range 10-10K. This paper gives a brief description of the experiment, its equipment, and its scientific objectives.

  20. Determination of Calcium in Cereal with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Experiment for a Quantitative Methods of Analysis Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Ali; Kreuz, Bette; Fischer, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    An experiment for determination of calcium in cereal using two-increment standard addition method in conjunction with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) is demonstrated. The experiment is intended to introduce students to the principles of atomic absorption spectroscopy giving them hands on experience using quantitative methods of…

  1. Separation and Determination of Hydroxyacetophenones: An Experiment in Preparative TLC and UV Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, I. R. C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Provides background information and methodology for an experiment in which a mixture of o-, m-, and p-hydroxyacetophenones are separated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and in which the constituents are identified and estimated by ultra-violet light spectroscopy. (Author/JN)

  2. Finite-difference time-domain analysis of time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Casper; Cooke, David G.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report on the numerical analysis of a time-resolved terahertz (THz) spectroscopy experiment using a modified finite-difference time-domain method. Using this method, we show that ultrafast carrier dynamics can be extracted with a time resolution smaller than the duration of the T...

  3. Femtosecond Broadband Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo-Y; Yoon, Sagwoon; Mathies, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is a new technique where a narrow bandwidth picosecond Raman pump pulse and a red-shifted broadband femtosecond Stokes probe pulse (with or without time delay between the pulses) act on a sample to produce a high resolution Raman gain spectrum with high efficiency and speed, free from fluorescence background interference. It can reveal vibrational structural information and dynamics of stationary or transient states. Here, the quantum picture for femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is used to develop the semiclassical coupled wave theory of the phenomenon and to derive an expression for the measurable Raman gain in FSRS. The semiclassical theory is applied to study the dependence of lineshapes in FSRS on the pump-probe time delay and to deduce vibrational dephasing times in cyclohexane in the ground state

  4. The development of a distributed computing environment for the design and modeling of plasma spectroscopy experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, J.K.; Eme, W.G.; Lee, R.W.; Salter, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    The design and analysis of plasma spectroscopy experiments can be significantly complicated by relatively routine computational tasks arising from the massive amount of data encountered in the experimental design and analysis stages of the work. Difficulties in obtaining, computing, manipulating and visualizing the information represent not simply an issue of convenience -- they have a very real limiting effect on the final quality of the data and on the potential for arriving at meaningful conclusions regarding an experiment. We describe ongoing work in developing a portable UNIX environment shell with the goal of simplifying and enabling these activities for the plasma-modeling community. Applications to the construction of atomic kinetics models and to the analysis of x-ray transmission spectroscopy will be shown

  5. Future facilities for light quark spectroscopy: A perspective based on the LASS experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratcliff, B.N.

    1991-10-01

    Some desirable design features of a future facility for the study of light meson spectroscopy in hadroproduction are described and compared with what has been achieved by the LASS spectrometer. A few aspects of next-generation experiments using such a facility are also discussed, including final state sample sizes and performance requirements. The need for complementary production modes and decay channels, and the importance of a broad programmatic approach to the physics are stressed

  6. Ultrafast supercontinuum fiber-laser based pump-probe scanning magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope for the investigation of electron spin dynamics in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures with picosecond time and micrometer spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, T; Kiessling, T; Ossau, W; Molenkamp, L W; Biermann, K; Santos, P V

    2013-12-01

    We describe a two-color pump-probe scanning magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope which we have developed to investigate electron spin phenomena in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures with picosecond time and micrometer spatial resolution. The key innovation of our microscope is the usage of an ultrafast "white light" supercontinuum fiber-laser source which provides access to the whole visible and near-infrared spectral range. Our Kerr microscope allows for the independent selection of the excitation and detection energy while avoiding the necessity to synchronize the pulse trains of two separate picosecond laser systems. The ability to independently tune the pump and probe wavelength enables the investigation of the influence of excitation energy on the optically induced electron spin dynamics in semiconductors. We demonstrate picosecond real-space imaging of the diffusive expansion of optically excited electron spin packets in a (110) GaAs quantum well sample to illustrate the capabilities of the instrument.

  7. A position sensitive silicon detector for AEgIS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy)

    CERN Multimedia

    Gligorova, A

    2014-01-01

    The AEḡIS experiment (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) is located at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN and studies antimatter. The main goal of the AEḡIS experiment is to carry out the first measurement of the gravitational acceleration for antimatter in Earth’s gravitational field to a 1% relative precision. Such a measurement would test the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) of Einstein’s General Relativity. The gravitational acceleration for antihydrogen will be determined using a set of gravity measurement gratings (Moiré deflectometer) and a position sensitive detector. The vertical shift due to gravity of the falling antihydrogen atoms will be detected with a silicon strip detector, where the annihilation of antihydrogen will take place. This poster presents part of the development process of this detector.

  8. Synthesizing and Characterizing Graphene via Raman Spectroscopy: An Upper-Level Undergraduate Experiment That Exposes Students to Raman Spectroscopy and a 2D Nanomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parobek, David; Shenoy, Ganesh; Zhou, Feng; Peng, Zhenbo; Ward, Michelle; Liu, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    In this upper-level undergraduate experiment, students utilize micro-Raman spectroscopy to characterize graphene prepared by mechanical exfoliation and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The mechanically exfoliated samples are prepared by the students while CVD graphene can be purchased or obtained through outside sources. Owing to the intense Raman…

  9. Voxel-based Monte Carlo simulation of X-ray imaging and spectroscopy experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottigli, U.; Brunetti, A.; Golosio, B.; Oliva, P.; Stumbo, S.; Vincze, L.; Randaccio, P.; Bleuet, P.; Simionovici, A.; Somogyi, A.

    2004-01-01

    A Monte Carlo code for the simulation of X-ray imaging and spectroscopy experiments in heterogeneous samples is presented. The energy spectrum, polarization and profile of the incident beam can be defined so that X-ray tube systems as well as synchrotron sources can be simulated. The sample is modeled as a 3D regular grid. The chemical composition and density is given at each point of the grid. Photoelectric absorption, fluorescent emission, elastic and inelastic scattering are included in the simulation. The core of the simulation is a fast routine for the calculation of the path lengths of the photon trajectory intersections with the grid voxels. The voxel representation is particularly useful for samples that cannot be well described by a small set of polyhedra. This is the case of most naturally occurring samples. In such cases, voxel-based simulations are much less expensive in terms of computational cost than simulations on a polygonal representation. The efficient scheme used for calculating the path lengths in the voxels and the use of variance reduction techniques make the code suitable for the detailed simulation of complex experiments on generic samples in a relatively short time. Examples of applications to X-ray imaging and spectroscopy experiments are discussed

  10. Voxel-based Monte Carlo simulation of X-ray imaging and spectroscopy experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottigli, U. [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica dell' Universita di Sassari, via Vienna 2, 07100, Sassari (Italy); Sezione INFN di Cagliari (Italy); Brunetti, A. [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica dell' Universita di Sassari, via Vienna 2, 07100, Sassari (Italy); Golosio, B. [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica dell' Universita di Sassari, via Vienna 2, 07100, Sassari (Italy) and Sezione INFN di Cagliari (Italy)]. E-mail: golosio@uniss.it; Oliva, P. [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica dell' Universita di Sassari, via Vienna 2, 07100, Sassari (Italy); Stumbo, S. [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica dell' Universita di Sassari, via Vienna 2, 07100, Sassari (Italy); Vincze, L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp (Belgium); Randaccio, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Cagliari and Sezione INFN di Cagliari (Italy); Bleuet, P. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Simionovici, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Somogyi, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    2004-10-08

    A Monte Carlo code for the simulation of X-ray imaging and spectroscopy experiments in heterogeneous samples is presented. The energy spectrum, polarization and profile of the incident beam can be defined so that X-ray tube systems as well as synchrotron sources can be simulated. The sample is modeled as a 3D regular grid. The chemical composition and density is given at each point of the grid. Photoelectric absorption, fluorescent emission, elastic and inelastic scattering are included in the simulation. The core of the simulation is a fast routine for the calculation of the path lengths of the photon trajectory intersections with the grid voxels. The voxel representation is particularly useful for samples that cannot be well described by a small set of polyhedra. This is the case of most naturally occurring samples. In such cases, voxel-based simulations are much less expensive in terms of computational cost than simulations on a polygonal representation. The efficient scheme used for calculating the path lengths in the voxels and the use of variance reduction techniques make the code suitable for the detailed simulation of complex experiments on generic samples in a relatively short time. Examples of applications to X-ray imaging and spectroscopy experiments are discussed.

  11. Rotational coherence spectroscopy at FLASH. Toward dynamic studies in nanosuperfluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kickermann, Andreas

    2013-07-15

    The field of molecular physics, which is focusing on molecular motion in the transition states of physical, chemical, and biological changes, is a wide-spread research area. It strives to reveal the structural and functional properties of molecules, the chemical bonds between atoms and the time evolution. Many processes occurring in nature upon electronic excitation proceed on the ultrafast femtosecond timescale and can be triggered by modern ultrashort femtosecond-laser sources under laboratory conditions. In the present thesis pump-probe studies were performed to follow molecular motion using ultrashort light pulses in the nanometer wavelength range provided by an XUV freeelectron laser (FEL). In detail, alignment of molecular species in space under field-free conditions was investigated. In the specific case of rotational wave packets in molecules the rotational dynamics shows characteristic temporal features, which contain a wealth of information on molecular structure and give insight into molecular coupling mechanisms, i.e. rotational constants and transition frequencies. Within this thesis, Rotational Coherence Spectroscopy (RCS) reveals wave-packet motion observed by subsequent Coulomb explosion of Raman excited carbon monoxide, which results in a time-dependent asymmetry of spatial fragmentation patterns. With the method presented here, the time resolution to elucidate the fast dynamics of strong couplings can be pushed toward a single rotational period even for the fastest rotors. This is due to large pump-probe delays with small subpicosecond step size. This kind of spectroscopy can also be expanded to molecular species, which are not accessible by other powerful spectroscopic methods, such as Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy (FTMW). Furthermore, it allows to measure weak molecular couplings on a long timescale (large pump-probe delays), e.g. couplings of molecules in a solution or molecules dissolved in quantum fluids. This is valuable to

  12. Rotational coherence spectroscopy at FLASH. Toward dynamic studies in nanosuperfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kickermann, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    The field of molecular physics, which is focusing on molecular motion in the transition states of physical, chemical, and biological changes, is a wide-spread research area. It strives to reveal the structural and functional properties of molecules, the chemical bonds between atoms and the time evolution. Many processes occurring in nature upon electronic excitation proceed on the ultrafast femtosecond timescale and can be triggered by modern ultrashort femtosecond-laser sources under laboratory conditions. In the present thesis pump-probe studies were performed to follow molecular motion using ultrashort light pulses in the nanometer wavelength range provided by an XUV freeelectron laser (FEL). In detail, alignment of molecular species in space under field-free conditions was investigated. In the specific case of rotational wave packets in molecules the rotational dynamics shows characteristic temporal features, which contain a wealth of information on molecular structure and give insight into molecular coupling mechanisms, i.e. rotational constants and transition frequencies. Within this thesis, Rotational Coherence Spectroscopy (RCS) reveals wave-packet motion observed by subsequent Coulomb explosion of Raman excited carbon monoxide, which results in a time-dependent asymmetry of spatial fragmentation patterns. With the method presented here, the time resolution to elucidate the fast dynamics of strong couplings can be pushed toward a single rotational period even for the fastest rotors. This is due to large pump-probe delays with small subpicosecond step size. This kind of spectroscopy can also be expanded to molecular species, which are not accessible by other powerful spectroscopic methods, such as Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy (FTMW). Furthermore, it allows to measure weak molecular couplings on a long timescale (large pump-probe delays), e.g. couplings of molecules in a solution or molecules dissolved in quantum fluids. This is valuable to

  13. Spectroscopy and decay properties with b-hadrons at the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Toms, Konstantin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We present the latest results from the ATLAS experiment on hadron decays and spectroscopy, including observation of the B_c(2S) state, production of the B_c+ meson, branching ratio measurements of B_c->J/psiD(), extraction of fragmentation fractions fs/fd via reconstructed Bs->J/psiPhi and Bd->J/psiK decays, and studies of the decay properties of the Lambda_b. We also present the results of searches for the Xb, the bottomonium counterpart to the X(3872) exotic charmonium state.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation of nonlinear spectroscopies of intermolecular motions in liquid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagasaki, Takuma; Saito, Shinji

    2009-09-15

    elucidated by introducing the "translation-free" molecular dynamics simulation. The isotropic pump-probe signal and the polarization anisotropy decay show fast transfer of the librational energy to the surrounding water molecules, followed by relaxation to the hot ground state. These theoretical methods do not require frequently used assumptions and can thus be called ab initio methods; together with multidimensional nonlinear spectroscopies, they provide powerful methods for examining the inter- and intramolecular details of water dynamics.

  15. High precision γ spectroscopy of ΛΛ-Hypernuclei at the PANDA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Lorente, A

    2013-01-01

    Hypernuclear research will be one of the main topics addressed by the PANDA experiment at FAIR at Darmstadt (Germany). Thanks to the use of stored antiproton beams, copious production of double ΛΛ-Hypernuclei is expected at the PANDA experiment, which will enable high precision gamma spectroscopy of such nuclei for the first time. At PANDA excited states of hypernuclei will be used as a starting point for the formation of double ΛΛ-Hypernuclei. In order to predict the yield of particle-stable double hypernuclei a microcanonical decay model was developed. For the detection of these nuclei, a devoted hypernuclear detector setup is planned. This set-up consists, in addition to the general purpose of the PANDA set-up, of a primary nuclear target for the production of pairs, a secondary active target for the hypernuclei formation and the identification of associated decay products and a germanium array detector to perform gamma spectroscopy. Moreover, one of the most challenging issues of this project is the fact that all detector systems need to operate in the presence of a high magnetic field and a large hadronic background. In these proceedings details concerning the identification procedure of double hypernuclei and the suppression of background will be presented. In addition, the current status of the activities related to the detector developments for this challenging programme will be briefly given.

  16. An open source/real-time atomic force microscope architecture to perform customizable force spectroscopy experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materassi, Donatello; Baschieri, Paolo; Tiribilli, Bruno; Zuccheri, Giampaolo; Samorì, Bruno

    2009-08-01

    We describe the realization of an atomic force microscope architecture designed to perform customizable experiments in a flexible and automatic way. Novel technological contributions are given by the software implementation platform (RTAI-LINUX), which is free and open source, and from a functional point of view, by the implementation of hard real-time control algorithms. Some other technical solutions such as a new way to estimate the optical lever constant are described as well. The adoption of this architecture provides many degrees of freedom in the device behavior and, furthermore, allows one to obtain a flexible experimental instrument at a relatively low cost. In particular, we show how such a system has been employed to obtain measures in sophisticated single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments [Fernandez and Li, Science 303, 1674 (2004)]. Experimental results on proteins already studied using the same methodologies are provided in order to show the reliability of the measure system.

  17. Atom spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodling, K.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on atom photoabsorption spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation in the 10-1000 eV range are reviewed. Properties of the necessary synchrotron radiation and the experiment on absorption spectroscopy are briefly described. Comparison with other spectroscopy methods is conducted. Some data on measuring photoabsorption, photoelectron emission and atom mass spectra are presented [ru

  18. Structure and Dynamics of Urea/Water Mixtures Investigated by Vibrational Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, J. K.; Buchanan, L. E.; Schmidt, J. R.; Zanni, M. T.; Skinner, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Urea/water is an archetypical “biological” mixture, and is especially well known for its relevance to protein thermodynamics, as urea acts as a protein denaturant at high concentration. This behavior has given rise to an extended debate concerning urea’s influence on water structure. Based on a variety of methods and of definitions of water structure, urea has been variously described as a structure-breaker, a structure-maker, or as remarkably neutral towards water. Because of its sensitivity to microscopic structure and dynamics, vibrational spectroscopy can help resolve these debates. We report experimental and theoretical spectroscopic results for the OD stretch of HOD/H2O/urea mixtures (linear IR, 2DIR, and pump-probe anisotropy decay) and for the CO stretch of urea-D4/D2O mixtures (linear IR only). Theoretical results are obtained using existing approaches for water, and a modification of a frequency map developed for acetamide. All absorption spectra are remarkably insensitive to urea concentration, consistent with the idea that urea only very weakly perturbs water structure. Both this work and experiments by Rezus and Bakker, however, show that water’s rotational dynamics are slowed down by urea. Analysis of the simulations casts doubt on the suggestion that urea immobilizes particular doubly hydrogen bonded water molecules. PMID:23841646

  19. Nanopuller-open data acquisition platform for AFM force spectroscopy experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlak, Konrad; Strzelecki, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a widely used tool in force spectroscopy studies. Presently, this instrument is accessible from numerous vendors, albeit commercial solutions are expensive and almost always hardware and software closed. Approaches for open setups were published, as with modern low cost and readily available piezoelectric actuators, data acquisition interfaces and optoelectronic components building such force spectroscopy AFM is relatively easy. However, suitable software to control such laboratory made instrument was not released. Developing it in the lab requires significant time and effort. Our Nanopuller software described in this paper is intended to eliminate this obstacle. With only minimum adjustments this program can be used to control and acquire data with any suitable National Instruments universal digital/analog interface and piezoelectric actuator analog controller, giving significant freedom and flexibility in designing force spectroscopy experiment. Since the full code, written in a graphical LabVIEW environment is available, our Nanopuller can be easily customized. In this paper we describe the program and test its performance in controlling different setups. Successful and accurate force curve acquisition for standard samples (single molecules of I27O reference titin polyprotein and DNA as well as red blood cells) is shown. - Highlights: • We created open data acquisition software for performing Atomic Force Microscopy force measurements with custom laboratory made setups. • The software allows large flexibility in atomic force microscope design with minimum adjustment necessary. • The software is written in LabVIEW, allowing easy customization. • We successfully tested the program on two different hardware configurations by stretching single macromolecules and indenting cells.

  20. Nanopuller-open data acquisition platform for AFM force spectroscopy experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlak, Konrad; Strzelecki, Janusz

    2016-05-15

    Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a widely used tool in force spectroscopy studies. Presently, this instrument is accessible from numerous vendors, albeit commercial solutions are expensive and almost always hardware and software closed. Approaches for open setups were published, as with modern low cost and readily available piezoelectric actuators, data acquisition interfaces and optoelectronic components building such force spectroscopy AFM is relatively easy. However, suitable software to control such laboratory made instrument was not released. Developing it in the lab requires significant time and effort. Our Nanopuller software described in this paper is intended to eliminate this obstacle. With only minimum adjustments this program can be used to control and acquire data with any suitable National Instruments universal digital/analog interface and piezoelectric actuator analog controller, giving significant freedom and flexibility in designing force spectroscopy experiment. Since the full code, written in a graphical LabVIEW environment is available, our Nanopuller can be easily customized. In this paper we describe the program and test its performance in controlling different setups. Successful and accurate force curve acquisition for standard samples (single molecules of I27O reference titin polyprotein and DNA as well as red blood cells) is shown. - Highlights: • We created open data acquisition software for performing Atomic Force Microscopy force measurements with custom laboratory made setups. • The software allows large flexibility in atomic force microscope design with minimum adjustment necessary. • The software is written in LabVIEW, allowing easy customization. • We successfully tested the program on two different hardware configurations by stretching single macromolecules and indenting cells.

  1. Kinetics of Hydrolysis of Acetic Anhydride by In-Situ FTIR Spectroscopy: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Shaker; Erkey, Can

    2005-01-01

    A reaction kinetics experiment for the chemical engineering undergraduate laboratory course was developed in which in-situ Fourier Transfer Infrared spectroscopy was used to measure reactant and product concentrations. The kinetics of the hydrolysis of acetic anhydride was determined by experiments carried out in a batch reactor. The results…

  2. Dynamical interactions between solute and solvent studied by nonlinear infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, K.; Tominaga, K.

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between solute and solvent play an important role in chemical reaction dynamics and in many relaxation processes in condensed phases. Recently third-order nonlinear infrared (IR) spectroscopy has shown to be useful to investigate solute-solvent interaction and dynamics of the vibrational transition. These studies provide detailed information on the energy relaxation of the vibrationally excited state, and the time scale and the magnitude of the time correlation functions of the vibrational frequency fluctuations. In this work we have studied vibrational energy relaxation (VER) of solutions and molecular complexes by nonlinear IR spectroscopy, especially IR pump-probe method, to understand the microscopic interactions in liquids. (authors)

  3. Characterization of photo-induced valence tautomerism in a cobalt-dioxolene complex by ultrafast spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beni, A [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Firenze, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Bogani, L [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Firenze, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Bussotti, L [LENS, Universita di Firenze, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Dei, A [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Firenze, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Gentili, P L [LENS, Universita di Firenze, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Righini, R [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Firenze, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)

    2005-01-01

    The valence tautomerism of low-spin Co{sup III}(Cat-N-BQ)(Cat-N-SQ) was investigated by means of UV-vis pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy in chloroform. By exciting the CT transition of the complex at 480 nm, an intramolecular electron transfer process is selectively triggered. The photo-induced charge transfer is pursued by a cascade of two main molecular events characterized by the ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy: the first gives rise to the metastable high-spin Co{sup II}(Cat-N-BQ){sub 2} that, secondly, reaches the chemical equilibrium with the reactant species.

  4. Characterization of photo-induced valence tautomerism in a cobalt-dioxolene complex by ultrafast spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beni, A; Bogani, L; Bussotti, L; Dei, A; Gentili, P L; Righini, R

    2005-01-01

    The valence tautomerism of low-spin Co III (Cat-N-BQ)(Cat-N-SQ) was investigated by means of UV-vis pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy in chloroform. By exciting the CT transition of the complex at 480 nm, an intramolecular electron transfer process is selectively triggered. The photo-induced charge transfer is pursued by a cascade of two main molecular events characterized by the ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy: the first gives rise to the metastable high-spin Co II (Cat-N-BQ) 2 that, secondly, reaches the chemical equilibrium with the reactant species

  5. Characterization of photo-induced valence tautomerism in a cobalt-dioxolene complex by ultrafast spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beni, A.; Bogani, L.; Bussotti, L.; Dei, A.; Gentili, P. L.; Righini, R.

    2005-01-01

    The valence tautomerism of low-spin CoIII(Cat-N-BQ)(Cat-N-SQ) was investigated by means of UV-vis pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy in chloroform. By exciting the CT transition of the complex at 480 nm, an intramolecular electron transfer process is selectively triggered. The photo-induced charge transfer is pursued by a cascade of two main molecular events characterized by the ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy: the first gives rise to the metastable high-spin CoII(Cat-N-BQ)2 that, secondly, reaches the chemical equilibrium with the reactant species.

  6. Visible photodissociation spectroscopy of PAH cations and derivatives in the PIRENEA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Useli-Bacchitta, F.; Bonnamy, A.; Mulas, G.; Malloci, G.; Toublanc, D.; Joblin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Measured multiphoton dissociation spectra of gas-phase coronene cation and its doubly-dehydrogenated derivative. - Abstract: The electronic spectra of gas-phase cationic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), trapped in the Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance cell of the PIRENEA experiment, have been measured by multiphoton dissociation spectroscopy in the 430-480 nm spectral range using the radiation of a mid-band optical parametric oscillator laser. We present here the spectra recorded for different species of increasing size, namely the pyrene cation (C 16 H 10 + ), the 1-methylpyrene cation (CH 3 -C 16 H 9 + ), the coronene cation (C 24 H 12 + ), and its dehydrogenated derivative C 24 H 10 + . The experimental results are interpreted with the help of time-dependent density functional theory calculations and analysed using spectral information on the same species obtained from matrix isolation spectroscopy data. A kinetic Monte Carlo code has also been used, in the case of pyrene and coronene cations, to estimate the absorption cross-sections of the measured electronic transitions. Gas-phase spectra of highly reactive species such as dehydrogenated PAH cations are reported for the first time.

  7. Uranium sorption from aqueous solutions by activated biochar fibres investigated by FTIR spectroscopy and batch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loukia Hadjittofi; Ioannis Pashalidis

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of activated biochar fibres obtained from Opuntia ficus indica regarding the sorption of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) from aqueous solutions has been investigated by batch experiments, as a function of various physicochemical parameters, and FTIR spectroscopy prior and after U(VI) sorption. The experimental results show that the activated biochar fibres possess extraordinary sorption capacity for U(VI) even in acidic solutions (q max = 210 g kg -1 ), which is attributed to the formation of inner-sphere complexes with the surface carboxylic moieties, available in high density on the lamellar structures of the bio-sorbent. The adsorption process is described by a two-step exothermic reaction. (author)

  8. Simulating systematic errors in X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments: Sample and beam effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curis, Emmanuel [Laboratoire de Biomathematiques, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Rene, Descartes (Paris V)-4, Avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France)]. E-mail: emmanuel.curis@univ-paris5.fr; Osan, Janos [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (AEKI)-P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Falkenberg, Gerald [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor (HASYLAB), Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)-Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Benazeth, Simone [Laboratoire de Biomathematiques, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Rene, Descartes (Paris V)-4, Avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France); Laboratoire d' Utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnetique (LURE)-Ba-hat timent 209D, Campus d' Orsay, 91406 Orsay (France); Toeroek, Szabina [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (AEKI)-P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-07-15

    The article presents an analytical model to simulate experimental imperfections in the realization of an X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiment, performed in transmission or fluorescence mode. Distinction is made between sources of systematic errors on a time-scale basis, to select the more appropriate model for their handling. For short time-scale, statistical models are the most suited. For large time-scale, the model is developed for sample and beam imperfections: mainly sample inhomogeneity, sample self-absorption, beam achromaticity. The ability of this model to reproduce the effects of these imperfections is exemplified, and the model is validated on real samples. Various potential application fields of the model are then presented.

  9. Simulating systematic errors in X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments: Sample and beam effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curis, Emmanuel; Osan, Janos; Falkenberg, Gerald; Benazeth, Simone; Toeroek, Szabina

    2005-01-01

    The article presents an analytical model to simulate experimental imperfections in the realization of an X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiment, performed in transmission or fluorescence mode. Distinction is made between sources of systematic errors on a time-scale basis, to select the more appropriate model for their handling. For short time-scale, statistical models are the most suited. For large time-scale, the model is developed for sample and beam imperfections: mainly sample inhomogeneity, sample self-absorption, beam achromaticity. The ability of this model to reproduce the effects of these imperfections is exemplified, and the model is validated on real samples. Various potential application fields of the model are then presented

  10. Structure and dynamics of gas phase ions: Interplay between experiments and computations in IRMPD spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletti, Cecilia; Corinti, Davide; Paciotti, Roberto; Re, Nazzareno; Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Fornarini, Simonetta

    2017-11-01

    The investigation of the molecular structure and dynamics of ions in gas phase is an item of increasing interest, due the role such species play in many areas of chemistry and physics, not to mention that they often represent elusive intermediates in more complex reaction mechanisms. Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation spectroscopy is today one of the most advanced technique to this purpose, because of its high sensitivity to even small structure changes. The interpretation of IRMPD spectra strongly relies on high level quantum mechanical computations, so that a close interplay is needed for a detailed understanding of structure and kinetics properties which can be gathered from the many applications of this powerful technique. Recent advances in experiment and theory in this field are here illustrated, with emphasis on recent progresses for the elucidation of the mechanism of action of cisplatin, one of the most widely used anticancer drugs.

  11. Pump laser-induced space-charge effects in HHG-driven time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oloff, L.-P., E-mail: oloff@physik.uni-kiel.de; Hanff, K.; Stange, A.; Rohde, G.; Diekmann, F.; Bauer, M.; Rossnagel, K., E-mail: rossnagel@physik.uni-kiel.de [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-06-14

    With the advent of ultrashort-pulsed extreme ultraviolet sources, such as free-electron lasers or high-harmonic-generation (HHG) sources, a new research field for photoelectron spectroscopy has opened up in terms of femtosecond time-resolved pump-probe experiments. The impact of the high peak brilliance of these novel sources on photoemission spectra, so-called vacuum space-charge effects caused by the Coulomb interaction among the photoemitted probe electrons, has been studied extensively. However, possible distortions of the energy and momentum distributions of the probe photoelectrons caused by the low photon energy pump pulse due to the nonlinear emission of electrons have not been studied in detail yet. Here, we systematically investigate these pump laser-induced space-charge effects in a HHG-based experiment for the test case of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Specifically, we determine how the key parameters of the pump pulse—the excitation density, wavelength, spot size, and emitted electron energy distribution—affect the measured time-dependent energy and momentum distributions of the probe photoelectrons. The results are well reproduced by a simple mean-field model, which could open a path for the correction of pump laser-induced space-charge effects and thus toward probing ultrafast electron dynamics in strongly excited materials.

  12. Baryon spectroscopy. Recent results from the CBELSA/TAPS experiment at ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Jan [HISKP, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Collaboration: CBELSA/TAPS-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    One of the remaining challenges within the standard model is to gain a good understanding of QCD in the non-perturbative regime. A key step towards this aim is baryon spectroscopy, investigating the spectrum and the properties of baryon resonances. To gain access to resonances with small πN partial width, photoproduction experiments provide essential information. Partial wave analyses need to be performed to extract the contributing resonances. Here, a complete experiment is required to unambiguously determine the contributing amplitudes. This involves the measurement of carefully chosen single and double polarization observables. The CBELSA/TAPS experiment with a longitudinally or transversely polarized target and an energy tagged, linearly or circularly polarized photon beam allows the measurement of a large set of polarization observables. Due to its good energy resolution, high detection efficiency for photons, and the nearly complete solid angle coverage it is ideally suited for the measurement of photoproduction of neutral mesons decaying into photons. In this talk recent results for various double polarization observables in single- and multi-meson final states are presented, and their impact on the partial wave analysis are discussed.

  13. Are water simulation models consistent with steady-state and ultrafast vibrational spectroscopy experiments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.R.; Roberts, S.T.; Loparo, J.J.; Tokmakoff, A.; Fayer, M.D.; Skinner, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy can provide important information about structure and dynamics in liquids. In the case of liquid water, this is particularly true for isotopically dilute HOD/D 2 O and HOD/H 2 O systems. Infrared and Raman line shapes for these systems were measured some time ago. Very recently, ultrafast three-pulse vibrational echo experiments have been performed on these systems, which provide new, exciting, and important dynamical benchmarks for liquid water. There has been tremendous theoretical effort expended on the development of classical simulation models for liquid water. These models have been parameterized from experimental structural and thermodynamic measurements. The goal of this paper is to determine if representative simulation models are consistent with steady-state, and especially with these new ultrafast, experiments. Such a comparison provides information about the accuracy of the dynamics of these simulation models. We perform this comparison using theoretical methods developed in previous papers, and calculate the experimental observables directly, without making the Condon and cumulant approximations, and taking into account molecular rotation, vibrational relaxation, and finite excitation pulses. On the whole, the simulation models do remarkably well; perhaps the best overall agreement with experiment comes from the SPC/E model

  14. Development of a pump-probe facility with sub-picosecond time resolution combining a high-power ultraviolet regenerative FEL amplifier and a soft X-ray SASE FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faatz, B.; Fateev, A.A.; Feldhaus, J.; Krzywinski, J.; Pflueger, J.; Rossbach, J.; Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptual design of a high power radiation source with laser-like characteristics in the ultraviolet spectral range at the TESLA Test Facility (TTF). The concept is based on the generation of radiation in a regenerative FEL amplifier (RAFEL). The RAFEL described in this paper covers a wavelength range of 200-400 nm and provides 200 fs pulses with 2 mJ of optical energy per pulse. The linac operates at 1% duty factor and the average output radiation power exceeds 100 W. The RAFEL will be driven by the spent electron beam leaving the soft X-ray FEL, thus providing minimal interference between these two devices. The RAFEL output radiation has the same time structure as the X-ray FEL and the UV pulses are naturally synchronized with the soft X-ray pulses from the TTF FEL. Therefore, it should be possible to achieve synchronization close to the duration of the radiation pulses (200 fs) for pump-probe techniques using either an UV pulse as a pump and soft X-ray pulse as a probe, or vice versa

  15. The CORONAS-Photon/TESIS experiment on EUV imaging spectroscopy of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, S.; Zhitnik, I.; Bogachev, S.; Bugaenko, O.; Ignat'ev, A.; Mitrofanov, A.; Perzov, A.; Shestov, S.; Slemzin, V.; Suhodrev, N.

    The new experiment TESIS is developent for russian CORONAS-Photon mission launch is planned on the end of 2007 The experiment is aimed on the study of activity of the Sun in the phases of minimum rise and maximum of 24 th cycle of Solar activity by the method of XUV imaging spectroscopy The method is based on the registration full-Sun monochromatic images with high spatial and temporal resolution The scientific tasks of the experiment are i Investigation dynamic processes in corona flares CME etc with high spatial up to 1 and temporal up to 1 second resolution ii determination of the main plasma parameters like plasma electron and ion density and temperature differential emission measure etc iii study of the processes of appearance and development large scale long-life magnetic structures in the solar corona study of the fluency of this structures on the global activity of the corona iv study of the mechanisms of energy accumulation and release in the solar flares and mechanisms of transformation of this energy into the heating of the plasma and kinematics energy To get the information for this studies the TESIS will register full-Sun images in narrow spectral intervals and the monochromatic lines of HeII SiXI FeXXI-FeXXIII MgXII ions The instrument includes 5 independent channels 2 telescopes for 304 and 132 A wide-field 2 5 degrees coronograph 280-330A and 8 42 A spectroheliographs The detailed description of the TESIS experiment and the instrument is presented

  16. Photochemical cycle of bacteriorhodopsin studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockburger, M; Klusmann, W; Gattermann, H; Massig, G; Peters, R

    1979-10-30

    Individual species of the photochemical cycle of bacteriorhodopsin, a retinal-protein complex of Halobacteria, were studied in aqueous suspensions of the "purple membrane" at room temperature by resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy with flow systems. Two pronounced deuterium shifts were found in the RR spectra of the all-trans complex BR-570 in H2O-D2O suspensions. The first is ascribed to C=NH+ (C=ND+) stretching vibrations of the protonated Schiff base which links retinal to opsin. The second is assigned tentatively to an "X-H" ("X-D") bending mode, where "X" is an atom which carries an exchangeable proton. A RR spectrum of the 13-cis-retinal complex "BR-548" could be deduced from spectra of the dark-adapted purple membrane. The RR spectrum of the M-412 intermediate was monitored in a double-beam pump-probe experiment. The main vibrational features of the intermediate M' in the reaction M-412 in equilibrium hv M' leads to delta BR-570 could be deduced from a photostationary mixture of M-412 and M'. Difference procedures were applied to obtain RR spectra of the L-550 intermediate and of two new long-lived species, R1'-590 and R2-550. From kinetic data it is suggested that T1'-590 links the proton-translocating cycle to the "13-cis" cycle of BR-548. The protonation and isomeric states of the different species are discussed in light of the new spectroscopic and kinetic data. It is found that conformational changes during the photochemical cycle play an important role.

  17. Localized vibrations in superconducting YB a2C u3O7 revealed by ultrafast optical coherent spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Fabio; Giovannetti, Gianluca; Avella, Adolfo; Cilento, Federico; Patthey, Luc; Radovic, Milan; Capone, Massimo; Parmigiani, Fulvio; Fausti, Daniele

    2017-05-01

    The interaction between phonons and high-energy excitations of electronic origin in cuprates and their role in the superconducting mechanisms is still controversial. Here we use coherent vibrational time-domain spectroscopy together with density functional and dynamical mean-field theory calculations to establish a direct link between the c -axis phonon modes and the in-plane electronic charge excitations in optimally doped YB a2C u3O7 . The nonequilibrium Raman tensor is measured by means of the broadband "coherent-phonon" response in pump-probe experiments and is qualitatively described by our model using density functional theory in the frozen-phonon approximation plus single-band dynamical mean-field theory to account for the electronic correlations. The major outcome of our experimental and theoretical study is to establish the link between out-of-plane copper ion displacements and the in-plane electronic correlations, and to estimate at a few unit cells the correlation length of the associated phonon mode. The approach introduced here could help in revealing the complex interplay between fluctuations of different nature and spatial correlation in several strongly correlated materials.

  18. Temperature and Electron Density Determination on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Plasmas: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najarian, Maya L.; Chinni, Rosemarie C.

    2013-01-01

    This laboratory is designed for physical chemistry students to gain experience using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in understanding plasma diagnostics. LIBS uses a high-powered laser that is focused on the sample causing a plasma to form. The emission of this plasma is then spectrally resolved and detected. Temperature and electron…

  19. In gas laser ionization and spectroscopy experiments at the Superconducting Separator Spectrometer (S3): Conceptual studies and preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, R.; Bastin, B.; Boilley, D.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Liénard, E.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Huyse, M.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Lecesne, N.; Lu, H.; Lutton, F.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Pauwels, D.; Piot, J.; Radulov, D.; Rens, L.; Savajols, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A setup to perform In-Gas Laser Ionization and Spectroscopy experiments at the Super Separator Spectrometer is presented. • The reported studies address important aspects necessary to applied the IGLIS technique to short-lived isotopes. • An R and D phase required to reach an enhanced spectral resolution will be carried out at KU Leuven. • High-sensitivity and enhanced-resolution laser spectroscopy studies will be possible with the IGLIS setup at S 3 . -- Abstract: The results of preparatory experiments and the preliminary designs of a new in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy setup, to be coupled to the Super Separator Spectrometer S 3 of SPIRAL2-GANIL, are reported. Special attention is given to the development and tests to carry out a full implementation of the in-gas jet laser spectroscopy technique. Application of this novel technique to radioactive species will allow high-sensitivity and enhanced-resolution laser spectroscopy studies of ground- and excited-state properties of exotic nuclei

  20. Design and conception of an experiment setup for X-Ray absorption spectroscopy on radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabane, A.

    1997-01-01

    In the field of the nuclear cycle waste management, the law of december 30, 1991(article 4) gives the frame of the research programs to be conducted. This should lead to o political decision concerning the end of the nuclear fuel cycle. To date, efforts are coordinated by three research groups: PRACTIS, GEDEON and FORPRO. This work, dealing with the development of a radioactive cell for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy measurements (XAS) is part of PRACTIS goals. It devises into two parts that deal with the conception of the experiment setup (Chapter I) and with the first test that been carried out with X-ray Absorption measurements on radioactive materials (Chapter II), respectively. An introduction on the nuclear fuel cycle and the use of synchrotron radiation for XAS is also given. More precisely, in the first part of this work, we deal with the difficulties that are related to the development of such devises for radioactive samples on a synchrotron beam line. Two constrains have to be taken into account: the technical aspect and the safety aspect. In the second part, we consider the use of grabbing additional structural information on the actinide complexes, both in liquid and solid phases (as amorphous phases for instance). These data on the local order (EXAFS), as well as on the electronic information that can be obtained (XANES) are to be completed with results of the other probing techniques. (author)

  1. Analytical optimization of active bandwidth and quality factor for TOCSY experiments in NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coote, Paul, E-mail: paul-coote@hms.harvard.edu [Harvard Medical School (United States); Bermel, Wolfgang [Bruker BioSpin GmbH (Germany); Wagner, Gerhard; Arthanari, Haribabu, E-mail: hari@hms.harvard.edu [Harvard Medical School (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Active bandwidth and global quality factor are the two main metrics used to quantitatively compare the performance of TOCSY mixing sequences. Active bandwidth refers to the spectral region over which at least 50 % of the magnetization is transferred via a coupling. Global quality factor scores mixing sequences according to the worst-case transfer over a range of possible mixing times and chemical shifts. Both metrics reward high transfer efficiency away from the main diagonal of a two-dimensional spectrum. They can therefore be used to design mixing sequences that will function favorably in experiments. Here, we develop optimization methods tailored to these two metrics, including precise control of off-diagonal cross peak buildup rates. These methods produce square shaped transfer efficiency profiles, directly matching the desirable properties that the metrics are intended to measure. The optimization methods are analytical, rather than numerical. The two resultant shaped pulses have significantly higher active bandwidth and quality factor, respectively, than all other known sequences. They are therefore highly suitable for use in NMR spectroscopy. We include experimental verification of these improved waveforms on small molecule and protein samples.

