WorldWideScience

Sample records for pulverized fuels

  1. Pulverized fuel-oxygen burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Curtis; Patterson, Brad; Perdue, Jayson

    2017-09-05

    A burner assembly combines oxygen and fuel to produce a flame. The burner assembly includes an oxygen supply tube adapted to receive a stream of oxygen and a solid fuel conduit arranged to extend through the oxygen tube to convey a stream of fluidized, pulverized, solid fuel into a flame chamber. Oxygen flowing through the oxygen supply tube passes generally tangentially through a first set of oxygen-injection holes formed in the solid fuel conduit and off-tangentially from a second set of oxygen-injection holes formed in the solid fuel conduit and then mixes with fluidized, pulverized, solid fuel passing through the solid fuel conduit to create an oxygen-fuel mixture in a downstream portion of the solid fuel conduit. This mixture is discharged into a flame chamber and ignited in the flame chamber to produce a flame.

  2. Low NOx nozzle tip for a pulverized solid fuel furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donais, Richard E; Hellewell, Todd D; Lewis, Robert D; Richards, Galen H; Towle, David P

    2014-04-22

    A nozzle tip [100] for a pulverized solid fuel pipe nozzle [200] of a pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace includes: a primary air shroud [120] having an inlet [102] and an outlet [104], wherein the inlet [102] receives a fuel flow [230]; and a flow splitter [180] disposed within the primary air shroud [120], wherein the flow splitter disperses particles in the fuel flow [230] to the outlet [104] to provide a fuel flow jet which reduces NOx in the pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace. In alternative embodiments, the flow splitter [180] may be wedge shaped and extend partially or entirely across the outlet [104]. In another alternative embodiment, flow splitter [180] may be moved forward toward the inlet [102] to create a recessed design.

  3. On gas and particle radiation in pulverized fuel combustion furnaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2015-01-01

    Radiation is the principal mode of heat transfer in a combustor. This paper presents a refined weighted sum of gray gases model for computational fluid dynamics modelling of conventional air-fuel combustion, which has greater accuracy and completeness than the existing gaseous radiative property....... Although the refined gaseous radiative property model shows great advantages in gaseous fuel combustion modelling, its impacts are largely compromised in pulverized solid fuel combustion, in which particle-radiation interaction plays the dominant role in radiation heat transfer due to high particle loading....... Use of conversion-dependent particle emissivity and scattering factor will not only change the particle heating and reaction history, but also alter the radiation intensity and thus temperature profiles in the furnace. For radiation modelling in pulverized fuel combustion, the priority needs...

  4. Oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized fuels: Combustion fundamentals and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Yan, Jinyue

    2016-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized fuels (PF), as a promising technology for CO2 capture from power plants, has gained a lot of concerns and also advanced considerable research, development and demonstration in the last past years worldwide. The use of CO2 or the mixture of CO2 and H2O vapor as th...

  5. A Model for Nitrogen Chemistry in Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Pulverized Coal

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Hamid; Hansen, Stine; Toftegaard, Maja Bøg; Pedersen, Kim Hougaard; Jensen, Anker Degn; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a model for the nitrogen chemistry in the oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized coal has been developed. The model is a chemical reaction engineering type of model with a detailed reaction mechanism for the gas-phase chemistry, together with a simplified description of the mixing of flows, heating and devolatilization of particles, and gas–solid reactions. The model is validated by comparison with entrained flow reactor results from the present work and from the literature on pulver...

  6. Renewable wood fuel: Fuel feed system for a pulverized coal boiler. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates a pilot test program conducted by New York State Gas & Electric Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of co-firing a pulverized coal plant with renewable wood fuels. The goal was to establish that such a co-firing system can reduce air emissions while maintaining good operational procedures and cost controls. The test fuel feed system employed at Greenidge Station`s Boiler 6 was shown to be effective in feeding wood products. Emission results were promising and an economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to pursue further refinements to the equipment and systems. The report recommends further evaluation of the generation and emission impacts using woods of varied moisture contents and at varied Btu input rates to determine if a drying system would be a cost-effective option.

  7. Plasma system for start-up of pulverized fuel-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyjakon, A.K. [Wroclaw Univ. of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. of Power Engineering and Fluid Mechanics

    2009-07-01

    Pulverized coal combustion requires preliminary heating of the combustion chamber. Conventional heavy oil start-up systems are used during the boiler kindling, resulting in pollution, additional maintenance and high cost. This paper described the advantages of a plasma start-up system for the ignition and stabilization of a pulverized coal flame in coal-fired steam boiler. In a plasma start-up system, the heat source for ignition and stabilization of the pulverized coal combustion is a plasma at a temperature of 5,000 to 10,000 degrees C. The plasma interaction involves rapid heating of coal particles and thermal decomposition of the organic compounds resulting in fast release of the volatile matter and destruction of particles below 5 {mu}m. It also involves thermal dissociation of gaseous products with radical generation and gas ionization. The highly reactive mixture that is produced promotes flame propagation in the presence of oxygen. A continuous plasma discharge in a pulverized burner stabilizes the dust flame. This paper described the advantages associated with the use of a plasma start-up system, such as the possibility of limiting pollutant emissions to the atmosphere. It also presented laboratory study results on the influence of the fuels such as lignite, bituminous coal, wood and carbonaceous shale and their properties on the operational range of the plasma assisted pulverized coal burner. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  8. Effects of moisture release and radiation properties in pulverized fuel combustion: A CFD modelling study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2016-01-01

    Pulverized fuels (PF) prepared and fired in utility boilers always contain some moisture. For some fuels with high moisture contents (e.g., brown coals), the share of the evaporation enthalpy is quite significant compared to the heat released during combustion, which often needs to be reclaimed.......g., oxy-fuel or air–fuel), account for the variations in CO2 and H2O concentrations in a flame, and include the impacts of other participating gases (e.g., CO and hydrocarbons) needs to be derived for combustion CFD community....

  9. On-line tracking of pulverized coal and biomass fuels through flame spectrum analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟天阳; 张宏建

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to the on-line tracking of pulverized coal and biomass fuels through flame spectrum analysis. A flame detector containing four photodiodes is used to derive multiple signals covering a wide spectrum of the flame from visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared spectral bands as well as a part of far-infrared band. Different features are extracted in time and frequency domains to identify the dynamic "fingerprints" of the flame. Fuzzy logic inference techniques are employed to combine typical features together and infer the type of fuel being burnt. Four types of pulverized coal and five types of biomass are burnt on a laboratory-scale combustion test rig. Results obtained demonstrate that this approach is capable of tracking the type of fuel under steady combustion conditions.

  10. Cofiring coal-water slurry fuel with pulverized coal as a NOx reduction strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Morrison, J.L.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A low solids, low viscosity coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) was formulated and produced from impounded bituminous coal fines and burned in a utility-scale boiler to investigate NOx emissions reduction during the cofiring of CWSF with pulverized coal. Tests were conducted at the Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec) Seward Station, located near Seward, Pennsylvania in a Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), front-wall fired, pulverized coal boiler (34 MWe). Two B and W pulverizers feed coal to six burners (two burner levels each containing three low-NOx burners). Approximately 20% of the thermal input was provided by CWSF, the balance by pulverized coal. There was a significant reduction of NOx emissions when cofiring CWSF and pulverized coal as compared to firing 100% pulverized coal. The level of reduction was dependent upon the cofiring configuration (i.e., cofiring in the upper three, lower three, or all six burners), with NOx emissions being reduced by as much as 26.5%. The reduction in NOx emissions was not due to the tempering effect of the water in the CWSF, because a greater reduction in NOx occurred when cofiring CWSF than when injecting the same quantity of water at the same boiler firing rate. This paper discusses the tests in detail and the proposed reburn mechanism for the NOx reduction. In addition, combustion test results from the front-wall fired unit at the Seward Station will be compared to CWSF cofire tests that have been conducted at cyclone-fired units at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Paradise Station (704 MWe), Drakesboro, Kentucky and Southern Illinois Power Cooperative`s (SIPC) Marion, Illinois Station (33 MWe).

  11. Pulverized coal and substitute fuels for the cement manufacturing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrowsky, F.

    1981-01-01

    This paper comprises an article of general technical interest on coal and its use in the cement industry, plus the scope for using substitute fuels. Discusses coal properties and preparation (crushing). Describes the heating systems of the cement ovens: burners, combustion and parameters governing flame-length. Looks at operation problems connected with heating of the coal: caking, fusing, clinker quality and behaviour of the refractory bricks. Also discusses substitute fuels: type of fuel, scope for utilisation and requisite precautions. 32 refs.

  12. Impacts and implementation of fuel moisture release and radiation properties in modelling of pulverized fuel combustion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2015-01-01

    Pulverized fuels (PF) prepared and fired in utility boilers usually contain a certain amount of moisture, either free moisture or chemically bound moisture. In PF furnaces, radiation which is the principal mode of heat transfer consists of contribution from both gas and particle phase. This paper...... presents different methods for fuel moisture release and new models for gas and particle radiative properties, and demonstrates their implementation, importance and impacts in PF combustion modelling via a comprehensive CFD study of a pulverized coal-fired utility boiler. To conclude, it is recommended...... to add the free moisture into the primary air stream while lump the moisture retained in the feed after the mills with volatiles in PF combustion modelling. For gas and particle radiation in PF boilers, it is found that particle radiation largely overwhelms gas radiation due to high particle loading...

  13. A simple numerical model to estimate the effect of coal selection on pulverized fuel burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.K.; Hurt, R.H.; Niksa, S.; Muzio, L.; Mehta, A.; Stallings, J. [Brown University, Providence, RI (USA). Division Engineering

    2003-06-01

    The amount of unburned carbon in ash is an important performance characteristic in commercial boilers fired with pulverized coal. Unburned carbon levels are known to be sensitive to fuel selection, and there is great interest in methods of estimating the burnout propensity of coals based on proximate and ultimate analysis - the only fuel properties readily available to utility practitioners. A simple numerical model is described that is specifically designed to estimate the effects of coal selection on burnout in a way that is useful for commercial coal screening. The model is based on a highly idealized description of the combustion chamber but employs detailed descriptions of the fundamental fuel transformations. The model is validated against data from laboratory and pilot-scale combustors burning a range of international coals, and then against data obtained from full-scale units during periods of coal switching. The validated model form is then used in a series of sensitivity studies to explore the role of various individual fuel properties that influence burnout.

  14. Performance appraisal of the spent fuel dry pulverizing/mixing device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, J. H.; Youn, J. S.; Hong, D. H.; Kim, Y. H.; Jin, J. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    The spent fuel dry pulverizing/mixing device is used to deal with the spent fuels for the safe disposal. The separated pellets from hulls by a slitting device are put and oxidized from UO{sub 2} solid pellet to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder in the device. The device have been developed based on a voloxidation method which is one of several dry de-cladding methods. We have benchmarked dry de-cladding methods, analyzed applicability to the advanced spent fuel management process, integrated and compared several configuration, and finally derived detailed specifications proper to requirements for the device. Also, thermal characteristics of the device such as thermal stress and strain have been analyzed by the commercial software, I-DEAS, and the reliability of the results have been verified by the KOLAS(KOrea Laboratory Accrediation Scheme). The UO{sub 2} solid pellets are put in the device which has a capacity of 20 kgHM per a batch, heated up about 500 .deg. C in the air environment. Then, the UO{sub 2} solid pellets are oxidized into the U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder, and the powder is collected in a special vessel. The device has been designed and developed as follows: the multi-staged fine hole meshes are used to reduce the size of the powder gradually, heat and air(oxygen) are supplied continuously to reduce the reaction time, and slight vibration effect are applied to collect powder cling to the device. Based on these results, it will be effectively applied to available data for designing and producing of the hot test facility.

