WorldWideScience

Sample records for pump prime blood

  1. Centrifugal blood pump 603

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Centrifugal blood pump 603 pressure obtained for real blood, as shown in figure 6, is a little higher than that for glycerin aqua Solution with the same viscosity as blood. This may indicate the effect of slight non-. Newtonian turbulent flow. The radial whirl motion of the impeller was observed by dual laser position sensors.

  2. BIOMATERIALS FOR ROTARY BLOOD PUMPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOEVEREN, W

    Rotary blood pumps are used for cardiac assist and cardiopulmonary support since mechanical blood damage is less than with conventional roller pumps. The high shear rate in the rotary pump and the reduced anticoagulation of the patient during prolonged pumping enforces high demands on the

  3. Unsteady numerical simulation for gas–liquid two-phase flow in self-priming process of centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Si; Su, Xianghui; Guo, Jing; Yue, Le

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The transient gas–liquid two-phase flow fields in the self-priming centrifugal pump are simulated. • The self-priming time and performance are estimated. • The air void fraction and two phase distribution are obtained.· The hole on the volute plays a significant role for gas exhausting. • The frequency of the impulsive pressure basically conforms to that of the air exhausted out of the pump. - Abstract: Self-priming pumps start up without pre-irrigation, and then work as common pumps when air in the pump is exhausted. The transient gas–liquid flow at the start-up stage inside a self-priming pump is an interesting process which greatly influences performance of the pump. In this paper, a conventional vertical self-priming centrifugal pump was selected as the object. Using unsteady numerical simulation, the authors investigated the transient gas–liquid two-phase flow in the self-priming centrifugal pump during the self-priming process. The main innovation in the simulation was that a section of the suction pipe filled with air was set as the initial condition, which conformed to the actual self-priming conditions. The gas–liquid two-phase distribution, the pressure and velocity in relation to time were computed and analyzed. Flow rates of both phases with time at the pump inlet and outlet were obtained based on the simulation, which could be used to estimate the self-priming time and other performance parameters. Finally, the numerical method and results for gas–liquid two-phase flow in the self-priming pump was partly validated by the pump performance test

  4. Fluid Dynamics in Rotary Piston Blood Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wappenschmidt, Johannes; Sonntag, Simon J; Buesen, Martin; Gross-Hardt, Sascha; Kaufmann, Tim; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Autschbach, Ruediger; Goetzenich, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Mechanical circulatory support can maintain a sufficient blood circulation if the native heart is failing. The first implantable devices were displacement pumps with membranes. They were able to provide a sufficient blood flow, yet, were limited because of size and low durability. Rotary pumps have resolved these technical drawbacks, enabled a growing number of mechanical circulatory support therapy and a safer application. However, clinical complications like gastrointestinal bleeding, aortic insufficiency, thromboembolic complications, and impaired renal function are observed with their application. This is traced back to their working principle with attenuated or non-pulsatile flow and high shear stress. Rotary piston pumps potentially merge the benefits of available pump types and seem to avoid their complications. However, a profound assessment and their development requires the knowledge of the flow characteristics. This study aimed at their investigation. A functional model was manufactured and investigated with particle image velocimetry. Furthermore, a fluid-structure interaction computational simulation was established to extend the laboratory capabilities. The numerical results precisely converged with the laboratory measurements. Thus, the in silico model enabled the investigation of relevant areas like gap flows that were hardly feasible with laboratory means. Moreover, an economic method for the investigation of design variations was established.

  5. Rotary piston blood pumps: past developments and future potential of a unique pump type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wappenschmidt, Johannes; Autschbach, Rüdiger; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Margreiter, Raimund; Klima, Günter; Goetzenich, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    The design of implantable blood pumps is either based on displacement pumps with membranes or rotary pumps. Both pump types have limitations to meet the clinical requirements. Rotary piston blood pumps have the potential to overcome these limitations and to merge the benefits. Compared to membrane pumps, they are smaller and with no need for wear-affected membranes and valves. Compared to rotary pumps, the blood flow is pulsatile instead of a non-physiological continuous flow. Furthermore, the risk of flow-induced blood damage and platelet activation may be reduced due to low shear stress to the blood. The past developments of rotary piston blood pumps are summarized and the main problem for long-term application is identified: insufficient seals. A new approach with seal-less drives is proposed and current research on a simplified rotary piston design is presented. Expert commentary: The development of blood pumps focuses mainly on the improvement of rotary pumps. However, medical complications indicate that inherent limitations of this pump type remain and restrict the next substantial step forward in the therapy of heart failure patients. Thus, research on different pump types is reasonable. If the development of reliable drives and bearings succeeds, rotary piston blood pumps become a promising alternative.

  6. Gas exchange efficiency of an oxygenator with integrated pulsatile displacement blood pump for neonatal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlanstein, Peter C; Borchardt, Ralf; Mager, Ilona; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Arens, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Oxygenators have been used in neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) since the 1970s. The need to develop a more effective oxygenator for this patient cohort exists due to their size and blood volume limitations. This study sought to validate the next design iteration of a novel oxygenator for neonatal ECMO with an integrated pulsatile displacement pump, thereby superseding an additional blood pump. Pulsating blood flow within the oxygenator is generated by synchronized active air flow expansion and contraction of integrated silicone pump tubes and hose pinching valves located at the oxygenator inlet and outlet. The current redesign improved upon previous prototypes by optimizing silicone pump tube distribution within the oxygenator fiber bundle; introduction of an oval shaped inner fiber bundle core, and housing; and a higher fiber packing density, all of which in combination reduced the priming volume by about 50% (50 to 27 mL and 41 to 20 mL, respectively). Gas exchange efficiency was tested for two new oxygenators manufactured with different fiber materials: one with coating and one with smaller pore size, both capable of long-term use (OXYPLUS® and CELGARD®). Results demonstrated that the oxygen transfer for both oxygenators was 5.3-24.7 mlO2/min for blood flow ranges of 100-500 mlblood/min. Carbon dioxide transfer for both oxygenators was 3.7-26.3 mlCO2/min for the same blood flow range. These preliminary results validated the oxygenator redesign by demonstrating an increase in packing density and thus in gas transfer, an increase in pumping capacity and a reduction in priming volume.

  7. In vivo evaluation of centrifugal blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass-Spiral Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cibele; da Silva, Bruno Utiyama; Leme, Juliana; Uebelhart, Beatriz; Dinkhuysen, Jarbas; Biscegli, José F; Andrade, Aron; Zavaglia, Cecília

    2013-11-01

    The Spiral Pump (SP), a centrifugal blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), has been developed at the Dante Pazzanese Institute of Cardiology/Adib Jatene Foundation laboratories, with support from Sintegra Company (Pompeia, Brazil). The SP is a disposable pump with an internal rotor-a conically shaped fuse with double entrance threads. This rotor is supported by two ball bearings, attached to a stainless steel shaft fixed to the housing base. Worm gears provide axial motion to the blood column, and the rotational motion of the conically shaped impeller generates a centrifugal pumping effect, improving pump efficiency without increasing hemolysis. In vitro tests were performed to evaluate the SP's hydrodynamic performance, and in vivo experiments were performed to evaluate hemodynamic impact during usual CPB. A commercially available centrifugal blood pump was used as reference. In vivo experiments were conducted in six male pigs weighing between 60 and 90 kg, placed on CPB for 6 h each. Blood samples were collected just before CPB (T0) and after every hour of CPB (T1-T6) for hemolysis determination and laboratory tests (hematological and biochemical). Values of blood pressure, mean flow, pump rotational speed, and corporeal temperature were recorded. Also, ergonomic conditions were recorded: presence of noise, difficulty in removing air bubbles, trouble in installing the pump in the drive module (console), and difficulties in mounting the CPB circuit. Comparing the laboratory and hemolysis results for the SP with those of the reference pump, we can conclude that there is no significant difference between the two devices. In addition, reports made by medical staff and perfusionists described a close similarity between the two devices. During in vivo experiments, the SP maintained blood flow and pressure at physiological levels, consistent with those applied in cardiac surgery with CPB, without presenting any malfunction. Also, the SP needed lower rotational

  8. An implantable centrifugal blood pump for long term circulatory support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, K; Litwak, P; Kormos, R L; Mori, T; Tagusari, O; Antaki, J F; Kameneva, M; Watach, M; Gordon, L; Umezu, M; Tomioka, J; Koyanagi, H; Griffith, B P

    1997-01-01

    A compact centrifugal blood pump was developed as an implantable left ventricular assist system. The impeller diameter is 40 mm and the pump dimensions are 55 x 64 mm. This first prototype was fabricated from titanium alloy, resulting in a pump weight of 400 g including a brushless DC motor. Weight of the second prototype pump was reduced to 280 g. The entire blood contacting surface is coated with diamond like carbon to improve blood compatibility. Flow rates of over 7 L/min against 100 mmHg pressure at 2,500 rpm with 9 W total power consumption have been measured. A newly designed mechanical seal with a recirculating purge system ("Cool-Seal") is used as a shaft seal. In this seal system, seal temperature is kept under 40 degrees C to prevent heat denaturation of blood proteins. Purge fluid also cools the pump motor coil and journal bearing. The purge fluid is continuously purified and sterilized by an ultrafiltration filter incorporated into the paracorporeal drive console. In vitro experiments with bovine blood demonstrated an acceptably low hemolysis rate (normalized index of hemolysis = 0.005 +/- 0.002 g/100 L). In vivo experiments are currently ongoing using calves. Via left thoracotomy, left ventricular apex-descending aorta bypass was performed utilizing a PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene) vascular graft, with the pump placed in the left thoracic cavity. In two in vivo experiments, pump flow rate was maintained at 5-8 L/min, and pump power consumption remained stable at 9-10 W. All plasma free hemoglobin levels were measured at < 15 mg/dl. The seal system has demonstrated good seal capability with negligible purge fluid consumption (< 0.5 ml/ day). Both animals remain under observation after 162 and 91 days of continuous pump function.

  9. [Hemolysis Performance Analysis of the Centrifugal Maglev Blood Pump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; Zhang, Fan; Fang, Yuan; Dong, Baichuan; Zhou, Liang

    2016-05-01

    In order to analyze and study the hemolysis performance of the centrifugal maglev blood pump, which was designed by ourselves, this paper built the mathematical model and computational fluid dynamics analyzed it using Fluent. Then we set up the in vitro hemolysis experiment platform, in case of the design condition, the content of free hemoglobin and hematocrit in plasma were measured in a certain time interval, and calculated the normalized index of hemolysis of the blood pump. The numerical simulation results show the internal static pressure distribution is smooth inside the pump, the wal shear stress inside the pump is less than 150 Pa. Therefore, the red blood cel damage and exposure time is independent. The normalized index of hemolysis is (0.002 9±0.000 7) mg/L, which is in accordance with human physiological requirement.

  10. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump... Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a method other than revolving rollers to pump the blood through...

  11. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through the...

  12. Application of a magnetic fluid seal to rotary blood pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitamura, Y; Arioka, S; Azegami, M; Sakota, D; Sekine, K

    2008-01-01

    A magnetic fluid seal enables mechanical contact-free rotation of a shaft without frictional heat and material wear and hence has excellent durability. However, the durability of a magnetic fluid seal decreases in liquid. The life of a seal applied to a rotary blood pump is not known. We have developed a magnetic fluid seal that has a shield mechanism minimizing the influence of the rotary pump on the magnetic fluid. The developed magnetic fluid seal worked for over 286 days in a continuous flow condition, for 24 days (on-going) in a pulsatile flow condition and for 24 h (electively terminated) in blood flow. The magnetic fluid seal is promising as a shaft seal for rotary blood pumps

  13. The effect of priming with a love concept on blood donation promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles-Sire, Virginie; Guéguen, Nicolas; Meineri, Sébastien; Martin, Angélique; Bullock, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    This field study on blood donor behavior tests the effectiveness of semantic priming on donor intention and commitment. Using face-to-face interactions, participants were primed with the concept of love and solicited to promise blood to the French National Blood Bank. Results showed a significant effect on willingness to donate blood and on donor commitment. The relatively simple and easily implemented technique used in this study could be of interest in improving performance of recruitment and retention campaigns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transformation of vibration signals in rotary blood pumps: the diagnostic potential of pump failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahito, Koji

    2013-09-01

    Although non-destructive and continuous monitoring is indispensable for long-term circulatory support with rotary blood pumps, a practical monitoring system has not yet been developed. The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of detecting pump failure caused by thrombus formation through the monitoring of vibration signals. The data acquisition equipment included vibration pickups, a charge amplifier, vibration analysis systems, and exclusive hardware. A pivot-bearing centrifugal pump with a mock circuit was investigated for vibration analysis. To simulate the four common areas of thrombus formation, we used a piece of silicon attached to each of the following four locations: the total area of the bottom of the impeller, an eccentric shape on the bottom of the impeller, a circular shape around the shaft top, and an eccentric shape on the top of the impeller. Vibration signals were picked up, and the power spectrum density analysis was performed at pump rotational speeds of 2100, 2400, and 3000 rpm. In this study, pump failure could be detected, and the types of imitation thrombi could be determined. We conclude that vibration detection with a computerized analysis system is a potentially valuable diagnostic tool for long-term circulatory support with rotary blood pumps.

  15. Dynamic characteristics and mechatronics model for maglev blood pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kun; Chen, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic bearing system(MBs) has been developed in the new-generation blood pump due to its low power consumption, low blood trauma and high durability. However, MBs for a blood pump were almost influenced by a series of factors such as hemodynamics, rotation speeds and actuator response in working fluids, compared with those applied in other industrial fields. In this study, the dynamic characteristics of MBs in fluid environments, including the influence of the pumping fluid and rotation of the impeller on the radial dynamic model were investigated by measuring the frequency response to sinusoidal excitation upon coils, and the response of radial displacement during a raise in the speed. The excitation tests were conducted under conditions in which the blood pump was levitated in air and water and with or without rotation. The experimental and simulated results indicate that rotations of the impeller affected the characteristics of MBs in water apparently, and the vibration in water was decreased, compared with that in air due to the hydraulic force. During the start-up and rotation, the actuator failed to operate fully and timely, and the voltage supplied can be chosen under the consideration of the rotor displacement and consumption.

  16. Preliminary validation of a new magnetic wireless blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Ishiyama, Kazushi; Hashi, Shuichiro; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Hayatsu, Yukihiro; Akiyama, Masatoshi; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Yambe, Tomoyuki

    2013-10-01

    In general, a blood pump must be small, have a simple configuration, and have sufficient hydrodynamic performance. Herein, we introduce new mechanisms for a wireless blood pump that is small and simple and provides wireless and battery-free operation. To achieve wireless and battery-free operation, we implement magnetic torque and force control methods that use two external drivers: an external coil and a permanent magnet with a DC-motor, respectively. Power harvesting can be used to drive an electronic circuit for wireless monitoring (the observation of the pump conditions and temperature) without the use of an internal battery. The power harvesting will be used as a power source to drive other electronic devices, such as various biosensors with their driving circuits. To have both a compact size and sufficient pumping capability, the fully magnetic impeller has five stages and each stage includes four backward-curved blades. The pump has total and inner volumes of 20 and 9.8 cc, respectively, and weighs 52 g. The pump produces a flow rate of approximately 8 L/min at 80 mm Hg and the power generator produces 0.3 W of electrical power at 120 Ω. The pump also produces a minimum flow rate of 1.5 L/min and a pressure of 30 mm Hg for circulation at a maximum distance of 7.5 cm. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation.

  17. Numerical Calculation for Whirling Motion of a Centrifugal Blood Pump with Conical Spiral Groove Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemaru, Daichi; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi

    2010-06-01

    Whirling motion of a pump impeller was calculated for the centrifugal blood pump with Conical Spiral Groove Bearings to get a criterion for the instability of impeller whirling motion. The motion of the centrifugal blood pump impeller was calculated based on a spring damping model, and unsteady flow in the pump was computed using the commercial CFD package ANSYS CFX. Also the whirling motion of rotating impeller was measured using two displacement sensors fixed to the blood pump casing. The numerical calculations were done for the blood pump impeller with conical spiral groove bearings, and impeller whirling motion was evaluated.

  18. Design optimization of flow channel and performance analysis for a new-type centrifugal blood pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, J. J.; Luo, X. W.; Y Wu, Q.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a new-type centrifugal blood pump, whose impeller is suspended inside a pump chamber with hydraulic bearings, is presented. In order to improve the hydraulic performance of the pump, an internal flow simulation is conducted to compare the effects of different geometrical parameters of pump flow passage. Based on the numerical results, the pumps can satisfy the operation parameters and be free of hemolysis. It is noted that for the pump with a column-type supporter at its inlet, the pump head and hydraulic efficiency decreases compared to the pump with a step-type support structure. The performance drop is caused by the disturbed flow upstream impeller inlet. Further, the unfavorable flow features such as reverse flow and low velocity in the pump may increases the possibility of thrombus. It is also confirmed that the casing shape can little influence pump performance. Those results are helpful for design optimization in blood pump development.

  19. On trans-parenchymal transport after blood brain barrier opening: pump-diffuse-pump hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnov, D. E.; Postnikov, E. B.; Karavaev, A. S.; Glushkovskaya-Semyachkina, O. V.

    2018-04-01

    Transparenchymal transport attracted the attention of many research groups after the discovery of glymphatic mechanism for the brain drainage in 2012. While the main facts of rapid transport of substances across the parenchyma are well established experimentally, specific mechanisms that drive this drainage are just hypothezised but not proved yed. Moreover, the number of modeling studies show that the pulse wave powered mechanism is unlikely able to perform pumping as suggested. Thus, the problem is still open. In addition, new data obtained under the conditions of intensionally opened blood brain barrier shows the presence of equally fast transport in opposite durection. In our study we investigate the possible physical mechanisms for rapid transport of substances after the opening of blood-brain barrier under the conditions of zero net flow.

  20. Novel Applications of Modified Ultrafiltration and Autologous Priming Techniques to Reduce Blood Product Exposure on ECMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, James R; Blau, Caitlin L; Cornelius, Amanda M; Pike, Roxann B; Dearani, Joseph A; Mora, Bassem N

    2016-03-01

    Patients needing the assistance of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are at risk of hemodilution and, in some instances, may require exposure to large amounts of allogeneic blood products. Patient outcomes can be improved by taking steps to reduce transfusions and hemodilution. Currently, modified ultrafiltration (MUF) is used across the world to reduce hemodilution after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Another common technique during bypass initiation is autologous priming. By applying modified versions of these techniques, ECMO patients may potentially benefit. Usually, patients requiring immediate transition from CPB to ECMO are not stable enough to tolerate MUF. Through alterations of the CPB and ECMO circuit tubing, MUF can be performed once on ECMO. Another technique to potentially lower the transfusion requirements for ECMO patients is a complete circuit blood transfer during an ECMO circuit exchange. While selective component changes are preferred if possible, occasionally a complete circuit change must be done. To minimize hemodilution or prevent priming with blood products, the original ECMO circuit's blood can be transferred to the new ECMO circuit before connecting to the patient. Both of these techniques, in our opinion, helped to reduce the number of transfusions that our ECMO patients have seen during these critical time periods.

  1. Haemolysis following rapid experimental red blood cell transfusion--an evaluation of two infusion pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Sprogøe-Jakobsen, U; Pedersen, C M

    1998-01-01

    The vast majority of infusion pumps used for rapid transfusion of large amounts of blood have never been properly examined regarding their influence on the quality of the red blood cells (RBCs) infused. In this study, we evaluated the effect of two different infusion pumps on the degree of RBC...

  2. The failure of retrograde autologous priming of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit to reduce blood use after cardiac surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Glenn S; Szokol, Joseph W; Nitsun, Martin; Alspach, David A; Avram, Michael J; Vender, Jeffery S; Votapka, Timothy V; Rosengart, Todd K

    2004-05-01

    Hemodilution during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a primary risk factor for blood transfusion in cardiac surgical patients. Priming of the CPB circuit with the patients' own blood (retrograde autologous priming, RAP) is a technique used to limit hemodilution and reduce transfusion requirements. We designed this study to examine the impact of RAP on perioperative blood product use. Using a retrospective cohort study design, the medical records of all patients undergoing CPB (excluding circulatory arrest cases) by a single surgeon were examined. Data were collected over a 24-mo period when RAP was routinely used as a blood conservation strategy (RAP group, n = 257). This group was compared with a cohort of patients during the 24 mo immediately preceding the introduction of RAP into clinical practice (no RAP group, n = 288). A small, statistically insignificant reduction in the percentage of patients receiving packed red blood cells was observed in the RAP group (44% versus 51% no RAP, P = 0.083). No differences were found between the groups in the number of units of packed red blood cells, platelets, or fresh frozen plasma transfused throughout the perioperative period. These results suggest that overall, RAP does not offer a clinically important benefit as a blood conservation technique. Priming of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit with the patients' own blood (retrograde autologous priming) resulted in insignificant reductions in blood use in a large, unselected group of patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures.

  3. Numerical analysis of the internal flow field in screw centrifugal blood pump based on CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, W.; Han, B. X.; Y Wang, H.; Shen, Z. J.

    2013-12-01

    As to the impeller blood pump, the high speed of the impeller, the local high shear force of the flow field and the flow dead region are the main reasons for blood damage. The screw centrifugal pump can effectively alleviate the problems of the high speed and the high shear stress for the impeller. The softness and non-destructiveness during the transfer process can effectively reduce the extent of the damage. By using CFD software, the characteristics of internal flow are analyzed in the screw centrifugal pump by exploring the distribution rules of the velocity, pressure and shear deformation rate of the blood when it flows through the impeller and the destructive effects of spiral blades on blood. The results show that: the design of magnetic levitation solves the sealing problems; the design of regurgitation holes solves the problem of the flow dead zone; the magnetic levitated microcirculation screw centrifugal pump can effectively avoid the vortex, turbulence and high shear forces generated while the blood is flowing through the pump. Since the distribution rules in the velocity field, pressure field and shear deformation rate of the blood in the blood pump are comparatively uniform and the gradient change is comparatively small, the blood damage is effectively reduced.

  4. Autologous blood sequestration using a double venous reservoir bypass circuit and polymerized hemoglobin prime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neragi-Miandoab, Siyamek; Guerrero, J Luis; Vlahakes, Gus J

    2002-01-01

    Cardiac surgery often necessitates transfusion of homologous blood. Hemoglobin based oxygen carrying solutions (HBOCs) transport oxygen, suggesting use in cardiopulmonary bypass. HBOC was used in a novel oxygenator double-reservoir circuit that permits acute sequestration of a portion of the autologous blood volume during bypass. Two groups of seven mongrel dogs each were studied in an experimental bypass model using global myocardial ischemia and cardioplegia protection: HBOC group, initial venous return drained to a separate reservoir and hypothermic bypass was conducted with HBOC containing perfusate in a second bypass reservoir; Control group, crystalloid prime in a conventional circuit. Hemodynamics and metabolic and hematologic parameters were measured before and 60 min after aortic clamp removal and reinfusion of sequestered autologous blood. Blood gases, base excess, hematocrit, total hemoglobin, and platelet counts were measured. In the HBOC group, metabolic acidosis did not occur, and ventricular function was preserved. Net conservation of platelets was noted at study conclusion: control 33+/-13 x 10(3) per mm3 versus HBOC 48+/-13 x 10(3), p conservation of the platelet mass occurs, a portion of which is not exposed to the deleterious effects of hypothermia and cardiopulmonary bypass.

  5. Development of a magnetic fluid shaft seal for an axial-flow blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Kazumitsu; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Murabayashi, Shun; Nishimura, Ikuya; Yozu, Ryouhei; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2003-10-01

    A rotating impeller in a rotary blood pump requires a supporting system in blood, such as a pivot bearing or magnetic suspension. To solve potential problems such as abrasive wear and complexity of a supporting system, a magnetic fluid seal was developed for use in an axial-flow blood pump. Sealing pressures at motor speeds of up to 8,000 rpm were measured with the seal immersed in water or bovine blood. The sealing pressure was about 200 mm Hg in water and blood. The calculated theoretical sealing pressure was about 230 mm Hg. The seal remained perfect for 743 days in a static condition and for 180+ days (ongoing test) at a motor speed of 7,000 rpm. Results of measurement of cell growth activity indicated that the magnetic fluid has no negative cytological effects. The specially designed magnetic fluid shaft seal is useful for an axial-flow blood pump.

  6. An implantable centrifugal blood pump with a recirculating purge system (Cool-Seal system).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, K; Litwak, P; Tagusari, O; Mori, T; Kono, K; Kameneva, M; Watach, M; Gordon, L; Miyagishima, M; Tomioka, J; Umezu, M; Outa, E; Antaki, J F; Kormos, R L; Koyanagi, H; Griffith, B P

    1998-06-01

    A compact centrifugal blood pump has been developed as an implantable left ventricular assist system. The impeller diameter is 40 mm, and pump dimensions are 55 x 64 mm. This first prototype, fabricated from titanium alloy, resulted in a pump weight of 400 g including a brushless DC motor. The weight of a second prototype pump was reduced to 280 g. The entire blood contacting surface is coated with diamond like carbon (DLC) to improve blood compatibility. Flow rates of over 7 L/min against 100 mm Hg pressure at 2,500 rpm with 9 W total power consumption have been measured. A newly designed mechanical seal with a recirculating purge system (Cool-Seal) is used for the shaft seal. In this seal system, the seal temperature is kept under 40 degrees C to prevent heat denaturation of blood proteins. Purge fluid also cools the pump motor coil and journal bearing. Purge fluid is continuously purified and sterilized by an ultrafiltration unit which is incorporated in the paracorporeal drive console. In vitro experiments with bovine blood demonstrated an acceptably low hemolysis rate (normalized index of hemolysis = 0.005 +/- 0.002 g/100 L). In vivo experiments are currently ongoing using calves. Via left thoracotomy, left ventricular (LV) apex descending aorta bypass was performed utilizing an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular graft with the pump placed in the left thoracic cavity. In 2 in vivo experiments, the pump flow rate was maintained at 5-9 L/min, and pump power consumption remained stable at 9-10 W. All plasma free Hb levels were measured at less than 15 mg/dl. The seal system has demonstrated good seal capability with negligible purge fluid consumption (<0.5 ml/day). In both calves, the pumps demonstrated trouble free continuous function over 6 month (200 days and 222 days).

  7. Sealing performance of a magnetic fluid seal for rotary blood pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Sayaka; Kano, Kentaro; Okamoto, Eiji; Murabayashi, Shun; Nishimura, Ikuya; Higuchi, Taka-Aki

    2009-09-01

    A magnetic fluid (MF) for a rotary blood pump seal enables mechanical contact-free rotation of the shaft and, hence, has excellent durability. The performance of a MF seal, however, has been reported to decrease in liquids. We have developed a MF seal that has a "shield" mechanism and a new MF with a higher magnetization of 47.9 kA/m. The sealing performance of the MF seal installed in a rotary blood pump was studied. Under the condition of continuous flow, the MF seal remained in perfect condition against a pressure of 298 mm Hg (pump flow rate: 3.96 L/min). The seal was also perfect against a pressure of 170 mm Hg in a continuous flow of 3.9 L/min for 275 days. We have developed a MF seal that works in liquid against clinically used pressures. The MF seal is promising as a shaft seal for rotary blood pumps.

  8. A Bovine Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carrier as Pump Prime for Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Reduced Systemic Lactic Acidosis and Improved Cerebral Oxygen Metabolism During Low-flow in a Porcine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    1 A bovine hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier as pump prime for cardiopulmonary bypass: reduced systemic lactic acidosis and improved cerebral...2010 2. REPORT TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2007 - November 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A bovine hemoglobin-based oxygen...carrier as pump prime for cardiopulmonary bypass: reduced systemic lactic acidosis and improved cerebral oxygen metabolism during low-flow in a

  9. Extracorporeal gas exchange with the DeltaStream rotary blood pump in experimental lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinski, Rolf; Kopp, Rüdger; Henzler, Dietrich; Hochhausen, Nadine; Oslender, Nicole; Max, Martin; Rossaint, Rolf; Kuhlen, Ralf

    2003-06-01

    In most severe cases of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used to facilitate gas exchange. However, the clinical use is limited due to the size and the concomitant risk of severe adverse events of conventionally-used centrifugal blood pumps with high extracorporeal blood volumes. The DeltaStream blood pump is a small-sized rotary blood pump that may reduce extracorporeal blood volume, foreign surfaces, contact activation of the coagulation system, and blood trauma. The aim of the present study was to test the safety and efficacy of the DeltaStream pump for ECMO in animals with normal lung function and experimental acute lung injury (ALI). Therefore, veno-venous ECMO was performed for 6 hours in mechanically ventilated pigs with normal lung function (n=6) and with ALI induced by repeated lung lavage (n=6) with a blood flow of 30% of the cardiac output. Gas flow with a FiO2 of 1.0 was set to equal blood flow. With a mean activated clotting time of 121 +/- 22 s, no circulatory impairment or thrombus formation was revealed during ECMO. Furthermore, free plasma Hb did not increase. In controls, hemodynamics and gas exchange remained unchanged. In animals with ALI, hemodynamics remained stable and gas transfer across the extracorporeal oxygenators was optimal, but only in 2 animals was a marked increase in PaO2 observed. CO2 removal was efficacious in all animals. We concluded that the DeltaStream blood pump may be used for veno-venous ECMO without major blood damage or hemodynamic impairment.

  10. Long-term animal experiments with an intraventricular axial flow blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, K; Kormos, R L; Litwak, P; Tagusari, O; Mori, T; Antaki, J F; Kameneva, M; Watach, M; Gordon, L; Mukuo, H; Umezu, M; Tomioka, J; Outa, E; Griffith, B P; Koyanagai, H

    1997-01-01

    A miniature intraventricular axial flow blood pump (IVAP) is undergoing in vivo evaluation in calves. The IVAP system consists of a miniature (phi 13.9 mm) axial flow pump that resides within the left ventricular (LV) chamber and a brushless DC motor. The pump is fabricated from titanium alloy, and the pump weight is 170 g. It produces a flow rate of over 5 L/min against 100 mmHg pressure at 9,000 rpm with an 8 W total power consumption. The maximum total efficiency exceeds 17%. A purged lip seal system is used in prototype no. 8, and a newly developed "Cool-Seal" (a low temperature mechanical seal) is used in prototype no. 9. In the Cool-Seal system, a large amount of purge flow is introduced behind the seal faces to augment convective heat transfer, keeping the seal face temperature at a low level for prevention of heat denaturation of blood proteins. The Cool-Seal system consumes < 10 cc purge fluid per day and has greatly extended seal life. The pumps were implanted in three calves (26, 30, and 168 days of support). The pump was inserted through a left thoracotomy at the fifth intercostal space. Two pursestring sutures were placed on the LV apex, and the apex was cored with a myocardial punch. The pump was inserted into the LV with the outlet cannula smoothly passing through the aortic valve without any difficulty. Only 5 min elapsed between the time of chest opening and initiation of pumping. Pump function remained stable throughout in all experiments. No cardiac arrhythmias were detected, even at treadmill exercise tests. The plasma free hemoglobin level remained in the acceptable range. Post mortem examination did not reveal any interference between the pump and the mitral apparatus. No major thromboembolism was detected in the vital organs in Cases 1 or 2, but a few small renal infarcts were detected in Case 3.

  11. Effect of hydrodynamic action in peristaltic pump of blood gases analyzer ABL 555

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali K. Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we studied the effect of hydrodynamic action in peristaltic pump of blood gases analyzer ABL 555 which made by (Radiometer-Copenhagen, by using theories of tribology and Reynolds equation on performance of blood film convergence area, we analyzing the influence of theoretical model for peristaltic pump (consist of steeper motor and 4 cylindrical bearings distributed on circular disc rotating around capillary tube, by using (MATLAB R 2012b programing with numerical solution of finite difference method in 5 nodes element , we fined the blood film thickness and the pressure on contact area grid ( consist from annual and axial lines , then influence of viscosity of blood on pressure generated in limited temperature of ambient and velocity of motor , and flow rate of blood in tube. The important conclusions appear that the rotating sliding movement of motor cause low pressure (positive while the rolling cylindrical rollers of bearings cause high pressure (negative which lead to push the blood in tube, that mean the direction of rotating blood opposite the direction of rotating motor of peristaltic pump, also the viscosity of blood effect on velocity of flow and the speed of motor with bearings, and the effect of blood film thickness effect on pressure generated in tube. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25130/tjes.24.2017.18

  12. Development of a Compact Maglev Centrifugal Blood Pump Enclosed in a Titanium Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Chi Nan; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Asama, Junichi; Takatani, Setsuo; Shimokohbe, Akira

    A compact centrifugal blood pump consisting of a controlled two-degrees-of-freedom radial magnetic bearing and a brushless DC motor enclosed in a titanium housing has been developed for use as an implantable ventricular assist device. The magnetic bearing also supports axial and angular motions of the impeller via a magnetic coupling. The top housing is made of pure titanium, while the impeller and the stator are coated with pure titanium and Ti-6Al-7Nb, respectively, to improve the biocompatibility of the pump. The combination of pure titanium and titanium alloy was chosen because of the sensitivity of eddy current type displacement sensors through the intervening conducting wall. The dimensions of the pump are 69.0 mm in diameter and 28.5 mm in height. During a pump performance test, axial shifting of the impeller due to hydraulic forces led to variations in the rotational positioning signal, causing loss of control of the rotational speed. This problem was solved by conditioning the rotational positioning signal. With a flow rate of 5 l/min against a head pressure of 100 mmHg, the power consumption and efficiency of the pump were 5.5 W and 20%, respectively. Furthermore, the hemolysis of the blood pump was 43.6% lower when compared to that of a commercially available pump.

  13. EVAHEART: an implantable centrifugal blood pump for long-term circulatory support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kenji; Kihara, Shinichiro; Akimoto, Takehide; Tagusari, Osamu; Kawai, Akihiko; Umezu, Mitsuo; Tomioka, Jun; Kormos, Robert L; Griffith, Bartley P; Kurosawa, Hiromi

    2002-11-01

    We developed "EVAHEART": a compact centrifugal blood pump system as an implantable left ventricular assist device for long-term circulatory support. The 55 x 64 mm pump is made from pure titanium, and weighs 370 g. The entire blood-contacting surface is covered with an anti-thrombogenic coating of diamond like carbon (DLC) or 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) to improve blood compatibility. Flows exceeding 12 L/min against 100 mmHg pressure at 2600 rpm was measured. A low-temperature mechanical seal with recirculating cooling system is used to seal the shaft. EVAHEART demonstrated an acceptably low hemolysis rate with normalized index of hemolysis of 0.005 +/- 0.002 g/100L. We evaluated the pump in long-term in-vivo experiments with seven calves. Via left thoracotomy, we conducted left ventricular apex-descending aorta bypass, placing the pump in the left thoracic cavity. Pump flow rates was maintained at 5-9 L/min, pump power consumption remained stable at 9-10 W in all cases, plasma free Hb levels were less than 15 mg/dl, and the seal system showed good seal capability throughout the experiments. The calves were sacrificed on schedule on postoperative day 200, 222, 142, 90, 151, 155, and 133. No thrombi formed on the blood contacting surface with either the DLC or MPC coating, and no major organ thromboembolisms occurred except for a few small renal infarcts. EVAHEART centrifugal blood pump demonstrated excellent performance in long-term in-vivo experiments.

  14. Formation of Blood Foam in the Air Trap During Hemodialysis Due to Insufficient Automatic Priming of Dialyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Per; Lindmark, Lorentz; Axelsson, Jan; Karlsson, Lars; Lundberg, Lennart; Stegmayr, Bernd

    2018-05-01

    We were encouraged to investigate the reasons for large amounts of foam observed in bloodlines during hemodialysis (HD). Foam was visible in the venous air trap within the Artis Gambro dialysis device. Estimates of the extent of foam were graded (0-no foam, 10-extensive foam) by two persons that were blind to the type of dialyzer used. Thirty-seven patients were involved in the dialysis procedures. Consecutive dialyses were graded using dialyzers from Fresenius Medical Care (CorDiax dialyzers that were used for high flux HD-FX80 and FX100, and for hemodiafiltration-FX1000). The extracorporeal circuit was primed automatically by dialysate using Gambro Artis software 8.15 006 (Gambro, Dasco, Medolla Italy, Baxter, Chicago, IL, USA). The priming volume recommended by the manufacturer was 1100 mL, whereas our center uses 1500 mL. Extensive amounts of blood foam were visual in the air traps. Although the manufacturer recommended extension of priming volume up to 3000 mL, this did not eliminate the foam. Microbubble measurement during HD revealed the air to derive from the dialyzers. When changing to PF210H dialyzers (Baxter) and using a priming volume of 1500 mL, the foam was significantly less (P foam correlated with the size of the FX-dialyzer surface (P = 0.002). The auto-priming program was updated to version 8.21 by the manufacturer and the extent of foam in the air trap using FX dialyzers was now reduced and there was no longer a difference between FX and PF dialyzers, although less foam was still visible in the venous air trap during several dialyses. In conclusion, this study urgently calls attention to blood foam development in the venous air trap when using Artis devices and priming software 8.15 in combination with Fresenius dialyzers. Updated auto-priming software (version 8.21) of Artis should be requested to reduce the extent of foam for the Fresenius dialyzers. Other interactions may also be present. We recommend further studies to clarify these

  15. Distinct alterations in sublingual microcirculatory blood flow and hemoglobin oxygenation in on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atasever, Bektaş; Boer, Christa; Goedhart, Peter; Biervliet, Jules; Seyffert, Jan; Speekenbrink, Ron; Schwarte, Lothar; de Mol, Bas; Ince, Can

    2011-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (on-pump) is associated with more severe changes in the microcirculatory blood flow and tissue oxygenation as compared with off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. An observational study. A university hospital and teaching hospital.

  16. Multimodal flow visualization and optimization of pneumatic blood pump for sorbent hemodialysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Fangjun; Parks, Robert; Maholtz, John; Ash, Steven; Antaki, James F

    2009-04-01

    Renal Solutions Allient Sorbent Hemodialysis System utilizes a two-chambered pneumatic pump (Pulsar Blood Pump, Renal Solutions, Inc., Warrendale, PA, USA) to avoid limitations associated with peristaltic pumping systems. Single-needle access is enabled by counter-pulsing the two pump chambers, thereby obviating compliance chambers or blood reservoirs. Each chamber propels 20 cc per pulse of 3 s (dual access) or 6 s (single access) duration, corresponding to a peak Reynolds number of approximately 8000 (based on inlet velocity and chamber diameter). A multimodal series of flow visualization studies (tracer particle, dye washout, and dye erosion) was conducted on a sequence of pump designs with varying port locations and diaphragms to improve the geometry with respect to risk of thrombogenesis. Experiments were conducted in a simplified flow loop using occluders to simulate flow resistance induced by tubing and dialyzer. Tracer visualization revealed flow patterns and qualitatively indicated turbulence intensity. Dye washout identified dwell volume and areas of flow stagnation for each design. Dye erosion results indicated the effectiveness and homogeneity of surface washing. Compared to a centered inlet which resulted in a fluid jet that produced two counter-rotating vortices, a tangential inlet introduced a single vortex, and kept the flow laminar. It also provided better surface washing on the pump inner surface. However, a tangential outlet did not present as much benefit as expected. On the contrary, it created a sharp defection to the flow when transiting from filling to ejection.

  17. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of study is to determine whether glucose pump test (GPT) is used for surveillance of native AV fistulas by using Doppler US as reference. Methods: In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US and GPT. For GPT, glucose was infused to 16 mL/min by ...

  18. Artificial heart system thermal converter and blood pump component research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouchot, W.D.; Bifano, N.J.; Hanson, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    A bench model version of a nuclear-powered artificial heart system to be used as a replacement for the natural heart was constructed and tested as a part of a broader U. S. ERDA program. The objective of the broader program has been to develop a prototype of a fully implantable nuclear-powered total artificial heart system powered by the thermal energy of plutonium-238 and having minimum weight and volume and a minimum life of ten years. As a forward step in this broader program, component research and development has been carried out directed towards a fully implantable and advanced version of the bench model (IVBM). Some of the results of the component research and development effort on a Stirling engine, blood pump drive mechanisms, and coupling mechanisms are presented. The Stirling-mechanical system under development is shown. There are three major subassemblies: the thermal converter, the coupling mechanism, and the blood pump drive mechanism. The thermal converter uses a Stirling cycle to convert the heat of the plutonium-238 fueled heat source to a rotary shaft power output. The coupling mechanism changes the orientation of the output shaft by 90 degrees and transmits the pumping power by wire-wound core flexible shafting to the pumping mechanism. The coupling mechanism also provides routing of the coolant lines which carry the cycle waste heat from the thermal converter to the blood pump. The change in orientation of the thermal converter output shaft is for convenience in implanting in a calf. This orientation of thermal converter to blood pump seemed to give the best overall system fit in a calf based on fit trials with wooden models in a calf cadaver

  19. PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.D.

    1959-03-24

    A pump is described for conveving liquids, particure it is not advisable he apparatus. The to be submerged in the liquid to be pumped, a conduit extending from the high-velocity nozzle of the injector,and means for applying a pulsating prcesure to the surface of the liquid in the conduit, whereby the surface oscillates between positions in the conduit. During the positive half- cycle of an applied pulse liquid is forced through the high velocity nozzle or jet of the injector and operates in the manner of the well known water injector and pumps liquid from the main intake to the outlet of the injector. During the negative half-cycle of the pulse liquid flows in reverse through the jet but no reverse pumping action takes place.

  20. A novel permanent maglev impeller TAH: most requirements on blood pumps have been satisfied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, K X; Zeng, P; Ru, W M; Yuan, H Y

    2003-07-01

    Based on the development of an impeller total artificial heart (TAH) (1987) and a permanent maglev (magnetic levitation) impeller pump (2002), as well as a patented magnetic bearing and magnetic spring (1996), a novel permanent maglev impeller TAH has been developed. The device consists of a rotor and a stator. The rotor is driven radially. Two impellers with different dimensions are fixed at both the ends of the rotor. The levitation of the rotor is achieved by using two permanent magnetic bearings, which have double function: radial bearing and axial spring. As the rotor rotates at a periodic changing speed, two pumps deliver the pulsatile flow synchronously. The volume balance between the two pumps is realized due to self-modulation property of the impeller pumps, without need for detection and control. Because the hemo-dynamic force acting on the left impeller is larger than that on the right impeller, and this force during systole is larger than that during diastole, the rotor reciprocates axially once a cycle. This is beneficial to prevent the thrombosis in the pump. Furthermore, a small flow via the gap between stator and rotor from left pump into right pump comes to a full washout in the motor and the pumps. Therefore, it seems neither mechanical wear nor thrombosis could occur. The previously developed prototype impeller TAH had demonstrated that it could operate in animal experiments indefinitely, if the bearing would not fail to work. Expectantly, this novel permanent magnetic levitation impeller TAH with simplicity, implantability, pulsatility, compatibility and durability has satisfied the most requirements on blood pumps and will have more extensive applications in experiments and clinics.

  1. New concepts and new design of permanent maglev rotary artificial heart blood pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, K X; Zeng, P; Ru, W M; Yuan, H Y

    2006-05-01

    According to tradition, permanent maglev cannot achieve stable equilibrium. The authors have developed, to the contrary, two stable permanent maglev impeller blood pumps. The first pump is an axially driven uni-ventricular assist pump, in which the rotor with impeller is radially supported by two passive magnetic bearings, but has one point contact with the stator axially at standstill. As the pump raises its rotating speed, the increasing hydrodynamic force of fluid acting on the impeller will make the rotor taking off from contacting point and disaffiliate from the stator. Then the rotor becomes fully suspended. The second pump is a radially driven bi-ventricular assist pump, i.e., an impeller total artificial heart. Its rotor with two impellers on both ends is supported by two passive magnetic bearings, which counteract the attractive force between rotor magnets and stator coil iron core. The rotor is affiliated to the stator radially at standstill and becomes levitated during rotation. Therefore, the rotor keeps concentric with stator during rotation but eccentric at standstill, as is confirmed by rotor position detection with Honeywell sensors. It concludes that the permanent maglev needs action of a non-magnetic force to achieve stability but a rotating magnetic levitator with high speed and large inertia can maintain its stability merely with passive magnetic bearings.

  2. PIV Investigations of the Flow Field in the Volute of a Rotary Blood Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankovic, John M.; Kadambi, Jaikrishnan R.; Smith, William A.; Wernet, Mark P.

    2004-01-01

    A full-size acrylic model of a rotary blood pump was developed in order to utilize Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to make measurements of the fluid velocities and turbulent stresses throughout the device. The development of an understanding of the hemodynamics within the blood pump is critical to the development and validation of computational models. A blood analog solution, consisting of sodium iodide solution and glycerin, was developed to match physiological kinematic viscosity. The refractive indices of the fluid, the pump casing, and the impeller were matched to facilitate the use of PIV to make velocity measurements. Velocity measurements made in the volute exit/diffuser region are presented for pumps speeds of 3000-3850 rpm. At each speed data were obtained at a physiological pressure of 12 kPa and at a maximum flow condition. Four hundred data pairs were used for each resultant mean velocity vector value, representing greater than an order of magnitude more data pairs than reported previously in the literature on similar devices and resulting in velocity uncertainty levels of approximately 22.9%.

  3. Evaluating the pacemaker effect with the pump parameter of gated blood-pool imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Muhua

    1995-01-01

    13 normal controls and 27 patients with ventricular pacemaker had undergone planar gated blood-pool imaging in different conditions. Result shows: (1) Pump parameters can successfully reflect therapeutic effect of pacemaker among them EMP is the most valuable parameter for evaluating the cardiac pumping effect. (2) After implantation of the ventricular pacemaker, the LVEF did not increase, but the CO and EMP was significantly increased. (3) Compared with right ventricular demand pacemaker, the rate-responsive ventricular pacemaker give better hemodynamic benefit at exercise condition. (4) Through restrained cardiac pacemaker the functional change was analyzed on or off pace, and monitoring the cardiac function itself after the pacemaker was implanted

  4. Blood-mimicking delivery in polygonal structure of inner quadrupletip microneedle with valveless micro-pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M. D.; Yunos, Y. S.; Rigit, A. R. H.; Mohtadzar, N. A. A.; Watanabe, N.; Sunami, Y.; Rahman, M. R. A.; Wong, L. K.; Mohtar, M. Z.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a titanium quadrupletip micro-needle integrated with a micro-pump with different inner designs, length and diameter of the micro-channels to measure and maximize the velocity flow in the micro-needle as blood delivered into human body. Titanium is used as the material of the micro-needle which are also the common material in manufacturing of micro-needle. The advancement of micro-needle technologies is improved in penetrating human outermost skin, stratum corneum and further to human blood vessels. The micro-needles with channel inner design of circular, square, hexagon, and dodecagon with quadruple tip designs are drawn with inner diameter parameter of 150μm and 100μm with two different channel length which are 10mm and 25mm. The characteristics of blood delivery in geometrically changed inner designs affect the output velocity in microneedle when the micropump is operating. The results showed that, when it is pumped at 0.04m/s, the blood velocity improved by 5.6% than when the pump is increased by 30% of its capacity. This is due to the backflow generated in the micropump.

