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Sample records for pump water heater

  1. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  2. Field Monitoring Protocol. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hancock, C. E. [Mountain Energy Partnership, Longmont, CO (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  3. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads.

  4. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation; Weitzel, E. [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation

    2017-03-03

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  5. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-11-22

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  6. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  7. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  8. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  9. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-05-14

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

  10. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  11. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norfolk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norfolk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publically available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(TM), A.O. Smith Voltex(R), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(R) 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  12. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-08-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  13. High Efficiency R-744 Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbel, Dr. Stefan W.; Petersen, Michael

    2013-04-25

    The project investigated the development and improvement process of a R744 (CO2) commercial heat pump water heater (HPWH) package of approximately 35 kW. The improvement process covered all main components of the system. More specific the heat exchangers (Internal heat exchanger, Evaporator, Gas cooler) as well as the expansion device and the compressor were investigated. In addition, a comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint was made in order to compare performance as well as package size reduction potential.

  14. Heat Pump Water Heater Durabliltiy Testing - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, VAND.

    2004-05-29

    Ten heat pump water heaters (HPWH) were placed in an environmentally controlled test facility and run through a durability test program of approximately 7300 duty cycles (actual cycles accumulated ranged from 6640 to 8324 for the ten units). Five of the units were upgraded integral types (HPWH mounted on storage tank, no pump) from the same manufacturer as those tested in our first durability program in 2001 (Baxter and Linkous, 2002). The other five were ''add-on'' type units (HPWH with circulation pump plumbed to a separate storage tank) from another manufacturer. This durability test was designed to represent approximately 7-10 years of normal operation to meet the hot water needs of a residence. The integral units operated without incident apart from two control board failures. Both of these were caused by inadvertent exposure to very hot and humid (>135 F dry bulb and >120 F dew point) conditions that occurred due to a test loop failure. It is not likely that any residential water heater would be installed where such conditions were expected so these failures are not considered a long-term reliability concern. Two of the integral HPWHs featured a condensate management system (CMS) option that effectively eliminated any need for an evaporator condensate drain, but imposed significant efficiency penalties when operating in high humidity ambient conditions. The add-on units experienced no operational failures (breakdowns with loss of hot water production) during the course of the testing. However, their control systems exhibited some performance degradation under the high temperature, high humidity test conditions--HPWHs would shut off with tank water temperatures 15-20 F lower than when operating under moderate ambient conditions. One unit developed a refrigerant leak during the test program and lost about 50% of its charge resulting in reduced efficiency. Efficiency measurements on all the integral units and four of the add-on units showed

  15. Demonstration of a heat pump water heater. Volume 3. Design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloane, B.D.; Krise, R.C.; Kent, D.D.

    1979-12-01

    Work performed during the pilot run manufacturing and laboratory testing stages of a heat pump water heater for residential installations is described. A general description of the heat pump water heater is provided, as are detailed discussions of individual components. Also included is a description of the pilot run manufacturing facility and experience, laboratory operations, and laboratory test data.

  16. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 Appendix D5 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE... Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of...

  17. Performance analysis of air——water dual source heat pump water heater with heat recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZeShao; TAO WenQuan; ZHU YanWen; HU Peng

    2012-01-01

    A new air-water dual source heat pump water heater with heat recovery is proposed.The heat pump system can heat water by using a single air source,a single water source,or air-water dual sources.The water is first pre-heated by waste hot water,then heated by the heat pump.Waste heat is recovered by first preheating the cold water and as water source of the heat pump.According to the correlated formulas of the coefficient of performance of air-source heat pump and water-source heat pump,and the gain coefficient of heat recovery-preheater,the formulas for the coefficient of performance of heat pump in six operating modes are obtained by using the dimensionless correspondence analysis method.The system characteristics of heat absorption and release associated with the heat recovery-preheater are analyzed at different working conditions.The developed approaches can provide reference for the optimization of the operating modes and parameters.The results of analysis and experiments show that the coefficient of performance of the device can reach 4-5.5 in winter,twice as much as air source heat pump water heater.The utilization of waste heat in the proposed system is higher than that in the system which only uses waste water to preheating or as heat source.Thus,the effect of energy saving of the new system is obvious.On the other hand,the dimensionless correspondence analysis method is introduced to performance analysis of the heat pump,which also has theoretical significance and practical value.

  18. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  19. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  20. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2016-07-05

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, and methods of managing refrigerant charge. Various embodiments remove idle refrigerant from a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat by opening a refrigerant recovery valve and delivering the idle refrigerant from the heat exchanger to an inlet port on the compressor. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled by controlling how much refrigerant is drawn from the heat exchanger, by letting some refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and various components can be interconnected with refrigerant conduit. Some embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to the heat exchanger and drive liquid refrigerant out prior to isolating the heat exchanger.

  1. Measure Guideline. Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Owens, Douglas [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs

  2. Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

    2012-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

  3. Energy Efficiency Modelling of Residential Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Toan Tran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The heat pump water heater is one of the most energy efficient technologies for heating water for household use. The present work proposes a simplified model of coefficient of performance and examines its predictive capability. The model is based on polynomial functions where the variables are temperatures and the coefficients are derived from the Australian standard test data, using regression technics. The model enables to estimate the coefficient of performance of the same heat pump water heater under other test standards (i.e. US, Japanese, European and Korean standards. The resulting estimations over a heat-up phase and a full test cycle including a draw off pattern are in close agreement with the measured data. Thus the model allows manufacturers to avoid the need to carry out physical tests for some standards and to reduce product cost. The limitations of the methodology proposed are also discussed.

  4. Summer Indoor Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation in a Hot-Dry Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Seitzler, Matthew [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water energy savings.

  5. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  6. Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH

  7. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged on the U.S. market. These units have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine what actual in use energy consumption of a HPWH may be in different regions of the U.S., annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the U.S. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  8. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged on the U.S. market, and they have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine the actual energy consumption of a HPWH in different U.S. regions, annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the United States. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  9. Experimental Study of Thermoelectric Heat Pump Water Heater with Exhaust Heat Recovery from Kitchens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhong-bing; ZHANG Ling; YANG Zhang; XU Ming; HAN Tian-he

    2009-01-01

    A new kind of thermoelectric heat pump water heater for kitchens exhaust heat recovery was pre-sented,and its performances were investigated under different operating voltages.The experiment results show that the coefficient of performance decreases and the temperature difference between the hot and cold sides be-comes larger with the increase of the operating voltage,but the heating time becomes short.The higher the temperature of water,the greater the temperature difference between the hot and cold sides,leading to a smaller eoeffieient of performance.Under an exhaust temperature of 36℃,the coefficient of performance decreases from 1.66 tO 1.22 when the temperature of water increases from 28℃to 46℃with operating voltage 16 V.Performance tests illustrate that,compared with the conventional electrical water heaters,the new kind of ther-moelectric heat pump water heater is more coefficient.

  10. Building America Case Study: Indoor Heat Pump Water Heaters During Summer in a Hot-Dry Climate, Redding, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, M. Seitzler

    2017-06-01

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners.

  11. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudon, K.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. Laboratory results demonstrate the efficiency of this technology under most of the conditions tested and show that differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the individual units. These results were used to understand current model limitations, and then to bracket the energy savings potential for HPWH technology in various US climate regions. Simulation results show that HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in many climate zones when compared to other types of water heaters (up to 64%, including impact on HVAC systems).

  12. Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. L. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States); Francisco, A. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States); Roberts, S. G. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas.

  13. Numerical and experimental study on heat pump water heater with PCM for thermal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Jian-You; Zhu, Dong-Sheng [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of the Ministry of Education, Academy of Chemistry and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2008-07-01

    An air source heat pump water heater with phase change material (PCM) for thermal storage was designed to take advantage of off-peak electrical energy. The heat transfer model of PCM was based upon a pure conduction formulation. Quasi-steady state method was used to calculate the temperature distribution and phase front location of PCM during thermal storage process. Temperature and thermal resistance iteration approach has been developed for the analysis of temperature variation of heat transfer fluid (HTF) and phase front location of PCM during thermal release process. To test the physical validity of the calculational results, experimental studies about storing heat and releasing heat of PCM were carried. Comparison between the calculational results and the experimental data shows good agreement. Graphical results including system pressure and input power of heat pump, time-wise variation of stored and released thermal energy of PCM were presented and discussed. (author)

  14. Reliable, Economic, Efficient CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater for North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radcliff, Thomas D; Sienel, Tobias; Huff, Hans-Joachim; Thompson, Adrian; Sadegh, Payman; Olsommer, Benoit; Park, Young

    2006-12-31

    Adoption of heat pump water heating technology for commercial hot water could save up to 0.4 quads of energy and 5 million metric tons of CO2 production annually in North America, but industry perception is that this technology does not offer adequate performance or reliability and comes at too high of a cost. Development and demonstration of a CO2 heat pump water heater is proposed to reduce these barriers to adoption. Three major themes are addressed: market analysis to understand barriers to adoption, use of advanced reliability models to design optimum qualification test plans, and field testing of two phases of water heater prototypes. Market experts claim that beyond good performance, market adoption requires 'drop and forget' system reliability and a six month payback of first costs. Performance, reliability and cost targets are determined and reliability models are developed to evaluate the minimum testing required to meet reliability targets. Three phase 1 prototypes are designed and installed in the field. Based on results from these trials a product specification is developed and a second phase of five field trial units are built and installed. These eight units accumulate 11 unit-years of service including 15,650 hours and 25,242 cycles of compressor operation. Performance targets can be met. An availability of 60% is achieved and the capability to achieve >90% is demonstrated, but overall reliability is below target, with an average of 3.6 failures/unit-year on the phase 2 demonstration. Most reliability issues are shown to be common to new HVAC products, giving high confidence in mature product reliability, but the need for further work to minimize leaks and ensure reliability of the electronic expansion valve is clear. First cost is projected to be above target, leading to an expectation of 8-24 month payback when substituted for an electric water heater. Despite not meeting all targets, arguments are made that an industry leader could

  15. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  16. Theoretical heating coefficient of a heat pump water heater with heat recovery applied in household bathing room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOUGuangxiao; WANGHanqing; GUWeili; KOUJianguo

    2003-01-01

    Presents the components and flow diagram of a heat pump water heater with heat reclaim applied In household bathing room, analyzes its characteristics from thermodynamical principle, calculates its theoretical heating coefficient under different operating conditions. The result shows that the maximum value of its heating coefficient is 12.9 under a typical operating condition.

  17. Research and development of a heat-pump water heater. Volume 2. R and D task reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, R.L.; Amthor, F.R.; Doyle, E.J.

    1978-08-01

    The heat pump water heater is a device that works much like a window air conditioner except that heat from the home is pumped into a water tank rather than to the outdoors. The objective established for the device is to operate with a Coefficient of Performance (COP) of 3 or, an input of one unit of electric energy would create three units of heat energy in the form of hot water. With such a COP, the device would use only one-third the energy and at one-third the cost of a standard resistance water heater. This Volume 2 contains the final reports of the three major tasks performed in Phase I. In Task 2, a market study identifies the future market and selects an initial target market and channel of distribution, all based on an analysis of the parameters affecting feasibility of the device and the factors that will affect its market acceptance. In the Task 3 report, the results of a design and test program to arrive at final designs of heat pumps for both new water heaters and for retrofitting existing water heaters are presented. In the Task 4 report, a plan for an extensive field demonstration involving use in actual homes is presented. Volume 1 contains a final summary report of the information in Volume 2.

  18. Development and application of engineering-scale solar water heater system assisted by heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Xiufeng; Feng Shiyu; Hu Wei; Zheng Feifei [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., Xi' an (China); Wang Huiyu; Luo Cong [Yangzhou Sunleada Co, Ltd, Yangzhou (China); Wang Jianguo; Fan Guiyou [TongLing Real Estate Co. Ltd, TongLing (China)

    2008-07-01

    An engineering-scale solar water heater system assisted by heat pump was developed based on a modularized structure. The subunits of modularized system include vacuum solar energy collectors, air source heat pump, heat storage and supplying system and control panel. All devices could be controlled and monitored centrally. Energy source of this system was composed of solar energy (70%), air thermal energy (20%) and electric power (10%). The system has advantages of high average annual comprehensive energy efficiency and elementary energy utilization efficiency. The product can be employed in central heat water supplying project with a capacity of more than 6 ton, in such facilities as residential districts, hotels, restaurants, dormitories, bathing centers and so on. The economical efficiency is better as the scale is bigger. The project has been supported by innovation funds of Science and Technology of Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), being applied in a residential district successfully as a demonstration project of renewable and new energy by Chinese Ministry of Construction. (orig.)

  19. Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. L. [Southface Energy Inst., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Francisco, A.; Roberts, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas. Exhaust ducts should be insulated to avoid condensation on the exterior, however this imposes a risk of condensation occurring in the duct's interior near the HPWH due to large variation of temperatures between the compressor and the duct and the presence of bulk moisture around the condenser. The HPWH's air conditioning impact on HVAC equipment loads is minimal when the intake and exhaust air streams are connected to a sealed attic and not the living space. A HPWH is not suitable as a replacement dehumidifier in sealed attics as peak moisture loads were observed to only be reduced if the heat pump operated during the morning. It appears that the intake air temperature and humidity was the most dominant variable affecting HPWH performance. Different ducting strategies such as exhaust duct only, intake duct only, and exhaust and intake ducting did not have any effect on HPWH performance.

  20. West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  1. West Village Community. Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. When complete, the project will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community’s impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  2. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  3. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-08

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16-month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  4. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, E. Weitzel

    2017-03-01

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16-month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  5. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report, Part II: CO2 and Absorption-Based Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patel, Viral K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mandel, Bracha T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The two objectives of this project were to 1.demonstrate an affordable path to an ENERGY STAR qualified electric heat pump water heater (HPWH) based on low-global warming potential (GWP) CO2 refrigerant, and 2.demonstrate an affordable path to a gas-fired absorption-based heat pump water heater with a gas energy factor (EF) greater than 1.0. The first objective has been met, and the project has identified a promising low-cost option capable of meeting the second objective. This report documents the process followed and results obtained in addressing these objectives.

  6. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashdown, BG

    2004-08-04

    This paper presents a case study of the residential heat pump water heater (HPWH) market. Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which the HPWH will penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to compare readiness and to factor attributes of market demand back into product design. This study is a rapid prototype analysis rather than a detailed case analysis. For this reason, primary data collection was limited and reliance on secondary sources was extensive. Despite having met its technical goals and having been on the market for twenty years, the HPWH has had virtually no impact on contributing to the nation's water heating. In some cases, HPWH reliability and quality control are well below market expectations, and early units developed a reputation for unreliability, especially when measured against conventional water heaters. In addition to reliability problems, first costs of HPWH units can be three to five times higher than conventional units. Without a solid, well-managed business plan, most consumers will not be drawn to this product. This is unfortunate. Despite its higher first costs, efficiency of an HPWH is double that of a conventional water heater. The HPWH also offers an attractive payback period of two to five years, depending on hot water usage. On a strict life-cycle basis it supplies hot water very cost effectively. Water heating accounts for 17% of the nation's residential consumption of electricity (see chart at left)--water heating is second only to space heating in total residential energy use. Simple arithmetic suggests that this figure could be reduced to the extent HPWH technology displaces conventional water heating. In addition, the HPWH offers other

  7. Building America Case Study: Indoor Heat Pump Water Heaters During Summer in a Hot-Dry Climate, Redding, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-15

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water heating savings by 5-9%. Given the project schedule for 2014 completion, no heating season impacts were able to be monitored. May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water heating savings by 5-9%. Given the project schedule for 2014 completion, no heating season impacts were able to be monitored.

  8. European Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Keinath, Chris [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City; Garrabrant, Michael A. [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City; Geoghegan, Patrick J [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    High efficiency gas-burning hot water heating takes advantage of a condensing heat exchanger to deliver improved combustion efficiency over a standard non-condensing configuration. The water heating is always lower than the gas heating value. In contrast, Gas Absorption Heat Pump (GAHP) hot water heating combines the efficiency of gas burning with the performance increase from a heat pump to offer significant gas energy savings. An ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system can maintain higher coefficients of performance in colder climates. In this work, a GAHP commercial water heating system was compared to a condensing gas storage system for a range of locations and climate zones across Europe. The thermodynamic performance map of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system was used in a building energy modeling software that could also incorporate the changing ambient air temperature and water mains temperature for a specific location, as well as a full-service restaurant water draw pattern.

  9. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report. Part I, Lab/Field Performance Evaluation and Accelerated Life Testing of a Hybrid Electric Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Murphy, Richard W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    DOE has supported efforts for many years with the objective of getting a water heater that uses heat pump technology (aka a heat pump water heater or HPWH) successfully on the residential equipment market. The most recent previous effort (1999-2002) produced a product that performed very well in ORNL-led accelerated durability and field tests. The commercial partner for this effort, Enviromaster International (EMI), introduced the product to the market under the trade name Watter$aver in 2002 but ceased production in 2005 due to low sales. A combination of high sales price and lack of any significant infrastructure for service after the sale were the principal reasons for the failure of this effort. What was needed for market success was a commercial partner with the manufacturing and market distribution capability necessary to allow economies of scale to lead to a viable unit price together with a strong customer service infrastructure. General Electric certainly meets these requirements, and knowing of ORNL s expertise in this area, approached ORNL with the proposal to partner in a CRADA to produce a high efficiency electric water heater. A CRADA with GE was initiated early in Fiscal Year, 2008. GE initially named its product the Hybrid Electric Water Heater (HEWH).

  10. Exergy Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater%二氧化碳热泵热水器的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱开鼎; 陈海峰; 窦丹; 李九良

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,the operating principle of Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater is explained;by constructing the exergy model and providing the initial conditions,an exergy analysis of working process of carbon dioxide heat pump water heater is made;which results in the ratio of exergy consumption from different part of the heater,and indicates the method of improving the ratio of utilizing the exergy.%介绍了二氧化碳热泵热水器的工作原理,通过建立模型,给出初始条件,对二氧化碳热泵热水器的工作过程进行了分析,得出了各部分所占的消耗比重,指出了提高利用率的方法。

  11. 78 FR 2340 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters and Commercial Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... also questionable whether thermal efficiency is an appropriate metric for smaller storage water heaters... that the test procedure for residential water heaters utilized the thermal efficiency and standby loss..., particularly for heat pump water heaters and gas instantaneous water heaters. 3. Revised Thermal Efficiency...

  12. Compact instantaneous water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Jorge G.W.; Machado, Antonio R.; Ferraz, Andre D.; Rocha, Ivan C.C. da; Konishi, Ricardo [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Lehmkuhl, Willian A.; Francisco Jr, Roberto W.; Hatanaka, Ricardo L.; Pereira, Fernando M.; Oliveira, Amir A.M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of combustion in an inert porous medium in a liquid heating device application. This project aims to increase efficiency in the application of natural gas in residential and commercial sectors with the use of advanced combustion and heat transfer. The goal is to facilitate the development of a high performance compact water heater allowing hot water supply for up to two simultaneous showers. The experiment consists in a cylindrical porous burner with an integrated annular water heat exchanger. The reactants were injected radially into the burner and the flame stabilizes within the porous matrix. The water circulates in a coiled pipe positioned at the center of the burner. This configuration allows for heat transfer by conduction and radiation from the solid matrix to the heat exchanger. This article presented preliminary experimental results of a new water heater based on an annular porous burner. The range of equivalence ratios tested varied from 0.65 to 0.8. The power range was varied from 3 to 5 kW. Increasing the equivalence ratio or decreasing the total power input of the burner resulted in increased thermal efficiencies of the water heater. Thermal efficiencies varying from 60 to 92% were obtained. The condition for the goal of a comfortable bath was 20 deg C for 8-12 L/min. This preliminary prototype has achieved water temperature of 11deg C for 5 L/min. Further optimizations will be necessary in order to achieve intense heating with high thermal efficiency. (author)

  13. Solar Hot Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  14. Bounding Limitations in the Practical Design of Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The boundary temperatures for any sorption-based technology can be estimated on the basis of Trouton s hypothesis that isosteres, extrapolated to infinite pressure (or analogously to infinite temperature) meet at a single point. In this paper we discuss the consequences of this hypothesis for many sorption devices that are thermally operated, suitable for exploiting renewable energy resources, or making better use of high or low level thermal energy. Trouton s hypothesis is independent of the working fluids making it particularly useful to both liquid-vapor and solid-vapor systems. We exemplify the use of the derived boundary temperatures derived from Trouton s hypothesis to important processes such as ice making, space cooling in hot climates, deep freezing, and residential hot water production. The boundary temperatures help determine which sorption or solar heating technology may be better suited to serve the given application, or whether it is beyond the scope of sorption systems.

  15. Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater Part 1: Southern and South Central Climate Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoghegan, Patrick J [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Keinath, Christopher M. [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City; Garrabrant, Michael A. [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City

    2016-01-01

    Commercial hot water heating accounts for approximately 0.78 Quads of primary energy use with 0.44 Quads of this amount from natural gas fired heaters. An ammonia-water based commercial absorption system, if fully deployed, could achieve a high level of savings, much higher than would be possible by conversion to the high efficiency nonheat-pump gas fired alternatives. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system is able to maintain higher coefficients of performance in colder climates. The ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. A thermodynamic model of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system for commercial space and water heating was developed, and its performance was investigated for a range of ambient and return water temperatures. This allowed for the development of a performance map which was then used in a building energy modeling software. Modeling of two commercial water heating systems was performed; one using an absorption heat pump and another using a condensing gas storage system. The energy and financial savings were investigated for a range of locations and climate zones in the southern and south central United States. A follow up paper will analyze northern and north/central regions. Results showed that the system using an absorption heat pump offers significant savings.

  16. Commercial Integrated Heat Pump with Thermal Storage --Demonstrate Greater than 50% Average Annual Energy Savings, Compared with Baseline Heat Pump and Water Heater (Go/No-Go) FY16 4th Quarter Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    For this study, we authored a new air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) model in EnergyPlus, and conducted building energy simulations to demonstrate greater than 50% average energy savings, in comparison to a baseline heat pump with electric water heater, over 10 US cities, based on the EnergyPlus quick-service restaurant template building. We also assessed water heating energy saving potentials using ASIHP versus gas heating, and pointed out climate zones where AS-IHPs are promising.

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Water Heaters

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Heaters that are effective April 16, 2015....

  18. Development of Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater Performance Test Rig%空气源热泵热水器性能测试系统实验台的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘笑笑; 丁强

    2015-01-01

    为了满足空气源热泵热水器性能测试的需要,基于对空气源热泵热水器原理、工作特点、热工测试技术、工业控制技术、上位机编写技术等基础,严格参照空气源热泵热水器的相关国家标准设计了一套空气源热泵热水器性能测试系统。该系统不仅能自动计算出被测空气源热泵热水器的性能参数,且具有良好的人机交互界面、可操作性强、性能可靠等优点。%In order to meet the needs of the air source heat pump water heater performance test,according to the work-ing principle of the air source heat pump water heater,working characteristics,thermal testing technology,industrial control technology,computer technology and other related technology,strictly according to the air source heat pump water heater national standards to design a set of water heater performance of air source heat pump test system,it can calculate the performance parameters of the tested air source heat pump water heater automatical y.

  19. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120...

  20. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the...), except that an electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than...

  1. 二氧化碳家用热泵热水器试验研究%Experimental study on CO2 house-hold heat pump water heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李廷勋; 王冬; 钟家淞; 黄逊青

    2013-01-01

    CO2 is one of the research focuses in the refrigeration field due to its environmental protection and unique thermodynamic properties. The hermetical CO2 compressor for house-hold appliance is a big challenge because of its high pressure. In order to verify the superiority of CO2 application in the heat pump water heater and test the operation law of the system, a new CO2 heat pump water heater prototype with hermetical compressor developed in China was tested. Keeping the inlet water 15-50 ℃ and the outlet hot water 65-90 ℃ ,the key characters such as the heating capacity, COP and the exhaust temperature with different evaporating temperature, inlet and outlet water temperature, and exhaust pressure were measured. The results show that the CO2 heat pump water heater can steadily provide hot water above 90℃, having obvious advantages in heating at high temperature. The system can still run smoothly when the evaporation temperature is - 20 ℃, showing better advantages in heating at low temperature.%CO2因为环保及独特的热力学优势,一直是制冷空调领域的研究热点,然而由于其工作压力较高,用于家用热泵热水器的全封闭式CO2压缩机开发较困难.为了验证CO2在热泵热水器上应用的优势以及研究其系统的运行规律,以国产全封闭式CO2压缩机为基础,设计并搭建了空气源CO2热泵热水器测试系统,在进水温度15-50℃,出水温度65-90℃范围内,测试了不同进、出水温度、不同蒸发温度以及不同排气压力条件下,热泵系统的制热量、COP以及排气温度等关键特征,发现CO2能够稳定提供90℃以上热水,在高温制热上优势明显.同时,即使在蒸发温度为-20℃,系统仍然能够平稳运行,表现出较好的低温运行优势.

  2. Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

  3. Solar water heater design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  4. Research on a Household Dual Heat Source Heat Pump Water Heater with Preheater Based on ASPEN PLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a dual heat source heat pump bathroom unit with preheater which is feasible for a single family. The system effectively integrates the air source heat pump (ASHP and wastewater source heat pump (WSHP technologies, and incorporates a preheater to recover shower wastewater heat and thus improve the total coefficient of performance (COP of the system, and it has no electric auxiliary heating device, which is favorable to improve the security of the system operation. The process simulation software ASPEN PLUS, widely used in the design and optimization of thermodynamic systems, was used to simulate various cases of system use and to analyze the impact of the preheater on the system. The average COP value of a system with preheater is 6.588 and without preheater it is 4.677. Based on the optimization and analysis, under the standard conditions of air at 25 °C, relative humidity of 70%, wastewater at 35 °C, wastewater flow rate of 0.07 kg/s, tap water at 15 °C, and condenser outlet water temperature at 50 °C, the theoretical COP of the system can reach 9.784 at an evaporating temperature of 14.96 °C, condensing temperature of 48.74 °C, and preheated water temperature of 27.19 °C.

  5. Shared savings gets realtor new water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullin, R.

    1983-08-08

    The Grenadier Realty Co. of New York is financing four energy-efficient water heaters for apartment buildings with a shared savings arrangement. The arrangement allows Grenadier to avoid front-end costs, which were paid by Independent Water Heaters Inc. in exchange for a decreasing share of the savings. Grenadier will own the heaters when the five-year contract expires. By allowing a shutdown of boilers during the summer months, the heaters will further increase energy savings. (DCK)

  6. Space Station solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  7. CO2热泵热水器的实验室评估%Laboratory Assessment of CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周子成

    2015-01-01

    本文叙述一台带有室外热交换器的变速CO2热泵热水器的实验室测定结果。测试包括在室外环境温度为-8.3℃至35℃下进行的标准24小时和第1小时的额定等级试验的热泵效率;室外机的噪声水平测定;和对输送水量测定以及室外机组在10℃环境条件下运行时的高效率淋浴水量测定。%This paper describes the results of a CO 2 Heat pump water heaters test with an outdoor heat exchang-er.The project conducted lab tests of a variable -speed, CO2 refrigerant HPWH with the heat exchanger located in the outdoor unit.The testing plan included observing heat pump efficiency at a range of outdoor ambient temperatures from -8.3℃to 35℃; conducting the standard 24-hour and 1-hour rating tests; measuring outdoor unit noise levels; and quantifying the number of efficient showers delivered with the outdoor unit operating at 10℃ ambient conditions.

  8. Controller of heat pump water heater based on WinCE%基于WinCE的热泵热水机控制器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宇明; 姜周曙; 黄国辉; 徐平

    2011-01-01

    针对目前市场上大型热泵热水机控制器价格高、硬件模块多及远程监控性能不足等问题,研制了一种基于ARM9和WinCE操作系统的热泵热水机控制器.以S3C2410A和STM32F103VC为硬件平台核心,设计了人机交互单元和数据采集控制单元;以嵌入式Windows CE 5.0为操作系统,利用EVC开发应用软件,并重点阐述了系统结构、各主要模块的硬件电路及工作原理和应用程序的设计方法及编程要点.实际应用结果表明,该控制系统操作简便、功能完善、性能稳定,控制精度达到了使用要求.%Aiming at high cost,more hardware modules and the poor performance of remote monitoring of large heat pump water heater controller in the current market,a new heat pump water heater controller based on ARM9 and WinCE operating system was developed. Human-computer interaction,data acquisition and control unit were designed,taking S3C2410A and STM32F103VC as the cores of hardware platform. Application software was developed using EVC under Windows CE 5.0 embedded operating system. And the overall structure of the controller, the working principle of main modules and the method of applications design and programming essentials were elaborated. Practical application result indicates that the control system is easy for operation,has perfect function and stable in performance,and the control precision meets the requirements of needs.

  9. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Winiarski, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carmichael, Robert T. [Cadeo Group, Washington D. C. (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fisher, Andrew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  10. 空气能热泵热水机不锈钢内胆焊接工艺优化研究%Optimization of Stainless Steel Tank Welding Procedure in Air-source Heat Pump Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树清; 余文鹏

    2015-01-01

    The stainless steel tank in air-source heat pump water heater was an container which bear pressure and heat. It is the key component of the air-source heat pump water heater and suffered sever environment at working condition. Welding joint corrosion is the Achilles' heel of stainless tank service life at existing welding procedure. This condition restricted air-source heat pump water heater putting into use and popularize widely. Optimization of stainless steel tank welding procedure in air-source heat pump water heater has been applied several aspect and enhance the service life obviously.%空气能热泵热水器保温水箱的不锈钢内胆是一个承压承热的容器,是热水机产品的关键构件,其工作环境较为恶劣。在现有的焊接工艺条件下,不锈钢内胆的各个焊缝处的腐蚀失效是整个水箱寿命的短板,严重影响了空气能热泵热水机这种新型的节能减排产品的使用和发展。因此对空气能热泵热水机的焊接工艺作了几个方面的优化调整,使得不锈钢内胆的使用寿命得到了较大幅度的提高,取得了良好的效果。

  11. Electrothermal pumping with interdigitated electrodes and resistive heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stuart J; Green, Nicolas G

    2015-08-01

    Interdigitated electrodes are used in electrokinetic lab-on-a-chip devices for dielectrophoretic trapping and characterization of suspended particles, as well as the production of field-induced fluid flow via AC electroosomosis and electrothermal mechanisms. However, the optimum design for dielectrophoresis, that if symmetrical electrodes, cannot induce bulk electrohydrodynamic pumping. In addition, the mechanism of intrinsic electrothermal pumping is affected by the properties of the fluid, with thermal fields being generated by Joule Heating. This work demonstrates the incorporation of an underlying thin film heater, electrically isolated from the interdigitated electrodes by an insulator layer, to enhance bulk electrothermal pumping. The use of integrated heaters allows the thermal field generation to be controlled independently of the electric field. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the importance of geometrical arrangement of the heater with respect to the interdigitated electrodes, as well as electrode size, spacing, and arrangement. The optimization of such a system is a careful balance between electrokinetics, heat transfer, and fluid dynamics. The heater location and electrode spacing influence the rate of electrothermal pumping significantly more than electrode width and insulator layer thickness. This demonstration will aid in the development of microfluidic electrokinetic systems that want to utilize the advantages associated with electrothermal pumping while simultaneously applying other lab-on-a-chip electrokinetics like dielectrophoresis.

  12. Strategy Guideline. Proper Water Heater Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Staller, J. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  13. Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Staller, J. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  14. A New Type of Complex System of Solar Energy Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater%一种新型的太阳能——空气源复合热泵热水器系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军军

    2011-01-01

    基于太阳能热利用技术、空气源热泵热水器理论,介绍了一种将太阳能与空气源相结合的双热源热泵热水器系统。该系统可充分利用太阳能加热生活用热水,辅以空气源热泵来满足太阳辐射照度不足时的用热水需求,同时用太阳能辅助加热来解决低温环境下空气源热泵运行工况恶劣的问题。系统充分利用了低品位的太阳能,保证稳定性,又可提高夏季阴雨天气、过渡季节及冬季太阳能热水器的热水温度,对于节约能源和环境保护具有重要意义。%Based on the technology of solar thermal and the theory of air-source heat pump water heater, a combined water heater system about solar and air source heat pump was introduced. The system Could make full use of solar energy to heat domestic hot water, combined with air-source heat pump to meet the shortage of solar irradiance when the hot water demand, and the auxiliary heating with solar energy to solve the problems of air source heat pump operating conditions in low temperature. The system took full use of the low-grade solar energy, and stability could be assured. And it could improve the temperature of the water in solar water heaters in rainy summers, transition seasons and winters. The system had significance for energy conservation and environmental protection.

  15. Solar Water-Heater Design Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Information on a solar domestic-hot water heater is contained in 146 page design package. System consists of solar collector, storage tanks, automatic control circuitry and auxiliary heater. Data-acquisition equipment at sites monitors day-by-day performance. Includes performance specifications, schematics, solar-collector drawings and drawings of control parts.

  16. 直热式热泵热水器冷凝器结构优化试验研究%Experimental Research on Structure Optimization of Condenser of Directly-heated Type Heat-pump Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛瑞萍

    2015-01-01

    搭建了空气源热泵热水器试验台。在标准工况下,分别比较了普通套管式冷凝器,3套管式冷凝器和板式冷凝器对热泵系统运行性能的影响。结果表明,板式换热器在热泵热水器系统中换热性能大大优于另外两种常规换热器,其性能系数达到4.1,比使用其他两种冷凝器性能系数提高20%左右。试验结果为如何提高热泵热水器性能提供了依据。%The air source heat pump water heater test rig was set up. Under the standard operating conditions, the influence of the ordinary casing type condenser, the 3 tube condenser and the plate condenser on the operating perfor-mance of the heat pump system are compared. The results show that the plate heat exchanger in heat pump water heater system in heat transfer performance is much better than other two conventional heat exchangers. Its coefficient of per-formance reached 4.1, which higher than the performance coefficient of other two condensers increased by about 20%. The experimental results provided the basis for improving the performance of the heat pump water heater.

  17. Intelligent annunciator for solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao

    2009-07-01

    The solar water heater has advantages of low cost, no pollution, safety, energy conservation and is very suitable for users in rural area. But many now used solar water heater has no alarm device resulting water and resource wasting because of forgetting to turn off the valve after water sailing upstream. To overcome this defect, an intelligent annunciator for solar water heater installed at the end of the return pipe is presented and designed in order to remind the user. Firstly, the advantages and disadvantages of automatic and manual sailing upstream are compared concluding that manual sailing upstream is more trustiness. Then an annunciator for solar water heater is studied and ameliorated. Its principle, parameters index and functions are introduced. The annunciator uses CD4069 chip as the core circuit with very little assistant circuit. It can provide sound and light alarm at the same time. This annunciator for solar water heater water is very simple in production, low cost, the use of safe and convenient. The annunciator is applicable to all solar power products, including various types of early installation of solar power water heaters and water tanks without changing their structures. It can meet family and industrial environmental applications.

  18. Design of Control System of Parallel Solar Assisted Heat Pump Water Heater%并联式太阳能热泵热水器控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建成; 吴永明; 苗文凭

    2012-01-01

    阐述了并联式太阳热泵热水器是最易受推广使用的太阳能热泵热水器类型;针对23目前并联式太阳能热泵热水器存在的集成化控制问题,分析了并联式太阳热泵热水器控制系统的控制要求,采用水位、温差与时间相结合的控制方法,以ATmega48单片机为核心,研究了控制系统的工作原理、硬件结构及控制数据流程;系统能够根据天气、水温等不同情况自动选择太阳能机组或空气能热泵机组来制取热水,并且具有主要设备的故障自诊断功能、压缩机延时保护功能及智能化霜功能,提高了该热水器的稳定性和低温制热效率;测试结果表明:使用该集成系统后,系统平均能源利用率提高了约23%.%Among all the solar assisted heat pump water heater, the paralle type is the most easily promoted. According to the integrated problem that exists in the control of the parallel solar assisted heat pump water heater, on the basis of analyzing requirements of the control system of the parallel solar assisted heat pump water heater, the control method associating with water-level, difference in temperature and time is applied. The realization principle, hardware structure and controlling data flow of the control system are studied based on AT-mega48. The system can select automatically solar-energy or air-energy heat -pump to make hot water according to weather and water temperature. Combined with the functions of fault self -diagnosis for key facilities, delay protection for compressor and automatically defrosting, the control system can improve the stability and thermal efficiency of the water heater under the low temperature. The results show that 23%of the average energy efficiency have been improved by using the integrated control system.

  19. R32用于泳池热泵热水器的性能实验探究%Research on the Performance of R32 in Heat Pump Water Heaters for Swimming Pool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

      本文对R22、R410A和R32用于泳池热泵热水器中的性能进行了理论分析和实验验证。结果表明,在相同的工况下,R32在热泵热水器中作为R22的替代物制热能力提高约9.4%,水循环一次循环出水温度提高0.3℃。 R32在热泵热水器领域的应用具有十分广阔的前景。%This paper provides theoretical calculations and experiments to test the performances of R32, R410A and R22 in heat pump water heaters. The results show that under the same working condition, the heat-ing capacity of R32 is about 9. 4% higher than that of R22;temperature rise of water circle in R32 prototype in-creases 0. 3℃ than that of R22. In a word, R32 is a promising alternative to R22 in heat pump water heater.

  20. Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Pump Working as a Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassem, Mohamed Mehdi; Ueda, Yuki; Akisawa, Atsushi

    2011-10-01

    A prototype thermoacoustic heat pump working as a heater was demonstrated. The heat pump was composed of an acoustic driver, a branched tube, and a looped tube containing a regenerator; the looped tube was connected to the acoustic driver via the branched tube, and the regenerator consisted of many narrow flow channels. The measurement results of the acoustic impedance inside the looped tube indicated that the energy conversion of the acoustic power flow into the acoustic heat flow in the regenerator occurred through the inherently efficient Stirling cycle. Moreover, the heat pump generated a hot temperature of 370 °C, corresponding to a temperature lift along the regenerator of 340 °C.

  1. 欧盟空气源热泵(静态)热水器生态设计测试研究%Study of the Test about Ecodesign of Air Source Heat Pump (Static) Water Heater in European Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马洁丹; 臧松彦

    2015-01-01

    本文结合法规EU No.812/2013、 EU No.814/2013和标准EN 16147:2011对空气源热泵热水器的ERP测试方法和要求进行分析和总结,并提出测试过程中的各个注意事项,以便读者更好了解新法规对热泵能效的测试要求。%This paper analyzed and summarized the ERP test of Air source heat pump water heater, with the code of EU No.812/2013, EU No.814/2013 and the standard of EN 16147: 2011, and brought forward notice of the test, for the reader knowing more about the energy efficiency test of heat pump.

  2. Economic analysis of residential solar water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-23

    A typical residential solar water heater, and typical cost and performance information are described briefly. The monthly costs and savings of the typical system are discussed. Economic evaluations of solar water heaters are presented in increasingly complex levels of detail. Utilizing a typical system, the effective interest rate that the purchaser of a system would receive on money invested is shown for all regions of the country. The importance of numerous variables that can make a significant difference on the economics of the system is described. Methods for calculating the Payback Period for any non-typical solar water heater are described. This calculated Payback Period is then shown to be related to the effective interest rate that the puchaser of the system would receive for a typical set of economic conditions. A method is presented to calculate the effective interest rate that the solar system would provide. (MHR)

  3. Experimental Study on Performances of Heat Pump Water Heater Based on Heat Recovery of Domestic Wastewater%生活浊水热泵热水器性能的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡敏东; 金苏敏

    2011-01-01

    针对目前生活、洗浴热水的需求不断上涨以及生活洗浴热水废水热存在巨大浪费的现状,介绍了一套新型的回收废水热的热泵热水器及其主要的设备构成.通过对该试验机组进行相关的试验研究,得到组合分离式热管蒸发器废热回收热量与污水质量流量、污水进口温度的变化关系;热泵平均制热量与污水质量流量、污水进口温度变化关系;压缩机吸排气压力及其功率随出热水温度的变化曲线;出热水温度与时间的变化曲线;系统能效比随出热水温度的变化,其平均能效比达到了3.01.与传统的电热水器、燃气热水器以及电辅助加热的热水器产品相比更节能环保.%In order to solve the present situation of unceasing demand for hot water and severe loss of quantity of heat from wastewater, a new type of heat pump water heater was developed based on heat recovery of domestic wastewater. In this paper, the relation curves of waste heat recovery of combined separate heat pipe evaporator, average heating capacity of heat pump, power of compressor, suction and discharge pressure of compressor, outlet temperature of hot water, and energy efficiency ratio of system are investigated experimentally. The average EER of system reaches 3.01, which shows that this type of heat pump water heater is more energy-efficient compared with traditional electric and gas water heater.

  4. 蓄能型太阳能热泵热水器性能系数的分析%Coefficient of performance of solar heat pump water heater with energy storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴薇; 卫梁彦; 程清; 王玲珑

    2011-01-01

    To solve the problem that solar heat pump water heater was prone to be affected by weather, a novel water heater integrated with collection, storage and evaporation was proposed. The principle, characteristics, operating modes and structure of the collector-storage-evaporator system were investigated. Using phase change material of decanoic acid to store solar radiation in sunny days as low-temperature source, hot water was produced at night or in continuous rainy days. Thermal efficiency of heat pump system was increased significantly, and the operating unstableness of the heat pump system caused by interval solar energy was also solved. Experiments under different conditions and operating modes in spring were conducted, and the coefficient of performance ( COP) of the system was analyzed. The results indicate that COP of this novel solar heat pump water heater with energy storage is higher than that of ordinary solar heat pump water heater at the same weather condition. The average COP of this system is 7. 56 with maximum of 8. 9 for average solar radiation of 592 W·m-2. COP can also reach 6.4 even at night, which means that weather has slight influence on COP.%针对太阳能热泵热水器受天气变化影响的问题,提出了一种新型的集热-蓄能-蒸发一体化太阳能热泵热水器,给出了系统的原理、特点、运行模式和集热-蓄能-蒸发器的结构形式,以癸酸为相变材料储存晴天的太阳辐射能,作为热泵在夜间和连续阴雨天时的低温热源制得热水,提高了热泵的制热效率,解决了太阳能间歇性所造成的系统运行不稳定的问题.进行了春季不同工况、不同工作模式的试验,分析了系统的性能系数COP,得出该系统的平均COP为7.56.太阳辐射强度均值为592 W·m-2的天气条件下,COP可达8.9;即使在夜间,COP仍能达到6.4,均高于相同天气条件下普通太阳能热泵热水器的COP,该系统的COP受天气变化影响较小.

  5. Statistical Modeling of Controllable Heat Pump Water Heaters Considering Customers' Convenience and Uncertainty and its Application to Frequency Control in Power System with a Large Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuta, Taisuke; Gunjikake, Yasutoshi; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Tada, Yasuyuki

    Nowadays, electric power systems confront many problems, such as environmental issues, aging infrastructures, energy security, and quality of electricity supply. The smart grid is a new concept of a better future grid, which enables us to solve the mentioned problems with Information and Communication Technology (ICT). In this research, a number of Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs), one of the energy efficient-use customer equipment, and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) are considered as controllable equipment for the frequency control. The utilization of customer equipment such as HPWH for power system control is one of the key elements in the concept of Ubiquitous Power Grid, which was proposed by our research group as a smart grid in Japanese context. The frequency control using a number of HPWHs with thermal storage of hot water tank is evaluated. Moreover, a novel statistical modeling of controllable HPWHs taking into account customers' convenience and uncertainty is proposed.

  6. Measure Guideline. Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, K. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rapport, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This measure guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters.

  7. Water heaters subject to new regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Alan

    2014-06-01

    On 26 September 2015 the Ecodesign and Energy Labelling Directives for water heaters (Lot 2) come into force, meaning that water-heating products sold in the UK and other countries in the European Economic Area will need to meet minimum energy performance criteria in order to be legally placed on the market, and will require an energy label. Here Alan Clarke, technical support manager at Heatrae Sadia, explains more.

  8. Simple Retrofit High-Efficiency Natural Gas Water Heater Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, Ben [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    High-performance water heaters are typically more time consuming and costly to install in retrofit applications, making high performance water heaters difficult to justify economically. However, recent advancements in high performance water heaters have targeted the retrofit market, simplifying installations and reducing costs. Four high efficiency natural gas water heaters designed specifically for retrofit applications were installed in single-family homes along with detailed monitoring systems to characterize their savings potential, their installed efficiencies, and their ability to meet household demands. The water heaters tested for this project were designed to improve the cost-effectiveness and increase market penetration of high efficiency water heaters in the residential retrofit market. The retrofit high efficiency water heaters achieved their goal of reducing costs, maintaining savings potential and installed efficiency of other high efficiency water heaters, and meeting the necessary capacity in order to improve cost-effectiveness. However, the improvements were not sufficient to achieve simple paybacks of less than ten years for the incremental cost compared to a minimum efficiency heater. Significant changes would be necessary to reduce the simple payback to six years or less. Annual energy savings in the range of $200 would also reduce paybacks to less than six years. These energy savings would require either significantly higher fuel costs (greater than $1.50 per therm) or very high usage (around 120 gallons per day). For current incremental costs, the water heater efficiency would need to be similar to that of a heat pump water heater to deliver a six year payback.

  9. Simple Retrofit High-Efficiency Natural Gas Water Heater Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, Ben [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2017-03-28

    High performance water heaters are typically more time consuming and costly to install in retrofit applications, making high performance water heaters difficult to justify economically. However, recent advancements in high performance water heaters have targeted the retrofit market, simplifying installations and reducing costs. Four high efficiency natural gas water heaters designed specifically for retrofit applications were installed in single-family homes along with detailed monitoring systems to characterize their savings potential, their installed efficiencies, and their ability to meet household demands. The water heaters tested for this project were designed to improve the cost-effectiveness and increase market penetration of high efficiency water heaters in the residential retrofit market. The retrofit high efficiency water heaters achieved their goal of reducing costs, maintaining savings potential and installed efficiency of other high efficiency water heaters, and meeting the necessary capacity in order to improve cost-effectiveness. However, the improvements were not sufficient to achieve simple paybacks of less than ten years for the incremental cost compared to a minimum efficiency heater. Significant changes would be necessary to reduce the simple payback to six years or less. Annual energy savings in the range of $200 would also reduce paybacks to less than six years. These energy savings would require either significantly higher fuel costs (greater than $1.50 per therm) or very high usage (around 120 gallons per day). For current incremental costs, the water heater efficiency would need to be similar to that of a heat pump water heater to deliver a six year payback.

  10. Improving the Gas Instantaneous Water Heaters Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Kloub

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a study of a theoretical and practical investigation of the gas Instantaneous (Tankless water Heaters performance. The results allow us to obtain realistic values of the control system in the various capacities gaseous flowing water heaters. The objective of this work is to study the operation of the plans in the field of controlling and checking low capacity gaseous flowing water in order to choose the proper plan of the logical values and measures for these equipments that may be used in industrial conditions. Also results of the work proved to be accurate. A design of the control system was made. The results of the practical experiment of the control system were similar to the arithmetic results.