  15. Mechanism development of the spent fuel dry pulverizing/mixing device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, J. H.; Hong, D. H.; Kim, Y. H.; Yoon, J. S.; Jin, J. H.; Park, K. Y.; Song, T. G. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    The spent fuel dry pulverizing/mixing device mechanism is used to deal with the spent fuels for the safe disposal. The separated pellets from hulls by a slitting device are put and oxidized from UO{sub 2} solid pellet to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder in the device. The device have been developed based on a voloxidation method which is one of several dry de-cladding methods. We have benchmarked dry de-cladding methods, analyzed applicability to the advanced spent fuel management process, integrated and compared several configuration, and finally derived detailed specifications proper to requirements for the device. Also, thermal characteristics of the device such as thermal stress and strain have been analyzed by the commercial software, I-DEAS, and the reliability of the results have been verified by the KOLAS(KOrea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme). The UO{sub 2} solid pellets are put in the device which has a capacity of 20 kgHM per a batch, heated up about 600 .deg. C in the air environment. Then, the UO{sub 2} solid pellets are oxidized into the U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder, and the powder is collected in a special vessel. The device has been development as follows: the multi-staged fine hole meshes are used to reduce the size of the powder gradually, heat and air(oxygen) are supplied continuously to reduce the reaction time, and slight vibration effect are applied to collect powder cling to the device.

  16. Soil and fertilizer amendments and edge effects on the floral succession of pulverized fuel ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, P. [Roehampton University, London (United Kingdom). Whitelands College

    2009-01-15

    Plots of fresh pulverized fuel ash (PFA, an industrial waste) were inoculated with soils from existing PFA sites and fertilizers in a factorial design, then left unmanaged for 12 years during which time the floral development and soil chemistry were monitored annually. For the first 3 years, the site supported a sparse mix of chenopods (including the scarce Chenopodium glaucum) and halophytes. As salinity declined, ruderals, legumes, and grasses plus the fire-site moss Funaria hygrometrica colonized, followed by Festuca arundinacea grassland (NVC community MG12) and Hippophae rhamnoides scrub. Dactylorhiza incarnata (orchidacea) appeared after 7 years, but only in plots that had received soil from existing orchid colonies. Four years later, a larger second generation of Dactylorhiza appeared, but only in the central zone of the site where vegetation was thinnest. By year 12, the site was dominated by coarse grasses and scrub, with early successional species persisting only in the sparsely vegetated center, where nitrate levels were lowest. This edge effect is interpreted as centripetal encroachment, a process of potentially wider concern for the conservation of low-fertility habitat patches. Overall, seed bank inoculation seems to have introduced few but desirable species (D. incarnata, Pyrola rotundifolia, some halophytes, and annuals), whereas initial application of organic fertilizer had long-lasting ({ge} 10 years) effects on cover and soil composition.

  17. The aerodynamics of the near field of pressurised pulverized fuel combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeles, G.; Anagnostopoulos, J.; Papadakis, G.; Mouzakis, F.; Voyages, C. [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece). Lab. for Aerodynamics, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-12-31

    This research aims at improving knowledge of an effective design of pressurized pulverized fuel combustors (PPFC). Problems investigated are slag, cleaning efficiency, near burner aerodynamics and effects of pressure on combustion characteristics and on NO concentration levels. The Coal Combustion Algorithm (CO. C.A.-3D code) was the basis for the numerical work performed. Several new models were developed and incorporated into the basic code; a model for the calculation of slag formation, thickness and flow inside a PPFC, three different techniques for domain decomposition by the use of locally refined, staggered or collocated grids; an improved NO postprocessor to account for elevated pressure and turbulence effects. A new version of the final code was developed to obtain solutions in 3-D, cylindrical co-ordinates. All the above models were validated using available experimental data. The slag model predictions were in agreement with the practical evidence. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the domain decomposition techniques were assessed. The best proposed technique was found to combine simplicity, increased accuracy of the predictions in complex flow regions, and significantly reduced computer memory and storage requirements. The use of cylindrical co-ordinates for calculations inside cylindrical-type combustion chambers was found to achieve a more stable convergence of the algorithm and a considerable reduction of numerical diffusion. The proposed modifications of a basic NO formation model produced very encouraging predictions in a wide range of combustion conditions examined (various pressures, temperatures and oxygen concentrations). The numerical work performed provides a engineering tool to improve the physical understanding of the effects of pressurization on the performance and efficiency of combustor design. 33 refs., 25 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Partitioning behavior of trace elements during pilot-scale combustion of pulverized coal and coal-water slurry fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodelman; Pisupati; Miller; Scaroni

    2000-05-29

    Release pathways for inorganic hazardous air pollutants (IHAPs) from a pilot-scale, down-fired combustor (DFC) when firing pulverized coal (PC) and coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) were identified and quantified to demonstrate the effect of fuel form on IHAP partitioning, enrichment and emissions. The baghouse capturing efficiency for each element was calculated to determine the effectiveness of IHAP emission control. Most of the IHAPs were enriched in the fly ash and depleted in the bottom ash. Mercury was found to be enriched in the flue gas, and preferentially emitted in the vapor phase. When firing CWSF, more IHAPs were partitioned in the bottom ash than when firing PC. Significant reduction of Hg emissions during CWSF combustion was also observed.

  19. Plasma-fuel systems for environment and economy indexes of pulverized coal incineration and gasification improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Karpenko; V. Messerle; A. Ustimenko [United Power System of Russia, Gusinoozersk (Russian Federation). Branch Centre of Plasma-Power Technologies of Russian J.S.Co.

    2003-07-01

    Coal is one of the main energy resources. To improve efficiency of coal incineration new plasma-energy technologies are developing. Steam-productivity 75t/h 670t/h boilers were tested for their starting up by plasma ignition of pulverized coal and flame stabilization. Laboratory (coal consumption to 20kg/h) and pilot (coal consumption 300kg/h and 32000kg/h) plasma gasification experiments are given. Plasma air and steam gasification of coal with its mineral mass utilization is studied. 8 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas H. Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2005-04-29

    The goal of this project was to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend current capabilities for modeling fuel transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation coal-based, fuel-flexible combustion and gasification processes. This multi-organization, multi-investigator project has produced data, correlations, and submodels that extend present capabilities in pressure, temperature, and fuel type. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational results are documented in detail in Chapters 1-8 of this report, with Chapter 9 serving as a brief summary of the main conclusions. Chapters 1-3 deal with the effect of elevated pressure on devolatilization, char formation, and char properties. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with advanced combustion kinetic models needed to cover the extended ranges of pressure and temperature expected in next-generation furnaces. Chapter 6 deals with the extension of kinetic data to a variety of alternative solid fuels. Chapter 7 focuses on the kinetics of gasification (rather than combustion) at elevated pressure. Finally, Chapter 8 describes the integration, testing, and use of new fuel transformation submodels into a comprehensive CFD framework. Overall, the effects of elevated pressure, temperature, heating rate, and alternative fuel use are all complex and much more work could be further undertaken in this area. Nevertheless, the current project with its new data, correlations, and computer models provides a much improved basis for model-based design of next generation systems operating under these new conditions.

  1. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend leading submodels of coal transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation energy technologies. During the first project quarter, a technical kick-off meeting was held on the Brown campus involving PIs from Brown (Hurt, Calo), BYU (Fletcher), and B&W (Sayre, Burge). Following this first meeting the current version of CBK (Version 8) was transferred to B&W McDermott and the HP-CBK code developed by BYU was transferred to Brown to help guide the code development in this project. Also during the first project year, progress was reviewed at an all-hands meeting was held at Brigham Young University in August, 2001. The meeting was attended by PIs Fletcher, Hurt, Calo, and Sayre, and also by affiliated investigators Steven Burge from McDermott and Prof. William Hecker from BYU. During the first project year, significant progress was made on several fronts, as described in detail in the previous annual report. In the current second annual report, we report on progress made on two important project tasks. At Brown University: (1) Char combustion reactivities at 500 C in air were determined for a diverse set of solid fuels and organic model compound chars. These varied over 4 orders of magnitude for the chars prepared at 700 C, and over 3 orders of magnitude for the chars prepared at 1000 C. The resultant reactivities correlate poorly with organic elemental composition and with char surface area. (2) Specially-acquired model materials with minute amounts of inorganic matter exhibit low reactivities that fall in a narrow band as a function of wt-% carbon. Reactivities in this sample subset correlate reasonably well with total char surface area. (3) A hybrid chemical/statistical model was developed which explains most of the observed reactivity variation based on four variables: the amounts of nano-dispersed K, nanodispersed (Ca+Mg), elemental carbon (wt-% daf), and

  2. CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2002-01-15

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. In this project a co-firing technology is proposed which would use manure that cannot be used for fertilizer, for power generation. Since the animal manure has economic uses as both a fertilizer and as a fuel, it is properly referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) for cow manure, or litter biomass (LB) for chicken manure. The biomass will be used a as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in existing coal fired combustion devices. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Therefore, it is the goal of the current research to develop an animal biomass cofiring technology. A cofiring technology is being developed by performing: (1) studies on fundamental fuel characteristics, (2) small scale boiler burner experiments, (3) gasifier experiments, (4) computer simulations, and (5) an economic analysis. The fundamental fuel studies reveal that biomass is not as high a quality fuel as coal. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, higher in moisture, higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution), and lower in heat content than coal. Additionally, experiments indicate that the biomass fuels have higher gas content, release gases more readily than coal, and less homogeneous. Small-scale boiler experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} pollutant emissions produced will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. This is a surprising

  3. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when

  4. Formation of fine particles in co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel in a pulverized coal-fired power station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Fine particles formed from combustion of a bituminous coal and co-combustion of coal with 7 th% (thermal percentage) solid recovered fuel (SRF) in a pulverized coal-fired power plant were sampled and characterized in this study. The particles from dedicated coal combustion and co-combustion both...... appear to be an important formation mechanism. The elemental composition of the particles from coal combustion showed that S and Ca were significantly enriched in ultrafine particles and P was also enriched considerably. However, compared with supermicron particles, the contents of Al, Si and K were...

  5. Ignition et oxydation des particules de combustible solide pulvérisé Ignition and Oxidation of Pulverized Solid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G. G.

    2006-11-01

    élais d'ignition ont été déterminés pour un grand nombre de combustibles solides de rang inférieur et supérieur (charbons, cokes, asphaltènes, suies, bois, graphite. L'étude de la vitesse expérimentale de la combustion hétérogène, notamment l'étude de la température apparente d'activation, et sa dépendance par rapport à la taille des particules et à la concentration d'oxygène, montre que, dans les conditions des essais, cette combustion est contrôlée par la désorption du CO et se déroule principalement en régime cinético-diffusionnel mixte. L'étude de la dépendance des délais d'ignition par rapport à la température, la taille des particules et la pression partielle d'oxygène, suggère que, pendant ces délais, les réactions se déroulent en régime cinétique pur et que le produit des réactions de désorption est principalement le CO. The heated-grid method is used to investigate the competition between (1 the devolatilization and subsequent oxidation of pyrolysis products and (2 the ignition of the solid matrix and its rapid combustion. A comparison between the instant of ignition and the start of pyrolysis is used to determine the range in which ignition of a pyrolyzable solid fuel of the whole coal ignitiontype (i. e. when ignition occurs before pyrolysis becomes measurable occurs as a function of temperature, particle size and oxygen concentration. The results suggest that this type of ignition might occur, as a general rule, under conditions involving pulverized solid fuels in industrial flames. In the case of whole coalignition, the rate of combustion of the solid matrix is inhibited during the period following ignition. This inhibition is due partly to the difficulty oxygen has of spreading through the pores during the discharge of pyrolysis products and partly to preferential oxygen consumption during the oxidation of pyrolysis products, mainly when this oxidation develops in the form of flames. t is only when pyrolysis ends that

  6. Development and numerical/experimental characterization of a lab-scale flat flame reactor allowing the analysis of pulverized solid fuel devolatilization and oxidation at high heating rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, R.; Menanteau, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the thorough characterization of a new experimental test bench designed to study the devolatilization and oxidation of pulverized fuel particles in a wide range of operating conditions. This lab-scale facility is composed of a fuel feeding system, the functioning of which has been optimized by computational fluid dynamics. It allows delivering a constant and time-independent mass flow rate of fuel particles which are pneumatically transported to the central injector of a hybrid McKenna burner using a carrier gas stream that can be inert or oxidant depending on the targeted application. A premixed propane/air laminar flat flame stabilized on the porous part of the burner is used to generate the hot gases insuring the heating of the central coal/carrier-gas jet with a thermal gradient similar to those found in industrial combustors (>105 K/s). In the present work, results issued from numerical simulations performed a priori to characterize the velocity and temperature fields in the reaction chamber have been analyzed and confronted with experimental measurements carried out by coupling particle image velocimetry, thermocouple and two-color pyrometry measurements so as to validate the order of magnitude of the heating rate delivered by such a new test bench. Finally, the main features of the flat flame reactor we developed have been discussed with respect to those of another laboratory-scale system designed to study coal devolatilization at a high heating rate.