  5. Numerical Analysis of Blood Damage Potential of the HeartMate II and HeartWare HVAD Rotary Blood Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamsen, Bente; Blümel, Bastian; Schaller, Jens; Paschereit, Christian O; Affeld, Klaus; Goubergrits, Leonid; Kertzscher, Ulrich

    2015-08-01

    Implantable left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) became the therapy of choice in treating end-stage heart failure. Although survival improved substantially and is similar in currently clinically implanted LVADs HeartMate II (HM II) and HeartWare HVAD, complications related to blood trauma are frequently observed. The aim of this study was to compare these two pumps regarding their potential blood trauma employing computational fluid dynamics. High-resolution structured grids were generated for the pumps. Newtonian flow was calculated, solving Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with a sliding mesh approach and a k-ω shear stress transport turbulence model for the operating point of 4.5 L/min and 80 mm Hg. The pumps were compared in terms of volumes subjected to certain viscous shear stress thresholds, below which no trauma was assumed (von Willebrand factor cleavage: 9 Pa, platelet activation: 50 Pa, and hemolysis: 150 Pa), and associated residence times. Additionally, a hemolysis index was calculated based on a Eulerian transport approach. Twenty-two percent of larger volumes above 9 Pa were observed in the HVAD; above 50 Pa and 150 Pa the differences between the two pumps were marginal. Residence times were higher in the HVAD for all thresholds. The hemolysis index was almost equal for the HM II and HVAD. Besides the gap regions in both pumps, the inlet regions of the rotor and diffuser blades have a high hemolysis production in the HM II, whereas in the HVAD, the volute tongue is an additional site for hemolysis production. Thus, in this study, the comparison of the HM II and the HVAD using numerical methods indicated an overall similar tendency to blood trauma in both pumps. However, influences of turbulent shear stresses were not considered and effects of the pivot bearing in the HM II were not taken into account. Further in vitro investigations are required. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and

  6. Protection of Rhesus Monkeys by a DNA Prime/Poxvirus Boost Malaria Vaccine Depends on Optimal DNA Priming and Inclusion of Blood Stage Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Walter R.; Kumar, Anita; Jiang, George; Williams, Jackie; Bostick, Anthony; Conteh, Solomon; Fryauff, David; Aguiar, Joao; Singh, Manmohan; O'Hagan, Derek T.; Ulmer, Jeffery B.; Richie, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    Background We have previously described a four antigen malaria vaccine consisting of DNA plasmids boosted by recombinant poxviruses which protects a high percentage of rhesus monkeys against Plasmodium knowlesi (Pk) malaria. This is a multi-stage vaccine that includes two pre-erythrocytic antigens, PkCSP and PkSSP2(TRAP), and two erythrocytic antigens, PkAMA-1 and PkMSP-1(42kD). The present study reports three further experiments where we investigate the effects of DNA dose, timing, and formulation. We also compare vaccines utilizing only the pre-erythrocytic antigens with the four antigen vaccine. Methodology In three experiments, rhesus monkeys were immunized with malaria vaccines using DNA plasmid injections followed by boosting with poxvirus vaccine. A variety of parameters were tested, including formulation of DNA on poly-lactic co-glycolide (PLG) particles, varying the number of DNA injections and the amount of DNA, varying the interval between the last DNA injection to the poxvirus boost from 7 to 21 weeks, and using vaccines with from one to four malaria antigens. Monkeys were challenged with Pk sporozoites given iv 2 to 4 weeks after the poxvirus injection, and parasitemia was measured by daily Giemsa stained blood films. Immune responses in venous blood samples taken after each vaccine injection were measured by ELIspot production of interferon-γ, and by ELISA. Conclusions 1) the number of DNA injections, the formulation of the DNA plasmids, and the interval between the last DNA injection and the poxvirus injection are critical to vaccine efficacy. However, the total dose used for DNA priming is not as important; 2) the blood stage antigens PkAMA-1 and PkMSP-1 were able to protect against high parasitemias as part of a genetic vaccine where antigen folding is not well defined; 3) immunization with PkSSP2 DNA inhibited immune responses to PkCSP DNA even when vaccinations were given into separate legs; and 4) in a counter-intuitive result, higher

  7. A magnetic fluid seal for rotary blood pumps: Long-term performance in liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Sayaka; Amari, Shuichi; Okamoto, Eiji; Murabayashi, Shun; Nishimura, Ikuya

    A magnetic fluid (MF) seal enables mechanical contact-free rotation of the shaft and hence has excellent durability. The performance of a MF seal, however, has been reported to decrease in liquids. We have developed a MF seal that has a 'shield' mechanism and a new MF with a higher magnetization of 47.9 kA/m. The sealing performance of the MF seal installed in a rotary blood pump was studied. The seal was perfect against a pressure of 150 mmHg in a continuous flow of 4.0 L/min for 275 days and against a pressure of 175 mmHg in a continuous flow of 3.9 L/min for 217 days. We have developed a MF seal that works in liquid against pressure mostly used clinically. The magnetic fluid seal is promising as a shaft seal for rotary blood pumps.

  8. Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    An electromagnetic pump for circulating liquid -metal coolant through a nuclear reactor wherein opposite walls of a pump duct serve as electrodes to transmit current radially through the liquid-metal in the ducts. A circumferential electric field is supplied to the liquid-metal by a toroidal electromagnet which has core sections interposed between the ducts. The windings of the electromagnet are composed of metal which is superconductive at low temperatures and the electromagnet is maintained at a temperature at which it is superconductive by liquid helium which is fed through the conductors which supply the excitation for the electromagnet. The walls of the ducts joining the electrodes include metal plates insulated from the electrodes backed up by insulators so that they are capable of withstanding the pressure of the liquid-metal. These composite wall structures may also be of thin metal strips of low electrical conductivity backed up by sturdy insulators. (author)

  9. A durable, non power consumptive, simple seal for rotary blood pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Y; Sekine, K; Asakawa, M; Yozu, R; Kawada, S; Okamoto, E

    2001-01-01

    One of the key technologic requirements for rotary blood pumps is the sealing of the motor shaft. A mechanical seal, a journal bearing, magnetic coupling, and magnetic suspension have been developed, but they have drawbacks such as wear, thrombus formation, and power consumption. A magnetic fluid seal was developed for an axial flow pump. A magnetic fluid seal is durable, simple, and non power consumptive. Long-term experiments and finite element modeling (FEM) analyses confirmed these advantages. The seal body was composed of a Ned-Fe magnet and two pole pieces; the seal was formed by injecting ferrofluid into the gap (50 microm) between the pole pieces and the motor shaft. To contain the ferrofluid in the seal and to minimize the possibility of ferrofluid making contact with blood, a shield with a small cavity was attached to the pole piece. While submerged in blood, the sealing pressure of the seal was measured and found to be 188 mm Hg with ferrofluid LS-40 (saturated magnetization, 24.3 kA/m) at a motor speed of 10,000 rpm and 225 mm Hg under static conditions. The magnetic fluid seals performed perfectly at a pressure of 100 mm Hg for 594 + days in a static condition, and 51, 39+, and 34+ days at a motor speed of 8,000 rpm. FEM analyses indicated a theoretical sealing pressure of 260 mm Hg. The state of the magnetic fluid in the seal in water was observed with a microscope. Neither splashing of magnetic fluid nor mixing of the magnetic fluid and water was observed. The specially designed magnetic fluid seal for keeping liquids out is useful for axial flow blood pumps. The magnetic fluid seal was incorporated into an intracardiac axial flow pump.

  10. Sealing properties of mechanical seals for an axial flow blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, J; Mori, T; Yamazaki, K; Koyanagi, H

    1999-08-01

    A miniature intraventricular axial flow blood pump for left ventricular support is under development. One of the key technologies required for such pumps is sealing of the motor shaft. In this study, to prevent blood backflow into the motor side, mechanical seals were developed and their sealing properties investigated. In the experimental apparatus, the mechanical seal separated the bovine blood on the chamber side from the cooling water on the motor side. A leakage of the blood was measured by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) light emission analysis. The rate of hemolysis was measured by the cyanmethemoglobin method. Frictional torque acting on the shaft was measured by a torque transducer. In the experiments, the rotational speed of the shaft was changed from 1,000 to 10,000 rpm, and the contact force of the seal faces was changed from 1.96 to 4.31 N. To estimate lubrication regimes, the Stribeck curve, a diagram of the coefficient of friction against the bearing characteristic G number, was drawn. The results of the experiments showed that both the leakage of blood and the rate of hemolysis were very small. The friction loss was also very small. The mechanical seal was operated in various lubrication regimes, from a fluid lubrication regime to a mixed lubrication regime.

  11. Effects of preoperative aspirin and clopidogrel therapy on perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae Kwang; Choi, Yong Seon; Oh, Young Jun; Bang, Sou Ouk; Yoo, Kyung Jong; Kwak, Young Lan

    2007-07-01

    Preoperative exposure to clopidogrel and aspirin significantly increases postoperative bleeding in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Off-pump coronary bypass grafting has been proposed as an alternative technique to attenuate postoperative bleeding associated with clopidogrel. This study aimed to determine the effects of aspirin and clopidogrel therapy on perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. One hundred six patients scheduled for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting were divided into three groups: aspirin and clopidogrel discontinued more than 6 days before surgery (group 1, n = 35), aspirin and clopidogrel continued until 3 to 5 days before surgery (group 2, n = 51), and both medications continued within 2 days of surgery (group 3, n = 20). Thromboelastographic tracings were analyzed before induction of anesthesia. Routine coagulation profiles were measured before and after surgery. A cell salvage device was used during surgery and salvaged blood was reinfused. Chest tube drainage and blood transfusion requirement were recorded postoperatively. Patient characteristics, operative data, and thromboelastographic tracings were similar among the groups. There were significant decreases in hematocrit level and platelet count and prolongation in prothrombin time postoperatively in all groups without any intergroup differences. The amounts of perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion required were all similar among the groups. Preoperative clopidogrel and aspirin exposure even within 2 days of surgery does not increase perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing elective off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

  12. Cannula Tip With Integrated Volume Sensor for Rotary Blood Pump Control: Early-Stage Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysyk, Joshua; Newswanger, Ray; Popjes, Eric; Pae, Walter; Jhun, Choon-Sik; Izer, Jenelle; Weiss, William; Rosenberg, Gerson

    2018-05-10

    The lack of direct measurement of left ventricular unloading is a significant impediment to the development of an automatic speed control system for continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (cf-LVADs). We have developed an inlet cannula tip for cf-LVADs with integrated electrodes for volume sensing based on conductance. Four platinum-iridium ring electrodes were installed into grooves on a cannula body constructed from polyetheretherketone (PEEK). A sinusoidal current excitation waveform (250 μA pk-pk, 50 kHz) was applied across one pair of electrodes, and the conductance-dependent voltage was sensed across the second pair of electrodes. The conductance catheter was tested in an acute ovine model (n = 3) in conjunction with the HeartMate II rotary blood pump to provide circulatory support and unload the ventricle. Echocardiography was used to measure ventricular size during pump support for verification for the conductance measurements. The conductance measurements correlated linearly with the echocardiography dimension measurements more than the full range of pump support from minimum support to suction. This cannula tip will enable the development of automatic control systems to optimize pump support based on a real-time measurement of ventricular size.

  13. Geometric Optimization for Non-Thrombogenicity of a Centrifugal Blood Pump through Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Masahiro; Yamane, Takashi

    A monopivot magnetic suspension blood pump has been developed in our laboratory. The flow patterns within the pump should be carefully examined in order to prevent thrombogenesis, especially around the pivot bearing. Therefore, the effects of the pump geometry on the local flow were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics together with the experimental flow visualization. The engineering goal was to reduce the area of stagnation around the pivot in order to prevent thrombus formation. As a result, the stagnation area and the flow rate through the washout holes were found to be highly affected by the size and geometry of the washout holes. Secondary flow was revealed to form a jet-like wash against the pivot, thus preventing thrombus formation. The flow rate through the washout holes was estimated to be up to one fifth of the pump flow rate, depending on the cross-sectional areas of the washout holes. Furthermore, an anti-thrombogenic effect was attained by removing a small gap between the male and female pivots.

  14. Mathematical Modeling of Rotary Blood Pumps in a Pulsatile In Vitro Flow Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirbodaghi, Tohid

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, sacrificing animals to develop medical devices and receive regulatory approval has become more common, which increases ethical concerns. Although in vivo tests are necessary for development and evaluation of new devices, nonetheless, with appropriate in vitro setups and mathematical models, a part of the validation process can be performed using these models to reduce the number of sacrificed animals. The main aim of this study is to present a mathematical model simulating the hydrodynamic function of a rotary blood pump (RBP) in a pulsatile in vitro flow environment. This model relates the pressure head of the RBP to the flow rate, rotational speed, and time derivatives of flow rate and rotational speed. To identify the model parameters, an in vitro setup was constructed consisting of a piston pump, a compliance chamber, a throttle, a buffer reservoir, and the CentriMag RBP. A 40% glycerin-water mixture as a blood analog fluid and deionized water were used in the hydraulic circuit to investigate the effect of viscosity and density of the working fluid on the model parameters. First, model variables were physically measured and digitally acquired. Second, an identification algorithm based on regression analysis was used to derive the model parameters. Third, the completed model was validated with a totally different set of in vitro data. The model is usable for both mathematical simulations of the interaction between the pump and heart and indirect pressure measurement in a clinical context. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Optimization of a Hybrid Magnetic Bearing for a Magnetically Levitated Blood Pump via 3-D FEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shanbao; Olles, Mark W; Burger, Aaron F; Day, Steven W

    2011-10-01

    In order to improve the performance of a magnetically levitated (maglev) axial flow blood pump, three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analysis (FEA) was used to optimize the design of a hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB). Radial, axial, and current stiffness of multiple design variations of the HMB were calculated using a 3-D FEA package and verified by experimental results. As compared with the original design, the optimized HMB had twice the axial stiffness with the resulting increase of negative radial stiffness partially compensated for by increased current stiffness. Accordingly, the performance of the maglev axial flow blood pump with the optimized HMBs was improved: the maximum pump speed was increased from 6000 rpm to 9000 rpm (50%). The radial, axial and current stiffness of the HMB was found to be linear at nominal operational position from both 3-D FEA and empirical measurements. Stiffness values determined by FEA and empirical measurements agreed well with one another. The magnetic flux density distribution and flux loop of the HMB were also visualized via 3-D FEA which confirms the designers' initial assumption about the function of this HMB.

  16. Feasibility of the optical imaging of thrombus formation in a rotary blood pump by near-infrared light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Murashige, Tomotaka; Kosaka, Ryo; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu

    2014-09-01

    Blood coagulation is one of the primary concerns when using mechanical circulatory support devices such as blood pumps. Noninvasive detection and imaging of thrombus formation is useful not only for the development of more hemocompatible devices but also for the management of blood coagulation to avoid risk of infarction. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of near-infrared light for imaging of thrombus formation in a rotary blood pump. The optical properties of a thrombus at wavelengths ranging from 600 to 750 nm were analyzed using a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system. A specially designed hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump with a visible bottom area was used. In vitro antithrombogenic testing was conducted five times with the pump using bovine whole blood in which the activated blood clotting time was adjusted to 200 s prior to the experiment. Two halogen lights were used for the light sources. The forward scattering through the pump and backward scattering on the pump bottom area were imaged using the HSI system. HSI showed an increase in forward scattering at wavelengths ranging from 670 to 750 nm in the location of thrombus formation. The time at which the thrombus began to form in the impeller rotating at 2780 rpm could be detected. The spectral difference between the whole blood and the thrombus was utilized to image thrombus formation. The results indicate the feasibility of dynamically detecting and imaging thrombus formation in a rotary blood pump. Copyright © 2014 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. DOES TRANEXAMIC ACID REDUCE BLOOD LOSS IN OFF-PUMP CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mehr-Aein

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Tranexamic acid is now used on a routine basis for on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. We assessed the hemostatic effects of tranexamic acid to decrease bleeding tendency and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB. A total of 66 patients were enrolled to elective OPCAB in a double-blind, prospective randomized study. Of these, 33 patients received tranexamic acid (15 mg/kg before the infusion of heparin and 15 mg/kg after protamin infusion, and 33 patients received only saline. Preoperative hematologic variables, postoperative bleeding and allogeneic transfusions were considered. D-dimer plasma levels were also evaluated to monitor the activation of fibrinolysis. Postoperative bleeding was significantly lower in the tranexamic acid group compared with the control group (320 ± 38 mL vs. 480 ± 75 mL at 12 hour, P < 0.001. The tranexamic acid group had significantly lesser need for allogeneic blood products (0.46 units/patients vs. 0.94 units/patients, P < 0.001. They had also lower post-operative D-dimer plasma levels. No postoperative thrombotic complications were observed in either group. The defective hemostasis occurs even in the OPCABG. Tranexamic acid effectively reduces postoperative blood loss and the need for allogeneic blood products after OPCAB is decreased.

  18. [Effect of priming solution and ultrafiltration on post-operative bleeding and blood transfusion in cardiac surgery. Randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos Rodríguez, M; Ballester Hernández, J A; Arteta Bárcenas, M T; Rodríguez Cerezo, A; Vidarte Ortiz de Artiñano, M A; Veiga Alameda, C

    2015-02-01

    Assess the effectiveness of priming the extracorporeal circulation system with albumin-mannitol combined with ultrafiltration during extracorporeal circulation to reduce post-operative bleeding and transfusion requirements in heart surgery, as well as its impact on the fluid balance, coagulation and hematocrit parameters, re-operation for bleeding, ICU, and hospital length of stay. A total of 134 patients scheduled for heart surgery were randomized to receive Ringer's lactate 1,500mL in the priming reservoir (group C), or mannitol 20% 250mL, albumin 20% 150mL and Ringer's lactate 1,100mL combined with ultrafiltration (group T). Bleeding volume, transfusions, fluid balance, coagulation, and hematology parameters were determined until 48h in the post-operative period. There was a reduction of postoperative bleeding in group T, 1,165±789mL vs 992±662mL (P=.17), and red blood cell concentrate transfusions, 694±843mL vs 413±605mL (P=.03). Intra-operative and post-operative fluid balance was significantly less positive in group T, with an overall balance of 2,292±2,152mL vs 5,388±2,834mL (P<.001). There were higher values of hemoglobin and hematocrit, intraoperative (P<.001), on admission to ICU (P=.001), and at 6h (P=.05) in group T, and lower INR at 6h (P=.01) and 24h (P=.02). Re-operation rate and length of stay in ICU were higher in group C, but not statiscally significant. The priming of extracorporeal reservoir with mannitol, albumin, and Ringer's lactate, combined with ultrafiltration, significantly improves intra- and post-operative fluid balance, resulting in a reduction in blood transfusions, with no significant decrease in post-operative bleeding, re-operation bleeding rate, and length of stay in the ICU. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Geometric Optimization for Non-Thrombogenicity of a Centrifugal Blood Pump through Flow Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Masahiro; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu; Yamane, Takashi; Tsutsui, Tatsuo; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    A monopivot centrifugal blood pump, whose impeller is supported with a pivot bearing and a passive magnetic bearing, is under development for implantable artificial heart. The hemolysis level is less than that of commercial centrifugal pumps and the pump size is as small as 160 mL in volume. To solve a problem of thrombus caused by fluid dynamics, flow visualization experiments and animal experiments have been undertaken. For flow visualization a three-fold scale-up model, high-speed video system, and particle tracking velocimetry software were used. To verify non-thrombogenicity one-week animal experiments were conducted with sheep. The initially observed thrombus around the pivot was removed through unifying the separate washout holes to a small centered hole to induce high shear around the pivot. It was found that the thrombus contours corresponded to the shear rate of 300s-1 for red thrombus and 1300-1700s-1 for white thrombus, respectively. Thus flow visualization technique was found to be a useful tool to predict thrombus location.

  20. Importance of manually entering blood glucose readings when wireless-compatible meters are not being used with an insulin pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Kimberly A; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Wang, Yuxia; Tang, Yuanyuan; Gill, Elizabeth C; Mitchell, Adela; Wright, Nancy; Deeb, Larry C

    2013-07-01

    The objective was to determine if there were differences in blood glucose monitoring (BGM) data downloaded from insulin pumps of patients who use meters that wirelessly transmit data to their insulin pumps (i.e., wireless group) and those who do not (i.e., nonwireless group). Blood glucose monitoring data were downloaded from the meters and insulin pumps of 47 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Independent and paired t tests compared BGM data downloaded from meters and BGM data downloaded from insulin pumps. There were significant differences in BGM data downloaded from the insulin pumps of patients using wireless meters compared to those using nonwireless meters. Wireless patients appeared to engage in more BGM, had more low and in-range BG readings and fewer very high BG readingss than nonwireless patients. However, a comparison of BGM data downloaded from meters and insulin pumps of nonwireless patients indicated that their insulin pump data significantly underestimated the number of BGM readings conducted, as well as the number of low and in-range readings, while overestimating the number of very high BGM readings. Because patients who use nonwireless-compatible meters do not manually enter their low and in-range BGM readings into the insulin pump, BGM data downloaded only from pumps may provide an incomplete representation of BGM frequency or results. It is recommended that patients use meters that directly communicate with pumps or perform bolus calculations. Patients should be educated about the importance of manually entering all BGM readings if they do not use a wireless-compatible meter with their insulin pump. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  1. Disposable MagLev centrifugal blood pump utilizing a cone-shaped impeller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijikata, Wataru; Sobajima, Hideo; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Nagamine, Yasuyuki; Wada, Suguru; Takatani, Setsuo; Shimokohbe, Akira

    2010-08-01

    To enhance the durability and reduce the blood trauma of a conventional blood pump with a cone-shaped impeller, a magnetically levitated (MagLev) technology has been applied to the BioPump BPX-80 (Medtronic Biomedicus, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA), whose impeller is supported by a mechanical bearing. The MagLev BioPump (MagLev BP), which we have developed, has a cone-shaped impeller, the same as that used in the BPX-80. The suspension and driving system, which is comprised of two degrees of freedom, radial-controlled magnetic bearing, and a simply structured magnetic coupling, eliminates any physical contact between the impeller and the housing. To reduce both oscillation of the impeller and current in the coils, the magnetic bearing system utilizes repetitive and zero-power compensators. In this article, we present the design of the MagLev mechanism, measure the levitational accuracy of the impeller and pressure-flow curves (head-quantity [HQ] characteristics), and describe in vitro experiments designed to measure hemolysis. For the flow-induced hemolysis of the initial design to be reduced, the blood damage index was estimated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Stable rotation of the impeller in a prototype MagLev BP from 0 to 2750 rpm was obtained, yielding a flow rate of 5 L/min against a head pressure in excess of 250 mm Hg. Because the impeller of the prototype MagLev BP is levitated without contact, the normalized index of hemolysis was 10% less than the equivalent value with the BPX-80. The results of the CFD analysis showed that the shape of the outlet and the width of the fluid clearances have a large effect on blood damage. The prototype MagLev BP satisfied the required HQ characteristics (5 L/min, 250 mm Hg) for extracorporeal circulation support with stable levitation of the impeller and showed an acceptable level of hemolysis. The simulation results of the CFD analysis indicated the possibility of further reducing the blood damage of

  2. Shear Evaluation by Quantitative Flow Visualization Near the Casing Surface of a Centrifugal Blood Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Masahiro; Yamane, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Yuki; Ito, Kazuyuki; Konishi, Yoshiaki; Masuzawa, Toru; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Endo, Seiko; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki

    To clarify the correlation between high-shear flow and hemolysis in blood pumps, detail shear velocity distribution was quantified by an experimental method with a model centrifugal blood pump that has a series data of hemolysis tests and computational fluid dynamic analyses. Particular attention was paid to the shear velocity near the casing surface in the volute where the high shear causes in circumferentially wide region that is considerable to cause high hemolysis. Three pump models were compared concern with the radial gap width between the impeller and casing (the radial volute width) also with the outlet position whereas the impeller geometry was identical. These casing geometries were as follows: model 1-the gap width is standard 3mm and the outlet locates to make a smooth geometrical connection with the volute, model 2-the gap width is small 0.5mm and the outlet locates to make the smooth geometrical connection with the volute, and model 3-the gap width is small 0.5mm and the outlet locates to hardly make the smooth geometrical connection with the volute but be similar radial position with that of model 1. Velocity was quantified with a particle tracking velocimetry that is one of the quantitative flow visualization techniques, and the shear velocity was calculated. Results showed that all large shear velocity existed within the layers of about 0.1mm from the casing surface and that those layers were hardly affected by a vane passage even if the gap width is 0.5mm. They also showed that the maximum shear velocity appeared on the casing surface, and the shear velocities of models 2 and 3 were almost twice as large as that of model 1. This finding is in full corresponding with the results of hemolysis tests which showed that the hemolysis levels of both models 2 and 3 were 1.5 times higher than that of model 1. These results suggest that detailed high-shear evaluation near the casing surface in the volute is one of the most important keys in estimating the

  3. Application of Adaptive Starling-Like Controller to Total Artificial Heart Using Dual Rotary Blood Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Boon C; Smith, Peter A; Nestler, Frank; Timms, Daniel; Cohn, William E; Lim, Einly

    2017-03-01

    The successful clinical applicability of rotary left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has led to research interest in devising a total artificial heart (TAH) using two rotary blood pumps (RBPs). The major challenge when using two separately controlled LVADs for TAH support is the difficulty in maintaining the balance between pulmonary and systemic blood flows. In this study, a starling-like controller (SLC) hybridized with an adaptive mechanism was developed for a dual rotary LVAD TAH. The incorporation of the adaptive mechanism was intended not only to minimize the risk of pulmonary congestion and atrial suction but also to match cardiac demand. A comparative assessment was performed between the proposed adaptive starling-like controller (A-SLC) and a conventional SLC as well as a constant speed controller. The performance of all controllers was evaluated by subjecting them to three simulated scenarios [rest, exercise, head up tilt (HUT)] using a mock circulation loop. The overall results showed that A-SLC was superior in matching pump flow to cardiac demand without causing hemodynamic instabilities. In contrast, improper flow regulation by the SLC resulted in pulmonary congestion during exercise. From resting supine to HUT, overpumping of the RBPs at fixed speed (FS) caused atrial suction, whereas implementation of SLC resulted in insufficient flow. The comparative study signified the potential of the proposed A-SLC for future TAH implementation particularly among outpatients, who are susceptible to variety of clinical scenarios.

  4. Direct detection of cancer biomarkers in blood using a "place n play" modular polydimethylsiloxane pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honglian; Li, Gang; Liao, Lingying; Mao, Hongju; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong

    2013-01-01

    Cancer biomarkers have significant potential as reliable tools for the early detection of the disease and for monitoring its recurrence. However, most current methods for biomarker detection have technical difficulties (such as sample preparation and specific detector requirements) which limit their application in point of care diagnostics. We developed an extremely simple, power-free microfluidic system for direct detection of cancer biomarkers in microliter volumes of whole blood. CEA and CYFRA21-1 were chosen as model cancer biomarkers. The system automatically extracted blood plasma from less than 3 μl of whole blood and performed a multiplex sample-to-answer assay (nano-ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) technique) without the use of external power or extra components. By taking advantage of the nano-ELISA technique, this microfluidic system detected CEA at a concentration of 50 pg/ml and CYFRA21-1 at a concentration of 60 pg/ml within 60 min. The combination of PnP polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pump and nano-ELISA technique in a single microchip system shows great promise for the detection of cancer biomarkers in a drop of blood.

  5. Shaft/shaft-seal interface characteristics of a multiple disk centrifugal blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, K B; Miller, G E

    1999-06-01

    A multiple disk centrifugal pump (MDCP) is under investigation as a potential left ventricular assist device. As is the case with most shaft driven pumps, leakage problems around the shaft/shaft seal interface are of major interest. If leakage were to occur during or after implantation, potential events such as blood loss, clotting, blood damage, and/or infections might result in adverse effects for the patient. Because these effects could be quite disastrous, potential shaft and shaft seal materials have been investigated to determine the most appropriate course to limit these effects. Teflon and nylon shaft seals were analyzed as potential candidates along with a stainless steel shaft and a Melonite coated shaft. The materials and shafts were evaluated under various time durations (15, 30, 45, and 60 min), motor speeds (800, 1,000, 1,200, and 1,400 rpm), and outer diameters (1/2 and 3/4 inches). The motor speed and geometrical configurations were typical for the MDCP under normal physiologic conditions. An air and water study was conducted to analyze the inner diameter wear, the inner temperature values, and the outer temperature values. Statistical comparisons were computed for the shaft seal materials, the shafts, and the outer diameters along with the inner and outer temperatures. The conclusions made from the results indicate that both the tested shaft seal materials and shaft materials are not ideal candidates to be used for the MDCP. Teflon experienced a significant amount of wear in air and water studies. Nylon did experience little wear, but heat generation was an evident problem. A water study on nylon was not conducted because of its molecular structure.

  6. Relative cerebral blood volume is associated with collateral status and infarct growth in stroke patients in SWIFT PRIME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenillas, Juan F; Cortijo, Elisa; García-Bermejo, Pablo; Levy, Elad I; Jahan, Reza; Goyal, Mayank; Saver, Jeffrey L; Albers, Gregory W

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate how predefined candidate cerebral perfusion parameters correlate with collateral circulation status and to assess their capacity to predict infarct growth in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) eligible for endovascular therapy. Patients enrolled in the SWIFT PRIME trial with baseline computed tomography perfusion (CTP) scans were included. RAPID software was used to calculate mean relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in hypoperfused regions, and hypoperfusion index ratio (HIR). Blind assessments of collaterals were performed using CT angiography in the whole sample and cerebral angiogram in the endovascular group. Reperfusion was assessed on 27-h CTP; infarct volume was assessed on 27-h magnetic resonance imaging/CT scans. Logistic and rank linear regression models were conducted. We included 158 patients. High rCBV ( p = 0.03) and low HIR ( p = 0.03) were associated with good collaterals. A positive association was found between rCBV and better collateral grades on cerebral angiography ( p = 0.01). Baseline and 27-h follow-up CTP were available for 115 patients, of whom 74 (64%) achieved successful reperfusion. Lower rCBV predicted a higher infarct growth in successfully reperfused patients ( p = 0.038) and in the endovascular treatment group ( p = 0.049). Finally, rCBV and HIR may serve as markers of collateral circulation in AIS patients prior to endovascular therapy. Unique identifier: NCT0165746.

  7. Anion-coupled Na efflux mediated by the human red blood cell Na/K pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, S.; Hoffman, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The red cell Na/K pump is known to continue to extrude Na when both Na and K are removed from the external medium. Because this ouabain-sensitive flux occurs in the absence of an exchangeable cation, it is referred to as uncoupled Na efflux. This flux is also known to be inhibited by 5 mM Nao but to a lesser extent than that inhibitable by ouabain. Uncoupled Na efflux via the Na/K pump therefore can be divided into a Nao-sensitive and Nao-insensitive component. We used DIDS-treated, SO4-equilibrated human red blood cells suspended in HEPES-buffered (pHo 7.4) MgSO4 or (Tris)2SO4, in which we measured 22Na efflux, 35SO4 efflux, and changes in the membrane potential with the fluorescent dye, diS-C3 (5). A principal finding is that uncoupled Na efflux occurs electroneurally, in contrast to the pump's normal electrogenic operation when exchanging Nai for Ko. This electroneutral uncoupled efflux of Na was found to be balanced by an efflux of cellular anions. (We were unable to detect any ouabain-sensitive uptake of protons, measured in an unbuffered medium at pH 7.4 with a Radiometer pH-STAT.) The Nao-sensitive efflux of Nai was found to be 1.95 +/- 0.10 times the Nao-sensitive efflux of (SO4)i, indicating that the stoichiometry of this cotransport is two Na+ per SO4=, accounting for 60-80% of the electroneutral Na efflux. The remainder portion, that is, the ouabain-sensitive Nao-insensitive component, has been identified as PO4-coupled Na transport and is the subject of a separate paper. That uncoupled Na efflux occurs as a cotransport with anions is supported by the result, obtained with resealed ghosts, that when internal and external SO4 was substituted by the impermeant anion, tartrate i,o, the efflux of Na was inhibited 60-80%. This inhibition could be relieved by the inclusion, before DIDS treatment, of 5 mM Cli,o

  8. Infusion pumps and red blood cell damage in transfusion therapy: an integrative revision of the academic literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Miranda Martins Wilson

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to obtain information from scientific literature concerning infusion pumps used in administering erythrocyte (red blood cells and to evaluate the implications in the practical use of this equipment by nurses when conducting transfusions. Method: an integrative revision of the following scientific databases: Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, the Virtual Library for Health, SciELO, Web of Science and Cochrane. The following descriptors were used: "infusion pumps", "blood transfusion", "transfused erythrocyte" and "hemolyis". There were no restrictions on the scope of the initial data and it was finalized in December 2014. 17 articles were identified in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: all of the publications included in the studies were experimental in vitro and covered the use of infusion pumps in transfusion therapy. A summary of the data was presented in a synoptic chart and an analysis of it generated the following categories: cellular damage and the infusion mechanism. Conclusion: infusion pumps can be harmful to erythrocytes based on the infusion mechanism that is used, as the linear peristaltic pump is more likely to cause hemolysis. Cellular damage is related to the plasmatic liberation of markers that largely dominate free hemoglobin and potassium. We reiterate the need for further research and technological investments to guide the development of protocols that promote safe practices and that can contribute to future clinical studies.

  9. Jet pump assisted artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  10. Preload-based Starling-like control of rotary blood pumps: An in-vitro evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Mansouri

    Full Text Available Due to a shortage of donor hearts, rotary left ventricular assist devices (LVADs are used to provide mechanical circulatory support. To address the preload insensitivity of the constant speed controller (CSC used in conventional LVADs, we developed a preload-based Starling-like controller (SLC. The SLC emulates the Starling law of the heart to maintain mean pump flow ([Formula: see text] with respect to mean left ventricular end diastolic pressure (PLVEDm as the feedback signal. The SLC and CSC were compared using a mock circulation loop to assess their capacity to increase cardiac output during mild exercise while avoiding ventricular suction (marked by a negative PLVEDm and maintaining circulatory stability during blood loss and severe reductions in left ventricular contractility (LVC. The root mean squared hemodynamic deviation (RMSHD metric was used to assess the clinical acceptability of each controller based on pre-defined hemodynamic limits. We also compared the in-silico results from our previously published paper with our in-vitro outcomes. In the exercise simulation, the SLC increased [Formula: see text] by 37%, compared to only 17% with the CSC. During blood loss, the SLC maintained a better safety margin against left ventricular suction with PLVEDm of 2.7 mmHg compared to -0.1 mmHg for CSC. A transition to reduced LVC resulted in decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP and [Formula: see text] with CSC, whilst the SLC maintained MAP and [Formula: see text]. The results were associated with a much lower RMSHD value with SLC (70.3% compared to CSC (225.5%, demonstrating improved capacity of the SLC to compensate for the varying cardiac demand during profound circulatory changes. In-vitro and in-silico results demonstrated similar trends to the simulated changes in patient state however the magnitude of hemodynamic changes were different, thus justifying the progression to in-vitro evaluation.

  11. Heat generation and hemolysis at the shaft seal in centrifugal blood pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, K; Taenaka, Y; Wakisaka, Y; Masuzawa, T; Tatsumi, E; Nakatani, T; Baba, Y; Yagura, A; Eya, K; Toda, K

    1995-01-01

    The heat and hemolysis around a shaft seal were investigated. Materials were original pumps (Nikkiso HMS-15:N-original, and 3M Delphin:D-original), vane-removed pumps (Nvane(-), Dvane(-)), and a small chamber with a shaft coiled by nichrome wire (mock pump). The original pumps were driven at 500 mmHg and 5 L/min, and vane-removed pumps were driven at the same rotation number. An electrical powers of 0, 0.5, 2, and 10 W was supplied to the mock pumps. In vitro hemolytic testing showed that hemolytic indices were 0.027 g/100 L in N-original, 0.013 in Nvane(-), 0.061 in D-original, and 0.012 in Dvane(-). Measurement of heat with a thermally insulated water chamber showed total heat within the pump of 8.62 and 10.85 W, and heat at the shaft seal of 0.87 and 0.62 W in the Nikkiso and Delphin pumps, respectively. Hemolysis and heat generation of mock pumps remained low. The results indicate that the heat generated around the shaft seal was minimal. Hemolysis at the shaft-seal was considerable but not major. Local heat did not affect hemolysis. It was concluded that the shaft-seal affected hemolysis, not by local heat but friction itself.

  12. NO Metabolites Levels in Human Red Blood Cells are Affected by Palytoxin, an Inhibitor of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli-Alinovi, Cristiana; Tellone, Ester; Russo, Anna Maria; Ficarra, Silvana; Pirolli, Davide; Galtieri, Antonio; Giardina, Bruno; Misiti, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Palytoxin (PTX), a marine toxin, represents an increasing hazard for human health. Despite its high toxicity for biological systems, the mechanisms triggered by PTX, are not well understood. The high affinity of PTX for erythrocyte Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump is largely known, and it indicates PTX as a sensitive tool to characterize the signal transducer role for Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump. Previously, it has been reported that in red blood cells (RBC), probably via a signal transduction generated by the formation of a PTX-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase complex, PTX alters band 3 functions and glucose metabolism. The present study addresses the question of which other signaling pathways are regulated by Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in RBC. Here it has been evidenced that PTX following its interaction with Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump, alters RBC morphology and this event is correlated to decreases by 30% in nitrites and nitrates levels, known as markers of plasma membrane eNOS activity. Orthovanadate (OV), an antagonist of PTX binding to Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump, was able to reverse the effects elicited by PTX. Finally, current investigation firstly suggests that Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump, following its interaction with PTX, triggers a signal transduction involved in NO metabolism regulation.

  13. Cytokine-primed bone marrow stem cells vs. peripheral blood stem cells for autologous transplantation: a randomized comparison of GM-CSF vs. G-CSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisdorf, D; Miller, J; Verfaillie, C; Burns, L; Wagner, J; Blazar, B; Davies, S; Miller, W; Hannan, P; Steinbuch, M; Ramsay, N; McGlave, P

    1997-10-01

    Autologous transplantation for non-Hodgkins lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease is widely used as standard therapy for those with high-risk or relapsed tumor. Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collections have nearly completely replaced bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) harvests because of the perceived advantages of more rapid engraftment, less tumor contamination in the inoculum, and better survival after therapy. The advantage of PBSC, however, may derive from the hematopoietic stimulating cytokines used for PBSC mobilization. Therefore, we tested a randomized comparison of GM-CSF vs. G-CSF used to prime either BMSC or PBSC before collection for use in autologous transplantation. Sixty-two patients receiving transplants (31 PBSC; 31 BMSC) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 51) or Hodgkin's disease (n = 11) were treated. All patients received 6 days of randomly assigned cytokine. Those with cellular marrow in morphologic remission underwent BMSC harvest, while those with hypocellular marrow or microscopic marrow tumor involvement had PBSC collected. Neutrophil recovery was similarly rapid in all groups (median 14 days; range 10-23 days), though two patients had delayed neutrophil recovery using GM-CSF primed PBSC (p = 0.01). Red cell and platelet recovery were significantly quicker after BMSC mobilized with GM-CSF or PBSC mobilized with G-CSF. This speedier hematologic recovery resulted in earlier hospital discharge as well. However, in multivariate analysis, neither the stem cell source nor randomly assigned G-CSF vs. GM-CSF was independently associated with earlier multilineage hematologic recovery or shorter hospital stay. Relapse-free survival was not independently affected by either the assigned stem cell source or the randomly assigned priming cytokine, though malignant relapse was more frequent in those assigned to PBSC (RR of relapse 3.15, p = 0.03). These data document that BMSC, when collected following cytokine priming, can yield a similarly rapid hematologic

  14. Hydraulic testing of intravascular axial flow blood pump designs with a protective cage of filaments for mechanical cavopulmonary assist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Jugal Y; Pierce, Kathryn C; Poupore, Amy K; Throckmorton, Amy L

    2010-01-01

    To provide hemodynamic support to patients with a failing single ventricle, we are developing a percutaneously inserted, magnetically levitated axial flow blood pump designed to augment pressure in the cavopulmonary circulation. The device is designed to serve as a bridge-to-transplant, bridge-to-recovery, bridge-to-hemodynamic stability, or bridge-to-surgical reconstruction. This study evaluated the hydraulic performance of three blood pump prototypes (a four-bladed impeller, a three-bladed impeller, and a three-bladed impeller with a four-bladed diffuser) whose designs evolved from previous design optimization phases. Each prototype included the same geometric protective cage of filaments, which stabilize the rotor within the housing and protect the housing wall from the rotating blades. All prototypes delivered pressure rises over a range of flow rates and rotational speeds that would be sufficient to augment hemodynamic conditions in the cavopulmonary circulation. The four-bladed impeller outperformed the two remaining prototypes by >40%; this design was able to generate a pressure rise of 4-28 mm Hg for flow rates of 0.5-10 L/min at rotational speeds of 4,000-7,000 RPM. Successful development of this blood pump will provide clinicians with a feasible therapeutic option for mechanically supporting the failing Fontan.

  15. Development of a miniaturized mass-flow meter for an axial flow blood pump based on computational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Ryo; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu; Yamane, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    In order to monitor the condition of patients with implantable left ventricular assist systems (LVAS), it is important to measure pump flow rate continuously and noninvasively. However, it is difficult to measure the pump flow rate, especially in an implantable axial flow blood pump, because the power consumption has neither linearity nor uniqueness with regard to the pump flow rate. In this study, a miniaturized mass-flow meter for discharged patients with an implantable axial blood pump was developed on the basis of computational analysis, and was evaluated in in-vitro tests. The mass-flow meter makes use of centrifugal force produced by the mass-flow rate around a curved cannula. An optimized design was investigated by use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. On the basis of the computational analysis, a miniaturized mass-flow meter made of titanium alloy was developed. A strain gauge was adopted as a sensor element. The first strain gauge, attached to the curved area, measured both static pressure and centrifugal force. The second strain gauge, attached to the straight area, measured static pressure. By subtracting the output of the second strain gauge from the output of the first strain gauge, the mass-flow rate was determined. In in-vitro tests using a model circulation loop, the mass-flow meter was compared with a conventional flow meter. Measurement error was less than ±0.5 L/min and average time delay was 0.14 s. We confirmed that the miniaturized mass-flow meter could accurately measure the mass-flow rate continuously and noninvasively.

  16. Mechanisms of the priming effect of low doses of lipopoly-saccharides on leukocyte-dependent platelet aggregation in whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Bosco, Ornella; Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Fascio Pecetto, Paolo; Lupia, Enrico; Goffi, Alberto; Omedè, Paola; Emanuelli, Giorgio; Camussi, Giovanni

    2003-11-01

    Several studies focused on the ability of bacterial lipopolysac-charides (LPS) in triggering platelet and/or leukocyte activation. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the aggregation of platelets and in their interaction with leukocytes in whole blood after stimulation with low doses of LPS. LPS did not directly induce platelet aggregation in whole blood, but they primed the aggregation of platelets induced by epinephrine, adenosine diphosphate and arachidonic acid. As shown by cytofluorimetry, platelets neither bind FITC-LPS, nor express the LPS-receptors CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). On the contrary, LPS primed monocytes and to a lesser extent polymorphonuclear neutrophils to adhere to platelets. Both platelet-leukocyte interaction and platelet aggregation in whole blood were inhibited by blockade of CD14 and TLR4. Moreover, the interaction between platelets and leukocytes was inhibited by P-selectin, and by blockade of PAF and reactive oxygen species, suggesting a role of P-selectin and of leukocyte-derived mediators. In conclusion, these results elucidate the mechanisms leading to platelet activation and interaction with leukocytes triggered by LPS. They suggest that the activation of platelets by LPS is mainly dependent on leukocytes and especially monocytes as a result of CD14 and TLR4 engagement. Moreover, we found that leukocyte-platelet interaction was triggered by the synthesis of PAF and the generation of oxygen radicals that induced upregulation of surface expression of P-selectin.

  17. Development of real-time and quantitative monitoring of thrombus formation in an extracorporeal centrifugal blood pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Tatsuki; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Kuwana, Katsuyuki; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Kosaka, Ryo; Maruyama, Osamu

    2018-02-01

    We developed an optical detector of thrombus formed on the pivot bearing of an extracorporeal centrifugal blood pump (MERA HCF-MP23; Senko Medical Instrument Mfg. Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) which is frequently used for long-term extracorporeal circulation support to bridge to an implantable artificial heart, which in turn is used for bridge to heart transplantation in Japan. In this study, we investigated the quantitative performance of the thrombus formation in acute animal experiments. A total of three experiments of extracorporeal left ventricular assist using Japanese specific pathogen-free pigs were conducted. The optical fibers were set in the pump driver unit. The incident light at nearinfrared wavelength aiming at the pivot bearing and the resulting scattered light were guided to respective fibers. The detected signal was analyzed to obtain thrombus formation level (TFL) calculated by a specially developed software. When the increase in TFL was confirmed, the pump was exchanged and the extracorporeal circulation was restarted. The number of pump exchanges were four times at each experiment so a total of twelve pumps were evaluated. 3-dimentional data surrounding the pivot bearing and the adhered thrombus was captured by a 3-dimantional surface measurement system to calculate the thrombus surface area (TSA) formed on the pivot bearing. As a result, the correlation coefficient between TFL and TSA was 0.878. The accuracy of TSA estimated by the optical detector was 3.6+/-2.3 mm2. This was small enough to not have the pump exchanged in clinical judgement. The developed detector would be useful for optimal anti-coagulation management.

  18. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF AXIAL BLOOD PUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Itkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a theoretical analysis of the dynamic interaction of the left ventricle assist axial pump and the cardiovascular system. It is shown the axial pumps are working in conditions «left ventricle- aorta» generates a pulsed flow. The slope of the flow-pressure characteristics determine the amplitude of the pulsation. Data are confirmed in the chronic experiments on the biological models with the extracorporeal connection of the pump. The possibility of using this characteristic for the develope of the automatic control systems to ensure adequate operation of the pump in range of the physical activity of a patient ‘s physical activity. 

  19. Non-invasive estimation of pulsatile flow and differential pressure in an implantable rotary blood pump for heart failure patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlOmari, A H; Savkin, A V; Karantonis, D M; Lim, E; Lovell, N H

    2009-01-01

    We propose dynamical models for pulsatile flow and head estimation in an implantable rotary blood pump. Pulsatile flow and head data were obtained using a circulatory mock loop where fluid solutions with different values of viscosities were used as a blood analogue with varying haematocrit (HCT). Noninvasive measurements of power and pump speed were used with HCT values as inputs to the flow model while the estimated flow was used with the speed as inputs to a head estimation model. Linear regression analysis between estimated and measured flows obtained from a mock loop resulted in a highly significant correlation (R 2 = 0.982) and a mean absolute error (e) of 0.323 L min −1 , while for head, R 2 = 0.933 and e = 7.682 mmHg were obtained. R 2 = 0.849 and e = 0.584 L min −1 were obtained when the same model derived in the mock loop was used for flow estimation in ex vivo porcine data (N = 6). Furthermore, in the steady state, the solution of the presented flow model can be described by a previously designed and verified static model. The models developed herein will play a vital role in developing a robust control system of the pump flow coping with changing physiological demands

  20. A magnetic fluid seal for rotary blood pumps: effects of seal structure on long-term performance in liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Sayaka; Amari, Shuichi; Okamoto, Eiji; Murabayashi, Shun; Nishimura, Ikuya

    2011-03-01

    A magnetic fluid (MF) seal enables mechanical contact-free rotation of the shaft and hence has excellent durability. The performance of an MF seal, however, has been reported to decrease in liquids. We developed an MF seal that has a "shield" mechanism, and a new MF with a higher magnetization of 47.9 kA/m. The sealing performance of the MF seal installed in a rotary blood pump was studied. Three types of MF seals were used. Seal A was a conventional seal without a shield. Seal B had the same structure as that of Seal A, but the seal was installed at 1 mm below liquid level. Seal C was a seal with a shield and the MF was set at 1 mm below liquid level. Seal A failed after 6 and 11 days. Seal B showed better results (20 and 73 days). Seal C showed long-term durability (217 and 275 days). The reason for different results in different seal structures was considered to be different flow conditions near the magnetic fluid. Fluid dynamics near the MF in the pump were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. We have developed an MF seal with a shield that works in liquid for >275 days. The MF seal is promising as a shaft seal for rotary blood pumps.

  1. Hemolytic performance of a MagLev disposable rotary blood pump (MedTech Dispo): effects of MagLev gap clearance and surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Hideo; Asama, Junichi; Hijikata, Wataru; Hara, Chikara; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Yasuda, Toshitaka; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Shimokohbe, Akira; Takatani, Setsuo

    2006-12-01

    Mechanical shaft seal bearing incorporated in the centrifugal blood pumps contributes to hemolysis and thrombus formation. In addition, the problem of durability and corrosion of mechanical shaft seal bearing has been recently reported from the safety point of view. To amend the shortcomings of the blood-immersed mechanical bearings, a magnetic levitated centrifugal rotary blood pump (MedTech Dispo Model 1; Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan) has been developed for extracorporeal disposable application. In this study, the hemolytic performance of the MedTech Dispo Model 1 centrifugal blood pump system was evaluated, with special focus on the narrow blood path clearance at the magnetic bearing between rotor and stator, and on the pump housing surface roughness. A pump flow of 5 L/min against the head pressure of 100 mm Hg for 4 h was included in the hemolytic test conditions. Anticoagulated fresh porcine blood was used as a working fluid. The clearance of blood path at the magnetic bearing was in the range of 100-250 micro m. Pump housing surface roughness was controlled to be around Ra = 0.1-1.5 micro m. The lowest hemolytic results were obtained at the clearance of 250 micro m and with the polished surface (Ra = 0.1 micro m) yielding the normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) of less than 0.001 g/100 L, which was 1/5 of the Biopump BP-80 (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA, and 1/4 of the BPX-80. In spite of rough surface and narrow blood path, NIH levels were less than clinically acceptable level of 0.005 g/100 L. The noncontact, levitated impeller system is useful to improve pump performance in blood environment.