  11. AWSWAH - the heat pipe solar water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyurt, M.

    1986-01-01

    An all weather heat pipe solar water heater (AWSWAH) comprising a collector of 4 m/sup 2/ (43 ft/sup 2/) and a low profile water tank of 160 liters (42 gal.) was developed. A single heat pipe consisting of 30 risers and two manifolds in the evaporator and a spiral condenser was incorporated into the AWSWAH. Condensate metering was done by synthetic fiber wicks. The AWSWAH was tested alongside two conventional solar water heaters of identical dimensions, an open loop system and a closed loop system. It was found that the AWSWAH was an average of 50% more effective than the open system in the temperature range 30-90 /sup 0/C (86-194 /sup 0/F). The closed loop system was the least efficient of the three systems.

  12. Analysis Approach to Improve Star Rating Of Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Dabhade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electric Water Heaters are widely used all over the world that can be categorized in two types i.e. Instant Water Heaters & Storage type Water Heaters. The energy consumption for 6 liter water heaters is much higher in the storage type of water heater. As energy is an important factor for economic development of country, therefore there is need to save the energy which implies the focus to use Storage type Water Heaters. In 6 Liter water heater, Existing model converting from 4 star rating to 5 star rating by thermal analysis & insulation. After the theoretical calculation of thickness of glass wool is the practical testing of product with BEE norms & got results for 5 Star Calculation. Finally we are doing the thermal analysis for theoretical & practical verification of the product

  13. Experimental Study on the Transient Thermal Performance of A Heat Pump Water Heater with Dehumidify Function%具除湿功能的空气源热泵热水器动态性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭辉平

    2009-01-01

    A new type Heat Pump Water Heater with dehumidify function built by us were introduced. Many experiments under different application models were carried out. The experimental results indicated that the system could be established to satisfy with not only hot water supply but also dehumidification requirements simultaneously under the related national standards. When it was operated as a dehumidifier, its dehumidification capacity could achieve 1.2kg/h, which was the limit of nation standard GB/T 19411-2003. Moreover, the system operated as heat water heater was tested under two surrounding conditions, one was dry bulb temperature 20℃/ wet bulb was 15℃, and another is dry bulb temperature 25℃/ wet bulb 20℃. The results showed its coefficient of performance (COP) was 3.33 and 3.60 respectively. The device was estimated to cost just 26% of electric heater when they supply the same thermal energy, so it has the unique superiority in the energy conservation and function%介绍了设计的具有除湿功能的热泵热水器,通过焓差试验室对该系统的多种运行模式进行了试验研究.试验研究的结果表明:该系统在运行独立除湿模式时,其除湿性能可达到国家标准要求的性能指标(1.60kg/h·kW).在两种测试工况下(工况1:室外环境干球温度为20℃、湿球温度为15℃;工况2: 室外环境干球温度为25℃、湿球温度为20℃)运行独立供热模式,其系统COP分别可达到3.33、3.60.该装置相较于传统电热水器,在节能与功能方面均具有独特的优势.

  14. Building America Case Study: Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4, LaFayette, Georgia (CZ4), and Savannah, Georgia (CZ2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-02-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas. Exhaust ducts should be insulated to avoid condensation on the exterior, however this imposes a risk of condensation occurring in the duct's interior near the HPWH due to large variation of temperatures between the compressor and the duct and the presence of bulk moisture around the condenser. The HPWH's air conditioning impact on HVAC equipment loads is minimal when the intake and exhaust air streams are connected to a sealed attic and not the living space. A HPWH is not suitable as a replacement dehumidifier in sealed attics as peak moisture loads were observed to only be reduced if the heat pump operated during the morning. It appears that the intake air temperature and humidity was the most dominant variable affecting HPWH performance. Different ducting strategies such as exhaust duct only, intake duct only, and exhaust and intake ducting did not have any effect on HPWH performance.

  15. Measure Guideline: Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

    2012-09-01

    This Measure Guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters. The report compares the differences between tankless and tank-type water heaters, highlighting the energy savings that can be realized by adopting tankless water heaters over tank-type water heaters. Selection criteria and risks discussed include unit sizing and location, water distribution system, plumbing line length and diameter, water quality, electrical backup, and code issues. Cost and performance data are provided for various types of tankless and tank-type water heaters, both natural gas fired and electric. Also considered are interactions between the tankless water heater and other functional elements of a house, such as cold water supply and low-flow devices. Operating costs and energy use of water distribution systems for single- and two-story houses are provided, along with discussion of the various types of distribution systems that can be used with tankless water heaters. Finally, details to prepare for proper installation of a tankless water heater are described.

  16. The Industrial Design of Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萌萌

    2014-01-01

    The design was inspired by the understanding to the fine life understanding of life, relaxed requirement and under-standing of fashion. Each link of easy life present in the water heater design. The principle of"artappliances, life"brand phi-losophy, refined and understated elegance is the core essence, is also the brand logo. In the"draw the fine life inspiration, the core brand design language create eternal artistic quality", every product tothe interpretation of home life art trend, to embody the elegant life style annotation and experience, committed to the urban elites to create exquisitelife style.

  17. Impact on Water Heater Performance of Heating Methods that Promote Tank Temperature Stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL; BushPE, John D [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

    2016-01-01

    During heating of a water heater tank, the vertical temperature stratification of the water can be increased or decreased, depending on the method of heating. Methods that increase stratification during heating include (1) removing cold water from the tank bottom, heating it, and re-introducing it to the tank top at relatively low flow rate, (2) using a heat exchanger wrapped around the tank, through which heating fluid (with finite specific heat) flows from top to bottom, and (3) using an immersed heat element that is relatively high in the tank. Using such methods allows for improved heat pump water heater (HPWH) cycle efficiencies when the heat pump can take advantage of the lower temperatures that exist lower in the tank, and accommodate the resulting glide. Transcritical cycles are especially well-suited to capitalize on this opportunity, and other HPWH configurations (that have been proposed elsewhere) may benefit as well. This work provides several stratification categories of heat pump water heater tank configurations relevant to their stratification potential. To illustrate key differences among categories, it also compiles available experimental data for (a) single pass pumped flow, (b) multi-pass pumped flow, and (c) top-down wrapped tank with transcritical refrigerant.

  18. 一体化太阳能热泵热水器运行特性的实验研究%Experimental Study on the Operating Characteristics of Solar Heat Pump Water Heater Integrated With Collector, Storage and Evaporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫梁彦; 王玲珑; 吴薇

    2011-01-01

    A novel solar heat pump water heater integrated with collector, storage and evaporation (SHPWHICSE) is presented and analyzed. By adding phase-changing materials into the collector/storage/evaporator, the solar energy can be absorbed and storied as latent heat. Calculating the storied energy according to temperature variation of the phasechange material which is chosen as paraffin, the result is that the storied energy can meet the heat load of this system. Solar got efficiency of this system is defined and compared with the direct expansion solar heat pump water heater. Experimental studies of SHPWHICSE with 150L water heating capacity are done at typical weather conditions in spring. The results indicate the system's COP is 5.63 on sunny days. Although on overcast or rainy days, the system's COP can reach 4. 13. Moreover, solar radiation intensity's unstable change has little influerace on the solar got efficiency and COP. Therefore, SHPWHICSE can be operating highly efficiently and stably at various weather conditions for domestic hot water.%介绍并研究了一种新型集热/蓄能/蒸发一体化太阳能热泵热水器系统(SHPWHICSE).该装置将真空管集热器、蓄能容器和蒸发器集于一体,通过相变潜热吸收并储存大量太阳能.根据相变材料(石蜡)在吸、放热过程中温度的变化计算蓄热量,确定相变材料中储存的热量能够满足系统热负荷.定义了一体化太阳能热泵系统的得热效率,并和直膨式太阳能热泵热水器得热效率进行比较.在春季典型工况下对容量为150L的SHPWHICSE进行实验研究,结果表明:晴天工况下,系统COP可达5.63;即使阴雨天,COP也可达4.13;太阳辐射强度的不稳定变化对热泵系统得热效率和COP的影响不大.因此,该系统在各种天气条件下都可以高效稳定地制取生活热水.

  19. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

    2008-08-13

    Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union's Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

  20. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... attached. Thermal efficiency for an instantaneous water heater, a storage water heater or a hot water... the amount of energy consumed by the water heater as measured during the thermal efficiency test... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot...

  1. Building America Case Study: Simple Retrofit High-Efficiency Natural Gas Water Heater Field Test, Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-12

    High performance water heaters are typically more time consuming and costly to install in retrofit applications, making high performance water heaters difficult to justify economically. However, recent advancements in high performance water heaters have targeted the retrofit market, simplifying installations and reducing costs. Four high efficiency natural gas water heaters designed specifically for retrofit applications were installed in single-family homes along with detailed monitoring systems to characterize their savings potential, their installed efficiencies, and their ability to meet household demands. The water heaters tested for this project were designed to improve the cost-effectiveness and increase market penetration of high efficiency water heaters in the residential retrofit market. The retrofit high efficiency water heaters achieved their goal of reducing costs, maintaining savings potential and installed efficiency of other high efficiency water heaters, and meeting the necessary capacity in order to improve cost-effectiveness. However, the improvements were not sufficient to achieve simple paybacks of less than ten years for the incremental cost compared to a minimum efficiency heater. Significant changes would be necessary to reduce the simple payback to six years or less. Annual energy savings in the range of $200 would also reduce paybacks to less than six years. These energy savings would require either significantly higher fuel costs (greater than $1.50 per therm) or very high usage (around 120 gallons per day). For current incremental costs, the water heater efficiency would need to be similar to that of a heat pump water heater to deliver a six year payback.

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Water Heaters (V3.1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Heaters that are effective April 16, 2015....

  3. New Home Buyer Solar Water Heater Trade-Off Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symmetrics Marketing Corporation

    1999-08-18

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry.

  4. Comparative Study and Design of Solar Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Sainath,Y.krishna, Mohd Salahuddin, Mohammed Siddique Ahmed, Md Ismail, Syed Rahman,Mohammed Noman, Mohd Khaleel Ullah, Faraz Ur Rehman Azhar, Mohd Moizuddin,Mohd Riyaz Uddin.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A solar water heater design is made from the plastic bottles of thumps up & plastic pipe(p.v.c run up by the centre of each solar heater in a row of bottles, these bottles act as glazing & hold reflectors made from the black paint. Solar water heaters are made of two basic parts: a solar collector that gathers radiant energy and a storage tank for the hot water inside. These systems are used to heat water for swimming pools, as well as for domestic cooking and cleaning needs. A system in which the sun’s heat is gathered by a solar collector and used to increase the temperature of a heat-transfer fluid , which flows through the pipes in the collector; the heat contained in this fluid then is conveyed and transferred to the water to be heated. Solar water heaters use the solar energy from the sun to generate heat (not electricity which can then be used to heat water for showering, space heating, industrial processes or even solar cooling. However, the research shows that the electric water spends about the 25% of its home energy costs on heating water. If we make a water heater without the collector then we can save a lot of money solar water heater do not polluted if one investing on SWH avoids carbon dioxide nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide and the other air pollution wastes and the utility generates power on your bum fuel to heat your household water when SWH replaces the an electric water heater. This electric displaced over 20 years replaced more than 50 tones avoided c02 emissions alone co2 traps heat in the upper most atmosphere thus, contributing to the ‘Green House Effect

  5. Water Treatment Technology - Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on pumps provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pumps in plant and distribution systems, pump…

  6. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  7. Engineering solutions for polymer composites solar water heaters production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, S. E.; Arsatov, A. V.; Oshchepkov, M. Yu.

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of engineering solutions aimed at a considerable decrease of solar water heaters cost via the use of polymer composites in heaters construction and solar collector and heat storage integration into a single device representing an integrated unit results are considered. Possibilities of creating solar water heaters of only three components and changing welding, soldering, mechanical treatment, and assembly of a complicate construction for large components molding of polymer composites and their gluing are demonstrated. Materials of unit components and engineering solutions for their manufacturing are analyzed with consideration for construction requirements of solar water heaters. Optimal materials are fiber glass and carbon-filled plastics based on hot-cure thermosets, and an optimal molding technology is hot molding. It is necessary to manufacture the absorbing panel as corrugated and to use a special paint as its selective coating. Parameters of the unit have been optimized by calculation. Developed two-dimensional numerical model of the unit demonstrates good agreement with the experiment. Optimal ratio of daily load to receiving surface area of a solar water heater operating on a clear summer day in the midland of Russia is 130‒150 L/m2. Storage tank volume and load schedule have a slight effect on solar water heater output. A thermal insulation layer of 35‒40 mm is sufficient to provide an efficient thermal insulation of the back and side walls. An experimental model layout representing a solar water heater prototype of a prime cost of 70‒90/(m2 receiving surface) has been developed for a manufacturing volume of no less than 5000 pieces per year.

  8. Air-to-water heat pumps for the home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodzin, S. [ed.

    1997-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters may be on the rise again. Retrofitters have shied away from this form of water heating due to concerns about cost, moise, efficiency, and maintaenance. Recent advances have overcome some of these problems and are helping the technology find a niche in both hot and cold climates. The topics covered in this article include the following: how heat pump water heaters work; air source from where to where, including air conditioning, heat recovery ventilation, hybrid systems; nuisances; maintenance; costs; to install or not to install; performance: a trick to quantify. 2 figs.

  9. Performance of Thermosyphon Solar Water Heaters in Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsong-Sheng Lee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available More than a single thermosyphon solar water heater may be employed in applications when considerable hot water consumption is required. In this experimental investigation, eight typical Taiwanese solar water heaters were connected in series. Degree of temperature stratification and thermosyphon flow rate in a horizontal tank were evaluated. The system was tested under no-load, intermittent and continuous load conditions. Results showed that there was stratification in tanks under the no-load condition. Temperature stratification also redeveloped after the draw-off. Analysis of thermal performance of the system was conducted for each condition.

  10. Water inflow into boreholes during the Stripa heater experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P.H.; Rachiele, R.; Remer, J.S.; Carlsson, H.

    1981-04-01

    During the operation of three in-situ heater experiments at Stripa, Sweden, groundwater flowed into many of the instrumentation and heater boreholes. These flows were recovered and measured routinely. The records of water inflow indicate two origins: inflow attributed to local hydrological pressure gradients, and water migration from cracks closing under the rapidly increasing, thermal-induced stress changes. The latter component appeared as a main pulse that occurred when the heaters were turned on, and lasted about 30 to 40 days, steadily declining over the next several months, and decreasing sharply when heater power was decreased or stopped. The magnitude of the total inflow per hole ranged over more than five decades, from 0.1 to over 10,000 liters over the 500 to 600 day time periods. When plotted against the logarithm of total volume, the frequency distribution displays a normal curve dependence with a mean of approximately 10 liters. Of this amount, 1 to 2 liters of flow into 38-mm-diam boreholes accompanied an increase in applied heat load. These amounts are compatible with rock porosities of a fraction of one percent. Inflow into the 3.6 and 5.0 kW heater holes peaked within 3 to 6 days after heater turn on, then declined to zero inflow, with no further inflow measured for the remainder of the experiments. In the heater holes of the time-scaled experiment, which operated at 1.125 kW or less, the initial pulse of inflow took much longer to decay, and 7 of 8 heater holes continued to flow throughout the experiment. The packing off and isolation of a borehole some 40 m distant in the ventilation drift dramatically increased the inflow into the heater holes in one of the three heater experiments. This demonstrated the existence of permeable flow paths among a number of boreholes. The records of water inflow demonstrate the need for a thorough understanding of the nature of fluid flow and storage in fractured crystalline rock.

  11. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. Energy...

  12. 75 FR 52892 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... discretion, this direct measurement procedure is optional for vented heaters without thermal stack dampers... efficiency is calculated for vented heaters with manual controls and thermal dampers. For all other vented... Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters AGENCY: Office of...

  13. 76 FR 56347 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... of the pool heater as: E OUT = BOH Where: BOH = as defined in 5.2 of this appendix E t = thermal... defined in 5.3 of this appendix 5.4.3 Calculate the pool heater integrated thermal efficiency (TE I ) (in... Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters (Standby Mode and Off Mode)...

  14. Development of heat pipes for solar water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyurt, M.

    1984-01-01

    Numerous heat pipes were designed, manufactured, and filled on a specially developed filling rig. Each heat pipe was incorporated into a prototype solar water heater developed for this purpose, and was tested under actual insolation conditions. An extensive testing program lasting for more than a year revealed that the heat pipes perform satisfactorily as heat transfer elements in solar water heaters. A special heat pipe featuring a compact and effective condenser configuration was also tested. It was observed to likewise exhibit isothermal behavior and hence promised potential for large scale solar applications.

  15. Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Yuill

    2008-06-30

    The following document is the final report for DE-FC26-05NT42327: Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater. This work was carried out under a cooperative agreement from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with additional funding from Keltech, Inc. The objective of the project was to improve the temperature control performance of an electric tankless water heater (TWH). The reason for doing this is to minimize or eliminate one of the barriers to wider adoption of the TWH. TWH use less energy than typical (storage) water heaters because of the elimination of standby losses, so wider adoption will lead to reduced energy consumption. The project was carried out by Building Solutions, Inc. (BSI), a small business based in Omaha, Nebraska. BSI partnered with Keltech, Inc., a manufacturer of electric tankless water heaters based in Delton, Michigan. Additional work was carried out by the University of Nebraska and Mike Coward. A background study revealed several advantages and disadvantages to TWH. Besides using less energy than storage heaters, TWH provide an endless supply of hot water, have a longer life, use less floor space, can be used at point-of-use, and are suitable as boosters to enable alternative water heating technologies, such as solar or heat-pump water heaters. Their disadvantages are their higher cost, large instantaneous power requirement, and poor temperature control. A test method was developed to quantify performance under a representative range of disturbances to flow rate and inlet temperature. A device capable of conducting this test was designed and built. Some heaters currently on the market were tested, and were found to perform quite poorly. A new controller was designed using model predictive control (MPC). This control method required an accurate dynamic model to be created and required significant tuning to the controller before good control was achieved. The MPC

  16. Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States); Backman, Christine [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the 1/2 inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements. Simulations were completed under a 'peak day' sizing scenario with 183 gpd hot water loads in a Minnesota winter climate case. Full-year simulations were then completed in three climates (ranging from Phoenix to Minneapolis) for three hot water load scenarios (36, 57, and 96 gpd). Model projections indicate that the alternative hybrid offers an average 4.5% efficiency improvement relative to the 0.60 EF gas storage unit across all scenarios modeled. The alternative hybrid water heater evaluated does show promise, but the current low cost of natural gas across much of the country and the relatively small incremental efficiency improvement poses challenges in initially building a market demand for the product.

  17. Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Backman, Christine [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the 1/2 inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements. Simulations were completed under a 'peak day' sizing scenario with 183 gpd hot water loads in a Minnesota winter climate case. Full-year simulations were then completed in three climates (ranging from Phoenix to Minneapolis) for three hot water load scenarios (36, 57, and 96 gpd). Model projections indicate that the alternative hybrid offers an average 4.5% efficiency improvement relative to the 0.60 EF gas storage unit across all scenarios modeled. The alternative hybrid water heater evaluated does show promise, but the current low cost of natural gas across much of the country and the relatively small incremental efficiency improvement poses challenges in initially building a market demand for the product.

  18. Analysis of using air-source heat pump water chiller-heater units in the cold regions%空气源热泵冷热水机组在寒冷地区应用的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马最良; 杨自强; 姚杨; 喻银平

    2001-01-01

    针对空气源热泵冷热水机组在寒冷地区冬季使用时结霜、热效率低等问题,提出一种双级热泵系统,即由空气源热泵冷热水机组提供10~20 ℃温水,作为水源热泵的低位热源,组成水源热泵供热系统。分析了这种系统的技术经济性,认为该系统是可行的,具有节能和环保意义。%imed at solving frosting and low heating efficiency of heat pumps in cold regions, puts forward a twin heat pumps heating system that consists of an air source heat pump and a water source heat pump. The air source heat pump supplies 10-20 ℃ water as low grade heat source of the water source heat pump. Analyses the technical and economical features of the system. Considers that the system is practicable and has energy conservation and environment protection effects.

  19. Solar water heaters in China: A new day dawning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Jingyi; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Solar thermal utilization, especially the application of solar water heater technology, has developed rapidly in China in recent decades. Manufacturing and marketing developments have been especially strong in provinces such as Zhejiang, Shandong and Jiangsu. This paper takes Zhejiang, a relatively

  20. Thermomechanics of the granular bed T-joint water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplitskii, Yu. S.; Belonovich, D. G.

    2012-11-01

    On the basis of the heat transfer model taking into account the radiative transport the temperature distribution and the resistance of the water heater with a granular packing having two independent air inlets have been investigated. The generalized dependence for calculating the resistance of the granular bed has been obtained.

  1. an automatic safety control for immersion water heater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    heater in the Nigerian market in its current form is depicted ... the comparator used is an open collector type. It is instructive to take a close look at the operation of the Schmitt trigger. The equivalent .... additional advantage of keeping the water.

  2. 空气源热泵在学生公寓的热水改造工程中的应用%Application of Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater to Reconstruction Project of Domestic Hot Water in Student Apartment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何绪春

    2012-01-01

    The domestic water-heating system with gas-fired boiler of a college apartment in Chongqing was discussed.The reconstruction plans concerning air-source heat pump heating system and solar assisted air-source heat system were processed and discussed respectively after the analysis on daily hot water load.Compared with the original water-heating system,the annual operating costs of solar heating systems would be the lowest.%以重庆某学校采用燃气锅炉房作为热源的洗浴热水加热系统作为研究对象。对热水系统日用热量进行了分析。对原加热系统提出两种改造方案:空气源热泵加热系统、太阳能辅助空气源加热系统,探讨了这两种加热系统的系统流程,与原加热系统的年运行费用进行了比较,太阳能加热系统的年运行费用最低。

  3. Evaluation of the Demand Response Performance of Electric Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widder, Sarah H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Steven A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Richard M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chassin, Forrest S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-17

    The purpose of this project is to verify or refute many of the concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large tank HPWHs to perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. This project was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of week-long laboratory experiments designed to demonstrate technical feasibility of individual large-tank HPWHs in providing DR services compared to large-tank ERWHs. In Phase 2, the individual behaviors of the water heaters were then extrapolated to a population by first calibrating readily available water heater models developed in GridLAB-D simulation software to experimental results obtained in Phase 1. These models were used to simulate a population of water heaters and generate annual load profiles to assess the impacts on system-level power and residential load curves. Such population modeling allows for the inherent and permanent load reduction accomplished by the more efficient HPWHs to be considered, in addition to the temporal DR services the water heater can provide by switching ON or OFF as needed by utilities. The economic and emissions impacts of using large-tank water heaters in DR programs are then analyzed from the utility and consumer perspective, based on National Impacts Analysis in Phase 3. Phase 1 is discussed in this report. Details on Phases 2 and 3 can be found in the companion report (Cooke et al. 2014).

  4. Recovery Act: Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, William P. [Emerson Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States); Buescher, Tom [Emerson Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2014-04-30

    The objective of Emerson's Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller is to support the DOE's AARA priority for Clean, Secure Energy by designing a water heater control that levels out residential and small business peak electricity demand through thermal energy storage in the water heater tank.

  5. Thermal injuries caused by ignition of volatile substances by gas water heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutan, R L; Desai, M H; Herndon, D N

    1993-01-01

    Based on the cumulative data of this tertiary care facility over the past 25 years, one out of every 70 pediatric patients admitted to our institution sustained their injuries during an explosive event instigated by the ignition of volatile substances from gas water heaters. The majority of injuries related to gas water heaters can be prevented by decreasing the temperature setpoint of the heater, by protecting the heater element itself, and by elevating the water heater to 18 inches above the floor. The first two issues have been adequately addressed; however, gas-fueled water heaters continue to be installed at floor level. Current national guidelines are too rigid and do not adequately address water-heater installation in private residences. Although general prevention campaigns target appropriate storage of volatile substances, they rarely address the explosive potential of gas water heaters in combination with combustible fumes.

  6. 欧盟家用空气源热泵热水器能效标准测试方法的研究%The Experimental Research on the European Coefficient of Performance Testing Methods of Household Air-source Heat-pump Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒宏; 何林; 杨加政

    2015-01-01

    目前欧盟热泵热水器测试标准 EN 16147:2011,Heat pumps with electrically driven compressors- Testing and requirements for marking of domestic hot water units已于2011年7月开始实施,但国内的标准GB/T 23137-2008并未有相应的更改。本文将通过测试静态加热式热泵热水器来对比分析其能效测试结果相对于国标测试方法的不同,并分析出目前国内开发的主流的热泵热水器在售后使用时的真正能效是否节能,并考虑到售后使用的能效情况,提出设计热泵热水器时的优化节能方向和售后客户使用的节能注意事项。%The European standard, EN 16147:2011,Heat pumps with electrically driven compressors - Testing and requirements for marking of domestic hot water units, has been put into effect from July, 2011. However, Chinese na-tional standard is still the GB/T 23137-2008 which hasn’t made the corresponding changes. In this paper, it tests the static heating water heat pump and use its data to compare and analyze the differences of Chinese national standard and European standard, including the coefficient of performance which used by users. Furthermore, this paper points out the development direction of energy conservation of heat-pump water heater and the matters needing attention for us-ers in consideration of the coefficient of performance.

  7. Control and Coordination of Frequency Responsive Residential Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Tess L.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2016-07-31

    Demand-side frequency control can complement traditional generator controls to maintain the stability of large electric systems in the face of rising uncertainty and variability associated with renewable energy resources. This paper presents a hierarchical frequency-based load control strategy that uses a supervisor to flexibly adjust control gains that a population of end-use loads respond to in a decentralized manner to help meet the NERC BAL-003-1 frequency response standard at both the area level and interconnection level. The load model is calibrated and used to model populations of frequency-responsive water heaters in a PowerWorld simulation of the U.S. Western Interconnection (WECC). The proposed design is implemented and demonstrated on physical water heaters in a laboratory setting. A significant fraction of the required frequency response in the WECC could be supplied by electric water heaters alone at penetration levels of less than 15%, while contributing to NERC requirements at the interconnection and area levels.

  8. Constant delivery temperature solar water heater - an integrated approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. [C.A.S. Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India); Kumar, N. [D.C.E. Muzaffarpur Institute of Technology, Bihar (India)

    1997-05-01

    An integrated model of a constant delivery temperature solar water heat-cum-active regenerative distillation system has been developed. The water used for the regenerative effect in the distiller of the proposed system is subsequently fed to the basin-cum-storage tank of the still through the heat exchanger (connected to the collector). The model varies the water mass flow rate in order to maintain a constant outlet temperature. With minor modifications in the solar water heater, the extra energy stored in the water mass due to non-utilization of capacity and/or non-linear utilization of capacity can be efficiently utilized for distillation purposes. In this process, the latent heat of vaporization is used for preheating the inlet water supply to the heat exchanger. The effect of insulation on maintaining the hot water temperature and distillate output is also presented. (Author)

  9. Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ries, R.; Walters, R.; Dwiantoro, D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida. The housing units had their gas-fired tank type water heaters replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

  10. Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ries, R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Building Energy Efficient Housing for America (BEEHA)Team; Walters, R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Building Energy Efficient Housing for America (BEEHA)Team; Dwiantoro, D. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Building Energy Efficient Housing for America (BEEHA)Team

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida.The gas-fired tank type water heaters in the housing units were replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

  11. Performance Simulation of Microchannel Collector/Evaporator for Solar Heat Pump Water Heater%太阳能热泵热水系统微细通道集热板/蒸发器性能模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟; 张小松

    2016-01-01

    本文提出了一种采用微细通道的平板式集热板/蒸发器,它可以从太阳和环境空气二方面获取热量。其主要特点是采用树形分支模型,由两块铝板冷轧吹胀而成,减小了接触热阻,提高了集热板的换热系数。本文建立了该集热板/蒸发器的数学模型并进行了热性能分析,深入研究了不同环境工况条件下该热泵热水系统的性能,包括系统性能系数(COP)、集热板集热效率、加热时间等运行参数的变化特性。结果显示,将150 L水从15 oC加热到50 oC时,系统全年各月的平均COP为4.76,平均加热时间为314 min,环境温度的升高和太阳辐射强度的降低会使集热效率显著增加。%In this paper a new flat-plate collector/evaporator was presented by using microchannel to gain heat from both solar radiation and ambient air. Its main characteristic was using the model of tree branch. The collector/evaporator was made of two pieces of aluminium plates by using the method of cold-rolled huff, which could reduce the contact thermal resistance and improve the heat transfer efficiency of the collector. A simulation model of the collector/evaporator was developed and its thermal performance was analyzed. The performances of heat pump hot water system were evaluated experimentally under different ambients, including heat pump coefficient of performance (COP), heat collecting efficiency and heating time of hot water, etc. The results showed that heating 150 L water with the heat pump from 15 oC to 50 oC, the COP of the whole year was 4.76, and the heating time was 314 min all year around. Meanwhile the heat collecting efficiency increased evidently with the ambient temperature increasing and solar radiation intensity decreasing.

  12. Evaluation of Tube Wall Thickness of Feed Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikura, Takahisa; Morisaki, Koichi; Hamada, Seiichi

    With regard to the high pressure (HP) feed water heater of thermal power plant at Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) sites, inspection of feed water (FW) tubes wall thickness are conducted whenever required such that frequent tube leak occurs. As a standard inspection methodology, FW heater is disassembled during planned outage, tube wall thickness is measured by the ultrasonic pulse techique (UT), then plugs are installed at the both ends of FW tube if its measured wall thickness is found below calculated threshold. However, the root causes of wall thinning of FW tube are various such as erosion and corrosion, based on wall thinning condition, the above threshold is not applied but utilizing the other technically well-grounded evaluation method is sometimes more rational. Therefore, TEPCO classified wall-thinning condition based on inspection data and established technically well-grounded and rational evaluation methodologies of FW tube wall thickness to suite each wall thinning condition. Moreover, with recent improvement of inspection technique, technology enabled faster, larger amount, and more accurate data acquisition, TEPCO has developed the systematized evaluation methodology that can transact data acquisition and evaluation simultaneously. This article introduces the logic of evaluation methods and examined algorithms to make them systematized.

  13. Analysis of thermal stresses in horizontal delivery water heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilan, A. V.; Plotnikov, P. N.

    2016-11-01

    Analysis of thermal stresses in tubes and a compensator, taking into account water heating in each heater bunch and temperature at which its mounting is implemented, and of stresses on pressure is presented. The 3D-model of the horizontal delivery water heater of PSG-4900-0.3-1.14 type is used. The tube plate is represented as the 3D-body with 6863 holes with offset center of the perforated area, the steam space shell is represented as a cylindrical casing, the bottoms of water chambers are considered as elliptical casings, the four-lens compensator is represented in the form of toroidal casings, and the tubes are considered as beams operating in tensile-compression and bending in two planes. Calculations were carried out for different temperatures of superheated steam and a steam space shell, respectively, as well as designs with compensator and without it. Various temperature values of the tubes on the passes were calculated and set. The studies were carried out taking into account nonaxis-symmetrical spacing the tube plate and compensator deformation. The calculation results of tensile-compression stresses in the tubes are presented. Furthermore, the central tubes experience compressive stresses, whose maximal values take place on the border between the tubes of the fourth and of the first passes. For its decrease, it is recommended to increase the distance between the tubes of these passes. The tension stresses in the peripheral tubes are the maximal stresses. To reduce the stresses and, therefore, increase service life of the delivery water heater at using wet or superheated (not more than by 30-50°C) steam in it (the larger value refers to the brass tubes and the water pressure of 1.6-2.5 MPa), it is necessary to recommend the noncompensatory design at using the steam superheated by more than 30-50°C (at Ural Turbine Works, it is the turbines of T-250/300-23.5 and T-113/145-12.4 types with intermediate superheating) and to recommend the installation of the

  14. 10 CFR 431.106 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Instantaneous Water Heaters and Hot Water Supply Boilers* Thermal Efficiency ANSI Z21.10.3-1998, § 2.9** A. For... Instantaneous Water Heaters and Hot Water Supply Boilers* Thermal Efficiency ANSI Z21.10.3-1998, § 2.9** (2) Oil...) Assume that the thermal efficiency (Et) of electric water heaters with immersed heating elements is...

  15. THE HEAT AND FLUID FLOW ANALYSIS FOR WATER HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Nan Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the heat transfer and fluid flow are studied for the water heater of RV cars, in which the hot water is heated by the combustion energy of liquefied petroleum gases. Three types of combustion tubes are performed in this investigation, which are circular tube, elliptic tube and elliptic tube with screwed wire inserted. The heat transfer performances of numerical simulation results are compared with those of the experimental works; they are in good trend agreement. The elliptic combustion tube performs better than the circular one, which indicates the average 7% energy saving for the elliptic combustion tube and 12% energy saving for the elliptic combustion tube with screwed wire under static heating.

  16. CFD Study of Fluid Flow in an All-glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ai, Ning; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yumin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The all-glass evacuated tube solar water heater is one of the most widely used solar thermal technologies. The aim of the paper is to investigate fluid flow in the solar water heater by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The investigation was carried out with a focus...

  17. Tankless water heaters fill the bill at fast-food restaurants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-02-01

    This article explains why Kentucky Fried Chicken has installed a PH-24 water heater. The tankless water heater meets the restaurant's criteria for space spacing, flow rates, certification and availability, and money saving efficiency. This article describes the system and its advantages.

  18. Anti-freezing performance research of dry type shell-tube heat exchanger for air source heat pump water chiller-heater unit%空气源热泵冷(热)水机组用干式壳管换热器防冻性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙爱; 陈忠杰; 王传华

    2012-01-01

    针对空气源热泵冷(热)水机组运行中可能出现的干式壳管换热器冻裂问题,分析其被冻裂的主要因素,并且对壳管换热器冻裂的关键因素——蒸发压力过低的原因进行分析.基于分析结果,对壳管换热器的设计进行改进,同时对低流量保护点进行试验验证.%Aiming at the frost-cracking problem of the dry type shell-tube heat exchanger for air source heat pump water chiller-heater unit, the main influencing factors are analyzed. The key reason of shell-tube heat exchanger frost-cracking is analyzed that is too low evaporating pressure. The design of shell-tube heat exchanger is improved based on the analysis results, and the limited flow rate for protection of flow switch is verified by the test.

  19. Cotransporters as molecular water pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas; MacAulay, Nanna

    2002-01-01

    Molecular water pumps are membrane proteins of the cotransport type in which a flux of water is coupled to substrate fluxes by a mechanism within the protein. Free energy can be exchanged between the fluxes. Accordingly, the flux of water may be relatively independent of the external water chemical...

  20. Solar hot water systems for the southeastern United States: principles and construction of breadbox water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-02-01

    The use of solar energy to provide hot water is among the easier solar technologies for homeowners to utilize. In the Southeastern United States, because of the mild climate and abundant sunshine, solar energy can be harnessed to provide a household's hot water needs during the non-freezing weather period mid-April and mid-October. This workbook contains detailed plans for building breadbox solar water heaters that can provide up to 65% of your hot water needs during warm weather. If fuel costs continue to rise, the annual savings obtained from a solar water heater will grow dramatically. The designs in this workbook use readily available materials and the construction costs are low. Although these designs may not be as efficient as some commercially available systems, most of a household's hot water needs can be met with them. The description of the breadbox water heater and other types of solar systems will help you make an informed decision between constructing a solar water heater or purchasing one. This workbook is intended for use in the southeastern United States and the designs may not be suitable for use in colder climates.

  1. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid.......KEYWORDS: water, pump, design, vane, gear....

  2. 75 FR 21981 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AA90 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters Correction In rule document 2010-7611 beginning...

  3. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    OpenAIRE

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; CHAN, Peter

    2010-01-01

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment....

  4. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    OpenAIRE

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment....

  5. Automatic Control of Water Pumping Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhannad Alrheeh; JIANG Zhengfeng

    2006-01-01

    Automatic Control of pumps is an interesting proposal to operate water pumping stations among many kinds of water pumping stations according to their functions.In this paper, our pumping station is being used for water supply system. This paper is to introduce the idea of pump controller and the important factors that must be considering when we want to design automatic control system of water pumping stations. Then the automatic control circuit with the function of all components will be introduced.

  6. An efficient water flow control approach for water heaters in direct load control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belov, Alexander; Meratnia, Nirvana; Zwaag, van der Berend Jan; Havinga, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Tank water heaters (WHs) are present in a prevailing number of European households. Serving as energy buffers WHs have come under the spotlight of various direct load control (DLC) programs over the last few decades. Although DLC has proven to be an efficient measure towards daily peak demand shavin

  7. Energetic Performances Study of an Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Helal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Although that the interest attributed to the solar energy remains relatively limited, we attend today to the conception of several installations using the sun as energy source among which we quote the solar water heater. Approach: A study of energetic performances was taken on an integrated collector/storage solar water heater made in the National School of Engineers of Gabes. This water heater is equipped with a concentration system containing a reflector composed of three parabolic branches favorating a better absorption of solar radiance. Results: The comparison between this system and two other systems of solar water heater, composed of a storage ball with asymmetrical CPC and symmetrical CPC, showed important energetic performances despite the simplicity and the little cost of the collector. Conclusion: Several improvements are necessary to increase the direct flow whilst decrease the thermal losses and therefore make the system simpler to be installed on the building roof.

  8. PREDICTION OF OPTIMUM ANGLE OF SOLAR WATER HEATER FOR COIMBATORE LOCATION

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sekar; DR M. SAKTHIVEL; O. MANIYARASU; N.ALAGU MURUGAN

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate ways to enhance the performance of solar water heater system to encourage many households using it. The integrated collector storage is the type of solar water heater that has retained its existence for well over a century. The flat absorber plate integrated collector storage type is a relatively recent addition. Being effective, low cost and simple to manufacture, their importance has been further enhanced by the recent upsurge in efforts to effe...

  9. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  10. Water solar distiller productivity enhancement using concentrating solar water heater and phase change material (PCM)

    OpenAIRE

    Miqdam T. Chaichan; Hussein A. Kazem

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates usage of thermal energy storage extracted from concentrating solar heater for water distillation. Paraffin wax selected as a suitable phase change material, and it was used for storing thermal energy in two different insulated treasurers. The paraffin wax is receiving hot water from concentrating solar dish. This solar energy stored in PCM as latent heat energy. Solar energy stored in a day time with a large quantity, and some heat retrieved for later use. Water’s temp...

  11. A novel domestic electric water heater model for a multi-objective demand side management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paull, Liam; Li, Howard; Chang, Liuchen [University of New Brunswick, Department of Electrical Engineering, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents a novel domestic hot water heater model to be used in a multi-objective demand side management program. The model incorporates both the thermal losses and the water usage to determine the temperature of the water in the tank. Water heater loads are extracted from household load data and then used to determine the household water usage patterns. The benefits of the model are: (1) the on/off state of the water heater and temperature of the water in the tank can be accurately predicted, and (2) it enables the development of water usage profiles so that users can be classified based on usage behaviour. As a result, the amount of ancillary services and peak shaving that can be achieved are accurately predictable and can be maximized without adversely affecting users. (author)

  12. Initial Growth Characteristics of the CaCO3 Fouling on Copper Surfaces of a Heat Pump Water Heater Under Various Water Qualities%不同水质下铜表面CaCO3污垢初始阶段生长特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛健; 张华; 赵萍

    2013-01-01

    紫铜和黄铜是热泵热水器中制冷剂与水换热的常用材料,在60℃时结垢严重.为研究CaCO3析晶污垢在表面的生长特性,分别在0.5和1.0 mmol/L的CaCO3溶液中,通过静态反应,分别用称重法和SEM获得不同浸入时间的结垢重量和微观形貌.结果表明:紫铜表面结垢量大于黄铜且更早形成污垢层.前期结垢量当Ca2+浓度较高时少于较低时,而浓度较高时最终结垢量则会多于较低时;Ca2+浓度并不影响晶型种类及比例,但浓度较高时大尺寸晶体出现较早较多且较小.pH值较高时使溶液体系能量较高,提高杂质和表面分子活性以及改变CaCO3电离平衡,产生更多晶核并促进文石转变为方解石.析晶污垢形成主要机理是难溶盐分子先在溶液内形成污垢颗粒,而后通过沉积到表面上,而不仅通过表面反应和吸附直接形成.%Red copper and brass are deemed as the commonly used materials for the heat exchange between coolants and water in heat pump water heaters. The fouling will be serious at 60 ℃. To study the growth characteristics of the CaCO3 precipitation crystal fouling on metal surfaces,in 0. 5 and 1.0 mmol/l CaCO3 solution respectively,the weight and microscopic morphology of the fouling were obtained through static state reactions by using weight weighing and SEM (scanning electronic microscopy) method at various immerging time durations. It has been found that the fouling quantity on the red copper surface is bigger than that on the brass surface and red copper is earlier to form a fouling layer than brass. The fouling quantity in the earlier period at a relatively high concentration of Ca + is less than that at a relatively low concentration of Ca2 + , however, the final fouling quantity at a relatively high concentration is larger than that at a low concentration. The concentration of Ca2+ will not influence the kind of the crystal and its proportion but the crystal in large sizes will emerge

  13. Experimental studies on PCM filled Flat Plate Solar Water Heater without and with Fresnel lens glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sivakumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Flat Plate Solar Water Heater (FPSWH is commonly used to harvest solar energy. Solar concentration techniques help to achieve higher temperatures of energy. The aim of this article is to compare the performance of a Fresnel lens glazed Flat Plate Solar Water Heater with Phase Change Material (PCM with that provided with an ordinary glazing. The effect of solar concentration using Fresnel lens on energy storage in PCM and heat gained by water are studied and compared with that having an ordinary glazing. Experiments showed 47% improvements in the heat gained by water.

  14. PREDICTION OF OPTIMUM ANGLE OF SOLAR WATER HEATER FOR COIMBATORE LOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SEKAR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate ways to enhance the performance of solar water heater system to encourage many households using it. The integrated collector storage is the type of solar water heater that has retained its existence for well over a century. The flat absorber plate integrated collector storage type is a relatively recent addition. Being effective, low cost and simple to manufacture, their importance has been further enhanced by the recent upsurge in efforts to effectively tap renewable energy resources. Having different inclinations based on latitude, the design of flat plate heaters can benefit from extensive amount of research on the topic of natural convection in inclined cavities. The thermal performance of the heater is recorded experimentally at angles 0°–30° from horizontal, in 10° intervals. It was found that for any given constant value of heat flux, the performance of the heater is a strong function of the angle of inclination. The optimum configuration of the heater for Coimbatore location is also evaluated.

  15. Assessing Consumer Values and the Supply-Chain Market for the Integrated Water Heater/Dehumidifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashdown, BG

    2005-01-11

    This paper presents a case study of the potential market for the dual-service residential integrated water heater/dehumidifier (WHD). Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which this integrated appliance might penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to assess market readiness as well as factor preferred product attributes into the design to drive consumer demand for this product. This study also supports analysis for prototype design. A full market analysis for potential commercialization should be conducted after prototype development. The integrated WHD is essentially a heat-pump water heater (HPWH) with components and controls that allow dedicated dehumidification. Adequate residential humidity control is a growing issue for newly constructed residential homes, which are insulated so well that mechanical ventilation may be necessary to meet fresh air requirements. Leveraging its successful experience with the energy-efficient design improvement for the residential HPWH, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Engineering Science and Technology Division's (ESTD's) Building Equipment Group designed a water-heating appliance that combines HPWH efficiency with dedicated dehumidification. This integrated appliance could be a low-cost solution for dehumidification and efficient electric water heating. ORNL is partnering with Western Carolina University, Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College, American Carolina Stamping Company, and Clemson University to develop this appliance and assess its market potential. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to how water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost

  16. 46 CFR 108.471 - Water pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water pump. 108.471 Section 108.471 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.471 Water pump. Each water pump in a foam...

  17. Building America Case Study: Simple Retrofit High-Efficiency Natural Gas Water Heater Field Test, Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Schirber, B. Schoenbauer

    2017-06-01

    High-performance water heaters are typically more time consuming and costly to install in retrofit applications, making high-performance water heaters difficult to justify economically. However, recent advancements in high-performance water heaters have targeted the retrofit market, simplifying installations and reducing costs. Four high-efficiency natural gas water heaters designed specifically for retrofit applications were installed in single-family homes along with detailed monitoring systems to characterize their savings potential, their installed efficiencies, and their ability to meet household demands.

  18. Building America Case Study: Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, E. Weitzel, C. Backman

    2017-06-01

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the half-inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements.

  19. Numerical analysis of using hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar water heater in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammadi Sarduei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Electrical performance of solar cells decreases with increasing cell temperature, basically because of growth of the internal charge carrier recombination rates, caused by increased carrier concentrations. Hybrid Photovoltaic/thermal (PVT systems produce electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. PVT solar collectors convert the heat generated in the solar cells to low temperature useful heat energy and so they provide a lower working temperature for solar cells which subsequently leads to a higher electrical efficiency. Recently, in Iran, the reforming government policy in subsidy and increasing fossil fuels price led to growing an interest in use of renewable energies for residual and industrial applications. In spite of this, the PV power generator investment is not economically feasible, so far. Hybrid PVT devices are well known as an alternative method to improve energy performance and therefore economic feasibility of the conventional PV systems. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of a PVT solar water heater in four different cities of Iran using TRNSYS program. Materials and Methods The designed PVT solar water system consists of two separate water flow circuits namely closed cycle and open circuit. The closed cycle circuit was comprised of a solar PVT collector (with nominal power of 880 W and area of 5.6 m2, a heat exchanger in the tank (with volume of 300 L, a pump and connecting pipes. The water stream in the collector absorbs the heat accumulated in the solar cells and delivers it to the water in the tank though the heat exchanger. An on/off controller system was used to activate the pump when the collector outlet temperature was higher than that of the tank in the closed cycle circuit. The water in the open circuit, comes from city water at low temperature, enters in the lower part of the storage tank where the heat transfer occurs between the two separate circuits. An auxiliary heater, connected

  20. Forced-circulation solar water heater using a solar battery; Taiyo denchi wo mochiita kyosei junkahshiki taiyonetsu onsuiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, S.; Mizuno, T. [Yazaki Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Optimal operation control was discussed on a forced-circulation solar water heater using solar cells not only as the power supply of a heat collecting pump, but also for controlling operation of the heat collecting pump. With this system, when the amount of power generated by solar cells reaches a sufficient level for operating the heat collecting pump, the heat collecting pump starts operation, wherein the heat collecting medium circulates in the system. The discussion was given by using simulation based on experimental expressions such as the relation expression between insolation and heat collecting medium flow rate as derived from the result of the system`s heat collecting performance test. As a result, the following conclusions were obtained: optimal insolation for activating the discussed system is from 50 to 100 W/m {sup 2}, and the heat collected within this range is within -1.5% of the collected heat amount at an optimum value; optimal activating insolation for the case of 1000 to 2000 W/m {sup 2} with low daily cumulative insolation is from 0 to 50 W/m {sup 2}, whereas the optimal activating insolation amount increases as the daily cumulative insolation amount increases; and the optimal activating insolation amount increases as water to be supplied requires higher temperature. 1 ref., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Preliminary Modeling, Testing, and Analysis of a Gas Tankless Water Heater: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, J.; Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; Rudd, A.