  7. Development and numerical/experimental characterization of a lab-scale flat flame reactor allowing the analysis of pulverized solid fuel devolatilization and oxidation at high heating rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaire, R., E-mail: romain.lemaire@mines-douai.fr; Menanteau, S. [Mines Douai, EI, F-59508 Douai (France)

    2016-01-15

    This paper deals with the thorough characterization of a new experimental test bench designed to study the devolatilization and oxidation of pulverized fuel particles in a wide range of operating conditions. This lab-scale facility is composed of a fuel feeding system, the functioning of which has been optimized by computational fluid dynamics. It allows delivering a constant and time-independent mass flow rate of fuel particles which are pneumatically transported to the central injector of a hybrid McKenna burner using a carrier gas stream that can be inert or oxidant depending on the targeted application. A premixed propane/air laminar flat flame stabilized on the porous part of the burner is used to generate the hot gases insuring the heating of the central coal/carrier-gas jet with a thermal gradient similar to those found in industrial combustors (>10{sup 5} K/s). In the present work, results issued from numerical simulations performed a priori to characterize the velocity and temperature fields in the reaction chamber have been analyzed and confronted with experimental measurements carried out by coupling particle image velocimetry, thermocouple and two-color pyrometry measurements so as to validate the order of magnitude of the heating rate delivered by such a new test bench. Finally, the main features of the flat flame reactor we developed have been discussed with respect to those of another laboratory-scale system designed to study coal devolatilization at a high heating rate.

  8. Co-combustion of pulverized coal and solid recovered fuel in an entrained flow reactor- General combustion and ash behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Frandsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    .9 wt.%, 14.8 wt.% and 25 wt.%, respectively. The effect of additives was evaluated by maintaining the share of secondary fuel (mixture of SRF and additive) at 14.8 wt.%. The experimental results showed that the fuel burnout, NO and SO2 emission in co-combustion of coal and SRF were decreased...... with increasing share of SRF. The majority of the additives inhibited the burnout, except for NaCl which seemed to have a promoting effect. The impact of additives on NO emission was mostly insignificant, except for ammonium sulphate which greatly reduced the NO emission. For SO2 emission, it was found that all...

  9. COMPARISON OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS AND ELEMENTAL PARTITIONING FROM THE COMBUSTION OF PULVERIZED COAL AND RESIDUAL FUEL OIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of experimental efforts in which three coals and a residual fuel oil were combusted in three different systems simulating process and utility boilers. Particloe size distributions (PSDs) were determined using atmospheric and low-pressure impaction, electr...

  10. Co-combustion of pulverized coal and solid recovered fuel in an entrained flow reactor - General combustion and ash behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Wu; Peter Glarborg; Flemming Jappe Frandsen; Kim Dam-Johansen; Peter Arendt Jensen; Bo Sander [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

    2011-05-15

    Co-combustion of a bituminous coal and a solid recovered fuel (SRF) was carried out in an entrained flow reactor, and the influence of additives such as NaCl, PVC, ammonium sulphate, and kaolinite was investigated. The experiments were carried out with SRF shares of 7.9 wt.%, 14.8 wt.% and 25 wt.%, respectively. The effect of additives was evaluated by maintaining the share of secondary fuel (mixture of SRF and additive) at 14.8 wt.%. The results showed that fuel burnout, NO and SO{sub 2} emission decreased with increasing share of SRF. The majority of the additives inhibited the burnout, except for NaCl which seemed to have a promoting effect. The impact of additives on NO emission was mostly insignificant, except for ammonium sulphate which greatly reduced NO emission. For SO{sub 2}, it was found that all of the additives increased the S-retention in ash. Analysis of the bulk composition of fly ash from different experiments indicated that the majority of S and Cl in the fuels were released to gas phase during combustion, whereas the K and Na in the fuels were mainly retained in ash in water insoluble form such as aluminosilicates or silicates. The addition of NaCl, PVC, and ammonium sulphate generally promoted the vaporization of Na and K, resulting in increased formation of water soluble alkalis such as alkali chlorides or sulphates. The vaporization degree of Na and K was found to be correlated during the experiments, suggesting an interaction between the vaporization of Na and K during combustion. By collecting deposits on an air-cooled probe, it was found that the ash deposition propensity in co-combustion decreased with increasing share of SRF. The addition of NaCl and PVC significantly increased the ash deposition propensity, whereas the addition of ammonium sulphate or kaolinite showed a slight reducing effect. 46 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. 粉煤灰在含氟含磷废水处理中的应用%Application of Pulverized Fuel Ash in Treatment of Wastewater Contained with Fluorine and Phosphorus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓慧; 李聪; 马宏飞; 杨翔华

    2012-01-01

    粉煤灰是火电厂排出的固体废弃物,其作为絮凝剂和吸附剂在废水处理方面已经得到了广泛的应用.人体长期过量摄人氟元素会导致地方性氟病,磷是引起水体富营养化的限制因素.该文叙述了粉煤灰在含氟含磷废水中的应用现状,探讨其影响因素和改性方法,并迸一步分析了粉煤灰除氟除磷的机理.结果表明,粉煤灰的组成,特别是其Ca/CaO含量和反应的操作条件对氟、磷的去除效果有较大的影响;酸、碱、盐、微波、负载、工艺改变和新材料转化等改性方法有利于提高粉煤灰对氟和磷的处理能力;粉煤灰对氟和磷的去除主要依赖于吸附作用和凝聚作用.%Pulverized fuel ash is a kind of industrial solid waste produced from thermo-electric plant, which has been widely used in waste water treatment as flocculant and adsorbent. Excessive fluorine intake for a long time causes endemic fluorosis, and phosphorus is the control (actor which results in eutrophication of water bodies as majority. The paper reviewed the current studies of pulverized fuel ash in fluorine and phosphorus removal, discussed the influencing factors and modified methods, analyzed the removal mechanism additionally. Results revealed that the constituents, especially Ca/CaO content, and operation condition affected the removal of fluorine and phosphorus a lot. Change of sour, alkali, salt, microwave, load, process and new material transformation were beneficial to improve pulverized fuel ash disposal capacities for fluorine and phosphorus. Fluorine and phosphorus removal by pulverized fuel ash depended on adsorption and agglomeration effects in most cases.

  12. Ignition and Combustion of Pulverized Coal and Biomass under Different Oxy-fuel O2/N2 and O2/CO2 Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami Firoozabadi, Seyed Reza

    This work studied the ignition and combustion of burning pulverized coals and biomasses particles under either conventional combustion in air or oxy-fuel combustion conditions. Oxy-fuel combustion is a 'clean-coal' process that takes place in O2/CO2 environments, which are achieved by removing nitrogen from the intake gases and recirculating large amounts of flue gases to the boiler. Removal of nitrogen from the combustion gases generates a high CO2-content, sequestration-ready gas at the boiler effluent. Flue gas recirculation moderates the high temperatures caused by the elevated oxygen partial pressure in the boiler. In this study, combustion of the fuels took place in a laboratory laminar-flow drop-tube furnace (DTF), electrically-heated to 1400 K, in environments containing various mole fractions of oxygen in either nitrogen or carbon-dioxide background gases. The experiments were conducted at two different gas conditions inside the furnace: (a) quiescent gas condition (i.e., no flow or inactive flow) and, (b) an active gas flow condition in both the injector and furnace. Eight coals from different ranks (anthracite, semi-snthracite, three bituminous, subbituminous and two lignites) and four biomasses from different sources were utilized in this work to study the ignition and combustion characteristics of solid fuels in O2/N2 or O2/CO2 environments. The main objective is to study the effect of replacing background N2 with CO2, increasing O2 mole fraction and fuel type and rank on a number of qualitative and quantitative parameters such as ignition/combustion mode, ignition temperature, ignition delay time, combustion temperatures, burnout times and envelope flame soot volume fractions. Regarding ignition, in the quiescent gas condition, bituminous and sub-bituminous coal particles experienced homogeneous ignition in both O2/N 2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres, while in the active gas flow condition, heterogeneous ignition was evident in O2/CO 2. Anthracite, semi

  13. Study on the influence of the amount of pulverized fuel ash on strength of reactive powder concrete%粉煤灰掺量对活性粉末混凝土强度影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠彦忠; 曲晶; 王德弘

    2014-01-01

    Through the experiments,it analysed the influence of curing conditions and the dosage of fly ash on mechanical properties of reactive powder concrete.Analysis results showed that the flexural strength of concrete was slightly increased with the increase of dosage of pulverized fuel ash,and the compressive strength reached the maximum when the ratio of pulverized fuel ash and cement was 0.3,steam curing of has a certain role in promoting the concrete strength.%通过试验研究了粉煤灰掺量和养护条件对活性粉末混凝土力学性能的影响。分析结果表明,混凝土的抗弯拉强度随着粉煤灰掺量的增加而略有增强,而抗压强度在粉煤灰水泥比为0.3时达到最大值,蒸汽养护对混凝土的强度有促进作用。

  14. Enhancement of pulverized coal combustion by plasma technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorokhovski, M.A.; Jankoski, Z.; Lockwood, F.C.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [University of Rouen, Rouen (France)

    2007-07-01

    Plasma-assisted pulverized coal combustion is a promising technology for thermal power plants (TPP). This article reports one- and three- dimensional numerical simulations, as well as laboratory and industrial measurements of coal combustion using a plasma-fuel system (PFS). The chemical kinetic and fluid mechanics involved in this technology are analysed. The results show that a PFS, can be used to promote early ignition and enhanced stabilization of a pulverized coal flame. It is shown that this technology, in addition to enhancing the combustion efficiency of the flame, reduces harmful emissions from power coals of all ranks (brown, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures). Data summarising the experience of 27 pulverized coal boilers in 16 thermal power plants in several countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Ukraine, Slovakia, Mongolia and China), embracing steam productivities from 75 to 670 tons per hour (TPH), are presented. Finally, the practical computation of the characteristics of the PFS, as function of coal properties, is discussed.