  2. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Homero Jose de Farias e; Abdala, Nitamar; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Szejnfeld, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Objective: to report an experiment involving the introduction of a protocol utilizing commercially available three-dimensional 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (3D 1H MRSI) method in patients diagnosed with prostatic tumors under suspicion of neoplasm. Materials and methods: forty-one patients in the age range between 51 and 80 years (mean, 67 years) were prospectively evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with one or more biopsies negative for cancer and high specific-prostatic antigen levels (group A), and patients with cancer confirmed by biopsy (group B). The determination of the target area (group A) or the known cancer extent (group B) was based on magnetic resonance imaging and MRSI studies. Results: the specificity of MRSI in the diagnosis of prostate cancer was lower than the specificity reported in the literature (about 47%). On the other hand, for tumor staging, it corresponded to the specificity reported in the literature. Conclusion: the introduction and standardization of 3D 1H MRSI has allowed the obtention of a presumable diagnosis of prostate cancer, by a combined analysis of magnetic resonance imaging and metabolic data from 3D 1H MRSI. (author)

  3. Rapid and economical data acquisition in ultrafast frequency-resolved spectroscopy using choppers and a microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Monahan, Daniele M; Fleming, Graham

    2016-08-08

    Spectrometers and cameras are used in ultrafast spectroscopy to achieve high resolution in both time and frequency domains. Frequency-resolved signals from the camera pixels cannot be processed by common lock-in amplifiers, which have only a limited number of input channels. Here we demonstrate a rapid and economical method that achieves the function of a lock-in amplifier using mechanical choppers and a programmable microcontroller. We demonstrate the method's effectiveness by performing a frequency-resolved pump-probe measurement on the dye Nile Blue in solution.

  4. Experiments with the High Resolution Kaon Spectrometer at Jlab Hall C and the New Spectroscopy of ^12_Lambda B Hypernuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Liguang; Chen, Chunhua; Gogami, Toshiyuki; Kawama, Daisuke; Han, Yuncheng; Yuan, Lulin; Matsumura, Akihiko; Okayasu, Yuichi; Seva, Tomislav; Rodriguez, Victor; Baturin, Pavlo; Acha Quimper, Armando; Achenbach, Carsten; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Albayrak, Ibrahim; Androic, Darko; Asaturyan, Arshak; Asaturyan, Razmik; Ates, Ozgur; Badui, Rafael; Baker, Oliver; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Boeglin, Werner; Bono, Jason; Bosted, Peter; Brash, Edward; Carter, Philip; Carlini, Roger; Chiba, Atsushi; Christy, Michael; Cole, Leon; Dalton, Mark; Danagoulian, Samuel; Daniel, Aji; De Leo, Raffaele; Dharmawardane, Kahanawita; Doi, Daisuke; Egiyan, Kim; Elaasar, Mostafa; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard; Fujii, Yu; Furic, Miroslav; Gabrielyan, Marianna; Gan, Liping; Garibaldi, Franco; Gaskell, David; Gasparian, Ashot; Gibson, Edward; Gueye, Paul; Hashimoto, Osamu; Honda, D; Horn, Tanja; Hu, Bitao; Hungerford, Ed; Jayalath, Chandana; Jones, Mark; Johnston, Kathleen; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kanda, Hiroki; Kaneta, M; Kato, F; Kato, Seigo; Kawai, Masaharu; Keppel, Cynthia; Khanal, Hari; Kohl, M; Kramer, Laird; Lan, Kejian; Li, Ya; Habarakada Liyanage, Anusha; Luo, Wei; Mack, David; Maeda, Kazushige; Malace, Simona; Margaryan, Amur; Marikyan, Gagik; Markowitz, Pete; Maruta, Tomofumi; Maruyama, Nayuta; Maxwell, Victor; Millener, David; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Mkrtchyan, Arthur; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Motoba, Toshio; Nagao, Sho; Nakamura, Satoshi; Narayan, Amrendra; Neville, Casey; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria; Nunez, Angel; Nuruzzaman, nfn; Nomura, Hiroshi; Nonaka, Kenichi; Ohtani, Atsushi; Oyamada, Masamichi; Perez, Naipy; Petkovic, Tomislav; Pochodzalla, J; Qiu, Xiyu; Randeniya, Kapugodage; Raue, Brian; Reinhold, Joerg; Rivera, R; Roche, Julie; Samanta, Chhanda; Sato, Yoshinori; Sawatzky, Bradley; Segbefia, Edwin; Schott, Diane; Shichijo, Ayako; Simicevic, Neven; Smith, Gregory; Song, Yushou; Sumihama, Mizuki; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Taniya, Naotaka; Tsukada, Kyo; Tvaskis, Vladas; Veilleux, Micah; Vulcan, William; Wells, Steven; Wesselmann, Frank; Wood, Stephen; Yamamoto, Taku; Yan, Chen; Ye, Z; Yokota, Kosuke; Zhamkochyan, Simon; Zhu, Lingyan

    2014-09-01

    Since the pioneering experiment, E89-009 studying hypernuclear spectroscopy using the $(e,e^{\\prime}K^+)$ reaction was completed, two additional experiments, E01-011 and E05-115, were performed at Jefferson Lab. These later experiments used a modified experimental design, the "Tilt Method", to dramatically suppress the large electromagnetic background, and allowed for a substantial increase in luminosity. Additionally, a new kaon spectrometer, HKS (E01-011), a new electron spectrometer, HES, and a new splitting magnet were added to produce precision, high-resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy. These two experiments, E01-011 and E05-115, resulted in two new data sets, producing sub-MeV energy resolution in the spectra of ${}^{7}_{\\Lambda}\\text{He}$, ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$ and ${}^{28}_{\\Lambda} \\text{Al}$ and ${}^{7}_{\\Lambda}\\text{He}$, ${}^{10}_{\\Lambda}\\text{Be}$, ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$ and ${}^{52}_{\\Lambda}\\text{V}$. All three experiments obtained a ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$, spectrum, which is the most characteristic $p$-shell hypernucleus and is commonly used for calibration. Independent analyses of these different experiments demonstrate excellent consistency and provide the clearest level structure to date of this hypernucleus as produced by the $(e,e^{\\prime}K^+)$ reaction. This paper presents details of these experiments, and the extraction and analysis of the observed ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$ spectrum.

  5. Innovation and optimization of a method of pump-probe polarimetry with pulsed laser beams in view of a precise measurement of parity violation in atomic cesium; Innovation et optimisation d'une methode de polarimetrie pompe-sonde avec des faisceaux laser impulsionnels en vue d'une mesure precise de violation de la parite dans l'atome de cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvat, D

    1997-10-15

    While Parity Violation (PV) experiments on highly forbidden transitions have been using detection of fluorescence signals; our experiment uses a pump-probe scheme to detect the PV signal directly on a transmitted probe beam. A pulsed laser beam of linear polarisation {epsilon}{sub 1} excites the atoms on the 6S-7S cesium transition in a colinear electric field E || k(ex). The probe beam (k(pr) || k(ex)) of linear polarisation {epsilon}{sub 2} tuned to the transition 7S-6P(3/2) is amplified. The small asymmetry ({approx} 10{sup -6}) in the gain that depends on the handedness of the tri-hedron (E, {epsilon}{sub 1}, {epsilon}{sub 2}) is the manifestation of the PV effect. This is measured as an E-odd apparent rotation of the plane of polarization of the probe beam; using balanced mode polarimetry. New criteria of selection have been devised, that allow us to distinguish the true PV-signal against fake rotations due to electromagnetic interferences, geometrical effects, polarization imperfections, or stray transverse electric and magnetic fields. These selection criteria exploit the symmetry of the PV-rotation - linear dichroism - and the revolution symmetry of the experiment. Using these criteria it is not only possible to reject fake signals, but also to elucidate the underlying physical mechanisms and to measure the relevant defects of the apparatus. The present signal-to-noise ratio allows embarking in PV measurements to reach the 10% statistical accuracy. A 1% measurement still requires improvements. Two methods have been demonstrated. The first one exploits the amplification of the asymmetry at high gain - one major advantage provided by our detection method based on stimulated emission. The second method uses both a much higher incident intensity and a special dichroic component which magnifies tiny polarization rotations. (author)

  6. Rapid high-resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with pulsed laser source and time-of-flight spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlieb, K.; Hussain, Z.; Bostwick, A.; Lanzara, A.; Jozwiak, C.

    2013-09-01

    A high-efficiency spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (spin-ARPES) spectrometer is coupled with a laboratory-based laser for rapid high-resolution measurements. The spectrometer combines time-of-flight (TOF) energy measurements with low-energy exchange scattering spin polarimetry for high detection efficiencies. Samples are irradiated with fourth harmonic photons generated from a cavity-dumped Ti:sapphire laser that provides high photon flux in a narrow bandwidth, with a pulse timing structure ideally matched to the needs of the TOF spectrometer. The overall efficiency of the combined system results in near-EF spin-resolved ARPES measurements with an unprecedented combination of energy resolution and acquisition speed. This allows high-resolution spin measurements with a large number of data points spanning multiple dimensions of interest (energy, momentum, photon polarization, etc.) and thus enables experiments not otherwise possible. The system is demonstrated with spin-resolved energy and momentum mapping of the L-gap Au(111) surface states, a prototypical Rashba system. The successful integration of the spectrometer with the pulsed laser system demonstrates its potential for simultaneous spin- and time-resolved ARPES with pump-probe based measurements.

  7. Examining Electron-Boson Coupling Using Time-Resolved Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentef, Michael; Kemper, Alexander F.; Moritz, Brian; Freericks, James K.; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Devereaux, Thomas P.

    2013-12-26

    Nonequilibrium pump-probe time-domain spectroscopies can become an important tool to disentangle degrees of freedom whose coupling leads to broad structures in the frequency domain. Here, using the time-resolved solution of a model photoexcited electron-phonon system, we show that the relaxational dynamics are directly governed by the equilibrium self-energy so that the phonon frequency sets a window for “slow” versus “fast” recovery. The overall temporal structure of this relaxation spectroscopy allows for a reliable and quantitative extraction of the electron-phonon coupling strength without requiring an effective temperature model or making strong assumptions about the underlying bare electronic band dispersion.

  8. Laser spectroscopy of exotic RI atoms in superfluid helium-OROCHI experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, T.; Matsuo, Y.; Hatakeyama, A.; Fujikake, K.; Matsuura, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Shimoda, T.

    2010-01-01

    We have been developing a new laser spectroscopic technique 'OROCHI,' which is based on the combination of superfluid helium as a stopper of radioactive isotope (RI) beam and in-situ laser spectroscopy of RI atoms, for determining spins and moments of exotic RIs. By using this unique technique, it is feasible to measure nuclear spins and electromagnetic moments of extremely low yield RI (estimated as less than 1 pps). Recently, we have demonstrated that nuclear spins and moments are obtained from Zeeman and hyperfine splittings of stable Rb isotopes measured using this OROCHI technique. Details of this laser spectroscopy method in He II 'OROCHI' and the summary of our development are presented.

  9. Applications and results of X-ray spectroscopy in implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, R.; Regan, S. P.; Hammel, B. A.; Suter, L. J.; Scott, H. A.; Barrios, M. A.; Bradley, D. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C.; Collins, G. W.; Dixit, S. N.; Döppner, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Farley, D. R.; Fournier, K. B.; Glenn, S.; Glenzer, S. H.; Golovkin, I. E.; Hamza, A.; Hicks, D. G.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Key, M. H.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kline, J. L.; Kyrala, G. A.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; MacFarlane, J. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Mancini, R. C.; McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Meezan, N. B.; Nikroo, A.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P. K.; Ralph, J. E.; Remington, B. A.; Sangster, T. C.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Springer, P. T.; Town, R. P. J.; Tucker, J. L.

    2017-03-01

    Current inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)] are attempting to demonstrate thermonuclear ignition using x-ray drive by imploding spherical targets containing hydrogen-isotope fuel in the form of a thin cryogenic layer surrounding a central volume of fuel vapor [J. Lindl, Phys. Plasmas 2, 3933 (1995)]. The fuel is contained within a plastic ablator layer with small concentrations of one or more mid-Z elements, e.g., Ge or Cu. The capsule implodes, driven by intense x-ray emission from the inner surface of a hohlraum enclosure irradiated by the NIF laser, and fusion reactions occur in the central hot spot near the time of peak compression. Ignition will occur if the hot spot within the compressed fuel layer attains a high-enough areal density to retain enough of the reaction product energy to reach nuclear reaction temperatures within the inertial hydrodynamic disassembly time of the fuel mass [J. Lindl, Phys. Plasmas 2, 3933 (1995)]. The primary purpose of the ablator dopants is to shield the ablator surface adjacent to the DT ice from heating by the hohlraum x-ray drive [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. Simulations predicted that these dopants would produce characteristic K-shell emission if ablator material mixed into the hot spot [B. A. Hammel et al., High Energy Density Phys. 6, 171 (2010)]. In NIF ignition experiments, emission and absorption features from these dopants appear in x-ray spectra measured with the hot-spot x-ray spectrometer in Supersnout II [S. P. Regan et al., "Hot-Spot X-Ray Spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility," to be submitted to Review of Scientific Instruments]. These include K-shell emission lines from the hot spot (driven primarily by inner-shell collisional ionization and dielectronic recombination) and photoionization edges, fluorescence, and absorption lines caused by the absorption of the

  10. Fifth-order Raman spectroscopy of liquid benzene : Experiment and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milne, C. J.; Li, Y. L.; Jansen, T. L. C.; Huang, L.; Miller, R. J. D.

    2006-01-01

    The heterodyned fifth-order Raman response of liquid benzene has been measured and characterized by exploiting the passive-phase stabilization of diffractive optics. This result builds on our previous work with liquid carbon disulfide and extends the spectroscopy to a new liquid for the first time.

  11. Ultra-fast X-ray absorption spectroscopy for the study of matter in transient regime; Spectroscopie d'absorption ultra-rapide de rayonnement X pour l'etude de la matiere en regime transitoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecherbourg, L

    2007-12-15

    In this work, we study the physics of dense matter, plasmas or solids, using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Through the use of sources produced by laser-matter interaction, we have measured the absorption spectra of aluminum and bromine plasmas, as well as those of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}). The measurement of absorption coefficients allows us to probe the dense matter and to study its properties. The experiments are carried out following the same principle: they use the same experimental set-up, called pump-probe. When the matter is dense, the absorption properties of an atom are modified by the surrounding environment. In a plasma, it is mainly the bound- bound transitions which are altered: the shapes of those spectral rays are modified. In a solid, the position of the neighbouring atoms in relation to the absorbing atom modify the structure of absorption levels (bound-free transition). The study of this structure allows us to measure the parameters of the material, and provides information such as the state of the electronic band or the interatomic gaps. The experiments carried out at the LULI have allowed us to probe plasmas in the relatively unknown regime of the Warm Dense Matter. One of the key parameters is that the plasma is characterised independently (FDI diagnostic). It allows for a better comparison of the measured absorption against a calculation made with the numerical model OPA-S. The experiments carried out at INRS have led to the realisation of an experimental system having the characteristics which allow the study of the dynamics of solids showing ultra-fast phase transition. For those experiments, we have used vanadium dioxide as a model system allowing us to test the feasibility of the method. (author)

  12. Flexible digital signal processing architecture for narrowband and spread-spectrum lock-in detection in multiphoton microscopy and time-resolved spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jesse W; Park, Jong Kang; Warren, Warren S; Fischer, Martin C

    2015-03-01

    The lock-in amplifier is a critical component in many different types of experiments, because of its ability to reduce spurious or environmental noise components by restricting detection to a single frequency and phase. One example application is pump-probe microscopy, a multiphoton technique that leverages excited-state dynamics for imaging contrast. With this application in mind, we present here the design and implementation of a high-speed lock-in amplifier on the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) coprocessor of a data acquisition board. The most important advantage is the inherent ability to filter signals based on more complex modulation patterns. As an example, we use the flexibility of the FPGA approach to enable a novel pump-probe detection scheme based on spread-spectrum communications techniques.

  13. Modeling the high-energy electronic state manifold of adenine: Calibration for nonlinear electronic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenov, Artur, E-mail: Artur.Nenov@unibo.it; Giussani, Angelo; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Jaiswal, Vishal K. [Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician,” Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, IT-40126 Bologna (Italy); Rivalta, Ivan [Université de Lyon, CNRS, Institut de Chimie de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d’Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Cerullo, Giulio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, IFN-CNR, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, IT-20133 Milano (Italy); Mukamel, Shaul [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States); Garavelli, Marco, E-mail: marco.garavelli@unibo.it, E-mail: marco.garavelli@ens-lyon.fr [Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician,” Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, IT-40126 Bologna (Italy); Université de Lyon, CNRS, Institut de Chimie de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d’Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2015-06-07

    Pump-probe electronic spectroscopy using femtosecond laser pulses has evolved into a standard tool for tracking ultrafast excited state dynamics. Its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart is becoming an increasingly available and promising technique for resolving many of the limitations of pump-probe caused by spectral congestion. The ability to simulate pump-probe and 2D spectra from ab initio computations would allow one to link mechanistic observables like molecular motions and the making/breaking of chemical bonds to experimental observables like excited state lifetimes and quantum yields. From a theoretical standpoint, the characterization of the electronic transitions in the visible (Vis)/ultraviolet (UV), which are excited via the interaction of a molecular system with the incoming pump/probe pulses, translates into the determination of a computationally challenging number of excited states (going over 100) even for small/medium sized systems. A protocol is therefore required to evaluate the fluctuations of spectral properties like transition energies and dipole moments as a function of the computational parameters and to estimate the effect of these fluctuations on the transient spectral appearance. In the present contribution such a protocol is presented within the framework of complete and restricted active space self-consistent field theory and its second-order perturbation theory extensions. The electronic excited states of adenine have been carefully characterized through a previously presented computational recipe [Nenov et al., Comput. Theor. Chem. 1040–1041, 295-303 (2014)]. A wise reduction of the level of theory has then been performed in order to obtain a computationally less demanding approach that is still able to reproduce the characteristic features of the reference data. Foreseeing the potentiality of 2D electronic spectroscopy to track polynucleotide ground and excited state dynamics, and in particular its expected ability to provide

  14. Development of an electron momentum spectrometer for time-resolved experiments employing nanosecond pulsed electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yaguo; Shan, Xu; Liu, Zhaohui; Niu, Shanshan; Wang, Enliang; Chen, Xiangjun

    2018-03-01

    The low count rate of (e, 2e) electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS) has long been a major limitation of its application to the investigation of molecular dynamics. Here we report a new EMS apparatus developed for time-resolved experiments in the nanosecond time scale, in which a double toroidal energy analyzer is utilized to improve the sensitivity of the spectrometer and a nanosecond pulsed electron gun with a repetition rate of 10 kHz is used to obtain an average beam current up to nA. Meanwhile, a picosecond ultraviolet laser with a repetition rate of 5 kHz is introduced to pump the sample target. The time zero is determined by photoionizing the target using a pump laser and monitoring the change of the electron beam current with time delay between the laser pulse and electron pulse, which is influenced by the plasma induced by the photoionization. The performance of the spectrometer is demonstrated by the EMS measurement on argon using a pulsed electron beam, illustrating the potential abilities of the apparatus for investigating the molecular dynamics in excited states when employing the pump-probe scheme.

  15. Titration of Alanine Monitored by NMR Spectroscopy: A Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Francis J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The experiment described here involves simultaneous monitoring of pH and NMR chemical shifts during an aqueous titration of alpha- and beta-alanine. This experiment is designed for use in an undergraduate biochemistry course. (MR)

  16. High-resolution gamma spectroscopy with whole-body and partial-body counters. Experience, recommendations. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahre, P.

    1997-12-01

    The application of high-resolution gamma spectroscopy with whole-body and partial-body counters shows a steadily rising upward trend over the last few years. This induced the ''Arbeitskreis Inkorporationsueberwachung'' of the association ''Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V.'' to organise a meeting for joint elaboration of a guide on recommended applications of this measuring technique, based on a review of existing experience and results. A key item on the agenda of the meeting was the comparative evaluation of the Ge semiconductor detector and the NaI solid scintillation detector. (orig./CB) [de

  17. Impurity behaviour in the EXTRAP-T1 pinch experiment studied by VUV spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzozowski, J.H.; Kaellne, E.; Zastrow, K.D. Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm

    1989-11-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet observations from a low-q, high-beta pinch plasma (Extrap-T1) are presented and related to other plasma parameters. Qualitative analysis of the line emission from low ionization stages of carbon and oxygen, which dominate this spectrum, gives information on the ionization stages reach a steady state during the equilibrium phase of the discharge, and that line radiation does not dominate the power balance. The energy balance of the plasma discharge is analysed from the vacuum ultraviolet line and continuum spectroscopy data. Furthermore it is found, that the time behaviour of the plasma resistance can be understood using the results from the spectroscopic observations. (authors)

  18. Quick, Easy, and Economic Mineralogical Studies of Flooded Chalk for EOR Experiments Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Borromeo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the chalk-fluid interactions and the associated mineralogical and mechanical alterations on a sub-micron scale are major goals in Enhanced Oil Recovery. Mechanical strength, porosity, and permeability of chalk are linked to mineral dissolution that occurs during brine injections, and affect the reservoir potential. This paper presents a novel “single grain” methodology to recognize the varieties of carbonates in rocks and loose sediments: Raman spectroscopy is a non-destructive, quick, and user-friendly technique representing a powerful tool to identify minerals down to 1 µm. An innovative working technique for oil exploration is proposed, as the mineralogy of micron-sized crystals grown in two flooded chalk samples (Liége, Belgium was successfully investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The drilled chalk cores were flooded with MgCl2 for ca. 1.5 (Long Term Test and 3 years (Ultra Long Term Test under North Sea reservoir conditions (Long Term Test: 130 °C, 1 PV/day, 9.3 MPa effective stress; Ultra Long Term Test: 130 °C, varying between 1–3 PV/day, 10.4 MPa effective stress. Raman spectroscopy was able to identify the presence of recrystallized magnesite along the core of the Long Term Test up to 4 cm from the injection surface, down to the crystal size of 1–2 µm. In the Ultra Long Term Test core, the growth of MgCO3 affected nearly the entire core (7 cm. In both samples, no dolomite or high-magnesium calcite secondary growth could be detected when analysing 557 and 90 Raman spectra on the Long and Ultra Long Term Test, respectively. This study can offer Raman spectroscopy as a breakthrough tool in petroleum exploration of unconventional reservoirs, due to its quickness, spatial resolution, and non-destructive acquisition of data. These characteristics would encourage its use coupled with electron microscopes and energy dispersive systems or even electron microprobe studies.

  19. Photoelectron-Auger electron coincidence spectroscopy of free molecules: New experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, Volker; Barth, Silko; Lischke, Toralf; Joshi, Sanjeev; Arion, Tiberiu; Mucke, Melanie; Foerstel, Marko; Bradshaw, Alex M.; Hergenhahn, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Photoelectron-Auger electron coincidence spectroscopy probes the dicationic states produced by Auger decay following the photoionization of core or inner valence levels in atoms, molecules or clusters. Moreover, the technique provides valuable insight into the dynamics of core hole decay. This paper serves the dual purpose of demonstrating the additional information obtained by this technique compared to Auger spectroscopy alone as well as of describing the new IPP/FHI apparatus at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. The distinguishing feature of the latter is the capability to record both the photoelectron and Auger electron with good energy and angle resolution, for which purpose a large hemispherical electrostatic analyser is combined with several linear time-of-flight spectrometers. New results are reported for the K-shell photoionization of oxygen (O 2 ) and the subsequent KVV Auger decay. Calculations in the literature for non-coincident O 2 Auger spectra are found to be in moderately good agreement with the new data.

  20. Development and data analysis of a position detector for AE$\\bar{g}$IS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy)

    CERN Document Server

    Gligorova, Angela; Doser, Michael; Pacifico, Nicola

    2015-03-13

    AE$\\mathrm{\\bar{g}}$IS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) is an antimatter experiment based at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, whose goal is to carry out the first direct measurement of the Earth’s gravitational acceleration on antimatter. The outcome of such measurement would be the first precision test of the Weak Equivalence Principle in a completely new area. According to WEP, all bodies fall with the same acceleration regardless of their mass and composition. AE$\\mathrm{\\bar{g}}$IS will attempt to achieve its aim by measuring the gravitational acceleration ($\\bar{g}$) for antihydrogen with 1$\\%$ relative precision. The first step towards the final goal is the formation of a pulsed, cold antihydrogen beam, which will be performed by a charge exchange reaction between laser excited (Rydberg) positronium and cold (100 mK) antiprotons. The antihydrogen atoms will be accelerated by an inhomogeneous electric field (Stark acceleration) to form a beam whose fr...

  1. Pump-dump-probe and pump-repump-probe ultrafast spectroscopy resolves cross section of an early ground state intermediate and stimulated emission in the photoreactions of the Pr ground state of the cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Ann E; Lincoln, Craig N; van Wilderen, Luuk J G W; van Thor, Jasper J

    2012-01-26

    The primary photoreactions of the red absorbing ground state (Pr) of the cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1 from Synechocystis PCC 6803 involve C15═C16 Z-E photoisomerization of its phycocyanobilin chromophore. The first observable product intermediate in pump-probe measurements of the photocycle, "Lumi-R", is formed with picosecond kinetics and involves excited state decay reactions that have 3 and 14 ps time constants. Here, we have studied the photochemical formation of the Lumi-R intermediate using multipulse picosecond visible spectroscopy. Pump-dump-probe (PDP) and pump-repump-probe (PRP) experiments were carried out by employing two femtosecond visible pulses with 1, 14, and 160 ps delays, together with a broadband dispersive visible probe. The time delays between the two excitation pulses have been selected to allow interaction with the dominant (3 and 14 ps) kinetic phases of Lumi-R formation. The frequency dependence of the PDP and PRP amplitudes was investigated at 620, 640, 660, and 680 nm, covering excited state absorption (λ(max) = 620 nm), ground state absorption (λ(max) = 660 nm), and stimulated emission (λ(max) = 680 nm) cross sections. Experimental double difference transient absorbance signals (ΔΔOD), from the PDP and PRP measurements, required corrections to remove contributions from ground state repumping. The sensitivity of the resulting ΔΔOD signals was systematically investigated for possible connectivity schemes and photochemical parameters. When applying a homogeneous (sequentially decaying) connectivity scheme in both the 3 and 14 ps kinetic phases, evidence for repumping of an intermediate that has an electronic ground state configuration (GSI) is taken from the dump-induced S1 formation with 620, 640, and 660 nm wavelengths and 1 and 14 ps repump delays. Evidence for repumping a GSI is also seen, for the same excitation wavelengths, when imposing a target connectivity scheme proposed in the literature for the 1 ps repump delay. In

  2. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio [IFN-CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.

  3. Preparation of a Cobalt(II) Cage: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment That Produces a ParaSHIFT Agent for Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Patrick J.; Tsitovich, Pavel B.; Morrow, Janet R.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory experiments that demonstrate the effect of paramagnetic complexes on chemical shifts and relaxation times of protons are a useful way to introduce magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) probes or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. In this undergraduate inorganic chemistry experiment, a paramagnetic Co(II) cage complex is…

  4. Intracranial Hematoma Detection by Near Infrared Spectroscopy in a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service: Practical Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Patrick; Bossers, Sebastiaan M; Schwarte, Lothar A

    2017-01-01

    In (helicopter) emergency medical services, (H)EMS, the prehospital detection of intracranial hematomas should improve patient care and the triage to specialized neurosurgical hospitals. Recently, noninvasive detection of intracranial hematomas became possible by applying transcranial near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Herein, second-generation devices are currently available, for example, the Infrascanner 2000 (Infrascan), that appear suited also for prehospital (H)EMS applications. Since (H)EMS operations are time-critical, we studied the Infrascanner 2000 as a "first-time-right" monitor in healthy volunteers ( n = 17, hospital employees, no neurologic history). Further, we studied the implementation of the Infrascanner 2000 in a European HEMS organization (Lifeliner 1, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). The principal results of our study were as follows: The screening for intracranial hematomas in healthy volunteers with first-time-right intention resulted in a marked rate of virtual hematomas (false positive results, i.e., 12/17), rendering more time consuming repeat measurements advisable. The results of the implementation of the Infrascanner in HEMS suggest that NIRS-based intracranial hematoma detection is feasible in the HEMS setting. However, some drawbacks exist and their possible solutions are discussed. Future studies will have to demonstrate how NIRS-based intracranial hematoma detection will improve prehospital decision making in (H)EMS and ultimately patient outcome.

  5. Characterization of Shock Effects in Calcite by Raman Spectroscopy: Results of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Carbonates comprise approx. 20% by volume of present day Earth's sedimentary rocks and store most of the terrestrial CO2 inventory. Some of the oldest meta-sedimentary rocks found on Earth contain abundant carbonate from which impact-induced release of CO2 could have played a role in the formation and evolution of the atmosphere. Carbonates are also present in the target materials for approx. 30% of all terrestrial impact structures including large impacts such as Chicxulub which happened to occur at a location with extraordinarily thick platform carbonate 3-6 km deep. The impact release of CO2 from carbonates can cause global warming as a result of the well-known greenhouse effect and have subsequent effects on climate and biota. Therefore, the shock behavior of calcite is important in understanding the Cretaceous-Paleogene event and other impacts with carbonate-bearing sediments in their target(s) such as Mars and some asteroids. A comprehensive survey utilizing a variety of techniques to characterize the effects manifest in Calcite (Iceland Spar) experimentally shocked to 60.8 GPa has been completed. Results of analysis by Raman Spectroscopy are reported here.

  6. Structures of cycloserine and 2-oxazolidinone probed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Marawan; Wang, Feng; Acres, Robert G; Prince, Kevin C

    2014-05-22

    The electronic structures and properties of 2-oxazolidinone and the related compound cycloserine (CS) have been investigated using theoretical calculations and core and valence photoelectron spectroscopy. Isomerization of the central oxazolidine heterocycle and the addition of an amino group yield cycloserine. Theory correctly predicts the C, N, and O 1s core spectra, and additionally, we report theoretical natural bond orbital (NBO) charges. The valence ionization energies are also in agreement with theory and previous measurements. Although the lowest binding energy part of the spectra of the two compounds shows superficial similarities, further analysis of the charge densities of the frontier orbitals indicates substantial reorganization of the wave functions as a result of isomerization. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of CS shows leading carbonyl π character with contributions from other heavy (non-H) atoms in the molecule, while the HOMO of 2-oxazolidinone (OX2) has leading nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen pπ characters. The present study further theoretically predicts bond resonance effects of the compounds, evidence for which is provided by our experimental measurements and published crystallographic data.

  7. Lif Spectroscopy of ThF and the Preparation of ThF^{+} for the Jila eEDM Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kia Boon; Zhou, Yan; Gresh, Dan; Cairncross, William; Roussy, Tanya; Shagam, Yuval; Cheng, Lan; Ye, Jun; Cornell, Eric

    2017-06-01

    ThF^{+} is a promising candidate for a second-generation molecular ion-based measurement of the permanent electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM). Compared to the current HfF^{+} eEDM experiment, ThF^{+} has several advantages: (i) the eEDM-sensitive ^{3}Δ_1 electronic state is the ground state, which facilitates a long measurement coherence time; (ii) its effective electric field (38 GV/cm) is 50% larger than that of HfF+, which promises a direct increase of the eEDM sensitivity; and (iii) the ionization energy of neutral ThF is lower than its dissociation energy, which introduces a greater flexibility for rotational state-selective photoionization via core-nonpenetrating Rydberg states. We use laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy to find suitable intermediate states required for the state selective ionization process. We present the results of our LIF spectroscopy of ThF, and our current progress on efficient ThF ionization and on ThF^{+} dissociation.

  8. Trispyrazolylborate Complexes: An Advanced Synthesis Experiment Using Paramagnetic NMR, Variable-Temperature NMR, and EPR Spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Timothy N.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Tierney, David L.

    2017-01-01

    A structured inquiry experiment for inorganic synthesis has been developed to introduce undergraduate students to advanced spectroscopic techniques including paramagnetic nuclear magnetic resonance and electron paramagnetic resonance. Students synthesize multiple complexes with unknown first row transition metals and identify the unknown metals by…

  9. Infrared Emission Spectrum of the Hydroxyl Radical: A Novel Experiment in Molecular Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Giles; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which parameters from an "ab-initio" potential are used to calculate vibrational-rotational energy levels and construct a "stick spectrum" for the overtone emission of the hydroxyl radical. Provides background information on ab-initio spectrum, experimental procedures, and analysis of data. (Author/JN)

  10. Feasibility study of performing high precision gamma spectroscopy of {lambda}{lambda} hypernuclei in the anti PANDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Lorente, Alicia

    2010-09-30

    Hypernuclear research will be one of the main topics addressed by the anti PANDA experiment at the planned Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research anti FAIR. Thanks to the use of stored anti p beams, copious production of double {lambda} hypernuclei is expected at the anti PANDA experiment, which will enable high precision {gamma} spectroscopy of such nuclei for the first time. At anti PANDA excited states of {xi}{sup -} hypernuclei will be used as a basis for the formation of double {lambda} hypernuclei. For their detection, a devoted hypernuclear detector setup is planned. This setup consists of a primary nuclear target for the production of {xi}{sup -}+ anti {xi} pairs, a secondary active target for the hypernuclei formation and the identification of associated decay products and a germanium array detector to perform {gamma} spectroscopy. In the present work, the feasibility of performing high precision {gamma} spectroscopy of double {lambda} hypernuclei at the anti PANDA experiment has been studied by means of a Monte Carlo simulation. For this issue, the designing and simulation of the devoted detector setup as well as of the mechanism to produce double {lambda} hypernuclei have been optimized together with the performance of the whole system. In addition, the production yields of double hypernuclei in excitedparticle stable states have been evaluated within a statistical decay model. A strategy for the unique assignment of various newly observed {gamma}-transitions to specific double hypernuclei has been successfully implemented by combining the predicted energy spectra of each target with the measurement of two pion momenta from the subsequent weak decays of a double hypernucleus. Indeed, based on these Monte Carlo simulation, the analysis of the statistical decay of {sup 13}{sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}B has been performed. As result, three {gamma}-transitions associated to the double hypernuclei {sup 11}{sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}Be and to the single

  11. VUV spectroscopy in impurity injection experiments at KSTAR using prototype ITER VUV spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seon, C. R.; Hong, J. H.; Song, I.; Jang, J.; Lee, H. Y.; An, Y. H.; Kim, B. S.; Jeon, T. M.; Park, J. S.; Choe, W.; Lee, H. G.; Pak, S.; Cheon, M. S.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, H. S.; Biel, W.; Bernascolle, P.; Barnsley, R.

    2017-08-01

    The ITER vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) core survey spectrometer has been designed as a 5-channel spectral system so that the high spectral resolving power of 200-500 could be achieved in the wavelength range of 2.4-160 nm. To verify the design of the ITER VUV core survey spectrometer, a two-channel prototype spectrometer was developed. As a subsequent step of the prototype test, the prototype VUV spectrometer has been operated at KSTAR since the 2012 experimental campaign. From impurity injection experiments in the years 2015 and 2016, strong emission lines, such as Kr xxv 15.8 nm, Kr xxvi 17.9 nm, Ne vii 46.5 nm, Ne vi 40.2 nm, and an array of largely unresolved tungsten lines (14-32 nm) could be measured successfully, showing the typical photon number of 1013-1015 photons/cm2 s.

  12. Electron beam effects on the spectroscopy of multiply charged ions in plasma focus experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, J.; Clark, R.E.H.; Faenov, A.Y.; Karpinski, L.; Pikuz, S.A.; Romanova, V.M.; Sadowski, M.; Scholz, M.; Szydlowski, A.

    1999-01-01

    Argon-hydrogen mixture plasma focus experiments performed at the Warsaw Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion show detailed space resolved spectra for Ar K-shell satellite lines up to F-like Ar and K-alpha of Ar. These transitions originating from autoionizing levels are caused by collisions of ions with the energetic electron beams which are created by the constrictions of the plasma column due to the development of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. A collisional-radiative model was constructed using a non-Maxwellian electron energy distribution consisting of a thermal Maxwellian part plus a Gaussian part to represent the high-energy electron beam. The shapes of the observed satellite structures are consistent with the calculated spectrum for electron temperatures between 20 and 230 eV, and beam densities of about 10 -3 times the plasma electron density. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. Electron beam effects on the spectroscopy of multiply charged ions in plasma focus experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, J. [UCLA Plasma Physics Laboratory, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Clark, R.E.H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Faenov, A.Y. [MISDC, NPO ' VNIIFTRI' , Mendeleevo, Moscow region, 141570 (Russian Federation); Karpinski, L. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Pikuz, S.A.; Romanova, V.M. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sadowski, M. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk (Poland); Scholz, M.; Szydlowski, A. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland)

    1999-05-01

    Argon-hydrogen mixture plasma focus experiments performed at the Warsaw Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion show detailed space resolved spectra for Ar K-shell satellite lines up to F-like Ar and K-alpha of Ar. These transitions originating from autoionizing levels are caused by collisions of ions with the energetic electron beams which are created by the constrictions of the plasma column due to the development of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. A collisional-radiative model wasconstructed using a non-Maxwellian electron energy distribution consisting of a thermal Maxwellian part plus a Gaussian part to represent the high-energy electron beam. The shapes of the observed satellite structures are consistent with the calculated spectrum for electron temperatures between 20 and 230 eV, and beam densities of about 10{sup -3} times the plasma electron density. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of X-ray imaging and spectroscopy experiments using quadric geometry and variance reduction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golosio, Bruno; Schoonjans, Tom; Brunetti, Antonio; Oliva, Piernicola; Masala, Giovanni Luca

    2014-03-01

    The simulation of X-ray imaging experiments is often performed using deterministic codes, which can be relatively fast and easy to use. However, such codes are generally not suitable for the simulation of even slightly more complex experimental conditions, involving, for instance, first-order or higher-order scattering, X-ray fluorescence emissions, or more complex geometries, particularly for experiments that combine spatial resolution with spectral information. In such cases, simulations are often performed using codes based on the Monte Carlo method. In a simple Monte Carlo approach, the interaction position of an X-ray photon and the state of the photon after an interaction are obtained simply according to the theoretical probability distributions. This approach may be quite inefficient because the final channels of interest may include only a limited region of space or photons produced by a rare interaction, e.g., fluorescent emission from elements with very low concentrations. In the field of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, this problem has been solved by combining the Monte Carlo method with variance reduction techniques, which can reduce the computation time by several orders of magnitude. In this work, we present a C++ code for the general simulation of X-ray imaging and spectroscopy experiments, based on the application of the Monte Carlo method in combination with variance reduction techniques, with a description of sample geometry based on quadric surfaces. We describe the benefits of the object-oriented approach in terms of code maintenance, the flexibility of the program for the simulation of different experimental conditions and the possibility of easily adding new modules. Sample applications in the fields of X-ray imaging and X-ray spectroscopy are discussed. Catalogue identifier: AERO_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERO_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland

  15. Electron beam effects on the spectroscopy of satellite lines in aluminum X-pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, J. Jr.; Csanak, G.; Clark, R.E.H.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Hammer, D.A.; Pikuz, S.A.; Romanova, P.N.; Shelkovenko, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum wire X-pinch experiments performed at the Cornell University XP pulsed power generator and at the Lebedev Institute BIN generator show detailed high resolution spectra for satellite lines of Li-like, Be-like, B-like, and C-like ions. These lines, which correspond to transitions originating from autoionizing levels, are observed in the direction of the anode with respect to the bright X-pinch cross point. The intensities of these satellites are much smaller or absent in the direction of the cathode. Such transitions are caused by collisions of ions with energetic electrons (5-15 keV) which are created by the inductive voltage drop between the cross point and the anode. A collisional-radiative model was constructed using a non-Maxwellian electron energy distribution consisting of a thermal Maxwellian part plus a Gaussian part to represent the high energy electron beam. The shapes of the observed satellite structures are consistent with the calculated spectrum for electron temperatures between 30-100 eV, and beam densities of about 10 -7 times the plasma electron density. (author). 3 figs., 7 refs

  16. Artificial neural networks for automation of Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy experiments and data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barradas, N.P.; Vieira, A.; Patricio, R.