    2008-05-01

    Today's gas tankless water heaters offer significant energy savings over conventional gas storage tank water heaters, but savings depends on the draw pattern. A one-node model incorporating heat exchanger mass is used to address this and other issues. Key model parameters are determined from least-squares regression on short-term data, including burner efficiency, thermal capacitance, and thermal loss coefficient. The calibrated model agrees with data to ~5% on Qgas, with temperature RMS deviation of ~4..deg..C. Efficiency with a standard realistic draw is 71%, compared to 81% predicted from standard energy-factors. Adding a small tank controlled by the tankless heater solves issues of oscillations with solar pre-heat, low-flow and hot-water-delay issues. Future work includes model refinements and developing optimal data protocols for model parameter extraction.

  2. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  3. 16 CFR Appendix D2 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Electric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Electric D2 Appendix D2 to... PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. D2 Appendix D2 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Electric Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of...

  4. One-year assessment of a solar space/water heater--Clinton, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Unit called "System 4" integrated into space-heating and hot-water systems of dormitory satisfied 32 percent of building heat load. System 4 includes flat-plate air collectors, circulation blowers, rock storage bed with heat exchanger, two hot water tanks, and auxiliary heaters. Report describes performance of system and subsystems, operating-energy requirements and savings, and performance parameters.

  5. 16 CFR Appendix D3 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Oil D3 Appendix D3 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING... Part 305—Water Heaters—Oil Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of Estimated...

  6. Experimental comparison of alternative convection suppression arrangements for concentrating integral collector storage solar water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, M.; McGarrigle, P.; Eames, P.C. [Ulster Univ., School of the Built Environment, Newtownabbey, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Norton, B. [Dublin Inst. of Technology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2005-02-01

    An experimental investigation of an inverted absorber integrated collector storage solar water heater mounted in the tertiary cavity of a compound parabolic concentrator with a secondary cylindrical reflector has been performed under simulated solar conditions. The solar water heaters performance was determined with the aperture parallel to the simulator for a range of transparent baffles positioned at different locations within the collector cavity. Results indicate that glass baffles located at the upper portion of the exit aperture of the CPC can reduce thermal losses through convection suppression without significantly increasing optical losses. (Author)

  7. Feed-water heaters alternative design comparison; Comparacion de disenos alternativos de calentadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Toledano, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    A procedure is presented for the alternative design comparison of feed water heaters, based in the failure records of damaged tubes during operation. The procedure is used for cases in which non-continuous or random inspections are made to the feed-water heaters. [Espanol] Se presenta un procedimiento para comparar disenos alternativos de calentadores, basandose en los registros de fallas de los tubos rotos acumuladas durante su operacion. El procedimiento se emplea para casos en los que se realizan inspecciones a los calentadores no continuas, ya sea periodicas o al azar.

  8. Building America Case Study: Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-19

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the half-inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements. Simulations were completed under a 'peak day' sizing scenario with 183 gpd hot water loads in a Minnesota winter climate case. Full-year simulations were then completed in three climates (ranging from Phoenix to Minneapolis) for three hot water load scenarios (36, 57, and 96 gpd). Model projections indicate that the alternative hybrid offers an average 4.5% efficiency improvement relative to the 0.60 EF gas storage unit across all scenarios modeled. The alternative hybrid water heater evaluated does show promise, but the current low cost of natural gas across much of the country and the relatively small incremental efficiency improvement poses challenges in initially building a market demand for the product.

  9. Forced-circulation solar water heater using a solar battery; Taiyo denchi wo mochiita kyosei junkanshiki taiyonetsu onsuiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, S.; Mizuno, T. [Yazaki Resources Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For the purpose of satisfying demands for qualitative improvement on tapwater temperature and pressure, an indirect-type solar water heater using solar cells, in which a closed type hot water storage tank connected directly to the water supply is integrated with a solar collector, was examined for its characteristics and performance. The heat collecting medium is a water solution of polypropylene glycol, which circulates through the solar collector pump, cistern, solar collector, and heat exchanger (hot water storage tank). The results of the test are summarized below. When comparison is made between the two solar collector pump control methods, the solar cells direct connection method and the differential thermo method utilizing temperature difference between the solar collector and the hot water storage tank, they are alike in collecting heat on clear days, but on cloudy days the latter collects 5% more than the former. In winter, when the heat exchanger heat transfer area is 0.4m{sup 2} large, a further increase in the area improves but a little the heat collecting efficiency. An increase in the medium flow rate and temperature, or in the Reynolds number, enhances the heat collecting efficiency. 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Water loss from the skin of term and preterm infants nursed under a radiant heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjartansson, S; Arsan, S; Hammarlund, K; Sjörs, G; Sedin, G

    1995-02-01

    The rate of evaporation from the skin (g/m2/h) was measured in 12 full-term and 16 preterm infants (gestational age 25-34 wk) both during incubator care and when nursed under a radiant heater. The method for evaporation rate measurement is noninvasive and based on determination of the water vapor pressure gradient close to the skin surface. Measurements were first made with the infant nursed in an incubator with a controlled environment with respect to humidity, temperature, and air velocity. The measurements in the term infants were performed at an ambient relative humidity (RH) of 50%, and in the preterm infants first at 50% and subsequently at 30-40%. Evaporation rate was then measured with the infant nursed under a radiant heater. In term infants, mean evaporation rate was 3.3 g/m2/h during incubator care (RH 50%) and 4.4 g/m2/h during care under the radiant heater. In preterm infants, the corresponding values were 15.5 g/m2/h in the incubator at RH 50%, 16.7 g/m2/h at RH 30-40%, and 17.9 g/m2/h under the radiant heater. It is concluded that the evaporative water loss from the skin depends on the ambient water vapor pressure, irrespective of whether the infant is nursed in an incubator or under a radiant heater. The higher rate of evaporation during care under a radiant heater is due to the lower ambient water vapor pressure and not to any direct effect of the nonionizing radiation on the skin.

  11. Automation of a water pumping station

    OpenAIRE

    Mesec, Rožle

    2014-01-01

    In the thesis we displayed an automation of an industrial facility on an example of a water pumping station. We described the structure of a typical automated system and presented it's key components. We designed a water pumping station with three main components – a water pump, a reservoir and a drain. The proposed water pumping station could be used for suplying water to a small settlement, in case the settlement had access to a water source with adequate capacity in it's vicinity. As part ...

  12. Low Temperature District Heating Consumer Unit with Micro Heat Pump for Domestic Hot Water Preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Elmegaard, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present and analyse the feasibility of a district heating (DH) consumer unit with micro heat pump for domestic hot water (DHW) preparation in a low temperature (40 °C) DH network. We propose a micro booster heat pump of high efficiency (COP equal to 5,3) in a consumer DH unit...... in order to boost the temperature of the district heating water for heating the DHW. The paper presents the main designs of the suggested system and different alternative micro booster heat pump concepts. Energy efficiency and thermodynamic performance of these concepts are calculated and compared....... The results show that the proposed system has the highest efficiency. Furthermore, we compare thermodynamic and economic performance of the suggested heat pump-based concept with different solutions, using electric water heater. The micro booster heat pump system has the highest annualised investment (390 EUR...

  13. Rate of heat transfer in polypropylene tubes in solar water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi, J.; Mahmoodi, M. [Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Riazi, M.R. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    2003-06-01

    A heat transfer rate was determined for polypropylene tubes in solar water heaters for the Reynolds number range 800-5600. Experiments were conducted in ambient temperatures of 34 to 37 {sup o}C. Data were correlated in the form of Nusselt numbers as: Nu=0.0015 Re{sup 0.75}Pr{sup 1/3} with correlation coefficient of 0.95. Such data can be used to predict heat transfer rates in a polypropylene solar heater in Tehran where the experiments were performed. An application of the results is shown in an example. (author)

  14. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, T. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Scott, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost-effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads and found that the tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system, among other key findings.

  15. 变频技术在300 MW机组低压加热器疏水泵上的应用%APPLICATION OF FREQUENCY-CONVERTING TECHNOLOGY ON DRAIN PUMP FOR LP HEATER OF A 300MW UNIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈强; 刘建华; 张乐群

    2001-01-01

    The drain system of LP heater was designed as a combined operation system of step-by-step gravity drain and drain pump. When the said pump is operating at constand speed, troublesome problems, shch as higher fault rate, larger pipeline vibration, shorter time for putting LP heater into operation etc, are ubiquitous. Using frequency-converting technology, the water level in LP heater can be controlled by converting the frequency of drain pump’s power supply instead of adjustment with valves. More than one year’s operation of the retrofitted system proved that the operation of said drain pump to be stable, safe and reliable .The rate of putting LP heater into operation reaches 100% and the effect of energy-saving is obvious. The said technology has been rapidly spread in use.%300 MW机组低压加热器疏水系统设计为逐级自流和低压加热器疏水泵联合运行方式,疏水泵定速运行时普遍存在泵故障率高、管道振动大、低压加热器投入率低等问题。利用变频技术将低压加热器水位控制方式由阀门调节改为疏水泵变频控制,改造后一年多运行表明疏水泵运行稳定,安全可靠,低压加热器投入率达100%,节能显著,并很快在湛江发电厂推广使用。

  16. A figure of merit for selective absorbers in flat plate solar water heaters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, DE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We derive from first principles an analytical expression for a figure of merit (FM) for a selective solar absorber in a single glazed flat plate water heater. We first show that the efficiency of a collector with an absorber with absorptance α...

  17. 78 FR 7394 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; GE Appliances; Subzone 29C (Electric Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Notification of Proposed Production Activity; GE Appliances; Subzone 29C (Electric Water Heaters), Louisville, KY GE Appliances, operator of Subzone 29C, submitted a notification of proposed production activity for its facility in Louisville, Kentucky. The notification conforming to the...

  18. Local Adaptive Control of Solar Photovoltaics and Electric Water Heaters for Real-time Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    , such as electric vehicles, electric water heaters (EWHs) etc. An adaptive control using only local measurements for the EWHs and PVs is proposed in this study to alleviate OV as well as UV issues. The adaptive control is designed such that it monitors the voltage at the point of connection and adjusts active...

  19. Increasing reliability of system water heaters for steam-turbine installations at the design stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezgin, V. I.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Brezgin, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    A system for designing water heaters of steam-turbine installations based on uniting standards, reference information, and some numerical procedures with design procedures via wide use of parameterization is considered. The developed design system is based on extensive application of modern information technologies.

  20. Acceptability of the integral solar water heater by householders in the low income urban community

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Basson, FA

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available A research and demonstration project on the use and performance of low cost integral solar water heaters in urban low-income dwellings was carried out in 1982/83. The project involved technical and socio-economic components. This report summarises...

  1. Guidebook for the Development of a Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action for Solar Water Heaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Lütken, Søren E.; Sharma, Sudhir

    This guidebook provides an introduction to designing government-led interventions to scale up investment in solar water heater (SWH) markets, showing how these interventions can be packaged as Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAS). Reflecting the changing balance in global greenhouse...

  2. Static Characteristics of Absorption Chiller-Heater Supplying Cold and Hot Water Simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Irie, Tomoyoshi

    Absorption chiller-heaters which can supply both chilled water and hot water at the same time, are used for cooling and heating air conditioning systems. In this paper, we classified absorption cold and hot water generating cycles and control methods, studied these absorption cycles by cycle simulation. In economizer cycle, condensed refrigerant which heats hot water is transported to cooling cycle and used effectively for cooling chilled water, Concerning with transported condensed refrigerant, there are two methods, all condensed refrigerant or required refrigerant for cooling are transported to cooling cycle, and required refrigerant method is better for energy saving. Adding improvement of solution control to this economizer cycle, simultaneous cold and hot water supplying chiller-heaters have good characteristics of energy saving in the all region.

  3. Research and development of a high efficiency gas-fired water heater. Volume 2. Task reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilakis, A.D.; Pearson, J.F.; Gerstmann, J.

    1980-01-01

    Design and development of a cost-effective high efficiency gas-fired water heater to attain a service efficiency of 70% (including the effect of exfiltration) and a service efficiency of 78% (excluding exfiltration) for a 75 GPD draw at a 90/sup 0/F temperature rise, with a stored water to conditioned air temperature difference of 80/sup 0/F, are described in detail. Based on concept evaluation, a non-powered natural draft water heater was chosen as the most cost-effective design to develop. The projected installed cost is $374 compared to $200 for a conventional unit. When the project water heater is compared to a conventional unit, it has a payback of 3.7 years and life cycle savings of $350 to the consumer. A prototype water heater was designed, constructed, and tested. When operated with sealed combustion, the unit has a service efficiency of 66.4% (including the effect of exfiltration) below a burner input of 32,000 Btu/h. In the open combustion configuration, the unit operated at a measured efficiency of 66.4% Btu/h (excluding exfiltration). This compares with a service efficiency of 51.3% for a conventional water heater and 61% for a conventional high efficiency unit capable of meeting ASHRAE 90-75. Operational tests showed the unit performed well with no evidence of stacking or hot spots. It met or exceeded all capacity or usage tests specified in the program test plan and met all emission goals. Future work will concentrate on designing, building, and testing pre-production units. It is anticipated that both sealed combustion and open draft models will be pursued.

  4. PV water pumping: NEOS Corporation recent PV water pumping activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, C.

    1995-11-01

    NEOS Corporation has been very active in PV-powered water pumping, particularly with respect to electric utilities. Most of the recent activity has been through the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN). The PSN is an independent, not-for-profit organization comprised of all types of electric utilities: rural electric coops, public power districts, investor-owned utilities, and power marketing agencies. The PSN`s mission is to work pro-actively to promote utility involvement in PV through education and training. PV information is distributed by the PSN in three primary forms: (1) consultation with PSN technical service representatives: (2) literature generated by the PSN; and (3) literature published by other organizations. The PSN can also provide assistance to members in developing PV customer service programs. The PSN`s product support activities include consolidation of information on existing packaged PV systems and facilitation of the development of new PV product packages that meet utility-defined specifications for cost performance, and reliability. The PSN`s initial product support efforts will be focused on commercially available packaged PV systems for a variety of off-grid applications. In parallel with this effort, if no products exist that meet the PSN`s functional specifications, the PSN will initiate the second phase of product development support process by encouraging the development of new packaged systems. Through these services and product support activities, the PSN anticipates engaging all segments for the PV industry, thus providing benefits to PV systems suppliers as well as local PV service contractors.This paper describes field testing of pv power systems for water pumping.

  5. Effect of Installation of Solar Collector on Performance of Balcony Split Type Solar Water Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influences of surface orientation and slope of solar collectors on solar radiation collection of balcony split type solar water heaters for six cities in China were analyzed by employing software TRNSYS. The surface azimuth had greater effect on solar radiation collection in high latitude regions. For deviation of the surface slope angle within ±20° around the optimized angle, the variation of the total annual collecting solar radiation was less than 5%. However, with deviation of 70° to 90°, the variation was up to 20%. The effects of water cycle mode, reverse slope placement of solar collector, and water tank installation height on system efficiency were experimentally studied. The thermal efficiencies of solar water heater with single row horizontal arrangement all-glass evacuated tubular collector were higher than those with vertical arrangement at the fixed surface slope angle of 90°. Compared with solar water heaters with flat-plate collector under natural circulation, the system thermal efficiency was raised up to 63% under forced circulation. For collector at reverse slope placement, the temperature-based water stratification in water tank deteriorated, and thus the thermal efficiency became low. For improving the system efficiency, an appropriate installation height of the water tank was suggested.

  6. Development of the Hybrid Operation Method of a Multi-Geothermal Heat Pump System and Absorption Chiller-Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ju Jung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts have been made to reduce the energy consumption of buildings due to the energy crisis, and, the Korean government has supported the use of renewable energy through various grants. Among the possible renewable energy sources, geothermal energy can be used regardless of the outside weather. Therefore, energy consumption can be reduced considerably in summer and winter. Despite the increasing use of renewable energy, the use of renewables has not been operating appropriately. Therefore, this study examined some of the problems of the operation of renewable energy and some possible improvements. The aim of the study is to evaluate a building containing an actual installed multi-geothermal heat pump (Multi-GHP system, in terms of the energy efficiency. In addition, this study evaluated the present control system and the method of complex operation regarding existing heat sources systems and GHP systems through a simulation. The results can be regarded as the result of a hybrid operation method for the improvement of an existing operation. Therefore, the Multi-GHP system energy use of a hybrid operation condition of the Multi-GHP systems and the absorption (ABS chiller-heater system was reduced compared to the operation condition of the Multi-GHP system, and the total energy consumption of the heat source equipment was reduced. The proposed operation plan was evaluated after applying the system to a building. These results showed that the efficient operation of a Multi-GHP hybrid operation method is possible. As a result, the GHP energy use of Multi-GHP systems and the ABS chiller-heater system was reduced by 30% compared to existing operation and the total energy consumption of heat source equipment was reduced by 78%.

  7. Temperature distributions in trapezoidal built in storage solar water heaters with/without phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarhan, Sefa; Yardim, M. Hakan [Department of Farm Machinery, Faculty of Agriculture, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tasliciftlik Yerleskesi, 60240 Tokat (Turkey); Sari, Ahmet [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tasliciftlik Yerleskesi, 60240 Tokat (Turkey)

    2006-09-15

    Built in storage solar water heaters (BSSWHs) have been recognized for their more compact constructions and faster solar gain than conventional solar water heaters, however, their water temperatures quickly go down during the cooling period. A trapezoidal BSSWH without PCM storage unit was used as the control heater (reference) to investigate the effect of two differently configured PCM storage units on the temperature distributions in water tanks. In the first design, myristic acid was filled into the PCM storage tank, which also served as an absorbing plate. In the second design, lauric acid was filled into the PCM storage tank, which also served as a baffle plate. The water temperature changes were followed by five thermocouples placed evenly and longitudinally into each of the three BSSWHs. The effects of the PCMs on the water temperature distributions depended on the configuration of the PCM storage unit and the longitudinal position in the water tanks. The use of lauric acid lowered the values of the peak temperatures by 15% compared to the control heater at the upper portion of the water tanks because of the low melting temperature of lauric acid, but it did not have any consistent effect on the retention of the water temperatures during the cooling period. The ability of the myristic acid storage unit to retain the water temperatures got more remarkable, especially at the middle portion of the water tank. The myristic acid storage increased the dip temperatures by approximately 8.8% compared to the control heater. In conclusion, lauric acid storage can be used to stabilize the water temperature during the day time, while the myristic acid storage unit can be used as a thermal barrier against heat loss during the night time because of its relatively high melting temperature and low heat conduction coefficient in its solid phase. The experimental results have also indicated that the thermal characteristics of the PCM and the configuration of the PCM storage

  8. Modeling of a split type air conditioner with integrated water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Techarungpaisan, P.; Theerakulpisut, S.; Priprem, S. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, 123 Mittrapab Rd., Muang, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2007-04-15

    This paper presents a steady state simulation model to predict the performance of a small split type air conditioner with integrated water heater. The mathematical model consists of submodels of system components such as evaporator, condenser, compressor, capillary tube, receiver and water heater. These submodels were built based on fundamental principles of heat transfer, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, empirical relationships and manufacturer's data as necessary. The model was coded into a simulation program and used to predict system parameters of interest such as hot water temperature, condenser exit air temperature, evaporator exit air temperature, mass flow rate of refrigerant, heat rejection in the condenser and cooling capacity of the system. The simulation results were compared with experimental data obtained from an experimental rig built for validating the mathematical model. It was found that the experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. (author)

  9. Experimental Investigation of a Natural Circulation Solar Domestic Water Heater Performance under Standard Consumption Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Taherian, H.; Ganji, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports experimental studies on the performance of a natural circulation solar water heater considering the weather condition of a city in north of Iran. The tests are done on clear and partly cloudy days. The variations of storage tank temperature due to consumption from the tank, daily...... consumption influence on the solar water heater efficiency, and on the input temperature of the collector are studied and the delivered daily useful energy has been obtained. The results show that by withdrawing from storage tank, the system as well as its collector efficiency will increase. Considering...... the value of the coefficient FRUL and τα, which are obtained experimentally as 6.03 and 0.83 respectively, average. monthly total load that is covered by this solar water heating system is estimated....

  10. A high turndown, ultra low emission low swirl burner for natural gas, on-demand water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheng, Robert K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Therkelsen, Peter L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-13

    Previous research has shown that on-demand water heaters are, on average, approximately 37% more efficient than storage water heaters. However, approximately 98% of water heaters in the U.S. use storage water heaters while the remaining 2% are on-demand. A major market barrier to deployment of on-demand water heaters is their high retail cost, which is due in part to their reliance on multi-stage burner banks that require complex electronic controls. This project aims to research and develop a cost-effective, efficient, ultra-low emission burner for next generation natural gas on-demand water heaters in residential and commercial buildings. To meet these requirements, researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) are adapting and testing the low-swirl burner (LSB) technology for commercially available on-demand water heaters. In this report, a low-swirl burner is researched, developed, and evaluated to meet targeted on-demand water heater performance metrics. Performance metrics for a new LSB design are identified by characterizing performance of current on-demand water heaters using published literature and technical specifications, and through experimental evaluations that measure fuel consumption and emissions output over a range of operating conditions. Next, target metrics and design criteria for the LSB are used to create six 3D printed prototypes for preliminary investigations. Prototype designs that proved the most promising were fabricated out of metal and tested further to evaluate the LSB’s full performance potential. After conducting a full performance evaluation on two designs, we found that one LSB design is capable of meeting or exceeding almost all the target performance metrics for on-demand water heaters. Specifically, this LSB demonstrated flame stability when operating from 4.07 kBTU/hr up to 204 kBTU/hr (50:1 turndown), compliance with SCAQMD Rule 1146.2 (14 ng/J or 20 ppm NOX @ 3% O2), and lower CO emissions than state

  11. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America field testing that shed light on how real-world water usage affects energy saving estimates of high-efficiency water heating systems.

  12. Unitary water-to-air heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-10-01

    Performance and cost functions for nine unitary water-to-air heat pumps ranging in nominal size from /sup 1///sub 2/ to 26 tons are presented in mathematical form for easy use in heat pump computer simulations. COPs at nominal water source temperature of 60/sup 0/F range from 2.5 to 3.4 during the heating cycle; during the cooling cycle EERs range from 8.33 to 9.09 with 85/sup 0/F entering water source temperatures. The COP and EER values do not include water source pumping power or any energy requirements associated with a central heat source and heat rejection equipment.

  13. Application of a Linear Input/Output Model to Tankless Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher T.; Schoenbauer, B.

    2011-12-31

    In this study, the applicability of a linear input/output model to gas-fired, tankless water heaters has been evaluated. This simple model assumes that the relationship between input and output, averaged over both active draw and idle periods, is linear. This approach is being applied to boilers in other studies and offers the potential to make a small number of simple measurements to obtain the model parameters. These parameters can then be used to predict performance under complex load patterns. Both condensing and non-condensing water heaters have been tested under a very wide range of load conditions. It is shown that this approach can be used to reproduce performance metrics, such as the energy factor, and can be used to evaluate the impacts of alternative draw patterns and conditions.

  14. Assessment of the environmental impacts deriving from the life cycle of a typical solar water heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gaidajis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to life cycle thinking, the environmental burden deriving from different life cycle stages of a product or a system, such as manufacturing, transportation, maintenance and landfilling should be taken into consideration while assessing its environmental performance. In that aspect, the environmental impacts deriving from the life cycle of a typical solar water heater (SWH in Greece are analyzed and assessed with the application of relative life cycle assessment (LCA software in this study. In order to examine various impact categories such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, ecotoxicity and so forth, the IMPACT2002+ method is applied. The aim of this study is to examine the life cycle stages, processes and materials that significantly affect the system under examination and to provide a discussion regarding the environmental friendliness of solar water heaters.

  15. Effect of Installation of Solar Collector on Performance of Balcony Split Type Solar Water Heaters

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Ji; Ming Li; Weidong Lin; Tufeng Zheng; Yunfeng Wang

    2015-01-01

    The influences of surface orientation and slope of solar collectors on solar radiation collection of balcony split type solar water heaters for six cities in China were analyzed by employing software TRNSYS. The surface azimuth had greater effect on solar radiation collection in high latitude regions. For deviation of the surface slope angle within ±20° around the optimized angle, the variation of the total annual collecting solar radiation was less than 5%. However, with deviation of 70° to ...

  16. Performance analysis on solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲世林; 马飞; 仇安兵

    2009-01-01

    A solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating (SWHP-RFH) experimental system was introduced and analyzed. The SWHP-RFH system mainly consists of 11.44 m2 vacuum tube solar collector,1 000 L water tank assisted 3 kW electrical heater,a water source heat pump,the radiant floor heating system with cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X) of diameter 20 mm,temperature controller and solar testing system. The SWHP-RFH system was tested from December to February during the heating season in Beijing,China under different operation situations. The test parameters include the outdoor air temperature,solar radiation intensity,indoor air temperature,radiation floor average surface temperature,average surface temperature of the building envelope,the inlet and outlet temperatures of solar collector,the temperature of water tank,the heat medium temperatures of heat pump condenser side and evaporator side,and the power consumption includes the water source heat pump system,the solar source heat pump system,the auxiliary heater and the radiant floor heating systems etc. The experimental results were used to calculate the collector efficiency,heat pump dynamic coefficient of performance (COP),total energy consumption and seasonal heating performance during the heating season. The results indicate that the performance of the compound source heat pump system is better than that of the air source heat pump system. Furthermore,some methods are suggested to improve the thermal performance of each component and the whole SWHP-RFH system.

  17. Space Station Water Processor Process Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the development program conducted under contract NAS8-38250-12 related to the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor (WP) Process Pump. The results of the Process Pumps evaluation conducted on this program indicates that further development is required in order to achieve the performance and life requirements for the ISSWP.

  18. Water solar distiller productivity enhancement using concentrating solar water heater and phase change material (PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam T. Chaichan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates usage of thermal energy storage extracted from concentrating solar heater for water distillation. Paraffin wax selected as a suitable phase change material, and it was used for storing thermal energy in two different insulated treasurers. The paraffin wax is receiving hot water from concentrating solar dish. This solar energy stored in PCM as latent heat energy. Solar energy stored in a day time with a large quantity, and some heat retrieved for later use. Water’s temperature measured in a definite interval of time. Four cases were studied: using water as storage material with and without solar tracker. Also, PCM was as thermal storage material with and without solar tracker.The system working time was increased to about 5 h with sun tracker by concentrating dish and adding PCM to the system. The system concentrating efficiency, heating efficiency, and system productivity, has increased by about 64.07%, 112.87%, and 307.54%, respectively. The system working time increased to 3 h when PCM added without sun tracker. Also, the system concentrating efficiency increased by about 50.47%, and the system heating efficiency increased by about 41.63%. Moreover, the system productivity increased by about 180%.

  19. Thermal performance of solar water heater system in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulla Aziz, G.M.; Mukbel, M.A. (Aden Univ., (Yemen, Republic of). Faculty of Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    A thermosyphonic solar water heating system was designed and fabricated from available materials. The risers of galvanized iron are fixed to an aluminium absorber plate by using an Omiga-in and Omiga-out technique. The collector absorber has an aperture area of 127 cm x 91 cm and is connected to a storage tank with 124 l capacity. The system was then tested under the climatical conditions of Aden city. The performance of characteristics of the system, under 'nondrawn off' and ''drawoff'' hot water conditions, are experimentally determined and then compared with the theoretical results. The results are quite satisfactory. The maximum efficiency reached 79%, with mean storage tank temperature of 60[sup o]C. (author)

  20. 75 FR 20111 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... 46,000 65 Table II.3--Current Federal Energy Conservation Standards for Pool Heaters Thermal efficiency as of Product class January 1, 1990 Gas-Fired Pool Heater Thermal Efficiency = 78% ] 2. History of... Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No....

  1. Development of a nonazeotropic heat pump for crew hygiene water heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David H.; Deming, Glenn I.

    1991-01-01

    A Phase 2 SBIR Program funded by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to develop a Nonazeotropic Heat Pump is described. The heat pump system which was designed, fabricated, and tested in the Foster-Miller laboratory, is capable of providing crew hygiene water heating for future manned missions. The heat pump utilizes a nonazeotropic refrigerant mixture which, in this application, provides a significant Coefficient of Performance improvement over a single-constituent working fluid. In order to take full advantage of the refrigerant mixture, compact tube-in-tube heat exchangers were designed. A high efficiency scroll compressor with a proprietary lubrication system was developed to meet the requirements of operation in zero-gravity. The prototype heat pump system consumes less than 200W of power compared to the alternative of electric cartridge heaters which would require 2 to 5 kW.

  2. Impact of Pilot Light Modeling on the Predicted Annual Performance of Residential Gas Water Heaters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.

    2013-08-01

    Modeling residential water heaters with dynamic simulation models can provide accurate estimates of their annual energy consumption, if the units? characteristics and use conditions are known. Most gas storage water heaters (GSWHs) include a standing pilot light. It is generally assumed that the pilot light energy will help make up standby losses and have no impact on the predicted annual energy consumption. However, that is not always the case. The gas input rate and conversion efficiency of a pilot light for a GSWH were determined from laboratory data. The data were used in simulations of a typical GSWH with and without a pilot light, for two cases: 1) the GSWH is used alone; and 2) the GSWH is the second tank in a solar water heating (SWH) system. The sensitivity of wasted pilot light energy to annual hot water use, climate, and installation location was examined. The GSWH used alone in unconditioned space in a hot climate had a slight increase in energy consumption. The GSWH with a pilot light used as a backup to an SWH used up to 80% more auxiliary energy than one without in hot, sunny locations, from increased tank losses.

  3. Scheduling of Domestic Water Heater Power Demand for Maximizing PV Self-Consumption Using Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Martinenas, Sergejus

    2013-01-01

    to predict the future temperature of the water and it manages its state (on and off) according to the forecasted PV production, which are computed starting from forecast of the solar irradiance. Simulations for the proof of concept and for validating the proposed control strategy are proposed. Results......This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) strategy for maximizing photo-voltaic (PV) selfconsumption in a household context exploiting the flexible demand of an electric water heater. The predictive controller uses a water heater model and forecast of the hot Water consumption in order...... of the control approach are compared with a traditional thermostatic controller using historical measurements of a 10 kW PV installation. Economic results based on the Italian self consumption tariffs are also reported. The model of the water heater complex is a mixed grey and white box and its parameters have...

  4. Elevator was Worked by Water and Water Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Masoumi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it has been attempted to show that some elevators work with water and their energy consumption could be reduced because of water pump usage instead of powerful gear motor of the present day elevators. Power of gear motor elevators is between 3.7 to 7.5 kw and the power of water pump elevator is 1.5 kw. Water, a tank of counter weight and water pumps operate this elevator. Consequently, it can save energy especially when two or more elevators are placed adjacent to each other. The discussion of this study concentrates on the dynamic simulation and physics of this type of elevators.

  5. Exergy analysis of integrated photovoltaic thermal solar water heater under constant flow rate and constant collection temperature modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, Arvind; Dubey, Swapnil; Sandhu, G.S.; Sodha, M.S.; Anwar, S.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this communication, an analytical expression for the water temperature of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar (IPVTS) water heater under constant flow rate hot water withdrawal has been obtained. Analysis is based on basic energy balance for hybrid flat plate collector and storage tank, resp

  6. Exergy analysis of integrated photovoltaic thermal solar water heater under constant flow rate and constant collection temperature modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.; Dubey, Swapnil; Sandhu, G.S.; Sodha, M.S.; Anwar, S.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this communication, an analytical expression for the water temperature of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar (IPVTS) water heater under constant flow rate hot water withdrawal has been obtained. Analysis is based on basic energy balance for hybrid flat plate collector and storage tank, resp

  7. Exergy analysis of integrated photovoltaic thermal solar water heater under constant flow rate and constant collection temperature modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.; Dubey, Swapnil; Sandhu, G.S.; Sodha, M.S.; Anwar, S.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this communication, an analytical expression for the water temperature of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar (IPVTS) water heater under constant flow rate hot water withdrawal has been obtained. Analysis is based on basic energy balance for hybrid flat plate collector and storage tank,

  8. Elevator was Worked by Water and Water Pump

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohammad Mehdi Masoumi; Soheila Naderinezhad

    2012-01-01

    In this research, it has been attempted to show that some elevators work with water and their energy consumption could be reduced because of water pump usage instead of powerful gear motor of the present day elevators...

  9. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    This publication is intended for engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water hammer in pumped pressure mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated sewer systems. Consideration of water hammer is essential for structural...

  10. Solar water heaters. A review of systems research and design innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, Brian [Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland). Dublin Energy Lab.

    2011-07-01

    Solar water heating can be considered to be an established mature technology. The achievement of this status is the outcome of over a century of system development that culminated with a flourish of innovation in the last thirty years. Drivers for research and development have been achieving economic viability by devising systems that, for specific applications in particular climate contexts produced more hot water per unit cost. Reductions in both initial capital and installation costs have been achieved as well as in those associated with subsequent operation and maintenance. Research on solar water heating is discussed with the emphasis on overall systems though some key aspects of component development are also outlined. A comprehensive taxonomy is presented of the generic types of solar water heater that have emerged and their features, characteristics and performance are discussed. (orig.)

  11. A charge-driven molecular water pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaojing; Li, Jingyuan; Lu, Hangjun; Wan, Rongzheng; Li, Jichen; Hu, Jun; Fang, Haiping

    2007-11-01

    Understanding and controlling the transport of water across nanochannels is of great importance for designing novel molecular devices, machines and sensors and has wide applications, including the desalination of seawater. Nanopumps driven by electric or magnetic fields can transport ions and magnetic quanta, but water is charge-neutral and has no magnetic moment. On the basis of molecular dynamics simulations, we propose a design for a molecular water pump. The design uses a combination of charges positioned adjacent to a nanopore and is inspired by the structure of channels in the cellular membrane that conduct water in and out of the cell (aquaporins). The remarkable pumping ability is attributed to the charge dipole-induced ordering of water confined in the nanochannels, where water can be easily driven by external fields in a concerted fashion. These findings may provide possibilities for developing water transport devices that function without osmotic pressure or a hydrostatic pressure gradient.

  12. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    This publication is intended for students and engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water transients in pumped sewer and water mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated systems. Consideration of transients is essential...... for the structural design of pipelines and for the planning of the proper function of the systems. The text is written by Torben Larsen, who is a professor of environmental hydraulics at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University. Torben Larsen has many years of experience with computer simulations...... of transients in pumped pipeline systems. This present publication can be understood as the second and revised edition of the pamphlet ”Transients in pumped sewer mains” (2006) which was published as a technical report by The EVA committee under The Danish Water Pollution Committee (The Danish Society...

  13. 77 FR 74559 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... descriptors (i.e., thermal efficiency and pool heater heating seasonal efficiency), as well as seasonal energy... thermal efficiency metric for pool heaters, but did not propose an integrated annual fuel utilization... states that for pool heaters, the descriptor shall be thermal efficiency. (42 U.S.C....

  14. 76 FR 63211 - Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... descriptors (i.e., thermal efficiency and pool heater heating seasonal efficiency), as well as seasonal energy... ``efficiency descriptor,'' EPCA specifies that for pool heaters, the efficiency descriptor shall be ``thermal efficiency.'' (42 U.S.C. 6291(22)(E)) Further, EPCA defines the ``thermal efficiency of pool heaters'' as...

  15. Self Calibrating Flow Estimation in Waste Water Pumping Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Knudsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about where waste water is flowing in waste water networks is essential to optimize the operation of the network pumping stations. However, installation of flow sensors is expensive and requires regular maintenance. This paper proposes an alternative approach where the pumps and the waste...... water pit are used for estimating both the inflow and the pump flow of the pumping station. Due to the nature of waste water, the waste water pumps are heavily affected by wear and tear. To compensate for the wear of the pumps, the pump parameters, used for the flow estimation, are automatically...

  16. THERMODYNAMICAL ANALYSIS OF HIGH-PRESSURE FEED WATER HEATER IN STEAM PROPULSION SYSTEM DURING EXPLOITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Poljak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays diesel engines prevail as ship propulsion. However, steam propulsion is still primary drive for LNG carriers. In the presented paper high-pressure feed water heater was analyzed, as one of the essential components in LNG carrier steam propulsion system. Measurements of all operating parameters (fluid streams at the analyzed heat exchanger inlets and outlets were performed. Change of the operating parameters was measured at different steam system loads, not at full load as usual. Through these measurements was enabled the insight into the behaviour of the heat exchanger operating parameters during the whole exploitation. The numerical analysis was performed, based on the measured data. The changes in energy and exergy efficiency of the heat exchanger were analyzed. Energetic and exergetic power inputs and outputs were also calculated, which enabled an insight into the change of energetic and exergetic power losses of the heat exchanger at different steam system loads. Change in energetic and exergetic power losses and operating parameters, which have the strongest influence on the high-pressure feed water heater losses, were described. Analyzed heat exchanger was compared with similar heat exchangers in the base loaded conventional steam power plants. From the conducted analysis, it is concluded that the adjustment and control modes of these high-pressure heat exchangers are equal, regardless of whether they were mounted in the base loaded conventional steam power plants or marine steam systems, while their operating parameters and behaviour patterns differ greatly.

  17. Performance of polypropylene and steel tubes in solar water heaters with natural circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riazi, M.R. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Razavi, J. [Sharif Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1997-02-01

    Performance of solar water heaters in thermosyphonic flow with polypropylene and steel tubes was studied experimentally. An experimental apparatus consisting of 36 south-facing parallel tubes was designed and built especially for this study. Experiments were performed at Sharif University of Technology in Tehran during July--August 1994 from 0900 to 1700, when the ambient temperature varied from 29 to 36 C. Overall, 30 experiments were conducted for both types of tubes. At first, it was found that the best collector slope for both types of tubes was 36{degree} and it is independent of tube type. Generally, it was found that polypropylene tubes under similar conditions can increase water temperature by 10 C more than steel tubes. Based on the results shown in this study, use of polypropylene tubes in solar water heating systems is recommended.

  18. Theoretical and experimental study of solar water heater with internal exchanger using thermosiphon system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koffi, P.M.E.; Andoh, H.Y.; Gbaha, P. [Laboratoire d' Energies Nouvelles et Renouvelables, Institut National Polytechnique Felix Houphoeuet-Boigny, B.P. 1526 Yamoussoukro (Ivory Coast); Toure, S. [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire, Universite de Cocody, 22 B.P. 582, Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast); Ado, G. [Laboratoire des Procedes, Industriels de Syntheses de l' Environnement et de l' Energie Nouvelle, INP-HB 22, B.P. 1093 Yamoussoukro (Ivory Coast)

    2008-08-15

    This study presents a theoretical and experimental analysis of the thermal performance of a solar water heater prototype with an internal exchanger using a thermosiphon system. The heat exchanger made of a rolled copper tube is placed diagonally in the storage tank so that the hot fluid crosses a significant mass of stored water. The results focus mainly on the levels of the heat fluxes, temperatures recorded, mass flow rate and efficiency of the collector. During the main insulation period, one obtains satisfactory qualitative and quantitative agreement between the experimental and theoretical results of mass flow rate and temperatures. Those indicate heat fluxes whose peak reaches 989 W/m{sup 2}, collector outlet water temperature levels of more than 85.5 C and a collector thermal effectiveness around 58%. (author)

  19. Relationship between Organic Carbon and Opportunistic Pathogens in Simulated Glass Water Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Williams

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Controlling organic carbon levels in municipal water has been hypothesized to limit downstream growth of bacteria and opportunistic pathogens in premise plumbing (OPPPs. Here, the relationships between influent organic carbon (0–15,000 µg ozonated fulvic acid /L and the number of total bacteria [16S rRNA genes and heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs] and a wide range of OPPPs (gene copy numbers of Acanthamoeba polyphaga, Vermamoeba vermiformis, Legionella pneumophila, and Mycobacterium avium were examined in the bulk water of 120-mL simulated glass water heaters (SGWHs. The SGWHs were operated at 32–37 °C, which is representative of conditions encountered at the bottom of electric water heaters, with water changes of 80% three times per week to simulate low use. This design presented advantages of controlled and replicated (triplicate conditions and avoided other potential limitations to OPPP growth in order to isolate the variable of organic carbon. Over seventeen months, strong correlations were observed between total organic carbon (TOC and both 16S rRNA gene copy numbers and HPC counts (avg. R2 > 0.89. Although M. avium gene copies were occasionally correlated with TOC (avg. R2 = 0.82 to 0.97, for 2 out of 4 time points and over a limited TOC range (0–1000 µg/L, no other correlations were identified between other OPPPs and added TOC. These results suggest that reducing organic carbon in distributed water is not adequate as a sole strategy for controlling OPPPs, although it may have promise in conjunction with other approaches.

  20. Biocorrosion of evaporators of water/water heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denier, P.; Sutter, E.M.M.; Cornet, A. (Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Industries, 67 - Strasbourg (FR))

    1990-12-01

    During the last twenty years, many heat pumps were installed in Alsace (France) using groundwater. It appeared that water contained bacteria able to induce metallic corrosion. Thus, it was necessary to have a better knowledge of the situation. A statistical study on water analysis was realised. There is no noticeable relation between bacterial contamination and water chemistry or geographical location. Most of corrosion origines were - a bad water network conception (erosion, cavitation, oxygen differential cells...) - a bad use of metal coupling (galvanic corrosion). The presence of bacteria generally increases the phenomena described above. Solutions proposed are: PVC casing, stainless steel water pumps, heat pump evaporators in noble alloys or metals, PVC or resines lagging. For the actual set of heat pumps, there are less solutions but in some cases an intermediary exchanger would be a good and easy solution.

  1. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-03-01

    The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase

  2. Movement and evaporation of water droplets under conditions typical for heat-exchange chambers of contact water heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, R. S.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2016-09-01

    The macroscopic regularities and integrated characteristics of the motion and evaporation of sprayed water droplets in the field of high-temperature (1100 K) combustion products under the conditions typical for water heaters of contact type (economizers) were studied using a cross-correlation complex working on the basis of panoramic optical methods (particle image velocimetry, particle tracking velocimetry, shadow photography) and high-speed (105 fps) Phantom video cameras. High-speed video recording devices with specialized software were used for continuously monitoring the motion and evaporation of droplets. Titanium dioxide nanopowder tracer particles were introduced to determine the rate of high-temperature gases. The characteristic distances covered by water droplets before their full retardation in the counter-flow of high-temperature combustion products were determined. The integrated dependences were obtained, and the main characteristics of evaporation were determined, which allow one to predict the intensity of the phase transformations of droplets (with sizes of 0.05-0.5 mm) and the distances covered by them before they completely turn in the opposite direction under the conditions corresponding to the heat-exchange chambers of contact water heaters: the vapor-droplet rate 1-5 m/s, gas flow rate 0.5-2 m/s, and gas temperature ~1100 K. Approximating expressions were derived to predict the characteristics of the processes. The performance of the economizers under study can be significantly increased by using the obtained experimental dependences, the corresponding approximating expressions, and the resulting conclusions. Conditions were determined under which the influence of phase transformations on retardation exceeds the contribution of the counter-motion and active retardation and evaporation of water droplets occur in the heat-exchange chambers of contact water heaters of typical sizes.

  3. In-situ tuff water migration/heater experiment: experimental plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, J.K.

    1980-08-01

    Tuffs on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are currently under investigation as a potential isolation medium for heat-producing nuclear wastes. The National Academy of Sciences has concurred in our identification of the potentially large water content ({le}40 vol %) of tuffs as one of the important issues affecting their suitability for a repository. This Experimental Plan describes an in-situ experiment intended as an initial assessment of water generation/migration in response to a thermal input. The experiment will be conducted in the Grouse Canyon Welded Tuff in Tunnel U12g (G-Tunnel) located in the north-central region of the NTS. While the Grouse Canyon Welded Tuff is not a potential repository medium, it has physical, thermal, and mechanical properties very similar to those tuffs currently under consideration and is accessible at depth (400 m below the surface) in an existing facility. Other goals of the experiment are to support computer-code and instrumentation development, and to measure in-situ thermal properties. The experimental array consists of a central electrical heater, 1.2 m long x 10.2 cm diameter, surrounded by three holes for measuring water-migration behavior, two holes for measuring temperature profiles, one hole for measuring thermally induced stress in the rock, and one hole perpendicular to the heater to measure displacement with a laser. This Experimental Plan describes the experimental objectives, the technical issues, the site, the experimental array, thermal and thermomechanical modeling results, the instrumentation, the data-acquisition system, posttest characterization, and the organizational details.

  4. In-situ tuff water migration/heater experiment: experimental plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, J.K.

    1980-08-01

    Tuffs on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are currently under investigation as a potential isolation medium for heat-producing nuclear wastes. The National Academy of Sciences has concurred in our identification of the potentially large water content ({le}40 vol %) of tuffs as one of the important issues affecting their suitability for a repository. This Experimental Plan describes an in-situ experiment intended as an initial assessment of water generation/migration in response to a thermal input. The experiment will be conducted in the Grouse Canyon Welded Tuff in Tunnel U12g (G-Tunnel) located in the north-central region of the NTS. While the Grouse Canyon Welded Tuff is not a potential repository medium, it has physical, thermal, and mechanical properties very similar to those tuffs currently under consideration and is accessible at depth (400 m below the surface) in an existing facility. Other goals of the experiment are to support computer-code and instrumentation development, and to measure in-situ thermal properties. The experimental array consists of a central electrical heater, 1.2 m long x 10.2 cm diameter, surrounded by three holes for measuring water-migration behavior, two holes for measuring temperature profiles, one hole for measuring thermally induced stress in the rock, and one hole perpendicular to the heater to measure displacement with a laser. This Experimental Plan describes the experimental objectives, the technical issues, the site, the experimental array, thermal and thermomechanical modeling results, the instrumentation, the data-acquisition system, posttest characterization, and the organizational details.

  5. Self Calibrating Flow Estimation in Waste Water Pumping Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Knudsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about where waste water is flowing in waste water networks is essential to optimize the operation of the network pumping stations. However, installation of flow sensors is expensive and requires regular maintenance. This paper proposes an alternative approach where the pumps and the waste...... water pit are used for estimating both the inflow and the pump flow of the pumping station. Due to the nature of waste water, the waste water pumps are heavily affected by wear and tear. To compensate for the wear of the pumps, the pump parameters, used for the flow estimation, are automatically...... calibrated. This calibration is done based on data batches stored at each pump cycle, hence makes the approach a self calibrating system. The approach is tested on a pumping station operating in a real waste water network....