  15. Observer-Based Fuel Control Using Oxygen Measurement. A study based on a first-principles model of a pulverized coal fired Benson Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Mortensen, Jan Henrik; Just Nielsen, Rene; Soendergaard Pedersen, Tom [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Control Engineering

    2005-01-01

    This report describes an attempt to improve the existing control of coal mills used at the Danish power plant Nordjyllandsvaerket Unit 3. The coal mills pulverize raw coal to a fine-grained powder, which is injected into the furnace of the power plant. In the furnace the coal is combusted, producing heat, which is used for steam production. With better control of the coal mills, the power plant can be controlled more efficiently during load changes, thus improving the overall availability and efficiency of the plant. One of the main difficulties from a control point of view is that the coal mills are not equipped with sensors that detect how much coal is injected into the furnace. During the project, a fairly detailed, non-linear differential equation model of the furnace and the steam circuit was constructed and validated against data obtained at the plant. It was observed that this model was able to capture most of the important dynamics found in the data. Based on this model, it is possible to extract linearized models in various operating points. The report discusses this approach and illustrates how the model can be linearized and reduced to a lower-order linear model that is valid in the vicinity of an operating point by removing states that have little influence on the overall response. A viable adaptive control strategy would then be to design controllers for each of these simplified linear models, i.e., the control loop that sets references to the coal mills and feedwater, and use the load as a separate input to the control. The control gains should then be scheduled according to the load. However, the variations and uncertainties in the coal mill are not addressed directly in this approach. Another control approach was taken in this project, where a Kalman filter based on measurements of air flow blown into the furnace and the oxygen concentration in the flue gas is designed to estimate the actual coal flow injected into the furnace. With this estimate

  16. Two-in-one fuel combining sugar cane with low rank coal and its CO₂ reduction effects in pulverized-coal power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Bae, Jong-Soo; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Se-Joon; Hong, Jai-Chang; Lee, Byoung-Hwa; Jeon, Chung-Hwan; Choi, Young-Chan

    2013-02-05

    Coal-fired power plants are facing to two major independent problems, namely, the burden to reduce CO(2) emission to comply with renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and cap-and-trade system, and the need to use low-rank coal due to the instability of high-rank coal supply. To address such unresolved issues, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been suggested, and low rank coal has been upgraded by high-pressure and high-temperature processes. However, IGCC incurs huge construction costs, and the coal upgrading processes require fossil-fuel-derived additives and harsh operation condition. Here, we first show a hybrid coal that can solve these two problems simultaneously while using existing power plants. Hybrid coal is defined as a two-in-one fuel combining low rank coal with a sugar cane-derived bioliquid, such as molasses and sugar cane juice, by bioliquid diffusion into coal intrapores and precarbonization of the bioliquid. Unlike the simple blend of biomass and coal showing dual combustion behavior, hybrid coal provided a single coal combustion pattern. If hybrid coal (biomass/coal ratio = 28 wt %) is used as a fuel for 500 MW power generation, the net CO(2) emission is 21.2-33.1% and 12.5-25.7% lower than those for low rank coal and designed coal, and the required coal supply can be reduced by 33% compared with low rank coal. Considering high oil prices and time required before a stable renewable energy supply can be established, hybrid coal could be recognized as an innovative low-carbon-emission energy technology that can bridge the gulf between fossil fuels and renewable energy, because various water-soluble biomass could be used as an additive for hybrid coal through proper modification of preparation conditions.

  17. Effect of Pulverized Fuel Ashes on Autogenous Shrinkage and Compressive Strength of Cement Pastes%粉煤灰对水泥浆体自收缩和抗压强度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝成伟; 邓敏; 莫立武; 刘开伟

    2011-01-01

    Autogenous shrinkage of cement pastes with different contents of pulverized fuel ashes(PFA) and different water-to-binder ratio were measured by a shrinkage test device. Compressive strength of sealed cement paste were also measured. The influence of PFA on the pore structures and micrograph of hydration products were investigated through mercury intrusion porosimetry(MIP) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) , on which the influence mechanism was analyzed. Experimental results demonstrated that autogenous shrinkage of cement pastes decreased with the increased contents of PFA at early age (before 7 d) , this may be ascribed to inhibition of PFA on the shrinkage. After 7 d, however, both autogenous shrinkage, and compressive strength of cement pastes increased. This may be attributed to decrease of pore radius and densification of cement hydration products due to the pozzolanic reaction of fly ash.%设计组装了水泥浆体自收缩测量装置,进行了不同粉煤灰掺量和水胶比的水泥浆体自收缩和抗压强度测试,采用压汞测孔仪(MIP)、扫描电镜(SEM)等测试技术研究了粉煤灰对水泥浆体孔结构、产物形貌等微观结构的影响,并对其影响机理进行了分析.结果表明:粉煤灰能够有效抑制水泥浆体的早期自收缩,在7d前,其自收缩随着粉煤灰掺量的增加而减小;与纯硅酸盐水泥浆体相比,粉煤灰水泥浆体7d后的抗压强度增幅较大,但自收缩增长速率也趋于增大;火山灰反应引起的孔径细化、水化产物结构致密是粉煤灰影响水泥浆体自收缩和抗压强度的根本原因.

  18. Numerical study of co-firing pulverized coal and biomass inside a cement calciner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulčić, Hrvoje; von Berg, Eberhard; Vujanović, Milan; Duić, Neven

    2014-07-01

    The use of waste wood biomass as fuel is increasingly gaining significance in the cement industry. The combustion of biomass and particularly co-firing of biomass and coal in existing pulverized-fuel burners still faces significant challenges. One possibility for the ex ante control and investigation of the co-firing process are computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical analysis of co-firing pulverized coal and biomass in a cement calciner. Numerical models of pulverized coal and biomass combustion were developed and implemented into a commercial CFD code FIRE, which was then used for the analysis. Three-dimensional geometry of a real industrial cement calciner was used for the analysis. Three different co-firing cases were analysed. The results obtained from this study can be used for assessing different co-firing cases, and for improving the understanding of the co-firing process inside the calculated calciner.

  19. Simplified process for leaching precious metals from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley Heights, NJ)

    2009-12-22

    The membrane electrode assemblies of fuel cells are recycled to recover the catalyst precious metals from the assemblies. The assemblies are cryogenically embrittled and pulverized to form a powder. The pulverized assemblies are then mixed with a surfactant to form a paste which is contacted with an acid solution to leach precious metals from the pulverized membranes.

  20. Pushing the pulverized coal envelope with LEBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regan, J.W.; Borio, R.W.; Palkes, M. [and others

    1995-11-01

    In response to challenges from technologies such as IGCC and PFBC, the ABB LEBS Team has proposed removing the barriers to very large advances in environmental and thermal performance of pulverized coal plants. Pulverized coal will continue to be the source of more than half of our electric generation well into the next century and we must develop low-risk low-cost advances that will compete with the claimed performance of other technologies. This paper describes near-term PC technologies for new and retrofit applications which will accomplish this.

  1. Pulverized glass as an alternative filter medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccirillo, J.B.; Letterman, R.D.

    1998-07-01

    A significant amount of low-value, recycled glass is stockpiled at recycling facilities or landfilled. This study was conducted to investigate the use of pulverized recycled glass as a filter medium in slow sand filtration. The glass was pulverized using a flail mill-type pulverizer. The size distribution of the pulverizer output was adjusted by sieving to meet the grain size requirements of the Ten States Standards and the USEPA for filter media were compared to a fourth unit containing silica sand media. The filter influent was spiked with clay, coliform group bacteria and the cysts and oocyst of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. Over an 8 month period of continuous operation, the performance of the glass sand filter media was as good as or better than the silica sand, with removals of 56% to 96% for turbidity; 99.78% to 100.0% for coliform bacteria; 99.995% to 99.997% for giardia cysts; and 99.92% to 99.97% for cryptosporidium oocysts. According to a cost-benefit analysis, converting waste glass into filter media may be economically advantageous for recycling facilities.

  2. High gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal via upwardly directed recirculating fluidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissenberg, David M.; Liu, Yin-An

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved device and method for the high gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, for the purpose of removing sulfur and ash from the coal whereby the product is a dry environmentally acceptable, low-sulfur fuel. The process involves upwardly directed recirculating air fluidization of selectively sized powdered coal in a separator having sections of increasing diameters in the direction of air flow, with magnetic field and flow rates chosen for optimum separations depending upon particulate size.

  3. Modeling of pulverized coal combustion stabilization by means of plasma torches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miroslav Sijercic; Srdjan Belosevic; Predrag Stefanovic [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Science, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2005-07-01

    Application of plasma-system for pulverized coal ignition and combustion stabilization in utility boiler furnaces promises to achieve certain savings compared to the use of heavy oil burners. Plasma torches are built in air-coal dust mixture ducts between coal mills and burners. Characteristics of processes in the ducts with plasma-system for pulverized coal combustion stabilization are analyzed in the paper, with respect to the modeling and numerical simulation of mass, momentum and heat transfer in two-phase turbulent gas particle flow. The simulations have been performed for three different geometries of the air-coal dust mixture ducts with plasma torches, for TENT A1 utility boiler and pulverized lignite Kolubara-Field 'D'. Selected results of numerical simulation of processes are presented. The plasma-system thermal effect is discussed regarding corresponding savings of liquid fuel. The results of numerical simulations have been analyzed with respect to the processes in the duct and especially with respect to the influence of the duct shape to a temperature field at the out let cross section, as a basis for the duct geometry optimization. It has been emphasized that numerical simulation of processes can be applied in analysis and optimization of pulverized coal ignition and combustion stabilization and enables efficient and cost-effective scaling-up procedure from laboratory to industrial level. 22 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for

  5. Pyrolysis and Combustion of Pulverized Wheat Straw in a Pressurized Entrained Flow Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Gjernes, Erik; Hansen, Lars Kresten

    1996-01-01

    Within the past decade, there has been an interest for pressurized combustion and gasification of solid fuels in power plants due to the potential for high efficiency. The utilization of new types of solid fuels for pressurized combustion and gasification depends on char yield and char reactivity...... at relevant conditions. The pressurized entrained now reactor designed at Rise is introduced. Pyrolysis and combustion at 10 and 20 bar pressure have been studied using pulverized wheat straw. Samples of partly reacted particles are collected, and the conversion is calculated using the ash tracer technique...

  6. Nano-pulverization of poorly water soluble compounds with low melting points by a rotation/revolution pulverizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuminoki, K; Takeda, M; Kitamura, K; Numata, S; Kimura, K; Takatsuka, T; Hashimoto, N

    2012-08-01

    We report a method for pulverizing poorly water soluble compounds with low melting points to nanoparticles without producing an amorphous phase using a rotation/revolution pulverizer. Fenofibrate, flurbiprofen, and probucol were used as crystalline model compounds. They were suspended in a methylcellulose aqueous solution and pulverized with zirconia balls by the rotation/revolution pulverizer. Beeswax, an amorphous compound, was also examined to investigate whether nano-pulverization of a compound with a low melting point was possible. Beeswax was suspended in ethyl alcohol cooled with liquid nitrogen and pulverized with zirconia balls by the rotation/revolution pulverizer. By optimizing the pulverization parameters, nanoparticles (D50 revolution speed of 1000 rpm and a rotation/revolution ratio of 1.0 when the vessel was 0 degrees C. Amorphous fenofibrate and flurbiprofen were not detected by differential scanning calorimetry or powder X-ray diffraction, whereas small amounts of amorphous probucol were detected. Beeswax was pulverized to nanoparticles (D50 = 0.14 microm) with ethyl alcohol cooled with liquid nitrogen. Fine nanoparticles of these poorly water soluble compounds with low melting points were obtained by controlling the rotation/revolution speed and reducing the vessel temperature.

  7. Energy Analysis of a Biomass Co-firing Based Pulverized Coal Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The results are reported of an energy analysis of a biomass/coal co-firing based power generation system, carried out to investigate the impacts of biomass co-firing on system performance. The power generation system is a typical pulverized coal-fired steam cycle unit, in which four biomass fuels (rice husk, pine sawdust, chicken litter, and refuse derived fuel and two coals (bituminous coal and lignite are considered. Key system performance parameters are evaluated for various fuel combinations and co-firing ratios, using a system model and numerical simulation. The results indicate that plant energy efficiency decreases with increase of biomass proportion in the fuel mixture, and that the extent of the decrease depends on specific properties of the coal and biomass types.

  8. Pretreatment of biomass by torrefaction and carbonization for coal blend used in pulverized coal injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shan-Wen; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lucas, John A

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the utility potential of pretreated biomass in blast furnaces, the fuel properties, including fuel ratio, ignition temperature, and burnout, of bamboo, oil palm, rice husk, sugarcane bagasse, and Madagascar almond undergoing torrefaction and carbonization in a rotary furnace are analyzed and compared to those of a high-volatile coal and a low-volatile one used in pulverized coal injection (PCI). The energy densities of bamboo and Madagascar almond are improved drastically from carbonization, whereas the increase in the calorific value of rice husk from the pretreatment is not obvious. Intensifying pretreatment extent significantly increases the fuel ratio and ignition temperature of biomass, but decreases burnout. The fuel properties of pretreated biomass materials are superior to those of the low-volatile coal. For biomass torrefied at 300°C or carbonized at temperatures below 500°C, the pretreated biomass can be blended with coals for PCI.