    2002-01-01

    We present an algorithm based on artificial neural networks able to determine optimized experimental conditions for Rutherford backscattering measurements of Ge-implanted Si. The algorithm can be implemented for any other element implanted into a lighter substrate. It is foreseeable that the method developed in this work can be applied to still many other systems. The algorithm presented is a push-button black box, and does not require any human intervention. It is thus suited for automated control of an experimental setup, given an interface to the relevant hardware. Once the experimental conditions are optimized, the algorithm analyzes the final data obtained, and determines the desired parameters. The method is thus also suited for automated analysis of the data. The algorithm presented can be easily extended to other ion beam analysis techniques. Finally, it is suggested how the artificial neural networks required for automated control and analysis of experiments could be automatically generated. This would be suited for automated generation of the required computer code. Thus could RBS be done without experimentalists, data analysts, or programmers, with only technicians to keep the machines running

  17. Schlieren, Phase-Contrast, and Spectroscopy Diagnostics for the LBNL HIF Plasma Channel Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, D. M.; Niemann, C.; Fessenden, T. J.; Leemans, W.; Vandersloot, K.; Dahlbacka, G.; Yu, S. S.; Sharp, W. M.; Tauschwitz, A.

    1999-11-01

    The LBNL Plasma Channel experiment has demonstrated stable 42-cm Z-pinch discharge plasma channels with peak currents in excess of 50 kA for a 7 torr nitrogen, 30 kV discharge. These channels offer the possibility of transporting heavy-ion beams for inertial fusion. We postulate that the stability of these channels resides in the existance of a neutral-gas density depresion created by a pre-pulse discharge before the main capacitor bank discharge is created. Here, we present the results and experimental diagnostics setup used for the study of the pre-pulse and main bank channels. Observation of both the plasma and neutral gas dynamics is achieved. Schlieren, Zernike's phase-contrast, and spectroscopic techniques are used. Preliminary Schlieren results show a gas shockwave moving radially at a rate of ≈ 10^6 mm/sec as a result of the fast and localized deposited energy during the evolution of the pre-pulse channel. This data will be used to validate simulation codes (BUCKY and CYCLOPS).

  18. Time-resolved photoion imaging spectroscopy: Determining energy distribution in multiphoton absorption experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, D. B.; Shi, F. D.; Chen, L.; Martin, S.; Bernard, J.; Yang, J.; Zhang, S. F.; Chen, Z. Q.; Zhu, X. L.; Ma, X.

    2018-04-01

    We propose an approach to determine the excitation energy distribution due to multiphoton absorption in the case of excited systems following decays to produce different ion species. This approach is based on the measurement of the time-resolved photoion position spectrum by using velocity map imaging spectrometry and an unfocused laser beam with a low fluence and homogeneous profile. Such a measurement allows us to identify the species and the origin of each ion detected and to depict the energy distribution using a pure Poisson's equation involving only one variable which is proportional to the absolute photon absorption cross section. A cascade decay model is used to build direct connections between the energy distribution and the probability to detect each ionic species. Comparison between experiments and simulations permits the energy distribution and accordingly the absolute photon absorption cross section to be determined. This approach is illustrated using C60 as an example. It may therefore be extended to a wide variety of molecules and clusters having decay mechanisms similar to those of fullerene molecules.

  19. Electron beam effects on the spectroscopy of satellite lines in aluminum X-pinch experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, J Jr; Csanak, G; Clark, R E.H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Faenov, A Ya [VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Hammer, D A [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Pikuz, S A; Romanova, P N; Shelkovenko, T A [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Aluminum wire X-pinch experiments performed at the Cornell University XP pulsed power generator and at the Lebedev Institute BIN generator show detailed high resolution spectra for satellite lines of Li-like, Be-like, B-like, and C-like ions. These lines, which correspond to transitions originating from autoionizing levels, are observed in the direction of the anode with respect to the bright X-pinch cross point. The intensities of these satellites are much smaller or absent in the direction of the cathode. Such transitions are caused by collisions of ions with energetic electrons (5-15 keV) which are created by the inductive voltage drop between the cross point and the anode. A collisional-radiative model was constructed using a non-Maxwellian electron energy distribution consisting of a thermal Maxwellian part plus a Gaussian part to represent the high energy electron beam. The shapes of the observed satellite structures are consistent with the calculated spectrum for electron temperatures between 30-100 eV, and beam densities of about 10{sup -7} times the plasma electron density. (author). 3 figs., 7 refs.

  20. Vacuum UV spectroscopy of armor erosion from plasma gun disruption simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockett, P.D.; Gahl, J.M.; Zhitlukhin, A.; Arkhipov, K.; Bakhtin, V.; Toporkov, D.; Ovchinnokov, I.; Kuznetsov, V.E.; Titov, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Extensive simulations of tokamak disruptions have provided a picture of material erosion that is limited by the transfer of energy from the incident plasma to the armor solid surface through a dense vapor shield. Two transmission grating vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrographs were designed and utilized to study the plasma-material interface in plasma gun simulation experiments. Target materials included POCO graphite, ATJ graphite, boron nitride and plasma-sprayed tungsten. Detailed spectra were recorded with a spatial resolution of ca. 0.7mm resolution on VIKA at Efremov and on 2MK-200 at Troitsk. Time-resolved data with 40-200ns resolution were then recorded along with the same spatial resolution on 2MK-200. The VIKA plasma gun directly illuminated a target with a high-intensity plasma pulse of 2-100MJm -2 with low-energy ions of ca. 100eV. The 2MK-200 plasma gun illuminated the target via a magnetic cusp that permitted only deuterium to pass with energies of ca. 1keV, but which produced a fairly low intensity of 2MJm -2 . Power densities on target ranged from 10 7 to 10 8 Wcm -2 . Emitted spectra were recorded from 15 to 450A over a distance from 0 to 7cm above the armor target surface. The data from both plasma gun facilities demonstrated that the hottest plasma region was sitting several millimeters above the armor tile surface. This apparently constituted the absorption region, which confirmed past computer simulations. Spectra indicated both the species and ionization level that were being ablated from the target, demonstrating impurity content, and showing plasma ablation velocity. Graphite samples clearly showed CV lines as well as impurity lines from O V and O VI. The BN tiles produced textbook examples of BIV and BV, and extensive NIV, V and VI lines. These are being compared with radiation-hydrodynamic calculations. (orig.)

  1. Raman spectroscopy of femtosecond multipulse irradiation of vitreous silica: Experiment and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheblanov, N. S.; Povarnitsyn, M. E.; Mishchik, K. N.; Tanguy, A.

    2018-02-01

    We report an experimental and numerical study of femtosecond multipulse laser-induced densification in vitreous silica (v -SiO2 ) and its signature in Raman spectra. We compare the experimental findings to the recently developed molecular dynamics (MD) approach accounting for bond breaking due to laser irradiation, together with a dynamical matrix approach and bond polarizability model based on first-principles calculations for the estimation of Raman spectra. We observe two stages of the laser-induced densification and Raman spectrum evolution: growth during several hundreds of pulses followed by further saturation. At the medium range, the network connectivity change in v -SiO2 is expressed in reduction of the major ring fractions leading to more compacted structure. With the help of the Sen and Thorpe model, we also study the short-range order transformation and derive the interbonding Si-O-Si angle change from the Raman measurements. Experimental findings are in excellent agreement with our MD simulations and hence support a bond-breaking mechanism of laser-induced densification. Thus, our modeling explains well the laser-induced changes both in the short-range order caused by the appearance of Si coordination defects and medium-range order connected to evolution of the ring distribution. Finally, our findings disclose similarities between sheared, permanently densified, and laser-induced glass and suggest interesting future experiments in order to clarify the impact of the thermomechanical history on glasses under shear, cold and hot compression, and laser-induced densification.

  2. Determination of Fe Content of Some Food Items by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS): A Guided-Inquiry Learning Experience in Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakayode, Sayo O.; King, Angela G.; Yakubu, Mamudu; Mohammed, Abdul K.; Pollard, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a guided-inquiry (GI) hands-on determination of Fe in food samples including plantains, spinach, lima beans, oatmeal, Frosted Flakes cereal (generic), tilapia fish, and chicken using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). The utility of the GI experiment, which is part of an instrumental analysis laboratory course,…

  3. Comparison of beam emission spectroscopy and gas puff imaging edge fluctuation measurements in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sechrest, Y.; Munsat, T. [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Smith, D. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Stotler, D. P.; Zweben, S. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, the close physical proximity of the Gas Puff Imaging (GPI) and Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) diagnostics on the National Spherical torus Experiment (NSTX) is leveraged to directly compare fluctuation measurements, and to study the local effects of the GPI neutral deuterium puff during H-mode plasmas without large Edge Localized Modes. The GPI and BES views on NSTX provide partially overlapping coverage of the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) regions above the outboard midplane. The separation in the toroidal direction is 16°, and field lines passing through diagnostic views are separated by ∼20 cm in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. Strong cross-correlation is observed, and strong cross-coherence is seen for frequencies between 5 and 15 kHz. Also, probability distribution functions of fluctuations measured ∼3 cm inside the separatrix exhibit only minor deviations from a normal distribution for both diagnostics, and good agreement between correlation length estimates, decorrelation times, and structure velocities is found at the ±40% level. While the two instruments agree closely in many respects, some discrepancies are observed. Most notably, GPI normalized fluctuation levels exceed BES fluctuations by a factor of ∼9. BES mean intensity is found to be sensitive to the GPI neutral gas puff, and BES normalized fluctuation levels for frequencies between 1 and 10 kHz are observed to increase during the GPI puff.

  4. AIDA: A 16-channel amplifier ASIC to read out the advanced implantation detector array for experiments in nuclear decay spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, D. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Coleman-Smith, P. J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Davinson, T. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I. H. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Page, R. D. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Thomas, S. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    We have designed a read-out ASIC for nuclear decay spectroscopy as part of the AIDA project - the Advanced Implantation Detector Array. AIDA will be installed in experiments at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in GSI, Darmstadt. The AIDA ASIC will measure the signals when unstable nuclei are implanted into the detector, followed by the much smaller signals when the nuclei subsequently decay. Implant energies can be as high as 20 GeV; decay products need to be measured down to 25 keV within just a few microseconds of the initial implants. The ASIC uses two amplifiers per detector channel, one covering the 20 GeV dynamic range, the other selectable over a 20 MeV or 1 GeV range. The amplifiers are linked together by bypass transistors which are normally switched off. The arrival of a large signal causes saturation of the low-energy amplifier and a fluctuation of the input voltage, which activates the link to the high-energy amplifier. The bypass transistors switch on and the input charge is integrated by the high-energy amplifier. The signal is shaped and stored by a peak-hold, then read out on a multiplexed output. Control logic resets the amplifiers and bypass circuit, allowing the low-energy amplifier to measure the subsequent decay signal. We present simulations and test results, demonstrating the AIDA ASIC operation over a wide range of input signals. (authors)

  5. Comparison of beam emission spectroscopy and gas puff imaging edge fluctuation measurements in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sechrest, Y.; Munsat, T.; Smith, D.; Stotler, D. P.; Zweben, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the close physical proximity of the Gas Puff Imaging (GPI) and Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) diagnostics on the National Spherical torus Experiment (NSTX) is leveraged to directly compare fluctuation measurements, and to study the local effects of the GPI neutral deuterium puff during H-mode plasmas without large Edge Localized Modes. The GPI and BES views on NSTX provide partially overlapping coverage of the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) regions above the outboard midplane. The separation in the toroidal direction is 16°, and field lines passing through diagnostic views are separated by ∼20 cm in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. Strong cross-correlation is observed, and strong cross-coherence is seen for frequencies between 5 and 15 kHz. Also, probability distribution functions of fluctuations measured ∼3 cm inside the separatrix exhibit only minor deviations from a normal distribution for both diagnostics, and good agreement between correlation length estimates, decorrelation times, and structure velocities is found at the ±40% level. While the two instruments agree closely in many respects, some discrepancies are observed. Most notably, GPI normalized fluctuation levels exceed BES fluctuations by a factor of ∼9. BES mean intensity is found to be sensitive to the GPI neutral gas puff, and BES normalized fluctuation levels for frequencies between 1 and 10 kHz are observed to increase during the GPI puff

  6. Inline monitoring of adsorption of Butane Isomers with near infrared spectroscopy: Drift Correction in time based experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, A.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is used to monitor online a large variety of processes. Hydrocarbons with their strong NIR spectral signature are good candidate analytes. For this work, the sorption data are measured in a manometric setup coupled with online NIR spectroscopy, to monitor the bulk

  7. Coating process optimization through in-line monitoring for coating weight gain using Raman spectroscopy and design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byungsuk; Woo, Young-Ah

    2018-05-30

    In this study the authors developed a real-time Process Analytical Technology (PAT) of a coating process by applying in-line Raman spectroscopy to evaluate the coating weight gain, which is a quantitative analysis of the film coating layer. The wide area illumination (WAI) Raman probe was connected to the pan coater for real-time monitoring of changes in the weight gain of coating layers. Under the proposed in-line Raman scheme, a non-contact, non-destructive analysis was performed using WAI Raman probes with a spot size of 6 mm. The in-line Raman probe maintained a focal length of 250 mm, and a compressed air line was designed to protect the lens surface from spray droplets. The Design of Experiment (DOE) was applied to identify factors affecting the Raman spectra background of laser irradiation. The factors selected for DOE were the strength of compressed air connected to the probe, and the shielding of light by the transparent door connecting the probe to the pan coater. To develop a quantitative model, partial least squares (PLS) models as multivariate calibration were developed based on the three regions showing the specificity of TiO 2 individually or in combination. For the three single peaks (636 cm -1 , 512 cm -1 , 398 cm -1 ), least squares method (LSM) was applied to develop three univariate quantitative analysis models. One of best multivariate quantitative model having a factor of 1 gave the lowest RMSEP of 0.128, 0.129, and 0.125, respectively for prediction batches. When LSM was applied to the single peak at 636 cm -1 , the univariate quantitative model with an R 2 of 0.9863, slope of 0.5851, and y-intercept of 0.8066 had the lowest RMSEP of 0.138, 0.144, and 0.153, respectively for prediction batches. The in-line Raman spectroscopic method for the analysis of coating weight gain was verified by considering system suitability and parameters such as specificity, range, linearity, accuracy, and precision in accordance with ICH Q2 regarding

  8. Morphological MRI and 3D proton spectroscopy using endorectal coil in the diagnostics of prostate cancer - preliminary experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrzan, R.; Urbanik, A.; Dobrowolski, Z.; Lipczynski, M.

    2006-01-01

    Morphological MR imaging using endorectal coil has high sensitivity but insufficient specificity in the detection of prostatic cancer. Higher specificity may be obtained by combining morphological MR with data on local metabolic disturbances in MR spectroscopy. The aim of our study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of combined morphological MR and 3D proton spectroscopy using endorectal coil in prostate cancer detection. Morphological MR and 3D proton MR spectroscopy were performed in 20 patients with suspicion of prostate cancer on the basis of DRE, TRUS and/or PSA levels, finally verified in biopsy after MR. The examinations were performed with a 1.5 T GE Signa Excite scanner using an endorectal coil. We used axial, coronal and sagittal T2 FSE, axial T1 SE and 3D PROSE (PROstate Spectroscopy and imaging Examination) sequences. The diagnostic accuracy of combined morphological and spectroscopy assessment was compared to the accuracy of morphological MR alone. The specificity, PPV, and NPV of MR imaging using endorectal coil in the detection of prostatic cancer were higher in combined morphological and spectroscopic assessment compared to morphological assessment alone. 3D MR spectroscopy, in comparison to morphological MR imaging, provides additional data concerning metabolic disturbances in prostate cancer foci. The use of combined morphological MR and MR spectroscopy can improve the specificity of prostate cancer detection. (author)

  9. High speed systems for time-resolved experiments with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, Anna; Maj, Piotr

    2018-02-01

    The UFXC32k is a single photon counting hybrid pixel detector with 75 μm pixel pitch. It was designed to cope with high X-ray intensities and therefore it is a very good candiate for synchrotron applications. In order to use this detector in an application, a dedicated setup must be designed and built allowing proper operation of the detector within the experiment. The paper presents two setups built for the purpose of Pump-Probe-Probe experiments at the Synchrotron SOLEIL and XPCS experiments at the APS.

  10. Near-field reflection backscattering apertureless optical microscopy: Application to spectroscopy experiments on opaque samples, comparison between lock-in and digital photon counting detection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diziain, S.; Bijeon, J.-L.; Adam, P.-M.; Lamy de la Chapelle, M.; Thomas, B.; Deturche, R.; Royer, P.

    2007-01-01

    An apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope (ASNOM) in reflection backscattering configuration is designed to conduct spectroscopic experiments on opaque samples constituted of latex beads. The ASNOM proposed takes advantage of the depth-discrimination properties of confocal microscopes to efficiently extract the near-field optical signal. Given their importance in a spectroscopic experiment, we systematically compare the lock-in and synchronous photon counting detection methods. Some results of Rayleigh's scattering in the near field of the test samples are used to illustrate the possibilities of this technique for reflection backscattering spectroscopy

  11. Near-field reflection backscattering apertureless optical microscopy: Application to spectroscopy experiments on opaque samples, comparison between lock-in and digital photon counting detection techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diziain, S. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Bijeon, J.-L. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France)]. E-mail: bijeon@utt.fr; Adam, P.-M. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Lamy de la Chapelle, M. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Thomas, B. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Deturche, R. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Royer, P. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France)

    2007-01-15

    An apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope (ASNOM) in reflection backscattering configuration is designed to conduct spectroscopic experiments on opaque samples constituted of latex beads. The ASNOM proposed takes advantage of the depth-discrimination properties of confocal microscopes to efficiently extract the near-field optical signal. Given their importance in a spectroscopic experiment, we systematically compare the lock-in and synchronous photon counting detection methods. Some results of Rayleigh's scattering in the near field of the test samples are used to illustrate the possibilities of this technique for reflection backscattering spectroscopy.

  12. Determination of structural topology of a membrane protein in lipid bilayers using polarization optimized experiments (POE) for static and MAS solid state NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mote, Kaustubh R. [University of Minnesota, Department of Chemistry (United States); Gopinath, T. [University of Minnesota, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics (United States); Veglia, Gianluigi, E-mail: vegli001@umn.edu [University of Minnesota, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The low sensitivity inherent to both the static and magic angle spinning techniques of solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy has thus far limited the routine application of multidimensional experiments to determine the structure of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers. Here, we demonstrate the advantage of using a recently developed class of experiments, polarization optimized experiments, for both static and MAS spectroscopy to achieve higher sensitivity and substantial time-savings for 2D and 3D experiments. We used sarcolipin, a single pass membrane protein, reconstituted in oriented bicelles (for oriented ssNMR) and multilamellar vesicles (for MAS ssNMR) as a benchmark. The restraints derived by these experiments are then combined into a hybrid energy function to allow simultaneous determination of structure and topology. The resulting structural ensemble converged to a helical conformation with a backbone RMSD {approx}0.44 A, a tilt angle of 24 Degree-Sign {+-} 1 Degree-Sign , and an azimuthal angle of 55 Degree-Sign {+-} 6 Degree-Sign . This work represents a crucial first step toward obtaining high-resolution structures of large membrane proteins using combined multidimensional oriented solid-state NMR and magic angle spinning solid-state NMR.

  13. Surface-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering and Visible Extinction Spectroscopy of Copper Chlorophyllin: An Upper Level Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Cheryl S.; Reim, Candace Lawson; Sirois, John J.; House, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced chemistry students are introduced to surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) by studying how sodium copper chlorophyllin (CuChl) adsorbs onto silver colloids (CuChl/Ag) as a function of pH. Using both SERRS and visible extinction spectroscopy, the extent of CuChl adsorption and colloidal aggregation are monitored. Initially at…

  14. In vivo 1H spectroscopy of the human brain at 1.5 tesla. Preliminary experience at a clinical installation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Larsson, H; Jensen, K M

    1990-01-01

    In vivo localized water suppressed proton spectroscopy of human brain was carried out on 15 healthy volunteers and 2 patients suffering from a brain tumour and an infarction, respectively. The measurements were performed on a whole body MR system, operating at 1.5 tesla using the stimulated echo...

  15. Electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    An introduction to the various techniques in electron spectroscopy is presented. These techniques include: (1) UV Photoelectron spectroscopy, (2) X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy, (3) Auger electron spectroscopy, (4) Electron energy loss spectroscopy, (5) Penning ionization spectroscopy and (6) Ion neutralization spectroscopy. The radiations used in each technique, the basis of the technique and the special information obtained in structure determination in atoms and molecules by each technique are summarised. (A.K.)

  16. High-speed stimulated Brillouin scattering spectroscopy at 780 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Remer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a high-speed stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS spectroscopy system that is able to acquire stimulated Brillouin gain point-spectra in water samples and Intralipid tissue phantoms over 2 GHz within 10 ms and 100 ms, respectively, showing a 10-100 fold increase in acquisition rates over current frequency-domain SBS spectrometers. This improvement was accomplished by integrating an ultra-narrowband hot rubidium-85 vapor notch filter in a simplified frequency-domain SBS spectrometer comprising nearly counter-propagating continuous-wave pump-probe light at 780 nm and conventional single-modulation lock-in detection. The optical notch filter significantly suppressed stray pump light, enabling detection of stimulated Brillouin gain spectra with substantially improved acquisition times at adequate signal-to-noise ratios (∼25 dB in water samples and ∼15 dB in tissue phantoms. These results represent an important step towards the use of SBS spectroscopy for high-speed measurements of Brillouin gain resonances in scattering and non-scattering samples.

  17. An in situ Raman spectroscopy system for long-term corrosion experiments in high temperature water up to 673 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domae, Masafumi; Tani, Jun-ichi; Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2006-01-01

    A Raman spectroscopy system has been developed, in order to identify oxides formed on the surfaces of metals and steels in high temperature water up to 673 K. A supercritical water loop system including a Raman cell was installed. The design of the loop system is up to 673 K and 40 MPa. The Raman cell has a diamond window without window-to-metal packing. Raman spectrum of alumina plate was measured at room temperature, at 523 and at 673 K under pressure of 25 MPa. A long-term measurement was also performed at 523 K and 25 MPa for 117.5 h. In all cases intense Raman peaks attributed to alumina were observed. Raman spectrum of anatase particles in suspension was measured at 673 K and 25 MPa. The results show that the Raman spectroscopy system developed in the present study works well not only for plate sample but also for suspension. Raman spectra observed for titanium plate in high temperature water of 673 K and 25 MPa show growth of several Raman peaks with time up to 257 h. The peaks disappeared after cooled down to room temperature. The experimental results have demonstrated importance of in situ Raman spectroscopy. (author)

  18. Probing long-range structural order in SnPc/Ag(111) by umklapp process assisted low-energy angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauernik, Stephan; Hein, Petra; Gurgel, Max; Falke, Julian; Bauer, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Laser-based angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is performed on tin-phthalocyanine (SnPc) adsorbed on silver Ag(111). Upon adsorption of SnPc, strongly dispersing bands are observed which are identified as secondary Mahan cones formed by surface umklapp processes acting on photoelectrons from the silver substrate as they transit through the ordered adsorbate layer. We show that the photoemission data carry quantitative structural information on the adsorbate layer similar to what can be obtained from a conventional low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) study. More specifically, we compare photoemission data and LEED data probing an incommensurate-to-commensurate structural phase transition of the adsorbate layer. Based on our results we propose that Mahan-cone spectroscopy operated in a pump-probe configuration can be used in the future to probe structural dynamics at surfaces with a temporal resolution in the sub-100-fs regime.

  19. Photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, A.

    1982-01-01

    In this work examples of the various aspects of photoelectron spectroscopy are given. The investigation was started with the development of an angle-resolved spectrometer so that the first chapters deal with angle-resolved ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy. To indicate the possibilities and pitfalls of the technique, in chapter II the theory is briefly reviewed. In chapter III the instrument is described. The system is based on the cylindrical mirror deflection analyzer, which is modified and improved for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. In combination with a position sensitive detector, a spectrometer is developed with which simultaneously several angle-resolved spectra can be recorded. In chapter IV, the results are reported of angle-integrated UPS experiments on dilute alloys. Using the improved energy resolution of the instrument the author was able to study the impurity states more accurately and shows that the photoemission technique has become an important tool in the study of impurities and the interactions involved. XPS and Auger results obtained from dilute alloys are presented in chapter V. It is shown that these systems are especially suited for the study of correlation effects and can provide interesting problems related to the satellite structure and the interaction of the impurity with the host. In chapter VI, the valence bands of ternary alloys are studied with UPS and compared to recent band structure calculation. The core level shifts are analyzed in a simple, thermodynamic scheme. (Auth.)

  20. Gamma Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemantsverdriet, J.W.; Butz, Tilman; Ertl, G.; Knözinger, H.; Schüth, F.

    2008-01-01

    No abstract. The sections in this article are 1 Introduction 2 Mössbauer Spectroscopy 3 Time-Differential Perturbed Angular Correlations (TDPAC) 4 Conclusions and Outlook Keywords: Mössbauer spectroscopy; gamma spectroscopy; perturbed angular correlation; TDPAC

  1. Review of the theoretical description of time-resolved angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy in electron-phonon mediated superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, A.F. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Sentef, M.A. [Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Moritz, B. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences (SIMES), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Devereaux, T.P. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences (SIMES), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Freericks, J.K. [Department of Physics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-09-15

    We review recent work on the theory for pump/probe photoemission spectroscopy of electron-phonon mediated superconductors in both the normal and the superconducting states. We describe the formal developments that allow one to solve the Migdal-Eliashberg theory in nonequilibrium for an ultrashort laser pumping field, and explore the solutions which illustrate the relaxation as energy is transferred from electrons to phonons. We focus on exact results emanating from sum rules and approximate numerical results which describe rules of thumb for relaxation processes. In addition, in the superconducting state, we describe how Anderson-Higgs oscillations can be excited due to the nonlinear coupling with the electric field and describe mechanisms where pumping the system enhances superconductivity. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Nonlinear optics in germanium mid-infrared fiber material: Detuning oscillations in femtosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ordu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Germanium optical fibers hold great promise in extending semiconductor photonics into the fundamentally important mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The demonstration of nonlinear response in fabricated Ge fiber samples is a key step in the development of mid-infrared fiber materials. Here we report the observation of detuning oscillations in a germanium fiber in the mid-infrared region using femtosecond dispersed pump-probe spectroscopy. Detuning oscillations are observed in the frequency-resolved response when mid-infrared pump and probe pulses are overlapped in a fiber segment. The oscillations arise from the nonlinear frequency resolved nonlinear (χ(3 response in the germanium semiconductor. Our work represents the first observation of coherent oscillations in the emerging field of germanium mid-infrared fiber optics.

  3. Preliminary clinical experience using the method of 31P MR spectroscopy in investigations of neuromuscular diseases in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, M.; Horska, A.; Grosmanova, A.; Urban, P.; Suchanek, M.; Jirasek, A.

    1990-01-01

    31 P MR spectroscopy was used to investigate neuromuscular diseases of various origin in 35 patients, mostly children. In devising the procedure of MR examination and of evaluation of results, pattern recognition analysis was used. According to the results of 31 P MR spectroscopy, the patients can be divided into three groups. Group A comprises patients with severe muscular lesions such as Duchenne dystrophy. The second, B group is characterized by milder atrophic changes of muscle fibres. The third group comprises dubious cases. The 31 P MRS method was also used for investigating the development of the disease in time - a decrease in parameter P CR /P i (P CR is an indicator of phosphocreatinine and P i an indicator of inorganic phosphate) corresponds to a deterioration of the clinical condition of patients from group one. In group B fairly stable values of the parameter were observed. An increase in P CR /P i was also observed during administration of Prednisone in a patient with child polymyositis. 3 figs., 3 tabs., 23 refs

  4. Application of a protocol for magnetic resonance spectroscopy of adrenal glands: an experiment with over 100 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Homero José de Farias E; Goldman, Suzan M; Szejnfeld, Jacob; Faria, Juliano F; Huayllas, Martha K P; Andreoni, Cássio; Kater, Cláudio E

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate a protocol for two-dimensional (2D) hydrogen proton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) (Siemens Medical Systems; Erlangen, Germany) in the detection of adrenal nodules and differentiation between benign and malignant masses (adenomas, pheochromocytomas, carcinomas and metastases). A total of 118 patients (36 men; 82 women) (mean age: 57.3 ± 13.3 years) presenting with 138 adrenal nodules/masses were prospectively assessed. A multivoxel system was utilized with a 2D point-resolved spectroscopy/chemical shift imaging sequence. The following ratios were calculated: choline (Cho)/creatine (Cr), 4.0-4.3/Cr, lipid (Lip)/Cr, Cho/Lip and lactate (Lac)/Cr. 2D-1H-MRS was successful in 123 (89.13%) lesions. Sensitivity and specificity values observed for the ratios and cutoff points were the following: Cho/Cr ≥ 1.2, 100% sensitivity, 98.2% specificity (differences between adenomas/pheochromocytomas and carcinomas/ metastases); 4.0-4.3 ppm/Cr ≥ 1.5, 92.3% sensitivity, 96.9% specificity (differences between carcinomas/pheochromocytomas and adenomas/metastases); Lac/Cr ≤ -7.449, 90.9% sensitivity and 77.8% specificity (differences between pheochromocytomas and carcinomas/adenomas). Information provided by 2D-1H-MRS were effective and allowed for the differentiation between adrenal masses and nodules in most cases of lesions with > 1.0 cm in diameter.

  5. Description of pnicogen bonding with the help of vibrational spectroscopy-The missing link between theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, D.; Kraka, E.; Cremer, D.

    2014-10-01

    The nature of the E⋯E‧ pnicogen bond (E = N, P, As) in dimers such as H2FP⋯PH2F (1) and H3N⋯PHNO2 (2) can be described using vibrational spectroscopy in form of the calculated infrared and depolarized Raman scattering spectra. Utilizing the six calculated intermonomer frequencies, the corresponding local mode E⋯E‧ stretching frequency and force constant are obtained, where the latter provides a unique measure of the E⋯E‧ bond strength. Pnicogen bonding in 1 is relative strong (bond strength order n = 0.151) and covalent whereas pnicogen bonding in 2 is electrostatic (n = 0.047) because of a different bonding mechanism.

  6. Laser spectroscopy of short-lived radionuclides in an ion trap: MIRACLS’ proof-of-principle experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, Franziska Maria

    2017-01-01

    Since 1978 Collinear Laser Spectroscopy is done at COLLAPS [1], which is located at ISOLDE,CERN’sfacilityforsynthesizingradioactiveions,toexplorethenuclearshell structure of the most exotic atomic nuclides far away from stability. At COLLAPS a laser beam is overlapped with a radioactive ion beam. If the wavelength of the laser corresponds to the energy difference of the electronic transitions, the laser excites the ions. The excited ions decay back to the ionic ground state and emit fluorescence photons that can be detected with photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). By measuring the hyperfine structure of the involved ionic states one obtains information about the nuclear spin, the nuclear magnetic dipole moment and the nuclear electric quadrupole moment. This hyperfine splitting is caused by the interaction of the bound electrons withtheatomicnucleus. Theelectronsinduceanelectromagneticfieldattheplaceof the nucleus that interacts with the electromagnetic nuclear moments and the nuclear spin. By calculating th...

  7. Theoretical study of molecular vibrations in electron momentum spectroscopy experiments on furan: An analytical versus a molecular dynamical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, Filippo; Deleuze, Michael S.; Watanabe, Noboru; Takahashi, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    The influence of thermally induced nuclear dynamics (molecular vibrations) in the initial electronic ground state on the valence orbital momentum profiles of furan has been theoretically investigated using two different approaches. The first of these approaches employs the principles of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, whereas the so-called harmonic analytical quantum mechanical approach resorts to an analytical decomposition of contributions arising from quantized harmonic vibrational eigenstates. In spite of their intrinsic differences, the two approaches enable consistent insights into the electron momentum distributions inferred from new measurements employing electron momentum spectroscopy and an electron impact energy of 1.2 keV. Both approaches point out in particular an appreciable influence of a few specific molecular vibrations of A 1 symmetry on the 9a 1 momentum profile, which can be unravelled from considerations on the symmetry characteristics of orbitals and their energy spacing

  8. Femtosecond pump-probe studies of zinc phthalocynine in DMSO

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ombinda-Lemboumba, Saturnin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available photosensitisers that can be clinically used as photodynamic cancer drug. The zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) has been reported to have suitable photophysical properties in photodynamic therapy. Recent work done on zinc phthalocyanine dynamic has proven that the energy...

  9. Hadron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Spectra of hadrons show various and complex structures due to the strong coupling constants of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) constituting its fundamental theory. For their understandings, two parameters, i.e., (1) the quark mass and (2) their excitation energies are playing important roles. In low energies, for example, rather simple structures similar to the positronium appear in the heavy quarks such as charms and bottoms. It has been, however, strongly suggested by the recent experiments that the molecular resonant state shows up when the threshold to decay to mesons is exceeded. On the other hand, chiral symmetry and its breaking play important roles in the dynamics of light quarks. Strange quarks are in between and show special behaviors. In the present lecture, the fundamental concept of the hadron spectroscopy based on the QCD is expounded to illustrate the present understandings and problems of the hadron spectroscopy. Sections are composed of 1. Introduction, 2. Fundamental Concepts (hadrons, quarks and QCD), 3. Quark models and exotic hadrons, 4. Lattice QCD and QCD sum rules. For sections 1 to 3, only outline of the concepts is described because of the limited space. Exotic hadrons, many quark pictures of light hadrons and number of quarks in hadrons are described briefly. (S. Funahashi)

  10. TDDFT calculations and photoacoustic spectroscopy experiments used to identify phenolic acid functional biomolecules in Brazilian tropical fruits in natura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço Neto, M.; Agra, K. L.; Suassuna Filho, J.; Jorge, F. E.

    2018-03-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations of electronic transitions have been widely used to determine molecular structures. The excitation wavelengths and oscillator strengths obtained with the hybrid exchange-correlation functional B3LYP in conjunction with the ADZP basis set are employed to simulate the UV-Vis spectra of eight phenolic acids. Experimental and theoretical UV-Vis spectra reported previously in the literature are compared with our results. The fast, sensitive and non-destructive technique of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is used to determine the UV-Vis spectra of four Brazilian tropical fresh fruits in natura. Then, the PAS along with the TDDFT results are for the first time used to investigate and identify the presence of phenolic acids in the fruits studied in this work. This theoretical method with this experimental technique show to be a powerful and cheap tool to detect the existence of phenolic acids in fruits, vegetables, cereals, and grains. Comparison with high performance liquid chromatography results, when available, is also carried out.

  11. Dye lasers in atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, W.; Luther, J.; Steudel, A.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of dye lasers which are relevant to atomic spectroscopy are discussed. Several experiments made possible by tunable dye lasers are discussed. Applications of high spectral density dye lasers are covered in areas such as absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, photoionization and photodetachment, and two- and multi-photon processes. Applications which take advantage of the narrow bandwidth of tunable dye lasers are discussed, including saturation spectroscopy, fluorescence line narrowing, classic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, nonoptical detection of optical resonances, heterodyne spectroscopy, and nonlinear coherent resonant phenomena. (26 figures, 180 references) (U.S.)

  12. A control and data acquisition system for photoelectron spectroscopy experiment station at Hefei National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weimin; Liu Yinim

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes system configuration and software design. The system has the following features; flexible user interface, succinct control levels, strict protection and high intelligence. It can run EDC, CFS, CIS experiment modes very conveniently with SR light source. Its construction and design idea of the system can be applied to other data acquisition systems. (author)

  13. Untangling reaction pathways through modern approaches to high-throughput single-molecule force-spectroscopy experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulin, D.; Berghuis, B.A.; Depken, S.M.; Dekker, N.H.

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule experiments provide a unique means for real-time observation of the activity of individual biomolecular machines. Through such techniques, insights into the mechanics of for example, polymerases, helicases, and packaging motors have been gleaned. Here we describe the recent advances

  14. Design of experiments-based monitoring of critical quality attributes for the spray-drying process of insulin by NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maltesen, Morten Jonas; van de Weert, Marco; Grohganz, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Moisture content and aerodynamic particle size are critical quality attributes for spray-dried protein formulations. In this study, spray-dried insulin powders intended for pulmonary delivery were produced applying design of experiments methodology. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) in combination...... on the chemical information of the water molecules in the NIR spectrum. Models yielded prediction errors (RMSEP) between 0.39% and 0.48% with thermal gravimetric analysis used as reference method. The PLS models predicting the aerodynamic particle size were based on baseline offset in the NIR spectra and yielded...... less robust models with a Q (2) of 0.69. Based on the results in this study, NIR is a suitable tool for process analysis of the spray-drying process and for control of moisture content and particle size, in particular for smooth and spherical particles....

  15. Structure and reactivity of oxalate surface complexes on lepidocrocite derived from infrared spectroscopy, DFT-calculations, adsorption, dissolution and photochemical experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Susan C.; Biswakarma, Jagannath; Kang, Kyounglim; Schenkeveld, Walter D. C.; Hering, Janet G.; Kubicki, James D.; Kraemer, Stephan M.; Hug, Stephan J.

    2018-04-01

    Oxalate, together with other ligands, plays an important role in the dissolution of iron(hdyr)oxides and the bio-availability of iron. The formation and properties of oxalate surface complexes on lepidocrocite were studied with a combination of infrared spectroscopy (IR), density functional theory (DFT) calculations, dissolution, and photochemical experiments. IR spectra measured as a function of time, concentration, and pH (50-200 μM oxalate, pH 3-7) showed that several surface complexes are formed at different rates and in different proportions. Measured spectra could be separated into three contributions described by Gaussian line shapes, with frequencies that agreed well with the theoretical frequencies of three different surface complexes: an outer-sphere complex (OS), an inner-sphere monodentate mononuclear complex (MM), and a bidentate mononuclear complex (BM) involving one O atom from each carboxylate group. At pH 6, OS was formed at the highest rate. The contribution of BM increased with decreasing pH. In dissolution experiments, lepidocrocite was dissolved at rates proportional to the surface concentration of BM, rather than to the total adsorbed concentration. Under UV-light (365 nm), BM was photolyzed at a higher rate than MM and OS. Although the comparison of measured spectra with calculated frequencies cannot exclude additional possible structures, the combined results allowed the assignment of three main structures with different reactivities consistent with experiments. The results illustrate the importance of the surface speciation of adsorbed ligands in dissolution and photochemical reactions.

  16. Setting up the photoluminescence laboratory at ISOLDE & Perturbed Angular Correlation spectroscopy for BIO physics experiments using radioactive ions

    CERN Document Server

    Savva, Giannis

    2016-01-01

    The proposed project I was assigned was to set up the photoluminescence (PL) laboratory at ISOLDE, under the supervision of Karl Johnston. My first week at CERN coincided with the run of a BIO physics experiment using radioactive Hg(II) ions in which I also participated under the supervision of Stavroula Pallada. This gave me the opportunity to work in two projects during my stay at CERN and in the present report I describe briefly my contribution to them.