  6. Thermal modeling of a combined system of photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) solar water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Swapnil; Tiwari, G.N. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, an integrated combined system of a photovoltaic (glass-glass) thermal (PV/T) solar water heater of capacity 200 l has been designed and tested in outdoor condition for composite climate of New Delhi. An analytical expression for characteristic equation for photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) flat plate collector has been derived for different condition as a function of design and climatic parameters. The testing of collector and system were carried out during February-April, 2007. It is observed that the photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) flat plate collector partially covered with PV module gives better thermal and average cell efficiency which is in accordance with the results reported by earlier researchers. (author)

  7. An experimental investigation with artificial sunlight of a solar hot-water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal performance measurements were made of a commercial solar hot water heater in a solar simulator to determine basic performance characteristics of a traditional type of flat plate collector, with and without side reflectors (to increase the solar flux). Information on each of the following was obtained; (1) the effect of flow and incidence angle on the efficiency of a flat plate collector (but only without side reflectors); (2) transient performance under flow and nonflow conditions; (3) the effectiveness of reflectors to increase collector efficiency for a zero radiation angle at fluid temperatures required for solar air conditioning; and (4) the limits of applicability of a collector efficiency correlation based on the Hottel Whillier equation.

  8. Experimental validation of dynamic simulation of the flat plate collector in a closed thermosyphon solar water heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taherian, H.; Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Sadeghi, S.;

    2011-01-01

    This work studies the dynamic simulation of thermosyphon solar water heater collector considering the weather conditions of a city in north of Iran. The simulation was done for clear and partly cloudy days. The useful energy, the efficiency diagrams, the inlet and the outlet of collector, center...

  9. Analysis of solar water heater with parabolic dish concentrator and conical absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamohan, G.; Kumar, P.; Anwar, M.; Mohanraj, T.

    2017-06-01

    This research focuses on developing novel technique for a solar water heating system. The novel solar system comprises a parabolic dish concentrator, conical absorber and water heater. In this system, the conical absorber tube directly absorbs solar radiation from the sun and the parabolic dish concentrator reflects the solar radiations towards the conical absorber tube from all directions, therefore both radiations would significantly improve the thermal collector efficiency. The working fluid water is stored at the bottom of the absorber tubes. The absorber tubes get heated and increases the temperature of the working fluid inside of the absorber tube and causes the working fluid to partially evaporate. The partially vaporized working fluid moves in the upward direction due to buoyancy effect and enters the heat exchanger. When fresh water passes through the heat exchanger, temperature of the vapour decreases through heat exchange. This leads to condensation of the vapour and forms liquid phase. The working fluid returns to the bottom of the collector absorber tube by gravity. Hence, this will continue as a cyclic process inside the system. The proposed investigation shows an improvement of collector efficiency, enhanced heat transfer and a quality water heating system.

  10. Livestock water pumping with wind and solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent developments in pumping technologies have allowed for efficient use of renewable energies like wind and solar to power new pumps for remote water pumping. A helical type, positive displacement pump was developed a few years ago and recently modified to accept input from a variable power sourc...

  11. An economic evaluation comparison of solar water pumping system with engine pumping system for rice cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treephak, Kasem; Thongpron, Jutturit; Somsak, Dhirasak; Saelao, Jeerawan; Patcharaprakiti, Nopporn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose the design and economic evaluation of the water pumping systems for rice cultivation using solar energy, gasoline fuel and compare both systems. The design of the water and gasoline engine pumping system were evaluated. The gasoline fuel cost used in rice cultivation in an area of 1.6 acres. Under same conditions of water pumping system is replaced by the photovoltaic system which is composed of a solar panel, a converter and an electric motor pump which is compose of a direct current (DC) motor or an alternating current (AC) motor with an inverter. In addition, the battery is installed to increase the efficiency and productivity of rice cultivation. In order to verify, the simulation and economic evaluation of the storage energy battery system with batteries and without batteries are carried out. Finally the cost of four solar pumping systems was evaluated and compared with that of the gasoline pump. The results showed that the solar pumping system can be used to replace the gasoline water pumping system and DC solar pump has a payback less than 10 years. The systems that can payback the fastest is the DC solar pumping system without batteries storage system. The system the can payback the slowest is AC solar pumping system with batteries storage system. However, VAC motor pump of 220 V can be more easily maintained than the motor pump of 24 VDC and batteries back up system can supply a more stable power to the pump system.

  12. Study of thermal effects and optical properties of an innovative absorber in integrated collector storage solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Yaser; Alimardani, Kazem; Ziapour, Behrooz M.

    2015-10-01

    Solar passive water heaters are potential candidates for enhanced heat transfer. Solar water heaters with an integrated water tank and with the low temperature energy resource are used as the simplest and cheapest recipient devices of the solar energy for heating and supplying hot water in the buildings. The solar thermal performances of one primitive absorber were determined by using both the experimental and the simulation model of it. All materials applied for absorber such as the cover glass, the black colored sands and the V shaped galvanized plate were submerged into the water. The water storage tank was manufactured from galvanized sheet of 0.0015 m in thickness and the effective area of the collector was 0.67 m2. The absorber was installed on a compact solar water heater. The constructed flat-plate collectors were tested outdoors. However the simulation results showed that the absorbers operated near to the gray materials and all experimental results showed that the thermal efficiencies of the collector are over than 70 %.

  13. Experimental analysis of distinct design of a batch solar water heater with integrated collector storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Jaji

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a new design of batch solar water heater has been studied. In this system, the collector and storage were installed in one unit. Unlike the conventional design consisting of small diameter water tubes, it has a single large diameter drum which serves the dual purpose of absorber tube and storage tank. In principle it is a compound parabolic collector. The drum is sized to have a storage capacity of 100 liter to serve a family of four persons. The tests were carried out with a single glass cover and two glass covers. The tests were repeated for several days. Performance analysis of the collector has revealed that it has maximum mean daily efficiency with two glass covers as high as 37.2%. The maximum water temperature in the storage tank of 60°C has been achieved for a clear day operation at an average solar beam radiation level of 680 W/m2 and ambient temperature of 32°C. To judge the operating characteristics and to synchronize utility pattern of the collector, the different parameters such as efficiency, mean plate temperature and mass flow rate has been investigated.

  14. Dimensioning of a solar water heater made from PET bottles; Dimensionamento de um aquecedor solar de agua feito com garrafas PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoleti, Pedro Henrique Fonseca; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis

    2008-07-01

    This document show the solar water heater made of PET bottles, a simple-construction solar water heater that try to give us two important solutions, water heating using solar energy and reutilization of the PET bottles left in the nature. Also, it will be showed how to do the dimensioning of it. Based on the showed dimensioning a application / software is developed and after that simulations are made using the application to provide how is the economy if it's used this kind of solar water heater and their environmental contribution by reutilization of the PET bottles abandoned in the nature. For example, in a common home the economy is about 45% of the electricity bill considering that the warmed water is used just to take a shower. So, the conclusion is: the solar water heater made by PET bottles is a very relevant equipment to the use of the solar energy, to useful applications and environmental contribution. (author)

  15. Modelling of an ICS solar water heater using artificial neural networks and TRNSYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souliotis, M.; Tripanagnostopoulos, Y. [Physics Department, University of Patras, Patras 26504, ACHAIA (Greece); Kalogirou, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, Cyprus University of Technology, P.O. Box 50329, Limassol 3603 (Cyprus)

    2009-05-15

    A study, in which a suitable artificial neural network (ANN) and TRNSYS are combined in order to predict the performance of an Integrated Collector Storage (ICS) prototype, is presented. Experimental data that have been collected from outdoor tests of an ICS solar water heater with cylindrical water storage tank inside a CPC reflector trough were used to train the ANN. The ANN is then used through the Excel interface (Type 62) in TRNSYS to model the annual performance of the system by running the model with the values of a typical meteorological year for Athens, Greece. In this way the specific capabilities of both approaches are combined, i.e., use of the radiation processing and modelling power of TRNSYS together with the 'black box' modelling approach of ANNs. The details of the calculation steps of both methods that aim to perform an accurate prediction of the system performance are presented and it is shown that this new method can be used effectively for such predictions. (author)

  16. 77 FR 2957 - Application for Manufacturing Authority, Liberty Pumps, Inc. (Submersible and Water Pumps...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Application for Manufacturing Authority, Liberty Pumps, Inc. (Submersible and Water Pumps), Bergen, NY An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board... manufacturing authority on behalf of Liberty Pumps, Inc., located in Bergen, New York. The application...

  17. Comparative Experimental Analysis of the Thermal Performance of Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater Systems With and Without a Mini-Compound Parabolic Concentrating (CPC Reflector(C < 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehong Su

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evacuated tube solar water heater systems are widely used in China due to their high thermal efficiency, simple construction requirements, and low manufacturing costs. CPC evacuated tube solar water heaters with a geometrical concentration ratio C of less than one are rare. A comparison of the experimental rig of evacuated tube solar water heater systems with and without a mini-CPC reflector was set up, with a series of experiments done in Hefei (31°53'N, 117°15'E, China. The first and second laws of thermodynamics were used to analyze and contrast their thermal performance. The water in the tank was heated from 26.9 to 55, 65, 75, 85, and 95 °C. Two types of solar water heater systems were used, and the data gathered for two days were compared. The results show that when attaining low temperature water, the evacuated tube solar water heater system without a mini-CPC reflector has higher thermal and exergy efficiencies than the system with a mini-CPC reflector, including the average and immediate values. On the other hand, when attaining high temperature water, the system with a mini-CPC reflector has higher thermal and exergy efficiencies than the other one. The comparison presents the advantages of evacuated tube solar water heater systems with and without a mini-CPC reflector, which can be offered as a reference when choosing which solar water system to use for actual applications.

  18. HYDRODYNAMICS THEORY AND CALCULATION IN WATER WAVE PUMP DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying-xue; TAO Yi; LIU Gao-lian

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the hydrodynamics theory related to water wave pump.Water wave pump is a new type pump, which uses the particular quality of water wave and re-divides the inflow energy to increase the pressure of one part of the inflow water with the rest water flowing away freely.The research and development of such a pump is of importance and significant value and profitable social interest in that it can fully utilize the residual energy of natural source in industrial and civil water circle systems.Through hydrodynamics research and calculation, a series of valid design parameters were obtained and the predicted results achieved.

  19. Water pumping in mantle shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Précigout, Jacques; Prigent, Cécile; Palasse, Laurie; Pochon, Anthony

    2017-06-01

    Water plays an important role in geological processes. Providing constraints on what may influence the distribution of aqueous fluids is thus crucial to understanding how water impacts Earth's geodynamics. Here we demonstrate that ductile flow exerts a dynamic control on water-rich fluid circulation in mantle shear zones. Based on amphibole distribution and using dislocation slip-systems as a proxy for syn-tectonic water content in olivine, we highlight fluid accumulation around fine-grained layers dominated by grain-size-sensitive creep. This fluid aggregation correlates with dislocation creep-accommodated strain that localizes in water-rich layers. We also give evidence of cracking induced by fluid pressure where the highest amount of water is expected. These results emphasize long-term fluid pumping attributed to creep cavitation and associated phase nucleation during grain size reduction. Considering the ubiquitous process of grain size reduction during strain localization, our findings shed light on multiple fluid reservoirs in the crust and mantle.

  20. Performance of a small wind powered water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentz helical pumps (Henstedt-Ulzburg, Germany) have been powered by solar energy for remote water pumping applications for many years, but from October 2005 to March 2008 a Lorentz helical pump was powered by wind energy at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) near ...

  1. 46 CFR 76.25-15 - Pumps and water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumps and water supply. 76.25-15 Section 76.25-15... EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-15 Pumps and water supply. (a) An automatically... water from the two highest fire hose outlets in a manner similar to that described in §...

  2. System curves for 100-K water plant expansion pump analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudock, E.R.

    1958-06-05

    Modifications to the 100-K water plant will be made, under Project CG-775, to increase total process water flow rates to 175,000 gpm or greater. Included in the modifications will be the installation of new pump impellers for the primary and secondary process water pumps located in the 190-K Buildings.

  3. Audel water well pumps and systems mini-ref

    CERN Document Server

    Woodson, Roger D

    2011-01-01

    Introducing an Audel ""Mini-Ref"" for tradespeople working on water well pumps and pumping systems Water well pumps are used everywhere, with installations numbering in the millions. It's hard to believe that no one has written a small field book that covers these pieces of equipment. Finally, here's a great handy guide is for anyone who needs to know how these pumps work, how to troubleshoot problems unique to this type of piping system, and how to make common repairs for both above ground and submersible pumps. It contains vital and specific references applicable to a wide range of

  4. Water Pump Development for the EVA PLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Goldman, Jeff; Morris, Kim; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design, fabricate, and test a preflight prototype pump for use in the Extravehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump will accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting noncondensable gas without becoming "air locked." The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, sealless, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. Although the planned flight unit will use a sensorless motor with custom designed controller, the preflight prototype to be provided for this project incorporates Hall effect sensors, allowing an interface with a readily available commercial motor controller. This design approach reduced the cost of this project and gives NASA more flexibility in future PLSS laboratory testing. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES will simulate the vacuum environment in which the flight pump will operate. Testing will verify that the pump meets design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure rise, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, and restart capability. Pump testing is currently

  5. Effect of heat recovery water heater system on the performance of residential split air conditioner using hydrocarbon refrigerant (HCR22)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A.; Thalal; Amri, I.; Herisiswanto; Mainil, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    This This paper presents the performance of residential split air conditioner (RSAC) using hydrocarbon refrigerant (HCR22) as the effect on the use of heat recovery water heater system (HRWHS). In this study, RSAC was modified with addition of dummy condenser (trombone coil type) as heat recovery water heater system (HRWHS). This HRWHS is installed between a compressor and a condenser by absorbing a part of condenser waste heat. The results show that RSAC with HRWHS is adequate to generate hot water with the temperature range about 46.58˚C - 48.81˚C when compared to without HRWHS and the use of dummy condenser does not give significant effect to the split air conditioner performance. When the use of HRWHS, the refrigerant charge has increase about 19.05%, the compressor power consumption has slightly increase about 1.42% where cooling capacity almost the same with slightly different about 0.39%. The condenser heat rejection is lower about 2.68% and the COP has slightly increased about 1.05% when compared to without HRWHS. The use of HRWHS provide free hot water, it means there is energy saving for heating water without negative impact to the system performance of RSAC.

  6. COMBINED UNCOVERED SHEET-AND-TUBE PVT-COLLECTOR SYSTEM WITH BUILT-IN STORAGE WATER HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design and investigation of a simple combined uncovered sheet-and-tube photo-voltaic-thermal (PVT collector system. The PVT-collector system consists of a support, standard PV module (1.22x0.305m, area=0.37m2, fill factor=0.75, sheet-and-tube water collector and storage tank-heater. The collector was fixed under PV module. Inclination angle of the PVT-collector to the horizontal plane was 45 degree. The storage tank-heater played double role i.e. for storage of hot water and for water heating. The PVT-collector system could work in the fixed and tracking modes of operation. During investigations of PVT-collector in natural conditions, solar irradiance, voltage and current of PV module, ambient temperature and water temperature in storage tank were measured. Average thermal and electrical powers of the PVT-collector system at the tracking mode of operation observed were 39W and 21W, with efficiencies of 15% and 8% respectively at the input power of 260W. The maximum temperature of the water obtained was 42oC. The system was observed efficient for low-temperature applications. The PVT-collector system may be used as a prototype for design of PVT-collector system for domestic application, teaching aid and for demonstration purposes.

  7. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915 measured samples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08.

  8. Energy Savings Potential for Pumping Water in District Heating Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sarbu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In district heating stations, the heat carrier is circulated between the energy source and consumers by a pumping system. Fluid handling systems, such as pumping systems, are responsible for a significant portion of the total electrical energy use. Significant opportunities exist to reduce pumping energy through smart design, retrofitting, and operating practices. Most existing systems requiring flow control make use of bypass lines, throttling valves or pump speed adjustments. The most efficient of these options is pump speed control. One of the issues in using variable-speed pumping systems, however, is the total efficiency of the electric motor/pump arrangement under a given operating condition. This paper provides a comprehensive discussion about pump control in heating stations and analyzes the energy efficiency of flow control methods. Specific attention is also given to the selection of motor types, sizing and pump duty cycle. A comparative energy analysis is performed on the hot water discharge adjustment using throttling control valves and variable-speed drives in a district heating station constructed in Romania. To correlate the pumped flow rate with the heat demand and to ensure the necessary pressure using minimum energy, an automatic system has been designed. The performances of these control methods are evaluated in two practical applications. The results show that approximately 20%–50% of total pumping energy could be saved by using the optimal control method with variable-speed pumps. Additionally, some modernization solutions to reduce the environmental impact of heating stations are described.

  9. PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.D.

    1959-03-24

    A pump is described for conveving liquids, particure it is not advisable he apparatus. The to be submerged in the liquid to be pumped, a conduit extending from the high-velocity nozzle of the injector,and means for applying a pulsating prcesure to the surface of the liquid in the conduit, whereby the surface oscillates between positions in the conduit. During the positive half- cycle of an applied pulse liquid is forced through the high velocity nozzle or jet of the injector and operates in the manner of the well known water injector and pumps liquid from the main intake to the outlet of the injector. During the negative half-cycle of the pulse liquid flows in reverse through the jet but no reverse pumping action takes place.

  10. Experimental study on split air conditioner with new hybrid equiment of energy storage and water heater all year round

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaowei Wang; Zhenyan Liu [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). School of Mechanical and Power Engineering; Yuan Li; Keke Zhao; Zhigang Wang [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd. (China)

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents a split air conditioner with a new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round (ACWES). The authors made a special design on the storage tank to adjust the refrigerant capacity in the storage coils under different functions, instead of adding an accumulator to the system. An ACWES prototype, rebuilt from an original split air conditioner, has been finished, and experimental study of the operation processes of the prototype was done from which some important conclusions and suggestions have been made, which were helpful in the primary design and improvement of an ACWES system for potential users. (author)

  11. Experimental study on split air conditioner with new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shaowei [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail: wswtop@sjtu.edu.cn; Liu Zhenyan [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Li Yuan [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China); Zhao Keke [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China); Wang Zhigang [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China)

    2005-11-15

    This paper presents a split air conditioner with a new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round (ACWES). The authors made a special design on the storage tank to adjust the refrigerant capacity in the storage coils under different functions, instead of adding an accumulator to the system. An ACWES prototype, rebuilt from an original split air conditioner, has been finished, and experimental study of the operation processes of the prototype was done from which some important conclusions and suggestions have been made, which were helpful in the primary design and improvement of an ACWES system for potential users.

  12. TOWARDS A UTAUT-BASED MODEL FOR THE INTENTION TO USE SOLAR WATER HEATERS BY LIBYAN HOUSEHOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the most fundamental features to ensure the success of a new technology introduction is citizen acceptance. Based on a unified model, called the Unified Theory of Adoption and Use of Technology (UTAUT, this paper provides new insights into predicting adoption and identifying of the factors that may prompt people to accept and use of Solar Water Heaters as a concrete step toward using Renewable Energy Resources, and offer guidelines for energy saving for the Libyan government and that will contribute to the economy of the country.

  13. PERFORMANCE DETERIORATION OF THERMOSIPHON SOLAR FLAT PLATE WATER HEATER DUE TO SCALING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    arunachala umesh chandavar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 340 1943 International Islamic University 16 4 2279 14.0 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} The performance of Flat plate Solar Water Heater deteriorates within five to twelve years of their installation due to factors related to manufacturing, operating conditions, lack of maintenance etc. Especially, problem due to scaling is significant as it is based on quality of water used. The remaining factors are system dependent and could be overcome by quality production. Software is developed by incorporating Hottel Whillier Bliss (H-W-B equation to ascertain the effect of scaling on system efficiency in case of thermosiphon system. In case of clean thermosiphon system, the instantaneous efficiency calculated at 1000 W/m2 radiation is 72 % and it drops to 46 % for 3.7 mm scale thickness. The mass flow rate is reduced by 90 % for 3.7 mm scale thickness. Whereas, the average temperature drop of water in the tank is not critical due to considerable heat content in water under severe scaled condition.  But practically in case of major scale growth, some of the risers are likely to get blocked completely which leads to negligible temperature rise in the tank. ABSTRAK: Prestasi plat rata pemanas air suria merosot selepas lima hingga dua belas tahun  pemasangannya disebabkan faktor-faktor yang berkaitan dengan pembuatannya, cara kendaliannya, kurangnya penyelenggaraan dan sebagainya.  Terutama sekali, masalah disebabkan scaling (tembunan endapan mineral perlu diambil berat kerana ianya bergantung kepada kualiti air yang digunakan. Faktor-faktor selebihya bersandarkan sistem dan ia

  14. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Fang, X.; Wilson, E.

    2013-05-01

    Gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the US installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many preexisting models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work.

  15. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Steam Power Plant with Double Reheat and Feed Water Heaters

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A steam cycle with double reheat and turbine extraction is presented. Six heaters are used, three of them at high pressure and the other three at low pressure with deaerator. The first and second law analysis for the cycle and optimization of the thermal and exergy efficiencies are investigated. An exergy analysis is performed to guide the thermodynamic improvement for this cycle. The exergy and irreversibility analyses of each component of the cycle are determined. Effects of turbine inlet p...

  16. Retrofitting Domestic Hot Water Heaters for Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses in a Cold Climate: A Theoretical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Karlsson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest obstacles to economic profitability of solar water heating systems is the investment cost. Retrofitting existing domestic hot water heaters when a new solar hot water system is installed can reduce both the installation and material costs. In this study, retrofitting existing water heaters for solar water heating systems in Swedish single-family houses was theoretically investigated using the TRNSYS software. Four simulation models using forced circulation flow with different system configurations and control strategies were simulated and analysed in the study. A comparison with a standard solar thermal system was also presented based on the annual solar fraction. The simulation results indicate that the retrofitting configuration achieving the highest annual performance consists of a system where the existing tank is used as storage for the solar heat and a smaller tank with a heater is added in series to make sure that the required outlet temperature can be met. An external heat exchanger is used between the collector circuit and the existing tank. For this retrofitted system an annual solar fraction of 50.5% was achieved. A conventional solar thermal system using a standard solar tank achieves a comparable performance for the same total storage volume, collector area and reference conditions.

  17. AUTOMATION OF THE RESIDENTIAL BUILDING WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM PUMPING STATION

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Kulia

    2016-01-01

    Essence of process of water-supply of apartment dwelling house is considered. The existent state over of automation of the pumping stations is brought. The task of development of the effective system of automatic control is put by them. Possibility of decision of task is shown by the use in the system of frequency transformer that feeds the electrodrives of pumps, and also due to perfection of algorithms of the pumps rotation frequency adjusting and logical management of their switching a seq...

  18. Experimental study on depth of paraffin wax over floating absorber plate in built-in storage solar water heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sivakumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the effect of depth of phase change material over the absorber surface of an integrated collector-storage type flat plate solar water heater. Flat plate solar water heaters are extensively used all over the world to utilize the natural source of solar energy. In order to utilize the solar energy during off-sunshine hours, it is inevitable to store and retain solar thermal energy as long as possible. Here, phase change material is not used for heat storage, but to minimize losses during day and night time only. The depth of phase change material over a fixed depth of water in a solar thermal collector is an important geometric parameter that influences the maximum temperature rise during peak solar irradiation and hence the losses. From the results of the studies for different masses of paraffin wax phase change material layers, the optimum depth corresponding to the maximum heat gain till evening is found to be 2 mm, and the heat retention till the next day morning is found to be 4 mm.

  19. The Performance test of Mechanical Sodium Pump with Water Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chungho; Kim, Jong-Man; Ko, Yung Joo; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jong-Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Bock Seong; Park, Sang Jun; Lee, Yoon Sang [SAM JIN Industrial Co. LTD., Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    As contrasted with PWR(Pressurized light Water Reactor) using water as a coolant, sodium is used as a coolant in SFR because of its low melting temperature, high thermal conductivity, the high boiling temperature allowing the reactors to operate at ambient pressure, and low neutron absorption cross section which is required to achieve a high neutron flux. But, sodium is violently reactive with water or oxygen like the other alkali metal. So Very strict requirements are demanded to design and fabricate of sodium experimental facilities. Furthermore, performance testing in high temperature sodium environments is more expensive and time consuming and need an extra precautions because operating and maintaining of sodium experimental facilities are very difficult. The present paper describes performance test results of mechanical sodium pump with water which has been performed with some design changes using water test facility in SAM JIN Industrial Co. To compare the hydraulic characteristic of model pump with water and sodium, the performance test of model pump were performed using vender's experimental facility for mechanical sodium pump. To accommodate non-uniform thermal expansion and to secure the operability and the safety, the gap size of some parts of original model pump was modified. Performance tests of modified mechanical sodium pump with water were successfully performed. Water is therefore often selected as a surrogate test fluid because it is not only cheap, easily available and easy to handle but also its important hydraulic properties (density and kinematic viscosity) are very similar to that of the sodium. Normal practice to thoroughly test a design or component before applied or installed in reactor is important to ensure the safety and operability in the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). So, in order to estimate the hydraulic behavior of the PHTS pump of DSFR (600 MWe Demonstraion SFR), the performance tests of the model pump such as performance

  20. Computational Simulation of a Water-Cooled Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozarth, Duane

    2008-01-01

    A Fortran-language computer program for simulating the operation of a water-cooled vapor-compression heat pump in any orientation with respect to gravity has been developed by modifying a prior general-purpose heat-pump design code used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  1. Corrosion protection of steel in ammonia/water heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfeld, Florian B.; Sun, Zhaoli

    2003-10-14

    Corrosion of steel surfaces in a heat pump is inhibited by adding a rare earth metal salt to the heat pump's ammonia/water working fluid. In preferred embodiments, the rare earth metal salt includes cerium, and the steel surfaces are cerated to enhance the corrosion-inhibiting effects.

  2. 1000 solar water heaters in the newly built area Woudhuis in Apeldoorn, Netherlands. 1000 zonneboilers in een nieuwbouwwijk Woudhuis, Apeldoorn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croonen, M.J.E. (PGEM Energiemaatschappij voor Gelderland en Flevoland, Arnhem (Netherlands)); Van der Leun, C.J. (Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands))

    1993-07-01

    In the end of 1990 a large scale solar boiler project was initiated for the title area. The aim of the project is to gain experience in project planning of the implementation of solar water heaters in newly built areas and to investigate to what extent this could contribute to a cost reduction of the solar boilers. The target was a total of 1,000 solar boilers in the Woudhuis area, in which 1,700 houses will be built in the period 1993-1995. A cost reduction of 10-20% is estimated. Descriptions of the project, the Woudhuis area and the planning method are given. It is expected that the installation of 1,000 solar water heaters and the estimated cost reduction will be realized. The Woudhuis project will be a part of the European Community research program THERMIE and provided much knowledge on how to plan such a project in newly built areas. It also has very positive effects on other similar follow-up projects. 2 figs.

  3. Assessing variable speed pump efficiency in water distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions are increasingly becoming important design targets in many industrial systems where fossil fuel based electrical energy is heavily utilised. In water distribution systems (WDSs a significant portion of operational cost is related to pumping. Recent studies have considered variable speed pumps (VSPs which aim to vary the operating point of the pump to match demand to pumping rate. Depending on the system characteristics, this approach can lead to considerable savings in operational costs. In particular, cost reductions can take advantage of the demand variability and can decrease energy consumption significantly. One of the issues in using variable speed pumping systems, however, is the total efficiency of the electric motor/pump arrangement under a given operating condition. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive discussion about the components of WDS that incorporate variable speed pumps (including electric motors, variable frequency drives and the pumps themselves to provide an insight of ways of increasing the system efficiency and hence to reduce energy consumption. In addition, specific attention is given to selection of motor types, sizing, duty cycle of pump (ratio of on-time and time period, losses due to installation and motor faults. All these factors affect the efficiency of motor drive/pump system.

  4. Assessing variable speed pump efficiency in water distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions are increasingly becoming important design targets in many industrial systems where fossil fuel based electrical energy is heavily utilised. In water distribution systems (WDSs a significant portion of operational cost is related to pumping. Recent studies have considered variable speed pumps (VSPs which aim to vary the operating point of the pump to match demand to pumping rate. Depending on the system characteristics, this approach can lead to considerable savings in operational costs. In particular, cost reductions can take advantage of the demand variability and can decrease energy consumption significantly. One of the issues in using variable speed pumping systems, however, is the total efficiency of the electric motor/pump arrangement under a given operating condition. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive discussion about the components of WDS that incorporate variable speed pumps (including electric motors, inverters and the pumps themselves to provide an insight of ways of increasing the system efficiency and hence to reduce energy consumption. In addition, specific attention is given to selection of motor types, sizing, duty cycle of pump (ratio of on-time and time period, losses due to installation and motor faults. All these factors affect the efficiency of motor drive/pump system.

  5. 电热水器的原理与检修%Principle and Maintenance About the Electric Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭占苗

    2011-01-01

    详细分析储水式电热水嚣的电路原理,以鲁斌牌QZD-1型热水器为饲介绍电热水器的电源电路,水位显示电路,防止干烧电路和防止漏电电路.重点介绍水位显示电路和防止干烧电路,水位显示电路主要以ICl(MC4069)反相器为核心,可以检测注水到莱一位置;防止干烧电路主要以IC2(LM339)比较器为棱心,实现当水箱水位低于2/6位置时断电.最后,就该电热水器可能出现的故障,给出针对故障进行检修的方法,为初学电热水器设计与检修者提供参考.%In this article,the author mainly analyzed circuit of storage-type electric water heater. Furthermore, detailed analysis about the water heater named Lu Bin QZD-1 were introduced , including power circuit, level display circuit, prevention of dry circuit and preventing leakage circuit. Especially, the last two parts of the circuit were very important. IC1 (MCA069) comparator is core component of level display circuit, which can detect the position of water in the liner; simultaneously, IC2(LM339) is considered as a key device of prevention of dry circuit ,which could cut off the power if the water level is lower than 2/6 location in the water tank. Finally, the author proposed appropriate methods of examination and repairs for possible faults of the storage-type electric water heater, which can provide reference to beginners who learn design and maintenance.

  6. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  7. Water pumps generate power efficiently; Wasserpumpen erzeugen wirtschaftlich Strom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orchard, Bryan [KSB Aktiengesellschaft, Frankenthal (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    The water supply utility of Baden-Wuerttemberg and Bavaria (Zweckverband Landeswasserversorgung - ZV-LW) intended to construct another power generation stage in the Geislingen station. A longitudinally divided, single-stage spiral casing pump with a capacity of 600 kW was used as turbine; the investment cost and installation cost was only one fourth of the cost of a Francis turbine. Further, it is an advantage that the pump can also be used conventionally, i.e. in pump operation, to support drinking water transport. (orig.)

  8. Shabbes burn, a burn that occurs solely among Jewish orthodox children; due to accidental shower from overhead water heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoufani, A; Golan, J

    2003-02-01

    From January 1990 to January 2000, 35 children were treated in our department for Shabbes burn, a unique scald burn that occurred mainly among orthodox Jews during the Sabbath. A retrospective review was conducted to determine the extent of the problem, to understand the burn mechanism and to suggest a prevention program. A shower of hot water from the Sabbath heater is the cause of this burn. Among the Shabbes burn cases, 27 patients were female (77%) and 17 children (48%) were between 3 and 6 years old. It is suggested that this is a common burn that occurs among orthodox Jewish families and affects mainly females. Education programs using the media directed to the Jewish orthodox population have been conducted, this combined with redesigned of the heater, have reduced significantly the incidence of the burn as seen in our institute. However, even though efforts have been supported widely, there remains a need for educational and governmental regulations on a national level. This could aid orthodox Jews not only in Israel but globally, as well.

  9. Experimental studies of operating characteristics of a downhole electric heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simkin, E.M.; Sergeev, A.I.; Sheinman, A.B.

    1967-06-01

    A new type of electric downhole heater for deparaffinization and heating of formations in oil wells is described. The heater is a hollow hermetic cylinder, which contains an electrode insulated from the body of the heater. The cylinder contains a predetemined volume of water of fixed electrical resistance. Resistance of this water is adjusted by addition of salt. A cable supplying the electrode with electric current also ground the heater by body. The current passes through the water, heats it, and produces steam. The steam heats up the hermetically sealed body of the heater, and heat flows to the well fluid around the heater. A schematic diagram of the heater is shown. Thermal output of the heater depends on current supplied, dimension of heater and components, resistance and volume of water in heater, and other parameters. All these factors are correlated with heat output by a series of graphs and equations.

  10. Water cooling thermal power measurement in a vacuum diffusion pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Cardozo Amorin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion vacuum pumps are used both in industry and in laboratory science for high vacuum production. For its operation they must be refrigerated, and it is done by circulating water in open circuit. Considering that, vacuum systems stays operating by hours, the water consumption may be avoided if the diffusion vacuum pumps refrigeration were done in closed circuit. However, it is necessary to know the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power (the heat transferred to circulate water by time units to implement one of these and get in the refrigeration system dimension. In this paper the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power was obtained by measuring water flow and temperature variation and was calculated through the heat quantity variation equation time function. The thermal power value was 935,6 W, that is 397 W smaller and 35 W bigger than, respectively, the maximum and minimum diffusion pump thermal power suggested by its operation manual. This procedure have been shown useful to precisely determine the diffusion pump thermal power or of any other system that needs to be refrigerated in water closed circuit.

  11. Assessment of global environmental impacts by utilizing methodology of LCA on solar water heater for dwellings; LCA shuho ni yoru taiyonetsu onsuiki no kankyo fuka hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamoshida, J. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Asai, S. [Yazaki Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    CO2 emission was quantified through the life cycle of a solar water heater to assess its environment impact. Although LCA (life cycle assessment) originally sums up I/O of all materials and energy through the whole life cycle of a product to examine environment impact, this assessment was carried out for only CO2. Calculation of CO2 emission assumed a natural circulating solar water heater of 200 l in effective hot water capacity, 2.78m{sup 2} in effective collecting area, and 0.5 in average annual collecting efficiency of total solar radiation, and an auxiliary city gas heat source for compensating insufficient heat quantity. The total CO2 emission in the life cycle of a solar water heater was obtained from an industrial association table assuming the life cycles of 10 and 20 years. CO2 emission was estimated to be 5407.1kg-CO2 and 10665.2kg-CO2 for 10 and 20 years, respectively. CO2 emission due to city gas was largest in the total CO2 emission in the life cycle. As a result, for reduction of CO2 emission due to a solar water heater, improvement of equipment efficiency was most important. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fang, Xia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this study, gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the United States, installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many pre-existing models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work. In each case modeled, the whole house was simulated along with the water heater to capture any interactions between the water heater and the space conditioning equipment.

  13. Water source heat pumps for greenhouse soil cooling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spieser, H.

    1987-06-01

    In an attempt to diversify and grow flowers which are in high demand, growers are looking to produce certain exotic flowers which require unique growing conditions. One example is the Alstroemerias also knwon as the Peruvian Lily. If the plants are grown continuously at about 12-15/sup 0/C soil temperature, the plant will continue to flower regardless of air temperature and photoriod. These latter two factors are considered secondary to the importance of cool soil temperatures. Alstroemeria production is still relatively new to the greenhouse industry. Some controversy still exists as to the direct benefits of planned soil cooling. This project was set up to evaluate a mechanical soil cooling system for continuous year round Alstroemeria production. A heat pump soil cooling system was installed in two greenhouses each with dimensions of 16 m by 61 m. Combined these greenhouses have a growing area of 1952 m/sup 2/. These greenhouses are older wooden greenhouses, covered by double poly, air-inflated glazing. This system worked very well, maintaining the soil temperature at the proper levels throughout the spring and summer months. During the rest of the year the soil cooling system is used less intensely. During winter months when soil cooling is not required, the heat pumps provide base load heating to the greenhouse through fan forced unit heaters.

  14. Nano-electro-mechanical pump: Giant pumping of water in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farimani, Amir Barati; Heiranian, Mohammad; Aluru, Narayana R.

    2016-05-01

    A fully controllable nano-electro-mechanical device that can pump fluids at nanoscale is proposed. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that an applied electric field to an ion@C60 inside a water-filled carbon nanotube can pump water with excellent efficiency. The key physical mechanism governing the fluid pumping is the conversion of electrical energy into hydrodynamic flow with efficiencies as high as 64%. Our results show that water can be compressed up to 7% higher than its bulk value by applying electric fields. High flux of water (up to 13,000 molecules/ns) is obtained by the electro-mechanical, piston-cylinder-like moving mechanism of the ion@C60 in the CNT. This large flux results from the piston-like mechanism, compressibility of water (increase in density of water due to molecular ordering), orienting dipole along the electric field and efficient electrical to mechanical energy conversion. Our findings can pave the way towards efficient energy conversion, pumping of fluids at nanoscale, and drug delivery.

  15. An economic and performance design study of solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.B.; Smetana, F.O.

    1977-03-01

    The performance and estimated material costs for several solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters using insolation levels present in North Carolina are presented. The effects of monthly variations in insolation and the direction of incident radiation are included. Demand is assumed at 13 gallons (49.2 liters) per day per person. The study shows that a closed circulation system with 82 gallons (310 liters) of preheated storage and 53.4 cu ft (4.94 cu m) of collector surface with single cover can be expected to cost about $800 and to repay it capital cost and interest (at 8%) in 5.2 years, assuming present electric rates increase at 5% per year.

  16. An economic and performance design study of solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. B.; Smetana, F. O.

    1977-01-01

    The performance and estimated material costs for several solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters using isolation levels present in North Carolina are presented. The effects of monthly variations in isolation and the direction of incident radiation are included. Demand is assumed at 13 gallons (49.2 liters) per day per person. The study shows that a closed circulation system with 82 gallons (310 liters) of preheated storage and 53.4 cu ft (4.94 cu m) of collector surface with single cover can be expected to cost about $800 and to repay it capital cost and interest (at 8%) in 5.2 years, assuming present electric rates increase at 5% per year.

  17. Passively operated spool valve for drain-down freeze protection of thermosyphon water heaters. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-04-30

    The work done to extend the existing drain-down valve technology to provide passive drain-down freeze protection for thermosyphon-based solar water heaters is described. The basic design of the existing valve model is that of a spool valve, employing a cylindrical spool which moves axially in a mating cartridge to open and close o-rings at the two operating extremes (drain and operate) to perform the valving function. Three passive actuators to drive the basic valving mechanism were designed, fabricated, and tested. Two piping configurations used to integrate the spool valve with the thermosyphon system are described, as are the passive actuators. The three actuator designs are: photovoltaic driven, refrigerant-based bellows, and heat motor cable-drive designs. Costs are compared for the alternative actuator designs, and operating characteristics were examined for the thermosyphon system, including field tests. The market for the valve for thermosyphon systems is then assessed. (LEW)

  18. Computation of water hammer protection of modernized pumping station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himr, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Pumping station supplies water for irrigation. Maximal capacity 2 × 1.2m3·s-1 became insufficient, thus it was upgraded to 2 × 2m3·s-1. Paper is focused on design of protection against water hammer in case of sudden pumps trip. Numerical simulation of the most dangerous case (when pumps are giving the maximal flow rate) showed that existing air vessels were not able to protect the system and it would be necessary to add new vessels. Special care was paid to influence of their connection to the main pipeline, because the resistance of the connection has a significant impact on the scale of pressure pulsations. Finally, the pump trip was performed to verify if the system worked correctly. The test showed that pressure pulsations are lower (better) than computation predicted. This discrepancy was further analysed.

  19. AUTOMATION OF THE RESIDENTIAL BUILDING WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM PUMPING STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kulia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Essence of process of water-supply of apartment dwelling house is considered. The existent state over of automation of the pumping stations is brought. The task of development of the effective system of automatic control is put by them. Possibility of decision of task is shown by the use in the system of frequency transformer that feeds the electrodrives of pumps, and also due to perfection of algorithms of the pumps rotation frequency adjusting and logical management of their switching a sequence. The practical value of the use of the system is to increase dynamic.

  20. Saving cost in solar water heaters by means of integration of the solar equipment in an existing hot water circulation loop; Kosteneinsparungen bei solaren Warmwasseranlagen durch Einbindung in die Warmwasserzirkulation. Vorstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitzmann, B.

    2001-07-01

    The implementation of solar water heaters in hot-water circulations for apartment buildings was examined. Models as well as investigations at 6 water supply systems in existing buildings show technically and economically opportunities for the proposed installation. Beside a reduction of the solar-piping length the proposed system shows higher opportunities for using existing hot water storage devices for solar energy storage. This is because of the energy transfer at the hot water storage devices from the existing in- and outlets instead of a heat exchanger. Today the proposed installation can be already classified as economic useful if the investment for piping and additional hot water storage device can be reduced in comparison to conventional solar water heaters. Further optimisation can be seen in the simple installation of the solar water heater to improve the economic efficiency of the proposed system. (author)

  1. 住宅太阳热水器的技术经济性分析%TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF RESIDENTIAL SOLAR WATER HEATERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓明; 罗清海; 解晓蕾; 王衍金; 刘泽华

    2011-01-01

    以福州地区典型气象年逐时气象数据为基础,对平板型太阳热水器的热性能进行逐时模拟.利用综合能源价格法,分析集热器面积对太阳热水器经济性的影响,并比较各类热水器的技术经济性.在当前能源价格体系下,集热器面积为8.5m时,系统的年平均太阳能保证率最大(为67.72%);集热器面积为4m时,综合能源价格现值最小(为0.283$/kWh),此时系统的年平均太阳能保证率为62.65%.%Based on hourly meteorological data of typical meteorological years in Fuzhou, the thermal performance of flat plate solar water heater has been hourly simulated. By synthetic energy price, the effect of collector area on the economy of solar water heater was analyzed; also the economic comparisons of various types of water heaters were discussed. Under the current energy price system, the maximum annual average solar fraction of 67.72% was obtained when the collector area is 8.5m2; the minimum present value of synthetic energy price of 0.283 ¥/kWh was obtained when the collector area is 4m2, with the annual average solar fraction of 62.25 %. With the increase of energy price, the economic superiority of solar water heater is more significant. The simulation and analysis results have important reference value for optimizing the design of solar water heater and guiding the technical progress of water heateis.

  2. Theory of wind-electric water pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, M.; Probst, O. [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (Mexico). Physics Dept.; Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (Mexico). Center for Energy Studies; Acevedo, S. [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (Mexico). Center for Energy Studies; Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (Mexico). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2004-05-01

    A proper understanding of the electrical and mechanical behavior of the system and its components is essential for the successful operation of a wind-electric pumping system. In the present article we present a formal theory of such a system, developing a framework for the determination of the steady-state operating point, as well as the study of its transient behavior, particularly at start-up. It is shown that the sufficient accumulation of kinetic energy in the wind turbine before connecting it to its load is critical for a successful start-up, even when the system has been designed to function at optimal steady-state conditions. A detailed discussion of the start-up process in terms of stored kinetic energy in the braking power provided by both the pump and the electrical system losses is given. The results of this analysis are believed to be useful both for the steady-state design of wind-electric pumping systems, as well as the optimization of control schemes and energy capture. (author)

  3. Exergy analysis of integrated photovoltaic thermal solar water heater under constant flow rate and constant collection temperature modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Arvind [Department of Design, Production and Management, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Dubey, Swapnil; Sandhu, G.S. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Sodha, M.S. [Department of Education and Physics, Lucknow University, Lucknow 226007 (India); Anwar, S.I. [Indian Institute of Sugar-cane Research, Lucknow, U.P. (India)

    2009-12-15

    In this communication, an analytical expression for the water temperature of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar (IPVTS) water heater under constant flow rate hot water withdrawal has been obtained. Analysis is based on basic energy balance for hybrid flat plate collector and storage tank, respectively, in the terms of design and climatic parameters. Further, an analysis has also been extended for hot water withdrawal at constant collection temperature. Numerical computations have been carried out for the design and climatic parameters of the system used by Huang et al. [Huang BJ, Lin TH, Hung WC, Sun FS. Performance evaluation of solar photovoltaic/thermal systems. Sol Energy 2001; 70(5): 443-8]. It is observed that the daily overall thermal efficiency of IPVTS system increases with increase constant flow rate and decrease with increase of constant collection temperature. The exergy analysis of IPVTS system has also been carried out. It is further to be noted that the overall exergy and thermal efficiency of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar system (IPVTS) is maximum at the hot water withdrawal flow rate of 0.006 kg/s. The hourly net electrical power available from the system has also been evaluated. (author)

  4. Situation of China's solar water heater industry, related national standards, testing and the Golden Sun certification program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun; H.Druck; H.Muller-Steinhagen

    2008-01-01

    China is the largest solar water heater producer and market in the world. Despite the fast growth and an installed capacity that accounts for the majority of the global gross, China's per capita solar hot water capacity is still very low, implying a huge margin of market potential; and the recognition of the industry in the global market is handicapped by the scattered scale of production and inconsistent product quality. To ensure continued growth of China's solar water heating (SWH) industry, Chinese Government has established a series of national SWH standards, three national testing centers, and a certification program to lay the foundation for the development of the Golden Sun product labeling system. China General Certification Center (CGC) developed the Golden Sun product certification and labeling system on a pass/fail basis evaluating with established criteria. The system was designed to help manufacturers acclimate to explicit consistent requirements and to identify and fix the deficiencies in the design and execution of the program itself. Timely revision and integration of the national standards are recommended to accommodate the test procedures and requirements to new technologies and the evolving SWH market. Strict implementation of the Golden Sun certification and labeling system are suggested to avail improving the quality control and forging internationally reputable brands of Chinese solar water heating products.

  5. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Steam Power Plant with Double Reheat and Feed Water Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rashidi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A steam cycle with double reheat and turbine extraction is presented. Six heaters are used, three of them at high pressure and the other three at low pressure with deaerator. The first and second law analysis for the cycle and optimization of the thermal and exergy efficiencies are investigated. An exergy analysis is performed to guide the thermodynamic improvement for this cycle. The exergy and irreversibility analyses of each component of the cycle are determined. Effects of turbine inlet pressure, boiler exit steam temperature, and condenser pressure on the first and second laws' efficiencies are investigated. Also the best turbine extraction pressure on the first law efficiency is obtained. The results show that the biggest exergy loss occurs in the boiler followed by the turbine. The results also show that the overall thermal efficiency and the second law efficiency decrease as the condenser pressure increases for any fixed outlet boiler temperature, however, they increase as the boiler temperature increases for any condenser pressure. Furthermore, the best values of extraction pressure from high, intermediate, and low pressure turbine which give the maximum first law efficiencies are obtained based on the required heat load corresponding to each exit boiler temperature.

  6. Self-construction of a solar water heater; Calentador solar de agua de auto-construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz Herrera, Alvaro E.; Rincon Mejia, Eduardo A. [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this work a flat receiver of self construction is shown with relatively low cost and easy manufacture, but with a thermal efficiency superior to 40% for applications at temperatures less than 60 degrees Celsius, that allows satisfying international standards in this respect. The heater has been matter of study in open courses distributed in the Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM) oriented to that the participants construct their own system, in addition to its installation and tests. The obtained results have been excellent. The massive use of efficient solar receivers of self-construction can truly help to the decreasing of the gas discharges of greenhouse effect. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un captador plano de auto construccion con relativamente bajo costo y facil manufactura, pero con un rendimiento termico superior a 40% para aplicaciones a temperatura menos de 60 grados centigrados que le permite satisfacer estandares internacionales a este respecto. El calentador ha sido materia de estudio en cursos abiertos impartidos en la Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM) orientados a que los participantes construyan su propio sistema, ademas de su instalacion y pruebas. Los resultados obtenidos han sido excelentes. El uso masivo de captadores solares eficientes de autoconstruccion puede en verdad coadyuvar a la disminucion de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero.