  9. Semi-wet selective pulverizing system: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, K.; Hirayama, Y.

    1975-05-01

    The operation of the semi-wet selective pulverizing system for recovering materials from municipal waste is described. In this system both pulverization and classification of materials is accomplished in one machine. This process can be used to recover paper, plastics, metals, and compostable materials. (LCL)

  10. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Levy

    2005-10-01

    Low rank fuels such as subbituminous coals and lignites contain significant amounts of moisture compared to higher rank coals. Typically, the moisture content of subbituminous coals ranges from 15 to 30 percent, while that for lignites is between 25 and 40 percent, where both are expressed on a wet coal basis. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit. High fuel moisture results in fuel handling problems, and it affects heat rate, mass rate (tonnage) of emissions, and the consumption of water needed for evaporative cooling. This project deals with lignite and subbituminous coal-fired pulverized coal power plants, which are cooled by evaporative cooling towers. In particular, the project involves use of power plant waste heat to partially dry the coal before it is fed to the pulverizers. Done in a proper way, coal drying will reduce cooling tower makeup water requirements and also provide heat rate and emissions benefits. The technology addressed in this project makes use of the hot circulating cooling water leaving the condenser to heat the air used for drying the coal (Figure 1). The temperature of the circulating water leaving the condenser is usually about 49 C (120 F), and this can be used to produce an air stream at approximately 43 C (110 F). Figure 2 shows a variation of this approach, in which coal drying would be accomplished by both warm air, passing through the dryer, and a flow of hot circulating cooling water, passing through a heat exchanger located in the dryer. Higher temperature drying can be accomplished if hot flue gas from the boiler or extracted steam from the turbine cycle is used to supplement the thermal energy obtained from the circulating cooling water. Various options such as these are being examined in this investigation. This is the eleventh Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits

  11. Modeling and optimization of processes for clean and efficient pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belošević Srđan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized coal-fired power plants should provide higher efficiency of energy conversion, flexibility in terms of boiler loads and fuel characteristics and emission reduction of pollutants like nitrogen oxides. Modification of combustion process is a cost-effective technology for NOx control. For optimization of complex processes, such as turbulent reactive flow in coal-fired furnaces, mathematical modeling is regularly used. The NOx emission reduction by combustion modifications in the 350 MWe Kostolac B boiler furnace, tangentially fired by pulverized Serbian lignite, is investigated in the paper. Numerical experiments were done by an in-house developed three-dimensional differential comprehensive combustion code, with fuel- and thermal-NO formation/destruction reactions model. The code was developed to be easily used by engineering staff for process analysis in boiler units. A broad range of operating conditions was examined, such as fuel and preheated air distribution over the burners and tiers, operation mode of the burners, grinding fineness and quality of coal, boiler loads, cold air ingress, recirculation of flue gases, water-walls ash deposition and combined effect of different parameters. The predictions show that the NOx emission reduction of up to 30% can be achieved by a proper combustion organization in the case-study furnace, with the flame position control. Impact of combustion modifications on the boiler operation was evaluated by the boiler thermal calculations suggesting that the facility was to be controlled within narrow limits of operation parameters. Such a complex approach to pollutants control enables evaluating alternative solutions to achieve efficient and low emission operation of utility boiler units. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in

  12. Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philips, S.D.; Smoot, L.D.

    1989-08-01

    The need to improve efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions commercial furnaces has prompted energy companies to search for optimized operating conditions and improved designs in their fossil-fuel burning facilities. Historically, companies have relied on the use of empirical correlations and pilot-plant data to make decisions about operating conditions and design changes. The high cost of collecting data makes obtaining large amounts of data infeasible. The main objective of the data book is to provide a single source of detailed three-dimensional combustion and combustion-related data suitable for comprehensive combustion model evaluation. Five tasks were identified as requirements to achieve the main objective. First, identify the types of data needed to evaluate comprehensive combustion models, and establish criteria for selecting the data. Second, identify and document available three-dimensional combustion data related to pulverized coal combustion. Third, collect and evaluate three-dimensional data cases, and select suitable cases based on selection criteria. Fourth, organize the data sets into an easy-to-use format. Fifth, evaluate and interpret the nature and quality of the data base. 39 refs., 15 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Experimental study on preheated combustion of pulverized semi-coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Zhu, Jianguo; Lu, Qinggang; Zhou, Zuxu

    2015-06-01

    In a test rig, pulverized semi-coke was preheated to 850oC in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) and then combusted at 1100oC in a down-fired combustor (DFC). Experiments were conducted to reveal the effects of three secondary air nozzle cases (co-axial jet, top circular jet and wall circular jet) on the NO emission. The results show that the optimized secondary air nozzle can reduce NO emission. O2 concentration profile is the major factor affecting NO generation and emission, which is led by the secondary air nozzle. The lower O2 concentration led to the generation of lower initial NO. The NO emission at the exit of the DFC was reduced from 189 to 92 mg/m3 (@ 6% O2) with the decrease of initial generation. The peak of NO at 100 mm below the nozzle should be attributed to the oxidization of NH3 in the syngas, rather than the oxidization of fuel-N in the char. The low and well-distributed O2 concentration contributes to the reduction of initial NO, which helps to reduce the NO emission. The combustion efficiencies of the cases of the co-axial jet, the top circular jet, and the wall circular jet are 97.88%, 98.94% and 98.74%, respectively.

  14. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Ursla Levy; John Sale; Nenad Sarunac

    2006-01-01

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, the development of analyses to determine the costs and financial benefits of coal drying was continued. The details of the model and key assumptions being used in the economic evaluation are described in this report and results are shown for a drying system utilizing a combination of waste heat from the condenser and thermal energy extracted from boiler flue gas.

  15. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Ursla Levy; John Sale; Nenad Sarunac

    2006-01-01

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, the development of analyses to determine the costs and financial benefits of coal drying was continued. The details of the model and key assumptions being used in the economic evaluation are described in this report and results are shown for a drying system utilizing a combination of waste heat from the condenser and thermal energy extracted from boiler flue gas.

  16. Trace element emissions when firing pulverized coal in a pilot-scale combustion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.F.; Wincek, R.T.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1998-07-01

    Strategies are being developed at Penn State to produce ultralow emissions when firing coal-based fuels, i.e., micronized coal and coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF), in industrial boilers. The work is being conducted on the bench, pilot, and demonstration scale, and the emissions being addressed are SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, fine particulate matter (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}), and air toxics (trace elements and volatile organic compounds). Technical issues related to trace element emissions that are to be addressed include: (1) the effectiveness of coal cleaning; (2) the effect of fuel form (CWSF and pulverized coal); (3) partitioning between the solid and vapor phases; (4) the effect of boiler size; (5) penetration through particulate control devices; (6) the effect of sootblowing; and (7) mercury speciation. This paper discusses the results of preliminary work to determine trace element emissions when firing a raw and cleaned pulverized coal in a pilot-scale combustor. A companion paper, which follows in the proceedings, gives the results of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions testing in the pilot-scale combustor and in a small industrial boiler. Results from fine particulate testing is found elsewhere in the proceedings.

  17. Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

  18. Mercury speciation in pulverized fuel co-combustion and gasification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sable, S.P.

    2007-01-01

    Coal based power generation is a significant source of mercury emissions to the atmosphere and this has attracted huge attention in the past decade. Recently, the concerns regarding global warming and need for new energy resources introduced the concept of cofiring of biomass and waste as secondary

  19. Mercury speciation in pulverized fuel co-combustion and gasification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sable, S.P.

    2007-01-01

    Coal based power generation is a significant source of mercury emissions to the atmosphere and this has attracted huge attention in the past decade. Recently, the concerns regarding global warming and need for new energy resources introduced the concept of cofiring of biomass and waste as secondary

  20. Numerical modelling of lighting process in pulverized-coal burner of a boiler unit by the low-temperature plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miloshevich, H.; Rychkov, A.D. [Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Occupational Technologies

    1999-07-01

    The authors numerically modelled the process of aeromixture ignition in a pulverized-coal burner by a central axysymmetric jet of air that is heated in an electrical are plasma generator up to about 5000 K. The aim was to investigate the process of coal particle ignition in the flow and establish the conditions under which the independent combustion of pulverized coal mixture occurs. The results obtained showed the important role of radiation heat transfer in initiating the combustion process of solid fuel particles. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Temperature, velocity and species profile measurements for reburning in a pulverized, entrained flow, coal combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tree, D.R.

    1999-03-01

    Nitrogen oxide emissions from pulverized coal combustion have been and will continue to be a regulated pollutant for electric utility boilers burning pulverized coal. Full scale combustion models can help in the design of new boilers and boiler retrofits which meet emissions standards, but these models require validation before they can be used with confidence. The objective of this work was to obtain detailed combustion measurements of pulverized coal flames which implement two NO reduction strategies, namely reburning and advanced reburning, to provide data for model validation. The data were also compared to an existing comprehensive pulverized coal combustion model with a reduced mechanism for NO reduction under reburning and advanced reburning conditions. The data were obtained in a 0.2 MW, cylindrical, down-fired, variable swirl, pulverized coal reactor. The reactor had a diameter of 0.76 m and a length of 2.4 m with access ports along the axial length. A Wyodak, sub-bituminous coal was used in all of the measurements. The burner had a centrally located primary fuel and air tube surrounded by heated and variably swirled secondary air. Species of NO, NO{sub x}, CO, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} were measured continuously. Aqueous sampling was used to measure HCN and NH{sub 3} at specific reactor locations. Samples were drawn from the reactor using water quenched suction probes. Velocity measurements were obtained using two component laser doppler anemometry in back-scatter mode. Temperature measurements were obtained using a shielded suction pyrometer. A series of six or more radial measurements at six or more axial locations within the reactor provided a map of species, temperature, and velocity measurements. In total, seven reactor maps were obtained. Three maps were obtained at baseline conditions of 0, 0.5 and 1.5 swirl and 10% excess air. Two maps were obtained under reburning conditions of 0.78 stoichiometric ratio and 1.5 swirl and 0.9 stoichiometric ratio and

  2. Comparative Techno-economic assessment of biomass and coal with CCS technologies in a pulverized combustion power plant in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Qayim, K.; Nimmo, W.; Pourkashanian, M

    2015-01-01

    The technical performance and cost effectiveness of white wood pellets (WWP) combustion in comparison to three types of coal namely U.S., Russian and Colombian coals are investigated in this study. Post-combustion capture and storage (CCS) namely with amine FG+, and oxy-fuel with carbon capture and storage (oxy-fuel) are applied to a 650 MW pulverized combustion (PC) plant. The impacts of the Renewable Obligation Certificate (ROC) and carbon price (CP) policy in accelerating the CCS deploymen...

  3. NOx control in large-scale power plant boilers through superfine pulverized coal technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie YIN; Jianxing REN; Dunsong WEI

    2008-01-01

    Superfine pulverized coal technology can effectively reduce NOx emission in coal-fired power plant boilers. It can also economize the cost of the power plant and improve the use of the ash in the flue gas. Superfine pulverized coal technology, which will be widely used in China, includes common superfine pulverized coal technology and superfine pulverized coal reburning technology. The use of superfine pulver-ized coal instead of common coal in large-scale power plants will not only reduce more than 30% of NOx emission but also improve the thermal efficiency of the boiler.

  4. Flat-flame burner studies of pulverized-coal combustion. Experimental results on char reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peck, R.E.; Shi, L.