  17. Laser frequency stabilization by combining modulation transfer and frequency modulation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Fei; Wu, Xuejian; Zhong, Weicheng; Parker, Richard H; Yu, Chenghui; Budker, Simon; Lu, Xuanhui; Müller, Holger

    2017-04-01

    We present a hybrid laser frequency stabilization method combining modulation transfer spectroscopy (MTS) and frequency modulation spectroscopy (FMS) for the cesium D2 transition. In a typical pump-probe setup, the error signal is a combination of the DC-coupled MTS error signal and the AC-coupled FMS error signal. This combines the long-term stability of the former with the high signal-to-noise ratio of the latter. In addition, we enhance the long-term frequency stability with laser intensity stabilization. By measuring the frequency difference between two independent hybrid spectroscopies, we investigate the short-and long-term stability. We find a long-term stability of 7.8 kHz characterized by a standard deviation of the beating frequency drift over the course of 10 h and a short-term stability of 1.9 kHz characterized by an Allan deviation of that at 2 s of integration time.

  18. Molecular spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokh, Eh.; Zonntag, B.

    1981-01-01

    The latest investigation results on molecular spectroscopy with application of synchrotron radiation in the region of vacuum ultraviolet are generalized. Some results on investigation of excited, superexcited and ionized molecule states with the use of adsorption spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, by fluorescent and mass-spectrometric methods are considered [ru

  19. Vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Rajai Atalla

    2010-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy is an important tool in modern chemistry. In the past two decades, thanks to significant improvements in instrumentation and the development of new interpretive tools, it has become increasingly important for studies of lignin. This chapter presents the three important instrumental methods-Raman spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and...

  20. Enhancing the sensitivity of mid-IR quantum cascade laser-based cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy using RF current perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfred, Katherine M; Kirkbride, James M R; Ciaffoni, Luca; Peverall, Robert; Ritchie, Grant A D

    2014-12-15

    The sensitivity of mid-IR quantum cascade laser (QCL) off-axis cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS), often limited by cavity mode structure and diffraction losses, was enhanced by applying a broadband RF noise to the laser current. A pump-probe measurement demonstrated that the addition of bandwidth-limited white noise effectively increased the laser linewidth, thereby reducing mode structure associated with CEAS. The broadband noise source offers a more sensitive, more robust alternative to applying single-frequency noise to the laser. Analysis of CEAS measurements of a CO(2) absorption feature at 1890  cm(-1) averaged over 100 ms yielded a minimum detectable absorption of 5.5×10(-3)  Hz(-1/2) in the presence of broadband RF perturbation, nearly a tenfold improvement over the unperturbed regime. The short acquisition time makes this technique suitable for breath applications requiring breath-by-breath gas concentration information.

  1. Terahertz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation I will review methods for spectroscopy in the THz range, with special emphasis on the practical implementation of the technique known ad THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). THz-TDS has revived the old field of far-infrared spectroscopy, and enabled a wealth of new...... activities that promise commercial potential for spectroscopic applications in the THz range. This will be illustrated with examples of spectroscopy of liquids inside their bottles as well as sensitive, quantitative spectroscopy in waveguides....

  2. Cooperative photo-induced effects: from photo-magnetism under continuous irradiation to ultra-fast phenomena - study through optical spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glijer, D.

    2006-12-01

    The control with ultra-short laser pulses of the collective and concerted transformation of molecules driving a macroscopic state switching on an ultra-fast time scale in solid state opens new prospects in materials science. The goal is to realize at the material level what happens at the molecular level in femto-chemistry. These processes are highly cooperative and highly non-linear, leading to self-amplification and self-organization within the material, a so-called photo-induced phase transition with a new long range order (structural, magnetic, ferroelectric,...). Two families of molecular compounds have been studied here: first of all, spin transition materials changing from a diamagnetic state over to a paramagnetic state under the effect of temperature or under continuous laser excitation. It concerns photo-active molecular bi-stability prototype materials in solid state, whose switching has been studied during X-ray diffraction, optical reflectivity and magnetism experiments. Then we have studied charge-transfer molecular systems, prototype compounds for ultrafast photo-induced phase transitions: insulator-metal, neutral-ionic....As well as ultrafast optical experiments, time-resolved X ray crystallography is a key technique in order to follow at the atomic level the different steps of the photo-induced transformation and thus to observe the involved mechanisms. We have underlined a process of photo-formation of one-dimensional nano-domains of lattice-relaxed charge-transfer excitations, governing the photo-induced phase transition of the molecular charge-transfer complex TTF-CA by the first time-resolved diffuse scattering measurements. Moreover, a new femtosecond laser-plasma source and a optical pump-probe spectroscopy set-up with a highly sensitive detecting system have been developed in this work. The results presented here will be an illustration of the present scientific challenges existing on the one hand with the development of projects of major

  3. Giant resonance spectroscopy of 40Ca with the (e,e'x) reaction (I): Experiments and overview of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diesener, H.; Helm, U.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Richter, A.; Schrieder, G.; Stascheck, A.; Stiller, A.; Carter, J.

    2001-01-01

    The 40 Ca(e,e'x; x=p,α) reaction has been measured in the giant resonance excitation region for E x ≅8-26 MeV. The present article is the first out of three describing the experiments and giving an overview of the results. Data were taken at four momentum transfers in the range q=0.26-0.66 fm -1 . Angular correlations for decay to the ground state and low-lying states of 39 K and 36 Ar could be extracted as a function of excitation energy in 40 Ca. Excitation energy spectra integrated over the particle emission angle were generated for the various resolved decay channels. Comparisons of the giant resonance cross-section distributions with results using other electromagnetic or hadronic probes have been made and good agreement is found in most cases

  4. Fine-Pitch CdTe Detector for Hard X-Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Sun with the FOXSI Rocket Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Katsuragawa, Miho; Watanabe, Shin; Uchida, Yuusuke; Takeda, Shin'lchiro; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Saito, Shinya; Glesener, Lindsay; Bultrago-Casas, Juan Camilo; Krucker, Sam; hide

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a fine-pitch hard X-ray (HXR) detector using a cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductor for imaging and spectroscopy for the second launch of the Focusing Optics Solar X-ray Imager (FOXSI). FOXSI is a rocket experiment to perform high sensitivity HXR observations from 4 to 15 keV using the new technique of HXR focusing optics. The focal plane detector requires less than 100 micrometers position resolution (to take advantage of the angular resolution of the optics) and approximately equals 1 keV energy resolution (full width at half maximum (FWHM)) for spectroscopy down to 4 keV, with moderate cooling (greater than -30 C). Double-sided silicon strip detectors were used for the first FOXSI flight in 2012 to meet these criteria. To improve the detectors' efficiency (66% at 15 keV for the silicon detectors) and position resolution of 75 micrometers for the second launch, we fabricated double-sided CdTe strip detectors with a position resolution of 60 micrometers and almost 100% efficiency for the FOXSI energy range. The sensitive area is 7.67 mm x 7.67 mm, corresponding to the field of view of 791'' x 791''. An energy resolution of 1 keV (FWHM) and low-energy threshold of approximately equals 4 keV were achieved in laboratory calibrations. The second launch of FOXSI was performed on 11 December 2014, and images from the Sun were successfully obtained with the CdTe detector. Therefore, we successfully demonstrated the detector concept and the usefulness of this technique for future HXR observations of the Sun.

  5. Fast antihydrogen beam spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The motivation for production and precision spectroscopy of antihydrogen atoms is outlined. An experimental configuration is considered, concerning laser-microwave spectroscopy of a fast hydrogen beam with characteristics similar to those of an antihydrogen beam emanating from an antiproton-positron overlap region in an antiproton storage ring. In particular, a possible experiment for the measurement of the ground state hyperfine structure splitting is described. (orig.)

  6. Product state resolved excitation spectroscopy of He-, Ne-, and Ar-Br2 linear isomers: experiment and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio, Jordan M; van der Veer, Wytze E; Bieler, Craig R; Janda, Kenneth C

    2008-04-07

    Valence excitation spectra for the linear isomers of He-, Ne-, and Ar-Br2 are reported and compared to a two-dimensional simulation using the currently available potential energy surfaces. Excitation spectra from the ground electronic state to the region of the inner turning point of the Rg-Br2 (B,nu') stretching coordinate are recorded while probing the asymptotic Br2 (B,nu') state. Each spectrum is a broad continuum extending over hundreds of wavenumbers, becoming broader and more blueshifted as the rare gas atom is changed from He to Ne to Ar. In the case of Ne-Br2, the threshold for producing the asymptotic product state reveals the X-state linear isomer bond energy to be 71+/-3 cm(-1). The qualitative agreement between experiment and theory shows that the spectra can be correctly regarded as revealing the one-atom solvent shifts and also provides new insight into the one-atom cage effect on the halogen vibrational relaxation. The measured spectra provide data to test future ab initio potential energy surfaces in the interaction of rare gas atoms with the halogen valence excited state.

  7. UV-visible spectroscopy of macrocyclic alkyl, nitrosyl and halide complexes of cobalt and rhodium. Experiment and calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Emily A; West, Aaron C; Pestovsky, Oleg; Kristian, Kathleen E; Ellern, Arkady; Dunne, James F; Carraher, Jack M; Bakac, Andreja; Windus, Theresa L

    2015-02-28

    Transition metal complexes (NH3)5CoX(2+) (X = CH3, Cl) and L(H2O)MX(2+), where M = Rh or Co, X = CH3, NO, or Cl, and L is a macrocyclic N4 ligand are examined by both experiment and computation to better understand their electronic spectra and associated photochemistry. Specifically, irradiation into weak visible bands of nitrosyl and alkyl complexes (NH3)5CoCH3(2+) and L(H2O)M(III)X(2+) (X = CH3 or NO) leads to photohomolysis that generates the divalent metal complex and ˙CH3 or ˙NO, respectively. On the other hand, when X = halide or NO2, visible light photolysis leads to dissociation of X(-) and/or cis/trans isomerization. Computations show that visible bands for alkyl and nitrosyl complexes involve transitions from M-X bonding orbitals and/or metal d orbitals to M-X antibonding orbitals. In contrast, complexes with X = Cl or NO2 exhibit only d-d bands in the visible, so that homolytic cleavage of the M-X bond requires UV photolysis. UV-Vis spectra are not significantly dependent on the structure of the equatorial ligands, as shown by similar spectral features for (NH3)5CoCH3(2+) and L(1)(H2O)CoCH3(2+).

  8. Photoelectron spectroscopy at a free-electron laser. Investigation of space-charge effects in angle-resolved and core-level spectroscopy and realizaton of a time-resolved core-level photoemission experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczynski-Buehlow, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The free-electron laser (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH) is a very interesting light source with which to perform photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) experiments. Its special characteristics include highly intense photon pulses (up to 100 J/pulse), a photon energy range of 30 eV to 1500 eV, transverse coherence as well as pulse durations of some ten femtoseconds. Especially in terms of time-resolved PES (TRPES), the deeper lying core levels can be reached with photon energies up to 1500 eV with acceptable intensity now and, therefore, element-specific, time-resolved core-level PES (XPS) is feasible at FLASH. During the work of this thesis various experimental setups were constructed in order to realize angle-resolved (ARPES), core-level (XPS) as well as time-resolved PES experiments at the plane grating monochromator beamline PG2 at FLASH. Existing as well as newly developed systems for online monitoring of FEL pulse intensities and generating spatial and temporal overlap of FEL and optical laser pulses for time-resolved experiments are successfully integrated into the experimental setup for PES. In order to understand space-charge effects (SCEs) in PES and, therefore, being able to handle those effects in future experiments using highly intense and pulsed photon sources, the origin of energetic broadenings and shifts in photoelectron spectra are studied by means of a molecular dynamic N-body simulation using a modified Treecode Algorithm for sufficiently fast and accurate calculations. It turned out that the most influencing parameter is the ''linear electron density'' - the ratio of the number of photoelectrons to the diameter of the illuminated spot on the sample. Furthermore, the simulations could reproduce the observations described in the literature fairly well. Some rules of thumb for XPS and ARPES measurements could be deduced from the simulations. Experimentally, SCEs are investigated by means of ARPES as well as XPS measurements as a function of FEL pulse

  9. Photoelectron spectroscopy at a free-electron laser. Investigation of space-charge effects in angle-resolved and core-level spectroscopy and realizaton of a time-resolved core-level photoemission experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marczynski-Buehlow, Martin

    2012-01-30

    The free-electron laser (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH) is a very interesting light source with which to perform photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) experiments. Its special characteristics include highly intense photon pulses (up to 100 J/pulse), a photon energy range of 30 eV to 1500 eV, transverse coherence as well as pulse durations of some ten femtoseconds. Especially in terms of time-resolved PES (TRPES), the deeper lying core levels can be reached with photon energies up to 1500 eV with acceptable intensity now and, therefore, element-specific, time-resolved core-level PES (XPS) is feasible at FLASH. During the work of this thesis various experimental setups were constructed in order to realize angle-resolved (ARPES), core-level (XPS) as well as time-resolved PES experiments at the plane grating monochromator beamline PG2 at FLASH. Existing as well as newly developed systems for online monitoring of FEL pulse intensities and generating spatial and temporal overlap of FEL and optical laser pulses for time-resolved experiments are successfully integrated into the experimental setup for PES. In order to understand space-charge effects (SCEs) in PES and, therefore, being able to handle those effects in future experiments using highly intense and pulsed photon sources, the origin of energetic broadenings and shifts in photoelectron spectra are studied by means of a molecular dynamic N-body simulation using a modified Treecode Algorithm for sufficiently fast and accurate calculations. It turned out that the most influencing parameter is the ''linear electron density'' - the ratio of the number of photoelectrons to the diameter of the illuminated spot on the sample. Furthermore, the simulations could reproduce the observations described in the literature fairly well. Some rules of thumb for XPS and ARPES measurements could be deduced from the simulations. Experimentally, SCEs are investigated by means of ARPES as well as XPS measurements as a function of

  10. Cooperative photo-induced effects: from photo-magnetism under continuous irradiation to ultra-fast phenomena - study through optical spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction; Effets photo-induits cooperatifs: du photomagnetisme sous irradiation continue aux phenomenes ultrarapides - etude par spectroscopie optique et diffraction X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glijer, D

    2006-12-15

    The control with ultra-short laser pulses of the collective and concerted transformation of molecules driving a macroscopic state switching on an ultra-fast time scale in solid state opens new prospects in materials science. The goal is to realize at the material level what happens at the molecular level in femto-chemistry. These processes are highly cooperative and highly non-linear, leading to self-amplification and self-organization within the material, a so-called photo-induced phase transition with a new long range order (structural, magnetic, ferroelectric,...). Two families of molecular compounds have been studied here: first of all, spin transition materials changing from a diamagnetic state over to a paramagnetic state under the effect of temperature or under continuous laser excitation. It concerns photo-active molecular bi-stability prototype materials in solid state, whose switching has been studied during X-ray diffraction, optical reflectivity and magnetism experiments. Then we have studied charge-transfer molecular systems, prototype compounds for ultrafast photo-induced phase transitions: insulator-metal, neutral-ionic....As well as ultrafast optical experiments, time-resolved X ray crystallography is a key technique in order to follow at the atomic level the different steps of the photo-induced transformation and thus to observe the involved mechanisms. We have underlined a process of photo-formation of one-dimensional nano-domains of lattice-relaxed charge-transfer excitations, governing the photo-induced phase transition of the molecular charge-transfer complex TTF-CA by the first time-resolved diffuse scattering measurements. Moreover, a new femtosecond laser-plasma source and a optical pump-probe spectroscopy set-up with a highly sensitive detecting system have been developed in this work. The results presented here will be an illustration of the present scientific challenges existing on the one hand with the development of projects of major

  11. Modern spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hollas, J Michael

    2013-01-01

    The latest edition of this highly acclaimed title introduces the reader to a wide range of spectroscopies, and includes both the background theory and applications to structure determination and chemical analysis.  It covers rotational, vibrational, electronic, photoelectron and Auger spectroscopy, as well as EXAFs and the theory of lasers and laser spectroscopy. A  revised and updated edition of a successful, clearly written book Includes the latest developments in modern laser techniques, such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy and femtosecond lasers Provides numerous worked examples, calculations and questions at the end of chapters.

  12. High-resolution gamma spectroscopy with whole-body and partial-body counters. Experience, recommendations. Report; Hochaufloesende Gamma-Spektrometrie an Ganz- und Teilkoerperzaehlern. Erfahrungen, Empfehlungen. Bericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahre, P. [comp.

    1997-12-01

    The application of high-resolution gamma spectroscopy with whole-body and partial-body counters shows a steadily rising upward trend over the last few years. This induced the ``Arbeitskreis Inkorporationsueberwachung`` of the association ``Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V.`` to organise a meeting for joint elaboration of a guide on recommended applications of this measuring technique, based on a review of existing experience and results. A key item on the agenda of the meeting was the comparative evaluation of the Ge semiconductor detector and the NaI solid scintillation detector. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Der Einsatz der hochaufloesenden Gammaspektroskopie in Ganz- und Teilkoerperzaehlern hat in den letzten Jahren stetig zugenommen. Der ``Arbeitskreis Inkorporationsueberwachung`` des Fachverbandes fuer Strahlenschutz e.V. hat darum bisherige Erfahrungen zusammengetragen und Empfehlungen fuer den Einsatz dieser Messtechnik erarbeitet. Der Schwerpunkt der Tagung lag beim Vergleich von Germaniumhalbleiter- mit Natriumjodid-Festszintillationsdetektoren.Tl-Detektoren eignen sich v.a. beim Vorhandensein bekannter und zeitlich konstanter Nuklidvektoren (Kernkraftwerke, Nuklearmedizin). Bei unbekanntem bzw. variablem Nuklidvektor (Stoerfall, Unfall, Forschung) sollen Ge-Detektoren benutzt werden (orig./ABI)

  13. Ultrafast carrier thermalization in lead iodide perovskite probed with two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Johannes M; Branchi, Federico; Valduga de Almeida Camargo, Franco; Zhao, Baodan; Friend, Richard H; Cerullo, Giulio; Deschler, Felix

    2017-08-29

    In band-like semiconductors, charge carriers form a thermal energy distribution rapidly after optical excitation. In hybrid perovskites, the cooling of such thermal carrier distributions occurs on timescales of about 300 fs via carrier-phonon scattering. However, the initial build-up of the thermal distribution proved difficult to resolve with pump-probe techniques due to the requirement of high resolution, both in time and pump energy. Here, we use two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with sub-10 fs resolution to directly observe the carrier interactions that lead to a thermal carrier distribution. We find that thermalization occurs dominantly via carrier-carrier scattering under the investigated fluences and report the dependence of carrier scattering rates on excess energy and carrier density. We extract characteristic carrier thermalization times from below 10 to 85 fs. These values allow for mobilities of 500 cm 2  V -1  s -1 at carrier densities lower than 2 × 10 19  cm -3 and limit the time for carrier extraction in hot carrier solar cells.Carrier-carrier scattering rates determine the fundamental limits of carrier transport and electronic coherence. Using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with sub-10 fs resolution, Richter and Branchi et al. extract carrier thermalization times of 10 to 85 fs in hybrid perovskites.

  14. A versatile setup for ultrafast broadband optical spectroscopy of coherent collective modes in strongly correlated quantum systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Baldini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A femtosecond pump-probe setup is described that is optimised for broadband transient reflectivity experiments on solid samples over a wide temperature range. By combining high temporal resolution and a broad detection window, this apparatus can investigate the interplay between coherent collective modes and high-energy electronic excitations, which is a distinctive characteristic of correlated electron systems. Using a single-shot readout array detector at frame rates of 10 kHz allows resolving coherent oscillations with amplitudes <10−4. We demonstrate its operation on the charge-transfer insulator La2CuO4, revealing coherent phonons with frequencies up to 13 THz and providing access into their Raman matrix elements.

  15. Polarization spectroscopy of the sodium dimer utilizing a triple-resonance technique in the presence of argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Phillip; Horton, Timothy; McFarland, Jacob; Bayram, Burcin; Miami University Spectroscopy Team

    2015-05-01

    The collisional dynamics of molecular sodium in the 61Σg electronic state is under investigation using a triple resonance technique in the presence of argon. A continuous wave ring dye laser is used to populate specific rovibrational levels of the A1Σu electronic state. A pump-probe technique is then employed where the pump laser populates the 61Σg state, and the probe laser dumps the population to the B1Σu state. From this level, fluorescence is detected as the system decays to the X1Σg state. We measure the polarization of this signal in the presence of various argon pressures. We will present our current work as well as the processes involved in the experiment. Financial support from the National Science Foundation (Grant No. NSF-PHY-1309571) is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Using Raman Spectroscopy and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering to Identify Colorants in Art: An Experiment for an Upper-Division Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Hannah E.; Frano, Kristen A.; Svoboda, Shelley A.; Wustholz, Kristin L.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of art represent an attractive way to introduce undergraduate students to concepts in nanoscience, vibrational spectroscopy, and instrumental analysis. Here, we present an undergraduate analytical or physical chemistry laboratory wherein a combination of normal Raman and SERS spectroscopy is used to…

  17. In vivo 1H-spectroscopy of human intracranial tumors at 1.5 tesla. Preliminary experience at a clinical installation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Wieslander, S; Gjerris, F

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may contribute to the characterization of intracranial tumors in vivo. Volume selective water suppressed proton spectroscopy offers the possibility to study a number of metabolites in the brain including choline (CHO), creatinine/phosphocreatinine (CR/PCR), N...

  18. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The excitation scheme thus consists of two simultaneous Λ resonances, i.e., a double Λ resonance. [6–8], coupled by a strong pump and a weak probe. Such a study has a very direct bearing on pump-probe coherent spectroscopy experiments in alkali atoms, where the excited hyperfine levels are relatively closely spaced.

  19. Experience gained in gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, L.

    1960-01-01

    There are two types of method which make it possible to estimate the internal contamination of individuals. On the one hand these are the indirect techniques based on measurements of the excreted products, on the other there are the direct techniques in which attempts are made to measure directly the radio-activity existing in the organism. We propose to give a few of the results obtained by the direct method using equipment built by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. The apparatus consists of a γ spectrometer. It includes: 1) A crystal of sodium iodide 20 cm in diameter and 10 cm high. The large size of this crystal ensures a good sensitivity and makes it possible to carry out rapid measurements. 2) A 25 channel type SAE 25 selector which classifies the pulses according to their amplitude. It is therefore possible to distinguish between γ rays of varying energy. 3) A comparatively very light radiation protection, consisting of only 5 cm thickness of lead which diminishes the ambient γ ray intensity to a sufficient level for the majority of the measurements. A certain collimation is thus obtained which makes it possible to localise the source approximately and to reduce the undesirable effects of external contamination. (author) [fr

  20. Laser spectroscopy of highly doped NV- centers in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Shova D.; Fedorov, Vladimir V.; Peppers, Jeremy; Martyshkin, Dmitry V.; Mirov, Sergey B.; Shao, Linbo; Loncar, Marko

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, prospects of using diamond with NV- centers as a gain medium have been studied. Spectroscopic characterization of NV- centers in diamond as well as absorption saturation and pump-probe experiments have been carried out. Absorption and emission cross-sections were estimated to be 2.8 × 10-17 cm2 and 4.3 × 10-17 cm2 at the maximum of absorption and emission bands, respectively. It was observed from emission spectra under pulse excitation that some NV- are photoionized to NV0 centers with ZPL at 575 nm. Room temperature luminescence lifetime of NV- centers was measured to be 12ns, which is close to the previously reported lifetime in bulk diamond ( 13ns). Saturated transmission was only about 11% of calculated values even at energy fluence much higher than the saturation flux. Two excited state absorptions (ESAs) with different relaxation times ("fast-decay" and "slow-decay with relaxation times of 500 ns and several tens of microseconds, respectively) were revealed in transmission decay kinetics at 632 nm. Kinetics of transmission at 670 nm was dominated by "slow-decay" ESA process. Kinetics of dk/k0 in shorter wavelength were strongly dominated by "fast-decay" ESA process. These results definitively indicate that stimulated emission of NV- centers is suppressed by photoionization and ESAs and the possibility of diamond lasers based on NV- centers is low.

  1. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., ultrafast lasers (atto- and femto-second lasers) and parametric oscillators, coherent matter waves, Doppler-free Fourier spectroscopy with optical frequency combs, interference spectroscopy, quantum optics, the interferometric detection of gravitational waves and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  2. Laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letokhov, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    This article describes recent progress in the application of laser atomic spectroscopy to study parameters of nuclei available in very small quantities; radioactive nuclei, rare isotopes, nuclear isomers, etc, for which study by conventional spectroscopic methods is difficult. (author)

  3. Excited-state intramolecular hydrogen transfer (ESIHT) of 1,8-Dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (DHAQ) characterized by ultrafast electronic and vibrational spectroscopy and computational modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Omar F.

    2014-05-01

    We combine ultrafast electronic and vibrational spectroscopy and computational modeling to investigate the photoinduced excited-state intramolecular hydrogen-transfer dynamics in 1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (DHAQ) in tetrachloroethene, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide, and methanol. We analyze the electronic excited states of DHAQ with various possible hydrogen-bonding schemes and provide a general description of the electronic excited-state dynamics based on a systematic analysis of femtosecond UV/vis and UV/IR pump-probe spectroscopic data. Upon photoabsorption at 400 nm, the S 2 electronic excited state is initially populated, followed by a rapid equilibration within 150 fs through population transfer to the S 1 state where DHAQ exhibits ESIHT dynamics. In this equilibration process, the excited-state population is distributed between the 9,10-quinone (S2) and 1,10-quinone (S1) states while undergoing vibrational energy redistribution, vibrational cooling, and solvation dynamics on the 0.1-50 ps time scale. Transient UV/vis pump-probe data in methanol also suggest additional relaxation dynamics on the subnanosecond time scale, which we tentatively ascribe to hydrogen bond dynamics of DHAQ with the protic solvent, affecting the equilibrium population dynamics within the S2 and S1 electronic excited states. Ultimately, the two excited singlet states decay with a solvent-dependent time constant ranging from 139 to 210 ps. The concomitant electronic ground-state recovery is, however, only partial because a large fraction of the population relaxes to the first triplet state. From the similarity of the time scales involved, we conjecture that the solvent plays a crucial role in breaking the intramolecular hydrogen bond of DHAQ during the S2/S1 relaxation to either the ground or triplet state. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  4. Outlook for baryon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, R.D.

    1976-09-01

    The review of baryon spectroscopy includes a number of new generation experiments with greatly improved statistics which have emerged and are enhancing experimental knowledge of baryon resonances. The future research directions are pointed out, and some problems and deficiencies which can be resolved with contemporary techniques are mentioned

  5. Fluorescence spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool used by scientists from many disciplines. During the last decades there have been important developments on distinct fluorescence methods, particularly those related to the study of biological phenomena. This chapter discusses the foundati......Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool used by scientists from many disciplines. During the last decades there have been important developments on distinct fluorescence methods, particularly those related to the study of biological phenomena. This chapter discusses...

  6. Molecular studies by electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansteen, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experience gained in experimental nuclear physics has played a large role in the development of electron spectroscopy as a powerful tool for studying chemical systems. The use of ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) for the mapping of molecular properties connected with inner as well as outer electron shells is reviewed, mainly from a phenomological point of view. Molecular Auger electron spectroscopy is described as a means of gaining information on details in molecular structure, simultaneously being extensively applied for surface studies. Future highly promising research areas for molecular electron spectroscopy are suggested to be (e,2e) processes as well as continued exploitation of synchrotron radiation from high energy nuclear devices. (Auth.)

  7. Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonser, U.

    1975-01-01

    This book is addressed to persons interested in learning about what has been done and what can be done with Moessbauer spectroscopy. In an introductory chapter the basic principle is explained and the general parameters governing Moessbauer spectroscopy are tabulated. For the following chapters various disciplines are chosen and the wide applicability of this measuring technique is demonstrated. The second chapter discusses a few representative examples of chemical interesting information being reflected by isomer shifts and quadrupole splittings, particularly with respect to bonding and structural properties. The third chapter deals with some applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy for characterizing magnetic compounds and its use for magnetic structure investigations, particularly by making use of polarized radiation. The fourth chapter describes the use of the Moessbauer spectroscopy for studying iron in biological molecules. As an example of recent applications to mineralogy and geology the results of the studies of lunar samples are reviewed in the fifth chapter. Finally, in the last chapter, work is described on the use of Moessbauer spectroscopy in physical metallurgy, particularly quantitative analyses which have enabled metallurgists to solve many old problems. (orig./FW) [de

  8. Precision muonium spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmann, Klaus P.

    2016-01-01

    The muonium atom is the purely leptonic bound state of a positive muon and an electron. It has a lifetime of 2.2 µs. The absence of any known internal structure provides for precision experiments to test fundamental physics theories and to determine accurate values of fundamental constants. In particular ground state hyperfine structure transitions can be measured by microwave spectroscopy to deliver the muon magnetic moment. The frequency of the 1s–2s transition in the hydrogen-like atom can be determined with laser spectroscopy to obtain the muon mass. With such measurements fundamental physical interactions, in particular quantum electrodynamics, can also be tested at highest precision. The results are important input parameters for experiments on the muon magnetic anomaly. The simplicity of the atom enables further precise experiments, such as a search for muonium–antimuonium conversion for testing charged lepton number conservation and searches for possible antigravity of muons and dark matter. (author)

  9. Optical Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrhaug, Erling

    The work presented in this thesis is broadly concerned with how complexation reactions and molecular motion can be characterized with the standard techniques in optical spectroscopy. The thesis aims to show a relatively broad range of methods for probing physico-chemical properties in fluorophore...... information about chemical equilibria, kinetics and molecular motion by monitoring changes in optical properties of the system. The five presented research projects are largely unrelated to each other both in aim and in what property is probed, however they are all connected in that they are fluorophore...... reactions by optical spectroscopy. In project 1 simple steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the stoichiometries and equilibrium constants in the inclusion complex formation between cyclodextrins and derivatives of the water-insoluble oligo(phenylene vinylene) in aqueous...

  10. VMEbus interface for spectroscopy ADCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeaeskelaeinen, M.

    1987-01-01

    A high performance VMEbus interface for spectroscopy ADCs and other similar devices used in nuclear spectroscopy coincidence experiments has been developed. This new module can be used to interface existing spectroscopy ADCs with fast parallel data transfer into the industry standard multiprocessor VMEbus. The unit provides a fast direct readout of the ADC data into the VMEbus memory. The interface also has built-in capabilities that enable it to be used in coincidence experiments for slow data timing and ADC pattern recognition. (orig.)

  11. Optogalvanic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianarosa, P.; Demers, Y.; Gagne, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Laser induced optogalvanic spectroscopy in a hollow cathode-produced plasma has been used to resolve the isotopic structure of some absorption lines in uranium. We have shown that the optogalvanic signal associated with any isotope can be related to the concentration of that isotope in a multi-isotopic sample. From the results we have obtained, optogalvanic spectroscopy of sputtered samples appears to be an interesting approach to the isotopic analysis of both natural and enriched uranium and could easily be applied to the analysis of other fissile elements, such as the plutonium isotopes

  12. Photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, W.C.

    1974-01-01

    A survey is given of the development of x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Applications of photoelectron spectroscopy to studies of atomic electronic configurations are discussed, including photoelectron spectra of hydrides isoelectronic with the inert gases; photoelectron spectra of the halogen derivatives of methane; photoelectron spectra of multiple bonded diatomic molecules; spectra and structure of some multiple bonded polyatomic molecules; spectra and structure of triatomic molecules; and methods of orbital assignment of bands in photoelectron spectra. Physical aspects are considered, including intensities; selection rules; dependence of cross section on photoelectron energy; autoionization; angular distribution of photoelectrons; electron-molecule interactions; and transient species. (26 figures, 54 references) (U.S.)

  13. In vivo sup 1 H-spectroscopy of human intracranial tumors at 1. 5 Tesla; Preliminary experience at a clinical installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, O.; Wieslander, S.; Gjerris, F.; Jensen, K.M. (Danish Research Center of Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen (Denmark) Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark). Clinic of Neurosurgery)

    1991-03-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may contribute to the characterization of intracranial tumors in vivo. Volume selective water suppressed proton spectroscopy offers the possibility to study a number of metabolities in the brain including choline (CHO), creatinine-phosphocreatinine (CR/PCR), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and lactate. Using the stimulated echo technique we have studied 17 patients with intracranial tumors. In all cases the tumors were classified based on histologic evaluation. The tumor spectra differed considerably from those obtained in healthy brain tissue. The results indicate a relative decrease in the NAA and CR/PCR content. In many cases a lactate peak could be seen especially in the tumors with malignant growth characteristics. Our preliminary results suggest that proton spectroscopy may contribute to the differentiation of brain tumors with respect to benign or malignant growth. However, further research is warranted before a definite conclusion can be drawn. (orig.).

  14. In vivo spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.R.; Cady, E.B.

    1987-01-01

    The technique which the authors describe in this chapter provides alternative information to imaging, although based upon the same physical principles. The experiments are carried out differently and have instrumental requirements which are not met by a standard imaging system. Furthermore, although the clinical efficacy of NMR imaging has been proven, clinical spectroscopy is very much in its infancy. With the exception of some specific /sup 31/P applications not is not even clear how spectroscopic investigations will be performed. This is particularly true with regard to localization techniques for investigating other than superficial organs and and in the use of /sup 1/H spectroscopy. They attempt to show what information spectroscopy can provide in principle and point out some of the problems associated with such investigations. NMR has come to the notice of the clinical community mainly through its use as an imaging technique, and many may consider spectroscopy as a secondary discipline. NMR spectroscopy, however, has a longer history than imaging and has been a standard technique in chemistry laboratories for more than two decades. It is a technique without peer for structural analysis of molecules and no new chemical compound is discovered or synthesized without an NMR spectrum being taken. The influence of molecular structure on resonant frequency has been termed the chemical shift

  15. Charge generation in organic solar cell materials studied by terahertz spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Scarongella, M.

    2015-09-09

    We have investigated the photophysics in neat films of conjugated polymer PBDTTPD and its blend with PCBM using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. This material has very high efficiency when used in organic solar cells. We were able to identify a THz signature for bound excitons in neat PBDTTPD films, pointing to important delocalization in those excitons. Then, we investigated the nature and local mobility (orders of magnitude higher than bulk mobility) of charges in the PBDTTPPD:PCBM blend as a function of excitation wavelength, fluence and pump-probe time delay. At low pump fluence (no bimolecular recombination phenomena), we were able to observe prompt and delayed charge generation components, the latter originating from excitons created in neat polymer domains which, thanks to delocalization, could reach the PCBM interface and dissociate to charges on a time scale of 1 ps. The nature of the photogenerated charges did not change between 0.5 ps and 800 ps after photo-excitation, which indicated that the excitons split directly into relatively free charges on an ultrafast time scale. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  16. Dynamics of exciton relaxation in LH2 antenna probed by multipulse nonlinear spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I; Cohen Stuart, Thomas A; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2011-04-28

    We explain the relaxation dynamics in the LH2-B850 antenna as revealed by multipulse pump-dump-probe spectroscopy (Th. A. Cohen Stuart, M. Vengris, V. I. Novoderezhkin, R. J. Cogdell, C. N. Hunter, R. van Grondelle, submitted). The theory of pump-dump-probe response is evaluated using the doorway-window approach in combination with the modified Redfield theory. We demonstrate that a simultaneous fit of linear spectra, pump-probe, and pump-dump-probe kinetics can be obtained at a quantitative level using the disordered exciton model, which is essentially the same as used to model the spectral fluctuations in single LH2 complexes (Novoderezhkin, V.; Rutkauskas, D.; van Grondelle, R. Biophys. J. 2006, 90, 2890). The present studies suggest that the observed relaxation rates are strongly dependent on the realization of the disorder. A big spread of the rates (exceeding 3 orders of magnitude) is correlated with the disorder-induced changes in delocalization length and overlap of the exciton wave functions. We conclude that the bulk kinetics reflect a superposition of many pathways corresponding to different physical limits of energy transfer, varying from sub-20 fs relaxation between delocalized and highly spatially overlapping exciton states to >20 ps jumps between states localized at the opposite sides of the ring.

  17. Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy: Watching atoms dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Chris J.; Pham, Van-Thai; Gawelda, Wojciech; van der Veen, Renske M.; El Nahhas, Amal; Johnson, Steven L.; Beaud, Paul; Ingold, Gerhard; Lima, Frederico; Vithanage, Dimali A.; Benfatto, Maurizio; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia; Kaiser, Maik; Hauser, Andreas; Abela, Rafael; Bressler, Christian; Chergui, Majed

    2009-11-01

    The introduction of pump-probe techniques to the field of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has allowed the monitoring of both structural and electronic dynamics of disordered systems in the condensed phase with unprecedented accuracy, both in time and in space. We present results on the electronically excited high-spin state structure of an Fe(II) molecular species, [FeII(bpy)3]2+, in aqueous solution, resolving the Fe-N bond distance elongation as 0.2 Å. In addition an analysis technique using the reduced χ2 goodness of fit between FEFF EXAFS simulations and the experimental transient absorption signal in energy space has been successfully tested as a function of excited state population and chemical shift, demonstrating its applicability in situations where the fractional excited state population cannot be determined through other measurements. Finally by using a novel ultrafast hard x-ray 'slicing' source the question of how the molecule relaxes after optical excitation has been successfully resolved using femtosecond XANES.

  18. Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman spectroscopy has gained increased use and importance in recent years for accurate and precise detection of physical and chemical properties of food materials, due to the greater specificity and sensitivity of Raman techniques over other analytical techniques. This book chapter presents Raman s...

  19. Bioimpedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klösgen, Beate; Rümenapp, Christine; Gleich, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    causes relaxation processes with characteristic contributions to the frequency-dependent complex dielectric constant. These dipolar relaxations were initially described by Debye (Polare Molekeln 1929). They are the basis of impedance spectroscopy (K’Owino and Sadik Electroanalysis 17(23):2101–2113, 2005...

  20. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhoff, D.J.; Weiner, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    A major function of the liver is regulation of carbohydrate, lipid, and nitrogen metabolism. Food is absorbed by the intestines and transported to the liver by the portal circulation. Substrates are metabolized and stored in the liver to maintain optimal blood concentrations of glucose and lipids. Ammonia generated in the gastrointestinal tract is converted to urea in the liver by the urea cycle. Various forms of liver disease are associated with disorders of carbohydrate, fat, and nitrogen metabolism. Therefore the ability to characterize liver metabolism noninvasively is of potential diagnostic value. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides information about tissue metabolism by measuring concentrations of metabolites. However, to determine the anatomic location from which spectroscopic signals are derived, MRS could be performed in conjunction with MRI. This paper summarizes the current experience with spectroscopy ion animal models of human disease and reviews the clinical experience with hepatic MRS to date

  1. Spectroscopy of neutral radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mol, Aran; De, Subhadeep; Jungmann, Klaus; Wilschut, Hans; Willmann, Lorenz [KVI, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    The heavy alkaline earth atoms radium is uniquely sensitive towards parity and time reversal symmetry violations due to a large enhancement of an intrinsic permanent electric dipole moment of the nucleous or the electron. Furthermore, radium is sensitive to atomic parity violation and the nuclear anapole moment. To prepare such experiments spectroscopy of relevant atomic states need to be done. At a later stage we will build a neutral atom trap for radium. We have built an atomic beam of the short lived isotope {sup 225}Ra with a flux of several 10{sup 4} atoms/sec. We are preparing the laser spectroscopy using this beam setup. In the preparation for efficient laser cooling and trapping we have successfully trapped barium, which is similar in it's requirements for laser cooling. The techniques which we have developed with barium can be used to trap rare radium isotopes. We report on the progress of the experiments.