  2. Effect of intra-aortic balloon pump on coronary blood flow during different balloon cycles support: A computer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thin Pa Pa; Htet, Zwe Lin; Singhavilai, Thamvarit; Naiyanetr, Phornphop

    2015-01-01

    Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) has been used in clinical treatment as a mechanical circulatory support device for patients with heart failure. A computer model is used to study the effect on coronary blood flow (CBF) with different balloon cycles under both normal and pathological conditions. The model of cardiovascular and IABP is developed by using MATLAB SIMULINK. The effect on coronary blood flow has been studied under both normal and pathological conditions using different balloon cycles (balloon off; 1:4; 1:2; 1:1). A pathological heart is implemented by reducing the left ventricular contractility. The result of this study shows that the rate of balloon cycles is related to the level of coronary blood flow.

  3. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Blood flow rates of AV fistula can be affected by osmotic and oncotic pressures of blood and arterial blood pressures. Sodium, glucose, hemoglobin, and albumin are significant effectors, created osmotic and oncotic pressures [Table 3]. Blood levels of hemoglobin. (Hb), albumin, sodium (Na), and glucose ...

  4. The cool seal system: a practical solution to the shaft seal problem and heat related complications with implantable rotary blood pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, K; Mori, T; Tomioka, J; Litwak, P; Antaki, J F; Tagusari, O; Koyanagi, H; Griffith, B P; Kormos, R L

    1997-01-01

    A critical issue facing the development of an implantable, rotary blood pump is the maintenance of an effective seal at the rotating shaft. Mechanical seals are the most versatile type of seal in wide industrial applications. However, in a rotary blood pump, typical seal life is much shorter than required for chronic support. Seal failure is related to adhesion and aggregation of heat denatured blood proteins that diffuse into the lubricating film between seal faces. Among the blood proteins, fibrinogen plays an important role due to its strong propensity for adhesion and low transition temperature (approximately 50 degrees C). Once exposed to temperature exceeding 50 degrees C, fibrinogen molecules fuse together by multi-attachment between heat denatured D-domains. This quasi-polymerized fibrin increases the frictional heat, which proliferates the process into seal failure. If the temperature of the seal faces is maintained well below 50 degrees C, a mechanical seal would not fail in blood. Based on this "Cool-Seal" concept, we developed a miniature mechanical seal made of highly thermally conductive material (SiC), combined with a recirculating purge system. A large supply of purge fluid is recirculated behind the seal face to augment convective heat transfer to maintain the seal temperature below 40 degrees C. It also cools all heat generating pump parts (motor coil, bearing, seal). The purge consumption has been optimized to virtually nil (seal system has now been incorporated into our intraventricular axial flow blood pump (IVAP) and newly designed centrifugal pump. Ongoing in vivo evaluation of these systems has demonstrated good seal integrity for more than 160 days. The Cool-Seal system can be applied to any type of rotary blood pump (axial, diagonal, centrifugal, etc.) and offers a practical solution to the shaft seal problem and heat related complications, which currently limit the use of implantable rotary blood pumps.

  5. Glucose pump test can be used to measure blood flow rate of native arteriovenous fistula in chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Y C; Selcuk, N Y; Altıntepe, L; Güney, I; Yavuz, S

    2018-01-01

    In chronic hemodialysis patients, the low flow of vascular access may leads to inadequate dialysis, increased rate of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality. It was found that surveillance should be performed for native arteriovenous (AV) should not be performed for AV graft in various studies. However, surveillance was done in graft AV fistulas in most studies. Doppler ultrasonography (US) was suggested for surveillance of AV fistulas by the last vascular access guideline of National Kidney Foundation Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF KDOQI). The aim of study is to determine whether glucose pump test (GPT) is used for surveillance of native AV fistulas by using Doppler US as reference. In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US and GPT. For GPT, glucose was infused to 16 mL/min by pump and was measured at basal before the infusion and 11 s after the start of the infusion by glucometer. Doppler US was done by an expert radiologist. Used statistical tests were Mann-Whitney U test, Friedman test, regression analysis, and multiple regression analysis. Median values of blood flow rates measured by GPT (707 mL/min) and by Doppler US (700 mL/min) were not different (Z = 0.414, P = 0.678). Results of GPT and Doppler US measurements were positive correlate by regression analysis. The mean GPT value of diabetic patients (n = 39; 908 mL/min) was similar to that of nondiabetic patients (n = 54; 751 mL/min; Z = 1.31, P = 0.188). GPT values measured at three different dialysis session did not differ from each other that by Friedman test (F = 0.92, P = 0.39). This showed that GPT was stable and reliable. Glucose pump test can be used to measure blood flow rate of native AV fistula. GPT is an accurate and reliable test.

  6. Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Blood Transfusion (Indications and Problems in Tranfusion of Blood Components as of 1986)

    OpenAIRE

    金沢, 宏; 大関, 一; 矢沢, 正知; 江口, 昭治; Kanazawa, Hiroshi; Oozeki, Hajime; Yazawa, Masatomo; Eguchi, Shoji

    1987-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), functioning as the pumping system and the gas exchange functions, is one of the important instruments in cardiovascular operations. But it has many unfavourable problems such as massive blood transfusion, hemodilution, abnormality of coagulation, etc. In fact, 5 or 6 units of blood are necessary to prime CPB in infant, child, and adult. After CPB, massive blood transfusion is necessary to keep good circulation, and to recover from hemodilution and abnormal coagul...

  7. Estimation of the radial force using a disturbance force observer for a magnetically levitated centrifugal blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, C N; Shinshi, T; Shimokohbe, A

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of the hydraulic forces in a magnetically levitated (maglev) centrifugal blood pump is important from the point of view of the magnetic bearing design. Direct measurement is difficult due to the absence of a rotor shaft, and computational fluid dynamic analysis demands considerable computational resource and time. To solve this problem, disturbance force observers were developed, using the radial controlled magnetic bearing of a centrifugal blood pump, to estimate the radial forces on the maglev impeller. In order to design the disturbance observer, the radial dynamic characteristics of a maglev impeller were evaluated under different working conditions. It was observed that the working fluid affects the additional mass and damping, while the rotational speed affects the damping and stiffness of the maglev system. Based on these results, disturbance force observers were designed and implemented. The designed disturbance force observers present a bandwidth of 45 Hz. In non-pulsatile conditions, the magnitude of the estimated radial thrust increases in proportion to the flowrate, and the rotational speed has little effect on the force direction. At 5 l/min against 100 mmHg, the estimated radial thrust is 0.95 N. In pulsatile conditions, this method was capable of estimating the pulsatile radial thrust with good response.

  8. Blood pressure regulation X: what happens when the muscle pump is lost? Post-exercise hypotension and syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwill, John R; Sieck, Dylan C; Romero, Steven A; Buck, Tahisha M; Ely, Matthew R

    2014-03-01

    Syncope which occurs suddenly in the setting of recovery from exercise, known as post-exercise syncope, represents a failure of integrative physiology during recovery from exercise. We estimate that between 50 and 80% of healthy individuals will develop pre-syncopal signs and symptoms if subjected to a 15-min head-up tilt following exercise. Post-exercise syncope is most often neurally mediated syncope during recovery from exercise, with a combination of factors associated with post-exercise hypotension and loss of the muscle pump contributing to the onset of the event. One can consider the initiating reduction in blood pressure as the tip of the proverbial iceberg. What is needed is a clear model of what lies under the surface; a model that puts the observational variations in context and provides a rational framework for developing strategic physical or pharmacological countermeasures to ultimately protect cerebral perfusion and avert loss of consciousness. This review summarizes the current mechanistic understanding of post-exercise syncope and attempts to categorize the variation of the physiological processes that arise in multiple exercise settings. Newer investigations into the basic integrative physiology of recovery from exercise provide insight into the mechanisms and potential interventions that could be developed as countermeasures against post-exercise syncope. While physical counter maneuvers designed to engage the muscle pump and augment venous return are often found to be beneficial in preventing a significant drop in blood pressure after exercise, countermeasures that target the respiratory pump and pharmacological countermeasures based on the involvement of histamine receptors show promise.

  9. On the Mechanism of Human Red Blood Cell Longevity: Roles of Calcium, the Sodium Pump, PIEZO1, and Gardos Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio L. Lew

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In a healthy adult, the transport of O2 and CO2 between lungs and tissues is performed by about 2 · 1013 red blood cells, of which around 1.7 · 1011 are renewed every day, a turnover resulting from an average circulatory lifespan of about 120 days. Cellular lifespan is the result of an evolutionary balance between the energy costs of maintaining cells in a fit functional state versus cell renewal. In this Review we examine how the set of passive and active membrane transporters of the mature red blood cells interact to maximize their circulatory longevity thus minimizing costs on expensive cell turnover. Red blood cell deformability is critical for optimal rheology and gas exchange functionality during capillary flow, best fulfilled when the volume of each human red blood cell is kept at a fraction of about 0.55–0.60 of the maximal spherical volume allowed by its membrane area, the optimal-volume-ratio range. The extent to which red blood cell volumes can be preserved within or near these narrow optimal-volume-ratio margins determines the potential for circulatory longevity. We show that the low cation permeability of red blood cells allows volume stability to be achieved with extraordinary cost-efficiency, favouring cell longevity over cell turnover. We suggest a mechanism by which the interplay of a declining sodium pump and two passive membrane transporters, the mechanosensitive PIEZO1 channel, a candidate mediator of Psickle in sickle cells, and the Ca2+-sensitive, K+-selective Gardos channel, can implement red blood cell volume stability around the optimal-volume-ratio range, as required for extended circulatory longevity.

  10. Large eddy simulation in a rotary blood pump: Viscous shear stress computation and comparison with unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Benjamin; Konnigk, Lucas; Hallier, Sebastian; Kumar, Jitendra; Witte, Matthias; Wurm, Frank-Hendrik

    2018-06-01

    Numerical flow analysis (computational fluid dynamics) in combination with the prediction of blood damage is an important procedure to investigate the hemocompatibility of a blood pump, since blood trauma due to shear stresses remains a problem in these devices. Today, the numerical damage prediction is conducted using unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations. Investigations with large eddy simulations are rarely being performed for blood pumps. Hence, the aim of the study is to examine the viscous shear stresses of a large eddy simulation in a blood pump and compare the results with an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation. The simulations were carried out at two operation points of a blood pump. The flow was simulated on a 100M element mesh for the large eddy simulation and a 20M element mesh for the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation. As a first step, the large eddy simulation was verified by analyzing internal dissipative losses within the pump. Then, the pump characteristics and mean and turbulent viscous shear stresses were compared between the two simulation methods. The verification showed that the large eddy simulation is able to reproduce the significant portion of dissipative losses, which is a global indication that the equivalent viscous shear stresses are adequately resolved. The comparison with the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation revealed that the hydraulic parameters were in agreement, but differences for the shear stresses were found. The results show the potential of the large eddy simulation as a high-quality comparative case to check the suitability of a chosen Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes setup and turbulence model. Furthermore, the results lead to suggest that large eddy simulations are superior to unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations when instantaneous stresses are applied for the blood damage prediction.

  11. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US .... Arterial blood pressure from nonvascular access arm was measured by aneroid sphygmomanometer. The patients did not .... to detect differences in treatments across multiple test attempts. P < 0.05 ...

  12. Does transfusion of residual cardiopulmonary bypass circuit blood increase postoperative bleeding? A prospective randomized study in patients undergoing on pump cardiopulmonary bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duara, Rajnish; Misra, Manoranjan; Bhuyan, Ritwick Raj; Sarma, P. Sankara; Jayakumar, Karunakaran

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Homologous blood transfusion after open heart surgery puts a tremendous load on the blood banks. This prospective randomized study evaluates the efficacy of infusing back residual cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit i.e., pump blood as a means to reduce homologous transfusion after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) and whether its use increases postoperative drainage. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven consecutive patients who underwent elective CABGs under CPB were randomized into 2 groups: (1) cases where residual pump blood was used and (2) controls where residual pump blood was not used. Patients were monitored for hourly drainage on the day of surgery and the 1st postoperative day and the requirements of homologous blood and its products. Data were matched regarding change in Hemoglobin, Packed Cell Volume and coagulation parameters till 1st postoperative day. All cases were followed up for three years. Results: There was a marginal reduction in bleeding pattern in the early postoperative period in the cases compared to controls. The requirement of homologous blood and its products were also reduced in the cases. Conclusions: The use of CPB circuit blood is safe in the immediate postoperative period. The requirement of homologous blood transfusion can come down if strict transfusion criteria are maintained. PMID:20041077

  13. Does transfusion of residual cardiopulmonary bypass circuit blood increase postoperative bleeding? A prospective randomized study in patients undergoing on pump cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duara Rajnish

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Homologous blood transfusion after open heart surgery puts a tremendous load on the blood banks. This prospective randomized study evaluates the efficacy of infusing back residual cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB circuit i.e., pump blood as a means to reduce homologous transfusion after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG and whether its use increases postoperative drainage. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven consecutive patients who underwent elective CABGs under CPB were randomized into 2 groups: (1 cases where residual pump blood was used and (2 controls where residual pump blood was not used. Patients were monitored for hourly drainage on the day of surgery and the 1 st postoperative day and the requirements of homologous blood and its products. Data were matched regarding change in Hemoglobin, Packed Cell Volume and coagulation parameters till 1st postoperative day. All cases were followed up for three years. Results: There was a marginal reduction in bleeding pattern in the early postoperative period in the cases compared to controls. The requirement of homologous blood and its products were also reduced in the cases. Conclusions: The use of CPB circuit blood is safe in the immediate postoperative period. The requirement of homologous blood transfusion can come down if strict transfusion criteria are maintained.

  14. Impact of surgeon experience on the rate of blood transfusion in off-pump coronary artery bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jeng-Wei; Hsu, Ron-Bin

    2016-03-01

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) reduces the rate of blood transfusion. No studies have focused on the effect of surgeon experience on the transfusion rate. We sought to assess the transfusion rate in OPCAB and to evaluate the effect of surgeon experience. Retrospective review of 1055 consecutive patients undergoing OPCAB between 2000 and 2012. Patients were divided into tripartites by the year of operation (2000-2004, 2005-2008, and 2009-2012). Surgeon experience was evaluated with revascularization index and conversion rate. Mode of intervention was elective in 768, urgency in 185, and emergency in 102 patients (10%). Blood transfusion was associated with increased rates of hospital mortality and sternal wound/bloodstream infections. Revascularization index was 1.22 ± 0.29 per patient and increased over time, from 1.05 ± 0.21 in 2000-2004 to 1.39 ± 0.26 in 2009-2012. Conversion rate was 10% and decreased over time, from 17% in 2000-2004 to 6% in 2009-2012. The average rate of blood transfusion was 58% and decreased over time, from 74% in 2000-2004 to 41% in 2009-2012. Rate of red blood cell transfusion was 56% and decreased from 72% in 2000-2004 to 40% in 2009-2012. Rate of platelet transfusion was 21% and decreased from 25% in 2000-2004 to 15% in 2009-2012.The most significant decrease in the transfusion rate was observed in nonemergency cases. Surgeon experience reduced the need of blood transfusion after OPCAB. Increasing surgeon experience was associated with a 33% reduction in blood transfusion rate. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Organ hierarchy during low blood flow on-pump: a randomized experimental positron emission tomography study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Sisse Anette; Kjærgaard, Benedict; Frøkiær, Jørgen

    will be measured with dynamic PET-CT before CPB and during the different blood flows. Systemic oxygen consumption will be estimated by measurement of mixed venous saturation and lactate, and regional muscle oxygen saturation (tSO2) with near infrared spectroscopy at the lower limb. Result: Preliminary data......].The purpose of this animal study is to investigate the organ hierarchy of brain, liver, kidney and muscle at normal and low blood flows by using dynamic positron tomography (PET-CT) during CPB. Methods CPB at different blood flows will be investigated in an experimental model of six 70 kg pigs...... knowledge this is the first study investigating organ hierarchy with dynamic PET-CT during profound systemic ischemia due to suboptimal blood flows during normothermic CPB. References 1. Murphy JM, Hessel II EA, Groom RC. Optimal perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass: an Evidence-based approach. Anesth...

  16. Sodium pumping: pump problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, M.; Guiton, P.

    Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads

  17. Evaluation of a Spiral Groove Geometry for Improvement of Hemolysis Level in a Hydrodynamically Levitated Centrifugal Blood Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashige, Tomotaka; Kosaka, Ryo; Sakota, Daisuke; Nishida, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Yamane, Takashi; Maruyama, Osamu

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a spiral groove geometry for a thrust bearing to improve the hemolysis level in a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump. We compared three geometric models: (i) the groove width is the same as the ridge width at any given polar coordinate (conventional model); (ii) the groove width contracts inward from 9.7 to 0.5 mm (contraction model); and (iii) the groove width expands inward from 0.5 to 4.2 mm (expansion model). To evaluate the hemolysis level, an impeller levitation performance test and in vitro hemolysis test were conducted using a mock circulation loop. In these tests, the driving conditions were set at a pressure head of 200 mm Hg and a flow rate of 4.0 L/min. As a result of the impeller levitation performance test, the bottom bearing gaps of the contraction and conventional models were 88 and 25 μm, respectively. The impeller of the expansion model touched the bottom housing. In the hemolysis test, the relative normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) ratios of the contraction model in comparison with BPX-80 and HPM-15 were 0.6 and 0.9, respectively. In contrast, the relative NIH ratios of the conventional model in comparison with BPX-80 and HPM-15 were 9.6 and 13.7, respectively. We confirmed that the contraction model achieved a large bearing gap and improved the hemolysis level in a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Development of a disposable maglev centrifugal blood pump intended for one-month support in bridge-to-bridge applications: in vitro and initial in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Mariko; Waguri, Satoshi; Ushiyama, Tomohiro; Nagaoka, Eiki; Hijikata, Wataru; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Arai, Hirokuni; Takatani, Setsuo

    2009-09-01

    MedTech Dispo, a disposable maglev centrifugal blood pump with two degrees of freedom magnetic suspension and radial magnetic coupling rotation, has been developed for 1-month extracorporeal circulatory support. As the first stage of a two-stage in vivo evaluation, 2-week evaluation of a prototype MedTech Dispo was conducted. In in vitro study, the pump could produce 5 L/min against 800 mm Hg and the normalized index of hemolysis was 0.0054 +/- 0.0008 g/100 L. In in vivo study, the pump, with its blood-contacting surface coated with biocompatible 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine polymer, was implanted in seven calves in left heart bypass. Pump performance was stable with a mean flow of 4.49 +/- 0.38 L/min at a mean speed of 2072.1 +/- 64.5 rpm. The maglev control revealed its stability in rotor position during normal activity by the calves. During 2 weeks of operation in two calves which survived the intended study period, no thrombus formation was seen inside the pump and levels of plasma free hemoglobin were maintained below 4 mg/dL. Although further experiments are required, the pump demonstrated the potential for sufficient and reliable performance and biocompatibility in meeting the requirements for cardiopulmonary bypass and 1-week circulatory support.

  19. Adsorption pump for helium pumping out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donde, A.L.; Semenenko, Yu.E.

    1981-01-01

    Adsorption pump with adsorbent cooling by liquid helium is described. Shuttered shield protecting adsorbent against radiation is cooled with evaporating helium passing along the coil positioned on the shield. The pump is also equipped with primed cylindrical shield, cooled with liquid nitrogen. The nitrogen shield has in the lower part the shuttered shield, on the pump casing there is a valve used for pump pre-burning, and valves for connection to recipient as well. Pumping- out rates are presented at different pressures and temperatures of adsorbent. The pumping-out rate according to air at absorbent cooling with liquid nitrogen constituted 5x10 -4 Pa-3000 l/s, at 2x10 -2 Pa-630 l/s. During the absorbent cooling with liquid hydrogen the pumping-out rate according to air was at 4x10 -4 Pa-580 l/s, at 2x10 -3 Pa-680 l/s, according to hydrogen - at 8x10 -5 Pa-2500 l/s, at 5x10 -3 Pa-4200 l/s. During adsorbent cooling with liquid helium the rate of pumping-out according to hydrogen at 3x10 5 Pa-2400% l/s, at 6x10 3 Pa-1200 l/s, and according to helium at 3.5x10 -5 Pa-2800 l/s, at 4x10 -3 Pa-1150 l/s. The limit vacuum is equal to 1x10 -7 Pa. The volume of the vessel with liquid helium is equal to 3.5 l. Helium consumption is 80 cm 3 /h. Consumption of liquid nitrogen from the shield is 400 cm 3 /h. The limit pressure in the pump is obtained after forevacuum pumping-out (adsorbent regeneration) at 300 K temperature. The pump is made of copper. The pump height together with primed tubes is 800 mm diameter-380 mm [ru

  20. 46 CFR 181.300 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 181.300 Section 181.300 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must be..., the minimum capacity of the fire pump must be 189 liters (50 gallons) per minute at a pressure of not...

  1. 46 CFR 118.300 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 118.300 Section 118.300 Shipping COAST GUARD... Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must be installed on each vessel. (b) On a..., the fire pump must be capable of delivering a single hose stream from the highest hydrant, through the...

  2. Prime Slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2011-01-01

    of primality and factorization into playful interactions, addressed to primary and early secondary school children. Taking into account individual needs expressed by children regarding play, during a participatory design processes aimed at enhancing learning in museums, Prime Slaughter allows for multiple......Starting from the difficulty of creating playful representation of domain-specific abstract concepts, this study discusses the design of Prime Slaughter, a computer game aimed at facilitating individual sense-making of abstract mathematical concepts. Specifically the game proposes a transposition...

  3. Syntactic Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Janet L.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the syntactic priming task, a paradigm involving the presentation of a phrasal or clausal context, followed by the presentation of a target item for lexical decision or naming. Notes that response times are faster for targets syntactically congruent with the preceding context than for incongruent targets. Outlines how to administer this…

  4. Prime Slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2011-01-01

    of primality and factorization into playful interactions, addressed to primary and early secondary school children. Taking into account individual needs expressed by children regarding play, during a participatory design processes aimed at enhancing learning in museums, Prime Slaughter allows for multiple...... forms of play and their integration. A simple working prototype has already been developed; it will be tested and re-designed through participatory workshops, involving a group of children in our target group....

  5. Design and Evaluation of a Fully Implantable Control Unit for Blood Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unthan, Kristin; Gräf, Felix; Laumen, Marco; Finocchiaro, Thomas; Sommer, Christoph; Lanmüller, Hermann; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    As the number of donor hearts is limited while more and more patients suffer from end stage biventricular heart failure, Total Artificial Hearts become a promising alternative to conventional treatment. While pneumatic devices sufficiently supply the patients with blood flow, the patient's quality of life is limited by the percutaneous pressure lines and the size of the external control unit. This paper describes the development of the control unit of the ReinHeart, a fully implantable Total Artificial Heart. General requirements for any implantable control unit are defined from a technical and medical point of view: necessity of a Transcutaneous Energy Transmission, autonomous operation, safety, geometry, and efficiency. Based on the requirements, a prototype is designed; it incorporates a LiFePo4 battery pack with charger, a rectifier for transcutaneous energy transmission, the motor's driver electronics, and a microcontroller which monitors and controls all functions. In validation tests, the control unit demonstrated a stable operation on TET and battery supply and a safe switching from one supply to the other. The overall mean efficiency is 14% on TET and 22% on battery supply. The control unit is suitable for chronic animal trials of the ReinHeart. PMID:26583095

  6. Development of a disposable magnetically levitated centrifugal blood pump (MedTech Dispo) intended for bridge-to-bridge applications--two-week in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Eiki; Someya, Takeshi; Kitao, Takashi; Kimura, Taro; Ushiyama, Tomohiro; Hijikata, Wataru; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Arai, Hirokuni; Takatani, Setsuo

    2010-09-01

    Last year, we reported in vitro pump performance, low hemolytic characteristics, and initial in vivo evaluation of a disposable, magnetically levitated centrifugal blood pump, MedTech Dispo. As the first phase of the two-stage in vivo studies, in this study we have carried out a 2-week in vivo evaluation in calves. Male Holstein calves with body weight of 62.4–92.2 kg were used. Under general anesthesia, a left heart bypass with a MedTech Dispo pump was instituted between the left atrium and the descending aorta via left thoracotomy. Blood-contacting surface of the pump was coated with a 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine polymer. Post-operatively, with activated clotting time controlled at 180–220 s using heparin and bypass flow rate maintained at 50 mL/kg/min, plasma-free hemoglobin (Hb), coagulation, and major organ functions were analyzed for evaluation of biocompatibility. The animals were electively sacrificed at the completion of the 2-week study to evaluate presence of thrombus inside the pump,together with an examination of major organs. To date, we have done 13 MedTech Dispo implantations, of which three went successfully for a 2-week duration. In these three cases, the pump produced a fairly constant flow of 50 mL/Kg/min. Neurological disorders and any symptoms of thromboembolism were not seen. Levels of plasma-free Hb were maintained very low. Major organ functions remained within normal ranges. Autopsy results revealed no thrombus formation inside the pump. In the last six cases, calves suffered from severe pneumonia and they were excluded from the analysis. The MedTech Dispo pump demonstrated sufficient pump performance and biocompatibility to meet requirements for 1-week circulatory support. The second phase (2-month in vivo study) is under way to prove the safety and efficacy of MedTech Dispo for 1-month applications. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2010, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation

  7. Infusion pumps and red blood cell damage in transfusion therapy: an integrative revision of the academic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ana Maria Miranda Martins; Peterlini, Maria Angélica Sorgini; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves

    2016-08-15

    to obtain information from scientific literature concerning infusion pumps used in administering erythrocyte (red blood cells) and to evaluate the implications in the practical use of this equipment by nurses when conducting transfusions. an integrative revision of the following scientific databases: Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, the Virtual Library for Health, SciELO, Web of Science and Cochrane. The following descriptors were used: "infusion pumps", "blood transfusion", "transfused erythrocyte" and "hemolyis". There were no restrictions on the scope of the initial data and it was finalized in December 2014. 17 articles were identified in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. all of the publications included in the studies were experimental in vitro and covered the use of infusion pumps in transfusion therapy. A summary of the data was presented in a synoptic chart and an analysis of it generated the following categories: cellular damage and the infusion mechanism. infusion pumps can be harmful to erythrocytes based on the infusion mechanism that is used, as the linear peristaltic pump is more likely to cause hemolysis. Cellular damage is related to the plasmatic liberation of markers that largely dominate free hemoglobin and potassium. We reiterate the need for further research and technological investments to guide the development of protocols that promote safe practices and that can contribute to future clinical studies. identificar na literatura a produção científica acerca dos efeitos de bomba de infusão na administração de hemácias e avaliar as implicações do uso desses equipamentos na prática transfusional de enfermagem. revisão integrativa de literatura nas bases de dados Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, SciELO, Web of Science e Cochrane, utilizando os descritores "bombas de infusão", "transfusão de sangue", "transfusão de eritrócitos" e "hemólise". A data inicial não foi delimitada e a final foi dezembro de

  8. Effect of different dosages of nitroglycerin infusion on arterial blood gas tensions in patients undergoing on- pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Gholamreza; Pour, Evaz Hidar; Sadeghpour, Ali; Ziayeefard, Mohsen; Alavi, Mostapha; Anbardan, Sanam Javid; Shirani, Shahin

    2012-02-01

    On-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery impairs gas exchange in the early postoperative period. The main object on this study was evaluation of changes in arterial blood gas values in patients underwent on pump CABG surgery receiving different dose of intravenous nitroglycerin (NTG). sixty-seven consecutive patients undergoing elective on-pump CABG randomly enrolled into three groups receiving NTG 50 μg/min (Group N1, n =67), 100 μg/min (Group N2, n = 67), and 150 μg/min (Group N3, n = 67). Arterial blood gas (ABG) tensions were evaluated just before induction of anesthesia, during anesthesia, at the end of warming up period, and 6 h after admission to the intensive care unit. Pao2 and PH had the highest value during surgery in Group N1, Group N2, and Group N3. No significant difference was noted in mean values of Pao2 and PH during surgery between three groups (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in HCO3 values in different time intervals among three groups (P > 0.05). our results showed that infusing three different dosage of NTG (50, 100, and 150 μg/min) had no significant effect on ABG tensions in patients underwent on-pump CABG surgery.

  9. Estimation of changes in dynamic hydraulic force in a magnetically suspended centrifugal blood pump with transient computational fluid dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, Toru; Ohta, Akiko; Tanaka, Nobuatu; Qian, Yi; Tsukiya, Tomonori

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the hydraulic force on magnetically levitated (maglev) pumps should be studied carefully to improve the suspension performance and the reliability of the pumps. A maglev centrifugal pump, developed at Ibaraki University, was modeled with 926 376 hexahedral elements for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. The pump has a fully open six-vane impeller with a diameter of 72.5 mm. A self-bearing motor suspends the impeller in the radial direction. The maximum pressure head and flow rate were 250 mmHg and 14 l/min, respectively. First, a steady-state analysis was performed using commercial code STAR-CD to confirm the model's suitability by comparing the results with the real pump performance. Second, transient analysis was performed to estimate the hydraulic force on the levitated impeller. The impeller was rotated in steps of 1 degrees using a sliding mesh. The force around the impeller was integrated at every step. The transient analysis revealed that the direction of the radial force changed dynamically as the vane's position changed relative to the outlet port during one circulation, and the magnitude of this force was about 1 N. The current maglev pump has sufficient performance to counteract this hydraulic force. Transient CFD analysis is not only useful for observing dynamic flow conditions in a centrifugal pump but is also effective for obtaining information about the levitation dynamics of a maglev pump.

  10. Hemodynamic response to exercise and head-up tilt of patients implanted with a rotary blood pump: a computational modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Einly; Salamonsen, Robert Francis; Mansouri, Mahdi; Gaddum, Nicholas; Mason, David Glen; Timms, Daniel L; Stevens, Michael Charles; Fraser, John; Akmeliawati, Rini; Lovell, Nigel Hamilton

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigates the response of implantable rotary blood pump (IRBP)-assisted patients to exercise and head-up tilt (HUT), as well as the effect of alterations in the model parameter values on this response, using validated numerical models. Furthermore, we comparatively evaluate the performance of a number of previously proposed physiologically responsive controllers, including constant speed, constant flow pulsatility index (PI), constant average pressure difference between the aorta and the left atrium, constant average differential pump pressure, constant ratio between mean pump flow and pump flow pulsatility (ratioP I or linear Starling-like control), as well as constant left atrial pressure ( P l a ¯ ) control, with regard to their ability to increase cardiac output during exercise while maintaining circulatory stability upon HUT. Although native cardiac output increases automatically during exercise, increasing pump speed was able to further improve total cardiac output and reduce elevated filling pressures. At the same time, reduced venous return associated with upright posture was not shown to induce left ventricular (LV) suction. Although P l a ¯ control outperformed other control modes in its ability to increase cardiac output during exercise, it caused a fall in the mean arterial pressure upon HUT, which may cause postural hypotension or patient discomfort. To the contrary, maintaining constant average pressure difference between the aorta and the left atrium demonstrated superior performance in both exercise and HUT scenarios. Due to their strong dependence on the pump operating point, PI and ratioPI control performed poorly during exercise and HUT. Our simulation results also highlighted the importance of the baroreflex mechanism in determining the response of the IRBP-assisted patients to exercise and postural changes, where desensitized reflex response attenuated the percentage increase in cardiac output during exercise and

  11. Effect of insulin pump and continuous intravenous insulin on ketone body metabolism, blood gas indexes and stress state in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jin Shi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of insulin pump and continuous intravenous insulin on ketone body metabolism, blood gas indexes and stress state in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Methods: Patients with diabetic ketoacidosis who were treated in Meizhou Maternal and Child Heath Hospital between May 2014 and March 2017 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into the group A who received subcutaneous insulin infusion by insulin pump and the group B who received intravenous small-dose insulin injection by micropump. The indexes of ketone body, blood gas and stress were measured before and after treatment. Results: 12 h and 24 h after treatment, serum β-hydroxybutyrate, MDA, NE, ACTH and Cor contents of both groups of patients were significantly lower than those before treatment while pH, HCO3 - and base excess levels as well as serum SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and TAC contents were significantly higher than those before treatment, and serum β-hydroxybutyrate, MDA, NE, ACTH and Cor contents of group A were significantly lower than those of group B while pH, HCO3 - and base excess levels as well as serum SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and TAC contents were significantly higher than those of group B. Conclusion: Subcutaneous insulin infusion by insulin pump can improve ketone body metabolism, acidosis status and stress state in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis.

  12. Avaliação de tanques de escorva utilizados em substituição à válvula-de-pé em instalações de bombeamento Evaluation of priming tanks using them instead of foot valve in pumping installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos O. Betini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A maioria das instalações de abastecimento de água utiliza bombas hidráulicas do tipo turbobombas, requerendo que o interior de sua carcaça e da tubulação de sucção esteja preenchido com água (escorvados para que a sucção da água possa ser efetivada. O escorvamento das bombas pode ser efetuado instalando-as abaixo do reservatório de captação (bomba afogada. Quando a bomba está acima do reservatório e o escorvamento é manual, é necessário usar válvulas-de-pé, que são suscetíveis ao mau funcionamento, limitando a confiabilidade do sistema, principalmente em caso de automação. Como alternativa à válvula-de-pé, neste trabalho, foram estudados dois tanques escorva, testados no Laboratório de Hidráulica e Irrigação da FCAV/UNESP - Jaboticabal, avaliando-se situações de altura manométrica de sucção de bomba centrífuga e relações entre volume útil do tanque e volume do tubo de sucção, tendo-se concluído: a o volume do tanque de escorva é função do volume do tubo de sucção da instalação de bombeamento e da altura manométrica de sucção; b o volume do tanque de escorva pode ser calculado seguindo-se a Lei de Boyle, com percentagem de acréscimo que, neste estudo, foi de 10% para um modelo de tanque e de 30% para o segundo modelo.The majority of water supply installations use hydraulic pump-turbines, requiring their inner casing and suction pipe be water filled (primed, to allow water suction. Pumps priming can be carried out installing them under the suction reservoir (drowned pump. When pump is above the reservoir and priming is manual, it will be necessary using foot valves, which are subjected to bad working, with a reduction of system reliability, mainly with automation. In this work, as an alternative to foot valves, two priming tanks were inquired, tested in the FCAV/UNESP-Jaboticabal, Brazil, Laboratory of Hydraulics and Irrigation, with the evaluation of suction head situations of centrifugal

  13. Development of a real-time and quantitative thrombus sensor for an extracorporeal centrifugal blood pump by near-infrared light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Tatsuki; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Kuwana, Katsuyuki; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Kosaka, Ryo; Nishida, Masahiro; Mizuno, Tomohiro; Arai, Hirokuni; Maruyama, Osamu

    2018-01-01

    We developed an optical thrombus sensor for a monopivot extracorporeal centrifugal blood pump. In this study, we investigated its quantitative performance for thrombus detection in acute animal experiments of left ventricular assist using the pump on pathogen-free pigs. Optical fibers were set in the driver unit of the pump. The incident light at the near-infrared wavelength of 810 nm was aimed at the pivot bearing, and the resulting scattered light was guided to the optical fibers. The detected signal was analyzed to obtain the thrombus formation level. As a result, real-time and quantitative monitoring of the thrombus surface area on the pivot bearing was achieved with an accuracy of 3.6 ± 2.3 mm 2 . In addition, the sensing method using the near-infrared light was not influenced by changes in the oxygen saturation and the hematocrit. It is expected that the developed sensor will be useful for optimal anticoagulation management for long-term extracorporeal circulation therapies.

  14. Penis Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your appointment might be less involved. Choosing a penis pump Some penis pumps are available without a ... it doesn't get caught in the ring. Penis pumps for penis enlargement Many advertisements in magazines ...

  15. Rapid photolytic release of adenosine 5'-triphosphate from a protected analogue: utilization by the Na:K pump of human red blood cell ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, J.H.; Forbush, B. III; Hoffman, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    2-Nitrobenzyl phosphate and 1-(2-nitro)phenylethyl phosphate have been synthesized and demonstrated to be suitable as photolabile sources of inorganic phosphate. The same protecting groups were attached to the terminal phosphate of adenosine 5'-triphosphate. These caged ATP compounds released adenosine 5'-triphosphate on illumination at 340 nm in aqueous solution and P 3 -1-(2-nitro)phenylethyl-ATP gave about a 70 percent yield in under 30 s. The unphotolyzed caged ATP was neither a substrate nor inhibitor of purified renal Na,K-ATPase (EC 3.61.3). Following photolysis in the presence of the enzyme, the liberated ATP was hydrolyzed but at an inhibited rate. The photo-dependent inhibition could be eliminated by prior addition of glutathione or bisulfite to the irradiated solution. Caged ATP was incorporated into resealed human erythrocyte ghosts prepared from red blood cells depleted of internal energy stores. While the NA : K pump was unable to use incorporated caged ATP as a substrate, the ATP liberated by photolysis activated the pump as evidenced by measurements of K-dependent, ouabain-sensitive Na efflux. Thus the caged ATP can be used as a stable source of ATP unmetabolizable by intracellular ATPases until the ATP is released following photolytic irradiation

  16. Antigenicity of Leishmania-Activated C-Kinase Antigen (LACK in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, and Protective Effect of Prime-Boost Vaccination With pCI-neo-LACK Plus Attenuated LACK-Expressing Vaccinia Viruses in Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania-activated C-kinase antigen (LACK is a highly conserved protein among Leishmania species and is considered a viable vaccine candidate for human leishmaniasis. In animal models, prime-boost vaccination with LACK-expressing plasmids plus attenuated vaccinia viruses (modified vaccinia Ankara [MVA] and mutant M65 expressing LACK, has been shown to protect against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. Further, LACK demonstrated to induce the production of protective cytokines in patients with active CL or cured visceral leishmaniasis, as well as in asymptomatic individuals from endemic areas. However, whether LACK is capable to trigger cytokine release by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients cured of CL due to Leishmania infantum (L. infantum or induce protection in L. infantum-infected hamsters [visceral leishmaniasis (VL model], has not yet been analyzed. The present work examines the ex vivo immunogenicity of LACK in cured VL and CL patients, and asymptomatic subjects from an L. infantum area. It also evaluates the vaccine potential of LACK against L. infantum infection in hamsters, in a protocol of priming with plasmid pCI-neo-LACK (DNA-LACK followed by a booster with the poxvirus vectors MVA-LACK or M65-LACK. LACK-stimulated PBMC from both asymptomatic and cured subjects responded by producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and granzyme B (Th1-type response. Further, 78% of PBMC samples that responded to soluble Leishmania antigen showed IFN-γ secretion following stimulation with LACK. In hamsters, the protocol of DNA-LACK prime/MVA-LACK or M65-LACK virus boost vaccination significantly reduced the amount of Leishmania DNA in the liver and bone marrow, with no differences recorded between the use of MVA or M65 virus vector options. In summary, the Th1-type and cytotoxic responses elicited by LACK in PBMC from human subjects infected with L. infantum, and the parasite protective effect of prime/boost vaccination in hamsters with DNA

  17. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, HH

    1981-01-01

    Centrifugal Pumps describes the whole range of the centrifugal pump (mixed flow and axial flow pumps are dealt with more briefly), with emphasis on the development of the boiler feed pump. Organized into 46 chapters, this book discusses the general hydrodynamic principles, performance, dimensions, type number, flow, and efficiency of centrifugal pumps. This text also explains the pumps performance; entry conditions and cavitation; speed and dimensions for a given duty; and losses. Some chapters further describe centrifugal pump mechanical design, installation, monitoring, and maintenance. The

  18. Pumps in wearable ultrafiltration devices: pumps in wuf devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armignacco, Paolo; Garzotto, Francesco; Bellini, Corrado; Neri, Mauro; Lorenzin, Anna; Sartori, Marco; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The wearable artificial kidney (WAK) is a device that is supposed to operate like a real kidney, which permits prolonged, frequent, and continuous dialysis treatments for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Its functioning is mainly related to its pumping system, as well as to its dialysate-generating and alarm/shutoff ones. A pump is defined as a device that moves fluids by mechanical action. In such a context, blood pumps pull blood from the access side of the dialysis catheter and return the blood at the same rate of flow. The main aim of this paper is to review the current literature on blood pumps, describing the way they have been functioning thus far and how they are being engineered, giving details about the most important parameters that define their quality, thus allowing the production of a radar comparative graph, and listing ideal pumps' features. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Prime tight frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob; Miller, Christopher; Okoudjou, Kasso A.

    2014-01-01

    to suggest effective analysis and synthesis computation strategies for such frames. Finally, we describe all prime frames constructed from the spectral tetris method, and, as a byproduct, we obtain a characterization of when the spectral tetris construction works for redundancies below two.......We introduce a class of finite tight frames called prime tight frames and prove some of their elementary properties. In particular, we show that any finite tight frame can be written as a union of prime tight frames. We then characterize all prime harmonic tight frames and use thischaracterization...

  20. Systematic Design of a Magnetically Levitated Brushless DC Motor for a Reversible Rotary Intra-Aortic Blood Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaxin; Logan, Thomas G; Smith, P Alex; Hsu, Po-Lin; Cohn, William E; Xu, Liping; McMahon, Richard A

    2017-10-01

    The IntraVAD is a miniature intra-aortic ventricular assist device (VAD) designed to work in series with the compromised left ventricle. A reverse-rotation control (RRc) mode has been developed to increase myocardial perfusion and reduce ventricular volume. The RRc mode includes forward rotation in systole and reverse rotation in diastole, which requires the IntraVAD to periodically reverse its rotational direction in synchrony with the cardiac cycle. This periodic reversal leads to changes in pressure force over the impeller, which makes the entire system less stable. To eliminate the mechanical wear of a contact bearing and provide active control over the axial position of the rotor, a miniature magnetically levitated bearing (i.e., the PM-Coil module) composed of two concentric permanent magnetic (PM) rings and a pair of coils-one on each side-was proposed to provide passive radial and active axial rotor stabilization. In the early design stage, the numerical finite element method (FEM) was used to optimize the geometry of the brushless DC (BLDC) motor and the maglev module, but constructing a new model each time certain design parameters were adjusted required substantial computation time. Because the design criteria for the module had to be modified to account for the magnetic force produced by the motor and for the hemodynamic changes associated with pump operation, a simplified analytic expression was derived for the expected magnetic forces. Suitable bearings could then be designed capable of overcoming these forces without repeating the complicated FEM simulation for the motor. Using this method at the initial design stage can inform the design of the miniature maglev BLDC motor for the proposed pulsatile axial-flow VAD. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  2. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  3. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Building Numbers from Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  5. Recognizing plant defense priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, A.; Flors, V.; Heil, M.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pozo, M.J.; Ton, J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Conrath, U.

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  6. Discovery: Prime Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestre, Neville

    2008-01-01

    Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…

  7. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  8. A web-based study of the relationship of duration of insulin pump infusion set use and fasting blood glucose level in adults with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson Perrin, Alysa J; Guzzetta, Russell C; Miller, Kellee M; Foster, Nicole C; Lee, Anna; Lee, Joyce M; Block, Jennifer M; Beck, Roy W

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of infusion set use duration on glycemic control, we conducted an Internet-based study using the T1D Exchange's online patient community, Glu ( myGlu.org ). For 14 days, 243 electronically consented adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) entered online that day's fasting blood glucose (FBG) level, the prior day's total daily insulin (TDI) dose, and whether the infusion set was changed. Mean duration of infusion set use was 3.0 days. Mean FBG level was higher with each successive day of infusion set use, increasing from 126 mg/dL on Day 1 to 133 mg/dL on Day 3 to 147 mg/dL on Day 5 (P<0.001). TDI dose did not vary with increased duration of infusion set use. Internet-based data collection was used to rapidly conduct the study at low cost. The results indicate that FBG levels increase with each additional day of insulin pump infusion set use.

  9. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  10. Masked priming effect reflects evidence accumulated by the prime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    In the same-different match task, masked priming is observed with the same responses but not different responses. Norris and Kinoshita's (2008) Bayesian reader account of masked priming explains this pattern based on the same principle as that explaining the absence of priming for nonwords in the lexical decision task. The pattern of priming follows from the way the model makes optimal decisions in the two tasks; priming does not depend on first activating the prime and then the target. An alternative explanation is in terms of a bias towards responding "same" that exactly counters the facilitatory effect of lexical access. The present study tested these two views by varying both the degree to which the prime predicts the response and the visibility of the prime. Unmasked primes produced effects expected from the view that priming is influenced by the degree to which the prime predicts the response. In contrast, with masked primes, the size of priming for the same response was completely unaffected by predictability. These results rule out response bias as an explanation of the absence of masked priming for different responses and, in turn, indicate that masked priming is not a consequence of automatic lexical access of the prime.

  11. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Gülich, Johann Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    This book gives an unparalleled, up-to-date, in-depth treatment of all kinds of flow phenomena encountered in centrifugal pumps including the complex interactions of fluid flow with vibrations and wear of materials. The scope includes all aspects of hydraulic design, 3D-flow phenomena and partload operation, cavitation, numerical flow calculations, hydraulic forces, pressure pulsations, noise, pump vibrations (notably bearing housing vibration diagnostics and remedies), pipe vibrations, pump characteristics and pump operation, design of intake structures, the effects of highly viscous flows, pumping of gas-liquid mixtures, hydraulic transport of solids, fatigue damage to impellers or diffusers, material selection under the aspects of fatigue, corrosion, erosion-corrosion or hydro-abrasive wear, pump selection, and hydraulic quality criteria. As a novelty, the 3rd ed. brings a fully analytical design method for radial impellers, which eliminates the arbitrary choices inherent to former design procedures. The d...

  12. Pumping life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg; Dach, Ingrid; Hoffmann, Robert Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The name PUMPKIN may suggest a research centre focused on American Halloween traditions or the investigation of the growth of vegetables – however this would be misleading. Researchers at PUMPKIN, short for Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease, are in fact interested in a large family o......’. Here we illustrate that the pumping of ions means nothing less than the pumping of life....

  13. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  14. Multisensory Flavor Priming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijksterhuis, Garmt Bernard

    2016-01-01

    with a taxonomy of different priming situations. In food-related applications of flavor, both bottom-up (sensory) as well as top-down (expectations) processes are at play. Most of the complex interactions that this leads to take place outside the awareness of the perceiving subject. A model is presented where...... many, past and current, aspects (sensory, surroundings, social, somatic, sentimental) of a (flavor) perception, together result in the perception of a flavor, its liking. or its choice. This model borrows on ideas from priming, situated/embodied cognition, and (food-related) perception.......Flavor is multisensory; several interacting sensory systems-taste, smell, and mouthfeel-together comprise "flavor," making it a cognitively constructed percept rather than a bottom-up sensory one. In this chapter, some of the complications this entails for flavor priming are introduced, along...