    1996-12-01

    Structure of laminar, premixed pulverized-coal flames in a 1-D reactor has been studied with emphasis on char reactivity. A 1.1-meter-long tube furnace accommodated high-temperature environments and long residence times for the laminar flames produced by a flat-flame, coal-dust burner. Experiments were conducted at different operating conditions (fuel type/size, fuel-air ratio). Measurements included solid sample composition, major gas species and hydrocarbon species concentrations, and gas- and particle-phase line-of-sight temperatures at different axial locations in flames. Degree of char burnout increased with coal volatiles content and decreased with coal particle size. Combustion in furnace was in oxidizer-deficient environment and higher burnout was achieved as the fuel-air ratio neared stoichiometric. For 0-45 {mu}m particles most of the fixed carbon mass loss occurred within 5 cm of the furnace inlet, and char reaction was slow downstream due to low oxidizer concentrations. Fixed carbon consumption of the 45-90 {mu}m particles generally was slower than for the small particles. About 40%-80% of the fixed carbon was oxidized in the furnace. Primary volatiles mass loss occurred within the first 4.5 cm, and more than 90% of the volatiles were consumed in the flames. The flames stabilized in the furnace produced less CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} in the burnt gas than similar unconfined flames. NO concentrations were found to decrease along the furnace and to increase with decreasing fuel/air ratio. Temperature measurement results showed that gas-phase temperatures were higher than solid-phase temperatures. Temperatures generally decreased with decreasing volatiles content and increased as the equivalence ratio approached one. The results can be used to interpret thermochemical processes occurring in pulverized-coal combustion. (au) 15 refs.

  5. Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Wall Heat Flux in Pulverized-Coal Furnaces and Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun

    A mathematical model of combustion and heat transfer within a cylindrical enclosure firing pulverized coal has been developed and tested against two sets of measured data (one is 1993 WSU/DECO Pilot test data, the other one is the International Flame Research Foundation 1964 Test (Beer, 1964)) and one independent code FURN3D from the Argonne National Laboratory (Ahluwalia and IM, 1992). The model called PILC assumes that the system is a sequence of many well-stirred reactors. A char burnout model combining diffusion to the particle surface, pore diffusion, and surface reaction is employed for predicting the char reaction, heat release, and evolution of char. The ash formation model included relates the ash particle size distribution to the particle size distribution of pulverized coal. The optical constants of char and ash particles are calculated from dispersion relations derived from reflectivity, transmissivity and extinction measurements. The Mie theory is applied to determine the extinction and scattering coefficients. The radiation heat transfer is modeled using the virtual zone method, which leads to a set of simultaneous nonlinear algebraic equations for the temperature field within the furnace and on its walls. This enables the heat fluxes to be evaluated. In comparisons with the experimental data and one independent code, the model is successful in predicting gas temperature, wall temperature, and wall radiative flux. When the coal with greater fineness is burnt, the particle size of pulverized coal has a consistent influence on combustion performance: the temperature peak was higher and nearer to burner, the radiation flux to combustor wall increased, and also the absorption and scattering coefficients of the combustion products increased. The effect of coal particle size distribution on absorption and scattering coefficients and wall heat flux is significant. But there is only a small effect on gas temperature and fuel fraction burned; it is speculated

  6. Experimental study on ignition characteristics of pulverized coal under high-temperature oxygen condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G. W.; Liu, Y. H.; Dong, P.

    2016-08-01

    The high-temperature oxygen ignition technology of pulverized coal, which can replace the oil gun and achieve oil-free pulverized coal ignition by mixing the high- temperature oxygen and the pulverized coal stream directly, was proposed and a relevant ignition experimental system was built. The ignition characteristics of pulverized coal under high-temperature oxygen condition were investigated: the ignition process was described and analyzed, the influence of relevant parameters on the pulverized coal stream ignition were obtained and analyzed. The results showed: when the oxygen heating temperature is over 750 °C, the pulverized coal stream could be ignited successfully by high-temperature oxygen; increasing the pulverized coal concentration, primary air temperature and oxygen volume flow rate or decreasing the primary air velocity is helpful for the ignition and combustion of the pulverized coal stream.

  7. Pulverized coal burnout in blast furnace simulated by a drop tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Shan-Wen [Steel and Aluminum Research and Development Department, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung 812 (China); Chen, Wei-Hsin [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China); Lucas, John A. [School of Engineering of the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Reactions of pulverized coal injection (PCI) in a blast furnace were simulated using a drop tube furnace (DTF) to investigate the burnout behavior of a number of coals and coal blends. For the coals with the fuel ratio ranging from 1.36 to 6.22, the experimental results indicated that the burnout increased with decreasing the fuel ratio, except for certain coals departing from the general trend. One of the coals with the fuel ratio of 6.22 has shown its merit in combustion, implying that the blending ratio of the coal in PCI operation can be raised for a higher coke replacement ratio. The experiments also suggested that increasing blast temperature was an efficient countermeasure for promoting the combustibility of the injected coals. Higher fuel burnout could be achieved when the particle size of coal was reduced from 60-100 to 100-200 mesh. However, once the size of the tested coals was in the range of 200 and 325 mesh, the burnout could not be improved further, resulting from the agglomeration of fine particles. Considering coal blend reactions, the blending ratio of coals in PCI may be adjusted by the individual coal burnout rather than by the fuel ratio. (author)

  8. Gasification in pulverized coal flames. Final report (Part I). Pulverized coal combustion and gasification in a cyclone reactor: experiment and model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhart, J. S.; Laurendeau, N. M.

    1979-05-01

    A unified experimental and analytical study of pulverized coal combustion and low-BTU gasification in an atmospheric cyclone reactor was performed. Experimental results include several series of coal combustion tests and a coal gasification test carried out via fuel-rich combustion without steam addition. Reactor stability was excellent over a range of equivalence ratios from .67 to 2.4 and air flowrates from 60 to 220 lb/hr. Typical carbon efficiencies were 95% for air-rich and stoichiometric tests and 80% for gasification tests. The best gasification results were achieved at an equivalence ratio of 2.0, where the carbon, cold gas and hot gas efficiencies were 83, 45 and 75%, respectively. The corresponding product gas heating value was 70 BTU/scf. A macroscopic model of coal combustion in the cyclone has been developed. Fuel-rich gasification can also be modeled through a gas-phase equilibrium treatment. Fluid mechanics are modeled by a particle force balance and a series combination of a perfectly stirred reactor and a plug flow reactor. Kinetic treatments of coal pyrolysis, char oxidation and carbon monoxide oxidation are included. Gas composition and temperature are checked against equilibrium values. The model predicts carbon efficiency, gas composition and temperature and reactor heat loss; gasification parameters, such as cold and hot gas efficiency and make gas heating value, are calculated for fuel-rich conditions. Good agreement exists between experiment and theory for conditions of this investigation.

  9. The Nano Pulverization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Liuwei Dihuang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Peiyan; FU Zhengyi; SU Yanli; MA Jingjing

    2006-01-01

    The crude drug of Liuwei Dihuang was pulverized to nano particles to improve its bioavailability. The appropriate technique parameters were studied. Paeonol, typical marker of Liuwei Dihuang, was extracted with organic solvent in ultrasonic and its content was determined by HPLC. The appropriate techniques parameters are as follows: rotating speed control 1200 r/min, grinding time control 50min and mass percent concentration control 3.8%. The experimental results show that the average particle diameter is 161.9 nm and the great majority of the plant cell wall is broken into pieces after nano pulverization. The extraction efficiency of paeonol is increased by 23.5%.

  10. Comparison of Charging Characteristics of Polymerized and Pulverized Toners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasushi Hoshino; Tsunenori Nakanishi; Ye Zhou; Hidetaka Ishihara

    2004-01-01

    Toner charge is very important in electrophotographic printing process. Although many studies on toner charging mechanism have been carried out, the mechanism is very complex and the understanding of toner charging characteristics is not yet sufficient. Toner charge distribution is measured by E-SPART (electrical single particle aerodynamic relaxation time) analyzer, which can measure the size and charge of toner. The measured toners are polymerized and pulverized type. Charging is carried out as follows: the toner is mixed with the carrier and the mixture is bottled into the roller, and mixed by rotating the roller. Toner charge dependences on toner wt% are compared between polymerized and pulverized toner.

  11. The pulverization and handling of soft plastics for energy recovery; Soenderdelning och hantering av mjuka plaster foer energiutvinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiklund, Sven-Erik

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of the project has primarily been to investigate suitable equipment (mills, crushers, shredders) for the pulverization of different types of soft plastics from the agricultural sector (large sacks and silage plastic) and the peat extraction industry (plastic covers) with the aim of being able to use the plastic material as fuel in conventional solid waste-fired plants. Many of the mills that are used for pulverizing different types of biofuel have proved not to be particularly suitable for soft plastics. The project has comprised the following: * Contact with a number of plant owners with different types of plants (grate, CFB and BFB boilers) for a review of existing fuel handling and fuel feed equipment as well as the demands they make on the fuel that is to be fired. * Contact with Trio Plast concerning previous tests carried out in connection with the collection, baling, handling, pulverization and combustion of plastics from the agricultural sector. * Contact with mill suppliers for participation in the tests and for feedback on experience gained in connection with the pulverization of soft plastics. * Choice of a suitable plant for practical trials based on contact with the above plant owners as a reference group. * Practical trials in 5 mills with the pulverization of soft plastics from agriculture (silage plastic and large sacks) as well as plastic from peat extraction (plastic covers) and * Evaluation of technical, economic, energy-related and environmental preconditions. Following contact with several owners of solid waste-fired combustion plants, and after hearing their opinions, it became clear that many of them were doubtful about the combustion of plastic. They are primarily afraid of tripping superheaters, etc. Consequently, two plants without superheaters, one in Oestersund and the other in Malmoe, were chosen for the tests. The mills that were tested were: * A SIM mill from WahIkvist, Oedeshoeg Plant - a mobile slow-action pulverizer for

  12. NITRIC OXIDE FORMATION DURING PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data on the overall conversion of coal-nitrogen to NOx were obtained at 1250 K and 1750 K for a residence time of one second. The conversion of coal-nitrogen to NOx decreased monotonically with increasing fuel/oxygen equivalence ratio and decreased slightly with increasing temper...

  13. Influence of wheat kernel physical properties on the pulverizing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziki, Dariusz; Cacak-Pietrzak, Grażyna; Miś, Antoni; Jończyk, Krzysztof; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2014-10-01

    The physical properties of wheat kernel were determined and related to pulverizing performance by correlation analysis. Nineteen samples of wheat cultivars about similar level of protein content (11.2-12.8 % w.b.) and obtained from organic farming system were used for analysis. The kernel (moisture content 10 % w.b.) was pulverized by using the laboratory hammer mill equipped with round holes 1.0 mm screen. The specific grinding energy ranged from 120 kJkg(-1) to 159 kJkg(-1). On the basis of data obtained many of significant correlations (p kernel physical properties and pulverizing process of wheat kernel, especially wheat kernel hardness index (obtained on the basis of Single Kernel Characterization System) and vitreousness significantly and positively correlated with the grinding energy indices and the mass fraction of coarse particles (> 0.5 mm). Among the kernel mechanical properties determined on the basis of uniaxial compression test only the rapture force was correlated with the impact grinding results. The results showed also positive and significant relationships between kernel ash content and grinding energy requirements. On the basis of wheat physical properties the multiple linear regression was proposed for predicting the average particle size of pulverized kernel.

  14. The effect of pulverization on the albedo of lunar rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaert, Marcel Gilles Jozef

    1969-01-01

    Measures of the albedo under full-moon conditions have been made on two samples of very dark rocks, pulverized and sieved so as to obtain powders of different grain size. Below a size of 0.05 mm the albedo suddenly increases, obviously because the individual grains become transparent. By a rough cal

  15. PROJECT OF COAGULANT DISPENSER IN PULVERIZATION AERATOR WITH WIND DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Osuch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are one of most important freshwater ecosystems, playing significant role in functioning of nature and human economy. Swarzędzkie Lake is good example of ecosystem, which in last half-century was exposed to the influence of strong anthropopressure. Direct inflow of sewage with large number of biogens coming to the lake with water of inflows caused distinct disturbance of its functioning. In autumn 2011 restoration begined on Swarzędzkie Lake for reduction of lake trophy and improvement of water quality. For achieving better and quicker effect, simultaneously combination of some methods was applied, among others method of oxygenation of over-bottom water with help of pulverization aerator and method of precise inactivation of phosphorus in water depths. Characterization and analysis of improved coagulant dispenser applying active substance only during work of pulverization aerator is the aim of this thesis. Principle of dispenser work, its structure and location in pulverization aerator were explained. It was stated, that introduction to water a factor initiating process of phosphorus inactivation causes significant reduction of mineral phosphorus in water and size of coagulant dose correlates with intensity of work of pulverization aerator with wind drive.