  2. Fusion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, N.J.

    1995-09-01

    This article traces developments in the spectroscopy of high temperature laboratory plasma used in controlled fusion research from the early 1960's until the present. These three and a half decades have witnessed many orders of magnitude increase in accessible plasma parameters such as density and temperature as well as particle and energy confinement timescales. Driven by the need to interpret the radiation in terms of the local plasma parameters, the thrust of fusion spectroscopy has been to develop our understanding of (i) the atomic structure of highly ionised atoms, usually of impurities in the hydrogen isotope fuel; (ii) the atomic collision rates and their incorporation into ionization structure and emissivity models that take into account plasma phenomena like plasma-wall interactions, particle transport and radiation patterns; (iii) the diagnostic applications of spectroscopy aided by increasingly sophisticated characterisation of the electron fluid. These topics are discussed in relation to toroidal magnetically confined plasmas, particularly the Tokamak which appears to be the most promising approach to controlled fusion to date. (author)

  3. Binding Energies of the pi-Stacked Anisole Dimer: New Molecular Beam-Laser Spectroscopy Experiments and CCSD(T) Calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezáč, Jan; Nachtigallová, Dana; Mazzoni, F.; Pasquini, M.; Pietraperzia, G.; Becucci, M.; Müller-Dethlefs, K.; Hobza, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 18 (2015), s. 6740-6746 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0058 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : binding energy * noncovalent interactions * pi stacking * laser spectroscopy * CCSD(T) calculations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.771, year: 2015

  4. Investigation of the spectroscopy and relaxation dynamics of benzaldehyde using molecular orbital calculations and laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Maria Cristina Rodrigues

    1998-11-01

    Molecular orbital methods and laser ionization mass spectrometry measurements are used to investigate the spectroscopy and relaxation dynamics of benzaldehyde following excitation to its S2(/pi/pi/sp/*) state. Energies, equilibrium geometries and vibrational frequencies of ground and low-lying excited states of benzaldehyde neutral and cation determined by ab initio calculations provide a theoretical description of the electronic spectroscopy of benzaldehyde and of the changes occurring on excitation and ionization. The S2(/pi/pi/sp/*)[/gets]S0 excitation spectrum of jet-cooled benzaldehyde acquired using two-color laser ionization mass spectrometry techniques is interpreted with the aid of these calculations. The spectrum is dominated by the origin band and by transitions involving some of the ring modes consistent with the results of the molecular orbital calculations that indicate that the major geometric changes on excitation to S2 are located in the aromatic ring. Ten fundamental vibrations of the S2(/pi/pi/sp/*) state are assigned. The dissociation dynamics of benzaldehyde into benzene and carbon monoxide following excitation to its S2(/pi/pi/sp/*) state are investigated under jet- cooled conditions by two-color laser ionization mass spectrometry using a pump-probe technique. This experimental arrangement allows monitoring the benzaldehyde reactant and the benzene product ion signals as a function of the time delay between the excitation and ionization steps. A kinetic model is proposed to explain the observed biexponential decay of the benzaldehyde signal and the single exponential growth of the benzene product signal in terms of a sequential decay of two excited states of benzaldehyde, one of which leads to formation of benzene molecules in its lowest triplet state. Reactant disappearance and product appearance rates are determined for a number of vibronic transitions of the S2 state. They are found to increase with excitation energy without any indication

  5. Solar neutrino spectroscopy (before and after superkamiokande)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.Yu.

    1996-11-01

    Results of solar neutrino spectroscopy based on data from four experiments are presented. Perspectives related to forthcoming experiments are discussed. Implications of the results for neutrino properties are considered. (author). 54 refs, 2 tabs

  6. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., frequency doubling in external cavities, reliable cw-parametric oscillators, tunable narrow-band UV sources, more sensitive detection techniques, tunable femtosecond and sub-femtosecond lasers (X-ray region and the attosecond range), control of atomic and molecular excitations, frequency combs able to synchronize independent femtosecond lasers, coherent matter waves, and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  7. Hippocampal proton MR spectroscopy as a novel approach in the assessment of radiation injury and the correlation to neurocognitive function impairment: initial experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, Petr; Kazda, Tomas; Bulik, Martin; Dobiaskova, Marie; Burkon, Petr; Hynkova, Ludmila; Slampa, Pavel; Jancalek, Radim

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus is considered as the main radiosensitive brain structure responsible for postradiotherapy cognitive decline. We prospectively assessed correlation of memory change to hippocampal N-acetylaspartate (h-tNAA) concentration, a neuronal density and viability marker, by 1 H-MR spectroscopy focused on the hippocampus. Patients with brain metastases underwent whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) to a dose of 30 Gy in ten fractions daily. Pre-radiotherapy 1 H-MR spectroscopy focused on the h-tNAA concentration and memory testing was performed. Memory was evaluated by Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R). Total recall, recognition and delayed recall were reported. The both investigation procedures were repeated 4 months after WBRT and the h-tNAA and memory changes were correlated. Of the 20 patients, ten passed whole protocol. The h-tNAA concentration significantly decreased from pre-WBRT 8.9, 8.86 and 8.88 [mM] in the right, left and both hippocampi to 7.16, 7.65 and 7.4 after WBRT, respectively. In the memory tests a significant decrease was observed in AVLT total-recall, BVMT-R total-recall and BVMT-R delayed-recall. Weak to moderate correlations were observed between left h-tNAA and AVLT recognition and all BVMT-R subtests and between the right h-tNAA and AVLT total-recall. A significant decrease in h-tNAA after WBRT was proven by 1 H-MR spectroscopy as a feasible method for the in vivo investigation of radiation injury. Continuing patient recruitment focusing on other cognitive tests and metabolites is needed

  8. NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenert, J.

    1989-01-01

    The book reviews the applications of NMR-spectroscopy in medicine and biology. The first chapter of about 40 pages summarizes the history of development and explains the chemical and physical fundamentals of this new and non-invasive method in an easily comprehensible manner. The other chapters summarize diagnostic results obtained with this method in organs and tissues, so that the reader will find a systematic overview of the available findings obtained in the various organ systems. It must be noted, however, that ongoing research work and new insight quite naturally will necessitate corrections to be done, as is the case here with some biochemical interpretations which would need adjustment to latest research results. NMR-spectroscopy is able to measure very fine energy differences on the molecular level, and thus offers insight into metabolic processes, with the advantage that there is no need of applying ionizing radiation in order to qualitatively or quantitatively analyse the metabolic processes in the various organ systems. (orig./DG) With 40 figs., 4 tabs [de

  9. Hadron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igi, K.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is related to mini-rapporteur talk on baryonium spectroscopy. First of all, the models of baryonium, namely the diquark model, the string picture, the linear baryonium and the bag model, are described. All of these models so far discussed are highly suggestive. In this paper, discussions are confined to the spectroscopy of the string and the bag models. Because of the color degree of freedom, the bag model has mock diquonium and mock mesonium besides true baryonium. It might be possible that the string model takes into account only a part of them. The constraints among baryonium, baryon and boson trajectories using duality and unitarity were proposed as a guide for classifying various spectra. Inequalities were derived as the modest and reliable constraints on baryonium intercepts from baryon and boson intercepts by imposing unitarity and Regge behaviors on scattering amplitudes. As a consequence of residue factorization and duality, the baryonium slopes were derived. The spin of S (1936) was also obtained. The baryonium containing s or c quarks can also be studied. Topics such as the EXD patterns of baryons, linear baryons, linear Regge trajectories for all Q-anti Q families, and the Al and two Q mesons, are presented in this paper. Comments on di-baryon are described. (Kato, T.)

  10. Development of a high current 60 keV neutral lithium beam injector for beam emission spectroscopy measurements on fusion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anda, G.; Dunai, D.; Lampert, M.; Krizsanóczi, T.; Németh, J.; Bató, S.; Nam, Y. U.; Hu, G. H.; Zoletnik, S.

    2018-01-01

    A 60 keV neutral lithium beam system was designed and built up for beam emission spectroscopy measurement of edge plasma on the KSTAR and EAST tokamaks. The electron density profile and its fluctuation can be measured using the accelerated lithium beam-based emission spectroscopy system. A thermionic ion source was developed with a SiC heater to emit around 4-5 mA ion current from a 14 mm diameter surface. The ion optic is following the 2 step design used on other devices with small modifications to reach about 2-3 cm beam diameter in the plasma at about 4 m from the ion source. A newly developed recirculating sodium vapour neutralizer neutralizes the accelerated ion beam at around 260-280 °C even during long (manipulation techniques are applied to allow optimization, aiming, cleaning, and beam modulation. The maximum 60 keV beam energy with 4 mA ion current was successfully reached at KSTAR and at EAST. Combined with an efficient observation system, the Li-beam diagnostic enables the measurement of the density profile and fluctuations on the plasma turbulence time scale.

  11. 1H-MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging of normal-appearing temporal white matter in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after irradiation: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei Feng; Qiu, Shi Jun; Wang, Hong Zhuo; Lv, Xiao Fei

    2013-01-01

    To detect radiation-induced changes of temporal lobe normal-appearing white mater (NAWM) following radiation therapy (RT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Seventy-five H(1)-MR spectroscopy and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) examinations were performed in 55 patients before and after receiving fractionated radiation therapy (total dose; 66-75GY). We divided the dataset into six groups, a pre-RT control group and five other groups based on time after completion of RT. N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA)/choline (Cho), NAA/creatine (Cr), Cho/Cr, mean diffusibility (MD), functional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusibility (λ(⊥)), and axial diffusibility (λ(||)) were calculated. NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr decreased and λ(⊥) increased significantly within 1 year after RT compared with pre-RT. After 1 year, NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, and λ(⊥) were not significantly different from pre-RT. In all post-RT groups, FA decreased significantly. λ(||) decreased within 9 months after RT compared with pre-RT, but was not significantly different from pre-RT more than 9 months after RT. DTI and H(1)-MR spectroscopy can be used to detect early radiation-induced changes of temporal lobe NAWM following radiation therapy for NPC. Metabolic alterations and water diffusion characteristics of temporal lobe NAWM in patients with NPC after RT were dynamic and transient. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Hadron spectroscopy in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Palano, Antimo

    2018-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to study the properties and decays of heavy flavored hadrons produced in pp collisions at the LHC. The data collected in the LHC Run I enables precision spectroscopy studies of beauty and charm hadrons. The latest results on spectroscopy of conventional and exotic hadrons are reviewed. In particular the discovery of the first charmonium pentaquark states in the $J/\\psi p$ system, the possible existence of four-quark states decaying to $J/\\psi \\phi$ and the confirmation of resonant nature of the $Z_c(4430)^−$ mesonic state are discussed. In the sector of charmed baryons, the observation of five new $\\Omega_c$ states, the observation of the $\\Xi^+_{cc}$ and the study of charmed baryons decaying to $D^0 p$ are presented.

  13. Picosecond time-resolved laser pump/X-ray probe experiments using a gated single-photon-counting area detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejdrup, T.; Lemke, H.T.; Haldrup, Martin Kristoffer

    2009-01-01

    The recent developments in X-ray detectors have opened new possibilities in the area of time-resolved pump/probe X-ray experiments; this article presents the novel use of a PILATUS detector to achieve X-ray pulse duration limited time-resolution at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), USA...... limited time-resolution of 60 ps using the gated PILATUS detector. This is the first demonstration of X-ray pulse duration limited data recorded using an area detector without the use of a mechanical chopper array at the beamline........ The capability of the gated PILATUS detector to selectively detect the signal from a given X-ray pulse in 24 bunch mode at the APS storage ring is demonstrated. A test experiment performed on polycrystalline organic thin films of [alpha]-perylene illustrates the possibility of reaching an X-ray pulse duration...

  14. Femtosecond time-resolved vibrational SFG spectroscopy of CO/Ru( 0 0 1 )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Ch.; Wolf, M.; Roke, S.; Bonn, M.

    2002-04-01

    Vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) employing femtosecond infrared (IR) laser pulses is used to study the dynamics of the C-O stretch vibration on Ru(0 0 1). Time-resolved measurements of the free induction decay (FID) of the IR-polarization for 0.33 ML CO/Ru(0 0 1) exhibit single exponential decays over three decades corresponding to dephasing times of T2=1.94 ps at 95 K and T2=1.16 ps at 340 K. This is consistent with pure homogeneous broadening due to anharmonic coupling with the thermally activated low-frequency dephasing mode together with a contribution from saturation of the IR transition. In pump-probe SFG experiments using a strong visible (VIS) pump pulse the perturbation of the FID leads to transient line shifts even at negative delay times, i.e. when the IR-VIS SFG probe pair precedes the pump pulse. Based on an analysis of the time-dependent polarization we discuss the influence of the perturbed FID on time-resolved SFG spectra. We investigate how coherent effects affect the SFG spectra and we examine the time resolution in these experiments, in particular in dependence of the dephasing time.

  15. Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemcik, T.

    1984-01-01

    The emission and absorption of photons taking place without changes in the frequency spectrum of the crystal lattice are known as the Moessbauer effect. It takes place in the low energy levels of heavy nuclei in solid lattices at low temperatures. On the basis of the hyperfine structure of Moessbauer spectra the notions are explained of isomer shift, quadrupole splitting and magnetic splitting. The principle and function are explained of Moessbauer spectrometers and the methods of graphical processing of spectra, also the use of the least square fit. Moessbauer spectroscopy is nondestructive, highly sensitive and selective and makes structural resolution possible. It is used for quantitative and qualitative analysis of compounds. Examples are given of the use of this method for mineralogical and crystallo-chemical analysis of lunar minerals and rocks, for analysis of corrosion products of iron and for phase analysis of alloys. (M.D.)

  16. Coherent spectroscopy of a {Lambda} atomic system and its prospective application to tunable frequency offset locking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, Y B [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Ray, Ayan [Radioactive Ion Beam Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700064 (India); Lawande, Q V [Theoretical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Jagatap, B N, E-mail: yogeshwar84@rediffmail.com, E-mail: ayan_ray_in@rediffmail.com, E-mail: bnj@barc.gov.in [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division and Homi Bhabha National Institute, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2011-09-15

    We investigate the coherent pump-probe spectroscopy of a three-level {Lambda} system, 6s{sub 1/2}F = 3,4{yields}6p{sub 3/2}F{sup '}= 4, in the hyperfine manifold of D{sub 2} transition (852 nm) of cesium with particular reference to the sub-Doppler linewidth resonance arising from Aulter-Townes (AT) splitting and the possibility of using it for realizing a scheme for tunable atomic frequency offset locking (AFOL). We discuss here the theoretical framework for a {Lambda} system interacting with a coherent pump and probe and use it to describe the process of modulation transfer in the AT and electromagnetically induced transparency regimes. We further employ an experimental scheme consisting of a strong pump and a pair of weak probes to resolve the sub-Doppler linewidth ({approx}8 MHz) AT resonance and study its dependence on pump intensity and detuning. In order to explore the possibility of using such a sub-Doppler linewidth resonance for AFOL, we use its first derivative signal as a frequency discriminator to stabilize the probe laser. The frequency stability of the probe is characterized by means of error signal analysis. This study reveals that while the frequency stability of the AT locked laser is limited by the pump laser, the tuning range of the offset frequency lock can cover the entire Doppler profile and its immediate neighbourhood, thereby providing a simple and cost effective alternative to the external modulator. The study described in this paper contributes to the discussion on the subtle link between dressed state spectroscopy and AFOL, which is relevant for developing a master-slave-type laser system in the domain of coherent photon-atom interaction.

  17. Measuring Heterogeneous Reaction Rates with ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy to Evaluate Chemical Fates in an Atmospheric Environment: A Physical Chemistry and Environmental Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jason E.; Zeng, Guang; Maron, Marta K.; Mach, Mindy; Dwebi, Iman; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports an undergraduate laboratory experiment to measure heterogeneous liquid/gas reaction kinetics (ozone-oleic acid and ozone-phenothrin) using a flow reactor coupled to an attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometer. The experiment is specially designed for an upper-level undergraduate Physical…

  18. Photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Research activities in photoelectron spectroscopy at Lawrence Radiation Laboratory during 1976 are described. Topics covered include: the orientation of CO on Pt(III) and Ni(III) surfaces from angle-resolved photoemission; photoemission from CO on Pt(III) in the range 40 eV less than or equal to dirac constant ω less than or equal to 150 eV; photoemission studies of electron states at clean surfaces using synchrotron radiation; angle and energy dependent photoemission studies of plasmon loss structure in Al and In; d-orbital directed photoemission from copper; interpretation of angle-resolved x-ray photoemission from valence bands; atomic cross-section effects in soft x-ray photoemission from Ag, Au, and Pt valence bands; x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of the electronic structure of transition metal difluorides; x-ray photoemission investigation of the density of states of B'-NiAl; the electronic structure of SrTiO 3 and some simple related oxides; fluorescence lifetime measurements of np 5 (n+1)S' states in krypton and xenon; Zeeman beats in the resonance fluorescence of the 3P 1 , states in krypton and xenon; lifetime measurements of rare-gas dimers; configuration interaction effects in the atomic photoelectron spectra of Ba, Sm, Eu, and Yb; glow discharge lamps as electron sources for electron impact excitation; electron impact excitation of electron correlation states in Ca, Sr, and Ba; photoelectron spectroscopy of atomic and molecular bismuth; relativistic effects in the uv photoelectron spectra of group VI diatomic molecules; and relative gas-phase acidities and basicities from a proton potential model

  19. An experiment to detect apples infested by the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae), using near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoshima, S.; Nakamoto, Y.; Takanashi, M.; Masuda, T.

    2006-01-01

    The potential of near-infrared spectroscopy to detect apples ('Fuji' cultivar) infested by the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii, was evaluated using a prevalent NIR device. A calibration equation was developed using both the NIR spectra and injury levels of the infested fruits. The equation predicted the injury levels of fruits using a simple correlation coefficient of 0.8868 and a standard error of prediction of 0.3688. At the level of estimates to discard ca 90% of infested fruits, 90.15% of the infested fruits and 39.24% of the uninfested fruits were excluded from the samples. Although its accuracy was not sufficient, the present NIR device has the potential to identify internally infested fruits

  20. Development of a novel combined fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy system for guiding high-grade glioma resections: confirmation of capability in lab experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Monirehalsadat; Xie, Haiyan; Xie, Zhiyuan; Brydegaard, Mikkel; Axelsson, Johan; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Total resection of glioblastoma multiform (GBM), the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumor, is challenging among other things due to difficulty in intraoperative discrimination between normal and residual tumor cells. This project demonstrates the potential of a system based on a combination of autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to be useful as an intraoperative guiding tool. In this context, a system based on 5 LEDs coupled to optical fibers was employed to deliver UV/visible light to the sample sequentially. Remitted light from the tissue; including diffuse reflected and fluorescence of endogenous and exogenous fluorophores, as well as its photobleaching product, is transmitted to one photodiode and four avalanche photodiodes. This instrument has been evaluated with very promising results by performing various tissue-equivalent phantom laboratory and clinical studies on skin lesions.

  1. Karhunen-Loève treatment to remove noise and facilitate data analysis in sensing, spectroscopy and other applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharov, V V; Farahi, R H; Snyder, P J; Davison, B H; Passian, A

    2014-11-21

    Resolving weak spectral variations in the dynamic response of materials that are either dominated or excited by stochastic processes remains a challenge. Responses that are thermal in origin are particularly relevant examples due to the delocalized nature of heat. Despite its inherent properties in dealing with stochastic processes, the Karhunen-Loève expansion has not been fully exploited in measurement of systems that are driven solely by random forces or can exhibit large thermally driven random fluctuations. Here, we present experimental results and analysis of the archetypes (a) the resonant excitation and transient response of an atomic force microscope probe by the ambient random fluctuations and nanoscale photothermal sample response, and (b) the photothermally scattered photons in pump-probe spectroscopy. In each case, the dynamic process is represented as an infinite series with random coefficients to obtain pertinent frequency shifts and spectral peaks and demonstrate spectral enhancement for a set of compounds including the spectrally complex biomass. The considered cases find important applications in nanoscale material characterization, biosensing, and spectral identification of biological and chemical agents.

  2. Exploring Ultrafast Structural Dynamics for Energetic Enhancement or Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    it. In a pump -push/ dump probe experiment, a secondary laser pulse (push/ dump ) is used after the initial perturbation due to the pump pulse. The...increased. The pump -push/ dump probe technique is a difficult experiment that requires a highly stable laser source. Ultrafast pump -probe experiments...decomposition of solids. Journal of Applied Physics. 2001;89:4156–4166. 17. Kee TW. Femtosecond pump -push-probe and pump - dump -probe spectroscopy of

  3. Layman friendly spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentic, Stipo; Sessions, Sharon

    Affordable consumer grade spectroscopes (e.g. SCiO, Qualcomm Tricorder XPRIZE) are becoming more available to the general public. We introduce the concepts of spectroscopy to the public and K12 students and motivate them to delve deeper into spectroscopy in a dramatic participatory presentation and play. We use diffraction gratings, lasers, and light sources of different spectral properties to provide a direct experience of spectroscopy techniques. Finally, we invite the audience to build their own spectroscope--utilizing the APS SpectraSnapp cell phone application--and study light sources surrounding them in everyday life. We recontextualize the stigma that science is hard (e.g. ``Math, Science Popular Until Students Realize They're Hard,'' The Wall Street Journal) by presenting the material in such a way that it demonstrates the scientific method, and aiming to make failure an impersonal scientific tool--rather than a measure of one's ability, which is often a reason for shying away from science. We will present lessons we have learned in doing our outreach to audiences of different ages. This work is funded by the APS Outreach Grant ``Captain, we have matter matters!'' We thank New Mexico Tech Physics Department and Physics Club for help and technical equipment.

  4. Biomolecular EPR spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hagen, Wilfred Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive, Up-to-Date Coverage of Spectroscopy Theory and its Applications to Biological SystemsAlthough a multitude of books have been published about spectroscopy, most of them only occasionally refer to biological systems and the specific problems of biomolecular EPR (bioEPR). Biomolecular EPR Spectroscopy provides a practical introduction to bioEPR and demonstrates how this remarkable tool allows researchers to delve into the structural, functional, and analytical analysis of paramagnetic molecules found in the biochemistry of all species on the planet. A Must-Have Reference in an Intrinsically Multidisciplinary FieldThis authoritative reference seamlessly covers all important bioEPR applications, including low-spin and high-spin metalloproteins, spin traps and spin lables, interaction between active sites, and redox systems. It is loaded with practical tricks as well as do's and don'ts that are based on the author's 30 years of experience in the field. The book also comes with an unprecedented set of...

  5. Use of d-3He proton spectroscopy as a diagnostic of shell rho r in capsule implosion experiments with approximately 0.2 NIF scale high temperature Hohlraums at Omega.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamater, N D; Wilson, D C; Kyrala, G A; Seifter, A; Hoffman, N M; Dodd, E; Singleton, R; Glebov, V; Stoeckl, C; Li, C K; Petrasso, R; Frenje, J

    2008-10-01

    We present the calculations and preliminary results from experiments on the Omega laser facility using d-(3)He filled plastic capsule implosions in gold Hohlraums. These experiments aim to develop a technique to measure shell rho r and capsule unablated mass with proton spectroscopy and will be applied to future National Ignition Facility (NIF) experiments with ignition scale capsules. The Omega Hohlraums are 1900 microm length x 1200 microm diameter and have a 70% laser entrance hole. This is approximately a 0.2 NIF scale ignition Hohlraum and reaches temperatures of 265-275 eV similar to those during the peak of the NIF drive. These capsules can be used as a diagnostic of shell rho r, since the d-(3)He gas fill produces 14.7 MeV protons in the implosion, which escape through the shell and produce a proton spectrum that depends on the integrated rho r of the remaining shell mass. The neutron yield, proton yield, and spectra change with capsule shell thickness as the unablated mass or remaining capsule rho r changes. Proton stopping models are used to infer shell unablated mass and shell rho r from the proton spectra measured with different filter thicknesses. The experiment is well modeled with respect to Hohlraum energetics, neutron yields, and x-ray imploded core image size, but there are discrepancies between the observed and simulated proton spectra.

  6. SIMP spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, Yonit [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kuflik, Eric [Department of Physics, LEPP, Cornell University,Ithaca NY 14853 (United States); Murayama, Hitoshi [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Center for Japanese Studies, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-16

    We study the interactions between strongly interacting massive particle dark matter and the Standard Model via a massive vector boson that is kinetically mixed with the hypercharge gauge boson. The relic abundance is set by 3→2 self-interactions of the dark matter, while the interactions with the vector mediator enable kinetic equilibrium between the dark and visible sectors. We show that a wide range of parameters is phenomenologically viable and can be probed in various ways. Astrophysical and cosmological constraints are evaded due to the p-wave nature of dark matter annihilation into visible particles, while direct detection methods using electron recoils can be sensitive to parts of the parameter space. In addition, we propose performing spectroscopy of the strongly coupled dark sector at e{sup +}e{sup −} colliders, where the energy of a mono-photon can track the resonance structure of the dark sector. Alternatively, some resonances may decay back into Standard Model leptons or jets, realizing ‘hidden valley’ phenomenology at the LHC and ILC in a concrete fashion.

  7. SIMP spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, Yonit; Kuflik, Eric; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    We study the interactions between strongly interacting massive particle dark matter and the Standard Model via a massive vector boson that is kinetically mixed with the hypercharge gauge boson. The relic abundance is set by 3→2 self-interactions of the dark matter, while the interactions with the vector mediator enable kinetic equilibrium between the dark and visible sectors. We show that a wide range of parameters is phenomenologically viable and can be probed in various ways. Astrophysical and cosmological constraints are evaded due to the p-wave nature of dark matter annihilation into visible particles, while direct detection methods using electron recoils can be sensitive to parts of the parameter space. In addition, we propose performing spectroscopy of the strongly coupled dark sector at e + e − colliders, where the energy of a mono-photon can track the resonance structure of the dark sector. Alternatively, some resonances may decay back into Standard Model leptons or jets, realizing ‘hidden valley’ phenomenology at the LHC and ILC in a concrete fashion.

  8. Planetary spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, U.

    1988-01-01

    The main goal of the research is charge coupled device (CCD) spectroscopic and imaging studies of the solar system in support of spacecraft investigations. Studies include the physical behavior of comets, the atmosphere of the gaseous planets, and the solid surfaces of satellites and asteroids. The major observing program consisted of approximately 50 nights of photometry of Comet Halley in order to resolve the controversy over this comet's rotation period. This data is presently being analyzed. Additional observing projects included the spectroscopic occultation of Charon by Pluto, reflection spectroscopy of Mercury, and a spectrum of the satellite Oberon. Mercury data does not corroborate the Fe(++) absorption feature reported by McCord and Clark at 8800 A but instead potentially shows a weaker feature at longer wavelengths. This position is in much closer accord with expectations for Mercury since a band center near 8800 A implies too little Fe(++) on Mercury, especially if band shifts with temperature are considered. The Pluto project proved that the deep methane absorptions visible in their combined specta are due soley to Pluto with Charon showing a flat and featureless spectrum. It appears that if Charon ever contained a substantial methane component, the satellite's low surface gravity could not hold it and the methane evaporated and escaped

  9. Intermolecular spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbart, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this article some of the theoretical background is presented for the following papers on 'Intermolecular Spectroscopy and Dynamical Properties of Dense Systems'. In Section 1 we outline a simple semi-classical description of the interaction between optical radiation and matter. The motion of a many-body polarizability is introduced; limiting forms of this complicated quantity lead to the familiar cases of light scattering spectra. In Section 2 we consider the linear response approximation, and the equation of motion for the many-body density matrix is solved to first order in the matter-radiation interaction. The often quoted fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the time-dependent, equilibrium correlation functions are discussed. Section 3 treats the problem of the local field. In Section 4 we consider the special case of collision-induced light scattering by atomic fluids in the low-density limit. This allows us to focus on determining the interaction polarizability for simple gases. Finally, in Section 5 we distinguish between collision-induced and multiple light scattering, and discuss the double-light-scattering analyses which provide new information about critical and thermodynamically unstable fluids. (KBE)

  10. Relationship between β-relaxation and structural stability of lysozyme: Microscopic insight on thermostabilization mechanism by trehalose from Raman spectroscopy experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hédoux, Alain, E-mail: alain.hedoux@univ-lille1.fr; Paccou, Laurent; Guinet, Yannick [Université Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille France, USTL UMET UMR 8207 F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France)

    2014-06-14

    Raman investigations were carried out in the low-frequency and amide I regions on lysozyme aqueous solutions in absence and presence of trehalose. Raman spectroscopy gives the unique opportunity to analyze the protein and solvent dynamics in the low-frequency range while monitoring the unfolding process by capturing the spectrum of the amide I band. From the analysis of the quasielastic intensity, a dynamic change is firstly observed in a highly hydrated protein, around 70 °C, and interpreted in relation with the denaturation mechanism of the protein. The use of heavy water and partly deuterated trehalose gives clear information on protein–trehalose interactions in the native state of lysozyme (at room temperature) and during the thermal denaturation process of lysozyme. At room temperature, it was found that trehalose is preferentially excluded from the protein surface, and has a main effect on the tetrahedral local order of water molecules corresponding to a stiffening of the H-bond network in the solvent. The consequence is a significant reduction of the amplitude of fast relaxational motions, inducing a less marked dynamic transition shifted toward the high temperatures. Upon heating, interaction between trehalose and lysozyme is detected during the solvent penetration within the protein, i.e., while the native globular state softens into a molten globule (MG) state. Addition of trehalose reduces the protein flexibility in the MG state, improving the structural stability of the protein, and inhibiting the protein aggregation.

  11. Instrumental development of a quasi-relativistic ultrashort electron beam source for electron diffractions and spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young-Min; Figora, Michael

    2017-10-01

    A stable femtosecond electron beam system has been configured for time-resolved pump-probe experiments. The ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) system is designed with a sub-MeV photoelectron beam source pulsed by a femtosecond UV laser and nondispersive beamline components, including a bunch compressor-a pulsed S-band klystron is installed and fully commissioned with 5.5 MW peak power in a 2.5 μs pulse length. A single-cell RF photo-gun is designed to produce 1.6-16 pC electron bunches in a photoemission mode with 150 fs pulse duration at 0.5-1 MeV. The measured RF system jitters are within 1% in magnitude and 0.2° in phase, which would induce 3.4 keV and 0.25 keV of ΔE, corresponding to 80 fs and 5 fs of Δt, respectively. Our particle-in-cell simulations indicate that the designed bunch compressor reduces the time-of-arrival jitter by about an order of magnitude. The transport and focusing optics of the designed beamline with the bunch compressor enables an energy spread within 10 -4 and a bunch length (electron probe) within quasi-relativistic UED system.

  12. What Is the True Color of Fresh Meat? A Biophysical Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Investigating the Effects of Ligand Binding on Myoglobin Using Optical, EPR, and NMR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linenberger, Kimberly; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Crowder, Michael W.; McCarrick, Robert; Lorigan, Gary A.; Tierney, David L.

    2011-01-01

    With an increased focus on integrated upper-level laboratories, we present an experiment integrating concepts from inorganic, biological, and physical chemistry content areas. Students investigate the effects of ligand strength on the spectroscopic properties of the heme center in myoglobin using UV-vis, [superscript 1]H NMR, and EPR…

  13. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of a Metal-Organic Framework by Thermogravimetric Analysis, Powder X-Ray Diffraction, and Infrared Spectroscopy: An Integrative Inorganic Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Johanna L.; Anderson, Kelly E.; Conway, Samantha G.

    2015-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate laboratory experiment involves the synthesis and characterization of a metal-organic framework with microporous channels that are held intact via hydrogen bonding of the coordinated water molecules. The hydrothermal synthesis of Co[subscript 3](BTC)[subscript 2]·12H[subscript 2]O (BTC = 1,3,5-benzene tricarboxylic acid)…

  14. Auger electron spectroscopy, ionization loss spectroscopy, appearance potential spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riwan, R.

    1973-01-01

    The spectroscopy of surfaces using an incident electron beam is studied. The fundamental mechanisms are discussed together with the parameters involved in Auger emission: excitation of the atom, de-excitation by electron emission, and the migration of electrons towards the surface and their ejection. Some examples of applications are given (surface structures, metallurgy, chemical information). Two new techniques for analyzing surfaces are studied: ionization spectroscopy, and appearance potential spectroscopy [fr

  15. Chaotic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doron, E.; Smilanski, U.

    1991-11-01

    We discuss the spectra of quantized chaotic billiards from the point of view of scattering theory. We show that the spectral and resonance density functions both fluctuate about a common mean. A semiclassical treatment explains this in terms of classical scattering trajectories and periodic orbits of the poincare scattering map. This formalism is used to interpret recent experiments where the spectra of chaotic cavities where measured by microwave scattering. (author)

  16. Mid-infrared picosecond pump-dump-probe and pump-repump-probe experiments to resolve a ground-state intermediate in cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wilderen, Luuk J G W; Clark, Ian P; Towrie, Michael; van Thor, Jasper J

    2009-12-24

    -state structure of the ZZZ configuration of the linear tetrapyrrole chromophore. The dump-induced absorption decays with time constants of 5 and 19 ps to the Pr ground state. Employing a dump pulse at 14 ps results in an instantaneous decrease of the absorption of the 1608 cm(-1) band, indicating repumping of the GSI. The dump-induced absorption recovers back to the GSI with a 6 ps lifetime. A spectral similarity is observed between the 6 ps phase in the dump experiment and the 3 ps component found in the two-pulse pump-probe measurement. Combined with the dominance of ground-state absorption bands in the dump-induced spectrum, this indicates the presence of a GSI, which is additionally characterized by previously unidentified induced absorption at 1710 and 1570-80 cm(-1). The metastable photoproduct Lumi-R, which is in the electronic ground state and populated at 500 ps after excitation of Pr, is highly efficiently repumped into the Pr ground state with the power density used. After repumping, Lumi-R is not recovered on the 500 ps time scale of the experiment and is distinct from the GSI of Pr since it is not associated with its characteristic induced absorption at 1710 and 1570-80 cm(-1).

  17. [Meson spectroscopy and particle astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LoSecco, J.M.

    1993-07-01

    Progress in the design and construction of a light meson spectroscopy experiment is reported. The experiment will run in 1993. Some non- accelerator, activities and plans for the future are also discussed. Results of a Brookhaven beam test with a subset of the final detector are described. The test has been quite promising both in the speed with which results have been obtained and in the quality of the data itself. The status of the CsI veto is reported The target region, in particular the CsI veto experiment is Notre Dame's primary hardware responsibility on this experiment

  18. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.K.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with 13 C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system

  19. Application of open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for atmospheric monitoring of a CO2 back-production experiment at the Ketzin pilot site (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Uta; Borsdorf, H; Dietrich, P; Liebscher, A; Möller, I; Martens, S; Möller, F; Schlömer, S; Schütze, C

    2018-02-03

    During a controlled "back-production experiment" in October 2014 at the Ketzin pilot site, formerly injected CO 2 was retrieved from the storage formation and directly released to the atmosphere via a vent-off stack. Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP FTIR) spectrometers, on-site meteorological parameter acquisition systems, and distributed CO 2 point sensors monitored gas dispersion processes in the near-surface part of the atmospheric boundary layer. The test site provides a complex and challenging mosaic-like surface setting for atmospheric monitoring which can also be found at other storage sites. The main aims of the atmospheric monitoring of this experiment were (1) to quantify temporal and spatial variations in atmospheric CO 2 concentrations around the emitting vent-off stack and (2) to test if and how atmospheric monitoring can cope with typical environmental and operational challenges. A low environmental risk was encountered during the whole CO 2 back-production experiment. The study confirms that turbulent wind conditions favor atmospheric mixing processes and are responsible for rapid dilution of the released CO 2 leading to decreased detectability at all sensors. In contrast, calm and extremely stable wind conditions (especially occurring during the night) caused an accumulation of gases in the near-ground atmospheric layer with the highest amplitudes in measured gas concentration. As an important benefit of OP FTIR spectroscopic measurements and their ability to detect multiple gas species simultaneously, emission sources could be identified to a much higher certainty. Moreover, even simulation models using simplified assumptions help to find suitable monitoring network designs and support data analysis for certain wind conditions in such a complex environment.

  20. Hydrogen exchange kinetics in a membrane protein determined by 15N NMR spectroscopy: Use of the INEPT [insensitive nucleus enhancement by polarization transfer] experiment to follow individual amides in detergent-solubilized M13 coat protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, G.D.; Sykes, B.D.

    1990-01-01

    The coat protein of the filamentous coliphage M13 is a 50-residue polypeptide which spans the inner membrane of the Escherichia coli host upon infection. Amide hydrogen exchange kinetics have been used to probe the structure and dynamics of M13 coat protein which has been solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles. In a previous 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study, multiple exponential analysis of the unresolved amide proton envelope revealed the existence of two slow kinetic sets containing a total of about 30 protons. The slower set (15-20 amides) originates from the hydrophobic membrane-spanning region and exchanges at least 10 5 -fold slower than the unstructured, non-H-bonded model polypeptide poly(DL-alanine). Herein the authors use 15 N NMR spectroscopy of biosynthetically labeled coat protein to follow individual, assigned, slowly exchanging amides in or near the hydrophobic segment. The INEPT (insensitive nucleus enhancement by polarization transfer) experiments can be used to transfer magnetization to the 15 N nucleus from a coupled proton; when 15 N-labeled protonated protein is dissolved in 2 H 2 O, the INEPT signal disappears with time as the amide protons are replaced by solvent deuterons. Amide hydrogen exchange is catalyzed by both H + and OH - ions. The time-dependent exchange-out experiment is suitable for slow exchange rates (k ex ). The INEPT experiment was also adapted to measure some of the more rapidly exchanging amides in the coat protein using either saturation transfer from water or exchange effects on the polarization transfer step itself. The results of all of these experiments are consistent with previous models of the coat protein in which a stable segment extends from the hydrophobic membrane-spanning region through to the C-terminus, whereas the N-terminal region is undergoing more extensive dynamic fluctuations

  1. Spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using femtosecond extreme ultraviolet light pulses from high-order harmonic generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plötzing, M.; Adam, R., E-mail: r.adam@fz-juelich.de; Weier, C.; Plucinski, L.; Schneider, C. M. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Peter Grünberg Institut (PGI-6), 52425 Jülich (Germany); Eich, S.; Emmerich, S.; Rollinger, M.; Aeschlimann, M. [University of Kaiserslautern and Research Center OPTIMAS, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Mathias, S. [Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, I. Physikalisches Institut, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    The fundamental mechanism responsible for optically induced magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic thin films has been under intense debate since almost two decades. Currently, numerous competing theoretical models are in strong need for a decisive experimental confirmation such as monitoring the triggered changes in the spin-dependent band structure on ultrashort time scales. Our approach explores the possibility of observing femtosecond band structure dynamics by giving access to extended parts of the Brillouin zone in a simultaneously time-, energy- and spin-resolved photoemission experiment. For this purpose, our setup uses a state-of-the-art, highly efficient spin detector and ultrashort, extreme ultraviolet light pulses created by laser-based high-order harmonic generation. In this paper, we present the setup and first spin-resolved spectra obtained with our experiment within an acquisition time short enough to allow pump-probe studies. Further, we characterize the influence of the excitation with femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by comparing the results with data acquired using a continuous wave light source with similar photon energy. In addition, changes in the spectra induced by vacuum space-charge effects due to both the extreme ultraviolet probe- and near-infrared pump-pulses are studied by analyzing the resulting spectral distortions. The combination of energy resolution and electron count rate achieved in our setup confirms its suitability for spin-resolved studies of the band structure on ultrashort time scales.

  2. Building and analyzing models from data by stirred tank experiments for investigation of matrix effects caused by inorganic matrices and selection of internal standards in Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotti, Marco [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy)], E-mail: grotti@chimica.unige.it; Paredes, Eduardo; Maestre, Salvador; Todoli, Jose Luis [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, 03080, Alicante (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    Interfering effects caused by inorganic matrices (inorganic acids as well as easily ionized elements) in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy have been modeled by regression analysis of experimental data obtained using the 'stirred tank method'. The main components of the experimental set-up were a magnetically-stirred container and two peristaltic pumps. In this way the matrix composition was gradually and automatically varied, while the analyte concentration remained unchanged throughout the experiment. An inductively coupled plasma spectrometer with multichannel detection based on coupled charge device was used to simultaneously measure the emission signal at several wavelengths when the matrix concentration was modified. Up to 50 different concentrations were evaluated in a period of time of 10 min. Both single interfering species (nitric, hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, sodium and calcium) and different mixtures (aqua regia, sulfonitric mixture, sodium-calcium mixture and sodium-nitric acid mixture) were investigated. The dependence of the emission signal on acid concentration was well-fitted by logarithmic models. Conversely, for the easily ionized elements, 3-order polynomial models were more suitable to describe the trends. Then, the coefficients of these models were used as 'signatures' of the matrix-related signal variations and analyzed by principal component analysis. Similarities and differences among the emission lines were highlighted and discussed, providing a new insight into the interference phenomena, mainly with regards to the combined effect of concomitants. The combination of the huge amount of data obtained by the stirred tank method in a short period of time and the speed of analysis of principal component analysis provided a judicious means for the selection of the optimal internal standard in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy.