  15. Reexamining unconscious response priming: A liminal-prime paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avneon, Maayan; Lamy, Dominique

    2018-03-01

    Research on the limits of unconscious processing typically relies on the subliminal-prime paradigm. However, this paradigm is limited in the issues it can address. Here, we examined the implications of using the liminal-prime paradigm, which allows comparing unconscious and conscious priming with constant stimulation. We adapted an iconic demonstration of unconscious response priming to the liminal-prime paradigm. On the one hand, temporal attention allocated to the prime and its relevance to the task increased the magnitude of response priming. On the other hand, the longer RTs associated with the dual task inherent to the paradigm resulted in response priming being underestimated, because unconscious priming effects were shorter-lived than conscious-priming effects. Nevertheless, when the impact of long RTs was alleviated by considering the fastest trials or by imposing a response deadline, conscious response priming remained considerably larger than unconscious response priming. These findings suggest that conscious perception strongly modulates response priming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prediction of the external work of the native heart from the dynamic H-Q curves of the rotary blood pumps during left heart bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshimasa; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Kitao, Takashi; Kimura, Taro; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Takatani, Setsuo

    2010-09-01

    The ventricular performance is dependent on the drainage effect of rotary blood pumps (RBPs) and the performance of RBPs is affected by the ventricular pulsation. In this study, the interaction between the ventricle and RBPs was examined using the pressure-volume (P-V) diagram of the ventricle and dynamic head pressure-bypass flow (H-Q) curves (H, head pressure: arterial pressure minus ventricular pressure vs. Q, bypass flow) of the RBPs. We first investigated the relationships in a mock loop with a passive fill ventricle, followed by validation in ex vivo animal experiments. An apical drainage cannula with a micro-pressure sensor was especially fabricated to obtain ventricular pressure, while three pairs of ultrasonic crystals placed on the heart wall were used to derive ventricular volume. The mock loop-configured ventricular apical-descending aorta bypass revealed that the external work of the ventricle expressed by the area inside the P-V diagrams (EW(Heart) ) correlated strongly with the area inside dynamic H-Q curves (EW(VAD)), with the coefficients of correlation being R² = 0.869 ∼ 0.961. The results in the mock loop were verified in the ex vivo studies using three Shiba goats (10-25 kg in body weight), showing the correlation coefficients of R² = 0.802 ∼ 0.817. The linear regression analysis indicated that the increase in the bypass flow reduced pulsatility in the ventricle expressed in EW(Heart) as well as in EW(VAD) . Experimental results, both mock loop and animal studies, showed that the interaction between cardiac external work and H-Q performance of RBPs can be expressed by the relationships "EW(Heart) versus EW(VAD) ." The pulsatile nature of the native heart can be expressed in the area underneath the H-Q curves of RBPs EW(VAD) during left heart bypass indicating the status of the level of assistance by RBPs and the native heart function. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2010, International Center for Artificial Organs and

  17. PrimeFaces blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Jonna, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with experience of frontend UI development, and want to take the plunge to develop stunning UI applications with the most popular JSF framework, PrimeFaces, then this book is for you. For those with entrepreneurial aspirations, this book will provide valuable insights into how to utilize successful business models.

  18. Liquid metals pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Frere, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Pumps used to pump liquid metals depend on the liquid metal and on the type of application concerned. One deals more particularly with electromagnetic pumps, the main pumps used with mechanical pumps. To pump sodium in the nuclear field, these two types of pumps are used; the pumps of different circuits of Super Phenix are presented and described [fr

  19. 46 CFR 28.815 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge pumps, bilge piping, and dewatering systems. 28... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.815 Bilge pumps, bilge... fixed, self priming, powered, bilge pump, having a minimum capacity rating of 50 gallons per minute...

  20. Electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koji; Suetake, Norio; Aizawa, Toshie; Nakasaki, Masayoshi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic pump suitable to a recycling pump for liquid sodium as coolants of an FBR type reactor. Namely, a stator module of the electromagnetic pump of the present invention comprises a plurality of outer laminate iron core units and outer stator modules stacked alternately in the axial direction. With such a constitution, even a long electromagnetic pump having a large number of outer stator coils can be manufactured without damaging electric insulation of the outer stator coils. In addition, the inner circumferential surface of the outer laminate iron cores is urged and brought into contact with the outer circumferential surface of the outer duct by an elastic material. With such a constitution, Joule loss heat generated in the outer stator coils and internal heat generated in the outer laminate iron cores can be released to an electroconductive fluid flowing the inner circumference of the outer duct by way of the outer duct. (I.S.)

  1. Electrokinetic pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2007-11-20

    A method for altering the surface properties of a particle bed. In application, the method pertains particularly to an electrokinetic pump configuration where nanoparticles are bonded to the surface of the stationary phase to alter the surface properties of the stationary phase including the surface area and/or the zeta potential and thus improve the efficiency and operating range of these pumps. By functionalizing the nanoparticles to change the zeta potential the electrokinetic pump is rendered capable of operating with working fluids having pH values that can range from 2-10 generally and acidic working fluids in particular. For applications in which the pump is intended to handle highly acidic solutions latex nanoparticles that are quaternary amine functionalized can be used.

  2. Superficial Priming in Episodic Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Sargent, Jesse; Ngo, Catherine T.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the effect of superficial priming in episodic recognition and found it to be different from the effect of semantic priming in episodic recognition. Participants made recognition judgments to pairs of items, with each pair consisting of a prime item and a test item. Correct positive responses to the test item were impeded if the prime…

  3. Pumps and pump facilities. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, W.; Bauerfeind, H.; Gutmann, G.; Leuschner, G.; Matthias, H.B.; Mengele, R.; Neumaier, R.; Vetter, G.; Wagner, W.

    1981-01-01

    This book deals with the common fundamental aspects of liquid pumps and gives an exemplary choice of the most important kinds of pumps. The scientific matter is dealt with by means of practical mathematical examples among other ways of presenting the matter. Survey of contents: Division on main operational data of pumps - pipe characteristics - pump characteristics - suction behaviour of the pumps - projecting and operation of rotary pumps - boiler feed pumps - reactor feed pumps - oscillating positive-displacement pumps - eccentric spiral pumps. (orig./GL) [de

  4. Sodium-potassium pump activity in white blood cells from children with an increased risk of developing hypertension--The Odense Schoolchild Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H S; Nielsen, J R; Pedersen, K E

    1993-01-01

    . A significant increase in 86rubidium uptake was present in boys as compared to girls. After adjustment for differences in sexual maturation the observed significant difference disappeared. Important correlates of pump activity were height, plasma glucose, and physical fitness. In the training study 10 boys from...

  5. Subliminal semantic priming in speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Daltrozzo

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported subliminal repetition and semantic priming in the visual modality. We transferred this paradigm to the auditory modality. Prime awareness was manipulated by a reduction of sound intensity level. Uncategorized prime words (according to a post-test were followed by semantically related, unrelated, or repeated target words (presented without intensity reduction and participants performed a lexical decision task (LDT. Participants with slower reaction times in the LDT showed semantic priming (faster reaction times for semantically related compared to unrelated targets and negative repetition priming (slower reaction times for repeated compared to semantically related targets. This is the first report of semantic priming in the auditory modality without conscious categorization of the prime.

  6. Centrifugal Force Based Magnetic Micro-Pump Driven by Rotating Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S H; Hashi, S; Ishiyama, K

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a centrifugal force based magnetic micro-pump for the pumping of blood. Most blood pumps are driven by an electrical motor with wired control. To develop a wireless and battery-free blood pump, the proposed pump is controlled by external rotating magnetic fields with a synchronized impeller. Synchronization occurs because the rotor is divided into multi-stage impeller parts and NdFeB permanent magnet. Finally, liquid is discharged by the centrifugal force of multi-stage impeller. The proposed pump length is 30 mm long and 19 mm in diameter which much smaller than currently pumps; however, its pumping ability satisfies the requirement for a blood pump. The maximum pressure is 120 mmHg and the maximum flow rate is 5000ml/min at 100 Hz. The advantage of the proposed pump is that the general mechanical problems of a normal blood pump are eliminated by the proposed driving mechanism.

  7. Centrifugal Force Based Magnetic Micro-Pump Driven by Rotating Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Hashi, S.; Ishiyama, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a centrifugal force based magnetic micro-pump for the pumping of blood. Most blood pumps are driven by an electrical motor with wired control. To develop a wireless and battery-free blood pump, the proposed pump is controlled by external rotating magnetic fields with a synchronized impeller. Synchronization occurs because the rotor is divided into multi-stage impeller parts and NdFeB permanent magnet. Finally, liquid is discharged by the centrifugal force of multi-stage impeller. The proposed pump length is 30 mm long and19 mm in diameter which much smaller than currently pumps; however, its pumping ability satisfies the requirement for a blood pump. The maximum pressure is 120 mmHg and the maximum flow rate is 5000ml/min at 100 Hz. The advantage of the proposed pump is that the general mechanical problems of a normal blood pump are eliminated by the proposed driving mechanism.

  8. Fluidic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priestman, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    A fluidic pump has primary and secondary vessels connected by a pipe, a displacement vessel having liquid to be delivered through a pipe via a rectifier provided with a feed tank. A drive unit delivers pressure fluid to a line to raise liquid and compress trapped gas or liquid in the space, including the pipe between the liquids in the two vessels and thus drive liquid out of the displacement vessel. The driving gas is therefore separated by the barrier liquid and the trapped gas or liquid from the liquid to be pumped which liquid could be e.g. radioactive. (author)

  9. Pumped storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    The privately financed 1,000 MW Rocky Point Pumped Storage Project located in central Colorado, USA, will be one of the world's highest head, 2,350 feet reversible pump/turbine projects. The project will offer an economical supply of peaking power and spinning reserve power to Colorado and other southwestern states. This paper describes how the project will be made compatible with the environmental conditions in the project area and the type of terrestrial mitigation measures that are being proposed for those situations where the project impacts the environment, either temporarily or permanently

  10. VENTRICLE ASSIST DEVICE: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE NONPULSATILE PUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Р. Itkin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly describes the history of the non-pulsating type blood pumps for ventricular assist circulation and heart-lung machine. Disclosed the main advantages of these pumps before pulsating type, especially for implantable systems development. However, disadvantages of these pumps and the directions of minimize or eliminate ones have shown. Specific examples of our implantable centrifugal and axial pump developments are presented. Declare the ways to further improve the pumps

  11. Priming the Pump for Big Data at Sentara Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Howard P; Reagin, Michael J; Reese, Bertram S

    2016-01-01

    Today's healthcare organizations are facing significant demands with respect to managing population health, demonstrating value, and accepting risk for clinical outcomes across the continuum of care. The patient's environment outside the walls of the hospital and physician's office-and outside the electronic health record (EHR)-has a substantial impact on clinical care outcomes. The use of big data is key to understanding factors that affect the patient's health status and enhancing clinicians' ability to anticipate how the patient will respond to various therapies. Big data is essential to delivering sustainable, highquality, value-based healthcare, as well as to the success of new models of care such as clinically integrated networks (CINs) and accountable care organizations.Sentara Healthcare, based in Norfolk, Virginia, has been an early adopter of the technologies that have readied us for our big data journey: EHRs, telehealth-supported electronic intensive care units, and telehealth primary care support through MDLIVE. Although we would not say Sentara is at the cutting edge of the big data trend, it certainly is among the fast followers. Use of big data in healthcare is still at an early stage compared with other industries. Tools for data analytics are maturing, but traditional challenges such as heightened data security and limited human resources remain the primary focus for regional health systems to improve care and reduce costs. Sentara primarily makes actionable use of big data in our CIN, Sentara Quality Care Network, and at our health plan, Optima Health. Big data projects can be expensive, and justifying the expense organizationally has often been easier in times of crisis. We have developed an analytics strategic plan separate from but aligned with corporate system goals to ensure optimal investment and management of this essential asset.

  12. A highly reliable cryogenic mixing pump with no mechanical moving parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Niblick, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the design and preliminary test results of a novel cryogenic mixing pump based on magnetocaloric effect. The mixing pump is developed to enable long-term cryogenic propellant storage in space by preventing thermal stratification of cryogens in storage tanks. The mixing pump uses an innovative thermodynamic process to generate fluid jets to promote fluid mixing, eliminating the need for mechanical pumps. Its innovative mechanism uses a solid magnetocaloric material to alternately vaporize and condense the cryogen in the pumping chamber, and thus control the volume of the fluid inside the pumping chamber to produce pumping action. The pump is capable of self-priming and can generate a high-pressure rise. This paper discusses operating mechanism and design consideration of the pump, introduces the configuration of a brassboard cryogenic pump, and presents the preliminary test results of the pump with liquid nitrogen.

  13. Past Their Prime

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Rebecca E

    2012-01-01

    Past Their Prime is a half-hour documentary about Colo— the oldest living gorilla in captivity — on her 55th birthday, and her place in the world of geriatric zoo animal care.                It’s winter at the Columbus Zoo in Columbus, Ohio. In the ape house elderly visitors browse slowly, wrapped in down jackets. Children run from exhibit to exhibit, pointing at the animals they see and announcing each one to their grandparents. Behind the glass, Colo, the...

  14. Central and peripheral blood flow during exercise with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device: constant versus increasing pump speed: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brassard, Patrice; Jensen, Annette S; Nordsborg, Nikolai

    2011-01-01

    with work rate would increase organ blood flow. Methods and Results- Invasively determined CO and leg blood flow and Doppler-determined cerebral perfusion were measured during 2 incremental cycle exercise tests on the same day in 8 patients provided with a HeartMate II LVAD. In random order, patients...

  15. Prime time sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauerholz, E; King, A

    1997-04-01

    This study explores the explicit and implicit messages of sexual harassment that viewers receive when viewing prime-time television in the US. A content analysis of 48 hours of prime-time television reveals that sexual harassment on television is both highly visible and invisible. Sexual harassment is rendered visible simply by its prominence in these programs. Incidents involving quid-pro-quo harassment and environmental harassment occur with regularity on television. Furthermore, about 84% of the shows studied contained at least one incident of sexual harassment; yet these acts of sexual harassment remained largely invisible because none of the behaviors were labeled as sexual harassment. These incidents are presented in humorous ways, and victims are generally unharmed and very effective at ending the harassment. Although such programs may actually reflect the reality of many women's lives in terms of prevalence of sexual harassment, they perpetuate several myths about sexual harassment, such as that sexual harassment is not serious and that victims should be able to handle the situations themselves.

  16. Transposed-Letter Priming Effects with Masked Subset Primes: A Re-Examination of the "Relative Position Priming Constraint"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Eric J.; Lupker, Stephen J.; Davis, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments are reported investigating the role of letter order in orthographic subset priming (e.g., "grdn"-GARDEN) using both the conventional masked priming technique as well as the sandwich priming technique in a lexical decision task. In all three experiments, subset primes produced priming with the effect being considerably…

  17. Primes, Geometry and Condensed Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Rabeh R. H.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fascination with primes dates back to the Greeks and before. Primes are named by some "the elementary particles of arithmetic" as every nonprime integer is made of a unique set of primes. In this article we point to new connections between primes, geometry and physics which show that primes could be called "the elementary particles of physics" too. This study considers the problem of closely packing similar circles/spheres in 2D/3D space. This is in effect a discretization process of space and the allowable number in a pack is found to lead to some unexpected cases of prime configurations which is independent of the size of the constituents. We next suggest that a non-prime can be considered geometrically as a symmetric collection that is separable (factorable into similar parts- six is two threes or three twos for example. A collection that has no such symmetry is a prime. As a result, a physical prime aggregate is more difficult to split symmetrically resulting in an inherent stability. This "number/physical" stability idea applies to bigger collections made from smaller (prime units leading to larger stable prime structures in a limitless scaling up process. The distribution of primes among numbers can be understood better using the packing ideas described here and we further suggest that differing numbers (and values of distinct prime factors making a nonprime collection is an important factor in determining the probability and method of possible and subsequent disintegration. Disintegration is bound by energy conservation and is closely related to symmetry by Noether theorems. Thinking of condensed matter as the packing of identical elements, we examine plots of the masses of chemical elements of the periodic table, and also those of the elementary particles of physics, and show that prime packing rules seem to play a role in the make up of matter. The plots show convincingly that the growth of prime numbers and that of the masses of

  18. Primes, Geometry and Condensed Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Rabeh R. H.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fascination with primes dates back to the Greeks and before. Primes are named by some “the elementary particles of arithmetic” as every nonprime integer is made of a unique set of primes. In this article we point to new connections between primes, geometry and physics which show that primes could be called “the elementary particles of physics” too. This study considers the problem of closely packing similar circles / spheres in 2D / 3D space. This is in effect a discretization process of space and the allowable num- ber in a pack is found to lead to some unexpected cases of prime configurations which is independent of the size of the constituents. We next suggest that a non-prime can be considered geometrically as a symmetric collection that is separable (factorable into similar parts- six is two threes or three twos for example. A collection that has no such symmetry is a prime. As a result, a physical prime aggregate is more difficult to split symmetrically resulting in an inherent stability. This “number / physical” stability idea applies to bigger collections made from smaller (prime units leading to larger sta- ble prime structures in a limitless scaling up process. The distribution of primes among numbers can be understood better using the packing ideas described here and we further suggest that differing numbers (and values of distinct prime factors making a nonprime collection is an important factor in determining the probability and method of possible and subsequent disintegration. Disintegration is bound by energy conservation and is closely related to symmetry by Noether theorems. Thinking of condensed matter as the packing of identical elements, we examine plots of the masses of chemical elements of the periodic table, and also those of the elementary particles of physics, and show that prime packing rules seem to play a role in the make up of matter. The plots show con- vincingly that the growth of prime numbers and that

  19. Solar Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pique, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Proposed pump moves liquid by action of bubbles formed by heat of sun. Tube of liquid having boiling point of 100 to 200 degrees F placed at focal axis of cylindrical reflector. Concentrated sunlight boils liquid at focus, and bubbles of vapor rise in tube, carrying liquid along with them. Pressure difference in hot tube sufficient to produce flow in large loop. Used with conventional flat solar heating panel in completely solar-powered heat-storage system.

  20. Sequential experiments with primes

    CERN Document Server

    Caragiu, Mihai

    2017-01-01

    With a specific focus on the mathematical life in small undergraduate colleges, this book presents a variety of elementary number theory insights involving sequences largely built from prime numbers and contingent number-theoretic functions. Chapters include new mathematical ideas and open problems, some of which are proved in the text. Vector valued MGPF sequences, extensions of Conway’s Subprime Fibonacci sequences, and linear complexity of bit streams derived from GPF sequences are among the topics covered in this book. This book is perfect for the pure-mathematics-minded educator in a small undergraduate college as well as graduate students and advanced undergraduate students looking for a significant high-impact learning experience in mathematics.

  1. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feike Auke Dijkstra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilisation of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils.

  2. Continued Funding for Prime Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    PHP language with the help of CMF Drupal-6. The standard modules of the Drupal core set are developed by third parties and obtained from the...repository drupal.org. Part of the modules was modified specifically for the PrIMe portal. The PrIMe portal uses MySQL for the database technology. It is

  3. Mechanisms of subliminal response priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Andrea; Kunde, Wilfried; Hoffmann, Joachim

    2008-07-15

    Subliminal response priming has been considered to operate on several stages, e.g. perceptual, central or motor stages might be affected. While primes' impact on target perception has been clearly demonstrated, semantic response priming recently has been thrown into doubt (e.g. Klinger, Burton, & Pitts, 2000). Finally, LRP studies have revealed that subliminal primes evoke motor processes. Yet, the premises for such prime-evoked motor activation are not settled. A transfer of priming to stimuli that have never been presented as targets appears particularly interesting because it suggests a level of processing that goes beyond a reactivation of previously acquired S-R links. Yet, such transfer has not always withstood empirical testing. To account for these contradictory results, we proposed a two-process model (Kunde, Kiesel, & Hoffmann, 2003): First, participants build up expectations regarding imperative stimuli for the required responses according to experience and/or instructions. Second, stimuli that match these "action triggers" directly activate the corresponding motor responses irrespective of their conscious identification. In line with these assumptions, recent studies revealed that non-target primes induce priming when they fit the current task intentions and when they are expected in the experimental setting.

  4. MPQS with three large primes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leyland, P.; Lenstra, A.K.; Dodson, B.; Muffett, A.; Wagstaff, S.; Fieker, C.; Kohel, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    We report the factorization of a 135-digit integer by the triple-large-prime variation of the multiple polynomial quadratic sieve. Previous workers [6][10] had suggested that using more than two large primes would be counterproductive, because of the greatly increased number of false reports from

  5. PrimeFaces beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, K Siva Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A guide for beginner's with step-by-step instructions and an easy-to-follow approach.PrimeFaces Beginners Guide is a simple and effective guide for beginners, wanting to learn and implement PrimeFaces in their JSF-based applications. Some basic JSF and jQuery skills are required before you start working through the book.

  6. Pumping behavior of sputter ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.; McCafferty, D.

    The ultrahigh vacuum requirements of ISABELLE is obtained by distributed pumping stations. Each pumping station consists of 1000 l/s titanium sublimation pump for active gases (N 2 , H 2 , O 2 , CO, etc.), and a 20 l/s sputter ion pump for inert gases (methane, noble gases like He, etc.). The combination of the alarming production rate of methane from titanium sublimation pumps (TSP) and the decreasing pumping speed of sputter ion pumps (SIP) in the ultrahigh vacuum region (UHV) leads us to investigate this problem. In this paper, we first describe the essential physics and chemistry of the SIP in a very clean condition, followed by a discussion of our measuring techniques. Finally measured methane, argon and helium pumping speeds are presented for three different ion pumps in the range of 10 -6 to 10 -11 Torr. The virtues of the best pump are also discussed

  7. Priming semantico e museografia / Semantic priming and museography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Banzi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Il priming è una tipologia di memoria implicita che facilita l’apprendimento di stimoli di diversa natura (stimoli visivi, semantici, etc.. Un allestimento museale che adotti strumenti basati sul priming potrebbe aiutare il pubblico a selezionare i contenuti relativi agli oggetti esposti. In questo articolo viene descritta l’applicazione del priming semantico allo spazio museale. Questa operazione in prima battutta potrebbe essere letta come una mancanza di fiducia nelle capacità cognitive del visitatore nel discriminare il significato delle informazioni. In realtà è una forma di sostegno per aiutare il visitatore a sviluppare gradualmente una propria metodologia di approccio ai contenuti proposti nel museo. Grazie al priming, il pubblico riceve una serie di stimoli che possono aiutare a costituire la base delle proprie conoscenze in ambito storico-artistico ed essere il punto di partenza sul quale costruire un metodo critico.   Many psychological aspects such as motivation, emotion, and attention, affect human learning. Among these, priming triggers and tunes implicit memory processes. Hence the goal of this paper is to check whether semantic priming can be used as an effective tool to design a supportive museum environment where people can easily learn. Moreover, the resulting stronger and more persistent memories could encourage museum visitors to learn more and better, and to develop a method to “read” the artworks. After a brief overview of current models of semantic priming, practical and theoretical issues are considered and discussed.

  8. The Prime Numbers Hidden Symmetric Structure and its Relation to the Twin Prime Infinitude and an Improved Prime Number Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Mikoss, I

    2006-01-01

    Due to the sieving process represented by a Secondary Sieving Map; during the generation of the prime numbers, geometric structures with definite symmetries are formed which become evident through their geometrical representations. The study of these structures allows the development of a constructive prime generating formula. This defines a mean prime density yielding a second order recursive and discrete prime producing formula and a second order differential equation whose solutions produce an improved Prime Number Theorem. Applying these results to twin prime pairs is possible to generate a Twin Prime Number Theorem and important conclusions about the infinitude of the twin primes.

  9. Flow pumping system for physiological waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, William; Savaş, Omer

    2010-02-01

    A pulsatile flow pumping system is developed to replicate flow waveforms with reasonable accuracy for experiments simulating physiological blood flows at numerous points in the body. The system divides the task of flow waveform generation between two pumps: a gear pump generates the mean component and a piston pump generates the oscillatory component. The system is driven by two programmable servo controllers. The frequency response of the system is used to characterize its operation. The system has been successfully tested in vascular flow experiments where sinusoidal, carotid, and coronary flow waveforms are replicated.

  10. Bomba sangüínea espiral: concepção, desenvolvimento e aplicação clínica de projeto original Spiral blood pump: conception, development and clinical application of the original project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarbas J. Dinkhuysen

    2007-06-01

    danos excessivos aos elementos figurados do sangue.INTRODUCTION: This paper addresses an original project that encompasses the conception, development and clinical application of a helical bypass pump called the Spiral Pump, that uses the association of centrifugal and axial propulsion forces based de the Archimedes principle. This project has obtained a Brazilian Patent and an International Preliminary Report, defining it as an invention. METHODS: The aim of this work was to evaluate the hemodynamic capacity and the impact of its application on blood cells by means of experimental in vitro tests, including hydrodynamic efficiency, effect on hemolysis and flow visualization. Moreover, in vivo experimental tests were carried out on lambs that were submitted to cardiopulmonary bypass for six hours and in 43 patients submitted to heart bypass surgery using the Spiral Pump. RESULTS: When the rotor-plastic casing gap was 1.5mm, the flow generated was nearly 9 L/min, the pressure was greater than 400 mmHg at 1500 rpm, and the normalized hemolytic indexes were not greater than 0.0375 g/100L in high-flow and pressure conditions. Additionally, by the flow visualization techniques, stagnation was not seen inside the pump nor was turbulence identified at the entrance or exit of the pump, or at the ends of the spindles. In the in vivo tests using cardiopulmonary bypasses for 6 hours in lambs, the pump maintained adequate pressure rates and the free hemoglobin levels ranged between 16.36 mg% and 44.90 mg%. Evaluating the results of the 43 patients who used this pump in heart bypass operations we observed that the free hemoglobin ranged from 9.34 mg% before to 44.16 mg% after surgery, the serum fibrinogen was from 236.65 mg% to 547.26mg%, platelet blood count from 152,465 to 98,139 and the lactic dehydrogenase from 238.12mg% to 547.26mg%. The Activated Coagulation Time was close to 800 seconds during the bypass. CONCLUSION: The Spiral Pump was very effective in generating adequate

  11. Modified Multi Prime RSA Cryptosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali Kamardan, M.; Aminudin, N.; Che-Him, Norziha; Sufahani, Suliadi; Khalid, Kamil; Roslan, Rozaini

    2018-04-01

    RSA [1] is one of the mostly used cryptosystem in securing data and information. Though, it has been recently discovered that RSA has some weaknesses and in advance technology, RSA is believed to be inefficient especially when it comes to decryption. Thus, a new algorithm called Multi prime RSA, an extended version of the standard RSA is studied. Then, a modification is made to the Multi prime RSA where another keys is shared secretly between the receiver and the sender to increase the securerity. As in RSA, the methodology used for modified Multi-prime RSA also consists of three phases; 1. Key Generation in which the secret and public keys are generated and published. In this phase, the secrecy is improved by adding more prime numbers and addition of secret keys. 2. Encryption of the message using the public and secret keys given. 3. Decryption of the secret message using the secret key generated. For the decryption phase, a method called Chinese Remainder Theorem is used which helps to fasten the computation. Since Multi prime RSA use more than two prime numbers, the algorithm is more efficient and secure when compared to the standard RSA. Furthermore, in modified Multi prime RSA another secret key is introduced to increase the obstacle to the attacker. Therefore, it is strongly believed that this new algorithm is better and can be an alternative to the RSA.

  12. Optical coding theory with Prime

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Wing C

    2013-01-01

    Although several books cover the coding theory of wireless communications and the hardware technologies and coding techniques of optical CDMA, no book has been specifically dedicated to optical coding theory-until now. Written by renowned authorities in the field, Optical Coding Theory with Prime gathers together in one volume the fundamentals and developments of optical coding theory, with a focus on families of prime codes, supplemented with several families of non-prime codes. The book also explores potential applications to coding-based optical systems and networks. Learn How to Construct

  13. Pump characteristics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Volk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Providing a wealth of information on pumps and pump systems, Pump Characteristics and Applications, Third Edition details how pump equipment is selected, sized, operated, maintained, and repaired. The book identifies the key components of pumps and pump accessories, introduces the basics of pump and system hydraulics as well as more advanced hydraulic topics, and details various pump types, as well as special materials on seals, motors, variable frequency drives, and other pump-related subjects. It uses example problems throughout the text, reinforcing the practical application of the formulae

  14. Carbon Dioxide Flush of an Integrated Minimized Perfusion Circuit Prior to Priming Prevents Spontaneous Air Release Into the Arterial Line During Clinical Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehouwer, Marco C; de Vroege, Roel; Hoohenkerk, Gerard J F; Hofman, Frederik N; Kelder, Johannes C; Buchner, Bas; de Mol, Bastian A; Bruins, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Recently, an oxygenator with an integrated centrifugal blood pump (IP) was designed to minimize priming volume and to reduce blood foreign surface contact even further. The use of this oxygenator with or without integrated arterial filter was compared with a conventional oxygenator and nonintegrated centrifugal pump. To compare the air removal characteristics 60 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were alternately assigned into one of three groups to be perfused with a minimized extracorporeal circuit either with the conventional oxygenator, the oxygenator with IP, or the oxygenator with IP plus integrated arterial filter (IAF). Air entering and leaving the three devices was measured accurately with a bubble counter during cardiopulmonary bypass. No significant differences between all groups were detected, considering air entering the devices. Our major finding was that in both integrated devices groups incidental spontaneous release of air into the arterial line in approximately 40% of the patients was observed. Here, detectable bolus air (>500 µm) was shown in the arterial line, whereas in the minimal extracorporeal circulation circuit (MECC) group this phenomenon was not present. We decided to conduct an amendment of the initial design with METC-approval. Ten patients were assigned to be perfused with an oxygenator with IP and IAF. Importantly, the integrated perfusion systems used in these patients were flushed with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) prior to priming of the systems. In the group with CO 2 flush no spontaneous air release was observed in all cases and this was significantly different from the initial study with the group with the integrated device and IAF. This suggests that air spilling may be caused by residual air in the integrated device. In conclusion, integration of a blood pump may cause spontaneous release of large air bubbles (>500 µm) into the arterial line, despite the presence of an integrated arterial filter. CO 2 flushing of

  15. Ovation Prime Real-Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ovation Prime Real-Time (OPRT) product is a real-time forecast and nowcast model of auroral power and is an operational implementation of the work by Newell et...

  16. Internal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushima, Jun; Hayashi, Youjiro; Ueda, Masayuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to an internal pump. A water hole allowing communication between internal and external circumferences of a stretch tube is provided at the portion of the stretch tube corresponding to a position where an end face of a nozzle portion of a motor case and an end face of a diffuser are joined with each other so that hot filtered water inside a pressure container which has entered from where the end face of the nozzle portion of the motor case and the end face of the diffuser are joined with each other is combined with the purged water so that it can be sent back to the pressure container again. (author) figs

  17. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire...

  18. Breastfeeding FAQs: Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pump is best? You can buy or rent a breast pump from lactation consultants, hospitals, retail ... place to do it. Many companies offer their employees pumping and nursing areas. If yours doesn't, ...

  19. Psychotherapy augmentation through preconscious priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois eBorgeat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the hypothesis that repeated preconscious (masked priming of personalized positive cognitions could augment cognitive change and facilitate achievement of patients’ goals following a therapy.Methods: Twenty social phobic patients (13 women completed a 36 weeks study beginning by 12 weeks of group behavioural therapy. After the therapy, they received 6 weeks of preconscious priming and 6 weeks of a control procedure in a randomized cross-over design. The Priming condition involved listening twice daily with a passive attitude to a recording of individualized formulations of appropriate cognitions and attitudes masked by music. The Control condition involved listening to an indistinguishable recording where the formulations had been replaced by random numbers. Changes in social cognitions were measured by the Social Interaction Self Statements Test (SISST.Results: Patients improved following therapy. The Priming procedure was associated with increased positive cognitions and decreased negative cognitions on the SISST while the Control procedure was not. The Priming procedure induced more cognitive change when applied immediately after the group therapy. Conclusion: An effect of priming was observed on social phobia related cognitions in the expected direction. This self administered addition to a therapy could be seen as an augmentation strategy.

  20. LMFBR with booster pump in pumping loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    A loop coolant circulation system is described for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) utilizing a low head, high specific speed booster pump in the hot leg of the coolant loop with the main pump located in the cold leg of the loop, thereby providing the advantages of operating the main pump in the hot leg with the reliability of cold leg pump operation

  1. Liquid metal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  2. Liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair

  3. Heat pump technology

    CERN Document Server

    Von Cube, Hans Ludwig; Goodall, E G A

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pump Technology discusses the history, underlying concepts, usage, and advancements in the use of heat pumps. The book covers topics such as the applications and types of heat pumps; thermodynamic principles involved in heat pumps such as internal energy, enthalpy, and exergy; and natural heat sources and energy storage. Also discussed are topics such as the importance of the heat pump in the energy industry; heat pump designs and systems; the development of heat pumps over time; and examples of practical everyday uses of heat pumps. The text is recommended for those who would like to kno

  4. Sequential Stereotype Priming: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, Ciara K; White, Katherine R; Hinojos, Michelle R; Sandoval, Mayra; Crites, Stephen L

    2017-08-01

    Psychological interest in stereotype measurement has spanned nearly a century, with researchers adopting implicit measures in the 1980s to complement explicit measures. One of the most frequently used implicit measures of stereotypes is the sequential priming paradigm. The current meta-analysis examines stereotype priming, focusing specifically on this paradigm. To contribute to ongoing discussions regarding methodological rigor in social psychology, one primary goal was to identify methodological moderators of the stereotype priming effect-whether priming is due to a relation between the prime and target stimuli, the prime and target response, participant task, stereotype dimension, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and stimuli type. Data from 39 studies yielded 87 individual effect sizes from 5,497 participants. Analyses revealed that stereotype priming is significantly moderated by the presence of prime-response relations, participant task, stereotype dimension, target stimulus type, SOA, and prime repetition. These results carry both practical and theoretical implications for future research on stereotype priming.

  5. On the Control of Single-Prime Negative Priming: The Effects of Practice and Time Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hsuan-Fu

    2009-01-01

    Single-prime negative priming refers to the phenomenon wherein repetition of a prime as the probe target results in delayed response. Sometimes this effect has been found to be contingent on participants' unawareness of the primes, and sometimes it has not. Further, sometimes this effect has been found to be eliminated when the prime could predict…

  6. Dry vacuum pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibuet, R

    2008-01-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R and D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed

  7. The structure factor of primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Martelli, F.; Torquato, S.

    2018-03-01

    Although the prime numbers are deterministic, they can be viewed, by some measures, as pseudo-random numbers. In this article, we numerically study the pair statistics of the primes using statistical-mechanical methods, particularly the structure factor S(k) in an interval M ≤slant p ≤slant M + L with M large, and L/M smaller than unity. We show that the structure factor of the prime-number configurations in such intervals exhibits well-defined Bragg-like peaks along with a small ‘diffuse’ contribution. This indicates that primes are appreciably more correlated and ordered than previously thought. Our numerical results definitively suggest an explicit formula for the locations and heights of the peaks. This formula predicts infinitely many peaks in any non-zero interval, similar to the behavior of quasicrystals. However, primes differ from quasicrystals in that the ratio between the location of any two predicted peaks is rational. We also show numerically that the diffuse part decays slowly as M and L increases. This suggests that the diffuse part vanishes in an appropriate infinite-system-size limit.

  8. Solar Pumping : The Basics

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2018-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic water pumping (SWP) uses energy from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels to power an electric water pump. The entire process, from sunlight to stored energy, is elegant and simple. Over last seven years, the technology and price of solar pumping have evolved dramatically and hence the opportunities it presents. Solar pumping is most competitive in regions with high solar inso...

  9. Multiple pump housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, II, Michael R.; Elliott; Christopher M.

    2010-03-23

    A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.

  10. Italy's Prime Minister visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On Tuesday, 7 July 2015, the Prime Minister of the Italian Republic, Matteo Renzi, visited CERN. He was accompanied by a delegation that included Italy's Minister for Education, University and Research, Stefania Giannini.   From left to right: Fernando Ferroni, President of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN); Sergio Bertolucci, CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing; Stefania Giannini, Italy's Minister of Education, University and Research; Matteo Renzi, Prime Minister of the Italian Republic; Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General Designate; Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General.   The Prime Minister was welcomed by members of the CERN Management together with former CERN Director-General and Senator for Life of the Italian Republic, Carlo Rubbia. After a brief general introduction to CERN’s activities by Rolf Heuer, the Italian delegation visited LHC Point 1. After a tour of the ATLAS control room, they donned helmets to visit th...

  11. Centrifugal pump handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pumps, Sulzer

    2010-01-01

    This long-awaited new edition is the complete reference for engineers and designers working on pump design and development or using centrifugal pumps in the field. This authoritative guide has been developed with access to the technical expertise of the leading centrifugal pump developer, Sulzer Pumps. In addition to providing the most comprehensive centrifugal pump theory and design reference with detailed material on cavitation, erosion, selection of materials, rotor vibration behavior and forces acting on pumps, the handbook also covers key pumping applications topics and operational

  12. Peripheral blood T lymphocytes from asthmatic patients are primed for enhanced expression of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 mRNA : associations with lung function and serum IgE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borger, P; Ten Hacken, NHT; Vellenga, E; Kauffman, HF; Postma, DS

    Background The TH2-like cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 play a pivotal role in airway wall inflammation in asthma and these cytokines are increased in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from asthmatic patients. It is unclear why specifically TH2-like cytokines are increased in

  13. Non-pharmacological strategies for blood conservation in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, M A; Rubens, F D

    2001-04-01

    Of all surgical specialties, cardiac operations are most often associated with coagulopathy, blood loss, and the need for transfusions. This not only represents a major burden on blood procurement and banking organizations at all levels, but also constitutes a risk for each patient receiving allogeneic blood products. This paper reviews current non-pharmacological strategies aimed at decreasing blood use in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The literature pertaining to each blood conservation strategy was searched, reviewed, and appraised. Meta- analyses were also consulted and their results complemented with subsequent reports when available. Preoperative autologous donation programs are effective in decreasing allogeneic transfusions, but are costly and applicable to elective patients only. Off-pump revascularization strategies also appear to decrease transfusion requirements in suitable patients. The effectiveness of acute normovolemic hemodilution, retrograde autologous priming, small volume cardiopulmonary bypass circuits, platelet-rich plasmapheresis, alternative heparin strategies, and postoperative cell salvage are more difficult to appraise as a high proportion of available studies suffer from lack of transfusion guidelines or the absence of blinding. Biological glues, surgical adhesives, and postoperative increases in positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) have no demonstrated efficacy. The applicability or effectiveness of many of these modalities remains controversial and more studies are needed before they may be employed routinely in cardiac surgical patients. The judicious use of rational transfusion guidelines may still be the simplest and most cost-effective means of blood conservation today.

  14. Instant PrimeFaces starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hlavats, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),

  15. The pros and cons of masked priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, K I

    1998-03-01

    Masked priming paradigms offer the promise of tapping automatic, strategy-free lexical processing, as evidenced by the lack of expectancy disconfirmation effects, and proportionality effects in semantic priming experiments. But several recent findings suggest the effects may be prelexical. These findings concern nonword priming effects in lexical decision and naming, the effects of mixed-case presentation on nonword priming, and the dependence of priming on the nature of the distractors in lexical decision, suggesting possible strategy effects. The theory underlying each of these effects is discussed, and alternative explanations are developed that do not preclude a lexical basis for masked priming effects.

  16. Pumping mechanisms in sputter-ion pumps low pressure operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that significant H 2 pumping occurs in the walls of triode pumps. Also, H 2 is pumped in the anode cells of sputter-ion pumps. This pumping occurs in a manner similar to that by which the inert gases are pumped. That is, H 2 pumped in the walls of the anode cells by high energy neutral burial. Hydrogen in the pump walls and anodes limits the base pressure of the pump. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. Pumping mechanisms in sputter-ion pumps low pressure operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that significant H 2 pumping occurs in the walls of triode pumps. Also, H 2 is pumped in the anode cells of sputter-ion pumps. This pumping occurs in a manner similar to that by which the inert gases are pumped. That is, H 2 is pumped in the walls of the anode cells by high energy neutral burial. Hydrogen in the pump walls and anodes limits the base pressure of the pump

  18. Characteristic of Rings. Prime Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of the characteristic of rings and its basic properties are formalized [14], [39], [20]. Classification of prime fields in terms of isomorphisms with appropriate fields (ℚ or ℤ/p are presented. To facilitate reasonings within the field of rational numbers, values of numerators and denominators of basic operations over rationals are computed.

  19. Prime Suspect, Second Row Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    His father had been hacked to death in his own bed with an ax the previous November. His mother was similarly brutalized and left for dead with her husband but survived. On the last Monday of that August, after several months and many investigative twists, turns, and fumbles, there sat the son--the prime suspect--in Ellen Laird's literature class,…

  20. On primes in Lucas sequences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížek, Michal; Somer, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2015), s. 2-23 ISSN 0015-0517 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Lucas sequence * primes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.fq.math.ca/Abstracts/53-1/somer.pdf

  1. Continuously pumping and reactivating gas pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for continuous pumping using cycling cyropumping panels. A plurality of liquid helium cooled panels are surrounded by movable nitrogen cooled panels the alternatively expose or shield the helium cooled panels from the space being pumped. Gases condense on exposed helium cooled panels until the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to isolate the helium cooled panels. The helium cooled panels are incrementally warmed, causing captured gases to accumulate at the base of the panels, where an independent pump removes the gases. After the helium cooled panels are substantially cleaned of condensate, the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to expose the helium cooled panels to the space being pumped

  2. Continuously pumping and reactivating gas pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzer, Thomas H.; Call, Wayne R.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for continuous pumping using cycling cyropumping panels. A plurality of liquid helium cooled panels are surrounded by movable nitrogen cooled panels the alternatively expose or shield the helium cooled panels from the space being pumped. Gases condense on exposed helium cooled panels until the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to isolate the helium cooled panels. The helium cooled panels are incrementally warmed, causing captured gases to accumulate at the base of the panels, where an independent pump removes the gases. After the helium cooled panels are substantially cleaned of condensate, the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to expose the helium cooled panels to the space being pumped.

  3. Retrograde autologous priming in cardiopulmonary bypass in adult patients: effects on blood transfusion and hemodilution Perfusato autólogo retrógrado no circuito de circulação extracorpórea em pacientes adultos: efeitos sobre a hemodiluição e transfusão de sangue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vieira Reges

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Retrograde autologous priming (RAP is a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB method, at low cost. Previous studies have shown that this method reduces hemodilution and blood transfusions needs through increased intra-operative hematocrit. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate RAP method, in relation to standard CPB (crystalloid priming, in adult patients. METHODS: Sixty-two patients were randomly allocated to two groups: 1 Group RAP (n = 27 of patients operated using the RAP and; 2 Control group of patients operated using CPB standard crystalloid method (n = 35. The RAP was performed by draining crystalloid prime from the arterial and venous lines, before CPB, into a collect recycling bag. The main parameters analyzed were: 1 CPB hemodynamic data; 2 Hematocrit and hemoglobin values; 3 The need for blood transfusions. RESULTS: It was observed statistically significant fewer transfusions during surgery and reduced CPB hemodilution using RAP. The CPB hemodynamic values were similar, observing a tendency to use lower CPB flows in the RAP group patients. CONCLUSION: This investigation was designed to be a small-scale pilot study to evaluate the effects of RAP, which were demonstrated concerning the CPB hemodilution and blood transfusions.INTRODUÇÃO: Perfusato autólogo retrógrado (PAR é uma técnica de circulação extracorpórea (CEC com baixos custos. Estudos anteriores demonstraram que esta técnica reduz a hemodiluição e a necessidade de transfusões de sangue por meio do aumento do hematócrito intraoperatório. OBJETIVO: Avaliar técnica de PAR em relação à CEC técnica padrão (perfusato cristaloide em pacientes adultos. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e dois pacientes foram aleatoriamente alocados em dois grupos: 1 Grupo PAR (n = 27, constituído por pacientes operados utilizando a técnica de PAR e; 2 Grupo Controle, constituído por pacientes operados utilizando técnica padrão de CEC com cristaloides (n = 35. A PAR foi realizada drenando-se o perfusato

  4. Structural priming, action planning, and grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Maryellen C; Weiss, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    Structural priming is poorly understood and cannot inform accounts of grammar for two reasons. First, those who view performance as grammar + processing will always be able to attribute psycholinguistic data to processing rather than grammar. Second, structural priming may be simply an example of hysteresis effects in general action planning. If so, then priming offers no special insight into grammar.

  5. Priming methods in semantics and pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Mora; Spector, Benjamin; Chemla, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Structural priming is a powerful method to inform linguistic theories. We argue that this method extends nicely beyond syntax to theories of meaning. Priming, however, should still be seen as only one of the tools available for linguistic data collection. Specifically, because priming can occur at different, potentially conflicting levels, it cannot detect every aspect of linguistic representations.

  6. Aggressive priming online: Facebook adverts can prime aggressive cognitions

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Through the process of priming, incidental stimuli in our environments can influence our thoughts, feelings and behavior. This may be true of incidental stimuli in online environments, such as adverts on websites. Two experiments (N=325, N=331) showed that the mere presence of advertisements with violent content on a simulated Facebook page induced higher levels of aggression-related cognition in comparison to non-violent adverts (d=0.56 , d=0.71). In a subsequent word recognition task, parti...

  7. Pumps in mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This article looks at the pump industry as a whole, its historical links with the mining industry, their parallel develop ment, and at the individual manufacturers and pumps, services and auxillary products they have to offer.

  8. Photovoltaic pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockgether, J.; Kiessling, K. P.

    1983-09-01

    Solar pump systems for the irrigation of fields and for water supply in regions with much sunshine are discussed. For surface water and sources with a hoisting depth of 12 m, a system with immersion pumps is used. For deep sources with larger hoisting depths, an underwater motor pump was developed. Both types of pump system meet the requirements of simple installation and manipulation, safe operation, maintenance free, and high efficiency reducing the number of solar cells needed.

  9. French Prime Minister tours CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 30 July, Jean-Marc Ayrault, the Prime Minister of the French Republic, and Geneviève Fioraso, the Minister of Higher Education and Research, visited the Laboratory.   After being met by the Director-General at LHC Point 5, they visited the CMS control centre and experiment cavern, and got a glimpse of the LHC tunnel at Point 5. The visit ended with a round-table discussion with French and other international members of CERN’s scientific community. During the discussion, the Prime Minister reaffirmed that “support for fundamental research has to be maintained, and France must continue to invest in education, research and innovation.” He also paid tribute to CERN's role in international cooperation, which he qualified as “a fine example of science without borders.”

  10. Priming motivation through unattended speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radel, Rémi; Sarrazin, Philippe; Jehu, Marie; Pelletier, Luc

    2013-12-01

    This study examines whether motivation can be primed through unattended speech. Study 1 used a dichotic-listening paradigm and repeated strength measures. In comparison to the baseline condition, in which the unattended channel was only composed by neutral words, the presence of words related to high (low) intensity of motivation led participants to exert more (less) strength when squeezing a hand dynamometer. In a second study, a barely audible conversation was played while participants' attention was mobilized on a demanding task. Participants who were exposed to a conversation depicting intrinsic motivation performed better and persevered longer in a subsequent word-fragment completion task than those exposed to the same conversation made unintelligible. These findings suggest that motivation can be primed without attention. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Z(prime) Phenomenology and the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2006-01-01

    A brief pedagogical overview of the phenomenology of Z(prime) gauge bosons is ILC in determining Z(prime) properties is also discussed. and explore in detail how the LHC may discover and help elucidate the models, review the current constraints on the possible properties of a Z(prime) nature of these new particles. We provide an overview of the Z(prime) studies presented. Such particles can arise in various electroweak extensions of that have been performed by both ATLAS and CMS. The role of the the Standard Model (SM). We provide a quick survey of a number of Z(prime)

  12. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  13. Vertical pump assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohnal, M.; Rosel, J.; Skarka, V.

    1988-01-01

    The mounting is described of the drive assembly of a vertical pump for nuclear power plants in areas with seismic risk. The assembly is attached to the building floor using flexible and damping elements. The design allows producing seismically resistant pumps without major design changes in the existing types of vertical pumps. (E.S.). 1 fig

  14. Extracorporeal tubing in the roller pump raceway: physical changes and particulate generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiwak, Allison J Bednarski; Horbal, Alexander; Leatherbury, Robert; Hansford, Derek J

    2008-09-01

    Plasticized polyvinyl chloride tubing is used as the blood conduit in the heart lung bypass circuit. The section in the roller pump undergoes rigorous compression. Fatigue leads to material changes in weight and length of the bulk material. Particles are released during normal pump operation. This study evaluates the time course of particle loss. Three segments of 1/2" ID tubing run in the raceway for 30-minute, 1-hour, or 2-hour. The fluid path of each segment includes an oxygenator; a castor oil blend was used for the prime. The 5 mL sample was acquired at 10 minute intervals. Raceway tubing segments were measured for a change in weight and length. The same procedure repeated with 1/4" ID and 3/8" ID tubing. All tubing increased at least 5 mm by the 2-hour trial. There were no remarkable changes in weight. Particles were measured for size and percent volume. Tubing with 1/2" ID performed most consistently for particle release during all trials. Particles were observed as small as 1 nm. Particles as large as 3 micron could be confirmed. For all tubing there was particle release by 30 minutes. Perfusionists must consider tubing inner diameter and wall thickness in choosing the pPVC for the raceway in order to minimize particulate emboli. This research suggests that 3/8" ID tubing produces spalls inconsistently compared to 2" ID tubing. Thinner wall thickness tubing also has the potential to limit spall formation.