  16. The effect of pulverization on the albedo of lunar rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaert, Marcel Gilles Jozef

    Measures of the albedo under full-moon conditions have been made on two samples of very dark rocks, pulverized and sieved so as to obtain powders of different grain size. Below a size of 0.05 mm the albedo suddenly increases, obviously because the individual grains become transparent. By a rough

  17. Modelling of pulverized coal boilers: review and validation of on-line simulation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, L.I.; Cortes, C.; Campo, A. [University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain). Centro de Investigacion de Recursos y Consumos Energeticos (CIRCE)

    2005-07-01

    Thermal modelling of large pulverized fuel utility boilers has reached a very remarkable development, through the application of CFD techniques and other advanced mathematical methods. However, due to the computational requirements, on-line monitoring and simulation tools still rely on lumped models and semiempirical approaches, which are often strongly simplified and not well connected with sound theoretical basis. This paper reviews on-line modelling techniques, aiming at the improvement of their capabilities, by means of the revision and modification of conventional lumped models and the integration of off-line CFD predictions. The paper illustrates the coherence of monitoring calculations as well as the validation of the on-line thermal simulator, starting from real operation data from a case-study unit. The outcome is that it is possible to significantly improve the accuracy of on-line calculations provided by conventional models, taking into account the singularities of large combustion systems and coupling offline CFD predictions for selected scenarios.

  18. Pulverized coal injection in blast furnaces at ArcelorMittal Tubarao (AMT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, C.A.; Fujihara, F.K.; Defendi, G.A.; Tauffer Barros, R.J. [ArcelorMittal Tubarao, Serra (Brazil). Ironmaking Dept.

    2008-07-01

    The main factors that influence the performance of coal injected into blast furnaces include coal properties, combustion conditions and the equipment used in the plants for grinding, transportation and injection of coal. This paper focused on coal properties and the main operational control changes in the no.1 blast furnace at ArcelorMittal Tubarao. The furnace was modified from an all coke operation to a pulverized coal injection (pci) operation in order to ensure high productivity, low fuel consumption and longer service life. ArcelorMittal Tubarao has developed a coal buying model based on energy balance and the chemical analysis of ash. In the energy balance, the ratio between the heat supplied by carbon combustion and the heat consumed by the cracking of water and volatiles results in the potential rate of coke replacement by coal. 5 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  19. Pulverized coal torch combustion in a furnace with plasma-coal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Askarova, A. S.; Nagibin, A. O.

    2010-09-01

    Combustion of a pulverized coal torch has been numerically simulated on the basis of the equations of multicomponent turbulent two-phase flows. The results of three-dimensional simulation of conventional and plasma activated coal combustion in a furnace are presented. Computer code Cinar ICE was verified at coal combustion in the experimental furnace with thermal power of 3 MW that was equipped with plasma-fuel system. Operation of the furnace has been studied at the conventional combustion mode and with plasma activation of coal combustion. Influence of plasma activation of combustion on thermotechnical characteristics of the torch and decrease of carbon loss and nitrogen oxides concentration at the furnace outlet has been revealed.

  20. A numerical study of pulverized coal ignition by means of plasma torches in air-coal dust mixture ducts of utility boiler furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belosevic, S.; Sijercic, M.; Stefanovic, P. [Institute for Nuclear Science Vinca, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2008-04-15

    Paper presents selected results of numerical simulation of processes in air-coal dust mixture duct of pulverized coal utility boiler furnace with plasma-system for pulverized coal ignition and combustion stabilization. Application of the system in utility boiler furnaces promises to achieve important savings compared with the use of heavy oil burners. Plasma torches are built in air-coal dust mixture ducts between coal mills and burners. Calculations have been performed for one of rectangular air-coal dust mixture ducts with two opposite plasma torches, used in 210 MWe utility boiler firing pulverized Serbian lignite. The simulations are based on a three-dimensional mathematical model of mass, momentum and heat transfer in reacting turbulent gas-particle flow, specially developed for the purpose. Characteristics of processes in the duct are analyzed in the paper, with respect to the numerical results. The plasma-system thermal effect is discussed as well, regarding corresponding savings of liquid fuel. It has been emphasized that numerical simulation of the processes can be applied in optimization of pulverized coal ignition and combustion stabilization and enables efficient and cost-effective scaling-up procedure from laboratory to industrial scale.

  1. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward K. Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Harun Bilirgen; Hugo Caram

    2006-03-01

    U.S. low rank coals contain relatively large amounts of moisture, with the moisture content of subbituminous coals typically ranging from 15 to 30 percent and that for lignites from 25 and 40 percent. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit, for it can result in fuel handling problems and it affects heat rate, stack emissions and maintenance costs. Theoretical analyses and coal test burns performed at a lignite fired power plant show that by reducing the fuel moisture, it is possible to improve boiler performance and unit heat rate, reduce emissions and reduce water consumption by the evaporative cooling tower. The economic viability of the approach and the actual impact of the drying system on water consumption, unit heat rate and stack emissions will depend critically on the design and operating conditions of the drying system. The present project evaluated the low temperature drying of high moisture coals using power plant waste heat to provide the energy required for drying. Coal drying studies were performed in a laboratory scale fluidized bed dryer to gather data and develop models on drying kinetics. In addition, analyses were carried out to determine the relative costs and performance impacts (in terms of heat rate, cooling tower water consumption and emissions) of drying along with the development of optimized drying system designs and recommended operating conditions.

  2. Dynamic fracturing by successive coseismic loadings leads to pulverization in active fault zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aben, F. M.; Doan, M.-L.; Mitchell, T. M.; Toussaint, R.; Reuschlé, T.; Fondriest, M.; Gratier, J.-P.; Renard, F.

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies show that pulverized rocks observed along large faults can be created by single high-strain rate loadings in the laboratory, provided that the strain rate is higher than a certain pulverization threshold. Such loadings are analogous to large seismic events. In reality, pulverized rocks have been subject to numerous seismic events rather than one single event. Therefore, the effect of successive "milder" high-strain rate loadings on the pulverization threshold is investigated by applying loading conditions below the initial pulverization threshold. Single and successive loading experiments were performed on quartz-monzonite using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus. Damage-dependent petrophysical properties and elastic moduli were monitored by applying incremental strains. Furthermore, it is shown that the pulverization threshold can be reduced by successive "milder" dynamic loadings from strain rates of ~180 s-1 to ~90 s-1. To do so, it is imperative that the rock experiences dynamic fracturing during the successive loadings prior to pulverization. Combined with loading conditions during an earthquake rupture event, the following generalized fault damage zone structure perpendicular to the fault will develop: furthest from the fault plane, there is a stationary outer boundary that bounds a zone of dynamically fractured rocks. Closer to the fault, a pulverization boundary delimits a band of pulverized rock. Consecutive seismic events will cause progressive broadening of the band of pulverized rocks, eventually creating a wider damage zone observed in mature faults.

  3. Stabilization of pulverized coal combustion by plasma assist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, M.; Maruta, K.; Takeda, K.; Solonenko, O.P.; Sakashita, M.; Nakamura, M. [Akita Prefectural University, Akita (Japan). Faculty of System Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    Ignition and stabilization of pulverized coal combustion by plasma assist is investigated with a 10 kW plasma torch for three different kinds of coal, such as high, medium and low volatile matter coals. Not only high volatile matter coal but also low quality coal can be successfully burned with plasma assist. Research for volatile component of coal shows that a higher temperature field is necessary to extract the volatile matter from inferior coal, while their compositions are almost the same.

  4. Modeling of Pulverized Coal Combustion in Cement Rotary Kiln

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, based on analysis of the chemical and physical processes of clinker formation, a heat flux function was introduced to take account of the thermal effect of clinker formation. Combining the models of gas-solid flow, heat and mass transfer, and pulverized coal combustion, a set of mathematical models for a full-scale cement rotary kiln were established. In terms of commercial CFD code (FLUENT), the distributions of gas velocity, gas temperature, and gas components in a cement rot...

  5. Development of automobile brake lining using pulverized cow hooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina C. BALA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos has been used for so long as automobile brake lining material because of its good physical and chemical properties. However, due to the health hazard associated with its handling, it has lost favour and several alternative materials are being increasingly used. Asbestos-free brake lining was developed in this work using pulverized cow hooves along with epoxy resin, barium sulphate, graphite and aluminium oxide. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of cow hooves, which are largely discarded as waste materials to replace asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Samples of brake linings were produced using compressive moulding in which the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The results obtained showed that proper bonding was achieved as the percentage by weight of epoxy resin increased and percentage by weight of pulverized cow hooves decreased. The hardness, compressive strength, coefficient of friction, water and oil absorption, relative density and wear rate of the brake linings were determined and compared with existing brake lining properties. The result indicates that pulverized cow hooves can be used as brake lining material for automobiles.

  6. Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Maja Bøg; Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is suggested as one of the possible, promising technologies for capturing CO2 from power plants. The concept of oxy-fuel combustion is removal of nitrogen from the oxidizer to carry out the combustion process in oxygen and, in most concepts, recycled flue gas to lower the flame...... temperature. The flue gas produced thus consists primarily of carbon dioxide and water. Much research on the different aspects of an oxy-fuel power plant has been performed during the last decade. Focus has mainly been on retrofits of existing pulverized-coal-fired power plant units. Green-field plants which...... provide additional options for improvement of process economics are however likewise investigated. Of particular interest is the change of the combustion process induced by the exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor for nitrogen as diluent. This paper reviews the published knowledge on the oxy-fuel...

  7. Comparative study of semi-industrial-scale flames of pulverized coals and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballester, J.; Barroso, J.; Cerecedo, L.M.; Ichaso, R. [University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2005-05-01

    Three p.f. flames have been studied in a semi-industrial furnace, using different fuels: a bituminous coal, a lignite, and a biomass (oak sawdust). The operating conditions were exactly the same for the two coals, and very similar to those for the biornass flame. The objective was to evaluate the impact of differences in fuel composition on flame characteristics, through measurement of the spatial distribution of the main parameters: temperature and concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons, and N{sub 2}O. The higher volatiles content in the lignite leads to higher temperatures and more intense combustion than the bituminous coal. Nevertheless, as might be expected, more marked differences are observed between the flames from the biomass and coals. The much higher volatiles content of the wood results in a more intense flame close to the burner, as indicated by visual observations and by concentrations of unburnt gases (CO and unburnt hydrocarbons) in that zone. It is remarkable that the combustion zone extends further for the biomass; while unburnt species were very low for the coals at an axial distance of 1 m, high values were detected for the pulverized oak. The measurements suggest that two stages can be distinguished in the biomass flame: a zone of intense combustion close to the burner, followed by a second region where the large biomass particles gradually devolatilize and are consumed.

  8. Nitric oxide formation mechanisms, and their computation in pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flour, I.; Dal Secco, S.

    1995-10-01

    This report consists of a review of several articles on nitric oxide emissions from coal-fired furnace. Three mechanisms have been identified, depending on the initial nitrogen sources and the composition of specific flame regions: - thermal-NO, formed from molecular nitrogen in the combustion products region at high temperature, - prompt-NO, formed from molecular nitrogen in the oxidation zone, - fuel-NO, formed from the fuel-bound nitrogen, partly during the coal pyrolysis (homogeneous reactions) and partly through reactions on the surface of the particle. In the combustion of pulverized coal, the fuel-NO mechanism accounts for the main source of nitric oxide formed. Detailed schemes of those reactions - when available - are too much complex to be used in tri-dimensional computation of pollutant emissions in furnaces of practical interest. According to the literature, reduced schemes seem to have been applied most frequently. The reaction schemes for the fuel-NO and the prompt-NO are based on the results of De Soete. For the homogeneous reactions, the intermediate species formed is assumed to be mainly HCN, leading to both formation and reduction reactions for NO, depending on the flame region. The formation of nitric oxide from the char-bound nitrogen, through heterogeneous reactions on the surface on the particle, is modelled by assuming the char-bound nitrogen to be released as HCN, with a rate proportional to char combustion. The released char nitrogen then reacts through the same path as the HCN released during pyrolysis. In the thermal-NO mechanism, nitric oxide is formed from molecular nitrogen, through the extended Zeldovich mechanism. This scheme contains radical species (O, N), which concentrations are assumed to be determined from the stationary condition or the equilibrium assumption. However, in spite of the use of reduced schemes for NO formation, the modelling of the important effect of the turbulent fluctuations has to be taken into account.