  3. Analytical applications of spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creaser, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    This book provides an up to date overview of recent developments in analytical spectroscopy, with a particular emphasis on the common themes of chromatography - spectroscopy combinations, Fourier transform methods, and data handling techniques, which have played an increasingly important part in the development of all spectroscopic techniques. The book contains papers originally presented at a conference entitled 'Spectroscopy Across The Spectrum' held jointly with the first 'International Near Infrared Spectroscopy Conference' at the University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK, in July 1987, which have been edited and rearranged with some additional material. Each section includes reviews of key areas of current research as well as short reports of new developments. The fields covered are: Near Infrared Spectroscopy; Infrared Spectroscopy; Mass Spectroscopy; NMR Spectroscopy; Atomic and UV/Visible Spectroscopy; Chemometrics and Data Analysis. (author)

  4. Start-effect measurement of high FEL [free-electron laser] electric fields in MTX [Microwave Tokamak Experiment] by laser-aided particle-probe spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, T.; Takiyama, K.; Odajima, K.; Ohasa, K.; Shiho, M.; Mizuno, K.; Foote, J.H.; Nilson, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    We are constructing a diagnostic system to measure the electric field (>100 kV/cm) of a free-electron laser (FEL) beam when injected into the plasma of the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX). The apparatus allows a crossed-beam measurement, with 2-cm spatial resolution in the plasma, involving the FEL beam (with 140-GHz, ∼1-GW ECH pulses), a neutral-helium beam, and a dye-laser beam. After the laser beam pumps metastable helium atoms to higher excited states, their decay light is detected by an efficient optical system. Because of the Stark effect arising from the FEL electric field (rvec E), a forbidden transition can be strongly induced. The intensity of emitted light resulting from the forbidden transition is proportional to E 2 . Because photon counting rates are estimated to be low, extra effort is made to minimize background and noise levels. It is possible that the lower rvec E of an MTX gyrotron-produced ECH beam with its longer-duration pulses can also be measured using this method. Other applications of the apparatus described here may include measurements of ion temperature (using charge-exchange recombination), edge-density fluctuations, and core impurity concentrations

  5. Charmonium(like) spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhiqing [Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Since its discovery in 1974, charmonium spectroscopy has always been an important probe to study strong interactions and the structure of hadronic matter. Below open-charm threshold, the charmonium spectrum is well established now. Also our understanding of charmonium states above the open-charm threshold has seen a big progress during recent years. However, the most surprising was the discovery of charmonium-like states, which have a similar mass scale as charmonium states but can not be classified as conventional states easily. Indeed, charmonium-like states are good candidates for the so-called exotic hadron states, i.e. particles with a quark content different from normal mesons and baryons, such as multi-quark states, hybrid states or molecule states. Although neutral charmonium-like states are more difficult to be identified, the observation of charged states provide us a convincing evidence. In this talk, I review the recent progress on charmonium and charmonium-like spectroscopy from BESIII, Belle, BABAR, CLEO-c and LHCb and the prospect for future experiments at Belle II and PANDA.

  6. Raman spectroscopy in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malard, L.M.; Pimenta, M.A.; Dresselhaus, G.; Dresselhaus, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    Recent Raman scattering studies in different types of graphene samples are reviewed here. We first discuss the first-order and the double resonance Raman scattering mechanisms in graphene, which give rise to the most prominent Raman features. The determination of the number of layers in few-layer graphene is discussed, giving special emphasis to the possibility of using Raman spectroscopy to distinguish a monolayer from few-layer graphene stacked in the Bernal (AB) configuration. Different types of graphene samples produced both by exfoliation and using epitaxial methods are described and their Raman spectra are compared with those of 3D crystalline graphite and turbostratic graphite, in which the layers are stacked with rotational disorder. We show that Resonance Raman studies, where the energy of the excitation laser line can be tuned continuously, can be used to probe electrons and phonons near the Dirac point of graphene and, in particular allowing a determination to be made of the tight-binding parameters for bilayer graphene. The special process of electron-phonon interaction that renormalizes the phonon energy giving rise to the Kohn anomaly is discussed, and is illustrated by gated experiments where the position of the Fermi level can be changed experimentally. Finally, we discuss the ability of distinguishing armchair and zig-zag edges by Raman spectroscopy and studies in graphene nanoribbons in which the Raman signal is enhanced due to resonance with singularities in the density of electronic states.

  7. Photoemission spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.L.I.

    1980-01-01

    It is an epoch making event for photoemission spectroscopy that the light sources of continuous wavelength from vacuum ultra-violet to X-ray region have become available by the advent of synchrotron radiation. Specifically the progress after stable intense light has become obtainable from storage rings is very significant. One of the features of these synchrotron radiation is its extreme polarization of radiating pattern. Though the elementary processes of photoemission out of solids are the basic themes, phenomenalistic 3-stage model is usually applied to the analysis of experiments. In this model, the process of photoemission is considered by dividing into three stages, namely the generation of photoelectrons due to optical transition between electron status -- the transportation of photoelectrons to solid surfaces -- breaking away from the surfaces. The spectrometers, the energy analyzers of photoelectrons, and sample-preparing room used for photoemission spectroscopy are described. Next, energy distribution curves are explained. At the end, photoelectron yield spectroscopy, CFS (constant final energy spectroscopy) and CIS (constant initial energy spectroscopy), Auger yield and interatomic Auger yield, the determination of surface structure by normal emission CIS, and surface EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) are described. As seen above, the application specifically to surface physics is promising in the future. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. Note: Application of a pixel-array area detector to simultaneous single crystal x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Cheng-Jun; Brewe, Dale L.; Heald, Steve M.; Zhang, Bangmin; Chen, Jing-Sheng; Chow, G. M.; Venkatesan, T.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) are two main x-ray techniques in synchrotron radiation facilities. In this Note, we present an experimental setup capable of performing simultaneous XRD and XAS measurements by the application of a pixel-array area detector. For XRD, the momentum transfer in specular diffraction was measured by scanning the X-ray energy with fixed incoming and outgoing x-ray angles. By selecting a small fixed region of the detector to collect the XRD signal, the rest of the area was available for collecting the x-ray fluorescence for XAS measurements. The simultaneous measurement of XRD and X-ray absorption near edge structure for Pr 0.67 Sr 0.33 MnO 3 film was demonstrated as a proof of principle for future time-resolved pump-probe measurements. A static sample makes it easy to maintain an accurate overlap of the X-ray spot and laser pump beam

  9. Soft X-ray spectroscopy measurements of plasma conditions at early times in ICF experiments on OMEGA. Semi-annual report, November 1, 1998-April 30, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, H.R.; Elton, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    Since arrival of FY-99 funding in December, the authors have been preparing for the first series of experiments under this grant on the OMEGA laser facility, which just took place (for one day) on April 27, 1999. The campaign was successful and results will be included in the next progress report following analyses. For the first time, they fielded their Ten Inch Manipulator (TIM-) mounted flat-field, grazing-incidence extreme-ultraviolet (euv) spectrograph with a four-channel gated-stripline microchannel plate (MCP) detector. This spectrograph covers the spectral range of 30--250 angstrom (hv = 50--400 eV). As in a previous campaign of May 1998, where the authors used this instrument with time-integrated photographic recording, the spectrograph reached closer to the target than did the previous version mounted on the chamber wall; such that the sensitivity increased by at least a factor-of-10 for viewing weak spectral features. The analysis during this reporting period of the euv spectroscopic results from the October 1998 NLUF/OMEGA campaign of Mg X, XI and XII spectra from n = 3 to n = 2 transitions are shown in Fig. 1 versus time. The data plotted represent a composite between the three most sensitive striplines, delayed relative to each other, for a number of shots. The intended emphasis was on the early portion of the event while the laser intensity is rising to a peak. This measured euv history agrees with that from the x-ray streak spectrographic data shown in Fig. 2 from the same campaign, i.e., the peak period of emission being in the first 1.5 ns

  10. High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arko, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) covers a very broad range of measurements, disciplines, and interests. As the next generation light source, the FEL will result in improvements over the undulator that are larger than the undulater improvements over bending magnets. The combination of high flux and high inherent resolution will result in several orders of magnitude gain in signal to noise over measurements using synchrotron-based undulators. The latter still require monochromators. Their resolution is invariably strongly energy-dependent so that in the regions of interest for many experiments (h upsilon > 100 eV) they will not have a resolving power much over 1000. In order to study some of the interesting phenomena in actinides (heavy fermions e.g.) one would need resolving powers of 10 4 to 10 5 . These values are only reachable with the FEL

  11. Baryon spectroscopy in COMPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austregesilo, Alexander; Chung, Suh-Urk; Ketzer, Bernhard; Neubert, Sebastian; Paul, Stephan [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E18, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at CERN SPS which investigates the structure and spectroscopy of hadrons. During in total 9 weeks in 2008 and 2009, a 190 GeV/c proton beam impinging on a liquid hydrogen target has been used primarily to study the production of exotic mesons and glueball candidates at central rapidities. As no bias on the rapidity was introduced by the trigger system, the data also yield the unique possibility to study diffractive dissociation of the beam proton while an inert target is assumed. To this end exclusive events with three charged particles including one proton in the final state have been extracted. We report on the status of the event selection studies and discuss the prospect of using partial wave analysis techniques, which have been successfully applied for diffractive dissociation reactions of pions in COMPASS.

  12. Introductory Raman spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R

    2012-01-01

    Praise for Introductory Raman Spectroscopy Highlights basic theory, which is treated in an introductory fashion Presents state-of-the-art instrumentation Discusses new applications of Raman spectroscopy in industry and research.

  13. Sub-Doppler spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansch, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy, tunable cw sources, and Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy. Discusses saturation spectroscopy; continuous wave saturation spectroscopy in the ultraviolet; and two-photon spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen 1S-2S. Focuses on Doppler-free laser spectroscopy of gaseous samples. Explains that in saturation spectroscopy, a monochromatic laser beam ''labels'' a group of atoms within a narrow range of axial velocities through excitation or optical pumping, and a Doppler-free spectrum of these selected atoms is observed with a second, counterpropagating beam. Notes that in two-photon spectroscopy it is possible to record Doppler-free spectra without any need for velocity selection by excitation with two counterpropagating laser beams whose first order Doppler shifts cancel

  14. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1997-01-01

    This series describes selected advances in the area of atomic spectroscopy. It is primarily intended for the reader who has a background in atmoic spectroscopy; suitable to the novice and expert. Although a widely used and accepted method for metal and non-metal analysis in a variety of complex samples, Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy covers a wide range of materials. Each Chapter will completely cover an area of atomic spectroscopy where rapid development has occurred.

  15. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  16. Ultrafast laser pump/x-ray probe experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, J.; Judd, E.; Schuck, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    In an ongoing project aimed at probing solids using x-rays obtained at the ALS synchrotron with a sub-picosecond time resolution following interactions with a 100 fs laser pulse, the authors have successfully performed pump-probe experiments limited by the temporal duration of ALS-pulse. They observe a drop in the diffraction efficiency following laser heating. They can attribute this to a disordering of the crystal. Studies with higher temporal resolution are required to determine the mechanism. The authors have also incorporated a low-jitter streakcamera as a diagnostic for observing time-dependant x-ray diffraction. The streakcamera triggered by a photoconductive switch was operated at kHz repetition rates. Using UV-pulses, the authors obtain a temporal response of 2 ps when averaging 5000 laser pulses. They demonstrate the ability to detect monochromatized x-ray radiation from a bend-magnet with the streak camera by measuring the pulse duration of a x-ray pulse to 70 ps. In conclusion, the authors show a rapid disordering of an InSb crystal. The resolution was determined by the duration of the ALS pulse. They also demonstrate that they can detect x-ray radiation from a synchrotron source with a temporal resolution of 2ps, by using an ultrafast x-ray streak camera. Their set-up will allow them to pursue laser pump/x-ray probe experiments to monitor structural changes in materials with ultrafast time resolution

  17. Symposium on atomic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Topics covered by the conference include: fast beam spectroscopy; astrophysical and other spectra; highly ionized spectroscopy; complex spectra; rydberg levels; fine structure, hyperfine structure and isotope shift; lineshapes; lifetimes, oscillator strengths and Einstein coefficients; and spectroscopy with lasers. Abstracts of the conference papers are presented. (GHT)

  18. Symposium on atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Topics covered by the conference include: fast beam spectroscopy; astrophysical and other spectra; highly ionized spectroscopy; complex spectra; rydberg levels; fine structure, hyperfine structure and isotope shift; lineshapes; lifetimes, oscillator strengths and Einstein coefficients; and spectroscopy with lasers. Abstracts of the conference papers are presented

  19. Understanding charge carrier relaxation processes in terbium arsenide nanoparticles using transient absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoef, Laura R.

    Erbium arsenide nanoparticles epitaxially grown within III-V semiconductors have been shown to improve the performance of devices for applications ranging from thermoelectrics to THz pulse generation. The small size of rare-earth nanoparticles suggests that interesting electronic properties might emerge as a result of both spatial confinement and surface states. However, ErAs nanoparticles do not exhibit any signs of quantum confinement or an emergent bandgap, and these experimental observations are understood from theory. The incorporation of other rare-earth monopnictide nanoparticles into III-V hosts is a likely path to engineering carrier excitation, relaxation and transport dynamics for optoelectronic device applications. However, the electronic structure of these other rare-earth monopnictide nanoparticles remains poorly understood. The objective of this research is to explore the electronic structure and optical properties of III-V materials containing novel rare-earth monopnictides. We use ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy to investigate the electronic structure of TbAs nanoparticles in III-V hosts. We start with TbAs:GaAs, which was expected to be similar to ErAs:GaAs. We study the dynamics of carrier relaxation into the TbAs states using optical pump terahertz probe transient absorption spectroscopy. By analyzing how the carrier relaxation rates depend on pump fluence and sample temperature, we conclude that the TbAs states are saturable. Saturable traps suggest the existence of a bandgap for TbAs nanoparticles, in sharp contrast with previous results for ErAs. We then apply the same experimental technique to two samples of TbAs nanoparticles in InGaAs with different concentrations of TbAs. We observe similar relaxation dynamics associated with trap saturation, though the ability to resolve these processes is contingent upon a high enough TbAs concentration in the sample. We have also constructed an optical pump optical probe transient absorption

  20. Molecular couplings and energy exchange between DNA and water mapped by femtosecond infrared spectroscopy of backbone vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingliang Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular couplings between DNA and water together with the accompanying processes of energy exchange are mapped via the ultrafast response of DNA backbone vibrations after OH stretch excitation of the water shell. Native salmon testes DNA is studied in femtosecond pump-probe experiments under conditions of full hydration and at a reduced hydration level with two water layers around the double helix. Independent of their local hydration patterns, all backbone vibrations in the frequency range from 940 to 1120 cm–1 display a quasi-instantaneous reshaping of the spectral envelopes of their fundamental absorption bands upon excitation of the water shell. The subsequent reshaping kinetics encompass a one-picosecond component, reflecting the formation of a hot ground state of the water shell, and a slower contribution on a time scale of tens of picoseconds. Such results are benchmarked by measurements with resonant excitation of the backbone modes, resulting in distinctly different absorption changes. We assign the fast changes of DNA absorption after OH stretch excitation to structural changes in the water shell which couple to DNA through the local electric fields. The second slower process is attributed to a flow of excess energy from the water shell into DNA, establishing a common heated ground state in the molecular ensemble. This interpretation is supported by theoretical calculations of the electric fields exerted by the water shell at different temperatures.

  1. Transient absorption spectroscopy in biology using the Super-ACO storage ring FEL and the synchrotron radiation combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renault, Eric; Nahon, Laurent; Garzella, David; Nutarelli, Daniele; De Ninno, Giovanni; Hirsch, Matthias; Couprie, Marie Emmanuelle

    2001-01-01

    The Super-ACO storage ring FEL, covering the UV range down to 300 nm with a high average power (300 mW at 350 nm) together with a high stability and long lifetime, is a unique tool for the performance of users applications. We present here the first pump-probe two color experiments on biological species using a storage ring FEL coupled to the synchrotron radiation. The intense UV pulse of the Super-ACO FEL is used to prepare a high initial concentration of chromophores in their first singlet electronic excited state. The nearby bending magnet synchrotron radiation provides, on the other hand a pulsed, white light continuum (UV-IR), naturally synchronized with the FEL pulses and used to probe the photochemical subsequent events and the associated transient species. We have demonstrated the feasibility with a dye molecule (POPOP) observing a two-color effect, signature of excited state absorption and a temporal signature with Acridine. Applications on various chromophores of biological interest are carried out, such as the time-resolved absorption study of the first excited state of Acridine

  2. Transient absorption spectroscopy in biology using the Super-ACO storage ring FEL and the synchrotron radiation combination

    CERN Document Server

    Renault, E; De Ninno, G; Garzella, D; Hirsch, M; Nahon, L; Nutarelli, D

    2001-01-01

    The Super-ACO storage ring FEL, covering the UV range down to 300 nm with a high average power (300 mW at 350 nm) together with a high stability and long lifetime, is a unique tool for the performance of users applications. We present here the first pump-probe two color experiments on biological species using a storage ring FEL coupled to the synchrotron radiation. The intense UV pulse of the Super-ACO FEL is used to prepare a high initial concentration of chromophores in their first singlet electronic excited state. The nearby bending magnet synchrotron radiation provides, on the other hand a pulsed, white light continuum (UV-IR), naturally synchronized with the FEL pulses and used to probe the photochemical subsequent events and the associated transient species. We have demonstrated the feasibility with a dye molecule (POPOP) observing a two-color effect, signature of excited state absorption and a temporal signature with Acridine. Applications on various chromophores of biological interest are carried out,...

  3. Direct visualization of exciton reequilibration in the LH1 and LH2 complexes of Rhodobacter sphaeroides by multipulse spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Stuart, Thomas A; Vengris, Mikas; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I; Cogdell, Richard J; Hunter, C Neil; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2011-05-04

    The dynamics of the excited states of the light-harvesting complexes LH1 and LH2 of Rhodobacter sphaeroides are governed, mainly, by the excitonic nature of these ring-systems. In a pump-dump-probe experiment, the first pulse promotes LH1 or LH2 to its excited state and the second pulse dumps a portion of the excited state. By selective dumping, we can disentangle the dynamics normally hidden in the excited-state manifold. We find that by using this multiple-excitation technique we can visualize a 400-fs reequilibration reflecting relaxation between the two lowest exciton states that cannot be directly explored by conventional pump-probe. An oscillatory feature is observed within the exciton reequilibration, which is attributed to a coherent motion of a vibrational wavepacket with a period of ∼150 fs. Our disordered exciton model allows a quantitative interpretation of the observed reequilibration processes occurring in these antennas. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Selective One-Dimensional Total Correlation Spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiments for a Rapid Identification of Minor Components in the Lipid Fraction of Milk and Dairy Products: Toward Spin Chromatography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaemmanouil, Christina; Tsiafoulis, Constantinos G; Alivertis, Dimitrios; Tzamaloukas, Ouranios; Miltiadou, Despoina; Tzakos, Andreas G; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P

    2015-06-10

    We report a rapid, direct, and unequivocal spin-chromatographic separation and identification of minor components in the lipid fraction of milk and common dairy products with the use of selective one-dimensional (1D) total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. The method allows for the complete backbone spin-coupling network to be elucidated even in strongly overlapped regions and in the presence of major components from 4 × 10(2) to 3 × 10(3) stronger NMR signal intensities. The proposed spin-chromatography method does not require any derivatization steps for the lipid fraction, is selective with excellent resolution, is sensitive with quantitation capability, and compares favorably to two-dimensional (2D) TOCSY and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods of analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that the 1D TOCSY NMR spin-chromatography method can become a procedure of primary interest in food analysis and generally in complex mixture analysis.

  5. Heavy quark production and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.

    1993-11-01

    This review covers many new experimental results on heavy flavor production and spectroscopy. It also shows some of the increasingly improved theoretical understanding of results in light of basic perturbative QCD and heavy quark symmetry. At the same time, there are some remaining discrepancies among experiments as well as significant missing information on some of the anticipated lowest lying heavy quark states. Most interesting, perhaps, are some clearly measured production effects awaiting full explanation

  6. γ spectroscopy of 11ΛB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Y.; Ajimura, S.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, T.; Hashimoto, O.; Hotchi, H.; Imai, K.; Imoto, W.; Kakiguchi, Y.; Kameoka, S.; Krutenkova, A.; Maruta, T.; Matsumura, A.; Miwa, K.; Mizunuma, K.; Nakamura, S.N.; Nagae, T.; Nomura, H.; Noumi, H.; Outa, H.; Saha, P.K.; Saitoh, T.; Sato, Y.; Sekimoto, M.; Takahashi, T.; Tamura, H.; Tanida, K.; Toyoda, A.; Ukai, M.; Yamauchi, H.

    2005-01-01

    We have performed a γ spectroscopy experiment in 11 Λ B using a germanium detector array, Hyperball. In this experiment, we have observed six γ transitions from 11 Λ B. Among these transitions, the γ ray peak at 1482 keV is identified as E2 (1/2+->5/2+). The result of this experiment indicates that the level structure seems quite different from a theoretical prediction based on the results of the previous experiments

  7. Spectroscopy in catalysis : an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemantsverdriet, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Spectroscopy in Catalysis describes the most important modern analytical techniques used to investigate catalytic surfaces. These include electron spectroscopy (XPS, UPS, AES, EELS), ion spectroscopy (SIMS, SNMS, RBS, LEIS), vibrational spectroscopy (infrared, Raman, EELS), temperature-programmed

  8. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    2000-01-01

    This fifth volume of the successful series Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy continues to discuss and investigate the area of atomic spectroscopy.It begins with a description of the use of various atomic spectroscopic methods and applications of speciation studies in atomic spectroscopy. The emphasis is on combining atomic spectroscopy with gas and liquid chromatography. In chapter two the authors describe new developments in tunable lasers and the impact they will have on atomic spectroscopy. The traditional methods of detection, such as photography and the photomultiplier, and how they are being replaced by new detectors is discussed in chapter three. The very active area of glow discharge atomic spectrometry is presented in chapter four where, after a brief introduction and historical review, the use of glow discharge lamps for atomic spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are discussed. Included in this discussion is geometry and radiofrequency power. The future of this source in atomic spectroscopy is also dis...

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabenstein, D.L.; Guo, W.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most widely used instrumental methods, with applications ranging from the characterization of pure compounds by high-resolution NMR to the diagnosis of disease by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To give some idea of the wide-spread use of NMR, a computer search for the period 1985-1987 turned up over 500 books and review articles and over 7000 literature citations, not including papers in which NMR was used together with other spectroscopic methods for the routine identification of organic compounds. Consequently, they have by necessity been somewhat selective in the topics they have chosen to cover and in the articles they have cited. In this review, which covers the published literature for the approximate period Sept 1985-Aug 1987, they have focused on new developments and applications of interest to the chemist. First they review recent developments in instrumentation and techniques. Although there have not been any major break-throughs in NMR instrumentation during the past two years, significant refinements have been reported which optimize instrumentation for the demanding multiple pulse experiments in routine use today. Next they review new developments in methods for processing NMR data, followed by reviews of one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments

  10. Meson Spectroscopy at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Grube, Boris

    2016-11-29

    The goal of the COMPASS experiment at CERN is to study the structure and dynamics of hadrons. The two-stage spectrometer used by the experiment has large acceptance and covers a wide kinematic range for charged as well as neutral particles and can therefore measure a wide range of reactions. The spectroscopy of light mesons is performed with negative (mostly $\\pi^-$) and positive ($p$, $\\pi^+$) hadron beams with a momentum of 190 GeV/$c$. The light-meson spectrum is measured in different final states produced in diffractive dissociation reactions with squared four-momentum transfer $t$ to the target between 0.1 and 1.0 $(\\text{GeV}/c)^2$. The flagship channel is the $\\pi^-\\pi^-\\pi^+$ final state, for which COMPASS has recorded the currently world's largest data sample. These data not only allow to measure the properties of known resonances with high precision, but also to observe new states. Among these is a new axial-vector signal, the $a_1(1420)$, with unusual properties. Novel analysis techniques have been...

  11. Intermediate valence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnarsson, O.; Schoenhammer, K.

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopic properties of intermediate valence compounds are studied using the Anderson model. Due to the large orbital and spin degeneracy N/sub f/ of the 4f-level, 1/N/sub f/ can be treated as a small parameter. This approach provides exact T = 0 results for the Anderson impurity model in the limit N/sub f/ → ∞, and by adding 1/N/sub f/ corrections some properties can be calculated accurately even for N/sub f/ = 1 or 2. In particular valence photoemission and resonance photoemission spectroscopies are studied. A comparison of theoretical and experimental spectra provides an estimate of the parameters in the model. Core level photoemission spectra provide estimates of the coupling between the f-level and the conduction states and of the f-level occupancy. With these parameters the model gives a fair description of other electron spectroscopies. For typical parameters the model predicts two structures in the f-spectrum, namely one structure at the f-level and one at the Fermi energy. The resonance photoemission calculation gives a photon energy dependence for these two peaks in fair agreement with experiment. The peak at the Fermi energy is partly due to a narrow Kondo resonance, resulting from many-body effects and the presence of a continuous, partly filled conduction band. This resonance is related to a large density of low-lying excitations, which explains the large susceptibility and specific heat observed for these systems at low temperatures. 38 references, 11 figures, 2 tables

  12. Pump-probe nonlinear magneto-optical rotation with frequency-modulated light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustelny, S.; Gawlik, W.; Jackson Kimball, D. F.; Rochester, S. M.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Budker, D.

    2006-01-01

    Specific types of atomic coherences between Zeeman sublevels can be generated and detected using a method based on nonlinear magneto-optical rotation with frequency-modulated light. Linearly polarized, frequency-modulated light is employed to selectively generate ground-state coherences between Zeeman sublevels for which Δm=2 and Δm=4 in 85 Rb and 87 Rb atoms, and additionally Δm=6 in 85 Rb. The atomic coherences are detected with a separate, unmodulated probe light beam. Separation of the pump and probe beams enables independent investigation of the processes of creation and detection of the atomic coherences. With the present technique the transfer of the Zeeman coherences, including high-order coherences, from excited to ground state by spontaneous emission has been observed

  13. Versatile ultrafast pump-probe imaging with high sensitivity CCD camera

    OpenAIRE

    Pezeril , Thomas; Klieber , Christoph; Temnov , Vasily; Huntzinger , Jean-Roch; Anane , Abdelmadjid

    2012-01-01

    International audience; A powerful imaging technique based on femtosecond time-resolved measurements with a high dynamic range, commercial CCD camera is presented. Ultrafast phenomena induced by a femtosecond laser pump are visualized through the lock-in type acquisition of images recorded by a femtosecond laser probe. This technique allows time-resolved measurements of laser excited phenomena at multiple probe wavelengths (spectrometer mode) or conventional imaging of the sample surface (ima...

  14. Impact of a Vertically Polarized Undulator on LCLS Hard X-ray Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, David [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2014-11-14

    The LCLS-II project will install two variable gap, horizontally polarized undulators into the LCLS undulator hall. One undulator is designed to produce soft x-rays spanning an energy range of 200-1250 eV (SXU) while the other is designed for the hard spectral range of 1-25 keV (HXU). The hard x-ray LCLS instruments (X-ray Pump- Probe [XPP], X-ray correlation Spectroscopy [XCS], Coherent X-ray Imaging [CXI], Matter in Extreme Conditions [MEC]) will be repurposed to operate on the HXU line while two new soft x-ray beamlines will be created for the SXU line. An alternate HXU undulator design is being considered that could provide advantages over the present design choice. In particular, the project team is collaborating with Argonne National Laboratory to develop a vertically polarized undulator (VPU). A 1-m prototype VPU device was successfully constructed this year and a full size prototype is in process. A decision to alter the project baseline, which is the construction of a horizontally polarized device, must be made in the coming weeks to not impact the present project schedule. Please note that a change to the soft x-ray undulator is not under discussion at the moment.

  15. A simple decay-spectroscopy station at CRIS-ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, K.M., E-mail: kara.marie.lynch@cern.ch [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern, en Stralingsfysica, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); EP Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cocolios, T.E. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern, en Stralingsfysica, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Althubiti, N. [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Farooq-Smith, G.J. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern, en Stralingsfysica, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Gins, W. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern, en Stralingsfysica, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Smith, A.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-01

    A new decay-spectroscopy station (DSS2.0) has been designed by the CRIS collaboration for use at the radioactive ion beam facility, ISOLDE. With the design optimised for both charged-particle and γ-ray detection, the DDS2.0 allows high-efficiency decay spectroscopy to be performed. The DSS2.0 complements the existing decay-spectroscopy system at the CRIS experiment, and together provide the ability to perform laser-assisted nuclear decay spectroscopy on both ground state and long-lived isomeric species. This paper describes the new decay-spectroscopy station and presents the characterisation studies that have recently been performed.

  16. Determining the Authenticity of Gemstones Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponick, Aaron; Marchozzi, Emedio; Johnston, Cynthia R.; Wigal, Carl T.

    1998-04-01

    The benefits of laser spectroscopy in the undergraduate curriculum have been the focus of several recent articles in this journal. Raman spectroscopy has been of particular interest since the similarities of Raman to conventional infrared spectroscopy make the interpretation of spectral data well within undergraduate comprehension. In addition, the accessibility to this technology is now within the reach of most undergraduate institutions. This paper reports the development of an experiment using Raman spectroscopy which determines the authenticity of both diamonds and pearls. The resulting spectra provide an introduction to vibrational spectroscopy and can be used in a variety of laboratory courses ranging from introductory chemistry to instrumental analysis.

  17. Progress in atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.J.; Kleinpoppen, H.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents reviews by leading experts in the field covering areas of research at the forefront of atomic spectroscopy. Topics considered include the k ordering of atomic structure, multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock calculations for complex atoms, new methods in high-resolution laser spectroscopy, resonance ionization spectroscopy (inert atom detection), trapped ion spectroscopy, high-magnetic-field atomic physics, the effects of magnetic and electric fields on highly excited atoms, x rays from superheavy collision systems, recoil ion spectroscopy with heavy ions, investigations of superheavy quasi-atoms via spectroscopy of electron rays and positrons, impact ionization by fast projectiles, and amplitudes and state parameters from ion- and atom-atom excitation processes

  18. Enhancing the blue shift of SHG signal in GaSe:B/Ce crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatay, Ahmet; Yuksek, Mustafa; Ertap, Hüseyin; Elmali, Ayhan; Karabulut, Mevlut

    2018-02-01

    The influence of Ce3+ on the wavelength of second harmonic generation (SHG) signal in boron doped GaSe crystals have been investigated. We found that by substitution of Ce3+ with B3+, SHG signal shifted to lower wavelength. In addition, the nonlinear absorption (NA) properties and ultrafast dynamics of pure, 1 at.% B3+ and 0.5 at.% B3++ 0.5 at.% Ce3+ doped GaSe crystals have been studied by open aperture Z-scan and ultrafast pump probe spectroscopy techniques. From the open aperture Z-scan experiments we observed that all of the crystals showed nonlinear absorption (NA). However, pump-probe experiments revealed that when GaSe crystal is doped, the NA signal turns into a bleaching signal with different lifetimes depending on the type and concentration of the dopant atoms.

  19. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rule, Gordon S

    2006-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful technique to study the structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy is a comprehensive textbook that guides the reader from a basic understanding of the phenomenological properties of magnetic resonance to the application and interpretation of modern multi-dimensional NMR experiments on 15N/13C-labeled proteins. Beginning with elementary quantum mechanics, a set of practical rules is presented and used to describe many commonly employed multi-dimensional, multi-nuclear NMR pulse sequences. A modular analysis of NMR pulse sequence building blocks also provides a basis for understanding and developing novel pulse programs. This text not only covers topics from chemical shift assignment to protein structure refinement, as well as the analysis of protein dynamics and chemical kinetics, but also provides a practical guide to many aspects of modern spectrometer hardware, sample preparation, experimental set-up, and data pr...

  20. New Hadronic Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccini, R.

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years the field of hadron spectroscopy has seen renewed interest due to the publication, initially mostly from B-Factories, of evidences of states that do not match regular spectroscopy, but are rather candidates for bound states with additional quarks or gluons (four quarks for tetraquarks and molecules and two quarks and gluons for hybrids). A huge effort in understanding the nature of this new states and in building a new spectroscopy is ongoing. This paper reviews the experimental and theoretical state of the art on heavy quarkonium exotic spectroscopy, with particular attention on the steps towards a global picture.

  1. Advances in DUV spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Mogensen, Claus Tilsted

    The would-be advantages of deep UV (DUV) spectroscopy are well known, but the potential applications have so far not been fully realized due to technological limitations and, perhaps, lack of bright ideas. However, new components and new knowledge about DUV spectra and spectroscopic methods...... combined with increasing needs for solutions to practical problems in environmental protection, medicine and pollution monitoring promise a new era in DUV spectroscopy. Here we shall review the basis for DUV spectroscopy, both DUV fluorescence and DUV Raman spectroscopy, and describe recent advances...

  2. Spectroscopy for Dummies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvold, Lars René

    This presentation will give short introduction to the most pertinent topics of optical spectroscopy. The following topics will be discussed: • The origin of spectra in UV, VIS and IR spectral range • Spectroscopic methods like absorption, luminescence and Raman • Wavelength dispersive optical...... components • Materials for use optical spectroscopy • Spectrometer geometries • Detectors for use in spectrometer • Practical examples of optical spectroscopy The objective of this presentation is to give the audience a good feel for the range of possibilities that optical spectroscopy can provide....

  3. Meson Spectroscopy at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Grube, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The COmmon Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy (COMPASS) is a multi-purpose fixed-target experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) aimed at studying the structure and spectrum of hadrons. The two-stage spectrometer has a good acceptance for charged as well as neutral particles over a wide kinematic range and thus allows to access a wide range of reactions. Light mesons are studied with negative (mostly $\\pi^-$) and positive ($p$, $\\pi^+$) hadron beams with a momentum of 190 GeV/$c$. The spectrum of light mesons is investigated in various final states produced in diffractive dissociation reactions at squared four-momentum transfers to the target between 0.1 and 1.0 $(\\text{GeV}/c)^2$. The flagship channel is the $\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ final state, for which COMPASS has recorded the currently largest data sample. These data not only allow to measure the properties of known resonances with high precision, but also to search for new states. Among these is a new resonance-like signal, t...

  4. Heavy quark spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, J.L.

    1985-10-01

    New experimental and theoretical developments in heavy quark spectroscopy are reviewed. From studies of J/psi decays, the eta' is found to have some ''glue'' or other inert component, while the iota (a glueball candidate) probably contains some quarks as well. The xi(2.2) persists in new Mark III data, but is not seen by the DM2 collaboration. The production of charmonium states by anti pp reactions is reviewed. First evidence for a P- wave charmed meson, D(2420), has been presented by the ARGUS group. Radiative UPSILON decay studies fail to confirm the zeta(8.3) and begin to place useful limits on Higgs bosons. First results from an experiment at Fermilab on low-background hadronic production of UPSILON states are shown. Accurate measurements of chi/sub b/(1P) masses by the ARGUS collaboration are noted, and interpreted as favoring scalar quark confinement. Studies of t and other heavy quarks will probe the q anti q interaction below 0.05 fm, are likely to be strongly affected by t anti t-Z interference, and can provide varied information on Higgs bosons. 144 refs., 21 figs

  5. (e,2e) Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, I.E.; Weigold, E.

    1976-01-01

    We present a detailed treatment of the theoretical and experimental aspects of the symmetric (e,2e) reaction in atoms, molecules and solids. Two experimental arrangements are described for measuring angular correlations and separation energy spectra, the one arrangement employing coplanar and the other noncoplanar symmetric kinematics. The latter arrangement is shown to be particularly suitable for extracting structure information. The basic approximation, the factorized distorted-wave off-shell impulse approximation with fully distorted waves, is shown to correctly describe the reaction in some test cases, as does the phase distortion approximation. At energies of the order of 1200 eV the simple eikonal and plane wave approximations adequately describe the valence shell cross sections for light atoms and molecules containing first row elements. Energy independent structure information is obtained on: (a) shapes and magnitudes of the square of the momentum space wave functions for individual electron orbitals; (b) separation energies for individual ion eigenstates; (c) the characteristic orbital of each state; and (d) spectroscopic factors describing the probability that an eigenstate contains the principal configuration of a hole in the characteristic orbital for each eigenstate. Comparison is made with photoelectron spectroscopy and Compton scattering, since they separately yield some of the information obtained by the (e,2e) method. A brief summary is given of other electron-electron coincidence experiments. (author)

  6. Critical Metadata for Spectroscopy Field Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Rasaiah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A field spectroscopy metadata standard is defined as those data elements that explicitly document the spectroscopy dataset and field protocols, sampling strategies, instrument properties and environmental and logistical variables. Standards for field spectroscopy metadata affect the quality, completeness, reliability, and usability of datasets created in situ. Currently there is no standardized methodology for documentation of in situ spectroscopy data or metadata. This paper presents results of an international experiment comprising a web-based survey and expert panel evaluation that investigated critical metadata in field spectroscopy. The survey participants were a diverse group of scientists experienced in gathering spectroscopy data across a wide range of disciplines. Overall, respondents were in agreement about a core metadataset for generic campaign metadata, allowing for a prioritization of critical metadata elements to be proposed including those relating to viewing geometry, location, general target and sampling properties, illumination, instrument properties, reference standards, calibration, hyperspectral signal properties, atmospheric conditions, and general project details. Consensus was greatest among individual expert groups in specific application domains. The results allow the identification of a core set of metadata fields that enforce long term data storage and serve as a foundation for a metadata standard. This paper is part one in a series about the core elements of a robust and flexible field spectroscopy metadata standard.

  7. Sub-Picosecond Injection of Electrons from Excited {Ru (2,2'-bipy-4,4'-dicarboxy)2(SCN)2} into TiO2 Using Transient Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozik, A.J.; Ghosh, H.N.; Asbury, J.B.; Sprague, J.R.; Ellingson, R.J.; Ferrere, S.; Lian, T.

    1999-01-01

    We have used femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy to time resolve the injection of electrons into nanocrystalline TiO2 film electrodes under ambient conditions following photoexcitation of the adsorbed dye, [Ru(4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine)2(NCS)2] (N3). Pumping at one of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer adsorption peaks and probing the absorption of electrons injected into the TiO2 conduction band at 1.52 m and in the range of 4.1 to 7.0 m, we have directly observed the arrival of the injected electrons. Our measurements indicate an instrument-limited 50-fs upper limit on the electron injection time under ambient conditions in air. We have compared the infrared transient absorption for non-injecting (blank) systems consisting of N3 in ethanol and N3 adsorbed to films of nanocrystalline Al2O3 and ZrO2, and found no indication of electron injection at probe wavelengths in the mid-IR (4.1 to 7.0 m). At 1.52 m interferences exist in the observed transient adsorption signal for the blanks

  8. An ultrafast study of Zinc Phthalocyanine in DMSO

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ombinda-Lemboumba, Saturnin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The ultrafast dynamics of Zinc Phthalocyanine was studied using trasient absorption pump probe spectroscopy. Zinc Phthalocyanine was excited (pumped) at 672nm and probed by a white light continuum. The pump-probe technique used in this study...