  15. Predictors of sudden death and death from pump failure in congestive heart failure are different. Analysis of 24 h Holter monitoring, clinical variables, blood chemistry, exercise test and radionuclide angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, B K; Rasmussen, Verner; Hansen, J F

    1997-01-01

    Association class II and 44% in III. Total mortality after 1 year was 21%, after 2 years 32%. Of 60 deaths, 33% were sudden and 49% due to pump failure. Multivariate analyses identified totally different risk factors for sudden death: ventricular tachycardia, s-sodium ....6 mmol/l, s-potassium sudden death and for death from progressive pump failure........80 mmol/l, s-creatinine > 121 mumol/l, and maximal change in heart rate during exercise death from progressive pump failure: New York Heart Association class III + IV, delta heart rate over 24 h 7...

  16. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. These can generally be classified as: Mechanical; Hydraulic; Tribological; Chemical; and Other (including those associated with the pump driver). Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump

  17. Liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    A liquid metal pump comprising a shaft support structure which is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft carries an impeller and the support structure carries an impeller cage which is slidably disposed in a diffuser so as to allow complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair. The diffuser is concentrically supported in the pump housing which also takes up all reaction forces generated by the discharge of the liquid metal from the diffuser, with floating seals arranged between impeller cage and the diffuser. The space between the diffuser and the pump housing permits the incoming liquid to essentially surround the diffuser. (author)

  18. Fasting in Ramadan with an insulin pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavadev, Jothydev

    2015-05-01

    A good majority of subjects with diabetes on insulin therapies observe fasting during Ramadan. The challenge for the physician and the patient is to manage diabetes without an interruption to fasting by avoiding hypoglycaemia and simultaneously ensuring that blood glucose remain at acceptable safe levels. Insulin Pumps differ from syringes and insulin pens in that it offers a variable basal rate, different type of boluses and associated calculators. The technological advances that pumps offer, help educated subjects pre-programme a reduced basal rate throughout the day. Pumps ensure avoidance of hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia and preserve quality of life and enhance confidence in patients during fasting. Due to multiple benefits, insulin pumps are considered the best delivery systems for insulin during the holy month of Ramadan, despite the prerequisites for its optimal output and cost concerns.

  19. Pumps for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The guide describes how the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls pumps and their motors at nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities. The scope of the control is determined by the Safety Class of the pump in question. The various phases of the control are: (1) review of construction plan, (2) control of manufacturing, and construction inspection, (3) commissioning inspection, and (4) control during operation. STUK controls Safety Class 1, 2 and 3 pumps at nuclear facilities as described in this guide. STUK inspects Class EYT (non-nuclear) pumps separately or in connection with the commissioning inspections of the systems. This guide gives the control procedure and related requirements primarily for centrifugal pumps. However, it is also applied to the control of piston pumps and other pump types not mentioned in this guide

  20. Internal pump monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Toshikazu.

    1996-01-01

    In the present invention, a thermometer is disposed at the upper end of an internal pump casing of a coolant recycling system in a BWR type reactor to detect leakage of reactor water thereby ensuring the improvement of reliability of the internal pump. Namely, a thermometer is disposed, which can detect temperature elevation occurred when water in the internal pump leaked from a reactor pressure vessel passes through the gap between a stretch tube and an upper end of the pump casing. Signals from the thermometer are transmitted to a signal processing device by an instrumentation cable. The signal processing device generates an alarm when the temperature signal exceeds a predetermined value and announces that leakage of reactor water occurs in the internal pump. Since the present invention can detect the leakage of the reactor water in the pump casing in an early stage, it can contribute to the improvement of the safety and reliability of the internal pump. (I.S.)

  1. Design manual. [High temperature heat pump for heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, T.E.; Chancellor, P.D.; Dyer, D.F.; Maples, G.

    1980-01-01

    The design and performance of a waste heat recovery system which utilizes a high temperature heat pump and which is intended for use in those industries incorporating indirect drying processes are described. It is estimated that use of this heat recovery system in the paper, pulp, and textile industries in the US could save 3.9 x 10/sup 14/ Btu/yr. Information is included on over all and component design for the heat pump system, comparison of prime movers for powering the compressor, control equipment, and system economics. (LCL)

  2. Pump element for a tube pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a tube pump comprising a tube and a pump element inserted in the tube, where the pump element comprises a rod element and a first and a second non-return valve member positioned a distance apart on the rod element. The valve members are oriented in the same direction...... relative to the rod element so as to allow for a fluid flow in the tube through the first valve member, along the rod element, and through the second valve member. The tube comprises an at least partly flexible tube portion between the valve members such that a repeated deformation of the flexible tube...... portion acts to alternately close and open the valve members thereby generating a fluid flow through the tube. The invention further relates to a pump element comprising at least two non-return valve members connected by a rod element, and for insertion in an at least partly flexible tube in such tube...

  3. Pumping behavior of sputtering ion pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, T.S.; Bittner, J.; Schuchman, J.

    1991-12-31

    To optimize the design of a distributed ion pump (DIP) for the Superconducting X-Ray Lithography Source (SXLS) the stability of the rotating electron cloud at very high magnetic field beyond transition, must be re-examined. In this work the pumping speed and frequency spectrum of a DIP at various voltages (1 to 10 KV) and various magnetic fields (0.1 to 4 Tesla) are measured. Three cell diameters 10 mm, 5 mm and 2.5 mm, each 8 mm long, and with 3 or 4 mm gaps between anode and cathode are investigated. In this study both the titanium cathodes and the stainless steel anode plates are perforated with holes comparable in size to the anode cell diameters. Only the partially saturated pumping behavior is under investigation. The ultimate pressure and conditioning of the pump will be investigated at a later date when the stability criterion for the electron cloud is better understood.

  4. Pumping behavior of sputtering ion pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, T.S.; Bittner, J.; Schuchman, J.

    1991-01-01

    To optimize the design of a distributed ion pump (DIP) for the Superconducting X-Ray Lithography Source (SXLS) the stability of the rotating electron cloud at very high magnetic field beyond transition, must be re-examined. In this work the pumping speed and frequency spectrum of a DIP at various voltages (1 to 10 KV) and various magnetic fields (0.1 to 4 Tesla) are measured. Three cell diameters 10 mm, 5 mm and 2.5 mm, each 8 mm long, and with 3 or 4 mm gaps between anode and cathode are investigated. In this study both the titanium cathodes and the stainless steel anode plates are perforated with holes comparable in size to the anode cell diameters. Only the partially saturated pumping behavior is under investigation. The ultimate pressure and conditioning of the pump will be investigated at a later date when the stability criterion for the electron cloud is better understood.

  5. Wrath of God: religious primes and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ryan; Efferson, Charles; Whitehouse, Harvey; Fehr, Ernst

    2011-06-22

    Recent evidence indicates that priming participants with religious concepts promotes prosocial sharing behaviour. In the present study, we investigated whether religious priming also promotes the costly punishment of unfair behaviour. A total of 304 participants played a punishment game. Before the punishment stage began, participants were subliminally primed with religion primes, secular punishment primes or control primes. We found that religious primes strongly increased the costly punishment of unfair behaviours for a subset of our participants--those who had previously donated to a religious organization. We discuss two proximate mechanisms potentially underpinning this effect. The first is a 'supernatural watcher' mechanism, whereby religious participants punish unfair behaviours when primed because they sense that not doing so will enrage or disappoint an observing supernatural agent. The second is a 'behavioural priming' mechanism, whereby religious primes activate cultural norms pertaining to fairness and its enforcement and occasion behaviour consistent with those norms. We conclude that our results are consistent with dual inheritance proposals about religion and cooperation, whereby religions harness the byproducts of genetically inherited cognitive mechanisms in ways that enhance the survival prospects of their adherents.

  6. An overview of insulin pump therapy: appropriate use of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-06-13

    Jun 13, 2012 ... Careful assessment of patients is vital, as pump therapy is an expensive treatment option and can be ... Intensive education of patients who meet the criteria is essential. .... to keep a food, blood glucose and insulin dose diary,.

  7. Natural gas prime movers: A prime income opportunity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    Although almost every factory, for example, uses compressed air to operate and control equipment--from power tools to packaging machinery--most air compressors are driven by electric motors. Similarly, although industry uses refrigeration for everything from freezing food to chilling warehouses to making chemicals and ice to operating skating rinks, natural gas powers only about 100 industrial refrigeration units in North America. But several factors are beginning to make natural gas more attractive as a prime mover. For one thing, the rising cost of electricity, with its demand or time-of-day and summer on-peak charges, has everyone looking for ways to cut their electric bills. At the same time, in the wake of deregulation of the nation's electric industry, customers can build on-site power plants that use natural gas to generate their own electricity, or have outside power suppliers or energy service companies (ESCOs) do it for them. Waste and exhaust heat, which can represent up to 60% of the total energy supplied from both engines and turbines, can be captured and used. Finally, growing concern over electric power outages has made natural gas more attractive for mission-critical operations, while new financing options let people buy and install natural gas prime movers more easily

  8. Priming of antiherbivore defensive responses in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinwon Kim; Gary W.Felton

    2013-01-01

    Defense priming is defined as increased readiness of defense induction.A growing body of literature indicates that plants (or intact parts of a plant) are primed in anticipation of impending environmental stresses,both biotic and abiotic,and upon the following stimulus,induce defenses more quickly and strongly.For instance,some plants previously exposed to herbivore-inducible plant volatiles (HIPVs) from neighboring plants under herbivore attack show faster or stronger defense activation and enhanced insect resistance when challenged with secondary insect feeding.Research on priming of antiherbivore defense has been limited to the HIPV-mediated mechanism until recently,but significant advances were made in the past three years,including non-HIPV-mediated defense priming,epigenetic modifications as the molecular mechanism of priming,and others.It is timely to consider the advances in research on defense priming in the plantinsect interactions.

  9. Electrokinetic pumps and actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillip M. Paul

    2000-01-01

    Flow and ionic transport in porous media are central to electrokinetic pumping as well as to a host of other microfluidic devices. Electrokinetic pumping provides the ability to create high pressures (to over 10,000 psi) and high flow rates (over 1 mL/min) with a device having no moving parts and all liquid seals. The electrokinetic pump (EKP) is ideally suited for applications ranging from a high pressure integrated pump for chip-scale HPLC to a high flow rate integrated pump for forced liquid convection cooling of high-power electronics. Relations for flow rate and current fluxes in porous media are derived that provide a basis for analysis of complex microfluidic systems as well as for optimization of electrokinetic pumps

  10. Electrokinetic pumps and actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip M. Paul

    2000-03-01

    Flow and ionic transport in porous media are central to electrokinetic pumping as well as to a host of other microfluidic devices. Electrokinetic pumping provides the ability to create high pressures (to over 10,000 psi) and high flow rates (over 1 mL/min) with a device having no moving parts and all liquid seals. The electrokinetic pump (EKP) is ideally suited for applications ranging from a high pressure integrated pump for chip-scale HPLC to a high flow rate integrated pump for forced liquid convection cooling of high-power electronics. Relations for flow rate and current fluxes in porous media are derived that provide a basis for analysis of complex microfluidic systems as well as for optimization of electrokinetic pumps.

  11. Can Faces Prime a Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woumans, Evy; Martin, Clara D; Vanden Bulcke, Charlotte; Van Assche, Eva; Costa, Albert; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-09-01

    Bilinguals have two languages that are activated in parallel. During speech production, one of these languages must be selected on the basis of some cue. The present study investigated whether the face of an interlocutor can serve as such a cue. Spanish-Catalan and Dutch-French bilinguals were first familiarized with certain faces, each of which was associated with only one language, during simulated Skype conversations. Afterward, these participants performed a language production task in which they generated words associated with the words produced by familiar and unfamiliar faces displayed on-screen. When responding to familiar faces, participants produced words faster if the faces were speaking the same language as in the previous Skype simulation than if the same faces were speaking a different language. Furthermore, this language priming effect disappeared when it became clear that the interlocutors were actually bilingual. These findings suggest that faces can prime a language, but their cuing effect disappears when it turns out that they are unreliable as language cues. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Complex architecture of primes and natural numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Serrano, M Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián

    2014-08-01

    Natural numbers can be divided in two nonoverlapping infinite sets, primes and composites, with composites factorizing into primes. Despite their apparent simplicity, the elucidation of the architecture of natural numbers with primes as building blocks remains elusive. Here, we propose a new approach to decoding the architecture of natural numbers based on complex networks and stochastic processes theory. We introduce a parameter-free non-Markovian dynamical model that naturally generates random primes and their relation with composite numbers with remarkable accuracy. Our model satisfies the prime number theorem as an emerging property and a refined version of Cramér's conjecture about the statistics of gaps between consecutive primes that seems closer to reality than the original Cramér's version. Regarding composites, the model helps us to derive the prime factors counting function, giving the probability of distinct prime factors for any integer. Probabilistic models like ours can help to get deeper insights about primes and the complex architecture of natural numbers.

  13. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented

  14. Detection of pump degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

  15. Thermomechanical piston pump development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelman, E. E.

    1971-01-01

    A thermally powered reciprocating pump has been devised to replace or augment an electric pump for the transport of temperature-control fluid on the Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS). The thermally powered pump operates cyclically by extracting heat energy from the fluid by means of a vapor-pressure expansion system and by using the heat to perform the mechanical work of pumping. A feasibility test unit has been constructed to provide an output of 7 cu in during a 10- to 100-second cycle. It operates with a fluid input temperature of 200 to 300 F and a heat sink temperature of 0 to 30 F.

  16. Pumps for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, L.

    1978-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of nuclear industry for the transfer of corrosive, toxic, humidity sensitive or very pure gases, different types of pumps were developped and commercialized. Their main characteristics are to prevent pollution of the transfered fluid by avoiding any contact between this fluid and the lubricated parts of the machine, and to prevent a contamination of the atmosphere or of the fluid by a total tightness. Patellar pumps have been particularly developped because the metallic bellows are quite reliable and resistant in this configuration. Two types are described: patellar pumps without friction and barrel pumps whose pistons are provided with rings sliding in the cylinders without lubrication [fr

  17. Pump safety device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermans, Francis; Vandervorst, Jean.

    1981-01-01

    Safety device for longitudinally leak proofing the shaft of a pump in the event of the fracture of the dynamic seal separating the pump fluid high pressure chamber from the low pressure chamber. It is designed for fitting to the primary pumps of nuclear reactors. It includes a hollow cyclindrical piston located coaxially around the pump shaft and normally housed in a chamber provided for this purpose in the fixed housing of the dynamic seal, and means for moving this piston coaxially so as to compress a safety O ring between the shaft and the piston in the event of the dynamic seal failing [fr

  18. Optically pumped atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Happer, William; Walker, Thad

    2010-01-01

    Covering the most important knowledge on optical pumping of atoms, this ready reference is backed by numerous examples of modelling computation for optical pumped systems. The authors show for the first time that modern scientific computing software makes it practical to analyze the full, multilevel system of optically pumped atoms. To make the discussion less abstract, the authors have illustrated key points with sections of MATLAB codes. To make most effective use of contemporary mathematical software, it is especially useful to analyze optical pumping situations in the Liouville spa

  19. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.

    1995-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous special vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Pump head and flow rate are also monitored, per code requirements. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition; advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed

  20. Champagne Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2004-01-01

    The term champagne heat pump denotes a developmental heat pump that exploits a cycle of absorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in an alcohol or other organic liquid. Whereas most heat pumps in common use in the United States are energized by mechanical compression, the champagne heat pump is energized by heating. The concept of heat pumps based on other absorption cycles energized by heat has been understood for years, but some of these heat pumps are outlawed in many areas because of the potential hazards posed by leakage of working fluids. For example, in the case of the water/ammonia cycle, there are potential hazards of toxicity and flammability. The organic-liquid/carbon dioxide absorption/desorption cycle of the champagne heat pump is similar to the water/ammonia cycle, but carbon dioxide is nontoxic and environmentally benign, and one can choose an alcohol or other organic liquid that is also relatively nontoxic and environmentally benign. Two candidate nonalcohol organic liquids are isobutyl acetate and amyl acetate. Although alcohols and many other organic liquids are flammable, they present little or no flammability hazard in the champagne heat pump because only the nonflammable carbon dioxide component of the refrigerant mixture is circulated to the evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, which are the only components of the heat pump in direct contact with air in habitable spaces.

  1. A mini axial and a permanent maglev radial heart pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun-Xi; Ru, Wei-Min; Wang, Hao; Jing, Teng

    2007-05-31

    The implantability and durability have been for decades the focus of artificial heart R&D. A mini axial and a maglev radial pump have been developed to meet with such requirements.The mini axial pump weighing 27g (incl.5g rotor) has an outer diameter of 21mm and a length of 10mm in its largest point, but can produce a maximal blood flow of 6l/min with 50mmHg pressure increase. Therefore, it is suitable for the patients of 40-60kg body weight. For other patients of 60-80kg or 80-100kg body weight, the mini axial pumps of 23mm and 25mm outer diameter had been developed before, these devices were acknowledged to be the world smallest LVADs by Guinness World Record Center in 2004.The permanent maglev radial pump weighing 150g is a shaft-less centrifugal pump with permanent magnetic bearings developed by the author. It needs no second coil for suspension of the rotor except the motor coil, different from all other maglev pumps developed in USA, Japan, European, etc. Thus no detecting and controlling systems as well as no additional power supply for maglev are necessary. The pump can produce a blood flow up to as large as 10l/min against 100mmHg pressure.An implantable and durable blood pump will be a viable alternative to natural donor heart for transplantation.

  2. Priming in concert: Assimilation and contrast with multiple affective and gender primes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fockenberg, D.A.; Koole, S.L.; Semin, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    The present research investigated the influence of multiple sequential primes on social categorization processes. Study 1 examined an evaluative decision task in which targets were preceded and succeeded by two primes. As expected, the temporally closest forward primes had assimilative effects on

  3. Unconscious Congruency Priming from Unpracticed Words Is Modulated by Prime-Target Semantic Relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortells, Juan J.; Mari-Beffa, Paloma; Plaza-Ayllon, Vanesa

    2013-01-01

    Participants performed a 2-choice categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded by novel (unpracticed) prime words. The prime words were presented for 33 ms and followed either immediately (Experiments 1-3) or after a variable delay (Experiments 1 and 4) by a pattern mask. Both subjective and objective measures of prime visibility…

  4. Performance of Wind Pump Prototype

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mulu

    Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia (*mul_at@yahoo.com). ABSTRACT. A wind ... balanced rotor power and reciprocating pump, hence did not consider the effect of pump size. ... Keywords: Wind pump, Windmill, Performance testing, Pump efficiency, Pump discharge, ... Unfortunately, in rural places, where the houses are.

  5. Stacking faults of {gamma}{prime}{prime} phase precipitated in a Ni-15Cr-8Fe-6Nb alloy; Ni-15Cr-8Fe-6Nb gokin ni sekishutsusuru {gamma}{prime}{prime} sonai no sekiso kekkan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusabiraki, K; Ikeuchi, S [Toyama University, Toyama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-09-01

    The stacking faults of a metastable {gamma}{prime}{prime} phase precipitated in a nickel-base superalloy, a modified NCF 3 type alloy (X-750M) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction method. The {gamma}{prime}{prime} precipitates are circular shaped plates at the early stage of aging and they become elliptic or irregular shaped plates at the latter stage of aging up to 1033K. Contrast which suggests the existence of stacking faults on {l_brace}112{r_brace}{sub {gamma}{prime}{prime}} planes can be seen in many of large {gamma}{prime}{prime} precipitates extracted from the specimens aged at 1033K. It is clear that the values of {gamma}{prime}{prime}/{gamma} lattice mismatch increase with increasing the aging time from the measurement of lattice constants of the {gamma} and the {gamma}{prime}{prime} phase. The formation of stacking faults on {l_brace}112{r_brace}{sub {gamma}{prime}{prime}} in the large {gamma}{prime}{prime} precipitates is due to the movement of an a/6 [111] partial dislocation introduced by {gamma}{prime}{prime} /{gamma} coherency strain. Since a part of stacking sequence has a similar crystal structure to that of a stable {delta} phase precipitates in {gamma} phase, the formation of stacking faults in the {gamma}{prime}{prime} precipitates is considered to be favorable for the stabilization of them. 14 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Mathematical modelling of flow in disc friction LVAD pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, A. E.; Fomin, V. M.; Prikhodko, Yu. M.; Cherniavskiy, A. M.; Fomichev, V. P.; Fomichev, A. V.; Chekhov, V. P.; Ruzmatov, T. M.

    2017-10-01

    The need for blood circulation support systems in the treatment of chronic heart failure is constantly increasing as 20% of patients on the waiting list die every year. Despite the great need for mechanical heart support systems the use of available systems is limited by the high cost. Therefore, further research in the field of circulatory support systems is appropriate taking into account medical and technical requirements. One of the new research areas is viscous friction disk pumps for transporting liquids based on the Tesla pump principle. The experimental model of LVAD disk pump is developed. Analytical dependencies are obtained to optimize the hydraulic parameters of the pump. On their basis, the experimental model of LVAD disk pump was designed and created. The results of analytical and experimental studies of such a pump are presented.

  7. Quantitative assessment of haemolysis secondary to modern infusion pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, T G; Boileau, J-C; Lafrenière, R; Thibault, L; Carrier, N; de Grandmont, M-J; Beauregard, P

    2017-04-01

    Although most studies have shown that little haemolysis is induced by infusion pumps, there are some notable exceptions. Only limited data are available on the actual infusion pumps that are most used in hospitals in Quebec and elsewhere, namely, the Infusomat ® Space (peristaltic), Plum A+™ (piston) and Colleague ® CXE (shuttle) pumps. Haemolysis and potassium levels were compared before and after the use of the three different infusion pumps. Using 135 units of packed red blood cells (RBCs) aged from 10 to 28 days, 27 measurements were taken for each pump at various flow rates (30, 60, 150, 300 and 450 ml/h) and were compared with measurements taken before using the pumps. The range of flow rates was chosen to cover those of paediatric and adult transfusions. The shuttle- and piston-type pumps resulted in low haemolysis levels. The peristaltic-type pump produced significantly more haemolysis, which worsened at low flow rates, but the absolute value of haemolysis remained within the range recommended by the regulatory agencies in North America and Europe. Approximately two-thirds of the haemolysis produced by the peristaltic-type pump seemed to be secondary to the use of an antisiphon valve (ASV) on the transfusion line recommended by the manufacturer. Potassium levels did not increase with the use of the pumps. Modern infusion pumps widely used in hospitals in Quebec and elsewhere produce non-threatening levels of haemolysis during the transfusion of packed RBCs aged from 10 to 28 days. ASVs appear to induce additional haemolysis, and we do not recommend using them for blood transfusion. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  8. Assessment of hydraulic performance and biocompatibility of a MagLev centrifugal pump system designed for pediatric cardiac or cardiopulmonary support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasse, Kurt A; Gellman, Barry; Kameneva, Marina V; Woolley, Joshua R; Johnson, Carl A; Gempp, Thomas; Marks, John D; Kent, Stella; Koert, Andrew; Richardson, J Scott; Franklin, Steve; Snyder, Trevor A; Wearden, Peter; Wagner, William R; Gilbert, Richard J; Borovetz, Harvey S

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of children with life-threatening cardiac and cardiopulmonary failure is a large and underappreciated public health concern. We have previously shown that the CentriMag is a magnetically levitated centrifugal pump system, having the utility for treating adults and large children (1,500 utilized worldwide). We present here the PediVAS, a pump system whose design was modified from the CentriMag to meet the physiological requirements of young pediatric and neonatal patients. The PediVAS is comprised of a single-use centrifugal blood pump, reusable motor, and console, and is suitable for right ventricular assist device (RVAD), left ventricular assist device (LVAD), biventricular assist device (BVAD), or extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO) applications. It is designed to operate without bearings, seals and valves, and without regions of blood stasis, friction, or wear. The PediVAS pump is compatible with the CentriMag hardware, although the priming volume was reduced from 31 to 14 ml, and the port size reduced from 3/8 to (1/4) in. For the expected range of pediatric flow (0.3-3.0 L/min), the PediVAS exhibited superior hydraulic efficiency compared with the CentriMag. The PediVAS was evaluated in 14 pediatric animals for up to 30 days, demonstrating acceptable hydraulic function and hemocompatibility. The current results substantiate the performance and biocompatibility of the PediVAS cardiac assist system and are likely to support initiation of a US clinical trial in the future.

  9. Additive theory of prime numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Hua, L K

    2009-01-01

    Loo-Keng Hua was a master mathematician, best known for his work using analytic methods in number theory. In particular, Hua is remembered for his contributions to Waring's Problem and his estimates of trigonometric sums. Additive Theory of Prime Numbers is an exposition of the classic methods as well as Hua's own techniques, many of which have now also become classic. An essential starting point is Vinogradov's mean-value theorem for trigonometric sums, which Hua usefully rephrases and improves. Hua states a generalized version of the Waring-Goldbach problem and gives asymptotic formulas for the number of solutions in Waring's Problem when the monomial x^k is replaced by an arbitrary polynomial of degree k. The book is an excellent entry point for readers interested in additive number theory. It will also be of value to those interested in the development of the now classic methods of the subject.

  10. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous spectral vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition: advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed

  11. Can False Memories Prime Problem Solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.; Garner, Sarah R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Ball, Linden J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task…

  12. Visual Priming of Inverted and Rotated Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Barbara J.; McAuliffe, Sean P.; Coelho, Chase J.; Hummel, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Object images are identified more efficiently after prior exposure. Here, the authors investigated shape representations supporting object priming. The dependent measure in all experiments was the minimum exposure duration required to correctly identify an object image in a rapid serial visual presentation stream. Priming was defined as the change…

  13. Syntactic priming in American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew L; Ferreira, Victor S; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-01-01

    Psycholinguistic studies of sign language processing provide valuable opportunities to assess whether language phenomena, which are primarily studied in spoken language, are fundamentally shaped by peripheral biology. For example, we know that when given a choice between two syntactically permissible ways to express the same proposition, speakers tend to choose structures that were recently used, a phenomenon known as syntactic priming. Here, we report two experiments testing syntactic priming of a noun phrase construction in American Sign Language (ASL). Experiment 1 shows that second language (L2) signers with normal hearing exhibit syntactic priming in ASL and that priming is stronger when the head noun is repeated between prime and target (the lexical boost effect). Experiment 2 shows that syntactic priming is equally strong among deaf native L1 signers, deaf late L1 learners, and hearing L2 signers. Experiment 2 also tested for, but did not find evidence of, phonological or semantic boosts to syntactic priming in ASL. These results show that despite the profound differences between spoken and signed languages in terms of how they are produced and perceived, the psychological representation of sentence structure (as assessed by syntactic priming) operates similarly in sign and speech.

  14. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  15. Syntactic priming in American Sign Language.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Hall

    Full Text Available Psycholinguistic studies of sign language processing provide valuable opportunities to assess whether language phenomena, which are primarily studied in spoken language, are fundamentally shaped by peripheral biology. For example, we know that when given a choice between two syntactically permissible ways to express the same proposition, speakers tend to choose structures that were recently used, a phenomenon known as syntactic priming. Here, we report two experiments testing syntactic priming of a noun phrase construction in American Sign Language (ASL. Experiment 1 shows that second language (L2 signers with normal hearing exhibit syntactic priming in ASL and that priming is stronger when the head noun is repeated between prime and target (the lexical boost effect. Experiment 2 shows that syntactic priming is equally strong among deaf native L1 signers, deaf late L1 learners, and hearing L2 signers. Experiment 2 also tested for, but did not find evidence of, phonological or semantic boosts to syntactic priming in ASL. These results show that despite the profound differences between spoken and signed languages in terms of how they are produced and perceived, the psychological representation of sentence structure (as assessed by syntactic priming operates similarly in sign and speech.

  16. Normetex Pump Alternatives Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2013-01-01

    A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying

  17. Circulation pump mounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalicky, A.

    1976-01-01

    The suspension is described of nuclear reactor circulating pumps enabling their dilatation with a minimum reverse force consisting of spacing rods supported with one end in the anchor joints and provided with springs and screw joints engaging the circulating pump shoes. The spacing rods are equipped with side vibration dampers anchored in the shaft side wall and on the body of the circulating pump drive body. The negative reverse force F of the spacing rods is given by the relation F=Q/l.y, where Q is the weight of the circulating pump, l is the spatial distance between the shoe joints and anchor joints, and y is the deflection of the circulating pump vertical axis from the mean equilibrium position. The described suspension is advantageous in that that the reverse force for the deflection from the mean equilibrium position is minimal, dynamic behaviour is better, and construction costs are lower compared to suspension design used so far. (J.B.)

  18. Object color affects identification and repetition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Santacruz, Pilar

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the influence of color on the identification of both non-studied and studied objects. Participants studied black and white and color photos of common objects and memory was assessed with an identification test. Consistent with our meta-analysis of prior research, we found that objects were easier to identify from color than from black and white photos. We also found substantial priming in all conditions, and study-to-test changes in an object's color reduced the magnitude of priming. Color-specific priming effects were large for color-complex objects, but minimal for color-simple objects. The pattern and magnitude of priming effects was not influenced either by the extent to which an object always appears in the same color (i.e., whether a color is symptomatic of an object) or by the object's origin (natural versus fabricated). We discuss the implications of our findings for theoretical accounts of object perception and repetition priming.

  19. Lexical priming in Alzheimer's disease and aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Anlló, Eva Maria; Beauchamps, Mireille; Ingrand, Pierre; Neau, Jean Philippe; Gil, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Lexical priming was examined in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in aphasic patients. Control participants were divided into young and elderly [cf. Arroyo-Anlló et al.: Eur J Cogn Psychol 2004;16:535-553]. For lexical priming, a word-stem completion task was used. Normal elderly participants had lexical priming scores that were significantly lower than those of young individuals. Analysis of covariance with age and educational level as covariates showed that the control participants, aphasic and Alzheimer patients did not differ significantly on the lexical priming task. Our results suggest that performance in the lexical priming task diminishes with physiological aging, but is not significantly affected by mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease or by fluent or non-fluent aphasia. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Priming analogical reasoning with false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Threadgold, Emma; Ball, Linden J

    2015-08-01

    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false memory priming of complex analogical reasoning tasks in the absence of simple semantic associations. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated the robustness of false memory priming in analogical reasoning when backward associative strength among the problem terms was eliminated. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we extended these findings by demonstrating priming on newly created homonym analogies that can only be solved by inhibiting semantic associations within the analogy. Overall, the findings of the present experiments provide evidence that the efficacy of false memory priming extends to complex analogical reasoning problems.

  1. BWR series pump recirculation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillmann, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a recirculation system for driving reactor coolant water contained in an annular downcomer defined between a boiling water reactor vessel and a reactor core spaced radially inwardly therefrom. It comprises a plurality of circumferentially spaced second pumps disposed in the downcomer, each including an inlet for receiving from the downcomer a portion of the coolant water as pump inlet flow, and an outlet for discharging the pump inlet flow pressurized in the second pump as pump outlet flow; and means for increasing pressure of the pump inlet flow at the pump inlet including a first pump disposed in series flow with the second pump for first receiving the pump inlet flow from the downcomer and discharging to the second pump inlet flow pressurized in the first pump

  2. High pressure liquid gas pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acres, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Design and development of two types of pumps for handling liquefied gases are discussed. One pump uses mechanical valve shift and other uses pneumatic valve shift. Illustrations of pumps are provided and detailed description of operation is included.

  3. A technique for autologous priming of the veno-venous bypass circuit during liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Anthony G; Hodge, Ashley B; Chavin, Kenneth D; Baliga, Prabhakar K

    2011-06-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantations (OLT) have been associated with significant blood loss and hemodilution, necessitating significant homologous blood component replacement. Increasing administration of homologous blood products has been found to be inversely related to patient and graft survival. Various methods to reduce the amount of blood products patients receive during OLT, such as antifibrinolytic therapy, thromboelastography-guided transfusion, phlebotomy, reduced central venous pressures intraoperatively, and the use of the veno-venous bypass (VVB) circuit, have been explored.The asanguineous priming volume of the VVB circuit increases the likelihood of the patient receiving homologous blood products due to hemodilution. It was reasoned that autologous priming of the VVB circuit in OLT surgery was a plausible adjunctive blood conservation technique given its application to the extracorporeal circuit during cardiac surgery. We describe our technique of modifying the VVB circuit for autologous priming. This technique adds minimal risk and a small amount of cost to the procedure, requires slightly more communication among members of the surgical team, and with proper sequencing, adds no additional length to the surgical procedure. It is recommended that this technique be considered for addition to the arsenal of blood conservation techniques when VVB is used during OLT.

  4. Diaphragm Pump With Resonant Piezoelectric Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Kline-Schoder, Robert J.; Shimko, Martin A.

    2007-01-01

    A diaphragm pump driven by a piezoelectric actuator is undergoing development. This pump is intended to be a prototype of lightweight, highly reliable pumps for circulating cooling liquids in protective garments and high-power electronic circuits, and perhaps for some medical applications. The pump would be highly reliable because it would contain no sliding seals or bearings that could wear, the only parts subject to wear would be two check valves, and the diaphragm and other flexing parts could be designed, by use of proven methods, for extremely long life. Because the pump would be capable of a large volumetric flow rate and would have only a small dead volume, its operation would not be disrupted by ingestion of gas, and it could be started reliably under all conditions. The prior art includes a number piezoelectrically actuated diaphragm pumps. Because of the smallness of the motions of piezoelectric actuators (typical maximum strains only about 0.001), the volumetric flow rates of those pumps are much too small for typical cooling applications. In the pump now undergoing development, mechanical resonance would be utilized to amplify the motion generated by the piezoelectric actuator and thereby multiply the volumetric flow rate. The prime mover in this pump would be a stack of piezoelectric ceramic actuators, one end of which would be connected to a spring that would be part of a spring-and-mass resonator structure. The mass part of the resonator structure would include the pump diaphragm (see Figure 1). Contraction of the spring would draw the diaphragm to the left, causing the volume of the fluid chamber to increase and thereby causing fluid to flow into the chamber. Subsequent expansion of the spring would push the diaphragm to the right, causing the volume of the fluid chamber to decrease, and thereby expelling fluid from the chamber. The fluid would enter and leave the chamber through check valves. The piezoelectric stack would be driven electrically to

  5. False memories and lexical decision: even twelve primes do not cause long-term semantic priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, René; Pecher, Diane

    2002-03-01

    Semantic priming effects are usually obtained only if the prime is presented shortly before the target stimulus. Recent evidence obtained with the so-called false memory paradigm suggests, however, that in both explicit and implicit memory tasks semantic relations between words can result in long-lasting effects when multiple 'primes' are presented. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether these effects would generalize to lexical decision. In four experiments we showed that even as many as 12 primes do not cause long-term semantic priming. In all experiments, however, a repetition priming effect was obtained. The present results are consistent with a number of other results showing that semantic information plays a minimal role in long-term priming in visual word recognition.

  6. Pumping machinery theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Badr, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Pumping Machinery Theory and Practice comprehensively covers the theoretical foundation and applications of pumping machinery. Key features: Covers characteristics of centrifugal pumps, axial flow pumps and displacement pumpsConsiders pumping machinery performance and operational-type problemsCovers advanced topics in pumping machinery including multiphase flow principles, and two and three-phase flow pumping systemsCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine efficiency and energy consumptionCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine effi

  7. Electromagnetic pump technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, R.

    1994-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors have an important role to play in our nuclear power programme. Liquid metal sodium is used as the coolant for removing fission heat generated in fast reactors and a distinctive physical property of sodium is its high electrical conductivity. This enables application of electromagnetic (EM) pumps, working on same principle as electric motors, for pumping liquid sodium. Due to its lower efficiency as compared to centrifugal pumps, use of EM pumps has been restricted to reactor auxiliary circuits and experimental facilities. As part of our efforts to manufacture fast reactor components indigenously, work on the development of two types of EM pumps namely flat linear induction pump (FLIP) and annular linear induction pump (ALIP) has been undertaken. Design procedures based on an equivalent circuit approach have been established and results from testing a 5.6 x 10E-3 Cum/s (20 Cum/h) FLIP in a sodium loop were used to validate the procedure. (author). 7 refs., 6 figs

  8. Automatic collection of bovine blood samples | Hale | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A technique is described which allows automatic collection of jugular venous blood from tethered cows. In this system, blood is pumped continuously from an intravenous cannula which has a double lumen while an anticoagulant is pumped through the second opening. Diluted blood is collected in a fraction collector which ...

  9. Pressure and gap length dependence of gap breakdown voltage and discharge current of discharge-pumped KrF excimer laser. Hoden reiki KrF laser no zetsuen hakai den prime atsu to reiki denryu no atsuryoku, gap cho izon sei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukimura, K.; Kawakami, H. (Doshisha Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Hitomi, K. (Kyoto Polytechnic College, Kyoto (Japan))

    1991-04-20

    On the gap destruction characteristics of UV-preionized discharge-pumped KrF excimer laser (charge transfer type) and the electric characteristics of the excited discharge, studies were made by changing the pressure (1.5-3 atm) and the discharge gap length (14-21 mm) of the discharge medium. (1) Gap breakdown voltage and the maximum current of the excited discharge give a similarity by a product of pressure and the gap length at the charge volatge. (2) Insulation breakdown of the gap occurs at the wave front of the applied voltage and the breakdown time gets delayed by the decreasing voltage applied. By setting the ionization index at constant value 20, the gap breakdown voltage is estimated at the error within 10%. (3) The relation between the maximum current, pressure and the gap length product changes the characteristics by the charge voltage of the primary condenser. With the result combined with the standardization of voltage/current of the excited discharge, the electric characteristics at the specific pressure and gap length can be readily known. 10 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Cognate status and cross-script translation priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voga, Madeleine; Grainger, Jonathan

    2007-07-01

    Greek-French bilinguals were tested in three masked priming experiments with Greek primes and French targets. Related primes were the translation equivalents of target words, morphologically related to targets, or phonologically related to targets. In Experiment 1, cognate translation equivalents (phonologically similar translations) showed facilitatory priming, relative to matched phonologically related primes, in conditions in which morphologically related primes showed no effect (50-msec prime exposure). Cross-language morphological priming emerged at longer prime exposure durations (66 msec), but cognate primes continued to generate more priming than did those in the morphological condition. In Experiments 2 and 3, the level of phonological overlap across translation equivalents was varied, and priming effects were measured against those for matched phonologically related primes and those in an unrelated prime condition. When measured against the unrelated baseline, cognate primes showed the typical advantage over noncognate primes. However, this cognate advantage disappeared when priming was measured against the phonologically related prime condition. The results are discussed in terms of how translation equivalents are represented in bilingual memory.

  11. Radial-Electric-Field Piezoelectric Diaphragm Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Robert G.; Working, Dennis C.; Mossi, Karla; Castro, Nicholas D.; Mane, Pooma

    2009-01-01

    In a recently invented class of piezoelectric diaphragm pumps, the electrode patterns on the piezoelectric diaphragms are configured so that the electric fields in the diaphragms have symmetrical radial (along-the-surface) components in addition to through-the-thickness components. Previously, it was accepted in the piezoelectric-transducer art that in order to produce the out-of-plane bending displacement of a diaphragm needed for pumping, one must make the electric field asymmetrical through the thickness, typically by means of electrodes placed on only one side of the piezoelectric material. In the present invention, electrodes are placed on both sides and patterned so as to produce substantial radial as well as through-the-thickness components. Moreover, unlike in the prior art, the electric field can be symmetrical through the thickness. Tests have shown in a given diaphragm that an electrode configuration according to this invention produces more displacement than does a conventional one-sided electrode pattern. The invention admits of numerous variations characterized by various degrees of complexity. Figure 1 is a simplified depiction of a basic version. As in other piezoelectric diaphragm pumps of similar basic design, the prime mover is a piezoelectric diaphragm. Application of a suitable voltage to the electrodes on the diaphragm causes it to undergo out-of-plane bending. The bending displacement pushes a fluid out of, or pulls the fluid into, a chamber bounded partly by the diaphragm. Also as in other diaphragm pumps in general, check valves ensure that the fluid flows only in through one port and only out through another port.

  12. Priming within and across modalities: exploring the nature of rCBF increases and decreases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgaiyan, R D; Schacter, D L; Alpert, N M

    2001-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest that within-modality priming is associated with reduced regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the extrastriate area, whereas cross-modality priming is associated with increased rCBF in prefrontal cortex. To characterize the nature of rCBF changes in within- and cross-modality priming, we conducted two neuroimaging experiments using positron emission tomography (PET). In experiment 1, rCBF changes in within-modality auditory priming on a word stem completion task were observed under same- and different-voice conditions. Both conditions were associated with decreased rCBF in extrastriate cortex. In the different-voice condition there were additional rCBF changes in the middle temporal gyrus and prefrontal cortex. Results suggest that the extrastriate involvement in within-modality priming is sensitive to a change in sensory modality of target stimuli between study and test, but not to a change in the feature of a stimulus within the same modality. In experiment 2, we studied cross-modality priming on a visual stem completion test after encoding under full- and divided-attention conditions. Increased rCBF in the anterior prefrontal cortex was observed in the full- but not in the divided-attention condition. Because explicit retrieval is compromised after encoding under the divided-attention condition, prefrontal involvement in cross-modality priming indicates recruitment of an aspect of explicit retrieval mechanism. The aspect of explicit retrieval that is most likely to be involved in cross-modality priming is the familiarity effect. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  13. Absorption heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formigoni, C.

    1998-01-01

    A brief description of the difference between a compression and an absorption heat pump is made, and the reasons why absorption systems have spread lately are given. Studies and projects recently started in the field of absorption heat pumps, as well as criteria usually followed in project development are described. An outline (performance targets, basic components) of a project on a water/air absorption heat pump, running on natural gas or LPG, is given. The project was developed by the Robur Group as an evolution of a water absorption refrigerator operating with a water/ammonia solution, which has been on the market for a long time and recently innovated. Finally, a list of the main energy and cost advantages deriving from the use of absorption heat pumps is made [it

  14. Nuclear-pumped lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Prelas, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on Nuclear-Pumped Laser (NPL) technology and provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of NPLs, a review of research in the field, and exploration of large scale NPL system design and applications. Early chapters look at the fundamental properties of lasers, nuclear-pumping and nuclear reactions that may be used as drivers for nuclear-pumped lasers. The book goes on to explore the efficient transport of energy from the ionizing radiation to the laser medium and then the operational characteristics of existing nuclear-pumped lasers. Models based on Mathematica, explanations and a tutorial all assist the reader’s understanding of this technology. Later chapters consider the integration of the various systems involved in NPLs and the ways in which they can be used, including beyond the military agenda. As readers will discover, there are significant humanitarian applications for high energy/power lasers, such as deflecting asteroids, space propulsion, power transmission and mining....

  15. Gas fired heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    2006-01-01

    The condensing gas boiler is now state of the art and there is no more room for improvement in performance, technically speaking. The next logical step to improve the overall efficiency is to exploit ambient heat in combination with the primary source of energy, natural gas. That means using natural-gas driven heat pumps and gas-fired heat pumps. Based on this, the Swiss Gas Industry decided to set up a practical test programme enjoying a high priority. The aim of the project 'Gas-fired heat pump practical test' is to assess by field tests the characteristics and performance of the foreign serial heat pumps currently on the market and to prepare and promote the introduction on the market place of this sustainable natural-gas technology. (author)

  16. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  17. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  18. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air

  19. Mechanical vaccum pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Chew, A D

    2007-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the technology of contemporary primary and secondary mechanical vacuum pumps. For reference a brief history of vacuum and a summary of important and basic vacuum concepts are first presented.

  20. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.; Abdelghany, Mohamed A.; Elsayed, Mohannad Yomn; Elshurafa, Amro M; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  1. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  2. GAS METERING PUMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  3. JET pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenberg, K.; Deksnis, E.; Shaw, R.; Reiter, D.

    1988-01-01

    JET plans to install two pump limiter modules which can be used for belt-limiter, inner-wall and X-point discharges and, also, for 1-2s as the main limiter. A design is presented which is compatible with two diagnostic systems, and which allows partial removal of the pump limiter to provide access for remote-handling operations. The high heat-flux components are initially cooled during a pulse. Heat is removed between discharges by radiation and pressure contacts to a water-cooled support structure. The pumping edge will be made of annealed pyrolytic graphite. Exhaust efficiency has been estimated, for a 1-d edge model, using a Monte-Carlo calculation of neutral gas transport. When the pump limiter is operated together with other wall components we expect an efficiency of ≅ 5% (2.5 x 10 21 part/s). As a main limiter the efficiency increases to about 10%. (author)

  4. Types of Breast Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called a bicycle horn pump, consists of a hollow rubber ball attached to a breast-shield. Some ... and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888- ...

  5. Optically pumped laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMaria, A.J.; Mack, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    Laser systems which are pumped by an electric discharge formed in a gas are disclosed. The discharge is in the form of a vortex stabilized electric arc which is triggered with an auxiliary energy source. At high enough repetition rates residual ionization between successive pulses contributes to the pulse stabilization. The arc and the gain medium are positioned inside an optical pumping cavity where light from the arc is coupled directly into the gain medium

  6. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  7. Resorption heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, L.L.; Mishkinis, D.A.; Antukh, A.A.; Kulakov, A.G.; Vasiliev, L.L.

    2004-01-01

    Resorption processes are based on at least two solid-sorption reactors application. The most favorable situation for the resorption heat pumps is the case, when the presence of a liquid phase is impossible. From simple case--two reactors with two salts to complicated system with two salts + active carbon fiber (fabric) and two branch of the heat pump acting out of phase to produce heat and cold simultaneously, this is the topic of this research program

  8. Portable photovoltaic irrigation pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furber, J. D.

    1980-07-01

    Experiences in developing a solar-powered irrigation pump to meet the needs of poor farmers in developing nations are summarized. The design which evolved is small and portable, employing a high-efficiency electric pump, powered by photovoltaic panels. Particular emphasis is placed on how the system works, and on early field problems experienced with the first prototypes. The resolution of these problems and the performance of actual systems in various countries is presented and user responses are noted.

  9. Tokamak pump limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been done with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a region may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased edge electron temperature are observed in discharges with improved confinement. The injection of small amounts of neon into ISX-B has more clearly shown an improved electron core energy confinement during neutral beam injection. While carried out with a regular limiter, this Z-mode of operation is ideal for use with pump limiters and should be a way to achieve energy confinement times similar to values for H-mode tokamak plasmas. The implication of all these results for the design of a reactor pump limiter is described

  10. Tokamak pump limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; California Univ., Los Angeles

    1984-01-01

    Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6 MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been performed with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scrape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a regime may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased edge electron temperature are observed in discharges with improved confinement. The injection of small amounts of neon into ISX-B has more clearly shown an improved electron core energy confinement during neutral beam injection. While carried out with a regular limiter, this 'Z-mode' of operation is ideal for use with pump limiters and should be a way to achieve energy confinement times similar to values for H-mode tokamak plasmas. The implication of all these results for the design of a reactor pump limiter is described. (orig.)