  7. Application of Solar Photovoltaic Water Pumping System in Hainan Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangchun; YU; Qingqing; LIN; Xuedong; ZHOU; Zhibin; YANG

    2013-01-01

    With radical socio-economic development and strengthening of regulation of agricultural industrial structure in Hainan Province,fresh water resource becomes increasingly insufficient.Existing water-saving facilities and measures are unable to promote sustainable and stable development of local economy.This needs modern irrigation method.Solar photovoltaic water pumping system is necessary and feasible in Hainan agriculture,and will have directive significance for Hainan Province developing photovoltaic agriculture.

  8. Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) on DHP copper by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Bacillus megaterium strains in media simulating heater waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumelzu, E.; Cabezas, C.; Schoebitz, R.; Ugarte, R.; Rodriguez, E.D.; Rios, J. [Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile)

    2003-01-01

    The complexity and diversity of microbial populations in water heating systems of steam generators make it necessary to study the magnitude of the metabolic activity of bacteria and biofilm development that may lead to degradation of metal components through microbial induced corrosion (MIC). Electrolytes simulating the conditions found in heater water networks were used to induce biofilm formation on DHP copper coupons by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans DSMZ and Bacillus megaterium C10, a commercial strain and an isolate from these waters, respectively. In order to enhance their action, industrial waters enriched with the minimum nutrient content such as sodium lactate and sodium sulphite for the DSMZ strain and glucose, proteose peptone and starch for the C10 strain were employed. Biofilm formation was studied under controlled temperature, time, shaking, pH and concentrations of the media used in this study. Then, the samples were electrochemically tested in an artificial solution of sea water as control medium, based on the hypothesis that the action of an aggressive biofilm/electrolyte medium generates damaged and non-damaged areas on the metal surface, and assuming that the sea water trial can detect the latter. Hence, a higher anodic current was associated with a lower degradation of the metal surface by the action of one of the media under study. All these trials were performed along with bacterial count, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Furthermore, it was possible to identify under which conditions MIC on DHP copper occurred and complex mechanisms from retention of cations to diffusion processes at the biofilm/tested media interface level were proposed. Surface corrosion by MIC took place on DHP copper; therefore, greater control on the treatment of industrial waters is highly desirable. (author)

  9. Experimental study of a novel CPC heat pipe coupled vacuum tube solar water heater%CPC热管真空管式热水器实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静娟; 朱跃钊; 陈海军; 王银峰; 郭丹丹; 蒋金柱; 廖传华

    2012-01-01

    研制了一种CPC(复合抛物面聚焦)热管真空管式太阳能热水器.该热水器在普通玻璃真空管热水器的基础上耦合热管技术,并增加了CPC聚光板.对该热水器与全玻璃真空管太阳能热水器进行了热性能对比实验研究.结果表明,在300 W/m2~800 W/m2日照条件下,该新型热水器单位面积集热功率最高可达610 W/m2;平均集热效率约为80%,比全玻璃真空管太阳能热水器的瞬时效率高10%~20%;导热介质的最高温度达到103℃.证明增加CPC聚光板及运用导热油可有效提高集热品位,利用热管技术可解决严寒地区的抗冻问题,所以,CPC热管真空管式太阳能热水器将具有较广阔的市场前景.%A novel CPC heat pipe coupled vacuum tube solar water heater was developed combined with heat pipe and CPC light gathering tabula on the basis of all-glass evacuated tube solar water heater. Comparative thermal performance tests on two different types of solar water heaters were carried out. A CPC heat pipe coupled vacuum tube solar water heater and an all -glass evacuated tube solar water heater were installed in parallel and tested at the same working conditions. The results show that, the maximum heat collecting power of this solar water heater can reach 610 W/m2 during solar radiation ranging from 300W/m2~800W/m2. Average heat collecting efficiency of this solar water heater can be improved effectively by using CPC, to 80%, which is 10%-20% higher than the all-glass vacuum solar water heater. The highest temperature of heat conducting oil in the vacuum tube can reach 1031. It proved that CPC light gathering tabula and the heat conducting oil is beneficial to improve the collector grade, and heat pipes can overcome the problem of the tube broken during working at subzero temperature. Therefore, the CPC heat pipe coupled vacuum tube solar water heater will have a bright prospect of application.

  10. The Pumping Up Phenomenon of Double-Stage Bubble Pump with Water and Aqueous LiBr Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Gao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The double-stage bubble pump, using thermal energy as driving force to transport the solution, can replace the mechanical solution pump in the double-effect lithium bromide absorption chiller. By building a bench, a lot of experimental research and analysis were conducted with water and different concentrations of lithium bromide solution as the working fluid of the bubble pump. The first-stage bubble pump in the experiment pumps up by the external heat source. The heat for driving the second-stage bubble pump is provided by refrigerant steam produced from the first-stage bubble pump. The experiment data shows that the heating of refrigerant vapor is only one of the elements of pump-up phenomenon. Another is that the intermediate solution flashes to vapor to become bubbles. The pump-up phenomenon of double-stage bubble pump has much to do with the pressure difference of intermediate solution and first-stage refrigerant vapor. With water as the working fluid, when the pressure difference between refrigerant vapor and the intermediate liquefied refrigerant is 3.5-3.9 kPa, the bubble pump can pump up and run for some time and the start-up time decreases with the driving head. When the working fluid is lithium bromide solution, the pressure difference of the double-stage bubble pump increases with the solution concentration and is bigger than that of water. The start-up time increases with the concentrations of lithium bromide solution within the range of 45.5 to 54% and decreases within the range of 54-59.5%. The start-up time is largest at 54% under this experimental condition. The experimental result is also compared with the single-stage bubble pump. The start-up time of double-stage bubble pump decreases with the driving height, which is contrary to the single-stage bubble pump.

  11. Low-cost water-lifting from groundwater sources: a comparison of the EMAS Pump with the Rope Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Michael F.; Carpenter, Jacob D.; Mihelcic, James R.

    2017-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, low-cost groundwater supply systems offer great opportunities for the current unserved population of >300 million to access drinking water. A comparative study was performed in Uganda of the EMAS Pump (designed by Escuela Móvil Aguas y Saneamiento Básico) with the trade-named Rope Pump, two low-cost manual water-lifting devices appropriate to pumping from shallow groundwater sources. Pumping rates, energy expended, material costs, and construction requirements were analyzed. Focus was on low-cost application for use in shallow groundwater systems at the household level in developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The study site was northern Uganda, with testing performed at several drilled boreholes. Two variants of each pump were tested by a male and female user, pumping from multiple static water-level depths ranging from 5 to 28 m. Results demonstrated the most common version of the EMAS Pump to perform similarly to the comparable version of the Rope Pump in terms of average pumping rate at depth range 5 to 18 m (93-111%), but less so at deeper depths (63-85%). Normalized pumping rates (considering energy expended) accentuated differences between these versions of the EMAS Pump and Rope Pump (47-97%). Cost of materials to construct the EMAS Pump were 21-60% those of the Rope Pump, and EMAS Pump construction requirements were also less. Based on the assessed factors, it is concluded that the EMAS Pump has potential for success in "self-supply" groundwater systems in sub-Saharan Africa and is particularly appropriate to link with low-cost shallow groundwater sources.

  12. Desempenho de um aquecedor de água a biogás Performance of a water heater by biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio M. da Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos foram desenvolvidos para dimensionar e adaptar o injetor do queimador principal de um aquecedor de água tipo acumulação de 75 L. O diâmetro do injetor foi redimensionado em função da pressão de serviço de 100 mm H2O e poder calorífico inferior do biogás de 21.600 kJ m-3 n, garantindo a manutenção da potência calorífica do equipamento de 20.900 kJ h-1. Os resultados demonstraram que o queimador adaptado operou com biogás adequadamente, com chama estável. A eficiência média do aquecedor foi de 68%, para ganho térmico de 36,7 ºC, correspondendo à temperatura final da água igual a 62,7 ºC, sendo consumido 0,796 m³n de biogás, aquecendo 75 L de água em 72 minutos.Studies had been developed to project and to adapt the injector of the main burner of water heater accumulated type of 75 L. The diameter of the injector was project in function of the pressure of service of 100 mm H2O and inferior calorific power of biogas of 21,600 kJ m-3 n, having guaranteed the maintenance of the calorific power of the equipment of 20,900 of kJ h-1 .The results had demonstrated that the adapted burner to operate with biogas operated adequately with a steady flame. The average efficiency of the heater was of 68%, for a thermal profit of 36.7 ºC, corresponding the final temperature of the water of 62.7 ºC being consumed 0.796 m³ n of biogas, heating 75 L of water in 72 minutes.

  13. Fish-Friendly Pumping Stations Principles, Practices and Outcomes in Dutch Water Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moria, Laura

    2008-01-01

    In the Netherlands polder water levels are managed with almost 3000 pumping stations that pump excess water from polders to reservoir canals or sea. These pumping stations might threaten Dutch fish stocks. Migrating fish are often unable to pass a pumping

  14. Energy Saving in a Water Supply Network by Coupling a Pump and a Pump As Turbine (PAT) in a Turbopump

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Carravetta; Lauro Antipodi; Umberto Golia; Oreste Fecarotta

    2017-01-01

    The management of a water distribution network (WDN) is performed by valve and pump control, to regulate both the pressure and the discharge between certain limits. The energy that is usually merely dissipated by valves can instead be converted and used to partially supply the pumping stations. Pumps used as turbines (PAT) can be used in order to both reduce pressure and recover energy, with proven economic benefits. The direct coupling of the PAT shaft with the pump shaft in a PAT-pump turbo...

  15. Experimental investigation on water quality standard of Yangtze River water source heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zenghu; Tong, Mingwei; Kun, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the surface water in the upper reaches of Yangtze River in China containing large amounts of silt and algae, high content of microorganisms and suspended solids, the water in Yangtze River cannot be used for cooling a heat pump directly. In this paper, the possibility of using Yangtze River, which goes through Chongqing, a city in southwest China, as a heat source-sink was investigated. Water temperature and quality of the Yangtze River in the Chongqing area were analyzed and the performance of water source heat pump units in different sediment concentrations, turbidity and algae material conditions were tested experimentally, and the water quality standards, in particular surface water conditions, in the Yangtze River region that adapt to energy-efficient heat pumps were also proposed. The experimental results show that the coefficient of performance heat pump falls by 3.73% to the greatest extent, and the fouling resistance of cooling water in the heat exchanger increases up to 25.6% in different water conditions. When the sediment concentration and the turbidity in the river water are no more than 100 g/m3 and 50 NTU respectively, the performance of the heat pump is better, which can be used as a suitable river water quality standard for river water source heat pumps.

  16. Determination of inorganic compounds in drinking water on the basis of house water heater scale, part 1: Determination of heavy metals and uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of scale originated from drinking water on the house water heater, showed that scale is basically calcium carbonate that crystallizes hexagonally in the form of calcite. Scale taken as a sample from different spots in Belgrade – upper town of Zemun (sample 1 and Pančevo (sample 2 showed different configuration although it came from the same waterworks. That indicates either that the water flowing through waterworks pipes in different parts of the city is not the same or the waterworks net is not the same (age, maintaining, etc. All the elements which are dominant in drinking water (Ca, Mg, K, and Na, and which could be found in water by natural processes, are by their content far below the values regulated by law. The analysis also showed the presence of many metals: Ti, Pb, Zn, Cu Li, Sr, Cd, and Cr in the first sample, which are not found in the scale taken near Pančevo. The results obtained by calculating the mass concentration in drinking water on the basis of scale content, showed that both waters belonged to the category of low mineral waters. Contents of inorganic substances in these waters (117.85 mg/dm3 for sample 1 or 80.83 mg/dm3 for sample 2 are twice lower than the values predicted by the legislation. Gammaspectrometric analysis indicates the presence of radioactive elements – uranium and strontium which can influence human health.

  17. WHY IS CHINA THE WORLD’S LEADER OF SOLAR WATER HEATER PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy programs in developing countries face many challenges. The purpose of this research is to examine why China has been successful as the world’s leader of Solar Water Heater (SWH production and consumption. The study is based on field work in China in the past two years in areas where SWHs are widely used. The results may help provide a better understanding of the main drivers for the rapid growth of renewable and sustainable energy and develop associated policies. The research is based on data from current reports on SWH production and consumption in China and field investigations in Chinese cities and rural areas where SWHs are widely used. The findings are limited by the availability of data and the varied physical and cultural conditions in China. The research finds that several factors may have contributed to China’s leadership in this area: governmental policies, innovations in technology, low costs of labor, low interest rates, government incentives, a large market, a new installation, shortage of electricity and social acceptance. China’s SWH production and consumption is mainly due to economic incentives and cultural appeal instead of consumer environmental concerns. The Chinese SWH experience confirms earlier findings that low levels of development should not prevent countries from having effective environmental institutions and policies. In addition to technological innovations, policies for renewable and sustainable energy need to pay more attention to economic, political and cultural factors.

  18. Performance analysis of photovoltaic based submersible water pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Lal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a photovoltaic (PV array based water pumping system situated at Kota Rajasthan (25.18 N and 75.83 E, India has been studied. A 2hp DC motor with 2200W (10 panels of each 225W have been used for discharge 30 m water head. The maximum discharge logged 163litre/minute between 11AM to 2PM at PV power output between 75 to 85W/m2and the system is operating approximately 8 hours in the of November of the winter season. The full day discharge has found 70995litre and it is more than the average discharge given by the manufacturer at 50m depth. It is revealed that PV array based water pumping system is suitable and feasible option for off-grid and drip irrigation system like the interior area of Kota, where clear sky days are more than 250 in a year.

  19. The cost-effectiveness of heat pumps in specific buildings in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greyvenstein, G.P.; Meyer, J.P. (Potchefstroom Univ. for CHE (South Africa). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1993-09-01

    Water heating heat pumps are extremely energy efficient and large savings can be realized when they are compared to direct electrical resistance heaters. In spite of the energy efficiency of heat pumps, a large number of residential buildings in South Africa still use electrical heaters to heat water. The reason for this is that heat pumps are considerably more expensive than electrical heaters. Building owners tend to choose the system with the smallest initial cost and do not compare the two systems on the basis of life-cycle cost. It is also difficult to calculate the life-cycle cost of a heat pump because it depends on many factors like climatological conditions and water temperature. In this paper a methodology is developed to calculate the life-cycle cost of a heat pump hot water installation. The model is used to investigate the effect of daily runtime, electricity tariff, hot water consumption and geographical location on the cost-effectiveness of heat pumps. The cost-effectiveness of heat pumps increases with daily run time, water consumption and electricity tariff. Heat pumps are more cost-effective near the coast than in the interior. If sized correctly, heat pumps are more cost-effective than electrical heaters for all major cities in South Africa. The cost-effectiveness of heat pumps for two specific buildings, one a university student hostel in Potchefstroom and the other a hotel in Durban, is also investigated. For both cases it was found that heat pumps are more cost-effective than direct electrical resistance heaters. (author)

  20. Pore Water Pumping by Upside-Down Jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Manikantam; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2016-11-01

    Patchy aggregations of Cassiopea medusae, commonly called upside-down jellyfish, are found in sheltered marine environments with low-speed ambient flows. These medusae exhibit a sessile, non-swimming lifestyle, and are oriented such that their bells are attached to the substrate and oral arms point towards sunlight. Pulsations of their bells are used to generate currents for suspension feeding. Their pulsations have also been proposed to generate forces that can release sediment locked nutrients into the surrounding water. The goal of this study is to examine pore water pumping by Cassiopea individuals in laboratory aquaria, as a model for understanding pore water pumping in unsteady flows. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements were conducted to visualize the release of pore water via bell motion, using fluorescent dye introduced underneath the substrate. 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were conducted on the same individuals to correlate PLIF-based concentration profiles with the jets generated by pulsing of medusae. The effects of varying bell diameter on pore water release and pumping currents will be discussed.

  1. Hourly use profiles for solar domestic hot water heaters in the National Solar Data Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barvir, E. J.; Doak, L. G.; Waterman, R. E.; Gervasio, C.

    Daily hot water rates of consumption and the Hourly Profiles of Daily Hot Water Consumption for single and multiple family dwellings are provided in this paper. These new statistics obtained from the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) are significantly different from the statistics currently being used in TRNSYS, SOLCOST and F-Chart. The NSDN statistics suggest that both the daily demand and hourly use profiles used in performance models should be revised.

  2. EFFICIENT DESIGN OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC WATER PUMPING AND TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmen Ben Chaabene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the world, the exploitation of solar energies knew a strong growth these last years. It is interesting to exploit them on the place of consumption, by directly transforming into heat, or in electricity according to needs and especially in remote areas where power from utility is not available or is too costly to install. The use of photovoltaic sources in water pumping and treatment domain is one of the most important renewable energy applications. Having an arid to a semi-arid climate, Tunisia receives low quantities of rain. Consequently, the available water resources in the country are rather modest in terms of both quantity and quality. 97% of water resources in Tunisia are of brackish water, particularly in the south parts of the country. Originate from ground water resources and surface, these waters are unsuitable for drinking or irrigation, because of the high salinity and biological contagion in sensitive (perceptible germs. The goal of this study is to direct the applied researches to the applications of coupling the photovoltaic energy, which is available in the south of the country and water domain (pumping, desalting and disinfecting. We present in this study some of pilot units coupled to photovoltaic sources and we propose a global system which gathers the water pumping, desalting and disinfecting operations. Some experimental and numerical results have been carried out to show the efficiency of the use of this system. The conception, the realization and the exploitation of this autonomous system will be the suitable solution for providing fresh water to a number of rural regions where important quantities of water are needed to either, the drinking and irrigation, in Tunisia and in the Mediterranean basin in general.

  3. The sun as hot water source. Answers to questions on the solar water heater; Le soleil source d'eau chaude. Les reponses a vos questions sur le chauffe-eau solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This guide answers to the main questions concerning a water heating system for domestic use. It aims to help the people who want to buy a solar water heater, to better estimate the advantages and the limits, in providing information on the operating and the use. (A.L.B.)

  4. Conversion of thermal energy into electricity via a water pump operating in Stirling engine cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavin, V.S. [Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS (Russian Federation); Bakos, G.C. [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Laboratory of Energy Economics, 67 100 Xanthi (Greece); Finnikov, K.A. [Siberian Federal University (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-15

    In this paper, the principle of heat energy conversion via Stirling pump into electricity is considered. New scheme of Stirling pump is proposed, that differs from known ones in application of offset heater and cooler and valves controlling the motion of liquid. The mathematical model is implemented to examine the liquid flow and gas heat exchange in cylinders and regenerator. The numerical simulation of engine's working cycle is conducted for the purpose of determining the characteristic parameters of its design. A possibility of achieving high thermal efficiency at acceptable power level is shown. (author)

  5. Solar air heaters and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    The solar air heater appears to be the most logical choice, as far as the ultimate application of heating air to maintain a comfortable environment is concerned. One disadvantage of solar air heaters is the need for handling larger volumes of air than liquids due to the low density of air as a working substance. Another disadvantage is the low thermal capacity of air. In cases where thermal storage is needed, water is superior to air. Design variations of solar air heaters are discussed along with the calculation of the efficiency of a flat plate solar air heater, the performance of various collector types, and the applications of solar air heaters. Attention is given to collectors with nonporous absorber plates, collectors with porous absorbers, the performance of flat plate collectors with finned absorbers, a wire mesh absorber, and an overlapped glass plate air heater.

  6. Slurry pumping techniques for feeding high-pressure coal gasification reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, W. G.; Tarman, P. B.

    1977-01-01

    Operating experience in pumping coal and coal char slurries at pressures up to 1500 psig is discussed. The design specifications for the mixing tanks, pumps, piping, and slurry heaters are given along with pressure drop and minimum flow velocity data on water-lignite slurries.

  7. THE CALCULATION OF THE PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF PUMPING EQUIPMENT AND PIPING NETWORK OF WATER SUPPLY AND RECLAMATION PUMPING STATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahnyanskaya O. I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of pumping equipment and piping network parameters is presented. The method of cutting impeller pump diameter for optimal performance of pump unit with piping system on efficiency value is shown. The case of operating the distribution network and pumping station with three pump units D1250-25 is considered. Procedure of construction of loss-of-head curves in pipes, determination of the actual operating parameters of a single pump unit, selection of pump impeller diameter for essentials is indicated. Four points for graphing such curves are presented. According to the first point the whole network is divided into sections with suction, pressure main pipelines and pipelines with changing water flow compared with the previous ones. The second point involves definition of the electrical resistivity of each site. The resistance of network analyzer is determined in the third point, the loss-of -head of the whole network is determined in the fourth point. The article presents the scheme of pumping station with three pump units connected in parallel and a distribution network (Figure1, loss-of-head curves in pipes regardless the number of working pumps (Figure 2, the order of constructing three loss-of-head curves with operating one, two and three pumps with normal and cut pump impeller diameter (Figure 3 , the order of determination of the actual parameters of pump work characteristics according to combined characteristics of normal and cut pump impeller diameter ( Figure 4 In conclusion, it is stated that the question of proper definition of actual parameters of pumps and the support of these parameters in optimal mode remains open due to the lack of proper methods of constructing loss-of-head curves pipeline. Every similar calculation is preliminary and should be carried out in field conditions

  8. Study of the distribution of the absorbed solar radiation on the performance of a CPC-type ICS water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souliotis, M.; Tripanagnostopoulos, Y. [Physics Department, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2008-05-15

    An Integrated Collector Storage (ICS) solar water heater was designed, constructed and studied with an emphasis on its optical and thermal performance. The ICS system consists of one cylindrical horizontal tank properly mounted in a stationary symmetrical Compound Parabolic Concentrating (CPC) reflector trough. The main objective was the design and the construction of a low cost solar system with improved thermal performance based on the exploitation of the non-uniform distribution of the absorbed solar radiation on the cylindrical storage tank surface. A ray-tracing model was developed to gauge the distribution of the incoming solar radiation on the absorber surface and the results were compared with those from a theoretical optical model based on the average number of reflections. The variation of the optical efficiency as function of the incident angle of the incoming solar radiation along with its dependence on the month during annual operation of ICS system is presented. The ICS device was experimentally tested outdoors during a whole year in order to correlate the observed temperature rise and stratification of the stored water with the non-uniform distribution of the absorbed solar radiation. The results show that the upper part of the tank surface collects the larger fraction of the total absorbed solar radiation for all incident angles throughout the year. This is found to have a significant effect on the overall thermal performance of the ICS unit. In addition, the presented results can be considered important for the design and the operation of ICS systems consisting of cylindrical tank and CPC reflectors. (author)

  9. Solar Energy in China: Development Trends for Solar Water Heaters and Photovoltaics in the Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William; Wang, Zhongying

    2006-01-01

    China is the world's largest market for solar water heating systems, installing 13 million square meters of new systems in 2004, mostly in large cities. Municipal authorities, however, are sensitive to quality and visual impact issues created by this technology deployment. Therefore, there is currently a trend toward developing building integrated…

  10. Solar Energy in China: Development Trends for Solar Water Heaters and Photovoltaics in the Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William; Wang, Zhongying

    2006-01-01

    China is the world's largest market for solar water heating systems, installing 13 million square meters of new systems in 2004, mostly in large cities. Municipal authorities, however, are sensitive to quality and visual impact issues created by this technology deployment. Therefore, there is currently a trend toward developing building integrated…

  11. Comparison of solar powered water pumping systems which use diaphragm pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four solar photovoltaic (PV) powered diaphragm pumps were tested at different simulated pumping depths at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory near Bushland, Texas. Two of the pumps were designed for intermediate pumping depths (30 to 70 meters), and the other two pumps were...

  12. Failure analyses and weld repair of boiler feed water pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulpen, R. van [KemaPower Generation, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    During a regular inspection of the Boiler Auxiliaries at one of the Dutch Electricity Production Companies serious cracks were found in the cover and casings of the feed water circulation pumps in two units after 108.000 and 122.000 hours of boiler operation. Kema Laboratories carried out Failure analyses on boat samples at the cracked areas. Corrosion fatigue cracking was found on the inner side of the GS-24CrNiMo325 casing. Shop Weld repairs were carried out using a newly developed mechanized Plasma Welding Technique. The repaired feed water circulation pumps showed no problems alter several years of operation. The costs of repair were substantially lower than the costs of replacement. (orig.) 3 refs.

  13. First experience of water pumping system in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, C. [Soleco Ltd., Borgaa (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    A photovoltaic water pump (PVP) was installed and monitored in a village at sea level in the east coast of Yemen. Economic study showed PVP to be competitive within the power range of small diesel pumps, where they often even constitute the least-cost option. Social study showed the high acceptance and better integration of PVP into the project village. The water in Yemen is found in wells at depths of 15 m down to 100 m, and more. The village population usually lives on the top of the steep mountains and the well is down in the valley. The first pilot PVP was installed in a village at sea level with an existing well. The work is supported by World Bank financing and a co-operation with a Danish and Finnish CTF of World Bank. (au)

  14. Intelligence on the second stage. 'Air-On' plus air/water heat pump. Cheap air conditioning technology; Intelligenz der zweiten Stufe. 'Air-On' plus Luft/Wasser-Waermepumpe. Preiswerte Raumklimatechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genath, Bernd

    2011-07-15

    It is hard to believe: The heating technique still holds thoughtful surprises. Based on the idea and based on the physics of the heating technology, the company Air-On AG (Cham, Switzerland). For the renovation of old buildings, this company used a second stage of a heat pump to replace old heaters. This second stage is a Peltier element and exclusively tempers a individual room decentrally. The second stage has a better coefficiency of performance than the first stage such as an air / water heat pump.

  15. Improved Design of the Crude Oil Heater with Water Jacket%水套加热炉的改进设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于庆波; 秦勤; 杨宗山; 周洪敏

    2000-01-01

    采用蓄热式燃烧技术对原有的水套加热炉进行了改进设计。改进后的蓄热式水套加热炉,运行热效率可达80%以上,与原有加热炉相比,具有自动化程度高,节能效果显著的特点。%he design of crude oil heater with water jacket is improved by use of regenerative combustion technoloy. The improved heater can be operated with the thermal efficiency of more than 80% ,high automation and obvious energy-saving compared with traditional ones.

  16. An analysis on Free Convection Cooling of a 3×3 Heater Array in Rectangular Enclosure using Cu-EG-Water Nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimanyu Purusothaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of natural convection cooling of a discrete heater array in Cu-EG-water nanofluid filled rectangular enclosure. A 3 × 3 array of non-protruding heat sources is embedded on one of the vertical walls of the enclosure while the top horizontal and opposite vertical walls are assumed to be isothermally cold. The remaining portions in which the heaters are mounted and all other walls are insulated. The above setup is modeled into a system of partial differential equations which are solved numerically using finite volume method based on the Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equation (SIMPLE algorithm and power law scheme. The wide range of parameters for computation are the aspect ratio of the enclosure, the mixture proportion of Ethylene glycol-water, the solid volume fraction of the nanoparticle along with two different thermal conductivity models. It is observed that the proper choice of the computation parameters and thermal conductivity models could be able to maximize the heat transfer rate from the heater array. Also, the results obtained in this study will provide new guidelines in the field of electronic equipment cooling.

  17. 49 CFR 393.77 - Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... all hot water and steam heater systems shall be specifically designed and constructed for that purpose... when used for heating the cargo of tank motor vehicles. (3) Heaters permitting fuel leakage. Any type... air, heated or to be heated, from the engine compartment or from direct contact with any portion...

  18. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF PARABOLIC SOLAR COLLECTOR WATER HEATER SYSTEM FITTED WITH NAIL TWISTED TAPES ABSORBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. SYED JAFAR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the experimental heat transfer, friction loss and thermal performance data for water flowing through the absorber tube fitted with two different twisted tape configurations in parabolic trough collector (PTC are presented. In the present work, a relative experimental study is carried out to investigate the performance of a PTC influenced by heat transfer through fluidabsorber wall mixing mechanism. The major findings of this experiment show that heat transport enhancement in the nail twisted tape collector perform significantly better than plain twisted tapes and also show that the smallest twisted tape ratio enhances the system performance remarkably maximizing the collector efficiency. The results suggest that the twisted tape and nail twisted tape would be a better option for high thermal energy collection in laminar region of the PTC system.

  19. Water pumping and analysis of flow in burrowing zoobenthos - a short overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2005-01-01

    Burrowing animals maintain contact with the water above the sediment by pumping water through a tube system and therefore measurements of water pumping rate of burrowing animals is of crucial importance for the study of many processes both within and above the sea floor. This review deals...... with the measuring of water pumping and the analysis of flow generated by burrowing deposit- and filter-feeding zoobenthos in order to determine the type of pump and mechanisms involved, flow rate, pump pressure, and pumping power. The practical use of fluid mechanical principles is examined, and it is stressed...... that not only the pump pressure that a burrowing animal can apply is of interest for assessing the energy cost of pumping, but also the distribution of excess pressure along its burrow is of importance for assessing the seepage flow of oxygen-rich water into the sediment surrounding the burrow because...

  20. Impacts of Groundwater Pumping on Regional and Global Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Except frozen water in ice and glaciers (68%), groundwater is the world's largest distributed store of freshwater (30%), and has strategic importance to global food and water security. In this chapter, the most recent advances assessing human impact on regional and global groundwater resources are reviewed. This chapter critically evaluates the recently advanced modeling approaches quantifying the effect of groundwater pumping in regional and global groundwater resources and the evidence of feedback to the Earth system including sea-level rise associated with groundwater use. At last, critical challenges and opportunities are identified in the use of groundwater to adapt to growing food demand and uncertain climate.

  1. Application of Heat Pump in Cooling Water System of HIRFL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator generates a lot of heat when it is working.It must be cooled by the circulating cooling water.Generally the heat was released to atimosphere by the cooling water tower.Because the heat energy is very huge(about 2M watts for HIRFL),it is big waste and the machine can’t be cooled to appropriate temperature when ambient temperature is high in summer.In order to solve the problems,the heat pump has been used

  2. Double-diffusive natural convection of Cu-water nanofluid in a window shaped cavity containing multiple obstacles with a heater on bottom wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Raju; Parvin, Salma; Khan, Md. Abdul Hakim

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, natural convective heat and mass transfer and fluid flow inside a window shaped cavity filled with Cu-water nanofluid and containing multiple obstacles with a finite size heater placed in its horizontal wall is numerically investigated. Sinusoidal temperature distribution is maintained by the heater. The left and right inclined walls of the cavity are maintained at a relatively low temperature while the vertical walls are insulated. The governing equations are transformed to the dimensionless form and solved numerically using Galerkin weighted residual technique of finite element method. The influence of pertinent parameters such as thermal Rayleigh number, location of the heater and solid volume fraction of nanoparticles on the heat and mass transfer and fluid flow is studied. The results are obtained in terms of streamlines, isotherms, isoconcentrations, average Sherwood number and average Nueeslt number for the considered parameters and it is observed that the flow pattern, temperature and concentration fields are affected by the variation of the mentioned parameters.

  3. Pump-stopping water hammer simulation based on RELAP5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, W. S.; Jiang, J.; Li, D. D.; Lan, G.; Zhao, Z.

    2013-12-01

    RELAP5 was originally designed to analyze complex thermal-hydraulic interactions that occur during either postulated large or small loss-of-coolant accidents in PWRs. However, as development continued, the code was expanded to include many of the transient scenarios that might occur in thermal-hydraulic systems. The fast deceleration of the liquid results in high pressure surges, thus the kinetic energy is transformed into the potential energy, which leads to the temporary pressure increase. This phenomenon is called water hammer. Generally water hammer can occur in any thermal-hydraulic systems and it is extremely dangerous for the system when the pressure surges become considerably high. If this happens and when the pressure exceeds the critical pressure that the pipe or the fittings along the pipeline can burden, it will result in the failure of the whole pipeline integrity. The purpose of this article is to introduce the RELAP5 to the simulation and analysis of water hammer situations. Based on the knowledge of the RELAP5 code manuals and some relative documents, the authors utilize RELAP5 to set up an example of water-supply system via an impeller pump to simulate the phenomena of the pump-stopping water hammer. By the simulation of the sample case and the subsequent analysis of the results that the code has provided, we can have a better understand of the knowledge of water hammer as well as the quality of the RELAP5 code when it's used in the water-hammer fields. In the meantime, By comparing the results of the RELAP5 based model with that of other fluid-transient analysis software say, PIPENET. The authors make some conclusions about the peculiarity of RELAP5 when transplanted into water-hammer research and offer several modelling tips when use the code to simulate a water-hammer related case.

  4. Design method of water jet pump towards high cavitation performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, L. L.; Che, B. X.; Hu, L. J.; Wu, D. Z.

    2016-05-01

    As one of the crucial components for power supply, the propulsion system is of great significance to the advance speed, noise performances, stabilities and other associated critical performances of underwater vehicles. Developing towards much higher advance speed, the underwater vehicles make more critical demands on the performances of the propulsion system. Basically, the increased advance speed requires the significantly raised rotation speed of the propulsion system, which would result in the deteriorated cavitation performances and consequently limit the thrust and efficiency of the whole system. Compared with the traditional propeller, the water jet pump offers more favourite cavitation, propulsion efficiency and other associated performances. The present research focuses on the cavitation performances of the waterjet pump blade profile in expectation of enlarging its advantages in high-speed vehicle propulsion. Based on the specifications of a certain underwater vehicle, the design method of the waterjet blade with high cavitation performances was investigated in terms of numerical simulation.

  5. Failure Analysis of a Water Supply Pumping Pipeline System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Pozos-Estrada

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the most important results of a theoretical, experimental and in situ investigation developed in connection with a water supply pumping pipeline failure. This incident occurred after power failure of the pumping system that caused the burst of a prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP. Subsequently, numerous hydraulic transient simulations for different scenarios and various air pockets combinations were carried out in order to fully validate the diagnostic. As a result, it was determined that small air pocket volumes located along the pipeline profile were recognized as the direct cause of the PCCP rupture. Further, a detail survey of the pipeline was performed using a combination of non-destructive technologies in order to determine if immediate intervention was required to replace PCC pipes. In addition, a hydraulic model was employed to analyze the behavior of air pockets located at high points of the pipeline.

  6. Control System for Solar-Assisted Heat Pump System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    heat pump , a water-to-air heat exchanger, a domestic water heater, and a cooling tower. The preferred embodiment of the controller of the present invention includes a first temperature sensing means for sensing the temperature of the collector fluid at the outlet of the solar collector system, a second temperature sensing means for sensing the temperature of the storage fluid at the thermal storage system, and a third temperature sensing means for sensing the temperature of the inlet water to the domestic water heater. The controller compares the temperature of the thermal

  7. Performance of facade balcony type solar water heaters%立面阳台式太阳能热水器的性能特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 郑土逢; 季旭; 魏生贤

    2011-01-01

    This paper experimentally studied the thermal performances of the flat-plate solar water heater and the all-glass vacuum tube solar water heater. The effects of the placement of the collector (southern facade horizontal row and vertical row), and the circulation type (natural circulation and forced circulation) on the system thermal performance and the tank stratification were achieved. The results showed that for the southern facade balcony-style all-glass vacuum tube solar water heaters, the water circulation was faster when the collector was placed horizontally, and the thermal efficiency increased by 12%. For the southern facade balcony flat-plate type solar water heater, when the system run under natural circulation, whether the collector was placed horizontally or vertically, liquid circulation is not smooth, and the thermal efficiency of the system was less than 30%. Forced circulation could effectively improve the circulation. The average inlet and outlet temperatures kept stable, and the system efficiency was 63% approximately when the system run under forced circulation.%以阳台平板太阳能热水器和全玻璃真空管太阳能热水器为对象,研究太阳能集热器南立面横排和竖排放置,自然循环和强制循环对系统热性能和水箱分层的影响.结果表明,对于立面阳台式全玻璃真空管太阳能热水器,集热器横排放置比竖排放置系统循环快,热效率提高12%.对于立面阳台式平板太阳能热水器,自然循环时无论是横排放置还是竖排放置,液体循环不流畅,系统热效率均小于30%;采用强制循环能有效改善循环状况,平均进出口温差稳定,系统热效率约为63%.

  8. CNT based thermal Brownian motor to pump water in nanodevices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oyarzua, Elton; Zambrano, Harvey; Walther, Jens Honore

    2016-01-01

    Brownian molecular motors are nanoscale machines that exploit thermal fluctuations for directional motion by employing mechanisms such as the Feynman-Smoluchowski ratchet. In this study, using Non Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics, we propose a novel thermal Brownian motor for pumping water through...... Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs). To achieve this we impose a thermal gradient along the axis of a CNT filled with water and impose, in addition, a spatial asymmetry by flxing specific zones on the CNT in order to modify the vibrational modes of the CNT. We find that the temperature gradient and imposed spatial...... asymmetry drive the water ow in a preferential direction. We systematically modified the magnitude of the applied thermal gradient and the axial position of the fixed points. The analysis involves measurement of the vibrational modes in the CNTs using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. We observed...

  9. Measurement and analysis of the water hammer in ram pump

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W SOBIESKI; D GRYGO; S LIPINSKI

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental research of the phenomena occurring in water ram during a single cycle of its operation. Apart from a brief introduction and description of the test stand and data recording system, the work includes a broad interpretation of the obtained results. Based on the pressure waveforms recorded in two characteristic zones of the device and its detailed analysis, the single cycle of waterram is divided into three main stages: acceleration, pumping, and backflow. The waveforms of phenomena in each of these steps were considered separately. In discussion, some of the issues were supported with additional measurements, including Fourier analysis of signals from the electronic pressure transducers. The main topic ofdiscussion based on the results recorded for the impulse valve, is supplemented by the comments that take into account the results obtained for the impulse valve (flap check valve) and for the others two (self-made) impulse valves. In the final part, in a graphic form presented is the interpretation of the phenomena occurring during one work cycle of water ram. The motivation of this work was to supplement the knowledge concerning the water hammer waveform in ram pump.

  10. Model based control and optimization of a feed-water heater train; Modellbaserad reglering och optimering av en foervaermarekedja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velut, Stephane; Raaberg, Martin; Wendel, Hans (Grontmij AB (SE))

    2007-12-15

    Thermal power plants are complex processes in which many variables must be monitored and controlled in real-time for a safe and economic operation. The complex interactions between actuators and controlled variables as well as the load dependent dynamics make the design and tuning of all controllers a challenging task. A mathematical model of the process that describes critical characteristics such as dynamics, interactions, and nonlinearities might greatly facilitate the task of the control engineer. Such controllers can be designed in a rather systematic way to achieve good performance in terms of response time and robustness. This enables the operator to run the process closer to its limits while minimizing damage risks. The goal of the project was threefold. The first objective was to describe the available methods to compute process models directly from experimental data and illustrate how those models can be used for control design. The second objective was to apply some of the fore mentioned methods on a specific process, namely a feed water heater train to control the level in each preheater. The third objective was to analyze how the level in each preheater affects the thermal efficiency of the plant and derive adequate set-points for the model-based controllers. The project started at the end of the production season, which resulted in a tight schedule for the planning and the realization of experiments. Informative data could however be collected and models could be derived for some specific loads. Unfortunately the effect of the changes in the level set point could not be verified because of the limited length of the experiments. The project results can be summarized as follows: The way the condensate level should be chosen in every preheater has been formulated as a simple optimization problem that aims as maximizing the thermal efficiency of the plant. Even though the model used in the optimization was simple, the results were pretty intuitive. The

  11. Calculation of Earthing System at Bangladesh Storm Water Pumping Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiaolei; QIAN Zhongyang; LIANG Wei; WANG Qin

    2015-01-01

    A Storm Water Pumping Station funded by the World Bank is under construction and commissioning, of which the earthing system design is a crucial part for the electrical design. Based on IEEE and BS standards, this article fully introduces the analysis methodology and calculation of the system within the framework of the World Bank supported project. A solution of this practical case satisfied with the requirements of international standards is shown in order to bring experience and convenience for engineers who are dedicated to projects abroad.

  12. Design of a unit to produce hot distilled water for the same power consumption as a water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1973-01-01

    Unit recovers 97% of water contained in pretreated waste water. Some factors are: cleansing agent prevents fouling of heat transfer surface by highly concentrated waste; absence of dynamic seals reduces required purge gas flow rate; and recycle loop maintains constant flushing process to carry cleansing agent across evaporation surface.

  13. Cost effectiveness analysis for the substitution of the electrical shower to gas water heaters; Estudo de viabilidade para substituicao do chuveiro eletrico por aquecedores a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermann, Celio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia]. E-mail: cbermann@iee.usp.br; Monteiro, Jorge Venancio de Freitas [Companhia de Gas de Sao Paulo (COMGAS), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: venanciocomgas@uol.com.br

    2000-07-01

    The hydropower natural resources for generation of electrical energy at the south part of Brazil has been extinguished at the last years and as a consequence large investments should be made in order to attend the electrical energy demand at this part of country. These paper purposes a comparison between the use gas water heater and the traditional electrical shower largely applied at the Brazilian residences. It will be focused not only the consumer point of view but also the construction enterprise position as well as the advantages for the overall country due to this substitution. (author)

  14. Development of an Ultra-Low-Cost Solar Water Heater: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-487

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-17

    NREL and RhoTech will collaborate to bring long-lived, ultra-low-cost, high-performance solar water heaters (SWH) to market readiness. An existing RhoTech design uses seam-welded polymer thin films to make an unglazed thermosiphon, and this design will be modified to improve durability through ultraviolet and overheat protection, and to improve performance by adding a glazing to the collector. Two generations of the new glazed systems will be tested in the field, resulting in a robust market-ready SWH design that can be installed for under $1,000 without rebates.

  15. Energy Efficient Shower Bath-gas Water Heater With Heat Recovery%燃气热水器淋浴节能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文赋

    2000-01-01

    Shower bath is a main factor in domestic hot water consumption. An energy efficient strategy—a gas water heater shower bath with heat recovery is presented. Based on detailed analysis of the various indices, it is concluded that the system is able to recover up 40% of the heat energy while the water heater capacity requirement is decreased and the comfort within the bath space is improved.%针对淋浴是生活热水的主要消耗对象,提出了一种“燃气热水器-淋浴房”的节能型淋浴系统.通过对淋浴时各种参数指标的分析比较,证明这种系统可以有效地回收热量,并因此降低淋浴时对热水器的需用功率,同时可以使淋浴环境的舒适性能得到更佳保障.

  16. Technical and Economic Working Domains of Industrial Heat Pumps: Part 2 - Ammonia-Water Hybrid Absorption-Compression Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump (HACHP) is a relevant technology for industrial heat supply, especially for high sink temperatures and high temperature glides in the sink and source. This is due to the reduced vapour pressure and the non-isothermal phase change...... of the zeotropic mixture, ammonia-water. To evaluate to which extent these advantages can be translated into feasible heat pump solutions, the working domain of the HACHP is investigated based on technical and economic constraints. The HACHP working domain is compared to that of the best possible vapour...... compression heat pump with natural working fluids. This shows that the HACHP increases the temperature lifts and heat supply temperatures that are feasible to produce with a heat pump. The HACHP is shown to be capable of delivering heat supply temperatures as high as 140 XC and temperature lifts up to 60 K...

  17. Technical and economic working domains of industrial heat pumps: Part 2 - ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2015-01-01

    The ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump (HACHP) has been proposed as a relevant technology for industrial heat supply, especially for high sink temperatures and high temperature glides in the sink and source. This is due to the reduced vapour pressure and the non-isothermal phase...... change of the zeotropic mixture, ammonia-water. To evaluate to which extent these advantages can be translated into feasible heat pump solutions, the working domain of the HACHP is investigated based on technical and economic constraints. The HACHP working domain is compared to that of the best available...... vapour compression heat pump with natural working fluids. This shows that the HACHP increases the temperature lifts and heat supply temperatures that are feasible to produce with a heat pump. The HACHP is shown to be capable of delivering heat supply temperatures as high as 150 °C and temperature lifts...

  18. Water balance and irrigation water pumping of Lake Merdada for potato farming in Dieng Highland, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlillah, Lintang N; Widyastuti, M

    2016-08-01

    Lakes provide water resources for domestic use, livestock, irrigational use, etc. Water availability of lakes can be estimated using lake water balance. Lake water balance is calculated from the water input and output of a lake. Dieng Highland has several volcanic lakes in its surroundings. Lake Merdada in Dieng Highland has been experiencing extensive water pumping for several years more than other lakes in the surrounding area. It provides irrigation water for potato farming in Dieng Highland. The hydrological model of this lake has not been studied. The modeled water balance in this research uses primary data, i.e., bathymetric data, soil texture, and outflow discharge, as well as secondary data, i.e., rainfall, temperature, Landsat 7 ETM+ band 8 image, and land use. Water balance input components consist of precipitation on the surface area, surface (direct) runoff from the catchment area, and groundwater inflow and outflow (G net), while the output components consist of evaporation, river outflow, and irrigation. It shows that groundwater is the dominant input and output of the lake. On the other hand, the actual irrigation water pumping plays the leading role as human-induced alteration of outflow discharge. The maximum irrigation pumping modeling shows that it will decrease lake storage up to 37.14 % per month and may affect the ecosystem inside the lake.

  19. Transparent electric convection heater

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, A.; Luck, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    An optically transparent electrically heated convection heater for use as a space heater in homes, offices, shops. Typically, said convection heater consists of a transparent layer 1 upon which is deposited a layer of a transparent electrically conductive material 2 such as indium-tin-oxide, electrodes 3 and 3a are formed on opposite edges of the transparent electrically conductive layer 2 and electrical wires 4 and 4a are connected to the electrodes. The transparent electrically conductive l...

  20. The Electronic Thermostatic Water Heater Technology Research and Testing%电子恒温热水器技术研究与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

      本文基于目前国内电热水器市场背景和需求,通过电子恒温热水器技术研究与试验过程,较详细地介绍了电子恒温热水器设计目标、总体结构、装配工艺、工作原理、主要功能、控制面板操作指引,以及性能检验方法和检验结果,为推进项目实施做好了先期技术准备工作。%Summary: Based on the background and demands of the domestic electric water heater market at pres-ent, with electronic thermostatic water heater technology research and testing process, in detail the article in-troduces the design objectives, overall structure, the assembly process, the working theory, the main func-tion, control panel operating instructions, and performance test methods and test results, and it has done the early preparatory work to promote the implementation of the project.