  9. Infrared diode laser spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Cihelka, Jaroslav; Matulková, Irena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2010), s. 408-420 ISSN 1230-3402 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : FTIR spectroscopy * absorption spectroscopy * laser diodes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.027, year: 2010

  10. Acoustic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitters, G.; Kamsma, D.; Thalhammer, G.; Ritsch-Marte, M.; Peterman, E.J.G.; Wuite, G.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Force spectroscopy has become an indispensable tool to unravel the structural and mechanochemical properties of biomolecules. Here we extend the force spectroscopy toolbox with an acoustic manipulation device that can exert forces from subpiconewtons to hundreds of piconewtons on thousands of

  11. Coherent atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garton, W.R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Argonne Spectroscopy Laboratory, initiated and advanced over several decades by F.S. Tomkins and M. Fred, has been a major international facility. A range of collaborative work in atomic spectroscopy is selected to illustrate advances in experimental physics which have been made possible by combination of the talents of Tomkins and Fred with the unique facilities of the Argonne Laboratory. (orig.)

  12. Polarization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1977-02-01

    In a theoretical review of polarization experiments two important points are emphasized: (a) their versatility and their relevance to a large variety of aspects of hadron physics (tests of basic symmetries; a probe of strong interaction dynamics; a tool for hadron spectroscopy); (b) the wealth of experimental data on polarization parameters in pp and np scattering in the Regge language and in the diffraction language. (author)

  13. Laser spectroscopy probes the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.; Billowes, J.

    1998-01-01

    Extremely sensitive optical measurements are shedding new light on the shape and size of nuclei, and the properties of nuclear matter far from stability. Of the 7000 or so isotopes known to nuclear physicists, less than 270 are stable. In general isotopes become more and more unstable as we move away from the so-called valley of stability, and therefore become more difficult to study in experiments. The tests of the theory also become more demanding. Laser spectroscopy is one of the techniques that is helping to explore the properties of these isotopes and improve our understanding of the forces inside the nucleus. High-resolution laser spectroscopy of short-lived radioactive atoms now makes it possible to measure the nuclear charge radius of many elements, including many isotopes far from stability. The method can reveal fine details of the sizes, shapes and structures of nuclei. In addition, laser spectroscopy is making significant contributions to our understanding of the nuclear force in unstable nuclei with unusual, or extreme, proton-neutron ratios. In this article the authors discuss the latest advances in studying heavy nuclei. (author)

  14. Photoelectron spectroscopy of molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, J.

    1974-01-01

    The history of physical science is replete with examples of phenomena initially discovered and investigated by physicists, which have subsequently become tools of the chemist. It is demonstrated in this paper that the field of photoelectron spectroscopy may develop in a reverse fashion. After a brief introduction to the subject, the properties characterized as physical ones, are discussed. These are intensities and angular distributions, from which one can infer transition probabilities and phase shifts. Three separate experiments are described which involve accurate intensity measurements and it is shown how an interpretation of the results by appropriate theory has given new insight into the photoionization process. (B.R.H.)

  15. Atomic spectroscopy with diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tino, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Some applications of semiconductor diode lasers in atomic spectroscopy are discussed by describing different experiments performed with lasers emitting in the visible and in the near-infrared region. I illustrate the results obtained in the investigation of near-infrared transitions of atomic oxygen and of the visible intercombination line of strontium. I also describe how two offset-frequency-locked diode lasers can be used to excite velocity selective Raman transitions in Cs. I discuss the spectral resolution, the accuracy of frequency measurements, and the detection sensitivity achievable with diode lasers. (orig.)

  16. The spectroscopy of fission fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, W.R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Collaboration: La Direction des Sciences de la Matiere du CEA (FR); Le Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (BE)

    1998-12-31

    High-resolution measurements on {gamma} rays from fission fragments have provided a rich source of information, unobtainable at the moment in any other way, on the spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei. In recent years important data have been obtained on the yrast- and near yrast-structure of neutron-rich fission fragments. We discuss the scope of measurements which can be made on prompt gamma rays from secondary fission fragments, the techniques used in the experiments and some results recently obtained. (author) 24 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The spectroscopy of fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    High-resolution measurements on γ rays from fission fragments have provided a rich source of information, unobtainable at the moment in any other way, on the spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei. In recent years important data have been obtained on the yrast- and near yrast-structure of neutron-rich fission fragments. We discuss the scope of measurements which can be made on prompt gamma rays from secondary fission fragments, the techniques used in the experiments and some results recently obtained. (author)

  18. Gain dynamics of quantum dot devices for dual-state operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaptan, Y., E-mail: yuecel.kaptan@physik.tu-berlin.de; Herzog, B.; Kolarczik, M.; Owschimikow, N.; Woggon, U. [Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Schmeckebier, H.; Arsenijević, D.; Bimberg, D. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Mikhelashvili, V.; Eisenstein, G. [Technion Institute of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Haifa (Israel)

    2014-06-30

    Ground state gain dynamics of In(Ga)As-quantum dot excited state lasers are investigated via single-color ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy below and above lasing threshold. Two-color pump-probe experiments are used to localize lasing and non-lasing quantum dots within the inhomogeneously broadened ground state. Single-color results yield similar gain recovery rates of the ground state for lasing and non-lasing quantum dots decreasing from 6 ps to 2 ps with increasing injection current. We find that ground state gain dynamics are influenced solely by the injection current and unaffected by laser operation of the excited state. This independence is promising for dual-state operation schemes in quantum dot based optoelectronic devices.

  19. Using acoustic levitation in synchrotron based laser pump hard x-ray probe experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Lerch, Jason; Suthar, Kamlesh; Dichiara, Anthony

    Acoustic levitation provides a platform to trap and hold a small amount of material by using standing pressure waves without a container. The technique has a potential to be used for laser pump x-ray probe experiments; x-ray scattering and laser distortion from the container can be avoided, sample consumption can be minimized, and unwanted chemistry that may occur at the container interface can be avoided. The method has been used at synchrotron sources for studying protein and pharmaceutical solutions using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). However, pump-probe experiments require homogeneously excited samples, smaller than the absorption depth of the material that must be held stably at the intersection of both the laser and x-ray beams. We discuss 1) the role of oscillations in acoustic levitation and the optimal acoustic trapping conditions for x-ray/laser experiments, 2) opportunities to automate acoustic levitation for fast sample loading and manipulation, and 3) our experimental results using SAXS to monitor laser induced thermal expansion in gold nanoparticles solution. We also performed Finite Element Analysis to optimize the trapping performance and stability of droplets ranging from 0.4 mm to 2 mm. Our early x-ray/laser demonstrated the potential of the technique for time-resolved X-ray science.

  20. Quantum state-resolved, bulk gas energetics: Comparison of theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaffery, Anthony J., E-mail: A.J.McCaffery@sussex.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Sussex, Brighton, Sussex BN1 6SJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-21

    Until very recently, the computational model of state-to-state energy transfer in large gas mixtures, introduced by the author and co-workers, has had little experimental data with which to assess the accuracy of its predictions. In a novel experiment, Alghazi et al. [Chem. Phys. 448, 76 (2015)] followed the equilibration of highly vibrationally excited CsH(D) in baths of H{sub 2}(D{sub 2}) with simultaneous time- and quantum state-resolution. Modal temperatures of vibration, rotation, and translation for CsH(D) were obtained and presented as a function of pump-probe delay time. Here the data from this study are used as a test of the accuracy of the computational method, and in addition, the consequent changes in bath gas modal temperatures, not obtainable in the experiment, are predicted. Despite large discrepancies between initial CsH(D) vibrational states in the experiment and those available using the computational model, the quality of agreement is sufficient to conclude that the model’s predictions constitute at least a very good representation of the overall equilibration that, for some measurements, is very accurate.

  1. Strong influence of coadsorbate interaction on CO desorption dynamics on Ru(0001) probed by ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy and ab initio simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); LaRue, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Oberg, H. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Beye, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Dell' Angela, M. [Univ. of Hamburg and Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Turner, J. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gladh, J. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Ng, M. L. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Sellberg, J. A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Kaya, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Mercurio, G. [Univ. of Hamburg and Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Hieke, F. [Univ. of Hamburg and Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Nordlund, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Schlotter, W. F. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dakovski, G. L. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Minitti, M. P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fohlisch, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Univ. Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany); Wolf, M. [Fritz-Haber Institute of the Max-Planck-Society, Berlin (Germany); Wurth, W. [Univ. of Hamburg and Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); DESY Photon Science, Hamburg (Germany); Ogasawara, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Norskov, J. K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Ostrom, H. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Pettersson, L. G. M. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Ablid-Pedersen, F. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-04-16

    We show that coadsorbed oxygen atoms have a dramatic influence on the CO desorption dynamics from Ru(0001). In contrast to the precursor-mediated desorption mechanism on Ru(0001), the presence of surface oxygen modifies the electronic structure of Ru atoms such that CO desorption occurs predominantly via the direct pathway. This phenomenon is directly observed in an ultrafast pump-probe experiment using a soft x-ray free-electron laser to monitor the dynamic evolution of the valence electronic structure of the surface species. This is supported with the potential of mean force along the CO desorption path obtained from density-functional theory calculations. Charge density distribution and frozen-orbital analysis suggest that the oxygen-induced reduction of the Pauli repulsion, and consequent increase of the dative interaction between the CO 5σ and the charged Ru atom, is the electronic origin of the distinct desorption dynamics. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of CO desorption from Ru(0001) and oxygen-coadsorbed Ru(0001) provide further insights into the surface bond-breaking process.

  2. Cavity-enhanced spectroscopies

    CERN Document Server

    van Zee, Roger

    2003-01-01

    ""Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy"" discusses the use of optical resonators and lasers to make sensitive spectroscopic measurements. This volume is written by the researcchers who pioneered these methods. The book reviews both the theory and practice behind these spectroscopic tools and discusses the scientific discoveries uncovered by these techniques. It begins with a chapter on the use of optical resonators for frequency stabilization of lasers, which is followed by in-depth chapters discussing cavity ring-down spectroscopy, frequency-modulated, cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, intracavity spectr

  3. Homogeneity spoil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, J.; Boesch, C.; Martin, E.; Grutter, R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the problems of in vivo MR spectroscopy of P-31 is spectra localization. Surface coil spectroscopy, which is the method of choice for clinical applications, suffers from the high-intensity signal from subcutaneous muscle tissue, which masks the spectrum of interest from deeper structures. In order to suppress this signal while maintaining the simplicity of surface coil spectroscopy, the authors introduced a small sheet of ferromagnetically dotted plastic between the surface coil and the body. This sheet destroys locally the field homogeneity and therefore all signal from structures around the coil. The very high reproducibility of the simple experimental procedure allows long-term studies important for monitoring tumor therapy

  4. Baryon spectroscopy at KAON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comyn, Martin

    1992-07-01

    The unique opportunities for the study of baryon spectroscopy at the TRIUMF KAON Factory are outlined. Related issues in other areas of hadron spectroscopy are discussed. The complex of accelerators that comprise the TRIUMF KAON Factory, and the properties of the separated beams that will be available to experimenters, are described. Initial design considerations for detectors to be used in the study of hadron spectroscopy are presented, along with a proposed detector configuration. The progress towards realization of the TRIUMF KAON Factory is examined, and the timetable for the determination of the initial experimental programme and facilities is explained. 23 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Threshold Photoelectron Spectroscopy of the Methyl Radical Isotopomers, CH3, CH2D, CHD2 and CD3: Synergy between VUV Synchrotron Radiation Experiments and Explicitly Correlated Coupled Cluster Calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cunha de Miranda, B. K.; Alcaraz, Ch.; Elhanine, M.; Noller, B.; Hemberger, P.; Fischer, I.; Garcia, G. A.; Soldi-Lose, H.; Gans, B.; Mendes, L. A. V.; Boyé-Péronne, S.; Douin, S.; Žabka, Ján; Botschwina, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 14 (2010), s. 4818-4830 ISSN 1089-5639 Grant - others:CNRS-AVCR(FR) 20201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Threshold photoelectron spectroscopy * isotopomers * clusters Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.732, year: 2010

  6. IR Spectroscopy. An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenzler, H.; Gremlich, H.U.

    2002-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: absorption and molecular design, spectrometers, sample preparation, qualitative spectral interpretation and assertions, near-infrared and far-infrared spectroscopy, reference spectra and expert systems

  7. Charmonium spectroscopy, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahn, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    The state of charmonium spectroscopy is reviewed. All analyses proceed from a spin-dependent, non-relativistic Schroedinger equation. Many of the possible branching ratios for charm like states are investigated. 17 refs

  8. Dual THz comb spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Takeshi

    2017-08-01

    Optical frequency combs are innovative tools for broadband spectroscopy because a series of comb modes can serve as frequency markers that are traceable to a microwave frequency standard. However, a mode distribution that is too discrete limits the spectral sampling interval to the mode frequency spacing even though individual mode linewidth is sufficiently narrow. Here, using a combination of a spectral interleaving and dual-comb spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) region, we achieved a spectral sampling interval equal to the mode linewidth rather than the mode spacing. The spectrally interleaved THz comb was realized by sweeping the laser repetition frequency and interleaving additional frequency marks. In low-pressure gas spectroscopy, we achieved an improved spectral sampling density of 2.5 MHz and enhanced spectral accuracy of 8.39 × 10-7 in the THz region. The proposed method is a powerful tool for simultaneously achieving high resolution, high accuracy, and broad spectral coverage in THz spectroscopy.

  9. Multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, Barry D; Soifer, Hadas; Shafir, Dror; Dudovich, Nirit; Serbinenko, Valeria; Smirnova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    High harmonic generation (HHG) has opened up a new frontier in ultrafast science where attosecond time resolution and Angstrom spatial resolution are accessible in a single measurement. However, reconstructing the dynamics under study is limited by the multiple degrees of freedom involved in strong field interactions. In this paper we describe a new class of measurement schemes for resolving attosecond dynamics, integrating perturbative nonlinear optics with strong-field physics. These approaches serve as a basis for multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy. Specifically, we show that multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy can measure tunnel ionization dynamics with high precision, and resolves the interference between multiple ionization channels. In addition, we show how multidimensional HHG can function as a type of lock-in amplifier measurement. Similar to multi-dimensional approaches in nonlinear optical spectroscopy that have resolved correlated femtosecond dynamics, multi-dimensional high harmonic spectroscopy reveals the underlying complex dynamics behind attosecond scale phenomena. (paper)

  10. Foundations of laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Stenholm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    A simple presentation of the theoretical foundations of steady-state laser spectroscopy, this text helps students to apply theory to calculations with a systematic series of examples and exercises. 1984 edition.

  11. Surface vibrational spectroscopy (EELS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Adsorbed states of hydrogen on metal surfaces have been studied by means of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). In this article, typical spectra and analysis as well as recent development are introduced. (author)

  12. EDITORIAL: Nano Meets Spectroscopy Nano Meets Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, David J. S.

    2012-08-01

    The multidisciplinary two-day Nano Meets Spectroscopy (NMS) event was held at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington, UK, in September 2011. The event was planned from the outset to be at the interface of several areas—in particular, spectroscopy and nanoscience, and to bring together topics and people with different approaches to achieving common goals in biomolecular science. Hence the meeting cut across traditional boundaries and brought together researchers using diverse techniques, particularly fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy. Despite engaging common problems, these techniques are frequently seen as mutually exclusive with the two communities rarely interacting at conferences. The meeting was widely seen to have lived up to its billing in good measure. It attracted the maximum capacity of ~120 participants, including 22 distinguished speakers (9 from outside the UK), over 50 posters and a vibrant corporate exhibition comprising 10 leading instrument companies and IOP Publishing. The organizers were Professor David Birch (Chair), Dr Karen Faulds and Professor Duncan Graham of the University of Strathclyde, Professor Cait MacPhee of the University of Edinburgh and Dr Alex Knight of NPL. The event was sponsored by the European Science Foundation, the Institute of Physics, the Royal Society of Chemistry, NPL and the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance. The full programme and abstracts are available at http://sensor.phys.strath.ac.uk/nms/program.php. The programme was quite ambitious in terms of the breadth and depth of scope. The interdisciplinary and synergistic concept of 'X meets Y' played well, cross-fertilization between different fields often being a source of inspiration and progress. Fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy provided the core, but the meeting had little repetition and also attracted contributions on more specialist techniques such as CARS, super-resolution, single molecule and chiral methods. In terms of application the

  13. Photoelectron spectroscopy of heavy atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.G.

    1979-07-01

    The importance of relativistic interactions in the photoionization of heavy atoms and molecules has been investigated by the technique of photoelectron spectroscopy. In particular, experiments are reported which illustrate the effects of the spin-orbit interaction in the neutral ground state, final ionic states and continuum states of the photoionization target

  14. Monitoring of whey quality with NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Lomborg, Carina

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for monitoring of liquid whey quality parameters during protein production process has been tested. The parameters included total solids, lactose, protein and fat content. The samples for the experiment were taken from real industrial...

  15. Positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundar, C.S.; Viswanathan, B.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of positron annihilation spectroscopy, the experimental techniques and its application to studies on defects and electronic structure of materials is presented. The scope of this paper is to present the requisite introductory material, that will enable a better appreciation of the subsequent specialized articles on the applications of positron annihilation spectroscopy to investigate various problems in materials science. (author). 31 refs., 3 figs

  16. Ultrafast infrared vibrational spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fayer, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    The past ten years or so have seen the introduction of multidimensional methods into infrared and optical spectroscopy. The technology of multidimensional spectroscopy is developing rapidly and its applications are spreading to biology and materials science. Edited by a recognized leader in the field and with contributions from top researchers, including experimentalists and theoreticians, this book presents the latest research methods and results and will serve as an excellent resource for other researchers.

  17. Spectroscopy stepping stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, M.R.; Sturman, B.T.

    2003-01-01

    Determining the elemental composition of samples has long been a basic task of analytical science. Some very powerful and convenient approaches are based on the wavelength-specific absorption or emission of light by gas-phase atoms. Techniques briefly described as examples of analytical atomic spectrometry include atomic emission and absorption spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma emission and mass spectroscopy and laser induced breakdown spectrometry

  18. Acoustic resonance spectroscopy for the advanced undergraduate laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco-Villafañe, J A; Méndez-Sánchez, R A; Flores-Olmedo, E; Báez, G; Gandarilla-Carrillo, O

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple experiment that allows advanced undergraduates to learn the principles and applications of spectroscopy. The technique, known as acoustic resonance spectroscopy, is applied to study a vibrating rod. The setup includes electromagnetic-acoustic transducers, an audio amplifier and a vector network analyzer. Typical results of compressional, torsional and bending waves are analyzed and compared with analytical results. (paper)

  19. Achieving sensitive, high-resolution laser spectroscopy at CRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groote, R. P. de [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven (Belgium); Lynch, K. M., E-mail: kara.marie.lynch@cern.ch [EP Department, CERN, ISOLDE (Switzerland); Wilkins, S. G. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the CRIS collaboration

    2017-11-15

    The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment, located at the ISOLDE facility, has recently performed high-resolution laser spectroscopy, with linewidths down to 20 MHz. In this article, we present the modifications to the beam line and the newly-installed laser systems that have made sensitive, high-resolution measurements possible. Highlights of recent experimental campaigns are presented.

  20. Nonlinear spectroscopy of trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlawin, Frank; Gessner, Manuel; Mukamel, Shaul; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopy employs a series of laser pulses to interrogate dynamics in large interacting many-body systems, and it has become a highly successful method for experiments in chemical physics. Current quantum optical experiments approach system sizes and levels of complexity that require the development of efficient techniques to assess spectral and dynamical features with scalable experimental overhead. However, established methods from optical spectroscopy of macroscopic ensembles cannot be applied straightforwardly to few-atom systems. Based on the ideas proposed in M. Gessner et al., (arXiv:1312.3365), we develop a diagrammatic approach to construct nonlinear measurement protocols for controlled quantum systems, and we discuss experimental implementations with trapped ion technology in detail. These methods, in combination with distinct features of ultracold-matter systems, allow us to monitor and analyze excitation dynamics in both the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. They are independent of system size, and they can therefore reliably probe systems in which, e.g., quantum state tomography becomes prohibitively expensive. We propose signals that can probe steady-state currents, detect the influence of anharmonicities on phonon transport, and identify signatures of chaotic dynamics near a quantum phase transition in an Ising-type spin chain.

  1. Laser spectroscopy on a ''shoestring''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camparo, J.C.; Klimcak, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    The advent of tunable lasers has had a profound influence on both experimental and theoretical physics. Unfortunately, since these laser systems are typically hazardous and expensive, the physics student at the undergraduate or first-year graduate level has no real familiarity with their application in modern physics; and thus cannot fully appreciate their significance. Tunable single mode laser diodes, however, may offer a remedy to this situation. To demonstrate their applicability, we have designed a relatively simple and inexpensive experiment of laser diode spectroscopy in an atomic beam which illustrates the effect of hyperfine structure and the isotope shift in the rubidium D 1 transition (5 2 S/sub 1/2/-5 2 P/sub 1/2/). Furthermore, this experiment demonstrates the possibility of investigating basic physics without major expenditures for laser systems and laboratory facilities

  2. Proposed ultraviolet free-electron laser at Brookhaven National Laboratory: A source for time-resolved biochemical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.D.; Sutherland, J.C.; Laws, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory is designing an ultraviolet free- electron laser (UV-FEL) user facility that will provide pico-second and sub-picosecond pulses of coherent ultraviolet radiation for wavelengths from 300 to 75 nm. Pulse width will be variable from abut 7 ps to ∼ 200 fs, with repetition rates as high as 10 4 Hz, single pulse energies > 1 mJ and hence peak pulse power >200 MW and average beam power > 10 W. The facility will be capable of ''pump-probe'' experiments utilizing the FEL radiation with: (1) synchronized auxiliary lasers, (2) a second, independently tunable FEL beam, or (3) broad-spectrum, high-intensity x-rays from the adjacent National Synchrotron Light Source. The UV-FEL consists of a high repetition rate recirculating superconducting linear accelerator which feeds pulses of electrons to two magnetic wigglers. Within these two devices, photons from tunable ''conventional'' laser would be frequency multiplied and amplified. By synchronously tuning the seed laser and modulating the energy of the electron beam, tuning of as much as 60% in wavelength is possible between alternating pulses supplied to different experimental stations, with Fourier transform limited resolution. Thus, up to four independent experiments may operate at one time, each with independent control of the wavelength and pulse duration. The UV-FEL will make possible new avenues of inquiry in time studies of diverse field including chemical, surface, and solid state physics, biology and materials science. The experimental area is scheduled to include a station dedicated to biological research. The complement of experimental and support facilities required by the biology station will be determined by the interests of the user community. 7 refs., 5 figs

  3. Laser spectroscopy used in nuclear physics; La spectroscopie laser appliquee a la physique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, F

    2001-04-05

    The study of nuclear shapes is a basic topic since it constitutes an excellent ground for testing and validating nuclear models. Measurements of the electron quadrupolar moment, of the nuclear charge radius and of the magnetic dipolar moment shed light on the nuclear deformation. Laser spectroscopy is a specific tool for such measurements, it is based on the interaction of the nucleus with the surrounding electron cloud (hyperfine structure), it is then an external approach of the shape of the nucleus whereas the classical nuclear spectroscopy ({alpha}, {beta} or {gamma}) gives information on the deformation from the inside of the nucleus. The author describes 2 techniques of laser spectroscopy: the colinear spectroscopy directly applied to a beam issued from an isotope separator and the resonant ionization spectroscopy linked with atom desorption that allows the study of particular nuclei. In order to illustrate both methods some effective measurements are presented: - the colinear spectroscopy has allowed the achievement of the complete description of the isomeric state (T = 31 years) of hafnium-178; - The experiment Complis has revealed an unexpected even-odd zigzag effect on very neutron-deficient platinum isotopes; and - the comparison of 2 isotopes of gold and platinum with their isomers has shown that the inversion of 2 levels of neutron, that was found out by nuclear spectroscopy, is in fact a consequence of a change in the nuclear shape. (A.C.)

  4. Spectroscopy of element 115 decay chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, D; Forsberg, U; Golubev, P; Sarmiento, L G; Yakushev, A; Andersson, L-L; Di Nitto, A; Düllmann, Ch E; Gates, J M; Gregorich, K E; Gross, C J; Heßberger, F P; Herzberg, R-D; Khuyagbaatar, J; Kratz, J V; Rykaczewski, K; Schädel, M; Åberg, S; Ackermann, D; Block, M; Brand, H; Carlsson, B G; Cox, D; Derkx, X; Eberhardt, K; Even, J; Fahlander, C; Gerl, J; Jäger, E; Kindler, B; Krier, J; Kojouharov, I; Kurz, N; Lommel, B; Mistry, A; Mokry, C; Nitsche, H; Omtvedt, J P; Papadakis, P; Ragnarsson, I; Runke, J; Schaffner, H; Schausten, B; Thörle-Pospiech, P; Torres, T; Traut, T; Trautmann, N; Türler, A; Ward, A; Ward, D E; Wiehl, N

    2013-09-13

    A high-resolution α, x-ray, and γ-ray coincidence spectroscopy experiment was conducted at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. Thirty correlated α-decay chains were detected following the fusion-evaporation reaction 48Ca + 243Am. The observations are consistent with previous assignments of similar decay chains to originate from element Z=115. For the first time, precise spectroscopy allows the derivation of excitation schemes of isotopes along the decay chains starting with elements Z>112. Comprehensive Monte Carlo simulations accompany the data analysis. Nuclear structure models provide a first level interpretation.

  5. Spectroscopy of element 115 decay chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, Dirk [Lund University, Sweden; Forsberg, U. [Lund University, Sweden; Golubev, P. [Lund University, Sweden; Sarmiento, L. G. [Lund University, Sweden; Yakushev, A. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Andersson, L.-L. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Di Nitto, A. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Duehllmann, Ch. E. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Gates, J. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Gregorich, K. E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Gross, Carl J [ORNL; Hessberger, F. P. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Herzberg, R.-D [University of Liverpool; Khuyagbaatar, J. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Kratz, J. V. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Schaedel, M. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Aberg, S. [Lund University, Sweden; Ackermann, D. [GSI-Hemholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany; Block, M. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Brand, H. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Carlsson, B. G. [Lund University, Sweden; Cox, D. [University of Liverpool; Derkx, X. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Eberhardt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Even, J. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Fahlander, C. [Lund University, Sweden; Gerl, J. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Jaeger, E. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Kindler, B. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Krier, J. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Kojouharov, I. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Kurz, N. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Lommel, B. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Mistry, A. [University of Liverpool; Mokry, C. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Nitsche, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Omtvedt, J. P. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland; Papadakis, P. [University of Liverpool; Ragnarsson, I. [Lund University, Sweden; Runke, J. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Schaffner, H. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Schausten, B. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Thoerle-Pospiech, P. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Torres, T. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Traut, T. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Trautmann, N. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Tuerler, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland; Ward, A. [University of Liverpool; Ward, D. E. [Lund University, Sweden; Wiehl, N. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz, Germany

    2013-01-01

    A high-resolution a, X-ray and -ray coincidence spectroscopy experiment was conducted at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fu r Schwerionenforschung. Thirty correlated a-decay chains were detected following the fusion-evaporation reaction 48Ca + 243Am. The observations are consistent with previous assignments of similar decay chains to originate from element Z = 115. The data includes first candidates of fingerprinting the decay step Mt --> Bh with characteristic X rays. For the first time, precise spectroscopy allows the derivation of excitation schemes of isotopes along the decay chains starting with elements Z > 112. Comprehensive Monte-Carlo simulations accompany the data analysis. Nuclear structure models provide a first level interpretation.

  6. Gamma-ray spectroscopy with relativistic exotic heavy-ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Feasibility of gamma-ray spectroscopy at relativistic energies with exotic heavy-ions and new generation of germanium detectors (segmented Clover) is discussed. An experiment with such detector array and radioactive is discussed.

  7. Moessbauer spectroscopy. Tutorial book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Langouche, Guido

    2013-01-01

    First textbook on Moessbauer Spectroscopy covering the complete field. Offers a concise introduction to all aspects of Moessbauer spectroscopy by the leading experts in the field. Tutorials on Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Since the discovery of the Moessbauer Effect many excellent books have been published for researchers and for doctoral and master level students. However, there appears to be no textbook available for final year bachelor students, nor for people working in industry who have received only basic courses in classical mechanics, electromagnetism, quantum mechanics, chemistry and materials science. The challenge of this book is to give an introduction to Moessbauer Spectroscopy for this level. The ultimate goal of this book is to give this audience not only a scientific introduction to the technique, but also to demonstrate in an attractive way the power of Moessbauer Spectroscopy in many fields of science, in order to create interest among the readers in joining the community of Moessbauer spectroscopists. This is particularly important at times where in many Moessbauer laboratories succession is at stake.

  8. Conductivity peak, relaxation dynamics, and superconducting gap of YBa2Cu3O7 studied by terahertz and femtosecond optical spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel, A.; Gao, F.; Liu, Y.; Whitaker, J.F.; Uher, C.; Hou, S.Y.; Phillips, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Recent measurements at microwave, terahertz (THz), and infrared frequencies have revealed a peak in σ 1 below T c . Based on our THz measurements, which were performed on high quality, single crystal films of YBCO (900 and 500 A), we have found that σ 1 features a peak which increases in amplitude and shifts to lower temperatures as frequency changes from 1.2 to 0.4 THz. Although the quasiparticle relaxation time extracted from these results using the two-fluid Drude model exhibits an enhancement below T c , the analysis may not be adequate to account for the strong frequency dependence of the conductivity peak by the competition between the drop in scattering rate and the decreasing normal fluid density with temperature. On the contrary, we were able to account for the frequency dependent σ 1 by fitting with Mattis-Bardeen theory (modified to include scattering) using a slower average rate of increase of the anisotropic gap than for the BCS case as temperature decreases below T c . This is consistent with the higher normal fluid density (higher than Gorter-Casimir values) from the two-fluid model interpretation of our THz results. Thus, we have found evidence of BCS coherence factors in a high-T c superconductor with a slower than BCS gap increase below T c . We have discussed the role of coherence factors to account for the presence of the conductivity peak and the absence of the peak in NMR relaxation rate. Furthermore, we have presented a model for the quasiparticle relaxation time measured by the femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. This model allowed us to find a fit to the temperature-dependent energy gap function which is also consistent with the slower gap increase below T c

  9. Unquenched lattice upsilon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcantonio, L.M.

    2001-03-01

    A non-relativistic effective theory of QCD (NRQCD) is used in calculations of the upsilon spectrum. Simultaneous multi-correlation fitting routines are used to yield lattice channel energies and amplitudes. The lattice configurations used were both dynamical, with two flavours of sea quarks included in the action; and quenched, with no sea quarks. These configurations were generated by the UKQCD collaboration. The dynamical configurations used were ''matched'', having the same lattice spacing, but differing in the sea quark mass. Thus, it was possible to analyse trends of observables with sea quark mass, in the certainty that the trend isn't partially due to varying lattice spacing. The lattice spacing used for spectroscopy was derived from the lattice 1 1 P 1 - 1 3 S 1 splitting. On each set of configurations two lattice bare b quark masses were used, giving kinetic masses bracketing the physical Υ mass. The only quantity showing a strong dependence on these masses was the hyperfine splitting, so it was interpolated to the real Υ mass. The radial and orbital splittings gave good agreement with experiment. The hyperfine splitting results showed a clear signal for unquenching and the dynamical hyperfine splitting results were extrapolated to a physical sea quark mass. This result, combined with the quenched result yielded a value for the hyperfine splitting at n f = 3, predicting an η b mass of 9.517(4) GeV. The NRQCD technique for obtaining a value of the strong coupling constant in the M-barS-bar scheme was followed. Using quenched and dynamical results a value was extrapolated to n f = 3. Employing a three loop beta function to run the coupling, with suitable matching conditions at heavy quark thresholds, the final result was obtained for n f = 5 at a scale equal to the Z boson mass. This result was α(5)/MS(Mz)=0.110(4). Two methods for finding the mass of the b quark in the MS scheme were employed. The results of both methods agree within error but the

  10. Autobalanced Ramsey Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanner, Christian; Huntemann, Nils; Lange, Richard; Tamm, Christian; Peik, Ekkehard

    2018-01-01

    We devise a perturbation-immune version of Ramsey's method of separated oscillatory fields. Spectroscopy of an atomic clock transition without compromising the clock's accuracy is accomplished by actively balancing the spectroscopic responses from phase-congruent Ramsey probe cycles of unequal durations. Our simple and universal approach eliminates a wide variety of interrogation-induced line shifts often encountered in high precision spectroscopy, among them, in particular, light shifts, phase chirps, and transient Zeeman shifts. We experimentally demonstrate autobalanced Ramsey spectroscopy on the light shift prone Yb+ 171 electric octupole optical clock transition and show that interrogation defects are not turned into clock errors. This opens up frequency accuracy perspectives below the 10-18 level for the Yb+ system and for other types of optical clocks.

  11. Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Zeitler, Axel; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    "This book presents the current state of knowledge in the field of terahertz spectroscopy, providing a comprehensive source of information for beginners and experienced researchers alike whose interests lie in this area. The book aims to explain the fundamental physics that underpins terahertz  technology and to describe its key applications. Highlights of scientific research in the field of terahertz science are also outlined in some chapters, providing an overview as well as giving an insight into future directions for research.  Over the past decade terahertz spectroscopy has developed into one of the most rapidly growing areas of its kind, gaining an important impact across a wide range of scientific disciplines. Due to substantial advances in femtosecond laser technology, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has established itself as the dominant spectroscopic technique for experimental scientists interested in measurements at this frequency range. In solids and liquids THz radiation is in reso...

  12. Hypernuclear Spectroscopy at JLab Hall C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Osamu; Chiba, Atsushi; Doi, Daisuke; Fujii, Yu; Toshiyuki, Gogami; Kanda, Hiroki; Kaneta, M.; Kawama, Daisuke; Maeda, Kazushige; Maruta, Tomofumi; Matsumura, Akihiko; Nagao, Sho; Nakamura, Satoshi; Shichijo, Ayako; Tamura, Hirokazu; Taniya, Naotaka; Yamamoto, Taku; Yokota, Kosuke; Kato, S.; Sato, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Noumi, Hiroyuki; Motoba, T.; Hiyama, E.; Albayrak, Ibrahim; Ates, Ozgur; Chen, Chunhua; Christy, Michael; Keppel, Cynthia; Kohl, Karl; Li, Ya; Liyanage, Anusha Habarakada; Tang, Liguang; Walton, T.; Ye, Zhihong; Yuan, Lulin; Zhu, Lingyan; Baturin, Pavlo; Boeglin, Werner; Dhamija, Seema; Markowitz, Pete; Raue, Brian; Reinhold, Joerg; Hungerford, Ed; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard; Gaskell, David; Horn, Tanja; Jones, Mark; Smith, Gregory; Vulcan, William; Wood, Stephen; Johnston, C.; Simicevic, Neven; Wells, Stephen; Samanta, Chhanda; Hu, Bitao; Shen, Ji; Wang, W.; Zhang, Xiaozhuo; Zhang, Yi; Feng, Jing; Fu, Y.; Zhou, Jian; Zhou, S.; Jiang, Yi; Lu, H.; Yan, Xinhu; Ye, Yunxiu; Gan, Liping; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Danagoulian, Samuel; Gasparian, Ashot; Elaasar, Mostafa; Wesselmann, Frank; Asaturyan, Arshak; Margaryan, Amur; Mkrtchyan, Arthur; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Androic, Darko; Furic, Miroslav; Petkovic, Tomislav; Seva, Tomislav; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Rodriguez, Victor; Cisbani, Evaristo; Cusanno, Francesco; Garibaldi, Franco; Urciuoli, Guido; De Leo, Raffaele; Maronne, S.; Achenbach, Carsten; Pochodzalla, J.

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1st generation experiment, E89-009, which was successfully carried out as a pilot experiment of (e,e(prime)K + ) hypernuclear spectroscopy at JLab Hall C in 2000, precision hypernuclear spectroscopy by the (e,e(prime)K + ) reactions made considerable progress. It has evolved to the 2nd generation experiment, E01-011, in which a newly constructed high resolution kaon spectrometer (HKS) was installed and the 'Tilt method' was adopted in order to suppress large electromagnetic background and to run with high luminosity. Preliminary high-resolution spectra of 7 ΛHe and 28 ΛAl together with that of 12 ΛB that achieved resolution better than 500 keV(FWHM) were obtained. The third generation experiment, E05-115, has completed data taking with an experimental setup combining a new splitter magnet, high resolution electron spectrometer (HES) and the HKS used in the 2nd generation experiment. The data were accumulated with targets of 7 Li, 9 Be, 10 B, 12 C and 52 Cr as well as with those of CH 2 and H 2 O for calibration. The analysis is under way with particular emphasis of determining precision absolute hypernuclear masses. In this article, hypernuclear spectroscopy program in the wide mass range at JLab Hall C that has undergone three generation is described.

  13. Spin-state studies with XES and RIXS: From static to ultrafast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vankó, György; Bordage, Amélie; Glatzel, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    We report on extending hard X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) along with resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) to study ultrafast phenomena in a pump-probe scheme at MHz repetition rates. The investigated systems include low-spin (LS) FeII complex compounds, where optical pulses induce a spin...... to multiplet calculations. The 1s2p RIXS, measured at the Fe 1s pre-edge region, shows variations after laser excitation, which are consistent with the formation of the HS state. Our results demonstrate that X-ray spectroscopy experiments with overall rather weak signals, such as RIXS, can now be reliably...

  14. Photoionization of atmospheric gases studied by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mics, Zoltan; Kužel, Petr; Jungwirth, Pavel; Bradforth, S. E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 465, 1-3 (2008), s. 20-24 ISSN 0009-2614 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0286 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : terahertz * pump -probe * atmospheric gases * photoionization * plasma Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.169, year: 2008

  15. Transverse beam diagnostics for the XUV seeding experiment at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boedewadt, Joern

    2011-12-15

    High-gain free-electron lasers (FEL) offer intense, transversely coherent, and ultra short radiation pulses in the extreme ultraviolet, the soft- and the hard-X-ray spectral range. Undulator radiation from spontaneous emission is amplified. Due to the stochastic emission process, the radiation exhibits a low temporal coherence, and the structure of the amplified radiation in the temporal and in the spectral domain shows large shot-to-shot fluctuations. In order to improve the temporal coherence, an external radiation pulse is used to induce (or seed) the FEL process. With this, only a defined wavelength range within the FEL bandwidth is amplified provided that the irradiance of the external radiation exceeds the noise level of the FEL amplifier. In addition to the improved longitudinal coherence, a seeded FEL provides the possibility to perform pump-probe experiments with an expected temporal resolution of the order of the pulse durations. In order to experimentally proof this statement, a test experiment for direct HHG-seeding at wavelength below 40 nm was installed at the free-electron laser facility FLASH at DESY. Crucial for the seeded operation of an FEL is the six-dimensional laser-electron overlap of the seed laser pulses with the electron bunches. Hence, dedicated diagnostics to measure and mechanisms to control the overlap are essential. Within this thesis, a transport beamline for the seed laser beam and the transverse diagnostics for seed laser- and the electron-beam were developed and commissioned. Results of the performance of the seed injection beamline are presented, and first measurements of the seeded operation of the FEL are analyzed and evaluated. (orig.)

  16. Shell-Tunneling Spectroscopy of the Single-Particle Energy Levels of Insulating Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Hens, Z.; Zunger, A.; Franceschetti, A; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Gurevich, L.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.