  11. Energy efficiency in pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Durmus; Yagmur, E. Alptekin [TUBITAK-MRC, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Yigit, K. Suleyman; Eren, A. Salih; Celik, Cenk [Engineering Faculty, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Kilic, Fatma Canka [Department of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Kocaeli University, Kullar, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, ''energy efficiency'' studies, done in a big industrial facility's pumps, are reported. For this purpose; the flow rate, pressure and temperature have been measured for each pump in different operating conditions and at maximum load. In addition, the electrical power drawn by the electric motor has been measured. The efficiencies of the existing pumps and electric motor have been calculated by using the measured data. Potential energy saving opportunities have been studied by taking into account the results of the calculations for each pump and electric motor. As a conclusion, improvements should be made each system. The required investment costs for these improvements have been determined, and simple payback periods have been calculated. The main energy saving opportunities result from: replacements of the existing low efficiency pumps, maintenance of the pumps whose efficiencies start to decline at certain range, replacements of high power electric motors with electric motors that have suitable power, usage of high efficiency electric motors and elimination of cavitation problems. (author)

  12. Energy efficiency in pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Durmus; Yagmur, E. Alptekin; Yigit, K. Suleyman; Kilic, Fatma Canka; Eren, A. Salih; Celik, Cenk

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, 'energy efficiency' studies, done in a big industrial facility's pumps, are reported. For this purpose; the flow rate, pressure and temperature have been measured for each pump in different operating conditions and at maximum load. In addition, the electrical power drawn by the electric motor has been measured. The efficiencies of the existing pumps and electric motor have been calculated by using the measured data. Potential energy saving opportunities have been studied by taking into account the results of the calculations for each pump and electric motor. As a conclusion, improvements should be made each system. The required investment costs for these improvements have been determined, and simple payback periods have been calculated. The main energy saving opportunities result from: replacements of the existing low efficiency pumps, maintenance of the pumps whose efficiencies start to decline at certain range, replacements of high power electric motors with electric motors that have suitable power, usage of high efficiency electric motors and elimination of cavitation problems

  13. Pump trials for charged liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroni, J.C.; Niver, A.

    1964-01-01

    The pumps intended for the circulation of charged and radioactive liquids have particular qualities. The choice of such a pump has called for endurance tests with various types of equipment: a Goodyear volumetric screw pumps, and RICHIER, Klein and SCHABAVER centrifugal pumps. The latter, fitted with a special oakum, gave the best results. (authors) [fr

  14. The prime numbers and their distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Tenenbaum, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    One notable new direction this century in the study of primes has been the influx of ideas from probability. The goal of this book is to provide insights into the prime numbers and to describe how a sequence so tautly determined can incorporate such a striking amount of randomness. The book opens with some classic topics of number theory. It ends with a discussion of some of the outstanding conjectures in number theory. In between are an excellent chapter on the stochastic properties of primes and a walk through an elementary proof of the Prime Number Theorem. This book is suitable for anyone who has had a little number theory and some advanced calculus involving estimates. Its engaging style and invigorating point of view will make refreshing reading for advanced undergraduates through research mathematicians.

  15. Priming in Episodic and Semantic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    1979-01-01

    Four experiments examined priming between newly learned paired associates through two procedures, lexical decision and item recognition. Results argue against a functional separation of the semantic and episodic memory systems. (Author/AM)

  16. Bounded Gaps between Products of Special Primes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Ngai Chung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In their breakthrough paper in 2006, Goldston, Graham, Pintz and Yıldırım proved several results about bounded gaps between products of two distinct primes. Frank Thorne expanded on this result, proving bounded gaps in the set of square-free numbers with r prime factors for any r ≥ 2, all of which are in a given set of primes. His results yield applications to the divisibility of class numbers and the triviality of ranks of elliptic curves. In this paper, we relax the condition on the number of prime factors and prove an analogous result using a modified approach. We then revisit Thorne’s applications and give a better bound in each case.

  17. Preserved semantic priming effect in alexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, M; Goodglass, H; Milberg, W

    1996-09-01

    BH, a left-handed patient with alexia and nonfluent aphasia, was presented with a lexical-decision task in which words and pronounceable pseudowords were preceded by semantically related or unrelated picture primes (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, BH was given an explicit reading task using the word lists from Experiment 1. Performance on Experiment 2 disclosed severe reading deficits in both oral reading and semantic matching of the words to pictures. However, in Experiment 1, BH demonstrated a significant semantic priming effect, responding more accurately and more quickly to words preceded by related primes than by unrelated primes. The present results suggest that even in a patient with severe alexia, implicit access to semantic information can be preserved in the absence of explicit identification. The possibility of categorical gradient in implicit activation (living vs. nonliving) in BH was also discussed, which, however, needs to be clarified in the further investigation.

  18. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  19. Prime alternative algebras that are nearly commutative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pchelintsev, S V

    2004-01-01

    We prove that by deforming the multiplication in a prime commutative alternative algebra using a C-operation we obtain a prime non-commutative alternative algebra. Under certain restrictions on non-commutative algebras this relation between algebras is reversible. Isotopes are special cases of deformations. We introduce and study a linear space generated by the Bruck C-operations. We prove that the Bruck space is generated by operations of rank 1 and 2 and that 'general' Bruck operations of rank 2 are independent in the following sense: a sum of n operations of rank 2 cannot be written as a linear combination of (n-1) operations of rank 2 and an arbitrary operation of rank 1. We describe infinite series of non-isomorphic prime non-commutative algebras of bounded degree that are deformations of a concrete prime commutative algebra

  20. Semantic transparency affects morphological priming . . . eventually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Vera; Kornishova, Dana

    2018-05-01

    Semantic transparency has been in the focus of psycholinguistic research for decades, with the controversy about the time course of the application of morpho-semantic information during the processing of morphologically complex words not yet resolved. This study reports two masked priming studies with English - ness and Russian - ost' nominalisations, investigating how semantic transparency modulates native speakers' morphological priming effects at short and long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). In both languages, we found increased morphological priming for nominalisations at the transparent end of the scale (e.g. paleness - pale) in comparison to items at the opaque end of the scale (e.g. business - busy) but only at longer prime durations. The present findings are in line with models that posit an initial phase of morpho-orthographic (semantically blind) decomposition.

  1. Syntactic Variance and Priming Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangalore, Srinivas; Behrens, Bergljot; Carl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the relationship between syntactic variation and priming in translation. It is based on the claim that languages share a common cognitive network of neural activity. When the source and target languages are solicited in a translation context, this shared network can...... lead to facilitation effects, so-called priming effects. We suggest that priming is a default setting in translation, a special case of language use where source and target languages are constantly co-activated. Such priming effects are not restricted to lexical elements, but do also occur...... on the syntactic level. We tested these hypotheses with translation data from the TPR database, more specifically for three language pairs (English-German, English-Danish, and English-Spanish). Our results show that response times are shorter when syntactic structures are shared. The model explains this through...

  2. Pumps in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that pumps play an important role in nuclear plant operation. For instance, reactor coolant pumps (RCPs) should provide adequate cooling for reactor core in both normal operation and transient or accident conditions. Pumps such as Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI) pump in the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) play a crucial role during an accident, and their reliability is of paramount importance. Some key issues involved with pumps in nuclear plant system include the performance of RCP under two-phase flow conditions, piping vibration due to pump operating in two-phase flows, and reliability of LPSI pumps

  3. Inservice testing of vertical pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornman, R.E. Jr.; Schumann, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper focuses on the problems that may occur with vertical pumps while inservice tests are conducted in accordance with existing American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code, Section XI, standards. The vertical pump types discussed include single stage, multistage, free surface, and canned mixed flow pumps. Primary emphasis is placed on the hydraulic performance of the pump and the internal and external factors to the pump that impact hydraulic performance. In addition, the paper considers the mechanical design features that can affect the mechanical performance of vertical pumps. The conclusion shows how two recommended changes in the Code standards may increase the quality of the pump's operational readiness assessment during its service life

  4. Degree of handedness and priming: Further evidence for a distinction between production and identification priming mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna J. LaVoie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between implicit and explicit forms of memory retrieval is long-standing, and important to the extent it reveals how different neural architecture supports different aspects of memory function. Similarly, distinctions have been made between kinds of repetition priming, a form of implicit memory retrieval. This study focuses on the production-identification priming distinction, which delineates priming tasks involving verification of stimulus features as compared to priming tasks that require use of a cue to guide response retrieval. Studies investigating this dissociation in dementia or similar patient populations indicate that these forms of priming may differ in their neural bases. The current study looks at degree of handedness as a way of investigating inferred neural architecture supporting these two forms of priming. A growing body of research indicates that degree of handedness (consistent, or CH, versus inconsistent, or ICH is associated with greater interhemispheric interaction and functional access to right hemisphere processing in ICH, with superior performance seen in ICH on memory tasks reliant on this processing. Arguments about the theoretical mechanisms underlying identification and production forms of perceptual priming tasks suggest that performance on these tasks will differ as a function of degree of handedness. We tested this question in a group of CH and ICH young adults, who were asked to study lists of words prior to performing a production priming task (word stem completion, a perceptual word identification task, and a word stem cued recall task. While both handedness groups exhibited reliable priming across tasks, word stem completion priming was greater in ICH than CH participants, with identification priming not differing between groups. This dissociation supports the argument that production and identification forms of priming have different underlying neural bases.

  5. Priming involuntary autobiographical memories in the lab

    OpenAIRE

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Niedźwieńska, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    Involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) are recollections of personal past that frequently and spontaneously occur in daily life. Initial studies by Mace. Priming involuntary autobiographical memories. Showed that deliberately reminiscing about a certain lifetime period (e.g., high school) significantly increased the number of different IAMs from the same period in subsequent days, suggesting that priming may play a significant role in the retrieval of IAMs in everyday life. In the prese...

  6. On the last digits of consecutive primes

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Fred B.

    2016-01-01

    Recently Oliver and Soundararajan made conjectures based on computational enumerations about the frequency of occurrence of pairs of last digits for consecutive primes. By studying Eratosthenes sieve, we have identified discrete dynamic systems that exactly model the populations of gaps across stages of Eratosthenes sieve. Our models provide some insight into the observed biases in the occurrences of last digits in consecutive primes, and the models suggest that the biases will ultimately be ...

  7. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  8. Non-cognate translation priming in masked priming lexical decision experiments: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yun; van Heuven, Walter J B

    2017-06-01

    The masked translation priming paradigm has been widely used in the last 25 years to investigate word processing in bilinguals. Motivated by studies reporting mixed findings, in particular for second language (L2) to first language (L1) translation priming, we conducted, for the first time in the literature, a meta-analysis of 64 masked priming lexical decision experiments across 24 studies to assess the effect sizes of L1-L2 and L2-L1 non-cognate translation priming effects in bilinguals. Our meta-analysis also investigated the influence of potential moderators of translation priming effects. The results provided clear evidence of significant translation priming effects for both directions, with L1-L2 translation priming significantly larger than L2-L1 translation priming (i.e., effect size of 0.86 vs. 0.31). The analyses also revealed that L1-L2 translation effect sizes were moderated by the interval between prime and target (ISI), whereas L2-L1 translation effect sizes were modulated by the number of items per cell. Theoretical and methodological implications of this meta-analysis are discussed and recommendations for future studies are provided.

  9. Prime implicants in dynamic reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrväinen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops an improved definition of a prime implicant for the needs of dynamic reliability analysis. Reliability analyses often aim to identify minimal cut sets or prime implicants, which are minimal conditions that cause an undesired top event, such as a system's failure. Dynamic reliability analysis methods take the time-dependent behaviour of a system into account. This means that the state of a component can change in the analysed time frame and prime implicants can include the failure of a component at different time points. There can also be dynamic constraints on a component's behaviour. For example, a component can be non-repairable in the given time frame. If a non-repairable component needs to be failed at a certain time point to cause the top event, we consider that the condition that it is failed at the latest possible time point is minimal, and the condition in which it fails earlier non-minimal. The traditional definition of a prime implicant does not account for this type of time-related minimality. In this paper, a new definition is introduced and illustrated using a dynamic flowgraph methodology model. - Highlights: • A new definition of a prime implicant is developed for dynamic reliability analysis. • The new definition takes time-related minimality into account. • The new definition is needed in dynamic flowgraph methodology. • Results can be represented by a smaller number of prime implicants.

  10. Notch signaling mediates granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor priming-induced transendothelial migration of human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L Y; Wang, H; Xenakis, J J; Spencer, L A

    2015-07-01

    Priming with cytokines such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhances eosinophil migration and exacerbates the excessive accumulation of eosinophils within the bronchial mucosa of asthmatics. However, mechanisms that drive GM-CSF priming are incompletely understood. Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that regulates cellular processes, including migration, by integrating exogenous and cell-intrinsic cues. This study investigates the hypothesis that the priming-induced enhanced migration of human eosinophils requires the Notch signaling pathway. Using pan Notch inhibitors and newly developed human antibodies that specifically neutralize Notch receptor 1 activation, we investigated a role for Notch signaling in GM-CSF-primed transmigration of human blood eosinophils in vitro and in the airway accumulation of mouse eosinophils in vivo. Notch receptor 1 was constitutively active in freshly isolated human blood eosinophils, and inhibition of Notch signaling or specific blockade of Notch receptor 1 activation during GM-CSF priming impaired priming-enhanced eosinophil transendothelial migration in vitro. Inclusion of Notch signaling inhibitors during priming was associated with diminished ERK phosphorylation, and ERK-MAPK activation was required for GM-CSF priming-induced transmigration. In vivo in mice, eosinophil accumulation within allergic airways was impaired following systemic treatment with Notch inhibitor, or adoptive transfer of eosinophils treated ex vivo with Notch inhibitor. These data identify Notch signaling as an intrinsic pathway central to GM-CSF priming-induced eosinophil tissue migration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  12. Direct cryosorption pumping of an energetic hydrogen ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenterly, S.W.; Ryan, P.M.; Tsai, C.C.

    1979-01-01

    Cryosorption pumps (CSP) are a prime candidate for the pumping of helium and deuterium-tritium (D-T) in tokamak divertor systems and may also see service in neutral beam injectors. However, the ability of a CSP to take high energy ions escaping from a plasma or neutral beam has not previously been demonstrated. In this study we arranged a 10-cm ion source of the type used in the Oak Ridge Tokamak (ORMAK) to inject a beam of ions directly into the inlet of a CSP. The pump contained two chevron baffles at 100K and 15K as well as a 15K cryosorption surface covered with a type 5A molecular sieve. The cryosurfaces were cooled by a closed-cycle helium refrigerator. For hydrogen ion pulses up to 11.5-keV energy and 1.3-A current, the pressure maintained during the pulse was only a few percent higher than that maintained with an equal flow of cold neutral gas. Pulse lengths of 100-300 ms were used. Calorimetric measurements showed that 40-60% of the I-V power was incident on the pump inlet. Cool-down and regeneration behavior of the pump will also be discussed

  13. Multi technical analysis of wear mechanisms in axial piston pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhler, G.; Jourani, A.; Bouvier, S.; Perrochat, J.-M.

    2017-05-01

    Axial piston pumps convert a motor rotation motion into hydraulic or pneumatic power. Their compactness and efficiency of approximately 0.9 make them suitable for actuation applications especially in aeronautics. However, they suffer a limited life due to the wear of their components. In the literature, studies of axial piston pumps deal with contact between its different elements under lubrication conditions. Nevertheless, they are more focused on analytic or numerical approaches. This study consists in an experimental analysis of worn pump components to highlight and understand wear mechanisms. Piston shoes are central components in the axial piston pump since they are involved in three tribological contacts. These three contacts are thereby studied: piston shoes/swashplate, piston shoes/pistons and piston shoes/shoes hold down plate (SHDP). To perform this analysis, helicopter hydraulic pumps after different operating times have been studied. The wear damage mechanisms and wear debris are analysed using SEM observations. 3D surface roughness measurements are then used to characterize worn surfaces. The observations reveal that in the contact between shoes and swashplate, the main wear mechanism is three-body abrasive wear due to coarse carbides removal. Between shoes and pistons, wear occurs in a less severe way and is mainly due to the debris generated in the first contact and conveyed by the lubricating fluid. In the third contact, the debris are also the prime cause of the abrasive wear and the generation of deep craters in the piston shoes.

  14. Heat driven pulse pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Steve M (Inventor); Martins, Mario S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A heat driven pulse pump includes a chamber having an inlet port, an outlet port, two check valves, a wick, and a heater. The chamber may include a plurality of grooves inside wall of the chamber. When heated within the chamber, a liquid to be pumped vaporizes and creates pressure head that expels the liquid through the outlet port. As liquid separating means, the wick, disposed within the chamber, is to allow, when saturated with the liquid, the passage of only liquid being forced by the pressure head in the chamber, preventing the vapor from exiting from the chamber through the outlet port. A plurality of grooves along the inside surface wall of the chamber can sustain the liquid, which is amount enough to produce vapor for the pressure head in the chamber. With only two simple moving parts, two check valves, the heat driven pulse pump can effectively function over the long lifetimes without maintenance or replacement. For continuous flow of the liquid to be pumped a plurality of pumps may be connected in parallel.

  15. A review of the security of insulin pump infusion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Nathanael; Kohno, Tadayoshi; Klonoff, David C

    2011-11-01

    Insulin therapy has enabled patients with diabetes to maintain blood glucose control to lead healthier lives. Today, rather than injecting insulin manually using syringes, a patient can use a device such as an insulin pump to deliver insulin programmatically. This allows for more granular insulin delivery while attaining blood glucose control. Insulin pump system features have increasingly benefited patients, but the complexity of the resulting system has grown in parallel. As a result, security breaches that can negatively affect patient health are now possible. Rather than focus on the security of a single device, we concentrate on protecting the security of the entire system. In this article, we describe the security issues as they pertain to an insulin pump system that includes an embedded system of components, which include the insulin pump, continuous glucose management system, blood glucose monitor, and other associated devices (e.g., a mobile phone or personal computer). We detail not only the growing wireless communication threat in each system component, but also describe additional threats to the system (e.g., availability and integrity). Our goal is to help create a trustworthy infusion pump system that will ultimately strengthen pump safety, and we describe mitigating solutions to address identified security issues. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  16. A Passively-Suspended Tesla Pump Left Ventricular Assist Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izraelev, Valentin; Weiss, William J.; Fritz, Bryan; Newswanger, Raymond K.; Paterson, Eric G.; Snyder, Alan; Medvitz, Richard B.; Cysyk, Joshua; Pae, Walter E.; Hicks, Dennis; Lukic, Branka; Rosenberg, Gerson

    2009-01-01

    The design and initial test results of a new passively suspended Tesla type LAVD blood pump are described. CFD analysis was used in the design of the pump. Overall size of the prototype device is 50 mm in diameter and 75 mm in length. The pump rotor has a density lower than that of blood and when spinning inside the stator in blood it creates a buoyant centering force that suspends the rotor in the radial direction. The axial magnetic force between the rotor and stator restrain the rotor in the axial direction. The pump is capable of pumping up to 10 liters/min at a 70 mmHg head rise at 8000 RPM. The pump has demonstrated a normalized index of hemolysis level below .02 mg/dL for flows between 2 and 9.7 L/min. An inlet pressure sensor has also been incorporated into the inlet cannula wall and will be used for control purposes. One initial in vivo study showed an encouraging result. Further CFD modeling refinements are planned as well as endurance testing of the device. PMID:19770799

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic pump with a system for promoting flow of fluid in one direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoff, Asuncion V [Union City, CA; Lee, Abraham P [Irvine, CA

    2010-07-13

    A magnetohydrodynamic pump for pumping a fluid. The pump includes a microfluidic channel for channeling the fluid, a MHD electrode/magnet system operatively connected to the microfluidic channel, and a system for promoting flow of the fluid in one direction in the microfluidic channel. The pump has uses in the medical and biotechnology industries for blood-cell-separation equipment, biochemical assays, chemical synthesis, genetic analysis, drug screening, an array of antigen-antibody reactions, combinatorial chemistry, drug testing, medical and biological diagnostics, and combinatorial chemistry. The pump also has uses in electrochromatography, surface micromachining, laser ablation, inkjet printers, and mechanical micromilling.

  18. Wet motor geroter fuel pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiernicki, M.V.

    1987-05-05

    This patent describes a wet motor gerotor fuel pump for pumping fuel from a fuel source to an internal combustion which consists of: gerotor pump means comprising an inner pump gear, an outer pump gear, and second tang means located on one of the inner and outer pump gears. The second tang means further extends in a second radial direction radially offset from the first radial direction and forms a driving connection with the first tang means such that the fuel pump pumps fuel from the fuel source into the narrow conduit inlet chamber, through the gerotor pump means past the electric motor means into the outlet housing means substantially along the flow axis to the internal combustion engine.

  19. Hemolysis research of implantable axial flow pump for two -step heart transplantation in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Dmitrieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the main indicators characterizing mechanical circulatory support devices (artificial valve, implantable pumps, etc. is trauma of blood cells. Therefore, while developing new pumps, one of the key studies in vitro is to evaluate blood hemolysis. For an objective hemolysis analysis of pump it is required to create a standardized methodology of hemolysis studies. The object of the study in this paper is implantable axial pump DON for two-step heart transplantation in children.The aim of study is to develop a standardized methodology of hemolysis studies of blood pumps and to conduct research of pediatric axial pump DON.Materials and methods. To conduct hemolysis research we created a mock circulatory system consisting of a reservoir placed in water bath maintaining a constant working fluid (blood temperature, hydrodynamic resistance, connecting tubes, ports for blood sampling and pressure and flow measurement systems, and research pump. Test method is to estimate levels of free hemoglobin pHb obtained by blood samples during pump working in operating mode (for pediatric pump: blood flow 2.5 l/min, pressure difference 80 mmHg. Using the data obtained the standardized indices of hemolysis NIH and MIH are calculated based on pHb values, hematocrit, total hemoglobin, blood flow and working pump time.Results. We developed and realized a standardized methodology of hemolysis research by which we evaluated hemolysis of pediatric axial pump. The results of hemolysis tests allowed us to optimize the design of DON. Obtained values of hemolysis of the latest version of pediatric pump DON-3 have shown that they do conform to the requirements of minimum blood injury and it allows us to proceed to the next step of pediatric pump research – animal experiments.Conclusion. Developed methods and evaluation tools of hemolysis allow us to provide objective information on one of the most important indicators of developing

  20. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear pumped laser is described comprising: a toroidal fusion reactor, the reactor generating energetic neutrons; an annular gas cell disposed around the outer periphery of the reactor, the cell including an annular reflecting mirror disposed at the bottom of the cell and an annular output window disposed at the top of the cell; a gas lasing medium disposed within the annular cell for generating output laser radiation; neutron reflector material means disposed around the annular cell for reflecting neutrons incident thereon back into the gas cell; neutron moderator material means disposed between the reactor and the gas cell and between the gas cell and the neutron reflector material for moderating the energy of energetic neutrons from the reactor; converting means for converting energy from the moderated neutrons to energy pumping means for pumping the gas lasing medium; and beam compactor means for receiving output laser radiation from the annular output window and generating a single output laser beam therefrom

  1. Rapid response learning of brand logo priming: Evidence that brand priming is not dominated by rapid response learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Stephan G; Smith, Ciaran; Muench, Niklas; Noble, Kirsty; Atherton, Catherine

    2017-08-31

    Repetition priming increases the accuracy and speed of responses to repeatedly processed stimuli. Repetition priming can result from two complementary sources: rapid response learning and facilitation within perceptual and conceptual networks. In conceptual classification tasks, rapid response learning dominates priming of object recognition, but it does not dominate priming of person recognition. This suggests that the relative engagement of network facilitation and rapid response learning depends on the stimulus domain. Here, we addressed the importance of the stimulus domain for rapid response learning by investigating priming in another domain, brands. In three experiments, participants performed conceptual decisions for brand logos. Strong priming was present, but it was not dominated by rapid response learning. These findings add further support to the importance of the stimulus domain for the relative importance of network facilitation and rapid response learning, and they indicate that brand priming is more similar to person recognition priming than object recognition priming, perhaps because priming of both brands and persons requires individuation.

  2. Shifting evaluation windows : predictable forward primes with long SOAs eliminate the impact of backward primes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fockenberg, D. A. F.; Koole, S.L.; Lakens, D.; Semin, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work suggests that people evaluate target stimuli within short and flexible time periods called evaluation windows. Stimuli that briefly precede a target (forward primes) or briefly succeed a target (backward primes) are often included in the target's evaluation. In this article, the authors

  3. Smelly primes – when olfactory primes do or do not work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique A Smeets

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In applied olfactory cognition the effects that olfactory stimulation can have on (human behavior are investigated. To enable an efficient application of olfactory stimuli a model of how they may lead to a change in behavior is proposed. To this end we use the concept of olfactory priming. Olfactory priming may prompt a special view on priming as the olfactory sense has some unique properties which make odors special types of primes. Examples of such properties are the ability of odors to influence our behavior outside of awareness, to lead to strong affective evaluations, to evoke specific memories, and to associate easily and quickly to other environmental stimuli. Opportunities and limitations for using odors as primes are related to these properties, and alternative explanations for reported findings are offered. Implications for olfactory semantic, construal, behavior and goal priming are given based on a brief overview of the priming literature from social psychology and from olfactory perception science. We end by formulating recommendations and ideas for a future research agenda and applications for olfactory priming.

  4. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  5. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

  6. Geothermal heat pump performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  7. Geothermal Heat Pump Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  8. Heat pump planning handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bonin, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The Heat Pump Planning Handbook contains practical information and guidance on the design, planning and selection of heat pump systems, allowing engineers, designers, architects and construction specialists to compare a number of different systems and options. Including detailed descriptions of components and their functions and reflecting the current state of technology this guide contains sample tasks and solutions as well as new model calculations and planning evaluations. Also economic factors and alternative energy sources are covered, which are essential at a time of rising heat costs. T

  9. Carbon sheet pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Sagara, A.; Kawamura, T.; Motojima, O.; Ono, T.

    1993-07-01

    A new hydrogen pumping scheme has been proposed which controls recycling of the particles for significant improvement of the energy confinement in toroidal magnetic fusion devices. In this scheme, a part of the vacuum vessel surface near the divertor is covered with carbon sheets of a large surface area. Before discharge initiation, the sheets are baked up to 700 ∼ 1000degC to remove the previously trapped hydrogen atoms. After being cooled down to below ∼ 200degC, the unsaturated carbon sheets trap high energy charge exchange hydrogen atoms effectively during a discharge and overall pumping efficiency can be as high as ∼ 50 %. (author)

  10. Vacuum pumping concepts for ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homeyer, W.G.

    1980-09-01

    The Engineering Test Facility (ETF) poses unique vacuum pumping requirements due to its large size and long burn characteristics. These requirements include torus vacuum pumping initially and between burns and pumping of neutralized gas from divertor collector chambers. It was found that the requirements could be met by compound cryopumps in which molecular sieve 5A is used as the cryosorbent. The pumps, ducts, and vacuum valves required are large but fit with other ETF components and do not require major advances in vacuum pumping technology. Several additional design, analytical, and experimental studies were identified as needed to optimize designs and provide better design definition for the ETF vacuum pumping systems

  11. What can be done about corrosion in submersible pumps?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minett, S.

    2000-09-01

    Useful advice and a survey of materials and techniques which can help counter corrosion risks in submersible pumps are provided. The greatest risk of corrosion is caused by sea water, hydrochloric acid, certain types of solvents, hydrogen sulphide, liquids with a high copper content, bases with a high pH value and certain liquids containing a mixture of acids. Counteractive strategies suggested include using a corrosion resistant material such as stainless steel, or other resistant coatings and materials for particular components that are exposed to high corrosion risks. Most submersible pumps are made of cast iron which should present no corrosion problems in normal domestic use. In mining and construction applications aluminum submersibles are common, which is resistant to a pH value of about 8. The use of stainless steel is recommended as the main material in submersible pumps when used for pumping acidic liquids, and when purity of the liquid pumped is of prime consideration. Coatings and anodes on conventional cast iron pumps are a less expensive and more flexible alternative against salt water corrosion. Among coatings epoxy coating is the most widely used. Zinc anodes are used in conjunction with epoxy coatings, which by setting up a micro current by contact with the cast iron prevent corrosion of areas of the cast iron that may be exposed as a result of post-production scratching. By being sacrificially corroded, the zinc anodes thus significantly extend the life of a coated pump. Impressed current from an external power source, is an effective, but more expensive alternative to the implanted anode method. Using resistant materials such as nitrile rubber, fluoro-carbon rubber, corrosion resistant cemented carbide, or chlorinated rubber for various components (rotating shaft seals, rubber 'O' rings, cable sheathing, etc) are other alternatives that may be depending on the application and the degree of exposure.

  12. A Prime Example of the Maluma/Takete Effect? Testing for Sound Symbolic Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, David M; Pexman, Penny M

    2017-09-01

    Certain nonwords, like maluma and takete, are associated with roundness and sharpness, respectively. However, this has typically been demonstrated using explicit tasks. We investigated whether this association would be detectable using a more implicit measure-a sequential priming task. We began with a replication of the standard Maluma/Takete effect (Experiments 1a and 1b) before examining whether round and sharp nonword primes facilitated the categorization of congruent shapes (Experiment 2). We found modest evidence of a priming effect in response accuracy. We next examined whether nonword primes affected categorization of ambiguous shapes, using visual (Experiment 3) and auditory primes (Experiment 4). We found that ambiguous shapes were categorized as round (sharp) more often following the presentation of a round (sharp) nonword. This suggests that phonemes may activate related shape information which then affects the processing of shapes, and that this association emerges even when participants are not explicitly searching for it. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. Repetition Priming Magnitude Depends on Affirmative Prime Responses: A Test of Two Congruity Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiet, Paula; Sorensen, Linda; Mayne, Zachary; Corgiat, Damon; Woltz, Dan

    2016-01-01

    We conducted 2 experiments to evaluate the impact of positive prime responses on repetition priming effects while decoupling this impact from content congruity and specific evaluation operations. Our first experiment consisted of word-meaning comparison trials that required participants to evaluate synonyms or antonyms. A crossing of evaluation operation with semantic content allowed us to test the goal-content congruity hypothesis against the semantic congruity explanation for greater facilitation from positive response primes. Results suggested that operation-based priming is affected by goal-content congruity. A second experiment tested the observed effect of positive responses on repetition priming using mental rotation of irregular shapes, affording a test of the impact of congruity in evaluation goals and content in a nonverbal stimulus domain. Both experiments produced a pattern of results inconsistent with Schulman's (1974) semantic congruity account and instead implicated a different form of congruity that affects memory for prior operations rather than memory for semantic and episodic content.

  14. BLOOD DOPING AND RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vasić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Doping is the way in which athletes misuse of chemicals and other types of medical interventions (eg, blood replacement, try to get ahead in the results of other athletes or their performance at the expense of their own health. The aim of this work is the analysis of blood doping and the display of negative consequences that this way of increasing capabilities brings. Method: The methodological work is done descriptively. Results: Even in 1972 at the Stockholm Institute for gymnastics and sport, first Dr. Bjorn Ekblom started having blood doping. Taken from the blood, athletes through centifuge separating red blood cells from blood plasma, which is after a month of storage in the fridge, every athlete back into the bloodstream. Tests aerobic capacity thereafter showed that the concerned athletes can run longer on average for 25% of the treadmill than before. Discussion: Blood doping carries with it serious risks, excessive amount of red cells “thickens the blood,” increased hematocrit, which reduces the heart’s ability to pump blood to the periphery. All this makes it difficult for blood to flow through blood vessels, and there is a great danger that comes to a halt in the circulation, which can cause cardiac arrest, stroke, pulmonary edema, and other complications that can be fatal.

  15. Priming intelligent behavior: an elusive phenomenon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Shanks

    Full Text Available Can behavior be unconsciously primed via the activation of attitudes, stereotypes, or other concepts? A number of studies have suggested that such priming effects can occur, and a prominent illustration is the claim that individuals' accuracy in answering general knowledge questions can be influenced by activating intelligence-related concepts such as professor or soccer hooligan. In 9 experiments with 475 participants we employed the procedures used in these studies, as well as a number of variants of those procedures, in an attempt to obtain this intelligence priming effect. None of the experiments obtained the effect, although financial incentives did boost performance. A Bayesian analysis reveals considerable evidential support for the null hypothesis. The results conform to the pattern typically obtained in word priming experiments in which priming is very narrow in its generalization and unconscious (subliminal influences, if they occur at all, are extremely short-lived. We encourage others to explore the circumstances in which this phenomenon might be obtained.

  16. A computational approach to negative priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrobsdorff, H.; Ihrke, M.; Kabisch, B.; Behrendt, J.; Hasselhorn, M.; Herrmann, J. Michael

    2007-09-01

    Priming is characterized by a sensitivity of reaction times to the sequence of stimuli in psychophysical experiments. The reduction of the reaction time observed in positive priming is well-known and experimentally understood (Scarborough et al., J. Exp. Psycholol: Hum. Percept. Perform., 3, pp. 1-17, 1977). Negative priming—the opposite effect—is experimentally less tangible (Fox, Psychonom. Bull. Rev., 2, pp. 145-173, 1995). The dependence on subtle parameter changes (such as response-stimulus interval) usually varies. The sensitivity of the negative priming effect bears great potential for applications in research in fields such as memory, selective attention, and ageing effects. We develop and analyse a computational realization, CISAM, of a recent psychological model for action decision making, the ISAM (Kabisch, PhD thesis, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat, 2003), which is sensitive to priming conditions. With the dynamical systems approach of the CISAM, we show that a single adaptive threshold mechanism is sufficient to explain both positive and negative priming effects. This is achieved by comparing results obtained by the computational modelling with experimental data from our laboratory. The implementation provides a rich base from which testable predictions can be derived, e.g. with respect to hitherto untested stimulus combinations (e.g. single-object trials).

  17. Affective Priming in Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle eLeMoult

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on cognitive biases in depression has provided considerable evidence for the impact of emotion on cognition. Individuals with depression tend to preferentially process mood-congruent material and to show deficits in the processing of positive material leading to biases in attention, memory, and judgments. More research is needed, however, to fully understand which cognitive processes are affected. The current study further examines the impact of emotion on cognition using a priming design with facial expressions of emotion. Specifically, this study tested whether the presentation of facial expressions of emotion affects subsequent processing of affective material in participants with major depressive disorder (MDD and healthy controls (CTL. Facial expressions displaying happy, sad, angry, disgusted, or neutral expressions were presented as primes for 500ms, and participants’ speed to identify a subsequent target’s emotional expression was assessed. All participants displayed greater interference from emotional versus neutral primes, marked by slower response times to judge the emotion of the target face when it was preceded by an emotional prime. Importantly, the CTL group showed the strongest interference when happy emotional expressions served as primes whereas the MDD group failed to show this bias. These results add to a growing literature that shows that depression is associated with difficulties in the processing of positive material.

  18. Priming Intelligent Behavior: An Elusive Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, David R.; Newell, Ben R.; Lee, Eun Hee; Balakrishnan, Divya; Ekelund, Lisa; Cenac, Zarus; Kavvadia, Fragkiski; Moore, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Can behavior be unconsciously primed via the activation of attitudes, stereotypes, or other concepts? A number of studies have suggested that such priming effects can occur, and a prominent illustration is the claim that individuals' accuracy in answering general knowledge questions can be influenced by activating intelligence-related concepts such as professor or soccer hooligan. In 9 experiments with 475 participants we employed the procedures used in these studies, as well as a number of variants of those procedures, in an attempt to obtain this intelligence priming effect. None of the experiments obtained the effect, although financial incentives did boost performance. A Bayesian analysis reveals considerable evidential support for the null hypothesis. The results conform to the pattern typically obtained in word priming experiments in which priming is very narrow in its generalization and unconscious (subliminal) influences, if they occur at all, are extremely short-lived. We encourage others to explore the circumstances in which this phenomenon might be obtained. PMID:23637732

  19. Leading, but not trailing, primes influence temporal order perception: further evidence for an attentional account of perceptual latency priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharlau, Ingrid

    2002-11-01

    Presenting a masked prime leading a target influences the perceived onset of the masking target (perceptual latency priming; Scharlau & Neumann, in press). This priming effect is explained by the asynchronous updating model (Neumann, 1982; Scharlau & Neumann, in press): The prime initiates attentional allocation toward its location, which renders a trailing target at the same place consciously available earlier. In three experiments, this perceptual latency priming by leading primes was examined jointly with the effects of trailing primes in order to compare the explanation of the asynchronous updating model with the onset-averaging and the P-center hypotheses. Experiment 1 showed that an attended, as well as an unattended, prime leads to perceptual latency priming. In addition, a large effect of trailing primes on the onset of a target was found. As Experiment 2 demonstrated, this effect is quite robust, although smaller than that of a leading prime. In Experiment 3, masked primes were used. Under these conditions, no influence of trailing primes could be found, whereas perceptual latency priming persisted. Thus, a nonattentional explanation for the effect of trailing primes seems likely.

  20. Study of Hydrogen Pumping through Condensed Argon in Cryogenic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadeja, K A; Bhatt, S B

    2012-01-01

    In ultra high vacuum (UHV) range, hydrogen is a dominant residual gas in vacuum chamber. Hydrogen, being light gas, pumping of hydrogen in this vacuum range is limited with widely used UHV pumps, viz. turbo molecular pump and cryogenic pump. Pre condensed argon layers in cryogenic pump create porous structure on the surface of the pump, which traps hydrogen gas at a temperature less than 20° K. Additional argon gas injection in the cryogenic pump, at lowest temperature, generates multiple layers of condensed argon as a porous frost with 10 to 100 A° diameters pores, which increase the pumping capacity of hydrogen gas. This pumping mechanism of hydrogen is more effective, to pump more hydrogen gas in UHV range applicable in accelerator, space simulation etc. and where hydrogen is used as fuel gas like tokamak. For this experiment, the cryogenic pump with a closed loop refrigerator using helium gas is used to produce the minimum cryogenic temperature as ∼ 14° K. In this paper, effect of cryosorption of hydrogen is presented with different levels of argon gas and hydrogen gas in cryogenic pump chamber.

  1. Solar pumped laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F.; Weaver, W. R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A solar pumped laser is described in which the lasant is a gas that will photodissociate and lase when subjected to sunrays. Sunrays are collected and directed onto the gas lasant to cause it to lase. Applications to laser propulsion and laser power transmission are discussed.

  2. Cryogenic vacuum pump design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, A.J.; Lessard, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is a review of the problems and tradeoffs involved in cryogenic vacuum pump analysis, design and manufacture. Particular attention is paid to the several issues unique to cryopumps, e.g., radiation loading, adsorption of noncondensible gases, and regeneration. A general algorithm for cryopump design is also proposed. 12 references

  3. Pump monitoring and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes how to set up a periodic vibration monitoring program implemented with electronic data loggers. Acquired data will be analyzed and evaluated to determine pump condition. Periodic measuring frequency, reporting procedures, and conditions of mechanical components are discussed in detail based on the actual case study

  4. Magnetic-flux pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Elleman, D. D.; Whitmore, F. C. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    A magnetic flux pump is described for increasing the intensity of a magnetic field by transferring flux from one location to the magnetic field. The device includes a pair of communicating cavities formed in a block of superconducting material, and a piston for displacing the trapped magnetic flux into the secondary cavity producing a field having an intense flux density.

  5. Putzmeister pumps for Tchernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Self-propelling concrete pumps are briefly described in this article, they comprise a 52-meter boom, a radiation protection, remote control, videocameras. Several units were ordered by the Soviet Union. The truck cabin is protected against radiation by a 10 millimeter thick shield in lead. 3 photographs [fr

  6. Scroll vacuum pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Etsuo; Suganami, Takuya; Nishida, Mitsuhiro; Kitora, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Sakuei; Fujii, Kosaburo

    1988-02-25

    An effort is made to apply a scroll machine to development of a vacuum pump. In view of mechanical simplification and load patterns, the vacuum pump uses a rotating mechanism to produce paired vortices rotating around each center. Chip seal and atmospheric pressure are utilized for axial gap sealing while a spring and atmospheric pressure for the radial gap sealing. In both gaps, the sealing direction is stationary relative to the environment during rotation, making it much easier to achieve effective sealing as compared to oscillating pumps. Since the compression ratio is high in vacuum pumps, a zero top clearance form is adopted for the central portion of vortices and an gas release valve is installed in the rotating axis. A compact Oldham coupling with a small inertia force is installed behind the vortices to maintain the required phase relations between the vortices. These improvements result in a vacuum of 1 Pa for dry operation and 10/sup -2/ Pa for oil flooded operation of a single-stage scroll machine at 1800 rpm. (5 figs, 1 tab, 4 refs)

  7. Positions priming in briefly presented search arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgeirsson, Arni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Repetition priming in visual search has been a topic of extensive research since Maljkovic & Nakayama [1994, Memory & Cognition, 22, 657-672] presented the first detailed studies of such effects. Their results showed large reductions in reaction times when target color was repeated on consecutive...... the targets are oddly colored alphanumeric characters. The effects arise at very low exposure durations and benefit accuracy at all exposure durations towards the subjects’ ceiling. We conclude that temporally constricted experimental conditions can add to our understanding priming in visual search...... pop-out search trials. Such repetition effects have since been generalized to a multitude of target attributes. Priming has primarily been investigated using self-terminating visual search paradigms, comparing differences in response times. Response accuracy has predominantly served as a control...

  8. Prime Minister of Pakistan visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    On Saturday, 23 January 2016, CERN welcomed Mr Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, Prime Minister of Pakistan.   From left to right: Minister of Finance Mr Mohammad Ishaq Dar, Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti and CMS national contact physicist Hafeez Hoorani. Mr Muhammad Nawaz Sharif arrived at Point 5 in Cessy, where he was welcomed onto French soil by the sous-préfet of Cessy, Stéphane Donnot, and, representing CERN, Director-General Fabiola Gianotti, Directors Eckhard Elsen and Charlotte Warakaulle, and Rüdiger Voss, the adviser for relations with Pakistan. It was the first visit by a head of government of Pakistan since the country became CERN's latest Associate Member State in July 2015. The Prime Minister then had the opportunity to visit the CMS underground experimental area accompanied by the CMS Spokesperson, Tiziano Camporesi, and the CMS collaboration’...

  9. Affective priming using facial expressions modulates liking for abstract art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexas, Albert; Rosselló, Jaume; Christensen, Julia F; Nadal, Marcos; Olivera La Rosa, Antonio; Munar, Enric

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of affective priming on the appreciation of abstract artworks using an evaluative priming task. Facial primes (showing happiness, disgust or no emotion) were presented under brief (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony, SOA = 20 ms) and extended (SOA = 300 ms) conditions. Differences in aesthetic liking for abstract paintings depending on the emotion expressed in the preceding primes provided a measure of the priming effect. The results showed that, for the extended SOA, artworks were liked more when preceded by happiness primes and less when preceded by disgust primes. Facial expressions of happiness, though not of disgust, exerted similar effects in the brief SOA condition. Subjective measures and a forced-choice task revealed no evidence of prime awareness in the suboptimal condition. Our results are congruent with findings showing that the affective transfer elicited by priming biases evaluative judgments, extending previous research to the domain of aesthetic appreciation.

  10. Affective priming using facial expressions modulates liking for abstract art.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Flexas

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of affective priming on the appreciation of abstract artworks using an evaluative priming task. Facial primes (showing happiness, disgust or no emotion were presented under brief (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony, SOA = 20 ms and extended (SOA = 300 ms conditions. Differences in aesthetic liking for abstract paintings depending on the emotion expressed in the preceding primes provided a measure of the priming effect. The results showed that, for the extended SOA, artworks were liked more when preceded by happiness primes and less when preceded by disgust primes. Facial expressions of happiness, though not of disgust, exerted similar effects in the brief SOA condition. Subjective measures and a forced-choice task revealed no evidence of prime awareness in the suboptimal condition. Our results are congruent with findings showing that the affective transfer elicited by priming biases evaluative judgments, extending previous research to the domain of aesthetic appreciation.

  11. Impulse pumping modelling and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre, B; Gudmundsson, J S

    2010-01-01

    Impulse pumping is a new pumping method based on propagation of pressure waves. Of particular interest is the application of impulse pumping to artificial lift situations, where fluid is transported from wellbore to wellhead using pressure waves generated at wellhead. The motor driven element of an impulse pumping apparatus is therefore located at wellhead and can be separated from the flowline. Thus operation and maintenance of an impulse pump are facilitated. The paper describes the different elements of an impulse pumping apparatus, reviews the physical principles and details the modelling of the novel pumping method. Results from numerical simulations of propagation of pressure waves in water-filled pipelines are then presented for illustrating impulse pumping physical principles, and validating the described modelling with experimental data.

  12. Reactor recirculation pump test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taka, Shusei; Kato, Hiroyuki

    1979-01-01

    A test loop for a reactor primary loop recirculation pumps (PLR pumps) has been constructed at Ebara's Haneda Plant in preparation for production of PLR pumps under license from Byron Jackson Pump Division of Borg-Warner Corporation. This loop can simulate operating conditions for test PLR pumps with 130 per cent of the capacity of pumps for a 1100 MWe BWR plant. A main loop, primary cooling system, water demineralizer, secondary cooling system, instrumentation and control equipment and an electric power supply system make up the test loop. This article describes the test loop itself and test results of two PLR pumps for Fukushima No. 2 N.P.S. Unit 1 and one main circulation pump for HAZ Demonstration Test Facility. (author)

  13. Sludge pumping in water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar Manuel, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    In water treatment processes is frequent to separate residual solids, with sludge shape, and minimize its volume in a later management. the technologies to applicate include pumping across pipelines, even to long distance. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), the management of these sludges is very important because their characteristics affect load losses calculation. Pumping sludge can modify its behavior and pumping frequency can concern treatment process. This paper explains advantages and disadvantages of different pumps to realize transportation sludge operations. (Author) 11 refs.

  14. Vivitron dead section pumping tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heugel, J.; Bayet, J.P.; Brandt, C.; Delhomme, C.; Krieg, C.; Kustner, F.; Meiss, R.; Riehl, R.; Roth, C.; Schlewer, B.; Six, P.; Weber, A.

    1990-10-01

    Pumping tests have been conducted on a simulated accelerator dead section. The behavior of different pump types are compared and analyzed. Vacuum conditions to be expected in the Vivitron are reached and several parameters are verified. Selection of a pump for the Vivitron dead section is confirmed

  15. Heat pumps are a dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    The fact that heat pumps do not achieve what their manufacturers promise in costs efficiency has been realized by the market. In 1981 the sales of heat pumps decreased by 50% of the 1980 market. Public utilities give the reason as economic, since fuel oil is too cheap. The author refutes this argument and presents arguments against heat pumps.

  16. Making effective use of rod pumping systems in coalbed methane applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crivello, A. [eProduction Solutions Inc., Kingwood, TX (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The advantages of optimizing coalbed methane (CBM) operations are increased production, reduced expenses, improved efficiency, and better inventory. The author discussed the CBM production cycle and the possible artificial lift options, including electric submersible pump (ESP), plunger lift, primary coolant pump (PCP), and reciprocating rod lift. The presentation focused on the rod lift, as it represents a low to moderate capital expenditure, has good system efficiency, an excellent fluid volume range, an excellent salvage value, excellent familiarity with equipment, and has readily available parts and service. The major disadvantage of the rod lift is that the fixed operating range does not adapt to changing reservoir characteristics. A comparison between the rod pump controller and the variable speed drive was presented. The well can be operated at or near the pumped off condition with variable speed drives with rod pumping intelligence. The author provided a closer examination of the variable frequency drive and the vector flux drive. The presentation also included a discussion of prime movers, drive and inclinometer, gearbox loading, rod load limiter, and dynamometer cards. Three case studies were presented: CSW1, CSW2, and CSW3. It was concluded that wells must be kept pumping, and that a Flux Vector Drive should be used along with an NEMA B motor and properly sized pumping unit and pump. tabs., figs.