  1. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Coit, William George [Bellaire, TX; Griffin, Peter Terry [Brixham, GB; Hamilton, Paul Taylor [Houston, TX; Hsu, Chia-Fu [Granada Hills, CA; Mason, Stanley Leroy [Allen, TX; Samuel, Allan James [Kular Lumpar, ML; Watkins, Ronnie Wade [Cypress, TX

    2012-07-31

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  2. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Coit, William George (Bellaire, TX); Griffin, Peter Terry (Brixham, GB); Hamilton, Paul Taylor (Houston, TX); Hsu, Chia-Fu (Granada Hills, CA); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Samuel, Allan James (Kular Lumpar, MY); Watkins, Ronnie Wade (Cypress, TX)

    2010-11-09

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  3. 基于4P理论的太阳能热水器农村市场营销策略分析%Analysis on Solar Water Heaters Marketing Strategy of the Rural Based on the 4P Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建成

    2011-01-01

    As a green product,there is a huge market opportunity for solar water heaters in the countryside.This paper analyzes the rural market potential of solar water heaters,combined with McKinsey 4P marketing theory,and proposes marketing strategy of developing the rural market for the solar water heater business.%作为一种绿色环保产品,太阳能热水器在农村市场存在巨大的商机。文章分析了太阳能热水器的农村市场潜力,并结合麦肯锡的营销4P理论,从产品、价格、促销和渠道四个方面提出了太阳能热水器企业开拓农村市场的营销策略。

  4. CNT based thermal Brownian motor to pump water in nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzua, Elton; Zambrano, Harvey; Walther, J. H.

    2016-11-01

    Brownian molecular motors are nanoscale machines that exploit thermal fluctuations for directional motion by employing mechanisms such as the Feynman-Smoluchowski ratchet. In this study, using Non Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics, we propose a novel thermal Brownian motor for pumping water through Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs). To achieve this we impose a thermal gradient along the axis of a CNT filled with water and impose, in addition, a spatial asymmetry by fixing specific zones on the CNT in order to modify the vibrational modes of the CNT. We find that the temperature gradient and imposed spatial asymmetry drive the water flow in a preferential direction. We systematically modified the magnitude of the applied thermal gradient and the axial position of the fixed points. The analysis involves measurement of the vibrational modes in the CNTs using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. We observed water flow in CNTs of 0.94, 1.4 and 2.0 nm in diameter, reaching a maximum velocity of 5 m/s for a thermal gradient of 3.3 K/nm. The proposed thermal motor is capable of delivering a continuous flow throughout a CNT, providing a useful tool for driving liquids in nanofluidic devices by exploiting thermal gradients. We aknowledge partial support from Fondecyt project 11130559.

  5. Replacing an electrical heating system by an air/water heat pump; Remplacement du chauffage electrique par une installation PAC air/eau (pompe a chaleur)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    A group of thirteen houses in Plan-les-Ouates (southwestern Switzerland) constructed in 1985 was originally equipped with direct electric heaters. Their inhabitants complained about high electricity bills and bad thermal comfort due to uneven room temperatures and insufficient amounts of warm water. A group of specialists from the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, the energy service of the canton of Geneva and from an engineering company studied the case and suggested to replace the direct electric heating system by an air to water heat pump. Seven owners have decided for this modification and the retrofit has been made in autumn 2000. The paper presents the results of performance measurements, operating experience gained and economic considerations for the years 2001, 2002 and 2003 for six installations. The average coefficients of performance ranged from 2.3 to 2.9.

  6. Hot water preparation using only a heat-pump; Warmwasserbereitung immer mit Waermepumpe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, H.; Gabathuler, H. R. [Gabathuler AG, beratende Ingenieure, Diessenhofen (Switzerland); Baumgartner, T. [Th. Baumgartner und Partner AG, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    This article discusses the use of heat-pumps to heat up domestic hot water. The authors note that previously, heat-pumps were used to provide only space heating and domestic hot water was heated up using separate electrical heating elements. The results of a research and development project that defined standard configurations for small heat-pump installations that also provide hot water are discussed. An existing installation with two heat-pumps with ground-loop heat probes and a hot water store was used for tests. Measurements made and the results obtained are presented and discussed. Six configuration variants are described and their operation examined in detail. It is concluded that heat pumps may always be used for hot water preparation despite hygiene regulations demanding hot water temperatures up to 60 {sup o}C to prevent legionella growth.

  7. The equivalent enthalpy drop theory calculation of the ejector heaters applied for low-pressure feed water heater system of thermal power unit%引射式加热器替代低压回热系统等效焓降分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琳; 冉景煜

    2011-01-01

    There is much exergy loss in low-pressure feed water heater system of the thermal unit.The thermo-economic characters by the equivalent enthalpy drop method while the low-pressure heater was replaced with the ejector heater.At the same time,the thermo-economic characters formulas for the different factors were also gotten.Based on these results,the thermo-economic changing features were analyzed for the low pressure heaters replaced with the ejector heaters of the N600-165/535/535 units,and the results were compared with the normal heat balance method.The results show that the ejector heaters can reduce the exergy loss efficiently,and the thermo-economic effects is the best for replacing the all low-pressure heaters with the ejector heaters,and its efficiency can be increased by 0.263%.The given equations of this paper can be used for analyzing the thermal economic effects.%火电机组低压回热系统中的面式加热器普遍存在较大损。应用等效焓降方法,深入分析采用引射式加热器替代面式低压加热器下机组热经济性的变化,并得到各个变化因素的数学计算式。在此基础上,对N600-165/535/535型机组低压回热系统进行实例计算,并与常规热平衡法计算进行了比较,结果表明:引射式加热器替代面式低压加热器,可以有效减小损,替代全部四级面式低压加热器,可使机组经济性提升最大,达0.263%;文中分析推导得出的计算表达式可用于机组热经济性分析计算。

  8. Thermal storage heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokes, K.H.; Broadbent, J.T.

    1991-02-27

    A storage heater, providing heat by radiation, comprises an internal circuit for the passage of heated air. The heater comprises: a heat storage core, comprising heat storage rods heated by resistance wiring, and an air space around the rods, the air space forming an inner pathway of circuit; heat insulation around the core; and outer pathways adjacent outer walls of the heater. A damper is arranged at the top of the inner and outer pathways to control the communication between. The damper may be movably supported on a support part by robust bi-metallic strips wound with heater wires to control the bending of the strips. The storage heater may be supplied in kit form for the purchaser to assemble and to this end the heat storage rods may comprise particulate material poured into tubes, or liftable core units. Further heat insulation may be selectively positioned in the outer pathways to provide an even heat distribution. (author).

  9. Development of Multi-Stage Steam Injector for Feedwater Heaters in Simplified Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narabayashi, Tadashi; Ohmori, Shuichi; Mori, Michitsugu; Asanuma, Yutaka; Iwaki, Chikako

    A steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact and passive pump and also acts as a high-performance direct-contact compact heater to heat up feedwater by using extracted steam from the turbine. To develop high performance compact feedwater heater, it is necessary to quantify the characteristics between physical properties of the flow field. Its performance depends on the phenomena of steam condensation onto the water jet surface and heat transfer in the water jet due to turbulence on to the phase-interface. The analysis was conducted by using CFD code embedded separate two-phase flow models that were confirmed by the experimental data. As the four-stage SI is compact heater, the system is expected to bring about great simplification and materials-saving effects, and high reliability of its operation. Therefore, it is confirmed that the simplification of the power plant by replacing all low-pressure feedwater heaters with the four-stage SI system, having steam extraction pressures equal to those for the existing ABWR system.

  10. Water pumping and analysis of flow in burrowing zoobenthos - a short overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of water pumping rates of burrowing animals is of crucial importance for the study of many processes both within and above the sea floor. This short review deals with water pumping and analysis of flow, including available techniques and bio-fluid mechanical theory, in burrowing deposit...

  11. Data from Sustainability Base Characterizing Hot Water Pump Differential Pressure Spikes for ACCEPT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the heating season in Sustainability Base, a critical alarm associated with a hot water pump circulating heating water for the radiative system which...

  12. Performance Study of Swimming Pool Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a controlled laboratory study on the efficiency and emissions of swimming pool heaters based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected variations in operational parameters. Swimming pool heater sales trends have indicated a significant decline in the number of conventional natural gas-fired swimming pool heaters (NGPH). On Long Island the decline has been quite sharp, on the order of 50%, in new installations since 2001. The major portion of the decline has been offset by a significant increase in the sales of electric powered heat pump pool heaters (HPPH) that have been gaining market favor. National Grid contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to measure performance factors in order to compare the relative energy, environmental and economic consequences of using one technology versus the other. A field study was deemed inappropriate because of the wide range of differences in actual load variations (pool size), geographic orientations, ground plantings and shading variations, number of hours of use, seasonal use variations, occupancy patterns, hour of the day use patterns, temperature selection, etc. A decision was made to perform a controlled laboratory study based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected operational variations in parameters. Critical to this are the frequency of use, temperature selection, and sizing of the heater to the associated pool heating loads. This would be accomplished by installing a limited amount of relatively simple compact field data acquisition units on selected pool installations. This data included gas usage when available and alternately heater power or gas consumption rates were inferred from the manufacturer's specifications when direct metering was not available in the field. Figure 1 illustrates a typical pool heater installation layout.

  13. Hand-pumps as reservoirs for microbial contamination of well water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Andrew S; Mailloux, Brian J; Ahmed, Kazi M; van Geen, Alexander; McKay, Larry D; Culligan, Patricia J

    2011-12-01

    The retention and release of total coliforms and Escherichia coli was investigated in hand-pumps removed from tubewells tapping a faecally contaminated aquifer in Matlab, Bangladesh, and from a new hand-pump deliberately spiked with E. coli. All hand-pumps were connected to reservoirs of sterile water and flushed. Faecal coliforms were observed in the discharge from all three of the previously used hand-pumps, at concentrations comparable to levels measured in discharge when they were attached to the tubewells. During daily flushing of one of the previously used hand-pumps, the concentration of total coliforms in the discharge remained relatively constant (approximately 10³ MPN/100 mL). Concentrations of E. coli in the pump discharge declined over time, but E. coli was still detectable up to 29 days after the start of flushing. In the deliberately spiked hand-pump, E. coli was observed in the discharge over 125 days (t₅₀ = 8 days) and found to attach preferentially to elastomeric materials within the hand-pump. Attempts to disinfect both the village and new hand-pumps using shock chlorination were shown to be unsuccessful. These results demonstrate that hand-pumps can act as persistent reservoirs for microbial indicator bacteria. This could potentially influence drinking water quality and bias testing of water quality.

  14. EFFECT OF THE CRITICAL IRRADIANCE ON PHOTOVOLTAIC WATER PUMP DISCHARGE UNDER EGYPTIAN CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh Abbas HELMY

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aimed to study the effect of critical irradiance due to changing tilt angle of PV panel and tracking sun on submersible pump discharge. The authors used solar tracker and suitable tilt angle for the panel to increase the time interval during which the water pump operates. For the same irradiance collected by the PV, all systems pump the same amount of water, although they occur at different periods of the day. The pump itself 'does not know whether the electric power comes from any processes, as long as it has the same intensity.

  15. Near-surface heater experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, L.D.; Cuderman, J.F.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Lappin, A.

    1978-12-31

    Full-scale near-surface heater experiments are presently being conducted by Sandia Laboratories in the Conasauga Formation at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and in the Eleana Formation on the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purposes of these experiments are: (1) to determine if argillaceous media can withstand thermal loads characteristic of high level waste; (2) to provide data for improvement of themomechanical modeling of argillaceous rocks; (3) to identify instrumentation development needed for further in situ testing; and (4) to identify unexpected general types of behavior, if any. The basic instrumentation of these tests consists of a heater in a central hole, surrounded by arrays of holes containing various instrumentation. Temperatures, thermal profiles, vertical displacements, volatile pressurization, and changes in in situ stresses are measured in each experiment as a function of time, and compared with pretest modeling results. Results to date, though in general agreement with modeling results assuming conductive heat transfer within the rock, indicate that the presence of even small amounts of water can drastically affect heat transfer within the heater hole itself, and that small amounts of upward convection of water may be occurring in the higher temperature areas of the Conasauga experiments.

  16. Water management in proton exchange membrane fuel cells using integrated electroosmotic pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buie, Cullen R.; Posner, Jonathan D.; Fabian, Tibor; Cha, Suk-Won; Kim, Daejoong; Prinz, Fritz B.; Eaton, John K.; Santiago, Juan G.

    Recent experimental and numerical investigations on proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) emphasize water management as a critical factor in the design of robust, high efficiency systems. Although various water management strategies have been proposed, water is still typically removed by pumping air into cathode channels at flow rates significantly higher than required by fuel cell stoichiometry. Such methods are thermodynamically unfavorable and constrain cathode flow channel design. We have developed proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with integrated planar electroosmotic (EO) pumping structures that actively remove liquid water from cathode flow channels. EO pumps can relieve cathode design barriers and facilitate efficient water management in fuel cells. EO pumps have no moving parts, scale appropriately with fuel cells, operate across a wide range of conditions, and consume a small fraction of fuel cell power. We demonstrate and quantify the efficacy of EO water pumping using controlled experiments in a single channel cathode flow structure. Our results show that, under certain operating conditions, removing water from the cathode using integrated EO pumping structures improves fuel cell performance and stability. The application of EO pumps for liquid water removal from PEMFC cathodes extends their operational range and reduces air flow rates.

  17. Water management in proton exchange membrane fuel cells using integrated electroosmotic pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buie, Cullen R.; Posner, Jonathan D.; Fabian, Tibor; Cha, Suk-Won; Kim, Daejoong; Prinz, Fritz B.; Eaton, John K.; Santiago, Juan G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2006-10-20

    Recent experimental and numerical investigations on proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) emphasize water management as a critical factor in the design of robust, high efficiency systems. Although various water management strategies have been proposed, water is still typically removed by pumping air into cathode channels at flow rates significantly higher than required by fuel cell stoichiometry. Such methods are thermodynamically unfavorable and constrain cathode flow channel design. We have developed proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with integrated planar electroosmotic (EO) pumping structures that actively remove liquid water from cathode flow channels. EO pumps can relieve cathode design barriers and facilitate efficient water management in fuel cells. EO pumps have no moving parts, scale appropriately with fuel cells, operate across a wide range of conditions, and consume a small fraction of fuel cell power. We demonstrate and quantify the efficacy of EO water pumping using controlled experiments in a single channel cathode flow structure. Our results show that, under certain operating conditions, removing water from the cathode using integrated EO pumping structures improves fuel cell performance and stability. The application of EO pumps for liquid water removal from PEMFC cathodes extends their operational range and reduces air flow rates. (author)

  18. Identification of pumping influences in long-term water level fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, Dylan R; Vesselinov, Velimir V

    2011-01-01

    Identification of the pumping influences at monitoring wells caused by spatially and temporally variable water supply pumping can be a challenging, yet an important hydrogeological task. The information that can be obtained can be critical for conceptualization of the hydrogeological conditions and indications of the zone of influence of the individual pumping wells. However, the pumping influences are often intermittent and small in magnitude with variable production rates from multiple pumping wells. While these difficulties may support an inclination to abandon the existing dataset and conduct a dedicated cross-hole pumping test, that option can be challenging and expensive to coordinate and execute. This paper presents a method that utilizes a simple analytical modeling approach for analysis of a long-term water level record utilizing an inverse modeling approach. The methodology allows the identification of pumping wells influencing the water level fluctuations. Thus, the analysis provides an efficient and cost-effective alternative to designed and coordinated cross-hole pumping tests. We apply this method on a dataset from the Los Alamos National Laboratory site. Our analysis also provides (1) an evaluation of the information content of the transient water level data; (2) indications of potential structures of the aquifer heterogeneity inhibiting or promoting pressure propagation; and (3) guidance for the development of more complicated models requiring detailed specification of the aquifer heterogeneity. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  19. TRADING-OFF CONSTRAINTS IN THE PUMP SCHEDULING OPTIMIZATION OF WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gencer Genço\\u011Flu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pumps are one of the essential components of water supply systems. Depending of the topography, a water supply system may completely rely on pumping. They may consume non-negligible amount of water authorities' budgets during operation. Besides their energy costs, maintaining the healthiness of pumping systems is another concern for authorities. This study represents a multi-objective optimization method for pump scheduling problem. The optimization objective contains hydraulic and operational constraints. Switching of pumps and usage of electricity tariff are assumed to be key factors for operational reliability and energy consumption and costs of pumping systems. The local optimals for systems operational reliability, energy consumptions and energy costs are investigated resulting from trading-off pump switch and electricity tariff constraints within given set of boundary conditions. In the study, a custom made program is employed that combines genetic algorithm based optimization module with hydraulic network simulation software -EPANET. Developed method is applied on the case study network; N8-3 pressure zone of the Northern Supply of Ankara (Turkey Water Distribution Network. This work offers an efficient method for water authorities aiming to optimize pumping schedules considering expenditures and operational reliability mutually.

  20. Feasibility study of a wind powered water pumping system for rural Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misrak Girma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water is the primary source of life for mankind and one of the most basic necessities for rural development. Most of the rural areas of Ethiopia do not have access to potable water. Is some regions of the country access potable water is available through use of manual pumping and Diesel engine. In this research, wind water pump is designed to supply drinking water for three selected rural locations in Ethiopia. The design results show that a 5.7 m diameter windmill is required for pumping water from borehole through a total head of 75, 66 and 44 m for Siyadberand Wayu, Adami Tulu and East Enderta to meet the daily water demand of 10, 12 and 15 m3, respectively. The simulation for performance of the selected wind pump is conducted using MATLAB software and the result showed that monthly water discharge is proportional to the monthly average wind speed at the peak monthly discharge of 685 m3 in June, 888 m3 in May and 1203 m3 in March for Siyadberand Wayu, Adami Tulu and East Enderta sites, respectively. An economic comparison is conducted, using life cycle cost analysis, for wind mill and Diesel water pumping systems and the results show that windmill water pumping systems are more feasible than Diesel based systems.

  1. 76 FR 28025 - East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Project No. 14142-000 East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of... Competing Applications On April 1, 2011, East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC filed an application for... the feasibility of the East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply Project to be located on the Miliko...

  2. Pump as Turbine (PAT) Design in Water Distribution Network by System Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Oreste Fecarotta; Helena M. Ramos; Giuseppe Del Giudice; Armando Carravetta

    2013-01-01

    Water distribution networks face several problems related to leakages, where the pressure control strategy is a common practice for water loss management. Small-scale hydropower schemes, where pumps as turbines replace pressure reducing valves, can be considered an interesting technical solution, which ensures both economic convenience and system flexibility. Due to the water networks’ variable operating conditions, a new methodology to model the effectiveness of pumps as turbines was develop...

  3. Explosives tester with heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Eckels, Joel [Livermore, CA; Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA; Simpson, Randall L [Livermore, CA; Whipple, Richard E [Livermore, CA; Carter, J Chance [Livermore, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  4. Feasibility study of a solar photovoltaic water pumping system for rural Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misrak Girma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar Photovoltaic (SPV water pumping system is one of the best technologies that utilize the solar energy to pump water from deep well underground water sources and to provide clean drinking water worldwide. The availability of abundant solar radiation and enough underground water sources in Ethiopia can be combined together to make clean drinking water available to rural communities. The software PVsyst 5.56 was used to study the feasibility of solar photovoltaic water pumping system in the selected sites. The designed system is capable of providing a daily average of 10.5, 7 and 6.5 m3/day for 700, 467 and 433 people in Siadberand Wayu, Wolmera and Enderta sites respectively, with average daily water consumption of 15 liters per day per person and the costs of water without any subsidy, are approximately 0.1, 0.14 and 0.16 $/m3for each site respectively. If diesel generator is used instead of solar photovoltaic water pumping system, to provide the same average daily water for the selected community, the costs of water without any subsidy are approximately 0.2, 0.23 and 0.27 $/m3 for each site respectively. A life cycle cost analysis method was also carried out for economic comparison between solar PV and the diesel pumping system. The results of this study are encouraging the use of the PV system for drinking water supply in the remote areas of the country.

  5. Ply Thickness Fiber Glass on Windmill Drive Salt Water Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifa, Agus; Badruzzaman; Suwandi, Dedi

    2016-04-01

    Factors management of salt-making processes need to be considered selection of the location and the season is very important to support the efforts of salting. Windmills owned by the farmers are still using wood materials are made each year it is not effectively done and the shape of windmills made not in accordance with the requirements without considering the wind speed and the pumping speed control influenced by the weight and size of windmill, it affects the productivity of salt. to optimize the function of windmills on pumping salt water by change the material blade on the wheel by using a material composite, composite or fiberglass are used for blades on windmills made of a material a mixture of Epoxy-Resin and Matrix E-Glass. The mechanical characteristics of the power of his blade one of determining the materials used and the thickness of the blade, which needed a strong and lightweight. The calculation result thick fiberglass with a composition of 60% fiber and 40% epoxy, at a wind speedof area salt fields 9 m/s, the drag force that occurs at 11,56 kg, then the calculation result by 0,19 mm thick with a layer of 10, the total thickness of 1,9 mm, with a density of 1760 kg/m3, mechanical character of elongated elastic modulus of 46200 MPa, modulus of transverse elasticity of 10309,6 MPa, shear modulus of 3719 MPa and Poisson ratio of 0,31, then the calculation using the finite element ABAQUS obtained critical point at the confluence of the blade to the value of Von Mises tension was happening 1,158e9 MPa maximum and minimum 2,123e5 MPa, for a maximum value of displacement occurred condition at the tip of the blade. The performance test results windmills at a wind speed of 5,5 m/s wind power shows that occur 402,42 watts and power turbines produced 44,21 watt, and TSR 0,095 and the value Cp of 0,1, test results windmill in salt fields in the beginning rotation windmill lighter, able to move above wind speed of 5.5 m/s.

  6. Development of a Prototype Water Pump for Future Space Suit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, David; Hodgson, Edward; Dionne, Steven; Gervais, Edward, III; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    NASA's next generation of space suit systems will place new demands on the pump used to circulate cooling water through the life support system and the crew's liquid cooling garment. Long duration missions and frequent EVA require increased durability and reliability; limited resupply mass requirements demand compatibility with recycled water, and changing system design concepts demand increased tolerance for dissolved and free gas and the ability to operate over a broader range of flow rates and discharge pressure conditions. This paper describes the development of a positive displacement prototype pump to meet these needs. A gerotor based design has been adapted to meet pump performance, gas tolerance, and durability requirements while providing a small, lightweight pump assembly. This design has been detailed and implemented using materials selected to address anticipated water quality and mission needs as a prototype unit for testing in NASA laboratories. Design requirements, pump technology selection and design, performance testing and test results will be discussed.

  7. Water Follies: Groundwater Pumping and the Fate of America's Fresh Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, R.

    2002-12-01

    The next time you open a bottle of spring water, consider that it may have come from a well that is drying up a blue-ribbon trout stream. The next time you super-size a meal at McDonald's, note that the fries are all the same length. That's because the potato farmers irrigate their fields with groundwater from wells, some adjacent to nearby rivers. The next time you purchase gold jewelry, consider that it may have come from a mine that has pumped so much groundwater to de-water the gold-bearing rock that 60 to100 years will pass before the water table recovers. The next time you water your suburban lawn, pause to reflect on what that's doing to the nearby wetland. And the next time you visit Las Vegas and flip on the light in your hotel room, consider that the electricity may have been generated by a coal-fired power plant supplied by a slurry pipeline that uses groundwater critical to springs sacred to the Hopi people. These and countless other seemingly innocuous activities reflect our individual and societal dependence on groundwater that is hydrologically connected to surface water. Hydrologists understand that ground and surface water are interconnected, but frequently the legal rules governing water distinguish between ground and surface water. This has led to groundwater pumping that has dried up many rivers, particularly in the arid West. In Arizona, many once verdant streams have become desiccated sandboxes as city, mines, and farms pumped groundwater to such an extent that surface flows were totally depleted. The problem of the impact of groundwater pumping on the environment, however, is not confined to the arid West. It is an enormous national, indeed international problem. This presentation will focus on the United States and illustrate with examples from around the country the array of environmental problems caused by excessive groundwater pumping. The locations of these case studies range from Maine to California, from Minnesota to Florida, and from

  8. On the development of high temperature ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps (HACHP) are a promising technology for development of ecient high temperature industrial heat pumps. Using 28 bar components HACHPs up to 100 °C are commercially available. Components developed for 50 bar and 140 bar show that these pressure...

  9. Conventional and advanced exergoenvironmental analysis of an ammonia-water hybridabsorption-compression heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump (HACHP) is a technology suitable for industrial scale heat pumps in the process industry. A helpful tool in the design of cost effective and low environmental impact energy conversion systems, such as the HACHP, is the application...

  10. Economical Feasibility of Utilizing Photovoltaics for Water Pumping in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Z. Sahin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy and water are the two major need of the globe which need to be addressed for the sustenance of the human beings on this planet. All the nations, no matter most populous, developed and developing need to diversify the means and ways of producing energy and at the same time guarding the environment. This study aims at techno economical feasibility of producing energy using PV solar panels and utilizing it to pump-water at Dhahran, Riyadh, Jeddah, Guriat, and Nejran regions in Saudi Arabia. The solar radiation data from these stations was used to generate electricity using PV panels of 9.99 kW total capacity. Nejran region was found to be most economical in terms of minimal payback period and cost of energy and maximum internal rate of return whereas PV power production was concerned. Water-pumping capacity of the solar PV energy system was calculated at five locations based on the PV power production and Goulds model 45J series of pumps. Monthly total and annual total water pumping capacities were determined. Considering the capital cost of combined solar PV energy system and the pump unit a cost analysis of water pumping for a well of 50 m total dynamic head (TDH was carried out. The cost of water pumping was found to vary between 2 and 3 /m3.

  11. Effect of Pumping Strategies on Pesticide Concentrations in Water Abstraction Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen;

    and pumping wells show that pesticide concentrations vary greatly in both time and space. This study aimed to use models to determine how pumping affects pesticide concentrations in drinking water wells placed in two hypothetical aquifer systems; a homogeneous layered aquifer and a layered aquifer...... pumping rates can generate temporal variability in the concentration at the well, similar to that observed in groundwater monitoring programmes. The results are also used to provide guidance on the design of pumping and remediation strategies for the long-term supply of safe potable groundwater...

  12. Novel Method for Measuring the Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters Based on Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinations of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, which also wastes too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we propose machine learning models including artificial neural networks (ANNs and support vector machines (SVM to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient without a direct determination. Parameters that can be easily obtained by “portable test instruments” were set as independent variables, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, final temperature and angle between tubes and ground, while the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient determined by the detection device were set as dependent variables respectively. Nine hundred fifteen samples from in-service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters were used for training and testing the models. Results show that the multilayer feed-forward neural network (MLFN with 3 nodes is the best model for the prediction of heat collection rate and the general regression neural network (GRNN is the best model for the prediction of heat loss coefficient due to their low root mean square (RMS errors, short training times, and high prediction accuracies (under the tolerances of 30%, 20%, and 10%, respectively.

  13. Domestic Hot Water Production with Ground Source Heat Pump in Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Yrjölä

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Producing domestic hot water (DHW with a ground source heat pump (GSHP is challenging due to the high temperature (HT of DHW. There are many studies proving the better performance of cascade heat pumps compared to single-stage heat pumps when the difference between the condensing and the evaporation temperature is large. In this system approach study, different GSHP arrangements are described and computationally compared. A two-stage heat pump arrangement is introduced in which water tanks of the heating system are utilized for warming up the DHW in two stages. It is shown that the electricity consumption with this two-stage system is approximately 31% less than with the single-stage heat pump and 12% less than with the cascade system. Further, both low temperature (LT and HT heat pumps can run alone, which is not common in cascade or other two-stage heat pumps. This is advantageous because the high loads of the space heating and DHW production are not simultaneous. Proper insulation of the DHW and recirculation pipe network is essential, and drying towel rails or other heating coils should be avoided when aiming for a high efficiency. The refrigerants in the calculations are R407C for the LT heat pump and R134a for the HT heat pump. Investment costs are excluded from calculations.

  14. Computation of water hammer protection of modernized pumping station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himr Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Finally, the pump trip was performed to verify if the system worked correctly. The test showed that pressure pulsations are lower (better than computation predicted. This discrepancy was further analysed.

  15. WEXA: exergy analysis for increasing the efficiency of air/water heat pumps - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasser, L.; Wellig, B.; Hilfiker, K.

    2008-04-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study at the made by the Engineering and Architecture department at the Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts. The subject of the WEXA study (Waermepumpen-Exergie-Analyse - heat pump exergy analysis) is the analysis of the operation of air/water heat-pumps using exergy analysis methods. The basic thermodynamics of heating systems using heat-pumps is discussed. The exergy analyses and exergy balances for the various components and processes of an air/water heat-pump are presented and discussed. Comparisons are presented for heat-pumps with on/off and continuous control systems for their compressors and fans. The paper is concluded with a collection of appendices on the subject.

  16. Groundwater heat pumps with turbines for the return water; Grundwasser-Waermepumpe mit Rueckgabe-Turbinierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhard, M.

    2007-09-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on improvements in the efficiency of a ground water heat pump installation in an office building. The water return well was equipped with a turbine. In this installation, the ground water is pumped up from a depth of 45 meters which means that a lot of electricity is needed for the pumping of the water. Coefficients of performance of the system are quoted for the situation with and without the turbine. The conversion of a pump for use as a turbine is commented on. The construction of a specially developed turbine with reduced electricity consumption is suggested. Seasonal performance data of the system is provided in tabular form.

  17. Residential CO2 Heat Pump System for Combined Space Heating and Hot Water Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Stene, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2, R-744) has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional working fluids in a number of applications due to its favourable environmental and thermophysical properties. Previous work on residential CO2 heat pumps has been dealing with systems for either space heating or hot water heating, and it was therefore considered interesting to carry out a theoretical and experimental study of residential CO2 heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water hea...

  18. Effects of pumping strategies on pesticide concentration of a drinking water well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisopou, A.; Bjerg, P. L.; Binning, P. J.; Albrechtsen, H.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater is an important source of drinking water production in many countries including Denmark. This requires high quality groundwater that meets the standards of the European Water Framework Directive. Yet as a result of agricultural activitity, deposition and previous handling, pesticides are frequently found in groundwater and can raise a substantial problem for ground water abstraction. The concentration of this contamination may vary between different layers. The heterogeneity of the subsurface geology and the depth of the drinking water well's screen are important parameters that affect the resulting contamination of the abstracted groundwater. The pesticide concentration in wells may also be affected by the pumping strategy because pumping can alter the structure of the flow field, the flowpath of water going to the well and subsequently the age of water at the well. The purpose of this study was to examine numerically the effects of pumping on pesticide contamination of drinking water wells using a reactive transport model in a hypothetical aquifer system resembling a typical Danish well field. The application history of the pesticides is crucial. This can be taken into account by assessing the effects of pumping on water age distribution along the well. Three compounds with different application histories were considered: an old banned pesticide MCPP (Mecoprop) which is mobile and relatively persistent in deeper aquifers, and a highly applied, biodegradable and strongly sorbing pesticide glyphosate, and its degradation product AMPA. A steady state flow field was first computed. A well field was then introduced and different pumping regimes were applied for a period of 180 years; a low-rate pumping, a high-rate pumping and a varying pumping regime. A constant application rate at the surface was assumed for the application period of each pesticide. The pre-abstraction age distribution of the water in the system was first estimated using a steady

  19. Numerical simulation of dynamic flow characteristics in a centrifugal water pump with three-vaned diffuser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun Shuai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The complex three-dimensional turbulent flow field in a centrifugal water pump with three asymmetrical diffusers was numerically simulated. The characteristics of pressure and force fluctuations inside the model pump were investigated. Fast Fourier transformation was performed to obtain the spectra of pressure and force fluctuations. It indicates that the dominant frequency of pressure fluctuations is the blade passing frequency in all the sub-domains inside the pump and the first blade passing frequency energy (first order of blade passing frequency is the most significant. The dominant frequency of pressure fluctuations at the location of diffuser outlet is featured by low frequency (less than 1 Hz, which may be due to the locally generated eddy structures. Besides, the dominant frequency force fluctuations on the impeller blades are also the blade passing frequency. The existence of the three asymmetrical diffusers has damping effect on the pressure fluctuation amplitude and energy amplitude of pressure fluctuations in the diffuser domain dramatically, which indicates that the diffusers can effectively control the hydraulically excited vibration in the pump. Besides, the prediction of the dominant frequency of pressure fluctuations inside the pump can help to utilize the pump effectively and to extend the pump life. The main findings of this work can provide prediction of the pump performance and information for further optimal design of centrifugal pumps as well.

  20. Parametric Study on a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Proposed for Water Pumping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Abdullateef A. Jadallah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pumping is considered an economically competitive sustainable process of providing water to communities, rural areas and livestock's. A parametric analysis on HAWT is carried out to explore the influence of the performance parameters on the power generated and withdrawal quantity of water. Effect of wind speed, radius of rotor, ambient condition, well depth, and efficiencies of turbine, generator and the pump were studied and reflected in important generalized performance maps. These performance graphs are valuable in best understanding of on‐design and off‐ design constraints of the horizontal axis wind turbine in water pumping. The blade geometry was also studied. Results showed the reasonable range of wind turbine performance and the corresponding water discharge within the abovementioned constraints. Rating and the effect of pitch angle on discharged water are also presented. Methodology necessary to achieve the abovementioned results is processed by a computer program written in Matlab

  1. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Madsen, C.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) is to provide a high-efficient ammonia heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept uses two storage tanks for the water, one discharged and one charged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process while the discharged...... to investigate the performance of the ISEC system. The ISEC concept approaches the efficiency of a number of heat pumps in series and the COP of the system may reach 6.8, which is up to 25 % higher than a conventional heat pump heating water in one step....... tank, is charging. Charging is done by circulating the water in the tank through the condenser several times and thereby gradually heats the water. This result in a lower condensing temperature than if the water was heated in one step. A dynamic model of the system, implemented in Dymola, is used...

  2. Coaxial Electric Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Coaxial electric heaters have been conceived for use in highly sensitive instruments in which there are requirements for compact heaters but stray magnetic fields associated with heater electric currents would adversely affect operation. Such instruments include atomic clocks and magnetometers that utilize heated atomic-sample cells, wherein stray magnetic fields at picotesla levels could introduce systematic errors into instrument readings. A coaxial electric heater is essentially an axisymmetric coaxial cable, the outer conductor of which is deliberately made highly electrically resistive so that it can serve as a heating element. As in the cases of other axisymmetric coaxial cables, the equal magnitude electric currents flowing in opposite directions along the inner and outer conductors give rise to zero net magnetic field outside the outer conductor. Hence, a coaxial electric heater can be placed near an atomic-sample cell or other sensitive device. A coaxial electric heater can be fabricated from an insulated copper wire, the copper core of which serves as the inner conductor. For example, in one approach, the insulated wire is dipped in a colloidal graphite emulsion, then the emulsion-coated wire is dried to form a thin, uniform, highly electrically resistive film that serves as the outer conductor. Then the film is coated with a protective layer of high-temperature epoxy except at the end to be electrically connected to the power supply. Next, the insulation is stripped from the wire at that end. Finally, electrical leads from the heater power supply are attached to the exposed portions of the wire and the resistive film. The resistance of the graphite film can be tailored via its thickness. Alternatively, the film can be made from an electrically conductive paint, other than a colloidal graphite emulsion, chosen to impart the desired resistance. Yet another alternative is to tailor the resistance of a graphite film by exploiting the fact that its resistance

  3. Solair heater program: solair applications study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    General Electric has designed and tested a low-cost solar system using a vacuum tube solar air heater under ERDA Contract E(11-1)-2705. This contract extension has been provided to evaluate various applications of this solar collector. The evaluation identified attractive applications, evaluated corresponding control procedures, estimated system performance, compared economically insolation and insulation, and evaluated the repackaging of off-the-shelf equipment for improved cost effectiveness. The results of this study prompted General Electric's marketing group to do a detailed commercialization study of a residential domestic water heating system using the Solair concept which has been selected as the most attractive application. Other attractive applications are space/domestic water heating and a heat pump assisted solar system/domestic water heating where the heat pump and the solar system function in parallel. A prime advantage of heated air solar systems over liquid systems is cost and longer life which results in higher BTU's/dollar. Other air system advantages are no liquid leakage problems, no toxicity of freezing problems, and less complicated equipment. A hybrid solar system has been identified that can improve the market penetration of solar energy. This system would use the existing mass of the house for energy storage thereby reducing solar cost and complexity. Adequate performance can be obtained with house temperature swings comparable to those used in nighttime setback of the thermostat. Details of this system are provided.

  4. A simple, low-cost method to monitor duration of ground water pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuel, S; Perrin, J; Wajid, M; Mascre, C; Dewandel, B

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring ground water withdrawals for agriculture is a difficult task, while agricultural development leads frequently to overexploitation of the aquifers. To fix the problem, sustainable management is required based on the knowledge of water uses. This paper introduces a simple and inexpensive direct method to determine the duration of pumping of a well by measuring the temperature of its water outlet pipe. A pumping phase is characterized by a steady temperature value close to ground water temperature. The method involves recording the temperature of the outlet pipe and identifying the different stages of pumping. It is based on the use of the low-cost and small-size Thermochron iButton temperature logger and can be applied to any well, provided that a water outlet pipe is accessible. The temperature time series are analyzed to determine the duration of pumping through manual and automatic posttreatments. The method was tested and applied in South India for irrigation wells using electricity-powered pumps. The duration of pumping obtained by the iButton method is fully consistent with the duration of power supply (1.5% difference).

  5. Effects of pumping strategies on pesticide concentration of a drinking water well

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    are frequently found in groundwater and can raise a substantial problem for ground water abstraction. The concentration of this contamination may vary between different layers. The heterogeneity of the subsurface geology and the depth of the drinking water well’s screen are important parameters that affect...... the resulting contamination of the abstracted groundwater. The pesticide concentration in wells may also be affected by the pumping strategy because pumping can alter the structure of the flow field, the flowpath of water going to the well and subsequently the age of water at the well. The purpose of this study...... was to examine numerically the effects of pumping on pesticide contamination of drinking water wells using a reactive transport model in a hypothetical aquifer system resembling a typical Danish well field. The application history of the pesticides is crucial. This can be taken into account by assessing...

  6. Technologies for Safe Water Supply in Arsenic Affected Villages of Bangladesh Utilizing a Pedal Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Wahidul K.; Leslie, Greg

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents information on the socio-techno-economic aspects of a water purification system for the arsenic contaminated villages of Bangladesh. The proposed system which is based on hollow fiber membranes and granular activated carbon columns can be used to harvest potable water from ponds without many of the problems inherent in the conventional pond sand filters. This paper also examines the possible application of human operated pedal pump, instead of diesel or electricity driven pump, for pumping water from ponds to overcome limitations in existing water technologies in the arsenic-contaminated villages in Bangladesh. A market model of this technology has been suggested that allows the rural poor to access to safe water at affordable monthly rate.

  7. Fast Water Thermo-pumping Flow Across Nanotube Membranes for Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kuiwen; Wu, Huiying

    2015-06-10

    Development of high-efficiency and low-cost seawater desalination technologies is critical to meet global water crisis. Here we report a fast water pumping method in which the water molecules in seawater are continuously pumped across nanotube membranes driven by a small temperature difference, opening the possibility of high-throughput small-scale desalination devices driven by low-grade thermal energy. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that an equivalent driving pressure of 5.3 MPa is achieved with a temperature difference of only 15 K. The remarkable water pumping ability is attributed to the asymmetric thermal fluctuation of water molecules. With this method, a 10 cm(2) nanotube membrane with 1.5 × 10(13) pores per cm(2) will produce freshwater with a flow rate of 7.77 L/h under a small temperature difference of 15 K.

  8. 关于燃气热水器在高海拔地区使用的试验分析%Test Analysis on the Gas Water Heater Used in High Altitude Locality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李罗标; 潘泽林

    2015-01-01

    海拔高度对燃气热水器运行存在重要的影响,结合高原实地试验统计数据分析了燃气热水器在高原地区的热负荷、热效率、燃烧烟气、排烟温度等方面的变化及影响因素。%Altitude has important effect on the operation of gas water heater. Combined with the statistical data from the tests in plateau, this paper analyzes the changes and influence factors of heat load, heat efficiency, combustion smoke, exhaust smoke temperature and other related aspects of gas water heater in high altitude locality.

  9. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Appliance Repair. Course: Heater-Type Appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziller, T.

    One of two individualized courses included in an appliance repair curriculum (see CE 027 767), this course covers minor and major heater-type appliances. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Irons, (2) Roasters, (3) Space Heaters, (4) Water Heaters, (5) Electric Ranges, and (6) Gas Ranges. Each unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience…

  10. Design of Nano Screw Pump for Water Transport and its Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liya; Wu, Hengan; Wang, Fengchao

    2017-02-01

    Nanopumps conducting fluids through nanochannels have attracted considerable interest for their potential applications in nanofiltration, water desalination and drug delivery. Here, we demonstrate by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations that a nano screw pump is designed with helical nanowires embedded in a nanochannel, which can be used to drive unidirectional water flow. Such helical nanowires have been successfully synthesized in many experiments. By investigating the water transport mechanism through nano screw pumps with different configuration parameters, three transport modes were observed: cluster-by-cluster, pseudo-continuous, and linear-continuous, in which the water flux increases linearly with the rotating speed. The influences of the nanowires’ surface energy and the screw’s diameter on water transport were also investigated. Results showed that the water flux rate increases as the decreasing wettability of helical nanowires. The deviation in water flux in screw pumps with smaller radius is attributed to the weak hydrogen bonding due to space confinement and the hydrophobic blade. Moreover, we also proposed that such screw pumps with appropriate diameter and screw pitch can be used for water desalination. The study provides an insight into the design of multifunctional nanodevices for not only water transport but water desalination in practical applications.

  11. Design of Nano Screw Pump for Water Transport and its Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, LiYa; Wu, HengAn; Wang, FengChao

    2017-01-01

    Nanopumps conducting fluids through nanochannels have attracted considerable interest for their potential applications in nanofiltration, water desalination and drug delivery. Here, we demonstrate by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations that a nano screw pump is designed with helical nanowires embedded in a nanochannel, which can be used to drive unidirectional water flow. Such helical nanowires have been successfully synthesized in many experiments. By investigating the water transport mechanism through nano screw pumps with different configuration parameters, three transport modes were observed: cluster-by-cluster, pseudo-continuous, and linear-continuous, in which the water flux increases linearly with the rotating speed. The influences of the nanowires’ surface energy and the screw’s diameter on water transport were also investigated. Results showed that the water flux rate increases as the decreasing wettability of helical nanowires. The deviation in water flux in screw pumps with smaller radius is attributed to the weak hydrogen bonding due to space confinement and the hydrophobic blade. Moreover, we also proposed that such screw pumps with appropriate diameter and screw pitch can be used for water desalination. The study provides an insight into the design of multifunctional nanodevices for not only water transport but water desalination in practical applications. PMID:28155898

  12. The role of capacitance in a wind-electric water pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Shitao [West Texas A& M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States); Clark, R.N. [Conservation and Production Research Lab., Bushland, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The development of controllers for wind-electric water pumping systems to enable the use of variable voltage, variable frequency electricity to operate standard AC submersible pump motors has provided a more efficient and flexible water pumping system to replace mechanical windmills. A fixed capacitance added in parallel with the induction motor improves the power factor and starting ability of the pump motor at the lower cut-in frequency. The wind-electric water pumping system developed by USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Bushland, TX, operated well at moderate wind speeds (5-12 m/s), but tended to lose synchronization in winds above 12 m/s, especially if they were gusty. Furling generally did not occur until synchronization had been lost and the winds had to subside before synchronization could be reestablished. The frequency needed to reestablish synchronization was much lower (60-65 Hz) than the frequency where synchronization was lost (70-80 Hz). As a result, the load (motor and pump) stayed off an excessive amount of time thus causing less water to be pumped and producing a low system efficiency. The controller described in this paper dynamically connects additional capacitance of the proper amount at the appropriate time to keep the system synchronized (running at 55 to 60 Hz) and pumping water even when the wind speed exceeds 15 m/s. The system efficiency was improved by reducing the system off-line time and an additional benefit was reducing the noise caused by the high speed blade rotation when the load was off line in high winds.

  13. 10 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... develop a thermal or mechanical seal to minimize the recirculation of water due to thermal convection... from calibrated thermocouple wire taken from a single spool. Extension wires to the recording...

  14. Optimal control of a fuel cell/wind/PV/grid hybrid system with thermal heat pump load

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sichilalu, S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal energy management strategy for a grid-tied photovoltaic–wind-fuel cell hybrid power supply system. The hybrid system meets the load demand consisting of an electrical load and a heat pump water heater supplying thermal...

  15. Vapor compression CuCl heat pump integrated with a thermochemical water splitting cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamfirescu, C., E-mail: Calin.Zamfirescu@uoit.ca [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 74K (Canada); Naterer, G.F., E-mail: Greg.Naterer@uoit.ca [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 74K (Canada); Dincer, I., E-mail: Ibrahim.Dincer@uoit.ca [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 74K (Canada)

    2011-01-10

    In this paper, the feasibility of using cuprous chloride (CuCl) as a working fluid in a new high temperature heat pump with vapor compression is analyzed. The heat pump is integrated with a copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) thermochemical water splitting cycle for internal heat recovery, temperature upgrades and hydrogen production. The minimum temperature of heat supply necessary for driving the water splitting cycle can be lowered because the heat pump increases the working fluid temperature from 755 K up to {approx}950 K, at a high COP of {approx}6.5. Based on measured data available in past literature, the authors have determined the T-s diagram of CuCl, which is then used for the thermodynamic modeling of the cycle. In the heat pump cycle, molten CuCl is flashed in a vacuum where the vapor quality reaches {approx}2.5%, and then it is boiled to produce saturated vapor. The vapor is then compressed in stages (with inter-cooling and heat recovery), and condensed in a direct contact heat exchanger to transfer heat at a higher temperature. The heat pump is then integrated with a copper-chlorine water splitting plant. The heat pump evaporator is connected thermally with the hydrogen production reactor of the water splitting plant, which performs an exothermic reaction that generates heat at 760 K. Additional source heat is obtained from heat recovery from the hot reaction products of the oxy-decomposer. The heat pump transfers heat at {approx}950 K to the oxy-decomposer to drive its endothermic chemical reaction. It is shown that the heat required at the heat pump source can be obtained completely from internal heat recovery within the plant. First and second law analyses and a parametric study are performed for the proposed system to study the influence of the compressor's isentropic efficiency and temperature levels on the heat pump's COP. Two new indicators are presented: one represents the heat recovery ratio (the ratio between the thermal energy obtained by

  16. The Fuzzy-PID Control Method for Temperature of Gas-fired Water Heater Based on Dahllin Algorithm%基于大林算法的燃气热水器温度Fuzzy-PID控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜福银

    2012-01-01

    Based on the mathematical model of gas-fired water heater temperature control system, proposed using Dahlin algorithm and Fuzzy-PID controllers to handle the pure delay inertial link of gas-fired water heater temperature control system. Through the detailed design process of Dahlin Fuzzy-PID controller and the example simulations of the gas-fired water heater temperature control system, the control method proposed in this paper has better robust property and higher susceptibility, which is foundation for more study.%在燃气热水器温度控制的数学模型基础上,提出利用大林算法来处理燃气热水器温度控制系统纯滞后的惯性环节,利用Fuzzy-PID算法实现给定燃气流量的控制.通过对大林控制器的详细设计过程和对燃气热水器温度控制系统的实例仿真可以看出,该控制方法具有良好的鲁棒性和较高的灵敏度,这为以后进一步研究奠定了基础.