    2001-01-01

    The energy levels of CdSe quantum dots are studied by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. By varying the tip-dot distance, we switch from "shell-filling" spectroscopy (where electrons accumulate in the dot and experience mutual repulsion) to "shell-tunneling" spectroscopy (where electrons tunnel, one

  17. Spectroscopy of antiproton helium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, Ryugo

    2005-01-01

    Antiproton helium atom is three-body system consisting of an antiproton, electrons and a helium nucleus (denoted by the chemical symbol, p-bar H + ). The authors produced abundant atoms of p-bar 4 He + , and p-bar 3 He + in a cooled He gas target chamber stopping the p-bar beam decelerated to approximately 100 keV in the Antiproton Decelerator at CERN. A precision laser spectroscopy on the atomic transitions in the p-bar 4 He + , and in p-bar 3 He + was performed. Principle of laser spectroscopy and various modifications of the system to eliminate factors affecting the accuracy of the experiment were described. Deduced mass ratio of antiproton and proton, (|m p -bar - m p |)/m p reached to the accuracy of 10 ppb (10 -8 ) as of 2002, as adopted in the recent article of the Particle Data Group by P.J. Mohr and B.N. Taylor. This value is the highest precise data for the CPT invariance in baryon. In future, antihydrogen atoms will be produced in the same facility, and will provide far accurate value of antiproton mass thus enabling a better confirmation of CPT theorem in baryon. (T. Tamura)

  18. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 11. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Biological Applications. B G Hegde. General Article Volume 20 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 1017-1032. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Photoacoustic and photothermal spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Tsuguo; Kitamori, Takehiko; Nakamura, Masato

    1995-01-01

    Photoacoustic and photothermal spectroscopy methods can be effectively applied to the analysis of microparticles in condensed matter. A more violent photothermal conversion phenomenon of a particle, laser breakdown and accompanying plasma and acoustic emission, was applied to individual detection and analysis of ultrafine particles in ultrapure water. Laser-like nonlinear emission from the plasma was observed. (author)

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueterjans, H.

    1987-01-01

    Contributions by various authors who are working in the field of NMR imaging present the current status and the perspectives of in-vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, explaining not only the scientific and medical aspects, but also technical and physical principles as well as questions concerning practical organisation and training, and points of main interest for further research activities. (orig./TRV) [de

  1. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy: Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. General Article Volume 20 Issue 2 February 2015 pp 151-164. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. Perspectives in hadron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, J.M. [Universite Joseph Fourier-IN2P3-CNRS, Lab. de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    A brief survey is presented of selected recent results on hadron spectroscopy and related theoretical studies. Among the new hadron states, some of them are good candidates for exotic structures: chiral partners of ground-states, hybrid mesons (quark, antiquark and constituent gluon), four-quark states, or meson-meson molecules.

  3. Laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The technique of laser resonance magnetic resonance allows one to study the high-resolution spectroscopy of transient paramagnetic species, viz, atoms, radicals, and molecular ions. This article is a brief exposition of the method, describing the principles, instrumentation and applicability of the IR and FIR-LMR and shows results of HF + . (Author) [pt

  4. Astronomical Spectroscopy -24 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    growth of spectroscopy and its application to the study of .... Cesium was discovered ten years earlier, in 1859; it is the ... Kirchhoff and Bunsen's discovery; he was spared the pain of seeing ... We will have to go back about twenty years.

  5. Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos-Vollebregt, M.T.C. de.

    1980-01-01

    A new method of background correction in atomic absorption spectroscopy has recently been introduced, based on the Zeeman splitting of spectral lines in a magnetic field. A theoretical analysis of the background correction capability observed in such instruments is presented. A Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer utilizing a 50 Hz sine wave modulated magnetic field is described. (Auth.)

  6. Surface vibrational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erskine, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A brief review of recent studies which combine measurements of surface vibrational energies with lattice dynamical calculations is presented. These results suggest that surface vibrational spectroscopy offers interesting prospects for use as a molecular-level probe of surface geometry, adsorbate bond distances and molecular orientations

  7. Spectroscopy of new particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, G.

    1977-08-01

    A review of the spectroscopy of the ''psions'' with hidden charm or charm quantum number ch = o is followed by a discussion of charmed mesons and baryons. The anomalous C-μ events and the heavy lepton hypothesis are briefly considered

  8. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Susanta Das. General Article Volume 9 Issue 1 January 2004 pp 34-49. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/01/0034-0049. Keywords.

  9. Laser spectroscopy and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziemski, L.J.; Solarz, R.W.; Paisner, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy has applications in diverse fields ranging from combustion studies and trace-sample detection to biological research. At the same time, it has also contributed greatly to the discovery of hundreds of new lasers. This symbiotic relationship has promoted an especially rapid expansion of the field. This book provides a review of the subject. It includes, for example, chapters on laser isotope separation techniques, enabling scientists to compare their relative advantages and drawbacks. This volume also gives numerous tables that summarize important features of lasers, experiments, and parameters for quick reference. In addition, it presents diagrams for visualizing rotational molecular energy levels of high J in order to enhance our understanding of molecular motions and their relationship to molecular energy levels. Offering insights into how experts think this technology will improve, it considers research and development in each topic discussed

  10. Fission fragment spins and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durell, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Prompt γ-ray coincidence experiments have been carried out on γ-rays emitted from post-neutron emission fission fragments produced by the aup 19F + 197 Au and 18 O + 232 Th reactions. Decay schemes have been established for even-even nuclei ranging from 78 Se to 148 Nd. Many new states with spin up to ∼ 12h have been observed. Apart from providing a wealth of new information on the spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei, the data have been analyzed to determine the average spin of primary fission fragments as a function of fragment mass. The results suggest that the fragment spins are determined by the temperature and shape of the primary fragments at or near to scission

  11. The COMPASS Hadron Spectroscopy Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Austregesilo, A

    2011-01-01

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS for the investigation of the structure and the dynamics of hadrons. The experimental setup features a large acceptance and high momentum resolution spectrometer including particle identification and calorimetry and is therefore ideal to access a broad range of different final states. Following the promising observation of a spin-exotic resonance during an earlier pilot run, COMPASS focused on light-quark hadron spectroscopy during the years 2008 and 2009. A data set, world leading in terms of statistics and resolution, has been collected with a 190GeV/c hadron beam impinging on either liquid hydrogen or nuclear targets. Spin-exotic meson and glueball candidates formed in both diffractive dissociation and central production are presently studied. Since the beam composition includes protons, the excited baryon spectrum is also accessible. Furthermore, Primakoff reactions have the potential to determine radiative widths of the resonances and to probe chiral pe...

  12. Laser spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, M

    2005-01-01

    When antiprotons (i.e. the antimatter counterpart of protons) are stopped in helium gas, 97% of them annihilate within picoseconds by reacting with the helium nuclei; a 3% fraction, however, survive with an anomalously long lifetime of several microseconds. This longevity is due to the formation of antiprotonic helium, which is a three-body Rydberg atom composed of an antiproton, electron, and helium nucleus. The ASACUSA experimental collaboration has recently synthesized large numbers of these atoms using CERN's Antiproton Decelerator facility, and measured the atom's transition frequencies to 60 parts per billion by laser spectroscopy. By comparing the experimental results with recent three-body QED calculations and the known antiproton cyclotron frequency, we were able to show that the antiproton mass and charge are the same as the corresponding proton values to a precision of 10 parts per billion. Ongoing and future series of experiments will further improve the experimental precision by using chirp-compe...

  13. Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Brooks

    2014-06-01

    The past decade has seen several major technology advances in electronics operating at microwave frequencies making it possible to develop a new generation of spectrometers for molecular rotational spectroscopy. High-speed digital electronics, both arbitrary waveform generators and digitizers, continue on a Moore's Law-like development cycle that started around 1993 with device bandwidth doubling about every 36 months. These enabling technologies were the key to designing chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometers which offer significant sensitivity enhancements for broadband spectrum acquisition in molecular rotational spectroscopy. A special feature of the chirped-pulse spectrometer design is that it is easily implemented at low frequency (below 8 GHz) where Balle-Flygare type spectrometers with Fabry-Perot cavity designs become technologically challenging due to the mirror size requirements. The capabilities of CP-FTMW spectrometers for studies of molecular structure will be illustrated by the collaborative research effort we have been a part of to determine the structures of water clusters - a project which has identified clusters up to the pentadecamer. A second technology trend that impacts molecular rotational spectroscopy is the development of high power, solid state sources in the mm-wave/THz regions. Results from the field of mm-wave chirped-pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy will be described with an emphasis on new problems in chemical dynamics and analytical chemistry that these methods can tackle. The third (and potentially most important) technological trend is the reduction of microwave components to chip level using monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) - a technology driven by an enormous mass market in communications. Some recent advances in rotational spectrometer designs that incorporate low-cost components will be highlighted. The challenge to the high-resolution spectroscopy community - as posed by Frank De

  14. Overview. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy. Section 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styczen, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The 1994 year activity in the Nuclear Spectroscopy Department was like in previous years spread over large variety of subjects concerned with the in-beam nuclear spectroscopy and many nucleon transfer reactions, properties of high excited nuclear states, and the applied nuclear spectroscopy. The studies in the first two groups were mostly carried out in a vast international collaboration which enabled us to carry out experiments on highly sophisticated experimental facilities abroad like EUROGAM, GASP, HECTOR or OSIRIS, and others. Some preparations for `home` experiments have been carried out on the very much looked forward and recently obtained heavy ion beam from the cyclotron at the Warsaw University. The applied nuclear spectroscopy works, on the other hand, were based on using our own installations: an elaborated set-up for perturbed angular correlations, the RBS and PIXE set-ups at the Van de Graaff accelerator, the implanter, an atomic force microscope and several others. Much of the effort manifests itself in several valuable results which are summarized in the following pages. It is to be underlined that those results, as well as some new instrumentation developments were possible due to additional support via special grants and the promotion of the international cooperation by the State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN). (author).

  15. Overview. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy. Section 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styczen, J [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The 1994 year activity in the Nuclear Spectroscopy Department was like in previous years spread over large variety of subjects concerned with the in-beam nuclear spectroscopy and many nucleon transfer reactions, properties of high excited nuclear states, and the applied nuclear spectroscopy. The studies in the first two groups were mostly carried out in a vast international collaboration which enabled us to carry out experiments on highly sophisticated experimental facilities abroad like EUROGAM, GASP, HECTOR or OSIRIS, and others. Some preparations for `home` experiments have been carried out on the very much looked forward and recently obtained heavy ion beam from the cyclotron at the Warsaw University. The applied nuclear spectroscopy works, on the other hand, were based on using our own installations: an elaborated set-up for perturbed angular correlations, the RBS and PIXE set-ups at the Van de Graaff accelerator, the implanter, an atomic force microscope and several others. Much of the effort manifests itself in several valuable results which are summarized in the following pages. It is to be underlined that those results, as well as some new instrumentation developments were possible due to additional support via special grants and the promotion of the international cooperation by the State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN). (author).

  16. Spectroscopy 101: A Practical Introduction to Spectroscopy and Analysis for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Lucas A.; Kammeyer, Jacquelin K.; Garg, Neil K.

    2017-01-01

    An undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory that provides an introduction to various spectroscopic techniques is reported. Whereas organic spectroscopy is most often learned and practiced in the context of reaction analyses, this laboratory experiment allows students to become comfortable with [superscript 1]H NMR, [superscript 13]C NMR, and IR…

  17. International symposium on NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication consists of 32 papers and presentations from the field of NMR spectroscopy applications submitted to the International Symposium on NMR Spectroscopy held at Smolenice between 29 Sep and 3 Oct, 1980. (B.S.)

  18. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 2. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy - Recent Advancement of Raman Spectroscopy. Ujjal Kumar Sur. General Article Volume 15 Issue 2 February 2010 pp 154-164 ...

  19. Ultrabroadband spectroscopy for security applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Sunniva; Berge, Luc; Skupin, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Ultrabroadband spectroscopy is a promising novel approach to overcome two major hurdles which have so far limited the application of THz spectroscopy for security applications: the increased bandwidth enables to record several characteristic spectroscopic features and the technique allows...

  20. Mid-infrared upconversion spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Andersen, H. V.

    2016-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is emerging as an attractive alternative to near-infrared or visible spectroscopy. MIR spectroscopy offers a unique possibility to probe the fundamental absorption bands of a large number of gases as well as the vibrational spectra of complex molecules. In this paper...

  1. Femtosecond laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hannaford, Peter

    2005-01-01

    As concepts and methodologies have evolved over the past two decades, the realm of ultrafast science has become vast and exciting and has impacted many areas of chemistry, biology and physics, and other fields such as materials science, electrical engineering, and optical communication. The field has recently exploded with the announcement of a series of remarkable new developments and advances. This volume surveys this recent growth in eleven chapters written by leading international researchers in the field. It includes sections on femtosecond optical frequency combs, soft x-ray femtosecond laser sources, and attosecond laser sources. In addition, the contributors address real-time spectroscopy of molecular vibrations with sub-5-fs pulses and multidimensional femtosecond coherent spectroscopies for studying molecular and electron dynamics. Novel methods for measuring and characterizing ultrashort laser pulses and ultrashort pulses of light are also described. The topics covered are revolutionizing the field...

  2. Visible spectroscopy on ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, J.V.

    1991-12-01

    In this report visible spectroscopy and impurity investigations on ASDEX are reviewed and several sets of visible spectra are presented. As a basis for identification of metallic impurity lines during plasma discharges spectra from a stainless steel - Cu arc have been recorded. In a next step a spectrum overview of ASDEX discharges is shown which reveals the dominating role of lines from light impurities like carbon and oxygen throughout the UV and visible range (2000 A ≤ λ ≤ 8000 A). Metallic impurity lines of neutrals or single ionized atoms are observed near localized surfaces. The dramatic effect of impurity reduction by boronization of the vessel walls is demonstrated in a few examples. In extension to some ivesti-gations already published, further diagnostic applications of visible spectroscopy are presented. Finally, the hardware and software system used on ASDEX are described in detail. (orig.)

  3. Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS)

    CERN Document Server

    Tetin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy and includes chapters on such topics as Förster resonance energy transfer (fret) with fluctuation algorithms, protein corona on nanoparticles by FCS, and FFS approaches to the study of receptors in live cells. Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field Covers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy Contains chapters on such topics as Förster resonance energy transfer (fret) with fluctuation algorithms, protein corona on nanoparticles by FCS, and FFS approaches to the study of receptors in live cells.

  4. Basic Principles of Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Michael H.

    Spectroscopy deals with the production, measurement, and interpretation of spectra arising from the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. There are many different spectroscopic methods available for solving a wide range of analytical problems. The methods differ with respect to the species to be analyzed (such as molecular or atomic spectroscopy), the type of radiation-matter interaction to be monitored (such as absorption, emission, or diffraction), and the region of the electromagnetic spectrum used in the analysis. Spectroscopic methods are very informative and widely used for both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Spectroscopic methods based on the absorption or emission of radiation in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis), infrared (IR), and radio (nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR) frequency ranges are most commonly encountered in traditional food analysis laboratories. Each of these methods is distinct in that it monitors different types of molecular or atomic transitions. The basis of these transitions is explained in the following sections.

  5. Mössbauer spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Boi Hanh

    2011-01-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy has contributed significantly to the studies of Fe-containing proteins. Early applications yielded detailed electronic characterizations of hemeproteins, and thus enhanced our understanding of the chemical properties of this important class of proteins. The next stage of the applications was marked by major discoveries of several novel Fe clusters of complex structures, including the 8Fe7S P cluster and the mixed metal 1Mo7Fe M center in nitrogenase. Since early 1990 s, rapid kinetic techniques have been used to arrest enzymatic reactions for Mössbauer studies. A number of reaction intermediates were discovered and characterized, both spectroscopically and kinetically, providing unprecedented detailed molecular-level mechanistic information. This chapter gives a brief summary of the historical accounts and a concise description of some experimental and theoretical elements in Mössbauer spectroscopy that are essential for understanding Mössbauer spectra. Major biological applications are summarized at the end.

  6. Plasma polarization spectroscopy. History and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    An intuitive account is given of the polarized emission line of atoms and ions, both classically and quantum mechanically. Polarization is a result of the population imbalance among the magnetic sublevels, or of the alignment, in the upper level. The history of Plasma Polarization Spectroscopy (PPS) is reviewed. Various polarization phenomena are divided into three classes. For each of the classes, typical experiments undertaken so far are reviewed. The advantages, limitations, and challenges regarding PPS are discussed. (author)

  7. Progress towards microwave spectroscopy of trapped antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki,Y

    2012-01-01

    Precision comparisons of hyperfine intervals in atomic hydrogen and antihydrogen are expected to yield experimental tests of the CPT theorem. The CERN-based ALPHA collaboration has initiated a program of study focused on microwave spectroscopy of trapped ground-state antihydrogen atoms. This paper outlines some of the proposed experiments, and summarizes measurements that characterize microwave fields that have been injected into the ALPHA apparatus.

  8. Progress towards microwave spectroscopy of trapped antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashkezari, Mohammad D., E-mail: mdehghan@cern.ch [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Andresen, Gorm B. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Baquero-Ruiz, Marcelo [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Bertsche, Wil [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Bowe, Paul D. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Butler, Eoin [CERN, Physics Department (Switzerland); Cesar, Claudio L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica (Brazil); Chapman, Steve [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Charlton, Michael; Deller, Adam; Eriksson, Stefan [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Fajans, Joel [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Friesen, Tim; Fujiwara, Makoto C. [University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Gill, Dave R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Gutierrez, Andrea [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hangst, Jeffrey S. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Hardy, Walter N. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hayano, Ryugo S. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan); Hayden, Michael E. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-15

    Precision comparisons of hyperfine intervals in atomic hydrogen and antihydrogen are expected to yield experimental tests of the CPT theorem. The CERN-based ALPHA collaboration has initiated a program of study focused on microwave spectroscopy of trapped ground-state antihydrogen atoms. This paper outlines some of the proposed experiments, and summarizes measurements that characterize microwave fields that have been injected into the ALPHA apparatus.

  9. Heavy flavour production and spectroscopy at LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, G.

    2014-01-01

    We present recent results in heavy flavour production and spectroscopy from the LHCb experiment, obtained using a data-set corresponding to up to 1 fb -1 of pp collisions at √(s)=7 TeV. We will discuss the studies of production of B mesons and quarkonium states, and the first observation of excited Λ* b states, as well as the production of double charm and χ c states. (author)

  10. Υ spectroscopy. A review of recent results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuts, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Υ system has proved to be one of the richest systems in which to test QCD, measure α s , test potential models (including the spin dependence), and measure hadronic transitions. In addition, the radiative decays are proving to be a sensitive hunting ground for light Higgs (as well as other exotica). The author reviews the most recent results on Υ spectroscopy from the CUSB, CLEO, ARGUS and Crystal Ball experiments. 36 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs

  11. Theory and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, John F.

    2015-05-01

    The interaction between quantum-mechanical theory and spectroscopy is one of the most fertile interfaces in all of science, and has a richly storied history. Of course it was spectroscopy that provided essentially all of the evidence that not all was well (or, perhaps more correctly put, complete) with the world of 19th century classical physics. From the discoveries of the dark lines in the solar spectrum by Fraunhöfer in 1814 to the curiously simple geometric formula discovered seventy years later that described the hydrogen atom spectrum, spectroscopy and spectroscopists have consistently identified the areas of atomic and molecular science that are most in need of hard thinking by theoreticians. The rest of the story, of course, is well-known: spectroscopic results were used to understand and motivate the theory of radioactivity and ultimately the quantum theory, first in its immature form that was roughly contemporaneous with the first World War, and then the Heisenberg-Schrödinger-Dirac version that has withstood the test of time. Since the basic principles of quantum mechanics ware first understood, the subject has been successfully used to understand the patterns found in spectra, and how these relate to molecular structure, symmetry, energy levels, and dynamics. But further understanding required to attain these intellectual achievements has often come only as a result of vital and productive interactions between theoreticians and spectroscopists (of course, many people have strengths in both areas). And indeed, a field that might be termed "theoretical spectroscopy" was cultivated and is now an important part of modern molecular science.

  12. NEUROFEEDBACK USING FUNCTIONAL SPECTROSCOPY

    OpenAIRE

    Hinds, Oliver; Wighton, Paul; Tisdall, M. Dylan; Hess, Aaron; Breiter, Hans; van der Kouwe, André

    2014-01-01

    Neurofeedback based on real-time measurement of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal has potential for treatment of neurological disorders and behavioral enhancement. Commonly employed methods are based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sequences that sacrifice speed and accuracy for whole-brain coverage, which is unnecessary in most applications. We present multi-voxel functional spectroscopy (MVFS): a system for computing the BOLD signal from multiple volumes of...

  13. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  14. 2008 Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip J. Reid

    2009-09-21

    The conference focuses on using vibrational spectroscopy to probe structure and dynamics of molecules in gases, liquids, and interfaces. The goal is to bring together a collection of researchers who share common interests and who will gain from discussing work at the forefront of several connected areas. The intent is to emphasize the insights and understanding that studies of vibrations provide about a variety of systems.

  15. Optical imaging and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Brady, David J

    2009-01-01

    An essential reference for optical sensor system design This is the first text to present an integrated view of the optical and mathematical analysis tools necessary to understand computational optical system design. It presents the foundations of computational optical sensor design with a focus entirely on digital imaging and spectroscopy. It systematically covers: Coded aperture and tomographic imaging Sampling and transformations in optical systems, including wavelets and generalized sampling techniques essential to digital system analysis Geometric, wave, and statis

  16. Vibrational Spectroscopy and Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Galina M.; Kwak, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Role of vibrational spectroscopy in solving problems related to astrobiology will be discussed. Vibrational (infrared) spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for identifying molecules. Theoretical approach used in this work is based on direct computation of anharmonic vibrational frequencies and intensities from electronic structure codes. One of the applications of this computational technique is possible identification of biological building blocks (amino acids, small peptides, DNA bases) in the interstellar medium (ISM). Identifying small biological molecules in the ISM is very important from the point of view of origin of life. Hybrid (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) theoretical techniques will be discussed that may allow to obtain accurate vibrational spectra of biomolecular building blocks and to create a database of spectroscopic signatures that can assist observations of these molecules in space. Another application of the direct computational spectroscopy technique is to help to design and analyze experimental observations of ice surfaces of one of the Jupiter's moons, Europa, that possibly contains hydrated salts. The presence of hydrated salts on the surface can be an indication of a subsurface ocean and the possible existence of life forms inhabiting such an ocean.

  17. Vibrational Energy Relaxation in Water-Acetonitrile Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Yeremenko, Sergey; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Wiersma, Douwe A.; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Nelson, Keith A.; Okada, Tadashi; Silvestri, Sandro De

    2004-01-01

    IR pump-probe spectroscopy is used to study the effect of hydrogen bonding on the vibrational energy relaxation pathways. Hydrogen bonding accelerates the population relaxation from 12ps in diluted acetonitrile solution to 700fs in bulk water.

  18. Ultrafast Non-thermal Response of Plasmonic Resonance in Gold Nanoantennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soavi, Giancarlo; Valle, Giuseppe Della; Biagioni, Paolo; Cattoni, Andrea; Longhi, Stefano; Cerullo, Giulio; Brida, Daniele

    Ultrafast thermalization of electrons in metal nanostructures is studied by means of pump-probe spectroscopy. We track in real-time the plasmon resonance evolution, providing a tool for understanding and controlling gold nanoantennas non-linear optical response.

  19. Development of Novel High Temperature Superconducting Detectors Based on Flux Activation and Ultrafast Dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Anatoly

    1998-01-01

    It is proposed to study quasiparticle (QP) relaxation dynamics and flux mechanism of HTS using pump/probe femtosecond spectroscopy and nonequilibrium photoresponse in the presence of a magnetic field (and/or bias current...

  20. Measurements of gain and index dynamics in quantum dash semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Mike van der; Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Ultrafast gain and index recovery of a 1.5um quantum dash amplifier after short pulse amplification is measured using pump-probe spectroscopy. The major part of the gain reduction is found to recover within a few picoseconds....

  1. Excited-state intramolecular hydrogen transfer (ESIHT) of 1,8-Dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (DHAQ) characterized by ultrafast electronic and vibrational spectroscopy and computational modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Omar F.; Xiao, Dequan; Batista, Victor S.; Nibbering, Erik Theodorus Johannes

    2014-01-01

    of femtosecond UV/vis and UV/IR pump-probe spectroscopic data. Upon photoabsorption at 400 nm, the S 2 electronic excited state is initially populated, followed by a rapid equilibration within 150 fs through population transfer to the S 1 state where DHAQ

  2. Linear and Nonlinear Molecular Spectroscopy with Laser Frequency Combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picque, Nathalie

    2013-06-01

    The regular pulse train of a mode-locked femtosecond laser can give rise to a comb spectrum of millions of laser modes with a spacing precisely equal to the pulse repetition frequency. Laser frequency combs were conceived a decade ago as tools for the precision spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen. They are now becoming enabling tools for an increasing number of applications, including molecular spectroscopy. Recent experiments of multi-heterodyne frequency comb Fourier transform spectroscopy (also called dual-comb spectroscopy) have demonstrated that the precisely spaced spectral lines of a laser frequency comb can be harnessed for new techniques of linear absorption spectroscopy. The first proof-of-principle experiments have demonstrated a very exciting potential of dual-comb spectroscopy without moving parts for ultra-rapid and ultra-sensitive recording of complex broad spectral bandwidth molecular spectra. Compared to conventional Michelson-based Fourier transform spectroscopy, recording times could be shortened from seconds to microseconds, with intriguing prospects for spectroscopy of short lived transient species. The resolution improves proportionally to the measurement time. Therefore longer recordings allow high resolution spectroscopy of molecules with extreme precision, since the absolute frequency of each laser comb line can be known with the accuracy of an atomic clock. Moreover, since laser frequency combs involve intense ultrashort laser pulses, nonlinear interactions can be harnessed. Broad spectral bandwidth ultra-rapid nonlinear molecular spectroscopy and imaging with two laser frequency combs is demonstrated with coherent Raman effects and two-photon excitation. Real-time multiplex accessing of hyperspectral images may dramatically expand the range of applications of nonlinear microscopy. B. Bernhardt et al., Nature Photonics 4, 55-57 (2010); A. Schliesser et al. Nature Photonics 6, 440-449 (2012); T. Ideguchi et al. arXiv:1201.4177 (2012) T

  3. COMPLIS: COllinear spectroscopy Measurements using a Pulsed Laser Ion Source

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A Pulsed Laser spectroscopy experiment has been installed for the study of hyperfine structure and isotope shift of refractory and daughter elements from ISOLDE beams. It includes decelerated ion-implantation, element-selective laser ionization, magnetic and time-of-flight mass separation. The laser spectroscopy has been performed on the desorbed atoms in a set-up at ISOLDE-3 but later on high resolution laser collinear spectroscopy with the secondary pulsed ion beam is planned for the Booster ISOLDE set-up. During the first operation time of ISOLDE-3 we restricted our experiments to Doppler-limited resonant ionization laser and $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$ nuclear spectroscopy on neutron deficient platinum isotopes of even mass number down to A~=~186 and A~=~179 respectively. These isotopes have been produced by implantation of radioactive Hg and their subsequent $\\beta$-decay.

  4. Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styczen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclear Spectroscopy Department is the largest department of the Institute. It merges a variety of research groups having been performing investigations with a rich diversity of methods: from pure studies of the structure of nucleus and of nuclear properties through applied nuclear spectroscopy in condensed matter research, to the complex biophysical investigations of biological tissues. The nuclear structure experiments were performed mainly in European Large Scale Facilities (ALPIINFN-Legnaro, VIVITRON-IReS-Strasbourg, JYFL-K100-Cyclotron) with the use of the GASP, EUROBALL IV, RITU systems and with application of ancillary detectors - HECTOR+HELENA, RFD. Some data were obtained with the GAMMASPHERE in USA. Other research has been based on our own instrumentation - VdG, AFM, Dual-Beam-Implanter, PAC, Moessbauer spectrometers etc., in a strong co-operation with Polish and European institutions, of course. The atomic studies were done on the ESR at GSI in Darmastadt. In several pages which follow, some important results of the investigations in the Department are presented. In 2001, Dr hab. Jerzy Dryzek and Dr hab. Adam Maj were granted the Associated Professor positions, and Miss Agnieszka Kulinska and Mrs Maria Kmiecik - the Ph.D. degrees. Dr Kmiecik was also awarded the Henryk Niewodniczanski prize for studies of 147 Eu compound nucleus shape evolution. Some of us became (continued to be) members of International Committees - the PHINUFY (R. Broda), the Steering Committee of RISING at GSI (J. Styczen), the PAC of the VIVITRON at Strasbourg (J. Styczen). We organized an International Conference on Condensed Matter Studies (100 participants), which belonged to the well known series of Zakopane School of Physics. It's Proceedings appeared as a volume of the Acta Physica Polonica A journal. (author)

  5. A New Spin on Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozwiak, Chris [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The electronic spin degree of freedom is of general fundamental importance to all matter. Understanding its complex roles and behavior in the solid state, particularly in highly correlated and magnetic materials, has grown increasingly desirable as technology demands advanced devices and materials based on ever stricter comprehension and control of the electron spin. However, direct and efficient spin dependent probes of electronic structure are currently lacking. Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES) has become one of the most successful experimental tools for elucidating solid state electronic structures, bolstered by-continual breakthroughs in efficient instrumentation. In contrast, spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has lagged behind due to a lack of similar instrumental advances. The power of photoemission spectroscopy and the pertinence of electronic spin in the current research climate combine to make breakthroughs in Spin and Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (SARPES) a high priority . This thesis details the development of a unique instrument for efficient SARPES and represents a radical departure from conventional methods. A custom designed spin polarimeter based on low energy exchange scattering is developed, with projected efficiency gains of two orders of magnitude over current state-of-the-art polarimeters. For energy analysis, the popular hemispherical analyzer is eschewed for a custom Time-of-Flight (TOF) analyzer offering an additional order of magnitude gain in efficiency. The combined instrument signifies the breakthrough needed to perform the high resolution SARPES experiments necessary for untangling the complex spin-dependent electronic structures central to today's condensed matter physics.

  6. Introduction to experimental infrared spectroscopy fundamentals and practical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Tasumi, Mitsuo; Ochiai, Shukichi

    2014-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is generally understood to mean the science of spectra relating to infrared radiation, namely electromagnetic waves, in the wavelength region occurring intermediately between visible light and microwaves. Measurements of infrared spectra have been providing useful information, for a variety of scientific research and industrial studies, for over half a century; this is set to continue in the foreseeable future. Introduction to Experimental Infrared Spectroscopy is intended to be a handy guide for those who have no, or limited, experience in infrared spectroscopi

  7. Nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.

    1985-03-01

    This article is a summary of a short course lecture given in conjunction with the 1984 Nuclear Science Symposium. Measuring systems for nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy using single-photon counting techniques are presented. These involve systems based on relaxation-type spark gap light pulser and synchronously pumped mode-locked dye lasers. Furthermore, typical characteristics and optimization of operating conditions of the critical components responsible for the system time resolution are discussed. A short comparison of the most important deconvolution methods for numerical analysis of experimental data is given particularly with respect to the signal-to-noise ratio of the fluorescence signal. 22 refs., 8 figs

  8. Theory overview on spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Ahmed

    2011-08-01

    A theoretical overview of the exotic spectroscopy in the charm and beauty quark sector is presented. These states are unexpected harvest from the e + e - and hadron colliders and a permanent abode for the majority of them has yet to be found. We argue that some of these states, in particular the Y b (10890) and the recently discovered states Z b (10610) and Z b (10650), discovered by the Belle collaboration are excellent candidates for tetraquark states [bq][ anti b anti q], with q=u,d light quarks. Theoretical analyses of the Belle data carried out in the tetraquark context is reviewed. (orig.)

  9. Hadron spectroscopy 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    With much particle physics research using particle beams to probe the behaviour of the quark constituents deep inside nucleons and other strongly interacting particles (hadrons), it is easy to overlook the progress being made through hadron spectroscopy – the search for and classification of rare particles – and the way it has increased our understanding of quark physics. One way of remedying this was to attend the stimulating and encouraging Hadron 87 meeting held earlier this year at the Japanese KEK Laboratory, where Jonathan Rosner from Chicago's Enrico Fermi Institute gave the concluding talk

  10. Hadron spectroscopy 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-09-15

    With much particle physics research using particle beams to probe the behaviour of the quark constituents deep inside nucleons and other strongly interacting particles (hadrons), it is easy to overlook the progress being made through hadron spectroscopy – the search for and classification of rare particles – and the way it has increased our understanding of quark physics. One way of remedying this was to attend the stimulating and encouraging Hadron 87 meeting held earlier this year at the Japanese KEK Laboratory, where Jonathan Rosner from Chicago's Enrico Fermi Institute gave the concluding talk.

  11. Auger electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalaraman, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    General features of electron excited Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) which is a nondestructive technique for the analysis of surfaces upto about 15 Adeg depth with a detection limit of about 0.1% of a monolayer. Methods of measuring the Auger electron energies and recent improvements in the instrumentation are reviewed. Typical energy resolution is found to be about 0.5% which is specially suited for the detection of light elements. It is widely used in metallurgy, surface chemistry and thin film studies. (K.B.)

  12. Spectroscopy of 212Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchbery, A.E.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Byrne, A.P.; Poletti, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    Excited states of 212 Rn have been studied using γ-ray and electron spectroscopy following the reactions 208 Pb( 9 Be, 5n) and 204 Hg( 13 C,5n). With the exception of the energy of the yrast 8 + → 6 + transition, the previously proposed level scheme has been verified. New transitions have been placed in the level scheme and new lifetime and g-factor results obtained. The level scheme and electromagnetic properties of selected isomeric states are compared with the results of shell model and semi-empirical shell-model calculations, including coupling to octupole vibrations. (orig.)

  13. Spectroscopy of 212Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchbery, A.E.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Byrne, A.P.; Poletti, A.R.

    1988-06-01

    Excited states of 212 Rn have been studied using γ-ray and electron spectroscopy following the reactions 208 Pb ( 9 Be,5n) and 204 Hg( 13 C,5n). With the exception of the energy of the yrast 8 + → 6 + transition, the previously proposed level scheme has been verified. New transitions have been placed in the level scheme and new lifetime and g-factor results obtained. The level scheme and electromagnetic properties of selected isomeric states are compared with the results of shell model and semi-empirical shell-model calculations, including coupling to octupole vibrations

  14. MR spectroscopy in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, T.; Gerigk, L.; Giesel, F.; Schuster, L.; Essig, M.

    2010-01-01

    With an increasingly aging population we are faced with the problem of an increasing number of dementia patients. In addition to clinical, neuropsychological and laboratory procedures, MRI plays an important role in the early diagnosis of dementia. In addition to various morphological changes functional changes can also help in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementia. Overall the diagnosis of dementia can be improved by using parameters from MR spectroscopy. This article focuses on MR spectroscopic changes in the physiological aging process as well as on changes in mild cognitive impairment a precursor of Alzheimer's dementia, in Alzheimer's dementia, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia and Lewy body dementia. (orig.) [de

  15. Fourier transforms in spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kauppinen, Jyrki

    2000-01-01

    This modern approach to the subject is clearly and logically structured, and gives readers an understanding of the essence of Fourier transforms and their applications. All important aspects are included with respect to their use with optical spectroscopic data. Based on popular lectures, the authors provide the mathematical fundamentals and numerical applications which are essential in practical use. The main part of the book is dedicated to applications of FT in signal processing and spectroscopy, with IR and NIR, NMR and mass spectrometry dealt with both from a theoretical and practical poi

  16. Statistical nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of nuclear spectroscopy is to study properties of nuclear energy levels and transitions (electromagnetic, particle transfer, etc.) between these levels. Traditionally, the properties that involve a single level or a few levels have theoretically been investigated using models e.g. shell model, self-consistent field approximation, collective model (RPA, Generator Coordinate) and so on. Basically from these models, one obtains eigenvalues and eigenfunctions (or expectation values and transfer strengths) which can be compared with data. The choice of the model depends upon the properties that one wants to examine and the usefulness of the model depends upon its ability to explain observations and make predictions

  17. Resonance ionization spectroscopy 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, J.E.; Omenetto, N.

    1991-01-01

    The Fifth International Symposium on Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) and its Applications was held in Varese, Italy, 16-21 September 1990. Interest in RIS and its applications continues to grow, and RIS is expanding into a more diverse and mature field of study. This maturity was evident in this meeting both in the basic science and understanding of RIS processes and in the number of new and improved applications and techniques. The application of RIS techniques to molecular detection problems made remarkable progress since the last meeting two years ago. Subtle effects pertaining to isotopic discrimination received more theoretical attention, and there now seems to be good understanding of these effects, which can lead to correction procedures and/or methods to avoid isotopic effects. RIS applications were presented in which significant, real world problems were addressed, demonstrating its capability to solve problems that previously could not be accurately solved by other more traditional techniques. The contributions to the conference are grouped under the following major topic headings: physics applications of rare atoms; laser ionization mechanisms - spectroscopy; atomic, molecular and ion sources; molecular RIS; atomic RIS - Rydberg states; environmental trace analysis; biological and medical applications; state selected chemistry; new laser sources and techniques; ultra-high resolution and isotopic selectivity; surface and bulk analysis. (Author)

  18. Neutron resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunsing, F.

    2005-06-01

    The present document has been written in order to obtain the diploma 'Habilitation a Diriger des Recherches'. Since this diploma is indispensable to supervise thesis students, I had the intention to write a document that can be useful for someone starting in the field of neutron resonance spectroscopy. Although the here described topics are already described elsewhere, and often in more detail, it seemed useful to have most of the relevant information in a single document. A general introduction places the topic of neutron-nucleus interaction in a nuclear physics context. The large variations of several orders of magnitude in neutron-induced reaction cross sections are explained in terms of nuclear level excitations. The random character of the resonances make nuclear model calculation predictions impossible. Then several fields in physics where neutron-induced reactions are important and to which I have contributed in some way or another, are mentioned in a first synthetic chapter. They concern topics like parity nonconservation in certain neutron resonances, stellar nucleosynthesis by neutron capture, and data for nuclear energy applications. The latter item is especially important for the transmutation of nuclear waste and for alternative fuel cycles. Nuclear data libraries are also briefly mentioned. A second chapter details the R-matrix theory. This formalism is the foundation of the description of the neutron-nucleus interaction and is present in all fields of neutron resonance spectroscopy. (author)

  19. Neutron resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunsing, F

    2005-06-15

    The present document has been written in order to obtain the diploma 'Habilitation a Diriger des Recherches'. Since this diploma is indispensable to supervise thesis students, I had the intention to write a document that can be useful for someone starting in the field of neutron resonance spectroscopy. Although the here described topics are already described elsewhere, and often in more detail, it seemed useful to have most of the relevant information in a single document. A general introduction places the topic of neutron-nucleus interaction in a nuclear physics context. The large variations of several orders of magnitude in neutron-induced reaction cross sections are explained in terms of nuclear level excitations. The random character of the resonances make nuclear model calculation predictions impossible. Then several fields in physics where neutron-induced reactions are important and to which I have contributed in some way or another, are mentioned in a first synthetic chapter. They concern topics like parity nonconservation in certain neutron resonances, stellar nucleosynthesis by neutron capture, and data for nuclear energy applications. The latter item is especially important for the transmutation of nuclear waste and for alternative fuel cycles. Nuclear data libraries are also briefly mentioned. A second chapter details the R-matrix theory. This formalism is the foundation of the description of the neutron-nucleus interaction and is present in all fields of neutron resonance spectroscopy. (author)

  20. Photothermal spectroscopy of aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campillo, A.J.; Lin, H.B.

    1981-04-01

    In situ aerosol absorption spectroscopy was performed using two novel photothermal detection schemes. The first, based on a photorefractive effect and coherent detection, called phase fluctuation optical heterodyne (PFLOH) spectroscopy, could, depending on the geometry employed, yield particle specific or particle and gas absorption data. Single particles of graphite as small as 1 μm were detected in the particle specific mode. In another geometrical configuration, the total absorption (both gas and particle) of submicron sized aerosols of ammonium sulfate particles in equilibrium with gaseous ammonia and water vapor were measured at varying CO 2 laser frequencies. The specific absorption coefficient for the sulfate ion was measured to be 0.5 m 2 /g at 1087 cm -1 . The absorption coefficient sensitivity of this scheme was less than or equal to 10 -8 cm -1 . The second scheme is a hybrid visible Mie scattering scheme incorporating photothermal modulation. Particle specific data on ammonium sulfate droplets were obtained. For chemically identical species, the relative absorption spectrum versus laser frequency can be obtained for polydisperse aerosol distributions directly from the data without the need for complex inverse scattering calculations