  17. Pumping characteristics of roots blower pumps for light element gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroki, Seiji; Abe, Tetsuya; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Nakamura, Jun-ichi; Ohbayashi, Tetsuro

    2002-07-01

    The pumping speed and compression ratio of the two-stage roots blower pumping system were measured for light element gases (H 2 , D 2 and He) and for N 2 , in order to assess validity of the ITER torus roughing system as an ITER R and D task (T234). The pumping system of an Edwards EH1200 (nominal pumping speed of 1200 m 3 /s), two EH250s (ibid. 250 m 3 /s) and a backing pump (ibid. 100 m 3 /s) in series connection was tested under PNEUROP standards. The maximum pumping speeds of the two-stage system for D 2 and N 2 were 1200 and 1300 m 3 /h, respectively at 60 Hz, which satisfied the nominal pumping speed. These experimental data support the design validity of the ITER torus roughing system. (author)

  18. Priming involuntary autobiographical memories in the lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Niedźwieńska, Agnieszka

    2018-02-01

    Involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) are recollections of personal past that frequently and spontaneously occur in daily life. Initial studies by Mace (2005) showed that deliberately reminiscing about a certain lifetime period (e.g., high school) significantly increased the number of different IAMs from the same period in subsequent days, suggesting that priming may play a significant role in the retrieval of IAMs in everyday life. In the present study, we used a modified experimental paradigm, originally used by Schlagman and Kvavilashvili (2008), to study IAMs under well-controlled laboratory conditions. Participants completed a monotonous vigilance task twice and reported the occurrence of any spontaneous thoughts that were later classed as IAMs or other thoughts. Priming was manipulated by having experimental participants reminiscing about high school period between the two vigilance tasks and control participants playing simple games. Results showed that participants in the experimental group reported IAMs relating to high school period more frequently during the second vigilance task than those in the control group. In the experimental group, the number of high school memories was marginally higher in the second vigilance task compared to the first vigilance task with the medium effect size, but this within subjects effect was not significant in the control group. Finally, priming also enhanced the retrieval of more remote IAMs in the experimental group compared to the control group. These results suggest that priming may play a significant role in the activation and recall of IAMs and open up interesting avenues for future research.

  19. Colorimetry and prime colours--a theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornaes, Hans Petter; Wold, Jan Henrik; Farup, Ivar

    2005-08-01

    Human colour vision is the result of a complex process involving topics ranging from physics of light to perception. Whereas the diversity of light entering the eye in principle span an infinite-dimensional vector space in terms of the spectral power distributions, the space of human colour perceptions is three dimensional. One important consequence of this is that a variety of colours can be visually matched by a mixture of only three adequately chosen reference lights. It has been observed that there exists one particular set of monochromatic reference lights that, according to a certain definition, is optimal for producing colour matches. These reference lights are commonly denoted prime colours. In the present paper, we intend to rigorously show that the existence of prime colours is not particular to the human visual system as sometimes stated, but rather an algebraic consequence of the manner in which a kind of colorimetric functions called colour-matching functions are defined and transformed. The solution is based on maximisation of a determinant determining the gamut size of the colour space spanned by the prime colours. Cramer's rule for solving a set of linear equations is an essential part of the proof. By means of examples, it is shown that mathematically the optimal set of reference lights is not unique in general, and that the existence of a maximum determinant is not a necessary condition for the existence of prime colours.

  20. Maple Explorations, Perfect Numbers, and Mersenne Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghusayni, B.

    2005-01-01

    Some examples from different areas of mathematics are explored to give a working knowledge of the computer algebra system Maple. Perfect numbers and Mersenne primes, which have fascinated people for a very long time and continue to do so, are studied using Maple and some questions are posed that still await answers.

  1. Phonological Priming and Cohort Effects in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Nivedita; Plunkett, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Adult word recognition is influenced by prior exposure to phonologically or semantically related words ("cup" primes "cat" or "plate") compared to unrelated words ("door"), suggesting that words are organised in the adult lexicon based on their phonological and semantic properties and that word recognition implicates not just the heard word, but…

  2. Random reward priming is task-contingent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2014-01-01

    Consistent financial reward of particular features influences the allocation of visual attention in many ways. More surprising are 1-trial reward priming effects on attention where reward schedules are random and reward on one trial influences attentional allocation on the next. Those findings...

  3. Method for priming and DNA sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugasimangalam, R.C.; Ulanovsky, L.E.

    1997-12-01

    A method is presented for improving the priming specificity of an oligonucleotide primer that is non-unique in a nucleic acid template which includes selecting a continuous stretch of several nucleotides in the template DNA where one of the four bases does not occur in the stretch. This also includes bringing the template DNA in contract with a non-unique primer partially or fully complimentary to the sequence immediately upstream of the selected sequence stretch. This results in polymerase-mediated differential extension of the primer in the presence of a subset of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates that does not contain the base complementary to the base absent in the selected sequence stretch. These reactions occur at a temperature sufficiently low for allowing the extension of the non-unique primer. The method causes polymerase-mediated extension reactions in the presence of all four natural deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates or modifications. At this high temperature discrimination occurs against priming sites of the non-unique primer where the differential extension has not made the primer sufficiently stable to prime. However, the primer extended at the selected stretch is sufficiently stable to prime.

  4. Electroosmotic pumps for microflow analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiayan; Wang, Shili; Gendhar, Brina; Cheng, Chang; Byun, Chang Kyu; Li, Guanbin; Zhao, Meiping; Liu, Shaorong

    2009-01-01

    With rapid development in microflow analysis, electroosmotic pumps are receiving increasing attention. Compared to other micropumps, electroosmotic pumps have several unique features. For example, they are bi-directional, can generate constant and pulse-free flows with flow rates well suited to microanalytical systems, and can be readily integrated with lab-on-chip devices. The magnitude and the direction of flow of an electroosmotic pump can be changed instantly. In addition, electroosmotic pumps have no moving parts. In this article, we discuss common features, introduce fabrication technologies and highlight applications of electroosmotic pumps. PMID:20047021

  5. Bearing for liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, R.J.; Pennell, W.E.; Wasko, J.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance

  6. DNA polymerase preference determines PCR priming efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenjing; Byrne-Steele, Miranda; Wang, Chunlin; Lu, Stanley; Clemmons, Scott; Zahorchak, Robert J; Han, Jian

    2014-01-30

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of the most important developments in modern biotechnology. However, PCR is known to introduce biases, especially during multiplex reactions. Recent studies have implicated the DNA polymerase as the primary source of bias, particularly initiation of polymerization on the template strand. In our study, amplification from a synthetic library containing a 12 nucleotide random portion was used to provide an in-depth characterization of DNA polymerase priming bias. The synthetic library was amplified with three commercially available DNA polymerases using an anchored primer with a random 3' hexamer end. After normalization, the next generation sequencing (NGS) results of the amplified libraries were directly compared to the unamplified synthetic library. Here, high throughput sequencing was used to systematically demonstrate and characterize DNA polymerase priming bias. We demonstrate that certain sequence motifs are preferred over others as primers where the six nucleotide sequences at the 3' end of the primer, as well as the sequences four base pairs downstream of the priming site, may influence priming efficiencies. DNA polymerases in the same family from two different commercial vendors prefer similar motifs, while another commercially available enzyme from a different DNA polymerase family prefers different motifs. Furthermore, the preferred priming motifs are GC-rich. The DNA polymerase preference for certain sequence motifs was verified by amplification from single-primer templates. We incorporated the observed DNA polymerase preference into a primer-design program that guides the placement of the primer to an optimal location on the template. DNA polymerase priming bias was characterized using a synthetic library amplification system and NGS. The characterization of DNA polymerase priming bias was then utilized to guide the primer-design process and demonstrate varying amplification efficiencies among three commercially

  7. Thermo-electric pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georges, J.-L.; Veyret, J.-F.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a thermo-pump for electrically conductive liquid fluids, e.g. for a liquid metal such as sodium. This pump is characterized in that the piping for the circulation of the conductive liquid is constituted by a plurality of conduits defined by two co-axial cylinders and two walls parallel to their axis. Each conduit limited outside by a magnet, inside by a mild-iron tube, and laterally by two materials forming a thermocouple. The electric current generated by that thermo-couple and the magnetic flux generated by the magnets both loop the loop through an outer cylindrical nickel shell. This can be applied to sodium circulation loops for testing nuclear fuel elements [fr

  8. Heat pumps: heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pielke, R

    1976-01-01

    The author firstly explains in a general manner the functioning of the heat pump. Following a brief look at the future heat demand and the possibilities of covering it, the various methods of obtaining energy (making use of solar energy, ground heat, and others) and the practical applications (office heating, swimming pool heating etc.) are explained. The author still sees considerable difficulties in using the heat pump at present on a large scale. Firstly there is not enough maintenance personnel available, secondly the electricity supply undertakings cannot provide the necessary electricity on a wide basis without considerable investments. Other possibilities to save energy or to use waste energy are at present easier and more economical to realize. Recuperative and regenerative systems are described.

  9. Water displacement mercury pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  10. Pocket pumped image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, I.V., E-mail: kotov@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); O' Connor, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Murray, N. [Centre for Electronic Imaging, Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    The pocket pumping technique is used to detect small electron trap sites. These traps, if present, degrade CCD charge transfer efficiency. To reveal traps in the active area, a CCD is illuminated with a flat field and, before image is read out, accumulated charges are moved back and forth number of times in parallel direction. As charges are moved over a trap, an electron is removed from the original pocket and re-emitted in the following pocket. As process repeats one pocket gets depleted and the neighboring pocket gets excess of charges. As a result a “dipole” signal appears on the otherwise flat background level. The amplitude of the dipole signal depends on the trap pumping efficiency. This paper is focused on trap identification technique and particularly on new methods developed for this purpose. The sensor with bad segments was deliberately chosen for algorithms development and to demonstrate sensitivity and power of new methods in uncovering sensor defects.

  11. FTU pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrini, C.; Ciotti, M.; Mattei, A. De; Maddaluno, G.; Mazzitelli, G.

    1989-01-01

    The control of the refuelling and recycling of the plasma is crucial in providing enhanced performances in tokamaks and steady-state operation in future reactors. In this paper, we report details of the design and analysis for the pump limiter to be incorporated into the FTU tokamak. The FTU, presently under commissioning, is a compact high field (B=8T), medium high density, circular cross section machine with small accesses. The dimensions of the equatorial port (width 8 cm) would reduce the length of the entrance throat to a few centimeters, which is unacceptable for efficient particle trapping. We have, therefore, designed a rotating blade of the pump limiter head that, in the working position, extends in the toroidal direction inside the vacuum chamber. (author) 8 refs., 4 figs

  12. Geothermal heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, R.; Tinti, F.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, for several types of buildings and users, the choice of conditioning by heat pump and low enthalpy geothermal reservoir has been increasing in the Italian market. In fact, such systems are efficient in terms of energy and consumption, they can perform, even at the same time, both functions, heating and cooling and they are environmentally friendly, because they do not produce local emissions. This article will introduce the technology and will focus on critical points of a geothermal field design, from actual practice, to future perspectives for the geo exchanger improvement. Finally, the article presents a best practice case in Bologna district, with an economic analysis showing the convenience of a geothermal heat pump. Conclusions of the real benefits of these plants can be drawn: compared to a non-negligible initial cost, the investment has a pay-back period almost always acceptable, usually less than 10 years. [it

  13. 21 CFR 880.5725 - Infusion pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Infusion pump. (a) Identification. An infusion pump is a device used in a health care facility to pump fluids into a patient in a controlled manner. The device may use a piston pump, a roller pump, or a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infusion pump. 880.5725 Section 880.5725 Food and...

  14. 14 CFR 23.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 23.991 Section 23.991... § 23.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. For main pumps, the following apply: (1) For reciprocating engine installations having fuel pumps to supply fuel to the engine, at least one pump for each engine must be directly...

  15. Nonazeotropic Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.

  16. IRRIGATION USING SOLAR PUMP

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Nitin P.Choudhary*1 & Ms. Komal Singne2

    2017-01-01

    In this report the described design of a PV and soil moisture sensor based automated irrigation system is introduced. This project aims to provide a human friendly, economical and automated water pumping system which eliminates the problems of over irrigation and helps in irrigation water optimization and manage it in accordance with the availability of water. Our project not only tries to modernize the irrigation practices and ensure the optimum yield by carefully fulfilling the requirements...

  17. Small size ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyranski, R.; Kiliszek, Cz.R.; Marks, J.; Sobolewski, A.; Magielko, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes some designs of the two versions ion pumps and their range operation for various magnetic fields. The first version is made with different cell size in the anode element and titanium cathode operating in magnetic field from 600 to 650 Gs and the second version with the same anode element but differential Ti/Ta cathode working in magnetic field above 1200 Gs

  18. Pumping potential wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Forest, C.; Wang, E. Y.; Intrator, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nonmonotonic plasma potential structures are a common feature of many double layers and sheaths. Steady state plasma potential wells separating regions having different plasma potentials are often found in laboratory experiments. In order to exist, such structures all must find a solution to a common problem. Ions created by charge exchange or ionization in the region of the potential well are electrostatically confined and tend to accumulate and fill up the potential well. The increase in positive charge should eliminate the well. Nevertheless, steady state structures are found in which the wells do not fill up. This means that it is important to take into account processes which 'pump' ions from the well. As examples of ion pumping of plasma wells, potential dips in front of a positively biased electro collecting anode in a relatively cold, low density multidipole plasma is considered. Pumping is provided by ion leaks from the edges of the potential dip or by oscillating the applied potential. In the former case the two dimensional character of the problem is shown to be important.

  19. Pumping potential wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Forest, C.; Wang, E.Y.; Intrator, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nonmonotonic plasma potential structures are a common feature of many double layers and sheaths. Steady state plasma potential wells separating regions having different plasma potentials are often found in laboratory experiments. In order to exist, all such structures must find a solution to a common problem. Ions created by charge exchange or ionization in the region of the potential well are electrostatically confined and tend to accumulate and fill up the potential well. The increase in positive charge should eliminate the well. Nevertheless, steady state structures are found in which the wells do not fill up. This means that it is important to take into account processes which pump ions from the well. As examples of ion pumping of plasma wells, potential dips in front of a positively biased electron collecting anode in a relatively cold, low density, multidipole plasma are considered. Pumping is provided by ion leaks from the edges of the potential dip or by oscillating the applied potential. In the former case the two-dimensional character of the problem is shown to be important

  20. Pumping potential wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Forest, C.; Wang, E.Y.; Intrator, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nonmonotonic plasma potential structures are a common feature of many double layers and sheaths. Steady state plasma potential wells separating regions having different plasma potentials are often found in laboratory experiments. In order to exist, such structures all must find a solution to a common problem. Ions created by charge exchange or ionization in the region of the potential well are electrostatically confined and tend to accumulate and fill up the potential well. The increase in positive charge should eliminate the well, but steady state structures are found in which the wells do not fill up. This means that it is important to take into account processes which 'pump' ions from the well. As examples of ion pumping of plasma wells, potential dips in front of a positively biased electron collecting anode in a relatively cold, low density multidipole plasma are considered. Pumping is provided by ion leaks from the edges of the potential dip or by oscillating the applied potential. In the former case the two dimensional character of the problem is shown to be important. (author)

  1. Jet operated heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    A jet pump system is shown that utilizes waste heat to provide heating and/or cooling. Waste heat diverted through a boiler causes a refrigerant to evaporate and expand for supersonic discharge through a nozzle thereby creating a vacuum in an evaporator coil. The vacuum draws the refrigerant in a gaseous state into a condensing section of a jet pump along with refrigerant from a reservoir in a subcooled liquid form. This causes condensation of the gas in a condensation section of the jet pump, while moving at constant velocity. The change in momentum of the fluid overcomes the system high side pressure. Some of the condensate is cooled by a subcooler. Refrigerant in a subcooled liquid state from the subcooler is fed back into the evaporator and the condensing section with an adequate supply being insured by the reservoir. The motive portion of the condensate is returned to the boiler sans subcooling. By proper valving start-up is insured, as well as the ability to switch from heating to cooling

  2. Controlling groundwater pumping online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekri, Slim

    2009-08-01

    Groundwater over-pumping is a major problem in several countries around the globe. Since controlling groundwater pumping through water flow meters is hardly feasible, the surrogate is to control electricity usage. This paper presents a framework to restrict groundwater pumping by implementing an annual individual electricity quota without interfering with the electricity pricing policy. The system could be monitored online through prepaid electricity meters. This provides low transaction costs of individual monitoring of users compared to the prohibitive costs of water flow metering and monitoring. The public groundwater managers' intervention is thus required to determine the water and electricity quota and watch the electricity use online. The proposed framework opens the door to the establishment of formal groundwater markets among users at very low transaction costs. A cost-benefit analysis over a 25-year period is used to evaluate the cost of non-action and compare it to the prepaid electricity quota framework in the Batinah coastal area of Oman. Results show that the damage cost to the community, if no active policy is implemented, amounts to (-$288) million. On the other hand, the implementation of a prepaid electricity quota with an online management system would result in a net present benefit of $199 million.

  3. Liquid sodium pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    The pump for use in a nuclear reactor cooling system comprises a booster stage impeller for drawing the liquid through the inlet. A diffuser is affixedly disposed within the pump housing to convert the kinetic pressure imparted to the liquid into increased static pressure. A main stage impeller is rotatively driven by a pump motor at a relatively high speed to impart a relatively high static pressure to the liquid and for discharging the liquid at a relatively high static pressure. A hydraulic coupling is disposed remotely from the liquid path for hydraulically coupling the main stage impeller and the booster stage impeller to rotate the booster stage impeller at a relatively low speed to maintain the low net positive suction pressure applied to the liquid at the inlet greater than the vapor pressure of the liquid and to ensure that the low net positive suction heat, as established by the main stage impeller exceeds the vapor pressure. The coupling comprises a grooved drum which rotates between inner and outer drag coupling members. In a modification the coupling comprises a torque converter. (author)

  4. Electrocentrifugal pumping; Bombeo electrocentrifugo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Perez, Guillermo; Medellin Otero, Hector [Instituto Mexicano del Peroleo (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    The exploitation of isolated oil deposits, in losing their own energy, enter a phase of secondary recovery. One of the technologies of new development in Mexico is the one of electrocentrifugal pumping , which consists of introducing the motor-pump as an integral part of the production pipe down to the well bottom and pumping directly up to central complexes, from where it is sent inland. In the present paper is intended to explain what this type of secondary recovery consists of. [Spanish] La explotacion de yacimientos aislados de petroleo, al perder su energia propia, entran en una fase de recuperacion secundaria. Una de las tecnologias de nuevo desarrollo en Mexico es la de bombeo electrocentrifugo, la cual consiste en introducir la motobomba como parte integral de la tuberia de produccion hasta el fondo del pozo y bombearlo directamente hasta los complejos centrales, de donde se envia a tierra. En el presente trabajo se pretende explicar en que consiste este tipo de recuperacion secundaria.

  5. Optically pumped terahertz sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Kai; SHI Wei; XU DeGang; LIU PengXiang; WANG YuYe; MEI JiaLin; YAN Chao; FU ShiJie; YAO JianQuan

    2017-01-01

    High-power terahertz (THz) generation in the frequency range of0.1-10 THz has been a fast-developing research area ever since the beginning of the THz boom two decades ago,enabling new technological breakthroughs in spectroscopy,communication,imaging,etc.By using optical (laser) pumping methods with near-or mid-infrared (IR) lasers,flexible and practical THz sources covering the whole THz range can be realized to overcome the shortage of electronic THz sources and now they are playing important roles in THz science and technology.This paper overviews various optically pumped THz sources,including femtosecond laser based ultrafast broadband THz generation,monochromatic widely tunable THz generation,single-mode on-chip THz source from photomixing,and the traditional powerful THz gas lasers.Full descriptions from basic principles to the latest progress are presented and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed as well.It is expected that this review gives a comprehensive reference to researchers in this area and additionally helps newcomers to quickly gain understanding of optically pumped THz sources.

  6. On prime ideals and associated spectrum of BCK-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, J.; Thaheem, A.B.; Deeba, E.Y.

    1989-07-01

    In this paper we study prime ideals and define the spectrum of a bounded commutative BCK-algebra. We also obtain a characterization of minimal prime (lattice) ideals of these algebras. (author). 8 refs, 4 tabs

  7. Semantic priming without association: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, M

    2000-12-01

    A meta-analysis of 26 studies indicated that automatic semantic priming can occur without association. Priming did not vary substantially with differences in variables that affect automatic versus strategic processing, such as time spent processing the prime and target, relationship proportion, and task (except that average effects were smaller in the naming task). Although category coordinates were investigated in the majority of studies, synonyms, antonyms, and script relations also demonstrated priming; functional relations showed greater priming, and essential and perceptual relations showed less. The average effect size for semantic priming was smaller than that for associative priming, suggesting that there is an "associative boost" from adding an associative relationship to a semantic one. The implications of these findings for the modularity thesis and for models of semantic priming are discussed.

  8. Design and principle of operation of the HeartMate PHP (percutaneous heart pump)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mieghem, N.M. van; Daemen, J.; Uil, C. den; Dur, O.; Joziasse, L.; Maugenest, A.M.; Fitzgerald, K.; Parker, C.; Muller, P.; Geuns, R.J.M. van

    2018-01-01

    The HeartMate PHP (percutaneous heart pump) is a second-generation transcatheter axial flow circulatory support system. The collapsible catheter pump is inserted through a 14 Fr sheath, deployed across the aortic valve expanding to 24 Fr and able to deliver up to 5 L/min blood flow at minimum

  9. HEMOPERFUSION DURING CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY - 1ST EUROPEAN EXPERIENCE WITH A NEW HEMOPERFUSION PUMP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMUINCK, ED; MEEDER, J; MAGIELSE, C; BOM, VJJ; VANDIJK, RB; VERKERKE, GJ; LIE, KI

    Hemolysis tests with fresh human blood were performed in vitro with a new 5 ml, piston-type hemoperfusion pump, designed to prevent myocardial ischemia during coronary angioplasty. Despite driving pressures greater than 3 atmospheres, shear stress greater than 200 Pa, turbulent pump flow, and the

  10. Prime time news: the influence of primed positive and negative emotion on susceptibility to false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen; ten Brinke, Leanne; Riley, Sean N; Baker, Alysha

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relation between emotion and susceptibility to misinformation using a novel paradigm, the ambiguous stimuli affective priming (ASAP) paradigm. Participants (N = 88) viewed ambiguous neutral images primed either at encoding or retrieval to be interpreted as either highly positive or negative (or neutral/not primed). After viewing the images, they either were asked misleading or non-leading questions. Following a delay, memory accuracy for the original images was assessed. Results indicated that any emotional priming at encoding led to a higher susceptibility to misinformation relative to priming at recall. In particular, inducing a negative interpretation of the image at encoding led to an increased susceptibility of false memories for major misinformation (an entire object not actually present in the scene). In contrast, this pattern was reversed when priming was used at recall; a negative reinterpretation of the image decreased memory distortion relative to unprimed images. These findings suggest that, with precise experimental control, the experience of emotion at event encoding, in particular, is implicated in false memory susceptibility.

  11. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  12. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching. There are four major blood ... cause exceptions to the above patterns. ABO blood typing is not sufficient to prove or disprove paternity ...

  13. Australia's First Prime Ministerial Library: Past and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman-Brown, Lesley; Henderson, Kandy-Jane; Wallace, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    In creating Australia's first prime ministerial library, a new cultural institution was developed which blends professional practice from the fields of librarianship, education, archives, journalism and museums. The John Curtin Prime Ministerial Library honours the contribution of wartime prime minister John Curtin, works towards the advancement…

  14. Space-Valence Priming with Subliminal and Supraliminal Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich eAnsorge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To date it is unclear whether (1 awareness-independent non-evaluative semantic processes influence affective semantics and whether (2 awareness-independent affective semantics influence non-evaluative semantic processing. In the current study, we investigated these questions with the help of subliminal (masked primes and visible targets in a space-valence across-category congruence effect. In line with (1, we found that subliminal space prime words influenced valence classification of supraliminal target words (Experiment 1: Classifications were faster with a congruent prime (e.g., the prime ‘up’ before the target ‘happy’ than with an incongruent prime (e.g., the prime ‘up’ before the target ‘sad’. In contrast to (2, no influence of subliminal valence primes on the classification of supraliminal space targets into up- and down-words was found (Experiment 2. Control conditions showed that standard masked response-priming effects were found with both subliminal prime types, and that an across-category congruence effect was also found with supraliminal valence primes and spatial target words. The final Experiment 3 confirmed that the across-category congruence effect indeed reflected priming of target categorization of a relevant meaning category. Together, the data jointly confirmed prediction (1 that awareness-independent non-evaluative semantic priming influences valence judgments.

  15. The Nature of Affective Priming in Music and Speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goerlich, K.S.; Witteman, J.; Schiller, N.O.; Van Heuven, V.J.; Aleman, A.; Martens, S.

    The phenomenon of affective priming has caught scientific interest for over 30 years, yet the nature of the affective priming effect remains elusive. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of cross-modal affective priming and the influence of affective incongruence in music and speech on

  16. Attentional Control and the Relatedness Proportion Effect in Semantic Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2 experiments, participants completed both an attentional control battery (OSPAN, antisaccade, and Stroop tasks) and a modified semantic priming task. The priming task measured relatedness proportion (RP) effects within subjects, with the color of the prime indicating the probability that the to-be-named target would be related. In Experiment…

  17. Novel Word Lexicalization and the Prime Lexicality Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how newly learned words are integrated into the first-language lexicon using masked priming. Two lexical decision experiments are reported, with the aim of establishing whether newly learned words behave like real words in a masked form priming experiment. If they do, they should show a prime lexicality effect (PLE), in…

  18. Persistent Structural Priming from Language Comprehension to Language Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Kathryn; Dell, Gary S.; Chang, Franklin; Onishi, Kristine H.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the relationship between syntactic processes in language comprehension and language production, we compared structural persistence from sentence primes that speakers heard to persistence from primes that speakers produced. [Bock, J. K., & Griffin, Z. M. (2000). The persistence of structural priming: transient activation or implicit…

  19. Stochastic resolution analysis of co-prime arrays in radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pribic, R; Coutiño Minguez, M.A.; Leus, G.J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Resolution from co-prime arrays and from a full ULA of the size equal to the virtual size of co-prime arrays is investigated. We take into account not only the resulting beam width but also the fact that fewer measurements are acquired by co-prime arrays. This fact is relevant in compressive

  20. 48 CFR 45.501 - Prime contractor alternate locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prime contractor alternate... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Support Government Property Administration 45.501 Prime contractor... administration from another contract administration office, for purposes of evaluating prime contractor...

  1. Arithmetically Related Ideal Topologies and the Infinitude of Primes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    algebra. Mathematics Subject Classification (1991): 11N80, 11N25, 11A41, 11T99, 13A15, 20M25 Keywords: x-ideal, topological semigroup, ideal topology, infinitude of primes, generalized primes and integers, distribution, integers, specified multiplicative constraints, primes, ideals, multiplicative ideal theory, semigroup

  2. Euclidean Primes Have the Minimum Number of Primitive Roots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížek, Michal; Somer, L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2008), s. 121-127 ISSN 0972-5555 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Euclidean primes * Fermat primes * Sophie Germain primes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  3. Rectal microcirculatory alterations after elective on-pump cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, E. C.; Kaiferova, K.; Konijn, A. J. M.; De Vries, J. W.; Buter, H.; Ince, C.

    Background. Hemodynamic changes, related to on-pump cardiac surgery, have been reported to impair intestinal perfusion. However, until recently, direct in vivo observation of the intestinal microcirculation was not clinically feasible, and the concept of altered intestinal blood flow in the setting

  4. Supercritical waste oxidation pump investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurston, G.; Garcia, K.

    1993-02-01

    This report investigates the pumping techniques and pumping equipment that would be appropriate for a 5,000 gallon per day supercritical water oxidation waste disposal facility. The pumps must boost water, waste, and additives from atmospheric pressure to approximately 27.6 MPa (4,000 psia). The required flow ranges from 10 gpm to less than 0.1 gpm. For the higher flows, many commercial piston pumps are available. These pumps have packing and check-valves that will require periodic maintenance; probably at 2 to 6 month intervals. Several commercial diaphragm pumps were also discovered that could pump the higher flow rates. Diaphragm pumps have the advantage of not requiring dynamic seals. For the lower flows associated with the waste and additive materials, commercial diaphragm pumps. are available. Difficult to pump materials that are sticky, radioactive, or contain solids, could be injected with an accumulator using an inert gas as the driving mechanism. The information presented in this report serves as a spring board for trade studies and the development of equipment specifications

  5. Experimental Study on Series Operation of Sliding Vane Pump and Centrifugal Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tao; Zhang, Weiming; Jiang, Ming; Li, Zhengyang

    2013-01-01

    A platform for sliding vane pump and centrifugal pump tests is installed to study the series operation of them under different characteristics of pipeline. Firstly, the sliding vane pump and the centrifugal pump work independently, and the performance is recorded. Then, the two types of pumps are combined together, with the sliding vane pump acting as the feeding pump. Comparison is made between the performance of the independently working pump and the performance of series operation pump. Re...

  6. Prime-Minister of Malta visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The Prime-Minister of Malta, Dr Lawrence Gonzi, visited CERN and met Director-General, Robert Aymar, on 10 January. The Prime-Minister of Malta, Dr Lawrence Gonzi, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a cooperation agreement. Dr Gonzi was given guided tours of the CMS experiment at Point 5 in Cessy and of the LHC magnet test facility, in which his country was involved. One of the high points of the day was the signing of a cooperation agreement between CERN and the Government of the Republic of Malta, aimed at the development of scientific and technical collaboration. "I’m really enthusiastic about this agreement, which constitutes a first step towards real collaboration between the Maltese government and CERN," said Nicholas Sammut, a Maltese engineer at CERN who was present throughout the visit (on the right). See also the video.

  7. On the union of graded prime ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uregen Rabia Nagehan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate graded compactly packed rings, which is defined as; if any graded ideal I of R is contained in the union of a family of graded prime ideals of R, then I is actually contained in one of the graded prime ideals of the family. We give some characterizations of graded compactly packed rings. Further, we examine this property on h – Spec(R. We also define a generalization of graded compactly packed rings, the graded coprimely packed rings. We show that R is a graded compactly packed ring if and only if R is a graded coprimely packed ring whenever R be a graded integral domain and h – dim R = 1.

  8. Fuel savings with conventional hot water space heating systems by incorporating a natural gas powered heat pump. Preliminary project: Development of heat pump technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheyden, L.; Evertz, E.

    1980-12-01

    Compression type air/water heat pumps were developed for domestic heating systems rated at 20 to 150 kW. The heat pump is driven either by a reciprocating piston or rotary piston engine modified to operate on natural gas. Particular features of natural gas engines as prime movers, such as waste heat recovery and variable speed, are stressed. Two systems suitable for heat pump operation were selected from among five different mass produced car engines and were modified to incorporate reciprocating piston compressor pairs. The refrigerants used are R 12 and R 22. Test rig data transferred to field conditions show that the fuel consumption of conventional boilers can be reduced by 50% and more by the installation of engine driven heat pumps. Pilot heat pumps based on a 1,600 cc reciprocating piston engine were built for heating four two-family houses. Pilot pump operation confirms test rig findings. The service life of rotary piston and reciprocating piston engines was investigated. The tests reveal characteristic curves for reciprocating piston engines and include exhaust composition measurements.

  9. Diode laser pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagerlund, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    A diode laser is pumped or pulsed by a repeated capacitive discharge. A capacitor is periodically charged from a dc voltage source via a transformer, the capacitor being discharged through the diode laser via a controlled switching means after one or more charging periods. During a first interval of each charging period the transformer, while unloaded, stores a specific amount of energy supplied from the dc voltage source. During a subsequent interval of the charging period said specific amount of energy is transmitted from the transformer to the capacitor. The discharging of the capacitor takes place during a first interval of a charging period. (auth)

  10. Novel limiter pump topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topolgies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure

  11. Novel limiter pump topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topologies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure

  12. Improvements relating to electromagnetic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, D.F.

    1975-01-01

    Reference is made to electromagnetic pumps suitable for use in pumping molten Na, and particularly to annular linear induction pumps that may for example be used to pump molten Na at temperatures up to 650 0 in situations where it is not possible to provide cooling. Previous designs of such pumps have employed disk-shaped coils around the outside of the annulus, the coils being energised from a three-phase power supply to produce a travelling radial field. The pump system described obviates the necessity for joints between the coils. It also allows the use of all types of high temperature insultation, simplified manufacture, and enables the windings to be located on the inside of the annulus. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  13. Fast breeder reactor electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araseki, Hideo; Murakami, Takahiro

    2008-01-01

    Main pumps circulating sodium in the FBR type reactor have been mechanical types, not electromagnetic pumps. Electromagnetic pump of 1-2 m 3 /min has been used as an auxiliary pump. Large sized electromagnetic pumps such as several hundred m 3 /min have not been commercialized due to technical difficulties with electromagnetic instability and pressure pulsations. This article explained electromagnetic and fluid equations and magnetic Reynolds number related with electromagnetic pumps and numerical analysis of instability characteristics and pressure pulsations and then described applications of the results to FBR system. Magnetic Reynolds number must be chosen less than one with appropriate operating frequency and optimum slip of 0.2-0.4. (T. Tanaka)

  14. Mechanical pumping at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perin, J.P.; Claudet, G.; Disdier, F.

    1994-12-31

    This new concept consists of a mechanical pump able to run at low temperature (25 K). Since gas density varies inversely with temperature, the pump could deliver much higher mass flow rate than at room temperature for a given size. Advantages of this concept are reduction of an order of magnitude in size and weight when compared to a conventional pump scaled to perform the same mass flow rate at room temperature. Results obtained at 80 K and 25 K with a Holweck type molecular drag pump of 100 mm diameter and with few stages of a turbomolecular pump running at the same temperatures, are given. This pump would be a solution to allow continuous tritium extraction and minimize the mass inventory for the ITER (International Tokamak Experiment Reactor). 5 figs., 2 tabs., 4 refs.

  15. Centrifugal pumps: fundamentals and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar Manuel, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Centrifugal pumps are usually employed to impulse water to elevate it, dose it or give it pressure or speed. They can be used with clean water or loaded with high solid concentration and don't work properly with air or another gas flow. There are another less used pumps, coming from volumetric or ram pumps to magnetic ones for specific uses. Centrifugal ones are rotokinetic pumps, like peripherical or lateral channel pumps. They work in a different way that non rotational kinetic ones and static ones. The work approaches their pre definition, selection, installation, operation and maintenance. It also review their morphology, hidromechanic principles and the basic elements pumps are made of. (Author)

  16. The elimination of positive priming with increasing prime duration reflects a transition from perceptual fluency to disfluency rather than bias against primed words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Kevin W; Donkin, Chris; Huber, David E

    2018-03-01

    With immediate repetition priming of forced choice perceptual identification, short prime durations produce positive priming (i.e., priming the target leads to higher accuracy, while priming the foil leads to lower accuracy). Many theories explain positive priming following short duration primes as reflecting increased perceptual fluency for the primed target (i.e., decreased identification latency). However, most studies only examine either accuracy or response times, rather than considering the joint constraints of response times and accuracy to properly address the role of decision biases and response caution. This is a critical oversight because several theories propose that the transition to negative priming following a long duration prime reflects a decision strategy to compensate for the effect of increased perceptual fluency. In contrast, the nROUSE model of Huber and O'Reilly (2003) explains this transition as reflecting perceptual habituation, and thus a change to perceptual disfluency. We confirmed this prediction by applying a sequential sampling model (the diffusion race model) to accuracy and response time distributions from a new single item same-different version of the priming task. In this way, we measured strategic biases and perceptual fluency in each condition for each subject. The nROUSE model was only applied to accuracy from the original forced-choice version of the priming task. This application of nROUSE produced separate predictions for each subject regarding the degree of fluency and disfluency in each condition, and these predictions were confirmed by the drift rate parameters (i.e., fluency) from the response time model in contrast to the threshold parameters (i.e., bias). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Frobenius and His Density Theorem for Primes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    coefficients of f modulo q. Then, the problem asks us to prove that there is some prime q for which f does not have a root in 71../ q7l... So, when is it true that an integral polynomial has roots in ... integral polynomial has a root in lL./qlL. for infinitely ..... part of town to the higher part, or buckets of cabbages. It is an elementary.

  18. Learning PrimeFaces extensions development

    CERN Document Server

    Jonna, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a step by step approach that explains the most important extension components and their features. All the major features are explained by using the JobHub application with supporting screenshots.If you are an intermediate to advanced level user (or developer) who already has a basic working knowledge of PrimeFaces, then this book is for you.The only thing you need to know is Java Server Faces(JSF).

  19. Priming effect on word reading and recall

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Isabel Hub; Luegi, Paula

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on priming as a function of exposure to bimodal stimuli of European Portuguese screen centred single words and isolated pictures inserted at the screen’s right upper corner, with four kinds of word-picture relation. The eye movements of 18 Portuguese native university students were registered while reading four sets of ten word-picture pairs, and their respective oral recall lists of words or pictures were kept. The results reveal a higher phonological primin...

  20. "Prime" Advertising Space: Measuring Implict Memory Online

    OpenAIRE

    Barratt, Madeleine

    2012-01-01

    In marketing literature, click-through-rates are generally employed to measure the success of banner advertisements online. This measure has led to the banner blindness hypothesis, which posits that internet users ignore banner advertisements. However, this measurement does not take into account the consumer action which may result from memory for advertised brands. This study illustrates that although there may not be explicit memory for these advertisements, consumers can be primed for adve...

  1. Considerations for reference pump curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines problems associated with inservice testing (IST) of pumps to assess their hydraulic performance using reference pump curves to establish acceptance criteria. Safety-related pumps at nuclear power plants are tested under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section 11. The Code requires testing pumps at specific reference points of differential pressure or flow rate that can be readily duplicated during subsequent tests. There are many cases where test conditions cannot be duplicated. For some pumps, such as service water or component cooling pumps, the flow rate at any time depends on plant conditions and the arrangement of multiple independent and constantly changing loads. System conditions cannot be controlled to duplicate a specific reference value. In these cases, utilities frequently request to use pump curves for comparison of test data for acceptance. There is no prescribed method for developing a pump reference curve. The methods vary and may yield substantially different results. Some results are conservative when compared to the Code requirements; some are not. The errors associated with different curve testing techniques should be understood and controlled within reasonable bounds. Manufacturer's pump curves, in general, are not sufficiently accurate to use as reference pump curves for IST. Testing using reference curves generated with polynomial least squares fits over limited ranges of pump operation, cubic spline interpolation, or cubic spline least squares fits can provide a measure of pump hydraulic performance that is at least as accurate as the Code required method. Regardless of the test method, error can be reduced by using more accurate instruments, by correcting for systematic errors, by increasing the number of data points, and by taking repetitive measurements at each data point

  2. Centrifugal pumps and allied machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, HH

    1994-01-01

    This book will be of vital interest to all engineers and designers concerned with centrifugal pumps and turbines. Including statistical information derived from 20000 pumps and 700 turbines with capacities of 5gpm to 5000000gpm, this book offers the widest range and scope of information currently available. Statistical analyses suggest practical methods of increasing pump performance and provide valuable data for new design aspects.

  3. The effect of unimodal affective priming on dichotic emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Daniel; Myles, Daniel

    2017-11-15

    The present report concerns two experiments extending to unimodal priming the cross-modal priming effects observed with auditory emotions by Harding and Voyer [(2016). Laterality effects in cross-modal affective priming. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition, 21, 585-605]. Experiment 1 used binaural targets to establish the presence of the priming effect and Experiment 2 used dichotically presented targets to examine auditory asymmetries. In Experiment 1, 82 university students completed a task in which binaural targets consisting of one of 4 English words inflected in one of 4 emotional tones were preceded by binaural primes consisting of one of 4 Mandarin words pronounced in the same (congruent) or different (incongruent) emotional tones. Trials where the prime emotion was congruent with the target emotion showed faster responses and higher accuracy in identifying the target emotion. In Experiment 2, 60 undergraduate students participated and the target was presented dichotically instead of binaurally. Primes congruent with the left ear produced a large left ear advantage, whereas right congruent primes produced a right ear advantage. These results indicate that unimodal priming produces stronger effects than those observed under cross-modal priming. The findings suggest that priming should likely be considered a strong top-down influence on laterality effects.

  4. Effect of pump limiter throat on pumping efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendrih, P.; Grosman, A.; Samain, A.; Capes, H.; Morera, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    The necessary control of plasma edge density has led to the development of pump limiters to achieve this task. On Tore Supra, where a large part of the program is devoted to plasma edge studies, two types of such density control apparatus have been implemented, a set of pump limiters and the pumps associated to the ergodic divertor (magnetically assisted pump limiters). Generally two different kinds of pump limiters can be used, those with a throat which drives the plasma from the open edge plasma (SOL) to the neutralizer plate, and those without or with a very short throat. We are interested here in this aspect of the pump limiter concept, i.e. on the throat effect on neutral density build-up in the vicinity of the pumping plates (and hence on pumping efficieny). The underlying idea of this throat effect can be readily understood; indeed while the neutral capture in pump limiters without throats is only a ballistic effect, on expects the plasma to improve the efficiency of pump-limiters via plasma-neutral-sidewall interactions in the throat. This problem has been studied both numerically and analytically. The paper is divided as follows. In section 2, we describe the basic features of pump-limiters which are modelized by the numerical code Cezanne. Section 3 is devoted to the throat length effect considering in particular the neutral density profile in the throat and the neutral density buil-up as a function of the throat lenght. In section 4, we show that the plugging effect occurs for reasonnable values of throat lengths. An analytical value of the plugging length is discussed and compared to the values obtained numerically

  5. The frequency attenuation effect in identity and associative priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievas, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Three lexical decision experiments were carried out, where the masked priming paradigm is used to study the role of the frequency attenuation effect (more priming in low-frequency target words than in high-frequency target words) in repetition and associative priming, manipulating Prime Duration (PD) and Stimulus Onset Asynchrony (SOA). A new concept was introduced, Minimum Time Threshold (MTT), this is, the minimum time interval of exposure to the masked word in order to become aware of it. Results support the notion that MTT is a key to the appearance of the frequency attenuation effect when enough word processing time is allowed. Results do not support the unified explanation of masked priming and long-term priming as proposed by Bodner and Masson (2001). Moreover, information feedback from the semantic level was not the reason for the frequency attenuation effect in repetition priming.

  6. Hair Mercury Negatively Correlates with Calcium Pump Activity in Human Term Newborns and Their Mothers at Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Huel, Guy; Sahuquillo, Josiane; Debotte, Ginette; Oury, Jean-François; Takser, Larissa

    2007-01-01

    Background Calcium homeostasis is a known target of several environmental toxicants including lead and mercury. Objective Our goal was to determine the relationship between Hg exposure and erythrocyte Ca pump activity in women at delivery and in their newborns. Methods We determined total Hg as well as Pb concentrations in 81 hair and blood samples obtained at delivery. Basal and calmodulin-stimulated Ca pump activity was measured in red blood cells from cord blood and maternal erythrocyte pl...

  7. Pump cavitation and inducer design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heslenfeld, M.W.; Hes, M. de

    2002-01-01

    Details of past work on sodium pump development and cavitation studies executed mainly for SNR 300 were reported earlier. Among the requirements for large sodium pumps are long life (200000 hours up to 300000 hours) and small size of impeller and pump, fully meeting the process and design criteria. These criteria are the required 'Q, H, r characteristics' in combination with a low NPSH value and the avoidance of cavitation damage to the pump. The pump designer has to develop a sound hydraulic combination consisting of suction arrangement, impeller design and diffuser. On the other hand the designer is free to choose an optimal pump speed. The pump speed in its turn influences the rotor dynamic pump design and the pump drive. The introduction of the inducer as an integral part of the pump design is based on following advantages: no tip cavitation; (possible) cavitation bubbles move to the open centre due to centrifugal forces on the fluid; the head of the inducer improves the inlet conditions of the impeller. The aim of an inducer is the increase in the suction specific speed (SA value) of a pump whereby the inducer functions as a pressure source improving the impeller inlet conditions. With inducer-impeller combinations values up to SA=15000 are realistic. With the use of an inducer the overall pump sizes can be reduced with Ca. 30%. Pumps commonly available have SA values up to a maximum of ca. 10000. A development programme was executed for SNR 300 in order to reach an increase of the suction specific speed of the impeller from SA 8200 to SA 11000. Further studies to optimize pumps design for the follow up line introduced the 'inducer acting as a pre-impeller' development. This programme was executed in the period 1979-1981. At the FDO premises a scale 1 2.8 inducer impeller combination with a suction specific speed SA=15000 was developed, constructed and tested at the water test rig. This water test rig is equipped with a perspex pipe allowing also visualisation

  8. Mechanical pumping at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perin, J.P.; Claudet, G.; Disdier, F.

    1995-01-01

    This novel concept consist of a mechanical pump able to run at low temperature (25K). Since gas density varies inversely with temperature, this pump would deliver much higher mass flow rate than at room temperature for a given size. Advantages of this concept are order of magnitude reduction in size, weight, when compared to a conventional pump scaled to perform the same mass flow rate at room temperature. This pump would be a solution to allow continuously tritium extraction and minimize the mass inventory. (orig.)

  9. Proper Sizing of Circulation Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the preliminary results from field tests of replacing various types of old pumps used for circulating water in heating systems in single- and double-family houses with new types of pumps. The tests were carried out in Denmark for the Danish Electricity Savings Trust, but the r......The paper describes the preliminary results from field tests of replacing various types of old pumps used for circulating water in heating systems in single- and double-family houses with new types of pumps. The tests were carried out in Denmark for the Danish Electricity Savings Trust...

  10. High-vacuum plasma pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorodnov, A.M.; Minajchev, V.E.; Miroshkin, S.I.

    1980-01-01

    The action of an electric-arc high-vacuum pump intended for evacuating the volumes in which the operation processes are followed by a high gas evolution is considered. The operation of the pump is based on the principle of controlling the getter feed according to the gas load and effect of plasma sorbtion pumping. The pump performances are given. The starting pressure is about 5 Pa, the limiting residual pressure is about 5x10 -6 Pa, the pumping out rate of nitrogen in the pressure range 5x10 -5 -5x10 -3 Pa accounts for about 4000 l/s, the power consumption comes to 6 kW. Analyzing the results of the test operation of the pump, it has been concluded that its principal advantages are the high starting pressure, controlled getter feed rate and possibility of pumping out the gases which are usually pumped out with difficulty. The operation reliability of the pump is defined mainly by reliable operation of the ignition system of the vacuum arc [ru

  11. Mono pump equipment evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A mobile pump has been designed, developed, and tested as part of an effort to increase oil spill response time, improve oil/water recovery efficiency and reduce cleanup and reclamation costs. The pump is mounted on an engine powered track carrier, and can be detached from the carrier and skidded into remote spill sites or transported by helicopter. The pump can safely recover highly volatile flammable substances such as condensate and gasoline, as well as heavy crude oil up to 5000 centipoise viscosity. It can pump up to 30 gal/min at zero head, and up to 1000 feet in a vertical direction. 13 figs

  12. A Mini Axial and a Permanent Maglev Radial Heart Pump§

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun-Xi; Ru, Wei-Min; Wang, Hao; Jing, Teng

    2007-01-01

    The implantability and durability have been for decades the focus of artificial heart R&D. A mini axial and a maglev radial pump have been developed to meet with such requirements. The mini axial pump weighing 27g (incl.5g rotor) has an outer diameter of 21mm and a length of 10mm in its largest point, but can produce a maximal blood flow of 6l/min with 50mmHg pressure increase. Therefore, it is suitable for the patients of 40-60kg body weight. For other patients of 60-80kg or 80-100kg body weight, the mini axial pumps of 23mm and 25mm outer diameter had been developed before, these devices were acknowledged to be the world smallest LVADs by Guinness World Record Center in 2004. The permanent maglev radial pump weighing 150g is a shaft-less centrifugal pump with permanent magnetic bearings developed by the author. It needs no second coil for suspension of the rotor except the motor coil, different from all other maglev pumps developed in USA, Japan, European, etc. Thus no detecting and controlling systems as well as no additional power supply for maglev are necessary. The pump can produce a blood flow up to as large as 10l/min against 100mmHg pressure. An implantable and durable blood pump will be a viable alternative to natural donor heart for transplantation. PMID:19662120

  13. Resonant Tunneling Spin Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.

  14. Random reward priming is task-contingent: The robustness of the 1-trial reward priming effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árni Gunnar Ásgeirsson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Consistent financial reward of particular features influences the allocation of visual attention in many ways. More surprising are 1-trial reward priming effects on attention where reward schedules are random and reward on one trial influences attentional allocation on the next. Those findings are thought to reflect that rewarded features become more salient than unrewarded ones on the subsequent trial. Here we attempt to conceptually replicate this effect, testing its generalizability. In three versions of an analogous paradigm to the additional singleton paradigm involving singleton search for a Gabor patch of odd spatial frequency we found no evidence of reward priming, while we only partially replicate the reward priming in the exact original paradigm tested by Hickey and colleagues. The results cast doubt on the proposal that random reward enhances salience, suggested in the original papers, and highlight the need for a more nuanced account. In many other paradigms reward effects have been found to progress gradually, becoming stronger as they build up, and we argue that for robust reward priming, reward schedules need to be more consistent than in the original 1-trial reward priming paradigm.