  17. Solar Load Voltage Tracking for Water Pumping: An Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappali, M.; Udayakumar, R. Y.

    2014-07-01

    Maximum power is to be harnessed from solar photovoltaic (PV) panel to minimize the effective cost of solar energy. This is accomplished by maximum power point tracking (MPPT). There are different methods to realise MPPT. This paper proposes a simple algorithm to implement MPPT lv method in a closed loop environment for centrifugal pump driven by brushed PMDC motor. Simulation testing of the algorithm is done and the results are found to be encouraging and supportive of the proposed method MPPT lv .

  18. Design for solar-tracking dual-axis water heater of wall hanging type%一种基于墙体安装的双轴跟踪太阳能热水器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈金荣; 熊志刚

    2011-01-01

    针对普通太阳能热水器一般只能安装屋顶、新型平板太阳能热水器固定安装有效采光面积的余弦效应导致太阳能利用效率偏低等问题,提出了一种基于墙体壁挂式安装、全自动跟踪太阳能热水器的设计方案,以适应各种楼层用户的使用,且能在较小的面积获得较大的太阳能能量.对基于安装方式的跟踪原理、系统的整体设计、安全性设计做了全面详细的介绍.在实验论证的基础上,得出该设计方案有效地提高了太阳能的利用效率的结论.%It proposes a new design of wall hanging automatic solar-tracking water heater since ordinary solar water heater could only be installed on the roof and the efficiency of utilizing solar energy for new flat-panel solar water heater is low because of cosine effect of light area caused by fixed installation and so on.While the new designed heater to be hanged on wall can receive more solar energy in a smaller area, that is suitable for households at all floors.The tracking principles ,system design,and design for safety has been expounded based on mounting means.The design based on testing experiment has been approved to enhance the utilizing efficiency of solar energy effectively.

  19. Effect of suction pipe leaning angle and water level on the internal flow of pump sump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.-M.; Lee, Y.-B.; Kim, K.-Y.; Park, S.-H.; Choi, Y.-D.

    2016-11-01

    The pump sump, which connects forebay and intake of pump station, supplies good flow condition for the intake of the pump. If suction sumps are improperly shaped or sized, air entraining vortices or submerged vortices may develop. This may greatly affect pump operation if vortices grow to an appreciable extent. Moreover, the noise and vibration of the pump can be increased by the remaining of vortices in the pump flow passage. Therefore, the vortices in the pump flow passage have to be reduced for a good performance of pump sump station. In this study, the effect of suction pipe leaning angle on the pump sump internal flow with different water level has been investigated by CFD analysis. Moreover, an elbow type pipe was also investigated. There are 3 leaning angles with 0°, 45° and 90° for the suction pipe. The suction pipe inlet centre is kept same for all the cases. In addition, the three different water levels of H/D=1.85, 1.54, and 1.31, is applied to different suction pipe types. The result shows that the amount of air sucked into the suction pipe increases with increasing the suction pipe leaning angle. Especially for the horizontal suction pipe, there is maximum air sucked into the suction pipe. However, there is certain effect of the elbow type bell mouth installation in the horizontal suction pipe on suppressing the amount of air sucked into the pipe. Moreover, vertical suction pipe plays an effective role on reducing the free surface vortex intake area.

  20. Water Pumping Stations, wPump - collected data from As-Builts, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Pumping Stations dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2010. It is described as...

  1. Residential CO{sub 2} heat pump system for combined space heating and hot water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stene, Joern

    2004-02-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}, R-744) has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional working fluids in a number of applications due to its favourable environmental and thermophysical properties. Previous work on residential CO{sub 2} heat pumps has been dealing with systems for either space heating or hot water heating, and it was therefore considered interesting to carry out a theoretical and experimental study of residential CO{sub 2} heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water heating - o-called integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump systems. The scope of this thesis is limited to brine-to-water and water-to-water heat pumps connected to low-temperature hydronic space heating systems. The main conclusions are: (1) Under certain conditions residential CO{sub 2} heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water heating may achieve the same or higher seasonal performance factor (SPF) than the most energy efficient state-of-the-art brine-to-water heat pumps. (2) In contrary to conventional heat pump systems for combined space heating and DHW heating, the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system achieves the highest COP in the combined heating mode and the DHW heating mode, and the lowest COP in the space heating mode. Hence, the larger the annual DHW heating demand, the higher the SPF of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system. (3) The lower the return temperature in the space heating system and the lower the DHW storage temperature, the higher the COP of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump. A low return temperature in the space heating system also results in a moderate DHW heating capacity ratio, which means that a relatively large part of the annual space heating demand can be covered by operation in the combined heating mode, where the COP is considerably higher than in the space heating mode. (4) During operation in the combined heating mode and the DHW heating mode, the COP of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump is heavily influenced by

  2. Optimal Operation for Baoying Pumping Station in East Route Project of South-to-North Water Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xiaoli; QIU Baoyun; CAO Haihong; WEI Qianglin; TENG Haibo

    2009-01-01

    Baoying pumping station is a part of source pumping stations in East Route Project of South-to-North Water Transfer in China. Aiming at the characteristics of head varying, and making use of the function of pump adjustable blade, mathematical models of pumping station optimal operation are established and solved with genetic algorithm. For different total pumping discharge and total pumping volume of water per day, in order to minimize pumping station operation cost, the number and operation duties of running pump units are respectively determined at different periods of time in a day. The results indicate that the saving of electrical cost is significantly effected by the schemes of adjusting blade angles and time-varying electrical price when pumping certain water volume of water per day, and compared with conventional operation schemes (namely, the schemes of pumping station operation at design blade angles based on certain pumping discharge), the electrical cost is saved by 4.73%-31.27%. Also, compared with the electrical cost of conventional operation schemes, the electrical cost is saved by 2.03%-5.79% by the schemes of adjusting blade angles when pumping certain discharge.

  3. Estimating pumping time and ground-water withdrawals using energy-consumption data. Water-Resources Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurr, R.T.; Litke, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluation of the hydrology of an aquifer requires knowledge about the volume of ground water in storage and also about the volume of ground-water withdrawals. Totalizer flow meters may be installed at pumping plants to measure withdrawals; however, it generally is impractical to equip all wells in an area with meters. A viable alternative is the use of rate-time methods to estimate withdrawals. The relation between power demand and pumping rate at a pumping plant can be described through the use of the power-consumption coefficient. Where equipment and hydrologic conditions are stable, this coefficient can be applied to total energy consumption at a site to estimate total ground-water withdrawals. Random sampling of power-consumption coefficients can be used to estimate area-wide ground-water withdrawals.

  4. Numerical simulation and experimental research on aeroacoustics of steam-water j et mixing heater%喷管式汽水混合加热器气动噪声数值模拟与实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟湘; 夏冰; 连晶红; 尹业彬

    2016-01-01

    热交换器是供热系统乃至动力系统中常见的重要设备之一,其中汽水混合加热器是一种直接将蒸汽与水混合以加热水的热交换装置。利用宽频噪声源模型对喷管式汽水混合加热器进行气动噪声数值模拟,获得了加热器的声场分布。在相同工况下实验测量了加热器表面噪声声压级,模拟值与实验值相比,误差为4.6%,说明宽频噪声源模型在模拟混合加热器表面噪声声压级方面有较好的精度,对喷管式汽水混合加热器的降噪改进设计具有重要的参考价值。%Heat exchanger is one of the common and important equipment of heating systems and power systems.Steam-water mixing heater is a kind of heat transfer equipment,which heats water by directly mixing water and steam.The broadband noise source model was applied to numerically simulate the aeroacoustics of j et pipe steam-water mixing heater in this paper and accoustic field distribution was obtained.The surface accoustic pressure level of the heater was also measured experimentally under the same conditions.The error of the numerical predictions compared to the measurments is within 4.6%.It reveals that broadband noise source model has the better accuracy in respect of simulating the surface sound pressure level of mixing heater,which has an important reference value for improving the design of noise reduction of the j et pipe steam-water mixing heater.

  5. Stand-Alone Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Water Pumping System and Its Economic Viability in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Baral

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents the concept of a stand-alone solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC water pumping system for rural Nepalese areas. Experimental results for this technology are presented based on a prototype. The economic viability of the system was assessed based on solar radiation data of different Nepalese geographic locations. The mechanical power produced by the solar ORC is coupled with a water pumping system for various applications, such as drinking and irrigation. The thermal efficiency of the system was found to be 8% with an operating temperature of 120 °C. The hot water produced by the unit has a temperature of 40 °C. Economic assessment was done for 1-kW and 5-kW solar ORC water pumping systems. These systems use different types of solar collectors: a parabolic trough collector (PTC and an evacuated tube collector (ETC. The economic analysis showed that the costs of water are $2.47/m3 (highest and $1.86/m3 (lowest for the 1-kW system and a 150-m pumping head. In addition, the cost of water is reduced when the size of the system is increased and the pumping head is reduced. The minimum volumes of water pumped are 2190 m3 and 11,100 m3 yearly for 1 kW and 5 kW, respectively. The payback period is eight years with a profitability index of 1.6. The system is highly feasible and promising in the context of Nepal.

  6. 76 FR 30936 - West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... April 1, 2011, West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit... supply project effluent water to an existing irrigation system; (5) a powerhouse with two...

  7. Energetic Efficiency Evaluation by Using GroundWater Heat Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokar Adriana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Romania has significant energy potential from renewable sources, but the potential used is much lower due to technical and functional disadvantages, to economic efficiency, the cost elements and environmental limitations. However, efforts are being made to integrate renewable energy in the national energy system. To promote and encourage private investments for renewable energy utilization, programs have been created in order to access funds needed to implement these technologies. Assessment of such investments was carried out from technical and economical point of view, by analyzing a heat pump using as heat source the solar energy from the ground.

  8. Reliability of water distribution networks due to pumps failure: comparison of VSP and SSP application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mehzad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Reliability is an important indicator to ensure the operation of Water Distribution Networks (WDNs. To optimize the operation of WDN, it is necessary to incorporate the reliability of active components (such as pumps and tanks besides the reliability of pipes. In this research, a concept is suggested to calculate the reliability of WDNs' pumping stations. A computer code is provided in Visual Basic and is linked to EPANET2.0. To evaluate the proposed methodology a real WDN near the city of Tehran is considered. According to the obtained results, it is concluded that by increasing the demand of the WDN during a day, the reliability of pumps decrease. Therefore, it seems that decision-making is necessary if high demand hours are considered, in order to increase the reliability of the system. On the other hand, it is observed in this research that using variable speed pumps not only reduces the energy cost of the network, but also the reliability of the pumping stations with variable speed pumps is higher than single speed pumps. Therefore, using VSP is highly recommended in WDNs.

  9. Performance of a 10 kilowatt wind-electric water pumping system for irrigating crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vick, B.D.; Clark, R.N. [Conservation and Production Research Lab., Bushland, TX (United States); Molla, S. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A 10 kW wind-electric water pumping system was tested for field crop irrigation at pumping depths from 50 to 120 m. The wind turbine for this system used a permanent magnet alternator that powered off-the-shelf submersible motors and pumps without the use of an inverter. Pumping performance was determined at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Wind Energy Laboratory in Bushland, TX for the 10 kW wind turbine using a pressure valve and a pressure tank to simulate different pumping depths. Pumping performance was measured for two 10 kW wind turbines of the same type at farms near the cities of Garden City, TX and Stiles, TX. The pumping performance data collected at these actual wells compared favorably with the data collected at the USDA-ARS, Wind Energy Laboratory. If utility generated electricity was accessible, payback on the wind turbine depended on the cost of utility generated electricity and the transmission line extension cost.

  10. Development of a capillary plasma pump with vapour bubble for water purification: experimental and theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, S.; Ishihata, K.; Nishiyama, H.

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the development of a small-sized reactive plasma pump driven by capillary bubble discharge for the purification of treated water. The apparatus we developed decomposes the pollutants in the water by using chemical species generated by the plasma discharge. The resulting stream of bubbles obviates the need for an external gas supply or pump to transport the water. A high-speed camera was used to investigate the bubble dynamics responsible for the pumping effect, which is achieved by selecting the shape of the capillary such that the bubble ejections within enhance the ‘self-repetition’ action required for the pumping motion. Our experiments showed that optimal bubble generation requires a consumed power of 17.8 W. A theoretical model was developed to investigate the pumping mechanism. We solve the problems associated with liquid oscillations in the U-shaped water reservoir by employing a non-uniform cross-sectional area in our model. The chemical reactivity of the device was confirmed by using emission spectroscopy of OH radical and by measuring the decomposition of methylene blue.

  11. Pump as Turbine (PAT Design in Water Distribution Network by System Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreste Fecarotta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Water distribution networks face several problems related to leakages, where the pressure control strategy is a common practice for water loss management. Small-scale hydropower schemes, where pumps as turbines replace pressure reducing valves, can be considered an interesting technical solution, which ensures both economic convenience and system flexibility. Due to the water networks’ variable operating conditions, a new methodology to model the effectiveness of pumps as turbines was developed based on the efficiency and the mechanical reliability of the hydropower device and the flexibility of the plant. System effectiveness is proposed as the objective function in the optimization procedure and applied to a real system, enabling one to emphasize that the hydraulic regulation mode of the plant is better than the electric regulation mode for American Petroleum Industry (API manufacturing standards of pumps.

  12. Study Of Solar PV Sizing Of Water Pumping System For Irrigation Of Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mya Su Kyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this system come from the countries where economy is depended on agriculture and the climatic conditions lead to lack of rains. The farmers working in the farm lands are dependent on the rains and bore wells. Even if the farm land has a water-pump manual involvement by farmers is required to turn the pump onoff when on earth needed. This paper presents design and calculation analysis of efficient Solar PV water pumping system for irrigation of Asparagus. The study area falls 21-58-30 N Latitude and 96-5-0 E Longitude of Mandalay. The PV system sizing was made in such a way that it was capable of irrigation one acre of Asparagus plot with a daily water requirement of 25mday.

  13. Development of a gas backup heater for solar domestic hot-water systems. Final report, April 1978-April 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, D.J.; Grunes, H.E.; de Winter, F.; Armstrong, P.R.

    1980-06-01

    A comprehensive program was undertaken to develop a unique gas fired backup for solar domestic hot water systems. Detailed computer design tools were written. A series of heat transfer experiments were performed to characterize the performance of individual components. A full scale engineering prototype, including the solar preheat tank and solar heat exchanger, was designed, fabricated and subjected to limited testing. Firing efficiency for the backup system was found to be 81.4% at a firing rate of 50,000 Btu/h. Long term standby losses should be negligible.

  14. Photovoltaic water pumping applications: Assessment of the near-term market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, L.; Bifano, W. J.; Scudder, L. R.; Poley, W. A.; Cusick, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    Water pumping applications represent a potential market for photovoltaics. The price of energy for photovoltaic systems was compared to that of utility line extensions and diesel generators. The potential domestic demand was defined in the government, commercial/institutional and public sectors. The foreign demand and sources of funding for water pumping systems in the developing countries were also discussed briefly. It was concluded that a near term domestic market of at least 240 megawatts and a foreign market of about 6 gigawatts exist.

  15. On the development of high temperature ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps (HACHP) are a promising technology for development of ecient high temperature industrial heat pumps. Using 28 bar components HACHPs up to 100 °C are commercially available. Components developed for 50 bar and 140 bar show that these pressure ......, and 140 bar up to 147 °C. If the compressor discharge temperature limit is increased to 250 °C and the vapour water content constraint is removed, this becomes: 182 °C, 193 °C and 223 °C....

  16. Water Flow Testing and Unsteady Pressure Analysis of a Two-Bladed Liquid Oxidizer Pump Inducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jordan B.; Mulder, Andrew; Zoladz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The unsteady fluid dynamic performance of a cavitating two-bladed oxidizer turbopump inducer was characterized through sub-scale water flow testing. While testing a novel inlet duct design that included a cavitation suppression groove, unusual high-frequency pressure oscillations were observed. With potential implications for inducer blade loads, these high-frequency components were analyzed extensively in order to understand their origins and impacts to blade loading. Water flow testing provides a technique to determine pump performance without the costs and hazards associated with handling cryogenic propellants. Water has a similar density and Reynolds number to liquid oxygen. In a 70%-scale water flow test, the inducer-only pump performance was evaluated. Over a range of flow rates, the pump inlet pressure was gradually reduced, causing the flow to cavitate near the pump inducer. A nominal, smooth inducer inlet was tested, followed by an inlet duct with a circumferential groove designed to suppress cavitation. A subsequent 52%-scale water flow test in another facility evaluated the combined inducer-impeller pump performance. With the nominal inlet design, the inducer showed traditional cavitation and surge characteristics. Significant bearing loads were created by large side loads on the inducer during synchronous cavitation. The grooved inlet successfully mitigated these loads by greatly reducing synchronous cavitation, however high-frequency pressure oscillations were observed over a range of frequencies. Analytical signal processing techniques showed these oscillations to be created by a rotating, multi-celled train of pressure pulses, and subsequent CFD analysis suggested that such pulses could be created by the interaction of rotating inducer blades with fluid trapped in a cavitation suppression groove. Despite their relatively low amplitude, these high-frequency pressure oscillations posed a design concern due to their sensitivity to flow conditions and

  17. Simple systems for treating pumped, turbid water with flocculants and a geotextile dewatering bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jihoon; McLaughlin, Richard A

    2016-11-01

    Pumping sediment-laden water from excavations is often necessary on construction sites. This water is often treated by pumping it through geotextile dewatering bags. The bags are not designed to filter the fine sediments that create high turbidity, but dosing with a flocculant prior to the bag could result in greater turbidity control. This study compared two systems for introducing flocculant: passive dosing of commercial solid biopolymer (chitosan) and injection of dissolved polyacrylamide (PAM) in a length of corrugated pipe connected to the bag. The biopolymer system consisted of sequential porous socks containing a "charging agent" followed by chitosan in the corrugated pipe with two levels of dosing. The dissolved PAM was injected into turbid water at a flow-weighted concentration at 1 mg L(-1). For each treatment, sediment-laden turbid water in the range of 2000 to 3500 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) was pumped into the upstream of corrugated pipe and samples were taken from pipe entrance, pipe exit, and dewatering bag exit. Without flocculant treatment, the dewatering bag reduced turbidity by 70% but the addition of flocculant increased the turbidity reduction up to 97% relative to influent. At the pipe exit, the low-dose biopolymer was less effective in reducing turbidity (37%) but it was equally effective as the high-dose biopolymer or PAM injection after the bag. Our results suggest that a relatively simple treatment with flocculants, either passively or actively, can be very effective in reducing turbidity for pumped water on construction sites.

  18. A comparison of diesel, biodiesel and solar PV-based water pumping systems in the context of rural Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Pokharel, Govind Raj; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    using petro-diesel, jatropha-based biodiesel and solar photovoltaic pumps. The technical system design consists of system sizing of prime mover (engine, solar panel and pumps) and estimation of reservoir capacity, which are based on the annual aggregate water demand modelling. With these investigations...... area, the levelised cost of pumping 1 L of water is higher than that of a solar pump and even higher when compared with diesel, if the seed yield per plant is less than 2 kg and without subsidy on the investment cost of cultivation and processing. With the productivity of 2.5 kg/plant, a biodiesel......-based system is more attractive than that of the diesel-based pump, but still remains more expensive than that of solar pump. From the technical perspective (reliability and easiness in operation) and economic evaluation of the technical alternatives, solar pumping system is found to be the most viable...

  19. 分体承压阳台壁挂式太阳热水器的热性能分析%Thermal performance of solar water heater hanged on balcony wall with separate pressure bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁祥; 高文峰; 刘滔; 林文贤

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an analysis has been conducted on an indirect forced circulation solar water heater which is hanged on the balcony wall with separate pressure bearing, a mathematical model was established for this heater, and experiments and calculations have been carried out to obtain the useful heat, daily average thermal efficiency, transient thermal efficiency, heat loss coefficient of the heater, etc., under clear day conditions in winter in Kunming, China. The results show that the thermal performance of such a solar heater is superior, it meets the requirements of the national standards and the residential water usage, and is suitable for utilization integrated with buildings; Solar radiation is the most profound parameter to dictate the thermal performance of the heater; The insulation performance of the storage tank with separate pressure bearing is superior. Nevertheless, the results also demonstrate that further studies are needed to explore in-depth the temperature stratification in the heat storage tank.%通过对在昆明地区搭建的一种间接式强制循环分体承压阳台壁挂式平板型太阳热水器的分析,建立了热水器系统的数学模型,并对冬季晴天天气情况下的得热量、平均日效率、瞬时效率、贮热水箱热损系数、系统平均热损因数等热水器热性能参数进行了多天测试和分析.结果表明,这种太阳热水器的热性能良好,符合家庭生活用水的要求,适合与建筑进行一体化设计;太阳辐照量是影响太阳热水器热性能最显著的因素;分体承压立式贮热水箱的保温性能良好,但还需继续对这种贮热水箱的温度分层情况作进一步研究.

  20. Substrate heater for the growth of epitaxial silicon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Matthew; Varhue, Walter; Adams, Edward; Lavoie, Mark

    1999-03-01

    The single wafer processing of epitaxial Si films requires that special attention be paid to the design of the substrate heater assembly. This document describes the evolution and testing of an in situ heater used to deposit epitaxial Si films at temperatures as high as 700 °C. One problem encountered was the production of excessive levels of ultraviolet radiation which contributed to the desorption of water vapor from the vacuum chamber walls during the in situ cleaning process. A second problem involved the formation of a molybdenum containing film that poisoned epitaxial growth. A final proven in situ heater design is presented which avoids these problems.

  1. An assessment of efficient water heating options for an all-electric single family residence in a mixed-humid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balke, Elizabeth C; Healy, William M; Ullah, Tania

    2016-12-01

    An evaluation of a variety of efficient water heating strategies for an all-electric single family home located in a mixed-humid climate is conducted using numerical modeling. The strategies considered include various combinations of solar thermal, heat pump, and electric resistance water heaters. The numerical model used in the study is first validated against a year of field data obtained on a dual-tank system with a solar thermal preheat tank feeding a heat pump water heater that serves as a backup. Modeling results show that this configuration is the most efficient of the systems studied over the course of a year, with a system coefficient of performance (COPsys) of 2.87. The heat pump water heater alone results in a COPsys of 1.9, while the baseline resistance water heater has a COPsys of 0.95. Impacts on space conditioning are also investigated by considering the extra energy consumption required of the air source heat pump to remove or add heat from the conditioned space by the water heating system. A modified COPsys that incorporates the heat pump energy consumption shows a significant drop in efficiency for the dual tank configuration since the heat pump water heater draws the most heat from the space in the heating season while the high temperatures in the solar storage tank during the cooling season result in an added heat load to the space. Despite this degradation in the COPsys, the combination of the solar thermal preheat tank and the heat pump water heater is the most efficient option even when considering the impacts on space conditioning.

  2. CFD Numerical Simulation of the Complex Turbulent Flow Field in an Axial-Flow Water Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-You Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Further optimal design of an axial-flow water pump calls for a thorough recognition of the characteristics of the complex turbulent flow field in the pump, which is however extremely difficult to be measured using the up-to-date experimental techniques. In this study, a numerical simulation procedure based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD was elaborated in order to obtain the fully three-dimensional unsteady turbulent flow field in an axial-flow water pump. The shear stress transport (SST k-ω model was employed in the CFD calculation to study the unsteady internal flow of the axial-flow pump. Upon the numerical simulation results, the characteristics of the velocity field and pressure field inside the impeller region were discussed in detail. The established model procedure in this study may provide guidance to the numerical simulations of turbomachines during the design phase or the investigation of flow and pressure field characteristics and performance. The presented information can be of reference value in further optimal design of the axial-flow pump.

  3. Antibiotic resistance, efflux pump genes and virulence determinants in Enterococcus spp. from surface water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molale, L G; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to report on antibiotic susceptibility patterns as well as highlight the presence of efflux pump genes and virulence genetic determinants in Enterococcus spp. isolated from South African surface water systems. One hundred and twenty-four Enterococcus isolates consisting of seven species were identified. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed a high percentage of isolates was resistant to β-lactams and vancomycin. Many were also resistant to other antibiotic groups. These isolates were screened by PCR, for the presence of four efflux pump genes (mefA, tetK, tetL and msrC). Efflux genes mefA and tetK were not detected in any of the Enterococcus spp. However, tetL and msrC were detected in 17 % of the Enterococcus spp. The presence of virulence factors in the Enterococcus spp. harbouring efflux pump genes was determined. Virulence determinants were detected in 86 % of the Enterococcus spp. harbouring efflux pump genes. Four (asa1, cylA, gel and hyl) of the five virulence factors were detected. The findings of this study have demonstrated that Enterococcus from South African surface water systems are resistant to multiple antibiotics, some of which are frequently used for therapy. Furthermore, these isolates harbour efflux pump genes coding for resistance to antibiotics and virulence factors which enhance their pathogenic potential.

  4. Analysis of off-grid hybrid wind turbine/solar PV water pumping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    While many remote water pumping systems exist (e.g. mechanical windmills, solar photovoltaic , wind-electric, diesel powered), very few combine both the wind and solar energy resources to possibly improve the reliability and the performance of the system. In this paper, off-grid wind turbine (WT) a...

  5. Test results for the Oasis 3C high performance water-pumping windmill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggleston, D.M. [DME Engineering, Midland, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The WINDTech International, L.L.C. Oasis 3C, a 3 m diameter, high-performance water-pumping windmill, was tested at the DME Engineering Wind Test Site just south of Midland, Texas from August through December, 1996. This machine utilizes a 3:1 gearbox with rotating counterweights, similar to a conventional oilfield pumping unit, driven by a multibladed rotor. The rotating counterweight system balances most of the pumping loads and reduces gear loads and starting torque by a factor of at least two and often by a factor of four or more. The torque reduction substantially extends gear and bearing life, and reduces wind speeds required for starting by 30 to 50% or more. The O3C was tested pumping from a quiescent fluid depth of 12.2 m (40 ft) from a 28.3 m (93 ft)-deep well, with additional pumping depth simulated using a pressure regulator valve system. A 9.53 cm (3.75 in.) diameter Harbison-Fischer seal-less single-acting piston pump was used to eliminate pump seal friction as a variable, and standard O3C stroke lengths of 30.5 and 15.2 cm (12 and 6 inches) were used. The regulator spring was set to give a maximum stroke rate of 33 strokes per minute. The water pumped was returned to the well after flowing through a settling tank. The tests were performed in accordance with AWEA WECS testing standards. Instrumentation provided 16 channels of data to accurately measure machine performance, including starting wind speeds, flow rates, O3C azimuth, tail furl angle, wind direction tracking errors, RPM, sucker rod loads, and other variables. The most significant performance data is summarized herein. A mathematical model of machine performance was developed that fairly accurately predicts performance for each of three test conditions. The results verify that the O3C is capable of pumping water at wind speeds from 30% to more than 50% lower than comparable un-counterbalanced units.

  6. Effects of air vessel on water hammer in high-head pumping station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Wang, F. J.; Zou, Z. C.; Li, X. N.; Zhang, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Effects of air vessel on water hammer process in a pumping station with high-head were analyzed by using the characteristics method. The results show that the air vessel volume is the key parameter that determines the protective effect on water hammer pressure. The maximum pressure in the system declines with increasing air vessel volume. For a fixed volume of air vessel, the shape of air vessel and mounting style, such as horizontal or vertical mounting, have little effect on the water hammer. In order to obtain good protection effects, the position of air vessel should be close to the outlet of the pump. Generally, once the volume of air vessel is guaranteed, the water hammer of a entire pipeline is effectively controlled.

  7. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Martin F.; Madsen, Claus; Olsen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) concept allows for a high efficiency of a heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept consists of two water storage tanks, one charged and one discharged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process, while the discharged tank...... modelling of the heat pump and tank system is performed (in continuation of Part I). The modelling is extended to include the system performance with different natural refrigerants and the influence of different types of compressors....... is charging. The charging of the tank is done by recirculating water through the condenser and thereby gradually heating the water. The modelling of the system is described in Part I [1]. In this part, Part II, an experimental test setup of the tank system is reported, the results are presented and further...

  8. Deep water pipe, pump, and mooring study: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, T.E.; Marks, J.D.; Wellman, K.H.

    1976-06-01

    The ocean engineering issues affecting the design, construction, deployment, and operation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants are of key importance. This study addressed the problems associated with the conceptual design of the deep-water pipe, cold-water-pumping, and platform mooring arrangements. These subsystems fall into a natural grouping since the parameters affecting their design are closely related to each other and to the ocean environment. Analysis and evaluations are provided with a view toward judging the impact of the various subsystems on the overall plant concept and to provide an estimate of material and construction cost. Parametric data is provided that describes mooring line configurations, mooring line loads, cold water pipe configurations, and cold water pumping schemes. Selected parameters, issues, and evaluation criteria are used to judge the merits of candidate concepts over a range of OTEC plant size from 100 MWe to 1000 MWe net output power.

  9. Water temperature adjustment in spas by the aid of heat pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riznić Dejan T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral spas are considered an important national resource, used mainly for therapeutical and recreational purposes. However, raw mineral waters are often at temperatures different from the required ones and need to be cooled or heated to be adjusted to the level adequate for a specified purpose. For such an adjustment, energy is either released (when cooling down the mineral water or consumed (for heating up the mineral water. Heat pumps may be used to multiply the gain of energy when released, or reduce the energy needed for heating the water. The report deals with technical possibilities and economic benefits of the use of heat pumps in such case studies in two spas of Serbia, Mataruska spa near Kraljevo, and Bukovicka spa in Arandjelovac.

  10. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 3: Active space heating and hot water supply with solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaki, S.; Loef, G. O. G.

    1981-04-01

    Several types of solar water heaters are described and assessed. These include thermosiphon water heaters and pump circulation water heaters. Auxiliary water heating is briefly discussed, and new and retrofit systems are compared. Liquid-based space heating systems and solar air heaters are described and assessed, auxiliary space heating are discussed, and new and retrofit solar space heating systems are compared. The status of flat plate collectors, evacuated tube collectors, and thermal storage systems is examined. Systems improvements, reliability, durability and maintenance are discussed. The economic assessment of space and water heating systems includes a comparison of new systems costs with conventional fuels, and sales history and projections. The variety of participants in the solar industry and users of solar heat is discussed, and various incentives and barriers to solar heating are examined. Several policy implications are discussed, and specific government actions are recommended.

  11. A masonry heater, a large thermal flywheel and constant temperatures : the winter of 1996/1997 of the Alberta Sustainable Home/Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrowski, J.; Fofonoff, B.

    1997-07-01

    A masonry heater using scrapwood and firewood as the only source of back-up heat in this 1820 sq ft single-family live-in demonstration home/office, was described. The heater also contributed significantly to the thermal flywheel of the house. Together with other forms of thermal mass within the building (concrete slab, wood studs, drywall, tiles, furniture, plants, etc), the masonry heater was sufficient to see the occupants through the severe and long winter of 1996/97 with comfortable indoor temperatures. The masonry heater is located near the center of the house with a sunny view towards the south. On sunny winter days it operates as a passive solar heat sink, with the sun charging up the brick face by about five degrees C. In the evening, a 40 pound load of scrap and firewood will take about 1.25 hours to penetrate through the refractory interior core and brick exterior. This provides a cosy fireplace for the occupants, while storing heat in its mass for slow release during the next 1.5 to 3 days. It heats water for storage in the hot water tank. During the period of September 1996 to May 1997 one cord of wood was burned, which is about 12 per cent of the energy pumped into the average single family home in Calgary during the same period. Experience to-date suggests that the masonry heater performs very well as a back-up heater, maintaining an ambient temperature of about 20 degrees C throughout the winter. Some flat plate solar collectors might be necessary to provide for radiant floor heating of the mass since floor temperatures were lower than most occupants found comfortable.

  12. Trailing edge devices to improve performance and increase lifetime of wind-electric water pumping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vick, B.D.; Clark, R.N. [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Bushland, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Trailing edge flaps were applied to the blades of a 10 kW wind turbine used for water pumping to try to improve the performance and decrease the structural fatigue on the wind turbine. Most small wind turbines (10 kW and below) use furling (rotor turns out of wind similar to a mechanical windmill) to protect the wind turbine from overspeed during high winds. Some small wind turbines, however, do not furl soon enough to keep the wind turbine from being off line part of the time in moderately high wind speeds (10 - 16 m/s). As a result, the load is disconnected and no water is pumped at moderately high wind speeds. When the turbine is offline, the frequency increases rapidly often causing excessive vibration of the wind turbine and tower components. The furling wind speed could possibly be decreased by increasing the offset between the tower centerline and the rotor centerline, but would be a major and potentially expensive retrofit. Trailing edge flaps (TEF) were used as a quick inexpensive method to try to reduce the furling wind speed and increase the on time by reducing the rotor RPM. One TEF configuration improved the water pumping performance at moderately high wind speeds, but degraded the pumping performance at low wind speeds which resulted in little change in daily water volume. The other TEF configuration differed very little from the no flap configuration. Both TEF configurations however, reduced the rotor RPM in high wind conditions. The TEF, did not reduce the rotor RPM by lowering the furling wind speed as hoped, but apparently did so by increasing the drag which also reduced the volume of water pumped at the lower wind speeds. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  13. 基于微热管阵列的平板太阳能热水器的性能试验%Performance experiments for flat plate solar water heater based on micro heat pipe array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓月超; 全贞花; 赵耀华; 王林成; 叶三宝

    2013-01-01

      为了检验一种新型平板太阳能热水器的性能,该文对其核心部件—基于微热管阵列的集热器及其组成的热水器进行了热性能试验.集热器热性能测试结果表明,微热管阵列平板太阳能集热器瞬时效率的斜率为4.7,截距为0.80,分别优于国家标准要求值11.0%和22.3%.在满足测试要求的天气情况下,对微热管阵列平板太阳能热水器进行的多次热性能测试结果表明,热水器的日有效得热量均高于国家标准要求值,日平均集热效率均高于60%.同时,该热水器具有承压能力强、无炸裂、轻巧、成本低、无需焊接、抗冻性能好、易于建筑一体化等优势.基于微热管阵列的平板太阳能热水器由于性能优异,并能克服现有太阳能热水器的缺点,具有广阔的应用前景.%A novel flat plate solar water heater based on the micro heat pipe array (MHPA) was invented, and the experiments were carried out on the MHPA heat collector and water heater to test their thermal performance. Owing to its distinctive structure, the MHPA has good heat transfer ability, high reliability, high compressive strength and low cost. The structure and character of the novel collector with MHPA as the high-efficiency heat transfer element are as follows. First, the contact surface between the absorber and the MHPA is so large that the heat resistance is smaller than the traditional one, thus its thermal transfer capability is greatly improved. Second, the condenser section of the MHPA is connected closely to the heat exchanger with dry type. The heat pipes do not contact with water, which precludes scaling and leakage in the collector. Third, the MHPA uses low freezing points of the refrigerants, which makes the collector more suitable for extremely cold areas. Fourth, the MHPA is made of aluminum instead of copper, which could reduce the fabrication cost significantly. Fifth, the unique heat exchanger could exclude water easily

  14. Technical Report for Water Circulation Pumping System for Trihalomethanes (THMs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellah, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-08

    The TSWWS was added as an active source of supply to the permit (No. 03-10-13P-003) in 2010, but has never been used due to the potential for formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the distribution system. THMs are formed as a by-product when chlorine is used to disinfect water for drinking. THMs are a group of chemicals generally referred to as disinfection by-products (DBPs). THMs result from the reaction of chlorine with organic matter that is present in the water. Some of the THMs are volatile and may easily vaporize into the air. This fact forms the basis of the design of the system discussed in this technical report. In addition, the design is based on the results of a study that has shown success using aeration as a means to reduce TTHMs to within allowable concentration levels with turn-over times as long as ten days. The Primary Drinking Water Standards of Regulated Contaminants Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for TTHMs is 80 parts per billion (ppb). No other changes to the existing drinking water distribution system and chlorination operations are anticipated before switching to the TSWWS as the primary drinking water source. The two groundwater wells (Wells 20 and 18) which are currently the primary and backup water sources for the system would be maintained for use as backup supply. In the future, one of the wells may be removed from the system. A permit amendment would be filed at that time if this modification was deemed appropriate.

  15. Low Cost Solar Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Bostic

    2005-12-16

    This project was directed by NREL to pursue development of an all polymer solar thermal collector. The proposed design utilized a dual sheet thermoform process to coincidentally form the absorber as well as the containment structure to support the glazing. It utilized ventilation to overcome stagnation degradation of the polymer materials.

  16. Modelling a directly coupled photovoltaic pumping system in a solar domestic hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Y.; Fraisse, G. [Savoy Univ., Le Bourget du lac (FR). Design Optimization and Environmental Engineering Laboratory (LOCIE)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a photovoltaic (PV) powered pumping system applying in a solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system. Two circulators ('Standard' and 'Solar') are employed respectively. A new model of circulator is developed in TRNSYS based on a 'Standard' type that consists of a DC-brushless motor and a centrifugal pump. Model validation is carried out by comparing with the experimental measurement. The experimental performance of these two circulators is analyzed on the aspects of startup and the stable operation stage. (orig.)

  17. Analysis of a Residential Heating System Utilizing a Solar Assisted Water-to-Air Heat Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    heat pump heating system were analyzed. A realistic residence and solar assisted water-to-air heat pump system were modeled for this northern climate using the transient simulation computer code TRNSYS developed by the University of Wisconsin. The system was studied over a one month winter period, December, using actual hourly weather data. The system was analyzed for both the cloudiest and clearest December weather recorded in the last 30 years. The collector area and storage tank capacity were varied and the effects on system performance were

  18. Design of Thermal Performance Test Facility for Domestic Solar Energy Water Heater%家用太阳能热水器热性能测试台设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘业凤; 张斌; 赵惠麟

    2015-01-01

    The development of thermal performance test facility for domestic solar water heater is introduced .This test board consists of power cabinet ,water treatment equipment and six testing beds .This facility can test the energy efficiency grades of domestic solar energy water heaters according to the national standard GB26969‐2011 Domestic Solar Water Heating Systems Minimum Allowable Values and Energy Ef ficiency .Experimental results show that the test facility can meet the requirements of the above standard .%介绍了家用太阳能热水器热性能测试台的设计方法。该测试台由动力柜、水处理设备和6个工位构成。该测试台可按照国家标准GB26969-2011《家用太阳能热水系统能效限定值及能效等级》对家用太阳能热水器进行能效等级测试。实验结果证明,该测试台满足上述测试标准的要求。

  19. Calculation in Orifice Plate of CEFR Condensate Water Recycling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG; Yi-min

    2012-01-01

    <正>In order to avoid condensation water pump occurring cavitation due to the flow is too small and affect the normal operation of pump when the startup or shutdown in the unit, low load or accident under empty load operation, recirculation loop should maintain a certain flow, to ensure that the shaft seal heater has enough cooling water, recirculation flow is not less than 20 t/h.

  20. Theoretical study of heat pump system using CO2/dimethylether as refrigerant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiao-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, HCFC22 is widely used in heat pump systems in China, which should be phased out in the future. Thus, eco-friendly mixture CO2/dimethylether is proposed to replace HCFC22. Compared with pure CO2 and pure dimethylether, the mixture can reduce the heat rejection pressure, and suppress the flammability and explosivity of pure dimethylether. According to the Chinese National Standards on heat pump water heater and space heating system, performances of the subcritical heat pump system are discussed and compared with those of the HCFC22 system. It can be concluded that CO2 /dimethylether mixture works efficiently as a refrigerant for heat pumps with a large heat-sink temperature rise. When mass fraction of dimethylether is increased, the heat rejection pressure is reduced. Under the nominal working condition, there is an optimal mixture mass fraction of 28/72 of CO2/dimethylether for water heater application under conventional condensation pressure, 3/97 for space heating application. For water heater application, both the heating coefficient of performance and volumetric heating capacity increase by 17.90% and 2.74%, respectively, compared with those of HCFC22 systems. For space heating application, the heating coefficient of performance increases by 8.44% while volumetric heating capacity decreases by 34.76%, compared with those of HCFC22 systems. As the superheat degree increases, both the heating coefficient of performance and volumetric heating capacity tend to decrease.

  1. Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-12-10

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

  2. Analysis of Leak and Plugging Condition for Feedwater Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hansul; Kang, Yeon Kwan; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Song, Seok Yoon; Oh, Seung Hwan [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Tube damage in feedwater heater occurs from damaged pressure boundary, inflow of foreign substances, erosion and corrosion. Once a heat tube is damaged, the water jet from the damaged spot is spread out to surrounding tubes. Since a feedwater heater is operated under 2-phase flow condition and has physically complicated structure, it cannot be approached on shell side. Therefore, test and inspection to check tube degradation is relatively difficult. Even though tube leak does not affect surrounding tubes, it obviously affects efficiency of turbine cycle and reduces economic feasibility in the long run. For this reason, systematic management is required on thermal performance for feedwater heaters. In this paper, PEPSE (Performance Evaluation of Power System Efficiency), one of the generic-purpose power plant simulation program, was used to construct a heat balance model for turbine cycle. The model was used to analyze the effect of change in key variables related to thermal performance of feedwater heater on turbine cycle, thereby preparing a thermal performance management strategy for feedwater heaters. Study was conducted on 6 units that represent each reactor type among domestic nuclear power plants (NPPs) in operation, but this paper described the results of high pressure feedwater heaters in a Korean standard NPP, which shows high possibility of tube damage due to large shell-tube pressure difference. In this paper, the heat balance models for turbine cycle were constructed as a part of effort to develop the thermal performance management system for feedwater heaters in NPPs.

  3. Note: Deep UV-pump THz-probe spectroscopy of the excess electron in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Arian; Savolainen, Janne; Shalit, Andrey; Hamm, Peter

    2017-06-01

    In the work of Savolainen et al. [Nat. Chem. 6, 697 (2014)], we studied the excess (hydrated) electron in water with the help of transient THz spectroscopy, which is a sensitive probe of its delocalization length. In that work, we used laser pulses at 800 nm, 400 nm, and 267 nm for photoionization. While the detachment mechanism for 400 nm and 267 nm is complicated and requires a concerted nuclear rearrangement, we provided evidence that 800 nm pumping excites the excess electron directly and vertically into the conduction band, despite a highly nonlinear field-ionization process. In the present note, we extend that work to 200 nm pumping, which provides a much cleaner way to reach the conduction band. We show that the detachment pathways upon 200 nm and 800 nm pumping are in essence the same, as indicated by the same initial size of the electron wavefunction and the same time scales for the collapse of the wavefunction and geminate recombination.

  4. Nano-porous-water Absorbents for Solid-absorbebt Heat Pump System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizota, Tadato; Nakayama, Noriaki

    Zeolite-water heat-pump system has been developed in these 25 years. Recently, an instant beer-cooling system has appeared by using the zeolite heat pump system as a commercial product. It takes so long time for the development since the first proposal. The most serious problem through the development has been of the ability of absorbents. Themaximum heat exchange capacity to date exceeds 1MJ•kg-1 for Mg89-A, which is comparable to the energy storage capacity of modern alkaline-ion batteries in weight-bases. But it needs high temperature heat sources more than 200°C for the activation. Absorbents useful at lower temperatures are thus desirable for effective use of various kinds of lower temperature heat sources Various nano-porous materials as well as zeolites now under investigation as candidates of heat-pump absorbents, such as silica-gels, allophane, imogolite, hydrotalcite, etc.

  5. Analysis of air-to-water heat pump in cold climate: comparison between experiment and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Januševičius

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat pump systems are promising technologies for current and future buildings and this research presents the performance of air source heat pump (ASHP system. The system was monitored, analysed and simulated using TRNSYS software. The experimental data were used to calibrate the simulation model of ASHP. The specific climate conditions are evaluated in the model. It was noticed for the heating mode that the coefficient of performance (COP varied from 1.98 to 3.05 as the outdoor temperature changed from –7.0 ºC to +5.0 ºC, respectively. TRNSYS simulations were also performed to predict seasonal performance factor of the ASHP for Vilnius city. It was identified that seasonal performance prediction could be approximately 15% lower if frost formation effects are not included to air-water heat pump simulation model.

  6. Automatic estimation of aquifer parameters using long-term water supply pumping and injection records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ning; Illman, Walter A.

    2016-09-01

    Analyses are presented of long-term hydrographs perturbed by variable pumping/injection events in a confined aquifer at a municipal water-supply well field in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Such records are typically not considered for aquifer test analysis. Here, the water-level variations are fingerprinted to pumping/injection rate changes using the Theis model implemented in the WELLS code coupled with PEST. Analyses of these records yield a set of transmissivity ( T) and storativity ( S) estimates between each monitoring and production borehole. These individual estimates are found to poorly predict water-level variations at nearby monitoring boreholes not used in the calibration effort. On the other hand, the geometric means of the individual T and S estimates are similar to those obtained from previous pumping tests conducted at the same site and adequately predict water-level variations in other boreholes. The analyses reveal that long-term municipal water-level records are amenable to analyses using a simple analytical solution to estimate aquifer parameters. However, uniform parameters estimated with analytical solutions should be considered as first rough estimates. More accurate hydraulic parameters should be obtained by calibrating a three-dimensional numerical model that rigorously captures the complexities of the site with these data.

  7. Raising Energy Efficiency of High-Head Drinking Water Pumping Schemes in Hilly India – Massive Potential, Complex Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Voltz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of energy efficiency of 25 pumps showed wire-to-water efficiencies ranging from 30% to 60%, with an average of 47%. Raising the efficiency of just 7 pumps to the realistic target of 60% would require an initial investment of 126 k€ and represent a net present value (profit of 446 k€ over a 10-year pump lifetime, saving 8.6 kt of CO2 emissions. The primary measures for raising efficiency are in order of priority: 1 improving pre-filtration of raw water to prevent rapid mechanical wear due to suspended particles during monsoon, 2 providing training, improved working conditions, and better tools and spare parts among pump operators and 3 replacing aging, oversized pumps with properly sized pumps operating close to peak efficiency. As of January 2014 the results have been confirmed by a Bureau of Energy Efficiency-certified energy auditor and the extent and funding of efficiency measures implementation is in planning.