  15. Survey of pumps for tritium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, T.M.

    1983-05-01

    This report considers many different types of pumps for their possible use in pumping tritium gas in the low, intermediate and high vacuum ranges. No one type of pump is suitable for use over the wide range of pumping pressure required in a typical pumping system. The favoured components for such a system are: bellows pump (low vacuum); orbiting scroll pump (intermediate vacuum); magnetically suspended turbomolecular pump (high vacuum); cryopump (high vacuum). Other pumps which should be considered for possible future development are: mound modified vane pump; SRTI wobble pump; roots pump with canned motor. It is proposed that a study be made of a future tritium pumping system in a Canadian tritium facility, e.g. a tritium laboratory

  16. LMR [liquid metal reactor] centrifugal pump coastdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, F.E.; Malloy, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    A centrifugal pump model which describes the interrelationships of the pump discharge flowrate, pump speed, shaft torque and dynamic head has been implemented based upon existing models. Specifically, the pump model is based upon the dimensionless-homologous pump theory of Wylie and Streeter. Given data from a representative pump, homologous theory allows one to predict the transient characteristics of similarly sized pumps. This homologous pump model has been implemented into both the one-dimensional SASSYS-1 systems analysis code and the three-dimensional COMMIX-1A code. Comparisons have been made both against other pump models (CRBR) and actual pump coastdown data (EBR-II and FFTF). Agreement with this homologous pump model has been excellent. Additionally, these comparisons indicate the validity of applying the medium size pump data of Wylie and Streeter to a range of typical LMR centrifugal pumps

  17. Work plan, AP-102 mixer pump removal and pump replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work plan is to plan the steps and estimate the costs required to remove the failed AP-102 mixer pump, and to plan and estimate the cost of the necessary design and specification work required to order a new, but modified, mixer pump including the pump and pump pit energy absorbing design. The main hardware required for the removal of the mixer is as follows: a flexible receiver and blast shield; a metal container for the pulled mixer pump; and a trailer and strongback to haul and manipulate the container. Additionally: a gamma scanning device will be needed to detect the radioactivity emanating from the mixer as it is pulled from the tank; a water spray system will be required to remove tank waste from the surface of the mixer as it is pulled from the AP-102 tank; and a lifting yoke to lift the mixer from the pump pit (the SY-101 Mixer Lifting Yoke will be used). A ''green house'' will have to be erected over the AP-102 pump pit and an experienced Hoisting and Rigging crew must be assembled and trained in mixer pump removal methods before the actual removal is undertaken

  18. Diode-pumped laser with improved pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jim J.

    2004-03-09

    A laser wherein pump radiation from laser diodes is delivered to a pump chamber and into the lasing medium by quasi-three-dimensional compound parabolic concentrator light channels. The light channels have reflective side walls with a curved surface and reflective end walls with a curved surface. A flow tube between the lasing medium and the light channel has a roughened surface.

  19. Novel maglev pump with a combined magnetic bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Michiko; Masuzawa, Toru

    2005-01-01

    The newly developed pump is a magnetically levitated centrifugal blood pump in which active and passive magnetic bearings are integrated to construct a durable ventricular assist device. The developed maglev centrifugal pump consists of an active magnetic bearing, a passive magnetic bearing, a levitated impeller, and a motor stator. The impeller is set between the active magnetic bearing and the motor stator. The active magnetic bearing uses four electromagnets to control the tilt and the axial position of the impeller. The radial movement of the levitated impeller is restricted with the passive stability dependent upon the top stator and the passive permanent magnetic bearing to reduce the energy consumption and the control system complexity. The top stator was designed based upon a magnetic field analysis to develop the maglev pump with sufficient passive stability in the radial direction. By implementing this analysis design, the oscillating amplitude of the impeller in the radial direction was cut in half when compared with the simple shape stator. This study concluded that the newly developed maglev centrifugal pump displayed excellent levitation performance and sufficient pump performance as a ventricular assist device.

  20. Mechanisms of masked evaluative priming: task sets modulate behavioral and electrophysiological priming for picture and words differentially.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Markus; Liegel, Nathalie; Zovko, Monika; Wentura, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Research with the evaluative priming paradigm has shown that affective evaluation processes reliably influence cognition and behavior, even when triggered outside awareness. However, the precise mechanisms underlying such subliminal evaluative priming effects, response activation vs semantic processing, are matter of a debate. In this study, we determined the relative contribution of semantic processing and response activation to masked evaluative priming with pictures and words. To this end, we investigated the modulation of masked pictorial vs verbal priming by previously activated perceptual vs semantic task sets and assessed the electrophysiological correlates of priming using event-related potential (ERP) recordings. Behavioral and electrophysiological effects showed a differential modulation of pictorial and verbal subliminal priming by previously activated task sets: Pictorial priming was only observed during the perceptual but not during the semantic task set. Verbal priming, in contrast, was found when either task set was activated. Furthermore, only verbal priming was associated with a modulation of the N400 ERP component, an index of semantic processing, whereas a priming-related modulation of earlier ERPs, indexing visuo-motor S-R activation, was found for both picture and words. The results thus demonstrate that different neuro-cognitive processes contribute to unconscious evaluative priming depending on the stimulus format. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid.......KEYWORDS: water, pump, design, vane, gear....

  2. 46 CFR 119.520 - Bilge pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge pumps. 119.520 Section 119.520 Shipping COAST... Ballast Systems § 119.520 Bilge pumps. (a) Each vessel must be provided with bilge pumps in accordance... have a portable hand bilge pump that must be: (1) Capable of pumping water, but not necessarily...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1135 - Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumps. 154.1135 Section 154.1135 Shipping COAST GUARD... Pumps. (a) Water to the water spray system must be supplied by: (1) A pump that is only for the use of the system; (2) A fire pump; or (3) A pump specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522). (b...

  4. 33 CFR 157.126 - Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pumps. 157.126 Section 157.126... Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.126 Pumps. (a) Crude oil must be supplied to the COW machines by COW system pumps or cargo pumps. (b) The pumps under paragraph...

  5. Oxidative stress and homocyteine metabolism following coronary artery grafting by on pump and off pump CABG techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvizi, R.; Noubar, R.; Salmasi, H.S.

    2007-01-01

    To compare the effect of on-pump and off-pump CABG on the induction of the oxidative stress and the metabolism of homocysteine, which is involved in the synthesis of glutathione. This retrospective study was performed in Shahid Madani Heart Hospital in Tabriz, Iran in 2004 using a questionnaire. Plasma homocysteine, folate total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malonedialdehyde (MDA) were determined on blood samples obtained from 40 patients undergoing CABG, preoperatively and at 0,12,48,120 hours and 6 months after surgery. The patients were divided into two matched groups, one off-pump and the other on-pump CABG. A marked reduction of homocysteine, folate and significant elevation of MDA were noticed at 0, 12, 48 hours after operation in the both groups (P<0.05). A negative and marked correlation between homocysteine and TAC but a positive and significant between homocysteinc and MDA were observed (P<0.05 in the both groups). In CABG operation because of oxidative stress and consumption of GSH immediate reduction in the plasma levels of homocyticine occurs in the both techniques. However using off pump CABG induction of oxidative stress and changes in plasma levels of homocysteine are not as high as on- pump CABG. (author)

  6. Transposed-letter priming of prelexical orthographic representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    A prime generated by transposing two internal letters (e.g., jugde) produces strong priming of the original word (judge). In lexical decision, this transposed-letter (TL) priming effect is generally weak or absent for nonword targets; thus, it is unclear whether the origin of this effect is lexical or prelexical. The authors describe the Bayesian Reader theory of masked priming (D. Norris & S. Kinoshita, 2008), which explains why nonwords do not show priming in lexical decision but why they do in the cross-case same-different task. This analysis is followed by 3 experiments that show that priming in this task is not based on low-level perceptual similarity between the prime and target, or on phonology, to make the case that priming is based on prelexical orthographic representation. The authors then use this task to demonstrate equivalent TL priming effects for nonwords and words. The results are interpreted as the first reliable evidence based on the masked priming procedure that letter position is not coded absolutely within the prelexical, orthographic representation. The implications of the results for current letter position coding schemes are discussed.

  7. Wheat seed enhancement by vitamin and hormonal priming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.B.; Gurchani, M.A.; Hussain, M.

    2011-01-01

    Seed priming has proven beneficial in many important agricultural crops. The present study was conducted to explore the role (if any) of hormonal and vitamin seed priming to improve the germination, seedling emergence, early seedling establishment, electrolyte leakage and nutrients uptake in wheat seedlings. The wheat seeds were soaked for 48 hours in aerated solution of salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, kinetin and GA3 with 20 ppm concentration of each solution, whereas untreated seeds were taken as control. Seed priming with ascorbic acid resulted in maximum final germination and emergence percentage (FGP and FEP), radical and plumule length, root and shoot length, number of secondary roots, root shoot ratio, root dry weight, shoot dry weight and seedling dry weight compared to control (untreated seeds). Minimum mean germination and emergence time (MGT and MET) was recorded in seeds primed with kinetin and GA3. While in case of biochemical attributes, seedling potassium contents were decreased by hormonal seed priming while total soluble sugars were increased by salicylic acid and ascorbic acid seed priming. Hormonal seed priming had non-significant effect on phosphorus seedling contents. Untreated (Control) seeds showed maximum electrical conductivity at 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after inbibition than primed seeds against the minimum electrical conductivity that was recorded in seeds primed with salicylic acid and ascorbic acid. In conclusion, the wheat seeds primed with 20 ppm solution of ascorbic acid may be used for wheat seed invigoration. (author)

  8. High temperature thermoacoustic heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijani, H.; Spoelstra, S. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    Thermoacoustic technology can provide new types of heat pumps that can be deployed in different applications. A thermoacoustic heat pumps can for example be applied in dwellings to generate cooling or heating. Typically, space and water heating makes up about 60% of domestics and offices energy consumption. The application of heat pumps can contribute to achieve energy savings and environmental benefits by reducing CO2 and NOx emissions. This paper presents the study of a laboratory scale thermoacoustic-Stirling heat pump operating between 10C and 80C which can be applied in domestics and offices. The heat pump is driven by a thermoacoustic-Stirling engine. The experimental results show that the heat pump pumps 250 W of heat at 60C at a drive ratio of 3.6% and 200 W at 80C at a drive ratio of 3.5 %. The performance for both cases is about 40% of the Carnot performance. The design, construction, and performance measurements of the heat pump will be presented and discussed.

  9. Review of magnetohydrodynamic pump applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Al-Habahbeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD principle is an important interdisciplinary field. One of the most important applications of this effect is pumping of materials that are hard to pump using conventional pumps. In this work, the progress achieved in this field is surveyed and organized according to the type of application. The literature of the past 27 years is searched for the major developments of MHD applications. MHD seawater thrusters are promising for a variety of applications requiring high flow rates and velocity. MHD molten metal pump is important replacement to conventional pumps because their moving parts cannot stand the molten metal temperature. MHD molten salt pump is used for nuclear reactor coolants due to its no-moving-parts feature. Nanofluid MHD pumping is a promising technology especially for bioapplications. Advantages of MHD include silence due to no-moving-parts propulsion. Much progress has been made, but with MHD pump still not suitable for wider applications, this remains a fertile area for future research.

  10. Direct solar-pumped lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Shiu, Y. J.; Weaver, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of direct solar pumping of an iodine photodissociation laser at lambda = 1.315 microns was investigated. Threshold inversion density and effect of elevated temperature (up to 670 K) on the laser output were measured. These results and the concentration of solar radiation required for the solar pumped iodine laser are discussed.

  11. Heat pumping in nanomechanical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamon, Claudio; Mucciolo, Eduardo R; Arrachea, Liliana; Capaz, Rodrigo B

    2011-04-01

    We propose using a phonon pumping mechanism to transfer heat from a cold to a hot body using a propagating modulation of the medium connecting the two bodies. This phonon pump can cool nanomechanical systems without the need for active feedback. We compute the lowest temperature that this refrigerator can achieve. © 2011 American Physical Society

  12. Heat pumping in nanomechanical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chamon, Claudio; Mucciolo, Eduardo R.; Arrachea, Liliana; Capaz, Rodrigo B.

    2010-01-01

    We propose using a phonon pumping mechanism to transfer heat from a cold to a hot body using a propagating modulation of the medium connecting the two bodies. This phonon pump can cool nanomechanical systems without the need for active feedback. We compute the lowest temperature that this refrigerator can achieve.

  13. High Temperature Thermoacoustic Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijani, H.; Spoelstra, S. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    Thermoacoustic technology can provide new types of heat pumps that can be deployed in different applications. Thermoacoustic heat pumps can for example be applied in dwellings to generate cooling or heating. Typically, space and water heating makes up about 60% of domestic and office energy consumption. The application of heat pumps can contribute to achieve energy savings and environmental benefits by reducing CO2 and NOx emissions. This paper presents the study of a laboratory scale thermoacoustic-Stirling heat pump operating between 10C and 80C which can be applied in domestics and offices. The heat pump is driven by a thermoacoustic-Stirling engine. The experimental results show that the heat pump pumps 250 W of heat at 60C at a drive ratio of 3.6 % and 200 W at 80C at a drive ratio of 3.5 %. The performance for both cases is about 40% of the Carnot performance. The design, construction, and performance measurements of the heat pump will be presented and discussed.

  14. Reflection of centrifugal pumps maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozos Fernandez, V.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to prove that is not necessary a deep and complex knowledge to manage the centrifugal pumps maintenance. According to the author, only deep but single technical knowledge about causes of breakdowns in the different and simple component parts of the pumps, are required. (Author)

  15. The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1983-01-01

    Three aspect of cellular calcium metabolism in animal cells was discussed including the importance of the plasma membrane in calcium homeostasis, experiments dealing with the actual mechanism of the calcium pump, and the function of the pump in relationship to the mitochondria and to the function of calmodulin in the intact cell.

  16. Self pumping magnetic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, V; Wang, Z; Ray, A; Ramanujan, R V; Sridhar, I

    2017-01-01

    Efficient thermal management and heat recovery devices are of high technological significance for innovative energy conservation solutions. We describe a study of a self-pumping magnetic cooling device, which does not require external energy input, employing Mn–Zn ferrite nanoparticles suspended in water. The device performance depends strongly on magnetic field strength, nanoparticle content in the fluid and heat load temperature. Cooling (Δ T ) by ∼20 °C and ∼28 °C was achieved by the application of 0.3 T magnetic field when the initial temperature of the heat load was 64 °C and 87 °C, respectively. These experiments results were in good agreement with simulations performed with COMSOL Multiphysics. Our system is a self-regulating device; as the heat load increases, the magnetization of the ferrofluid decreases; leading to an increase in the fluid velocity and consequently, faster heat transfer from the heat source to the heat sink. (letter)

  17. Electric Turbo Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    NASA is working in junction with another company on the Electric Turbo Pump. Analysis of the impeller, including the blades, volute housing, and associated components, will take place in ANSYS. Contours of the deformed and stress were recorded to assess the parts. Campbell diagrams will be considered as mentioned to find the operating regions of the impeller and volute housing, more specifically what speed is ideal to ensure that the impeller does not begin to vibrate at a frequency that will break it. More than one material will be examined as per request by the designer to determine which material is more cost efficient, easy to machine, and can withstand the stress values that will be placed on it.

  18. Electric fluid pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  19. Dual source heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  20. Uric acid priming in human monocytes is driven by the AKT–PRAS40 autophagy pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crişan, Tania O.; Cleophas, Maartje C. P.; Novakovic, Boris; Erler, Kathrin; van de Veerdonk, Frank L.; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Netea, Mihai G.; Dinarello, Charles A.; Joosten, Leo A. B.

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic triggers are important inducers of the inflammatory processes in gout. Whereas the high serum urate levels observed in patients with gout predispose them to the formation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals, soluble urate also primes for inflammatory signals in cells responding to gout-related stimuli, but also in other common metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms through which uric acid selectively lowers human blood monocyte production of the natural inhibitor IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and shifts production toward the highly inflammatory IL-1β. Monocytes from healthy volunteers were first primed with uric acid for 24 h and then subjected to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of MSU. Transcriptomic analysis revealed broad inflammatory pathways associated with uric acid priming, with NF-κB and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling strongly increased. Functional validation did not identify NF-κB or AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, but uric acid priming induced phosphorylation of AKT and proline-rich AKT substrate 40 kDa (PRAS 40), which in turn activated mTOR. Subsequently, Western blot for the autophagic structure LC3-I and LC3-II (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3) fractions, as well as fluorescence microscopy of LC3-GFP–overexpressing HeLa cells, revealed lower autophagic activity in cells exposed to uric acid compared with control conditions. Interestingly, reactive oxygen species production was diminished by uric acid priming. Thus, the Akt–PRAS40 pathway is activated by uric acid, which inhibits autophagy and recapitulates the uric acid-induced proinflammatory cytokine phenotype. PMID:28484006

  1. Uric acid priming in human monocytes is driven by the AKT-PRAS40 autophagy pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crişan, Tania O; Cleophas, Maartje C P; Novakovic, Boris; Erler, Kathrin; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Netea, Mihai G; Dinarello, Charles A; Joosten, Leo A B

    2017-05-23

    Metabolic triggers are important inducers of the inflammatory processes in gout. Whereas the high serum urate levels observed in patients with gout predispose them to the formation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals, soluble urate also primes for inflammatory signals in cells responding to gout-related stimuli, but also in other common metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms through which uric acid selectively lowers human blood monocyte production of the natural inhibitor IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and shifts production toward the highly inflammatory IL-1β. Monocytes from healthy volunteers were first primed with uric acid for 24 h and then subjected to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of MSU. Transcriptomic analysis revealed broad inflammatory pathways associated with uric acid priming, with NF-κB and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling strongly increased. Functional validation did not identify NF-κB or AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, but uric acid priming induced phosphorylation of AKT and proline-rich AKT substrate 40 kDa (PRAS 40), which in turn activated mTOR. Subsequently, Western blot for the autophagic structure LC3-I and LC3-II (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3) fractions, as well as fluorescence microscopy of LC3-GFP-overexpressing HeLa cells, revealed lower autophagic activity in cells exposed to uric acid compared with control conditions. Interestingly, reactive oxygen species production was diminished by uric acid priming. Thus, the Akt-PRAS40 pathway is activated by uric acid, which inhibits autophagy and recapitulates the uric acid-induced proinflammatory cytokine phenotype.

  2. High temperature industrial heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berghmans, J. (Louvain Univ., Heverlee (Belgium). Inst. Mechanica)

    1990-01-01

    The present report intends to describe the state of the art of high temperature industrial heat pumps. A description is given of present systems on the market. In addition the research and development efforts on this subject are described. Compression (open as well as closed cycle) systems, as well as absorption heat pumps (including transformers), are considered. This state of the art description is based upon literature studies performed by a team of researchers from the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. The research team also analysed the economics of heat pumps of different types under the present economic conditions. The heat pumps are compared with conventional heating systems. This analysis was performed in order to evaluate the present condition of the heat pump in the European industry.

  3. A nutritional and metabolic assessment of a cardiopulmonary bypass technique without donor blood

    OpenAIRE

    東,良平

    1993-01-01

    A nutritional and metabolic assessment of a cardiopulmonary bypass technique without donor blood was made in 23 patients undergoing open heart surgery (non-donor blood group). For comparison, 14 patients receiving cardiopulmonary bypass with donor blood prime (donor blood group) were also evaluated. 1)Serum transferrin level showed significantly more rapid recovery in the non-donor blood group compared to the donor blood group on the 7th post operative day. 2)Total protein, serum albumin, arm...

  4. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-05-01

    Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK.

  5. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  6. As prime minister during the Fukushima crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Naoto Kan was the acting Japanese Prime Minister during the Tohoku earthquake and the resulting Fukushima reactor accident. After demission in September 2011 he decided to document the facts according to his knowledge and the memorized thoughts during the course of the accident, his decision making and his own emotions. The first chapter covers the daily documentation until March 19th, the second chapter deals with nuclear power phaseout and Kan's demission, the third chapter covers the issues nuclear power phaseout - politics - citizens.

  7. Neuroanatomical basis for recognition primed decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Effective decision making under time constraints is often overlooked in medical decision making. The recognition primed decision making (RPDM) model was developed by Gary Klein based on previous recognized situations to develop a satisfactory solution to the current problem. Bayes Theorem is the most popular decision making model in medicine but is limited by the need for adequate time to consider all probabilities. Unlike other decision making models, there is a potential neurobiological basis for RPDM. This model has significant implication for health informatics and medical education.

  8. Long-term repetition priming with symmetrical polygons and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersteen-Tucker, Z

    1991-01-01

    In two different tasks, subjects were asked to make lexical decisions (word or nonword) and symmetry judgments (symmetrical or nonsymmetrical) about two-dimensional polygons. In both tasks, every stimulus was repeated at one of four lags (0, 1, 4, or 8 items interposed between the first and second stimulus presentations). This paradigm, known as repetition priming, revealed comparable short-term priming (Lag 0) and long-term priming (Lags 1, 4, and 8) both for symmetrical polygons and for words. A shorter term component (Lags 0 and 1) of priming was observed for nonwords, and only very short-term priming (Lag 0) was observed for nonsymmetrical polygons. These results indicate that response facilitation accruing from repeated exposure can be observed for stimuli that have no preexisting memory representations and suggest that perceptual factors contribute to repetition-priming effects.

  9. Does pizza prime coin? Perceptual priming in lexical decision and pronunciation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pecher, D.; Zeelenberg, R.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.

    1998-01-01

    In 6 experiments the authors investigated priming for perceptually related word pairs (i.e., words that refer to objects with the same shape such as pizza-coin), trying to replicate earlier findings by R. Schreuder et al (see record 1985-06198-001) while avoiding some of the methodological problems

  10. Pumping characteristics of sputter ion pump (SIP) and titanium sublimation pump (TSP) combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnakala, K.C.; Patel, R.J.; Bhavsar, S.T.; Pandiyar, M.L.; Ramamurthi, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    For achieving hydrocarbon free, clean ultra high vacuum, SIP-TSP combination is one of the ideal choice for pumping. For the SRS facility in Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), we are utilising this combination, enmass. For this purpose, two modules of these combination set-ups are assembled, one with the TSP as an integral part of SIP and the other, with TSP as a separate pump mounted on the top of SIP. The pump bodies were vacuum degassed at 700 degC at 10 -5 mbar for 3 hrs. An ultimate vacuum of 3 x 10 -11 mbar was achieved, after a bake-out at 250 degC for 4 hrs, followed by continuous SIP pumping for 48 hrs, with two TSP flashing at approximately 10 hrs interval. The pump-down patterns as well as the pressure-rise patterns are studied. (author). 2 refs., 5 figs

  11. Design of liquid lithium pumps for FMIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    In the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, a jet of liquid lithium is bombarded by accelerated deuterons to generate high energy neutrons for materials testing. The lithium system will include two electromagnetic pumps, a 750 gpm main pump and a 10 gpm auxiliary pump. The larger pump was designed and built in 1982, following extensive testing of a similar pump in the Experimental Lithium System. Design of the auxiliary pump has been completed, but fabrication has not started. This paper discusses the design considerations leading to selection of the Annular Linear Induction Pump (ALIP) concept for these applications. Design parameters, fabrication procedures, and results of pump testing are also reviewed

  12. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor priming chemotherapy is more effective than standard chemotherapy as salvage therapy in relapsed acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ying; He, Aili; Wang, Fangxia; Bai, Ju; Wang, Jianli; Zhao, Wanhong; Zhang, Wanggang; Cao, Xingmei; Chen, Yinxia; Liu, Jie; Ma, Xiaorong; Chen, Hongli; Feng, Yuandong; Yang, Yun

    2017-12-29

    To improve the complete remission (CR) rate of newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and alleviate the severe side effects of double induction chemotherapy, we combined a standard regimen with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) priming chemotherapy to compose a new double induction regimen for AML patients who failed to achieve CR after the first course. Ninety-seven patients with AML who did not achieve CR after the first course of standard chemotherapy were enrolled. Among them, 45 patients received G-CSF priming combined with low-dose chemotherapy during days 20-22 of the first course of chemotherapy, serving as priming group, 52 patients were administered standard chemotherapy again, serving as control group. Between the two groups there were no differences in the French-American-British (FAB) classification, risk status, the first course of chemotherapy, blood cell count or blasts percentage of bone marrow before the second course. But the CR rate was significantly higher and the adverse effect was much lower in the priming group than the control group. Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that WBC level before the second course and the selection of the second chemotherapy regimen were two independent factors for long survival of patients. These results elucidate that standard chemotherapy followed by G-CSF priming new double induction chemotherapy is an effective method for AML patients to improve CR rate and reduce adverse effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Identity negative priming: a phenomenon of perception, recognition or selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hecke Schrobsdorff

    Full Text Available The present study addresses the problem whether negative priming (NP is due to information processing in perception, recognition or selection. We argue that most NP studies confound priming and perceptual similarity of prime-probe episodes and implement a color-switch paradigm in order to resolve the issue. In a series of three identity negative priming experiments with verbal naming response, we determined when NP and positive priming (PP occur during a trial. The first experiment assessed the impact of target color on priming effects. It consisted of two blocks, each with a different fixed target color. With respect to target color no differential priming effects were found. In Experiment 2 the target color was indicated by a cue for each trial. Here we resolved the confounding of perceptual similarity and priming condition. In trials with coinciding colors for prime and probe, we found priming effects similar to Experiment 1. However, trials with a target color switch showed such effects only in trials with role-reversal (distractor-to-target or target-to-distractor, whereas the positive priming (PP effect in the target-repetition trials disappeared. Finally, Experiment 3 split trial processing into two phases by presenting the trial-wise color cue only after the stimulus objects had been recognized. We found recognition in every priming condition to be faster than in control trials. We were hence led to the conclusion that PP is strongly affected by perception, in contrast to NP which emerges during selection, i.e., the two effects cannot be explained by a single mechanism.

  14. Influence of Individual and Group Priming on Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    McGeown, Helen Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of information on level of prototypicality of the ingroup ‘medical students’, comparing self-esteem effects for those primed as individuals with self-esteem effects for those primed as group members. Indication of prototypicality was given by false feedback on purported individual levels of empathy, an important group norm for medical students. As well as priming type having interactive effects with prototypicality information, it was hypothesized that initi...

  15. Almost Fixed-Point-Free Automorphisms of Prime Power Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A.F. Wehrfritz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect under various rank restrictions of a group having an automorphism of prime power order whose fixed-point set is also finite of prime power order for the same prime. Generally our conclusions are that the group has a soluble normal subgroup of bounded derived length. Not surprisingly the bound gets larger as the rank restrictions get weaker.

  16. Off-pump supra-arterial myotomy for myocardial bridging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Alejandro; Aramendi, José I; Hamzeh, Gadah; Voces, Roberto

    2008-09-01

    We report the results of surgery and midterm outcome in two patients with symptomatic myocardial bridging who underwent off-pump supra-arterial myotomy. Both patients were operated upon through a median sternotomy. The anterior wall of the heart was exposed in the same manner as in off-pump CABG. The left anterior descending coronary artery is unroofed from its myocardial bridge with the aid of a heart stabilizer and a blower. Neither heparin nor blood transfusion was required. Both patients survived the operation and are asymptomatic. Postoperative coronary angiogram showed good resolution of the muscle bridge in one patient. We conclude that in symptomatic patients with myocardial bridging despite medical therapy, surgical myotomy can be considered an adequate therapy. It can be safely done off-pump.

  17. Peristaltic pumps for waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, G.W.

    1992-09-01

    Laboratory robots are capable of generating large volumes of hazardous liquid wastes when they are used to perform chemical analyses of metal finishing solutions. A robot at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division, generates 30 gallons of acid waste each month. This waste contains mineral acids, heavy metals, metal fluorides, and other materials. The waste must be contained in special drums that are closed to the atmosphere. The initial disposal method was to have the robot pour the waste into a collecting funnel, which contained a liquid-sensing valve to admit the waste into the drum. Spills were inevitable, splashing occurred, and the special valve often didn't work well. The device also occupied a large amount of premium bench space. Peristaltic pumps are made to handle hazardous liquids quickly and efficiently. A variable-speed pump, equipped with a quick-loading pump head, was mounted below the robot bench near the waste barrel. The pump inlet tube was mounted above the bench within easy reach of the robot, while the outlet tube was connected directly to the barrel. During operation, the robot brings the waste liquid up to the pump inlet tube and activates the pump. When the waste has been removed, the pump stops. The procedure is quick, simple, inexpensive, safe, and reliable

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic generator and pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birzvalk, Yu.A.; Karasev, B.G.; Lavrentyev, I.V.; Semikov, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    The MHD generator-pump system, or MHD coupling, is designed to pump liquid-metal coolant in the primary circuit of a fast reactor. It contains a number of generator and pump channels placed one after another and forming a single electrical circuit, but hydraulically connected parallel to the second and first circuits of the reactor. All the generator and pump channels are located in a magnetic field created by the magnetic system with an excitation winding that is fed by a regulated direct current. In 500 to 2000 MW reactors, the flow rate of the coolant in each loop of the primary circuit is 3 to 6 m 3 /s and the hydraulic power is 2 to 4 MW. This paper examines the primary characteristics of an MHD generator-pump system with various dimensions and number of channels, wall thicknesses, coolant flow rates, and magnetic fields. It is shown that its efficiency may reach 60 to 70%. The operating principle of the MHD generator-pump system is explained in the referenced patent and involves the transfer of hydraulic power from generator channels to pump channels using a magnetic field and electrical circuit common to both channels. Variations of this system may be analyzed using an equivalent circuit. 7 refs., 5 figs

  19. Electrostatic coupling of ion pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Frausto, J; Lüger, P; Apell, H J

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the electrostatic interactions between membrane-embedded ion-pumps and their consequences for the kinetics of pump-mediated transport processes have been examined. We show that the time course of an intrinsically monomolecular transport reaction can become distinctly nonexponential, if the reaction is associated with charge translocation and takes place in an aggregate of pump molecules. First we consider the electrostatic coupling of a single dimer of ion-pumps embedded in the membrane. Then we apply the treatment to the kinetic analysis of light-driven proton transport by bacteriorhodopsin which forms two-dimensional hexagonal lattices. Finally, for the case of nonordered molecules, we also consider a model in which the pumps are randomly distributed over the nodes of a lattice. Here the average distance is equal to that deduced experimentally and the elemental size of the lattice is the effective diameter of one single pump. This latter model is applied to an aggregate of membrane-embedded Na, K- and Ca-pumps. In all these cases the electrostatic potential considered is the exact solution calculated from the method of electrical images for a plane membrane of finite thickness immersed in an infinite aqueous solution environment. The distributions of charges (ions or charged binding sites) are considered homogeneous or discrete in the membrane and/or in the external solution. In the case of discrete distributions we compare the results from a mean field approximation and a stochastic simulation.

  20. Epigenetic priming of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kimberley D; Cagampang, Felino R

    2011-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and microalbuminuria, and more recently, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and atherosclerosis. Although the concept of the MetS is subject to debate due to lack of a unifying underlying mechanism, the prevalence of a metabolic syndrome phenotype is rapidly increasing worldwide. Moreover, it is increasingly prevalent in children and adolescents of obese mothers. Evidence from both epidemiological and experimental animal studies now demonstrates that MetS onset is increasingly likely following exposure to suboptimal nutrition during critical periods of development, as observed in maternal obesity. Thus, the developmental priming of the MetS provides a common origin for this multifactorial disorder. Consequently, the mechanisms leading to this developmental priming have recently been the subject of intensive investigation. This review discusses recent data regarding the epigenetic modifications resulting from nutrition during early development that mediate persistent changes in the expression of key metabolic genes and contribute toward an adult metabolic syndrome phenotype. In addition, this review considers the role of the endogenous molecular circadian clock system, which has the potential to act at the interface between nutrient sensing and epigenetic processing. A continued and greater understanding of these mechanisms will eventually aid in the identification of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes, and help develop therapeutic interventions, in accordance with current global government strategy.

  1. Diuretics Prime Plant Immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutoshi, Yoshiteru; Ikeda, Mika; Shirasu, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Plant activators are agrochemicals that activate the plant immune system, thereby enhancing disease resistance. Due to their prophylactic and durable effects on a wide spectrum of diseases, plant activators can provide synergistic crop protection when used in combination with traditional pest controls. Although plant activators have achieved great success in wet-rice farming practices in Asia, their use is still limited. To isolate novel plant activators applicable to other crops, we screened a chemical library using a method that can selectively identify immune-priming compounds. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of three diuretics, bumetanide, bendroflumethiazide and clopamide, as immune-priming compounds. These drugs upregulate the immunity-related cell death of Arabidopsis suspension-cultured cells induced with an avirulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in a concentration-dependent manner. The application of these compounds to Arabidopsis plants confers disease resistance to not only the avirulent but also a virulent strain of the pathogen. Unlike salicylic acid, an endogenous phytohormone that governs disease resistance in response to biotrophic pathogens, the three diuretic compounds analyzed here do not induce PR1 or inhibit plant growth, showing potential as lead compounds in a practical application. PMID:23144763

  2. Auditory phonological priming in children and adults during word repetition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Miranda; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2004-05-01

    Short-term auditory phonological priming effects involve changes in the speed with which words are processed by a listener as a function of recent exposure to other similar-sounding words. Activation of phonological/lexical representations appears to persist beyond the immediate offset of a word, influencing subsequent processing. Priming effects are commonly cited as demonstrating concurrent activation of word/phonological candidates during word identification. Phonological priming is controversial, the direction of effects (facilitating versus slowing) varying with the prime-target relationship. In adults, it has repeatedly been demonstrated, however, that hearing a prime word that rhymes with the following target word (ISI=50 ms) decreases the time necessary to initiate repetition of the target, relative to when the prime and target have no phonemic overlap. Activation of phonological representations in children has not typically been studied using this paradigm, auditory-word + picture-naming tasks being used instead. The present study employed an auditory phonological priming paradigm being developed for use with normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children. Initial results from normal-hearing adults replicate previous reports of faster naming times for targets following a rhyming prime word than for targets following a prime having no phonemes in common. Results from normal-hearing children will also be reported. [Work supported by NIH-NIDCD T32DC000039.

  3. The set of prime numbers: Multiscale analysis and numeric accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iovane, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we show that the prime numbers follow a multiscale distribution. Indeed they can be classified thanks to tree structures, which are expressed in terms of two maximal subsets of N and using multilayer selection rules, acting on these sets of prime candidates. Consequently, the prime numbers follow a specific deterministic rules. Indeed, a numeric accelerator for generating primes can be realized in terms of the above mentioned specific rules. From the comparison with the Fibonacci numbers a beautiful harmony comes in terms of the Golden Mean which is relevant to high energy physics and E-Infinity theory too.

  4. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2006-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  5. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2008-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) was a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  6. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2007-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  7. Facial expression primes and implicit regulation of negative emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, HeungSik; Kim, Shin Ah; Kim, Sang Hee

    2015-06-17

    An individual's responses to emotional information are influenced not only by the emotional quality of the information, but also by the context in which the information is presented. We hypothesized that facial expressions of happiness and anger would serve as primes to modulate subjective and neural responses to subsequently presented negative information. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional MRI study in which the brains of healthy adults were scanned while they performed an emotion-rating task. During the task, participants viewed a series of negative and neutral photos, one at a time; each photo was presented after a picture showing a face expressing a happy, angry, or neutral emotion. Brain imaging results showed that compared with neutral primes, happy facial primes increased activation during negative emotion in the dorsal anterior cingulated cortex and the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, which are typically implicated in conflict detection and implicit emotion control, respectively. Conversely, relative to neutral primes, angry primes activated the right middle temporal gyrus and the left supramarginal gyrus during the experience of negative emotion. Activity in the amygdala in response to negative emotion was marginally reduced after exposure to happy primes compared with angry primes. Relative to neutral primes, angry facial primes increased the subjectively experienced intensity of negative emotion. The current study results suggest that prior exposure to facial expressions of emotions modulates the subsequent experience of negative emotion by implicitly activating the emotion-regulation system.

  8. The priming of basic combinatory responses in MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Elorrieta, Esti; Ferreira, Victor S; Del Prato, Paul; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2018-01-01

    Priming has been a powerful tool for the study of human memory and especially the memory representations relevant for language. However, although it is well established that lexical access can be primed, we do not know exactly what types of computations can be primed above the word level. This work took a neurobiological approach and assessed the ways in which the complex representation of a minimal combinatory phrase, such as red boat, can be primed, as evidenced by the spatiotemporal profiles of magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. Specifically, we built upon recent progress on the neural signatures of phrasal composition and tested whether the brain activities implicated for the basic combination of two words could be primed. In two experiments, MEG was recorded during a picture naming task where the prime trials were designed to replicate previously reported combinatory effects and the target trials to test whether those combinatory effects could be primed. The manipulation of the primes was successful in eliciting larger activity for adjective-noun combinations than single nouns in left anterior temporal and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, replicating prior MEG studies on parallel contrasts. Priming of similarly timed activity was observed during target trials in anterior temporal cortex, but only when the prime and target shared an adjective. No priming in temporal cortex was observed for single word repetition and two control tasks showed that the priming effect was not elicited if the prime pictures were simply viewed but not named. In sum, this work provides evidence that very basic combinatory operations can be primed, with the necessity for some lexical overlap between prime and target suggesting combinatory conceptual, as opposed to syntactic processing. Both our combinatory and priming effects were early, onsetting between 100 and 150ms after picture onset and thus are likely to reflect the very earliest planning stages of a combinatory message

  9. Event generators for {{\\eta }}/{{{\\eta }}}^{^{\\prime} } decays at BESIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Nian; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Fang, Shuang-Shi; Zhou, Xiang; Du, Lin-Lin; Qiao, Hao-Xue

    2018-01-01

    The light unflavoured meson {{η }}/{{{η }}}^{\\prime } decays are valuable for testing non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics and exploring new physics beyond the Standard Model. This paper describes a series of event generators, including {{η }}/{{{η }}}^{\\prime }\\to {{γ }}{{{l}}}+{{{l}}}-, {{η }}/{{{η }}}^{\\prime }\\to {{γ }}{{{π }}}+{{{π }}}-, {{{η }}}^{\\prime }\\to {{ω }}{{{e}}}+{{{e}}}-, {{η }}\\to {{{π }}}+{{{π }}}-{{{π }}}0, {{η }}/{{{η }}}^{\\prime }\\to {{{π }}}0{{{π }}}0{{{π }}}0, {{{η }}}^{\\prime }\\to {{η }}{{π }}{{π }} and {{{η }}}^{\\prime }\\to {{{π }}}+{{{π }}}-{{{π }}}+{{{π }}}-/{{{π }}}+{{{π }}}-{{{π }}}0{{{π }}}0, which have been developed for investigating {{η }}/{{{η }}}^{\\prime } decay dynamics. For most of these generators, their usability has been validated in BESIII analyses for determining the detection efficiency, and background studies. The consistency between data and Monte Carlo shows that these generators work well in the BESIII simulation, and will also be useful for ongoing BESIII analyses and other experiments for studying {{η }}/{{{η }}}^{\\prime } physics. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (11205117, 11575133, 11675184), the China Scholarship Council (201506275156), the Wuhan University PhD Short-time Mobility Program 2016, the Joint Funds of the NSFC and Henan Province (U1504112)

  10. Social priming increases nonverbal expressive behaviors in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Del-Monte

    Full Text Available Semantic priming tasks are classically used to influence and implicitly promote target behaviors. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that prosocial semantic priming modulated feelings of social affiliation. The main aim of this study was to determine whether inducing feelings of social affiliation using priming tasks could modulate nonverbal social behaviors in schizophrenia. We used the Scrambled Sentence Task to prime schizophrenia patients according to three priming group conditions: pro-social, non-social or anti-social. Forty-five schizophrenia patients, diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR, were randomly assigned to one of the three priming groups of 15 participants. We evaluated nonverbal social behaviors using the Motor-Affective subscale of the Motor-Affective-Social-Scale. Results showed that schizophrenia patients with pro-social priming had significantly more nonverbal behaviors than schizophrenia patients with anti-social and non-social priming conditions. Schizophrenia patient behaviors are affected by social priming. Our results have several clinical implications for the rehabilitation of social skills impairments frequently encountered among individuals with schizophrenia.

  11. Statistics about elliptic curves over finite prime fields

    OpenAIRE

    Gekeler, Ernst-Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    We derive formulas for the probabilities of various properties (cyclicity, squarefreeness, generation by random points) of the point groups of randomly chosen elliptic curves over random prime fields.

  12. Semantic priming, not repetition priming, is to blame for false hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Chad S

    2017-08-01

    Contextual and sensory information are combined in speech perception. Conflict between the two can lead to false hearing, defined as a high-confidence misidentification of a spoken word. Rogers, Jacoby, and Sommers (Psychology and Aging, 27(1), 33-45, 2012) found that older adults are more susceptible to false hearing than are young adults, using a combination of semantic priming and repetition priming to create context. In this study, the type of context (repetition vs. sematic priming) responsible for false hearing was examined. Older and young adult participants read and listened to a list of paired associates (e.g., ROW-BOAT) and were told to remember the pairs for a later memory test. Following the memory test, participants identified words masked in noise that were preceded by a cue word in the clear. Targets were semantically associated to the cue (e.g., ROW-BOAT), unrelated to the cue (e.g., JAW-PASS), or phonologically related to a semantic associate of the cue (e.g., ROW-GOAT). How often each cue word and its paired associate were presented prior to the memory test was manipulated (0, 3, or 5 times) to test effects of repetition priming. Results showed repetitions had no effect on rates of context-based listening or false hearing. However, repetition did significantly increase sensory information as a basis for metacognitive judgments in young and older adults. This pattern suggests that semantic priming dominates as the basis for false hearing and highlights context and sensory information operating as qualitatively different bases for listening and metacognition.

  13. A comparison of diesel, biodiesel and solar PV-based water pumping systems in the context of rural Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Pokharel, Govind Raj; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    Nepal is heavily dependent on the traditional energy sources and imported fossil fuel, which has an adverse impact on the environment and economy. Renewable energy technologies promoted in the country are regarded as a means of satisfying rural energy needs of the country for operating different...... using petro-diesel, jatropha-based biodiesel and solar photovoltaic pumps. The technical system design consists of system sizing of prime mover (engine, solar panel and pumps) and estimation of reservoir capacity, which are based on the annual aggregate water demand modelling. With these investigations......, incentives on the investments, which have effects on the cost of pumped water. Likewise, in case of biodiesel-based system, different yield rate of jatropha plants is also considered in estimating the cost of producing biodiesel. It is found that for operating a biodiesel-based pumping system for the study...

  14. Analysis of mercury diffusion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Several mercury diffusion pump stages in the Tritium Purification process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have been removed from service for scheduled preventive maintenance. These stages have been examined to determine if failure has occurred. Evidence of fatigue around the flange portion of the pump has been seen. In addition, erosion and cavitation inside the throat of the venturi tube and corrosion on the other surface of the venturi tube has been observed. Several measures are being examined in an attempt to improve the performance of these pumps. These measures, as well as the noted observations, are described. 4 refs

  15. TFTR ultrahigh-vacuum pumping system incorporating mercury diffusion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sink, D.A.; Sniderman, M.

    1976-06-01

    The TFTR vacuum vessel will have a system of four 61 cm diameter mercury diffusion pumps to provide a base pressure in the 10 -8 to 10 -9 Torr range as well as a low impurity level within the vessel. The system, called the Torus Vacuum Pumping System (TVPS), will be employed with the aid of an occasional 250 0 C bakeout in situ as well as periodic applications of aggressive discharge cleaning. The TVPS is an ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) system using no elastomers as well as being a closed system with respect to tritium or any tritiated gases. The backing system employing approximately 75 all-metal isolation valves is designed with the features of redundancy and flexibility employed in a variety of ways to meet the fundamental requirements and functions enumerated for the TVPS. Since the design, is one which is a modification of the conceptual design of the TVPS, those features which have changed are discussed. Calculations are presented for the major performance parameters anticipated for the TVPS and include conductances, effective pumping speeds, base pressures, operating parameters, getter pump parameters, and calculations of time constants associated with leak checking. Modifications in the vacuum pumping system for the guard regions on the twelve bellows sections are presented so that it is compatible with the main TVPS. The bellows pumping system consists of a mechanical pump unit, a zirconium aluminum getter pump unit and a residual gas analyzer. The control and management of the TVPS is described with particular attention given to providing both manual and automatic control at a local station and at the TFTR Central Control. Such operations as testing, maintenance, leak checking, startup, bakeout, and various other operations are considered in some detail. Various aspects related to normal pulsing, discharge cleaning, non-tritium operations and tritium operations are also taken into consideration. A cost estimate is presented

  16. Test of a cryogenic helium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, J.W.; Miller, J.R.; Walstrom, P.L.; Herz, W.

    1981-01-01

    The design of a cryogenic helium pump for circulating liquid helium in a magnet and the design of a test loop for measuring the pump performance in terms of mass flow vs pump head at various pump speeds are described. A commercial cryogenic helium pump was tested successfully. Despite flaws in the demountable connections, the piston pump itself has performed satisfactorily. A helium pump of this type is suitable for the use of flowing supercritical helium through Internally Cooled Superconductor (ICS) magnets. It has pumped supercritical helium up to 7.5 atm with a pump head up to 2.8 atm. The maximum mass flow rate obtained was about 16 g/s. Performance of the pump was degraded at lower pumping speeds

  17. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The medical history includes questions that help blood bank staff decide if a person is healthy enough to donate blood. They'll ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates U.S. blood banks. All blood ... operating. Sometimes people who donate blood notice a few minor side ...

  18. Mechanisms of masked evaluative priming: task sets modulate behavioral and electrophysiological priming for picture and words differentially

    OpenAIRE

    Kiefer, Markus; Liegel, Nathalie; Zovko, Monika; Wentura, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Research with the evaluative priming paradigm has shown that affective evaluation processes reliably influence cognition and behavior, even when triggered outside awareness. However, the precise mechanisms underlying such subliminal evaluative priming effects, response activation vs semantic processing, are matter of a debate. In this study, we determined the relative contribution of semantic processing and response activation to masked evaluative priming with pictures and words. To this end,...

  19. Fluidic pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    A fluidic pumping system comprises two charge vessels which communicate with a liquid inlet and a liquid outlet through a fluidic bridge rectifier. A pressurising and depressurising arrangement for alternately pressurising and depressurising the charge vessels comprises a chamber containing a piston and being in communication with the charge vessels. Drive means not mechanically connected to the piston are provided for causing reciprocatory movement of the piston. Movement of the piston in one direction causes pressurisation of one charge vessel to discharge a liquid therefrom through the liquid outlet. Simultaneously, the other charge vessel is depressurised to draw liquid from the liquid inlet into the depressurised charge vessel. Preferably, the drive means for the piston comprises an external solenoid winding at each end of a horizontally arranged chamber. Alternatively, the chamber may be vertically disposed with an external solenoid winding at the upper end of the chamber to effect upward movement of the piston, the piston then falling under gravity upon de-energisation of the winding. (UK)

  20. Exchangers man the pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2008-01-01

    Tonoplast-localised proton-coupled Ca2+ transporters encoded by cation/H+ exchanger (CAX) genes play a critical role in sequestering Ca2+ into the vacuole. These transporters may function in coordination with Ca2+ release channels, to shape stimulus-induced cytosolic Ca2+ elevations. Recent analysis of Arabidopsis CAX knockout mutants, particularly cax1 and cax3, identified a variety of phenotypes including sensitivity to abiotic stresses, which indicated that these transporters might play a role in mediating the plant's stress response. A common feature of these mutants was the perturbation of H+-ATPase activity at both the tonoplast and the plasma membrane, suggesting a tight interplay between the Ca2+/H+ exchangers and H+ pumps. We speculate that indirect regulation of proton flux by the exchangers may be as important as the direct regulation of Ca2+ flux. These results suggest cautious interpretation of mutant Ca2+/H+ exchanger phenotypes that may be due to either perturbed Ca2+ or H+ transport. PMID:19841670