  8. Heat pump using dual heat sources of air and water. Performance in cooling mode; Mizu kuki ryonetsugen heat pump no kenkyu. Reibo unten ni okeru seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S.; Miura, N. [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Uchikawa, Y. [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    When a heat pump is used for cooling purpose, it is possible to utilize different kinds of waste water as high-heat sources. However, these heat sources would have their temperatures vary with seasons and time in a day. Therefore, a discussion was given on performance of a heat pump when water and air heat sources are used for condensers during cooling operation independently, in series and in parallel, respectively. The air condenser shows an equivalent COP as compared with the water condenser when air temperature is lower by about 8 degC than water temperature. At the same heat source temperature, the COP for the water condenser indicated a value higher by about 0.6 than the case of the air condenser. A method to use condensers in parallel experiences little contribution from the air heat source, and performance of the heat pump decreases below the case of using the water heat source independently when the air heat source temperature becomes higher than that of the water heat source. In the case of series use in which a water condenser is installed in front and an air condenser in rear, its effect is exhibited when temperature in the air heat source is lower than that in the water heat source. Better performance was shown than in operating the water heat source independently. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Emergy evaluation of a pumping irrigation water production system in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Luo, Zhaohui; Webber, Michael; Chen, Jing; Wang, Weiguang

    2014-03-01

    The emergy concept was used to evaluate a pumping irrigation water production system in China. A framework for emergy evaluation of the significance of irrigation water and its production process was developed. The results show that the irrigation water saved has the highest emergy value (8.73E + 05 sej·J-1), followed by the irrigation water supplied to farmlands (1.72E + 05 sej·J-1), the pumped water (4.81E + 04 sej·J-1), with the lowest value shown from water taken from the local river (3.72E + 04 sej·J-1). The major contributions to the emergy needed for production are the inputs of soil and water. This production system could contribute to the irrigated agriculture and economy, according to several calculated emergy indices: emergy yield ratio ( EYR), emergy investment ratio ( EIR), environmental load ratio ( ELR), and environmental sustainability index ( ESI). The comparative analysis shows that the emergy theory and method, different from the conventional monetary-based analysis, could be used to evaluate irrigation water and its production process in terms of the biophysical account. Additional emergy evaluations should be completed on different types of water production and irrigated agricultural systems to provide adequate guidelines for the sustainability of irrigation development.

  10. Water chemical evolution in Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower plants and induced consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Orban, Philippe; Jurado, Anna; Ayora, Carlos; Brouyère, Serge; Dassargues, Alain

    2017-04-01

    Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) using abandoned mines is an alternative to manage the electricity production in flat regions. UPSH plants consist of two reservoirs; the upper reservoir is located at the surface or at shallow depth, while the lower reservoir is underground. These plants have potentially less constraints that the classical Pumped Storage Hydropower plants because more sites are available and impacts on landscape, land use, environment and society seem lower. Still, it is needed to consider the consequences of the groundwater exchanges occurring between the underground reservoir and surrounding porous media. Previous studies have been focused on the influence of these groundwater exchanges on the efficiency and on groundwater flow impacts. However, hydrochemical variations induced by the surface exposure of pumped water and their consequences have not been yet addressed. The objective of this work is to evaluate the hydrochemical evolution of the water in UPSH plants and its effects on the environment and on the UPSH efficiency. The problem is studied numerically by means of reactive transport modelling. Different scenarios are considered varying the chemical properties of the surrounding porous medium and groundwater. Results show that the dissolution and/or precipitation of some compounds may affect (1) the groundwater quality, and (2) the efficiency and the useful life of the used pumps and turbines of the UPSH system.

  11. Analysis of data from water lift powered by solar energy pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Paulo Takashi [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Ricieri, Reinaldo Prandini [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: ricieri@unioeste.br; Halmeman, Maria Cristina Rodrigues [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Gnoatto, Estor; Kavanagh; Brenneisen, Paulo Job [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], Emails: gnoatto@utfpr.edu.br, kavanagh@utfpr.edu.br, brenneisen@utfpr.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    Due to the high costs to install electricity in remote locations, away from the regular urban electrical installations, photovoltaic solar energy has ample application in public illumination, water pumping, health services offices, etc. With the purpose to contribute to a better use of this kind of energy, this project aimed in analyzing the outflow and efficiency of a motor pump powered by photovoltaic panels, the irradiation necessary to activate it for water lift, collecting data at every 6- meter height, ranging from 6,2 to 18,2 meters. This study is part of a development project of the Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), by making use of photovoltaic panels, motor pump, pyranometers, thermocouple type K, pressure transducer and outflow transducer. The data show a maximum average outflow of 584,299 Lh{sup -1} and maximum efficiency of 23,338% for a lift of 18,2 m. There is also the need of irradiation for the activation of the motor pump proportional to the height of the lift, in a polynomial dependence of the third order. (author)

  12. Optimal Duration of Submersible Pump Equipped Deep Water Borehole Project in Ikwuano, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwankwojike, B. Nduka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimal duration for constructing a submersible pump equipped deep water borehole in Ikwuano and optimal durations of distinct jobs in this project were determined to aid effective planning and implementation of borehole projects in this area. The investigation was conducted and analyzed using network modeling procedure. Results revealed 13days as the optimal duration of the borehole project when construction of overhead water distribution tank stantion constitutes part of the contract and 12days when the overhead structure is not involved. The optimal duration in hours for the distinct jobs involved in this borehole construction include 25.92 for site preparation/mobilization of geophysical survey team, 36 for geophysical analysis/selection of the best water yielding point in the site, 72 for mobilizing labour and materials to the selected site, 168 for constructing overhead water distribution tank stantion, 3.12 for placement of overhead tank(s on its stantion/installation of its water conveying pipes/accessories, 4.56 for casing/gravel packing/flushing materials preparation, 19.44 for well drilling, 1.92 for casing, 1.92 for gravel packing, 1.2 for flushing, 25.92 for water collection/analysis, 1.2 for water treatment, 13.44 for pumping test, 25.92 for platforming, 77.04 for pump installation/integration of water conveying systems, 4.8 for test running and 0.96 for training end users/project commission. Thus, a guide for effective planning to ensure adequate and timely implementation of deep borehole water supply projects in Ikwuano is set.

  13. Comparisons of Hydraulic Performance in Permanent Maglev Pump for Water-Jet Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puyu Cao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The operation of water-jet propulsion can generate nonuniform inflow that may be detrimental to the performance of the water-jets. To reduce disadvantages of the nonuniform inflow, a rim-driven water-jet propulsion was designed depending on the technology of passive magnetic levitation. Insufficient understanding of large performance deviations between the normal water-jets (shaft and permanent maglev water-jets (shaftless is a major problem in this paper. CFD was directly adopted in the feasibility and superiority of permanent maglev water-jets. Comparison and discussion of the hydraulic performance were carried out. The shaftless duct firstly has a drop in hydraulic losses (K1, since it effectively avoids the formation and evolution of the instability secondary vortex by the normalized helicity analysis. Then, the shaftless intake duct improves the inflow field of the water-jet pump, with consequencing the drop in the backflow and blocking on the blade shroud. So that the shaftless water-jet pump delivers higher flow rate and head to the propulsion than the shaft. Eventually, not only can the shaftless model increase the thrust and efficiency, but it has the ability to extend the working range and broaden the high efficiency region as well.

  14. Coupling of methylmercury uptake with respiration and water pumping in freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2011-09-01

    The relationships among the uptake of toxic methylmercury (MeHg) and two important fish physiological processes-respiration and water pumping--in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were explored in the present study. Coupled radiotracer and respirometric techniques were applied to measure simultaneously the uptake rates of MeHg, water, and oxygen under various environmental conditions (temperature, dissolved oxygen level, and water flow). A higher temperature enhanced MeHg influx and the oxygen consumption rate but had no effect on the water uptake, indicating the influence of metabolism on MeHg uptake. The fish showed a high tolerance to hypoxia, and the oxygen consumption rate was not affected until the dissolved oxygen concentration decreased to extremely low levels (below 1 mg/L). The MeHg and water uptake rates increased simultaneously as the dissolved oxygen level decreased, suggesting the coupling of water flux and MeHg uptake. The influence of fish swimming performance on MeHg uptake was also investigated for the first time. Rapidly swimming fish showed significantly higher uptake rates of MeHg, water, and oxygen, confirming the coupling relationships among respiration, water pumping, and metal uptake. Moreover, these results support that MeHg uptake is a rate-limiting process involving energy. Our study demonstrates the importance of physiological processes in understanding mercury bioaccumulation in fluctuating aquatic environments.

  15. Flux Vector Splitting Schemes for Water Hammer Flows in Pumping Supply Systems with Air Vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Sun; Yuebin Wu; Ying Xu; Tae Uk Jang

    2015-01-01

    To solve water hammer problems in pipeline systems, many numerical simulation approaches have been developed. This paper improves a flux vector splitting ( FVS) scheme whose grid is the same as the fixed⁃grid MOC scheme. The proposed FVS scheme is used to analyze water hammer problems caused by a pump abrupt shutdown in a pumping system with an air vessel. This paper also proposes a pump⁃valve⁃vessel model combining a pump⁃valve model with an air vessel model. The results show that the data obtained by the FVS scheme are similar to the ones obtained by the fixed⁃grid method of characteristics ( MOC ) . And the results using the pump⁃valve⁃vessel model are almost the same as the ones using both the pump⁃valve model and the air vessel model. Therefore, it is effective that the proposed FVS scheme is used to solve water hammer problems and the pump⁃valve⁃vessel model replaces both the pump⁃valve model and the air vessel model to simulate water hammer flows in the pumping system with the air vessel.

  16. Evaluating Performance of Water Hammer Control Equipment using Hytran Software in Hasanlu Dam Pumping Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Nazari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Unsteady flows start from a steady state and end the other steady state condition. In water lines unsteady flows occur mainly due to the closure of valves, sudden pumps stops or sudden pumps starts. To prevent these losses, the major ways which can be used are pressure valves, air tanks and surge tanks. All various methods of controlling water hammer pursue a common goal, and that is to balance pressure from water hammer to adjust the pressure in an acceptable range in the network. In this paper, unsteady hydraulic flow control methods include protective measures such as the use of check valve and installation of air valves, air chambers and surge tanks are investigated and compared. And so that the1400 mm existing pipe line of Hasanlu dam pump station, can be simulated using Hytran software, and then minimum and maximum pressure due to the different choking in the throat connecting the main route was evaluated. The results presented that the use of check valve with built-in soft starter in the present case study reduces the positive and negative pressure caused by the water hammer phenomenon as possible value.

  17. Water hammer in the pump-rising pipeline system with an air chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Sang-Gyun; LEE Kye-Bock; KIM Kyung-Yup

    2014-01-01

    Water hammer following the tripping of pumps can lead to overpressure and negative pressure. Reduction in overpressure and negative pressure may be necessary to avoid failure, to improve the efficiency of operation and to avoid fatigue of system components. The field tests on the water hammer have been conducted on the pump rising pipeline system with an air chamber. The hydraulic transient was simulated using the method of characteristics. Minimizing the least squares problem representing the difference between the measured and predicted transient response in the system performs the calibration of the simulation program. Among the input variables used in the water hammer analysis, the polytropic exponent, the discharge coefficient and the wave speed were calibrated. The computer program developed in this study will be useful in designing the optimum parameters of an air chamber for the real pump pipeline system. The correct selection of air chamber size and the effect of the inner diameter of the orifice to minimize water hammer have been investigated by both field measurements and numerical modeling.

  18. Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Uselton, Robert B. [Lennox Industries, Inc; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.

  19. An assessment of efficient water heating options for an all-electric single family residence in a mixed-humid climate

    OpenAIRE

    Balke, Elizabeth C.; Healy, William M.; Ullah, Tania

    2016-01-01

    An evaluation of a variety of efficient water heating strategies for an all-electric single family home located in a mixed-humid climate is conducted using numerical modeling. The strategies considered include various combinations of solar thermal, heat pump, and electric resistance water heaters. The numerical model used in the study is first validated against a year of field data obtained on a dual-tank system with a solar thermal preheat tank feeding a heat pump water heater that serves as...

  20. Investigations of hydraulic operating conditions of air lift pump with three types of air-water mixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalenik Marek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of hydraulic operating conditions of air lift pump with three types of air-water mixers. The paper presents the analysis of results of the investigations concerning the influence of various constructive solutions of the air-water mixers on hydraulic operating conditions of the air lift pump. The scope of the investigations encompassed the determination of characteristics of delivery head and delivery rate for three types of air-water mixers applied in the constructed air lift pump. Using the obtained results, the efficiency of the three types of air-water mixers applied in this air lift pump was determined. The analysis was carried out and there was checked whether the improved analytical Stenning-Martin model can be used to design air lift pumps with the air-water mixers of these types. The highest capacity in the water transport was reached by the air lift pump with the 1st type air-water mixer, the lowest one – with the 3rd type air-water mixer. The water flow in the air lift pump increases along with the rise in the air flow. The lower are the hydraulic losses generated during flow of the air flux by the air-water mixer, the higher is the air lift pump capacity. Along with the rise in the water delivery head, the capacity of the air lift pump decreases. The highest efficiency is reached by the air lift pump with the 1st type air-water mixer, the lowest – with the 3st type air-water mixer. The efficiency of the air lift pump for the three investigated types of air-water mixers decreases along with the rise in air flow rate and water delivery head. The values of submergence ratio (h/L of the delivery pipe, calculated with the use of the improved analytical Stenning-Martin model, coincide quite well with the values of h/L determined from the measurements.

  1. Using a Cast Iron Hand-Pump to Teach Students About Water Resources and Resource Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, B. J.; Radloff, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    Simply turning on the tap brings safe, clean, fresh-tasting water to most Americans. Students never need to consider basic concepts about water supply, including their daily water consumption and the quality of the water required for drinking. In stark contrast, the issues of water quality and quantity play a central role in people’s daily lives in the developing world. It is difficult to convey this reality to our students through lectures alone and hands-on activities are required. In order to develop an active learning based approach, we transported a traditional cast iron hand-pump and aluminum urns from Bangladesh to the United States. The hand-pump is mounted on a cooler, which acts as a water reservoir, and is now functional and easily transportable. Using this powerful demonstration tool, we have developed an active learning module we call “How far will you walk for water?”. The goal of the module is to teach students about water quantity, water quality, and resource allocation with a focus on Arsenic and Bangladesh, but the system could be applied to other areas of concern. First the students are given a quick lecture on Arsenic, its health impacts, and the extent of contamination in Bangladesh. They are then assigned a specific well, complete with a map of their village and picture of their well and a water sample (pre-spiked with arsenic to be above or below the 10 ug/L WHO limit). Next they pump the wellhead, fill an urn, walk down the hall and back, and measure the distance walked. This is compared to the distance from their village home to their private well, to safe wells belonging to neighbors and to a community well. The students then use the Hach Arsenic test kit to test the arsenic levels in their water samples and learn if their well is safe to drink. Finally, given all this information students must determine if they should continue drinking from their well or switch to a new well, even if that means making multiple, long trips each day

  2. 不同结构的平板式阳台壁挂太阳能热水系统性能分析%Performance analysis of balcony hanging flat panel solar water heaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高立峰; 孙艺霞; 张敏; 何茂涛; 杨荣昆

    2012-01-01

    We perform comparative tests for vertical and horizontal flow solar collectors. We further calculate and comparatively analyze the heat performance of these two water heaters. Results show that the horizontal flat panel solar water heater is superior to the vertical one in instantaneous efficiency, average daily efficiency, daily useful energy and warming performance.%针对竖直式和水平式两种流道结构的集热器进行对比试验,根据相关参数对两种热水系统的热性能进行了计算和对比分析,结果表明水平式流道的平板热水系统在瞬时效率、El平均效率、El有用得热量和升温性能4个方面均优于竖直式流道的平板太阳能热水系统。

  3. Water Flow Performance of a Superscale Model of the Fastrac Liquid Oxygen Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelley, Stephen; Zoladz, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's ongoing effort to lower the cost of access to space, the Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a rocket engine with 60,000 pounds of thrust for use on the Reusable Launch Vehicle technology demonstrator slated for launch in 2000. This gas generator cycle engine, known as the Fastrac engine, uses liquid oxygen and RP-1 for propellants and includes single stage liquid oxygen and RP-1 pumps and a single stage supersonic turbine on a common shaft. The turbopump design effort included the first use and application of new suction capability prediction codes and three-dimensional blade generation codes in an attempt to reduce the turbomachinery design and certification costs typically associated with rocket engine development. To verify the pump's predicted cavitation performance, a water flow test of a superscale model of the Fastrac liquid oxygen pump was conducted to experimentally evaluate the liquid oxygen pump's performance at and around the design point. The water flow test article replicated the flow path of the Fastrac liquid oxygen pump in a 1.582x scale model, including scaled seal clearances for correct leakage flow at a model operating speed of 5000 revolutions per minute. Flow entered the 3-blade axial-flow inducer, transitioned to a shrouded, 6- blade radial impeller, and discharged into a vaneless radial diffuser and collection volute. The test article included approximately 50 total and static pressure measurement locations as well as flush-mounted, high frequency pressure transducers for complete mapping of the pressure environment. The primary objectives of the water flow test were to measure the steady-state and dynamic pressure environment of the liquid oxygen pump versus flow coefficient, suction specific speed, and back face leakage flow rate. Initial results showed acceptable correlation between the predicted and experimentally measured pump head rise at low suction specific speeds

  4. Operational performance of the photovoltaic-powered grain mill and water pump at Tangaye, Upper Volta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, J. E.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Delombard, R.

    1982-01-01

    The first two years of operation of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV) power system for the village of Tangaye, Upper Volta in West Africa are described. The purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate that PV systems could provide reliable electrical power for multiple use applications in remote areas where local technical expertise is limited. The 1.8 kW (peak) power system supplies 120-V (d.c.) electrical power to operate a grain mill, a water pump, and mill building lights for the village. The system was initially sized to pump a part of the village water requirements from an existing improved well, and to meet a portion of the village grain grinding requirements. The data, observations, experiences, and conclusions developed during the first two years of operation are discussed. Reports of tests of the mills used in the project are included.

  5. Giant pumping of single-file water molecules in a carbon nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Zhao, Y J; Huang, J P

    2011-11-17

    Achieving a fast, unidirectional flow of single-file water molecules (UFSWM) across nanochannels is important for membrane-based water purification or seawater desalination. For this purpose, electro-osmosis methods are recognized as a very promising approach and have been extensively discussed in the literature. Utilizing molecular dynamics simulations, here we propose a design for pumping water molecules in a single-walled carbon nanotube in the presence of a linearly gradient electric (GE) field. Such a GE field is inspired by GE fields generated from charged ions located adjacent to biological membrane water nanochannels that can conduct water in and out of cells and can be experimentally achieved by using the charged tip of an atomic force microscope. As a result, the maximum speed of the UFSWM can be 1 or 2 orders of magnitude larger than that in a uniform electric (UE) field. Also, inverse transportation of water molecules does not exist in case of the GE field but can appear for the UE field. Thus, the GE field yields a much more efficient UFSWM than the UE field. The giant pumping ability as revealed is attributed to the nonzero net electrostatic force acting on each water molecule confined in the nanotube. These observations have significance for the design of nanoscale devices for readily achieving controllable UFSWM at high speed.

  6. Correct selection and technology points of maintaining environmentally friendly and efficient solar water heater insulation%正确选用及维护环保型高效保温太阳能热水器的技术要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马昭键; 林成刚; 陆俊行

    2013-01-01

    我国在国际上太阳能热水器使用量最大,这对太阳能光热产业的发展有重要的促进作用。文章结合新开发的环保型高效保温太阳能热水器的特点,对太阳能热水器选购、安装、使用、维护的技术性探讨具有较大的社会意义。%China uses the largest solar water heater in the world. It has an important role in promoting solar thermal industry. In combination with newly developed environmentally and efficient solar water heater insulation characteristics, it has important social significance to do the research for the solar water heater purchase, installation, use, maintenance technical.

  7. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, Ahmad, E-mail: syuhada-mech@yahoo.com; Mubarak, Amir Zaki, E-mail: amir-zaki-mubarak@yahoo.com; Maulana, M. Ilham, E-mail: mil2ana@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Syiah Kuala University Jl. Syech Abdul Rauf No.7 Darussalam Banda Aceh 23111 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US$ 14,938.

  8. A product development process for a photovoltaic water pump system in a small to medium enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    D.Ing. The effective management of technology and new product development in a high technology small to medium enterprise associated with a large corporation with specific reference to the development of solar photovoltaic water pumps is investigated in this study. Innovative product and the development thereof have already become this century's battleground. The availability of information to all and the ease of communication have contributed to changing the battleground. Small organizati...

  9. Correcting Working Postures in Water Pump AssemblyTasks using the OVAKO Work Analysis System (OWAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Atiya Kadhim Al-Zuheri; Hussein S. Ketan

    2008-01-01

    Ovako Working Postures Analyzing System (OWAS) is a widely used method for studying awkward working postures in workplaces. This study with OWAS, analyzed working postures for manual material handling of laminations at stacking workstation for water pump assembly line in Electrical Industrial Company (EICO) / Baghdad. A computer program, WinOWAS, was used for the study. In real life workstation was found that more than 26% of the working postures observed were classified as either AC2 (slight...

  10. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-03-01

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US 14,938.

  11. Two proposals for pumping calculations of non–newtonian fluids, water treatment plants disposal sludges case

    OpenAIRE

    H. Gardea–Villegas

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents two ways to calculate the pumping power of non Newtonian fluids and especially yield pseudoplastics which are the kind of disposal fluids from Water Treatment Plants. Fluids called sludges. The proposals included here, are based in methods suggested by Levenspiel (1986) applicable to determine the performance of Bingham plastics and pseudoplastic fluids using a graphical approximation of the rheological behavior of these materials. This approach has the advantage that is a...

  12. Efficient air-water heat pumps for high temperature lift residential heating, including oil migration aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Zehnder, Michele; Favrat, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a system approach with the aim to develop improved concepts for small capacity, high temperature lift air-water heat pumps. These are intended to replace fuel fired heating systems in the residential sector, which leads to a major reduction of the local greenhouse gas emissions. Unfavorable temperature conditions set by the existing heat distribution systems and by the use of atmospheric air, as the only accessible heat source, have to be overcome. The proposed concepts a...

  13. Investigation of Turbulent Tip Leakage Vortex in an Axial Water Jet Pump with Large Eddy Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, Chunill; Katz, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Detailed steady and unsteady numerical studies were performed to investigate tip clearance flow in an axial water jet pump. The primary objective is to understand physics of unsteady tip clearance flow, unsteady tip leakage vortex, and cavitation inception in an axial water jet pump. Steady pressure field and resulting steady tip leakage vortex from a steady flow analysis do not seem to explain measured cavitation inception correctly. The measured flow field near the tip is unsteady and measured cavitation inception is highly transient. Flow visualization with cavitation bubbles shows that the leakage vortex is oscillating significantly and many intermittent vortex ropes are present between the suction side of the blade and the tip leakage core vortex. Although the flow field is highly transient, the overall flow structure is stable and a characteristic frequency seems to exist. To capture relevant flow physics as much as possible, a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculation and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) were applied for the current investigation. The present study reveals that several vortices from the tip leakage vortex system cross the tip gap of the adjacent blade periodically. Sudden changes in local pressure field inside tip gap due to these vortices create vortex ropes. The instantaneous pressure filed inside the tip gap is drastically different from that of the steady flow simulation. Unsteady flow simulation which can calculate unsteady vortex motion is necessary to calculate cavitation inception accurately even at design flow condition in such a water jet pump.

  14. Thermal behavior of a porous electric heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naji, M.; Al-Nimr, M.A. [Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2002-03-01

    The performance of a proposed porous electric heater is investigated. The porous heater exchanges heat with the working fluid through its large volumetric surface area. As a result, it produces lower surface temperature as compared with the conventional heater for the same imposed heating power. Two mathematical models are presented to describe the thermal behavior of both heaters. Axial diffusion is included in the governing equation of the solid conventional heater. The predictions of both models are compared at different operating conditions where it is found that porous heaters have much better thermal performance than the conventional heaters. (author)

  15. Heater head for stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John A.

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  16. Experimental Investigation on The Electromagnetic Clutch Water pump and Pneumatic Compressor for Improving the Efficiency of an Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarasubramanian, R.; Xavier, Goldwin; Nishanthi, W. Mary; Rajasekar, R.

    2017-05-01

    Considering the fuel crises today many work and research were conducted to reduce the fuel consumption of the internal combustion engine. The fuel consumption of an internal combustion engine can be relatively reduced by use of the electromagnetic clutch water pump and pneumatic compressor. Normally in an engine, the water pump is driven by the crankshaft, with an aid of belt, for the circulation of the water for the cooling process. The circulation of coolant is resisted by the thermostat valve, while the temperature inside the coolant jacket of the engine is below 375K the thermostat is closed only above 375K it tends to open. But water pump run continuously even when thermostat is closed. In pneumatic braking system, pneumatic or air compressor purpose is to compress the air and stored into the storage tank for the brake operation. When the air pressure of the storage tanks gets increases above its storage capacity pressure is regulated by governor, by passing them to atmosphere. Such unnecessary work of this water pump and air compressor can be minimized by use of the electromagnetic clutch water pump and air compressor. The European Driving Cycle is used to evaluate the performance of this water pump and air compressor when used in an engine. The result shows that the fuel economy of the engine while using electromagnetic water pump and pneumatic compressor were improved by 8.0% compared with conventional types which already exist. The application of these electromagnetic water pump and pneumatic compressor are expected to contribute for the improvement of engine performance because of their effect in reduction of the rate of fuel consumption.

  17. Development of Absorption Heat Pump Driven by Low Temperature Hot Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshida, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Naoto; Asai, Hiroshi; Hasatani, Masanobu; Watanabe, Fujio; Fujisawa, Ryou

    We developed an Adsorption Heat Pump (AHP) system, which applies silica-gel as adsorbent and H2O as refrigerant, and is possibly intended to use low temperature hot water (333K) as a driving force. The growing importance to save energy, leads us to develop energy saving systems such as Co-generation systems, including fuel cell system. It is important to use low temperature hot water in order to achieve high efficiency in total. It is, however, noticed that the lower water temperature is, the more difficult its' heat recovery becomes. We reported experimental results of the AHP system, and estimated the possibility to apply low temperature hot water from fuel cell system to the AHP system. We showed quantitatively that the AHP system is able to be driven by low temperature hot water(333K).

  18. Startup of Pumping Units in Process Water Supplies with Cooling Towers at Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, V. V., E-mail: vberlin@rinet.ru; Murav’ev, O. A., E-mail: muraviov1954@mail.ru; Golubev, A. V., E-mail: electronik@inbox.ru [National Research University “Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Aspects of the startup of pumping units in the cooling and process water supply systems for thermal and nuclear power plants with cooling towers, the startup stages, and the limits imposed on the extreme parameters during transients are discussed.

  19. Comfortable, high-efficiency heat pump with desiccant-coated, water-sorbing heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Y D; Wang, R Z; Ge, T S; Zheng, X

    2017-01-12

    Comfortable, efficient, and affordable heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in buildings are highly desirable due to the demands of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. Traditional vapor-compression air conditioners exhibit a lower coefficient of performance (COP) (typically 2.8-3.8) owing to the cooling-based dehumidification methods that handle both sensible and latent loads together. Temperature- and humidity-independent control or desiccant systems have been proposed to overcome these challenges; however, the COP of current desiccant systems is quite small and additional heat sources are usually needed. Here, we report on a desiccant-enhanced, direct expansion heat pump based on a water-sorbing heat exchanger with a desiccant coating that exhibits an ultrahigh COP value of more than 7 without sacrificing any comfort or compactness. The pump's efficiency is doubled compared to that of pumps currently used in conventional room air conditioners, which is a revolutionary HVAC breakthrough. Our proposed water-sorbing heat exchanger can independently handle sensible and latent loads at the same time. The desiccants adsorb moisture almost isothermally and can be regenerated by condensation heat. This new approach opens up the possibility of achieving ultrahigh efficiency for a broad range of temperature- and humidity-control applications.

  20. 环保型高效保温太阳能热水器主要部件的设计%The design of Major component of Environmentally Efficient insulation solar water heaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马昭键; 谢刚; 陆俊行

    2013-01-01

    人们专注于太阳能热水器集热管的高效集热及保温技术的开发,而易忽视储水及送水过程中尤其是储水箱热的损失以及保温层加工中氟利昂问题和报废后聚氨酯保温层“白色污染”的处理。文章针对目前这些问题以及南方地处亚热带和阴天、雷雨气候较多的问题,介绍了环保型高效保温太阳能热水器的集热管、储水箱等主要部件的筛选设计,以及据此设计制造的整机实验效果。%People focus on solar water heater collector tube solar collector efficiency and insulation technology development, Obviousness ignored during storage and bottled water, especially hot water tank insulation layer processing losses and problems and scrapped Freon polyurethane insulation layer of"white pollution"processing. This article is aiming at these problems and the southern subtropical and cloudy, thunderstorm climate. This paper introduces environmentally friendly and efficient insulation collector tube solar water heater, storage tanks and other major components of the screening design, as well as the design and manufacture of the machine accordingly experimental effect.

  1. Hot water preparation with heat pumps; Warmwasserbereitung mit Waermepumpe. Messungen an einer Anlage in Rorschacherberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, H.; Gabathuler, H. R. [Gabathuler AG, Beratende Ingenieure, Diessenhofen (Switzerland); Baumgartner, Th. [Th. Baumgartner and Partner AG, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2007-07-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of measurements made on an installation in Rorschacherberg, Switzerland. The paper examines the results obtained as a result of implementing recommendations for designing domestic hot water heating systems using heat pumps. These were published in the STASCH project on standard circuit diagrams for small-scale heat pump plants. The effectiveness of these recommendations was investigated in this project. Furthermore, optimum hydraulic circuits and control procedures were developed based on measurements made on the experimental plant in Rorschacherberg. The installation examined is described and commented on. Six configuration variants conforming to the STASCH concept are examined and operational aspects are commented on. Finally, recommendations on temperatures and operational modi are made.

  2. Evaluation of water source heat pumps for the Juneau, Alaska Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, J.J.; King, J.C.; Eisenhauer, J.L.; Gibson, C.I.

    1980-07-01

    The purposes of this project were to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of water source heat pumps (WSHP) for use in Juneau, Alaska and to identify potential demonstration projects to verify their feasibility. Information is included on the design, cost, and availability of heat pumps, possible use of seawater as a heat source, heating costs with WSHP and conventional space heating systems, and life cycle costs for WSHP-based heating systems. The results showed that WSHP's are technically viable in the Juneau area, proper installation and maintenance is imperative to prevent equipment failures, use of WSHP would save fuel oil but increase electric power consumption. Life cycle costs for WSHP's are about 8% above that for electric resistance heating systems, and a field demonstration program to verify these results should be conducted. (LCL)

  3. Performance Analysis of Air-to-Water Heat Pump in Latvian Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazjonovs, Janis; Sipkevics, Andrejs; Jakovics, Andris; Dancigs, Andris; Bajare, Diana; Dancigs, Leonards

    2014-12-01

    Strategy of the European Union in efficient energy usage demands to have a higher proportion of renewable energy in the energy market. Since heat pumps are considered to be one of the most efficient heating and cooling systems, they will play an important role in the energy consumption reduction in buildings aimed to meet the target of nearly zero energy buildings set out in the EU Directive 2010/31/EU. Unfortunately, the declared heat pump Coefficient of Performance (COP) corresponds to a certain outdoor temperature (+7 °C), therefore different climate conditions, building characteristics and settings result in different COP values during the year. The aim of this research is to investigate the Seasonal Performance factor (SPF) values of air-to-water heat pump which better characterize the effectiveness of heat pump in a longer selected period of time, especially during the winter season, in different types of residential buildings in Latvian climate conditions. Latvia has four pronounced seasons of near-equal length. Winter starts in mid-December and lasts until mid-March. Latvia is characterized by cold, maritime climate (duration of the average heating period being 203 days, the average outdoor air temperature during the heating period being 0.0 °C, the coldest five-day average temperature being -20.7 °C, the average annual air temperature being +6.2 °C, the daily average relative humidity being 79 %). The first part of this research consists of operational air-towater heat pump energy performance monitoring in different residential buildings during the winter season. The second part of the research takes place under natural conditions in an experimental construction stand which is located in an urban environment in Riga, Latvia. The inner area of this test stand, where air-to-water heat pump performance is analyzed, is 9 m2. The ceiling height is 3 m, all external wall constructions (U = 0.16 W/(m2K)) have ventilated facades. To calculate SPF, the

  4. Retrofitting Conventional Electric Domestic Hot Water Heaters to Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses—Model Validation and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Bernardo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available System cost reductions and development of standardised plug-and-function systems are some of the most important goals for solar heating technology development. Retrofitting hot water boilers in single-family houses when installing solar collectors has the potential to significantly reduce both material and installation costs. In this study, the TRNSYS simulation models of the retrofitting solar thermal system were validated against measurements. Results show that the validated models are in good agreement with measurements. On an annual basis a deviation of 2.5% out of 1099 kWh was obtained between the auxiliary energy from results and from the simulation model for a complete system. Using the validated model a system optimization was carried out with respect to control strategies for auxiliary heating, heat losses and volume of auxiliary storage. A sensitivity analysis was carried out regarding different volumes of retrofitted hot water boiler, DHW profiles and climates. It was estimated that, with adequate improvements, extended annual solar fractions of 60%, 78% and 81% can be achieved for Lund (Sweden, Lisbon (Portugal and Lusaka (Zambia, respectively. The correspondent collector area was 6, 4 and 3 m2, respectively. The studied retrofitted system achieves a comparable performance with conventional solar thermal systems with the potential to reduce the investment cost.

  5. Municipal water-based heat pump heating and/or cooling systems: Findings and recommendations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington, State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Wegman, S. [South Dakota Utilities Commission (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the present work was to determine if existing heat pump systems based on municipal water systems meet existing water quality standards, to analyze water that has passed through a heat pump or heat exchanger to determine if corrosion products can be detected, to determine residual chlorine levels in municipal waters on the inlet as well as the outlet side of such installations, to analyses for bacterial contaminants and/or regrowth due to the presence of a heat pump or heat exchanger, to develop and suggest criteria for system design and construction, to provide recommendations and specifications for material and fluid selection, and to develop model rules and regulations for the installation, operation, and monitoring of new and existing systems. In addition, the Washington State University (WSU) has evaluated availability of computer models that would allow for water system mapping, water quality modeling and system operation.

  6. Investigation of the Performance of a Heat Pump Using Waste Water as a Heat Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kahraman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a water-water heat pump system using waste water as a heat source, a type that is not often used in Turkey and the World, was experimentally modeled. The experiments were performed under the conditions of simulated waste water temperature values of 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 °C. Inlet and outlet water temperatures of the evaporator and condenser, water flow rates in the evaporator and condenser circuits, pressures at the compressor inlet and outlet and power consumption of the system were measured. The heating coefficients of performance were calculated based on the measurements. It was found that the maximum temperature in the energy storage tank was about 50.6 °C. For the heat source temperatures of 20 °C, 30 °C and 40 °C, the heating coefficients of the performance of the system became 3.36, 3.43 and 3.69, respectively, 6 min. after the start time of the experiments and then they were decreased to 1.87, 1.83 and 1.77 with increasing water temperature in the condenser tank. The mean uncertainty value of the measurement parameters was found to be about ±2.47%. Finally, for the purpose of meeting hot water need as well as floor heating system requirements, it is seen that energy quality level of a waste low grade temperature heat source can be increased by using a heat pump system.

  7. WATER ENERGY IN HYDROAMELIORATIVE SYSTEMS USING THE HYDRAULIC TRANSFORMER TYPE A. BARGLAZAN AND THE HYDRAULIC HAMMER (HYDRAULIC PUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Eugen Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two examples of exploitation of water energy that can be used in the irrigation field. First of theseexamples is the hydraulic transformer type A. Barglazan used for irrigation, pumped water is taken directly from theriver’s well, using a hydraulic pump which simultaneously carried out a double transformation in this way: hydraulicenergy into mechanic energy and mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. Technology preparation and devices designwas done in record time, seeing that this constructive solution is more robust, reliable and with improved energyperformance versus the laboratory prototype. The experimental research which was made at 1:1 scale proved theirgood function over time. Another example is the hydraulic hammer (hydraulic pump that uses low-head energy topump water, with a global efficiency of about 10 - 50%. Currently, the new situation of private ownership of landprovides conditions for new pumping microstations to be made where irrigation is necessary and optimal hydrauliclocations exist.

  8. Optimization and thermoeconomics research of a large reclaimed water source heat pump system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-ping; Du, Fang-hui

    2013-01-01

    This work describes a large reclaimed water source heat pump system (RWSHPS) and elaborates on the composition of the system and its design principles. According to the characteristics of the reclaimed water and taking into account the initial investment, the project is divided into two stages: the first stage adopts distributed heat pump heating system and the second adopts the combination of centralized and decentralized systems. We analyze the heating capacity of the RWSHPS, when the phase II project is completed, the system can provide hydronic heating water with the supply and return water temperature of 55°C/15°C and meet the hydronic heating demand of 8 million square meters of residential buildings. We make a thermal economics analysis by using Thermal Economics theory on RWSHPS and gas boiler system, it is known that the RWSHPS has more advantages, compared with the gas boiler heating system; both its thermal efficiency and economic efficiency are relatively high. It provides a reference for future applications of the RWSHPS.

  9. Water Pumping Stations, Included in water system layer above, Published in Not Provided, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Town of Franklin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Pumping Stations dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of Not Provided. It is...

  10. Water Pumping Stations, washoe county water resources utility data, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Pumping Stations dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2007. It is described...

  11. Recirculation pump discharge line break tests at ROSA-III for a boiling water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.; Anoda, Y.; Kumamaru, H.; Nakamura, H.; Shiba, M.; Tasaka, K.

    1985-08-01

    Three loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests were conducted at the Rig of Safety Assessment (ROSA)-III test facility, which simulates boiling water reactor (BWR)/6-251 with a volumetric scaling factor of 1/424. The fundamental features of the recirculation pump discharge line break LOCA and the effects of break areas on the features are investigated. It has been confirmed experimentally that the LOCA phenomena in the discharge line break are analogous to those in the suction line break with the same effective choking flow area, which is a sum of the least choking flow areas along the break flow paths and controls the system pressure responses. In general, the maximum effective choking flow area is (A /SUB j/ + A /SUB p/ ) for discharge line breaks and (A /SUB j/ + A /SUB o/ ) for suction line breaks, where A /SUB j/ , A /SUB p/ , and A /SUB o/ are the flow areas of the jet pump drive nozzles, the main recirculation pump discharge nozzle, and the break, respectively. The similarity between the ROSA-III test and a BWR LOCA has been confirmed in the key phenomena by the analyses using the RELAP5/MOD1 code. An atypical behavior is observed in the fuel rod surface temperature transient in the early phase of blowdown due to the limitation of the ROSA-III initial core power.

  12. Pump schedules optimisation with pressure aspects in complex large-scale water distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Skworcow

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers optimisation of pump and valve schedules in complex large-scale water distribution networks (WDN, taking into account pressure aspects such as minimum service pressure and pressure-dependent leakage. An optimisation model is automatically generated in the GAMS language from a hydraulic model in the EPANET format and from additional files describing operational constraints, electricity tariffs and pump station configurations. The paper describes in details how each hydraulic component is modelled. To reduce the size of the optimisation problem the full hydraulic model is simplified using module reduction algorithm, while retaining the nonlinear characteristics of the model. Subsequently, a nonlinear programming solver CONOPT is used to solve the optimisation model, which is in the form of Nonlinear Programming with Discontinuous Derivatives (DNLP. The results produced by CONOPT are processed further by heuristic algorithms to generate integer solution. The proposed approached was tested on a large-scale WDN model provided in the EPANET format. The considered WDN included complex structures and interactions between pump stations. Solving of several scenarios considering different horizons, time steps, operational constraints, demand levels and topological changes demonstrated ability of the approach to automatically generate and solve optimisation problems for a variety of requirements.

  13. Pump schedules optimisation with pressure aspects in complex large-scale water distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Skworcow

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers optimisation of pump and valve schedules in complex large-scale water distribution networks (WDN, taking into account pressure aspects such as minimum service pressure and pressure-dependent leakage. An optimisation model is automatically generated in GAMS language from a hydraulic model in EPANET format and from additional files describing operational constraints, electricity tariffs and pump station configurations. The paper describes in details how each hydraulic component is modelled. To reduce the size of the optimisation problem the full hydraulic model is simplified using module reduction algorithm, while retaining the nonlinear characteristics of the model. Subsequently, a nonlinear programming solver CONOPT is used to solve the optimisation model, which is in the form of Nonlinear Programming with Discontinuous Derivatives (DNLP. The results produced by CONOPT are processed further by heuristic algorithms to generate integer solution. The proposed approached was tested on a large-scale WDN model provided in EPANET format. The considered WDN included complex structures and interactions between pump stations. Solving of several scenarios considering different horizons, time steps, operational constraints, demand levels and topological changes demonstrated ability of the approach to automatically generate and solve optimisation problems for variety of requirements.

  14. 真空管式太阳热水器得热量的实验研究%Experimental study of heat gained of evacuated tube solar water heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭超; 秦朝葵; 马飞; 杨贤潮

    2011-01-01

    The thermal performance of one evacuated tube solar water heater was tested, and the energy equation has been obtained by the least-squares fitting method. The error and sensitivity analysis has been done to provide guidance for the design of experiment.%对某型号真空管式太阳热水器进行多天的热性能测试,采用最小二乘法拟合出太阳热水系统能量方程系数,求出该型号太阳热水器的能量方程,同时进行误差和敏感性分析,指导试验设计.

  15. Performance monitoring of a bubble pumped solar domestic hot water system - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuch, P.D.; Harrison, S.J. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Solar Calorimetry Lab.

    1995-12-01

    A new type of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system for cold climates was described. The bubble pump system is self pumping and self regulating (it circulates anti-freeze). The system transports heat from roof mounted solar collectors to a thermal storage located at a lower level when there is available solar radiation. The design is unique in that it has no moving parts and requires no external electrical or mechanical input to operate. A unit was installed on a row house in Kingston, Ontario, to evaluate its performance. The average daily solar fraction was 32.4 per cent, and the average system efficiency for the monitored period was 13.4 per cent. This was below expectations due to low hot water demand. Performance improved somewhat towards the end of the monitoring period due to increased demand for hot water, improvements to the system, and increased solar insulation. A more realistic annual performance was estimated at 19 per cent for system efficiency and 41 per cent for solar fraction. Further improvements could be expected, especially in mid-winter performance, if the solar collector slope could be increased to a value of 45 to 60 degrees to the horizontal. 8 refs., 14 tabs., 9 figs.

  16. Pumping time required to obtain tube well water samples with aquifer characteristic radon concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricardo, Carla Pereira; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Rocha, Zildete; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Linhares, Maria G.M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: help@cdtn.br, E-mail: mgml@cdtn.br, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radon is an inert noble gas, which comes from the natural radioactive decay of uranium and thorium in soil, rock and water. Radon isotopes emanated from radium-bearing grains of a rock or soil are released into the pore space. Radon that reaches the pore space is partitioned between the gaseous and aqueous phases. Thus, the groundwater presents a radon signature from the rock that is characteristic of the aquifer. The characteristic radon concentration of an aquifer, which is mainly related to the emanation, is also influenced by the degree of subsurface degassing, especially in the vicinity of a tube well, where the radon concentration is strongly reduced. Looking for the required pumping time to take a tube well water sample that presents the characteristic radon concentration of the aquifer, an experiment was conducted in an 80 m deep tube well. In this experiment, after twenty-four hours without extraction, water samples were collected periodically, about ten minutes intervals, during two hours of pumping time. The radon concentrations of the samples were determined by using the RAD7 Electronic Radon Detector from Durridge Company, a solid state alpha spectrometric detector. It was realized that the necessary time to reach the maximum radon concentration, that means the characteristic radon concentration of the aquifer, is about sixty minutes. (author)

  17. Small-signal modelling and control of photovoltaic based water pumping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arun; Ganesh Malla, Siva; Narayan Bhende, Chandrasekhar

    2015-07-01

    This paper studies small-signal modelling and control design for a photovoltaic (PV) based water pumping system without energy storage. First, the small-signal model is obtained and then, using this model, two proportional-integral (PI) controllers, where one controller is used to control the dc-link voltage and the other one to control the speed of induction motor, are designed to meet control goals such as settling time and peak overshoot of the closed loop responses. The loop robustness of the design is also studied. For a given set of system parameters, simulations are carried out to validate the modelling and the control design.

  18. Heat pump applications and water heating by means of solar collectors. Waermepumpenanwendungen und Wasserwaermung mit Sonnenkollektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szokody, G.

    1990-01-15

    About 25 to 30% of all newly constructed single-family houses in Switzerland are equipped with heat pump systems. This increasing attractivity is partly due to new techniques, e.g. microprocessor control, as well as to higher component efficiencies, a more efficient heat exchange technology, and to the compactness of systems. Active solar energy conversion, i.e. by means of solar collectors, is another technique which is predominantly applied for water heating in single-family buildings. Public investments in this field are scarce. (BWI).

  19. Limiting pumping from the Edwards Aquifer: An economic investigation of proposals, water markets, and spring flow guarantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarl, Bruce A.; Dillon, Carl R.; Keplinger, Keith O.; Williams, R. Lynn

    1999-04-01

    The Edwards Aquifer, near San Antonio, Texas, is an important water source for both pumping and spring flow, which in turn provides water for recreation and habitat for several endangered species. A management authority is charged with aquifer management and is mandated to reduce pumping, facilitate water markets, protect agricultural rights, and protect the species habitat. This paper examines the economic dimensions of authority duties. A combined hydrologic-economic model is used in the investigation. The results indicate that proposed pumping limits are shown to have large consequences for agricultural usage and to decrease the welfare of current aquifer pumping users. However, the spring flow habitat is found to be protected, and the gains from that protection would have to exceed pumping user losses in order for the protection measures to increase regional economic welfare. Agricultural guarantees are shown to cause use value differences, indicating the opportunity for emergence of an active water market. Fixed quantity pumping limits are found to be an expensive way of insuring adequate spring flow.

  20. Simulating on water storage and pump capacity of "Kencing" river polder system in Kudus regency, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, Slamet Imam; Adi, Henny Pratiwi; Santoso, Esti; Heikoop, Rick

    2017-03-01

    Settlement in the Jati District, Kudus Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia, is growing rapidly. Previous paddy fields area turns into new residential, industrial and office buildings. The rain water collected in small Kencing river that flows into big Wulan River. But the current condition, during high rain intensity Wulan river water elevation higher than the Kencing river, so that water can not flow gravity and the area inundated. To reduce the flooding, required polder drainage system by providing a long channel as water storage and pumping water into Wulan river. How to get optimal value of water storage volume, drainage system channels and the pump capacity? The result used to be efficient in the operation and maintenance of the polder system. The purpose of this study is to develop some scenarios water storage volume, water gate operation and to get the optimal value of operational pumps removing water from the Kencing River to Wulan River. Research Method is conducted by some steps. The first step, it is done field orientation in detail, then collecting secondary data including maps and rainfall data. The map is processed into Watershed or catchment area, while the rainfall data is processed into runoff discharge. Furthermore, the team collects primary data by measuring topography to determine the surface and volume of water storage. The analysis conducted to determine of flood discharge, water channel hydraulics, water storage volume and pump capacity corresponding. Based on the simulating of long water storage volume and pump capacity with some scenario trying, it can be determined optimum values. The results used to be guideline in to construction proses, operation and maintenance of the drainage polder system.