  9. Combustion characteristics of pulverized coal and air/gas premixed flame in a double swirl combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, M.M. [Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Education

    2009-07-01

    An experimental work was performed to investigate the co-firing of pulverized coal and premixed gas/air streams in a double swirl combustor. The results showed that the NOx emissions are affected by the relative rates of thermal NOx formation and destruction via the pyrolysis of the fuel-N species in high temperature fuel-rich zones. Various burner designs were tested in order to vary the temperature history and the residence time across both coal and gas flames inside the furnace. It was found that by injecting the coal with a gas/air mixture as a combined central jet surrounded by a swirled air stream, a double flame envelope develops with high temperature fuel-rich conditions in between the two reaction zones such that the pyrolysis reactions to N{sub 2} are accelerated. A further reduction in the minimum NOx emissions, as well as in the minimum CO concentrations, was reported for the case where the coal particles are fed with the gas/air mixture in the region between the two swirled air streams. On the other hand, allocating the gas/air mixture around the swirled air-coal combustion zone provides an earlier contact with air and retards the NOx reduction mechanism in such a way that the elevated temperatures around the coal particles allow higher overall NOx emissions. The downstream impingement of opposing air jets was found more efficient than the impinging of particle non-laden premixed flames for effective NOx reduction. In both cases, there is an upstream flow from the stagnation region to the coal primary combustion region, but with the case of air impingement, the hot fuel-rich zone develops earlier. The optimum configuration was found by impinging all jets of air and coal-gas/air mixtures that pronounced minimum NOx and CO concentrations of 310 and 480ppm, respectively.

  10. Experimental study on the angle of repose of pulverized coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Jiansheng Zhang; Shi Yang; Hai Zhang; Hairui Yang; Guangxi Yue

    2010-01-01

    An experimental study on the angle of repose(AoR)of pulverized coal with different particle sizes and different moisture contents(MC)was conducted.Three different measurement methods,free-base piling,fixed-base piling and sliding,were used.The data were analyzed by one-way and two-way analysis of variance.The results showed that the AoRs of pulverized coal with particle sizes smaller than 150 μm were in the range of 30-50°.The characterization of the flowability of pulverized coal was some cohesiveness or true cohesiveness.The increase of MC will increase AoR and thus decrease the flowability of the powder.However,the particle size effect is bifurcated.Below a critical size,the decrease of particle size decreases the flowability; while above the critical size,the decrease of particle size increases the flowability.It was found that the value of the critical size strongly depends on the powder density.Moreover,the AoR dependence on particle size could be linked with the Geldart's particle classification.The critical size at the turning point is on the boundary between Group A and Group B in Geldart's classification diagram.Based on the experimental results,there is no significant cross interaction between particle size and MC.The AoRs measured by free-base method and fixed-base method are close,but both remarkably smaller than that measured by the sliding method.

  11. A new approach to study fast pyrolysis of pulverized coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Yao, J.; Lin, W. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Chemical Metallurgy Fast Reactions Laboratory, Beijing, BJ (China)

    2002-07-01

    An experimental study of the effects of varying bed temperature and coal particle size on the fast pyrolysis of pulverized coal in a downer reactor is described. A Datong bituminous coal (particle size 0.5 and 0.34 mm) was studied at temperatures ranging from 592{sup o} C to 720{sup o} C. The experiments were conducted in a batch apparatus. An on-line gas analyzer was used to measure carbon dioxide release curves. The experimental data were used to develop a pyrolysis model that quantifies the fast heating of fine coal particles. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Amphiphilic semi-interpenetrating polymer networks using pulverized rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Nima

    Scrap rubber materials provide a significant challenge to either reuse or safe disposal. Every year, millions of tires are discarded to landfills in the United States, consuming a staggering amount of land space, creating a high risk for large fires, breeding mosquitoes that spread diseases, and wasting the planet's natural resources. This situation cannot be sustained. The challenge of reusing scrap rubber materials is mainly due to the crosslinked structure of vulcanized rubber that prevent them from melting and further processing for reuse. The most feasible recycling approach is believed to be a process in which the vulcanized rubber is first pulverized into a fine powder and then incorporated into new products. The production of fine rubber particles is generally accomplished through the use of a cryogenic process that is costly. Therefore, development of a cost effective technology that utilizes a large quantity of the scrap rubber materials to produce high value added materials is an essential element in maintaining a sustainable solution to rubber recycling. In this research, a cost effective pulverization process, solid state shear extrusion (SSSE), was modified and used for continuous pulverization of the rubber into fine particles. In the modified SSSE process, pulverization takes place at high compressive shear forces and a controlled temperature. Furthermore, an innovative particle modification process was developed to enhance the chemical structure and surface properties of the rubber particles for manufacturing of high value added products. Modification of rubber particles was accomplished through the polymerization of a hydrophilic monomer mixture within the intermolecular structure of the hydrophobic rubber particles. The resulting composite particles are considered as amphiphilic particulate phase semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (PPSIPNs). The modified rubber particles are water dispersible and suitable for use in a variety of aqueous media

  13. Pulverized coal injection on the blast furnaces at U.S. Steel Kosice, S.R.O.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, P.; McCoy, M.; Szalona, T. [United States Steel Corp., Kosice (Slovakia)

    2008-07-01

    United States Steel Corporation at Kosice built a new modern PCI facility that meets environmental criteria and provides a replacement for financially demanding metallurgical coke with a less expensive pulverized coal. The pulverized coal injection (PCI) technology was applied to blast furnaces no. 2 and 3 in 1993 and has resulted in the following improvements: production has increased an average of 400 to 500 tons/day; pig iron production economics have improved not only because of replacing the metallurgical coke with PCI, but also due to a decrease in the total fuel rate for producing 1 ton of hot metal; blast furnace gas utilization increased with ETA CO values around 48 per cent; and the blast furnace operation is more stable by regular burden descend. The most distinguished change has been in the way raw materials are charged to the furnaces. This paper outlined the coal quality requirements for PCI and presented a basic technological description of PCI preparation. The operational experience of the 2 blast furnaces were presented for the period of 2000 to 2007. Recommendations for PCI rate increase were also presented. It was concluded that using PCI technology in blast furnace no. 1 may bring the greatest economic efficiency for United Steel Corporation at Kosice. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  14. An investigation on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from pulverized coal combustion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisupati; Wasco; Scaroni

    2000-05-29

    Results from a series of tests conducted to study the emission of polynuclear or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from bench-scale and small industrial, water-tube boiler are discussed. A Middle Kittanning, and Upper Freeport seam coals were used in the study. Samples were extracted from the reactor outlet and from the inlet and outlet sides of the research boiler's (RB) baghouse using EPA promulgated methods.Only acenaphthene and fluoranthene were detected in down-fired combustor (DFC) samples. In addition to these two, naphthalene was detected in the RB samples. Emission factors ranged from 80 to 320 &mgr;g/kg of fuel fired. Although there were minor trends in the emissions' data, given the reproducibility limits for PAH compounds, no significant differences were found in the emissions with respect to the fuel type or form (pulverized coal (PC) vs. coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF), and raw vs. cleaned coal) and firing conditions (high and low excess air). The PAH emissions showed a decrease with increase in the firing rate.A bench-scale drop-tube reactor (DTR) was used to study the effects of temperature and residence time on PAH formation. The results revealed near constant PAH concentrations in the solid-phase samples, while the PAH concentrations in the vapor-phase samples increased as a function of temperature. At a temperature of around 1300 degrees C, the rate of PAH formation was exceeded by the rate of PAH oxidation, and PAH concentrations in the vapor phase began to decrease.

  15. The enrichment behavior of natural radionuclides in pulverized oil shale-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-12-01

    The oil shale industry is the largest producer of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) waste in Estonia. Approximately 11-12 million tons of oil shale containing various amounts of natural radionuclides is burned annually in the Narva oil shale-fired power plants, which accounts for approximately 90% of Estonian electricity production. The radionuclide behavior characteristics change during the fuel combustion process, which redistributes the radionuclides between different ash fractions. Out of 24 operational boilers in the power plants, four use circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology and twenty use pulverized fuel (PF) technology. Over the past decade, the PF boilers have been renovated, with the main objective to increase the efficiency of the filter systems. Between 2009 and 2012, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in four PF energy blocks were replaced with novel integrated desulphurization technology (NID) for the efficient removal of fly ash and SO2 from flue gases. Using gamma spectrometry, activity concentrations and enrichment factors for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides as well as (40)K were measured and analyzed in different PF boiler ash fractions. The radionuclide activity concentrations in the ash samples increased from the furnace toward the back end of the flue gas duct. The highest values in different PF boiler ash fractions were in the last field of the ESP and in the NID ash, where radionuclide enrichment factors were up to 4.2 and 3.3, respectively. The acquired and analyzed data on radionuclide activity concentrations in different PF boiler ashes (operating with an ESP and a NID system) compared to CFB boiler ashes provides an indication that changes in the fuel (oil shale) composition and boiler working parameters, as well as technological enhancements in Estonian oil shale fired power plants, have had a combined effect on the distribution patterns of natural radionuclides

  16. Feasibility of Pulverized Oyster Shell as a Cementing Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou-Fu Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research intends to study the cementing potential of pulverized oyster shell, rich in calcium, when mixed with fly ash and soil. Cylindrical compacted soil and cubic lime specimens with different proportions of the shells and fly ash are made to study the strength variance. Soil, which is classified as CL in the USCS system, commercialized pulverized oyster shell, F-type fly ash, and lime are mixed in different weight percentages. Five sample groups are made to study the compressive strength of soil and lime specimens, respectively. The lime cubes are made with 0.45 W/B ratio and the cylindrical soils are compacted under the standard Procter compaction process with 20% moisture content. The results show that increment of shell quantity result to lower strength on both the soil and lime specimens. In a 56-day curing, the compressive strength of the lime cubes containing fly ash increases evidently while those carrying the shell get little progress in strength. The soil specimens containing fly ash gradually gain strength as curing proceeds. It suggests that mixtures of the shell and fly ash do not process any Pozzolanic reaction nor help to raise the unconfined strength of the compacted soil through the curing.

  17. Impact of nongray multiphase radiation in pulverized coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Somesh; Wu, Bifen; Modest, Michael; Zhao, Xinyu

    2016-11-01

    Detailed modeling of radiation is important for accurate modeling of pulverized coal combustion. Because of high temperature and optical properties, radiative heat transfer from coal particles is often more dominant than convective heat transfer. In this work a multiphase photon Monte Carlo radiation solver is used to investigate and to quantify the effect of nongray radiation in a laboratory-scale pulverized coal flame. The nongray radiative properties of carrier phase (gas) is modeled using HITEMP database. Three major species - CO, CO2, and H2O - are treated as participating gases. Two optical models are used to evaluate radiative properties of coal particles: a formulation based on the large particle limit and a size-dependent correlation. Effect of scattering due to coal particle is also investigated using both isotropic scattering and anisotropic scattering using a Henyey-Greenstein function. Lastly, since the optical properties of ash is very different from that of coal, the effect of ash content on the radiative properties of coal particle is examined. This work used Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation Grant Number ACI-1053575.

  18. Fuel nitrogen conversion in solid fuel fired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Glarborg; A.D. Jensen; J.E. Johnsson [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Understanding of the chemical and physical processes that govern formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in combustion of solid fuels continues to be a challenge. There are still unresolved issues that may limit the potential of primary measures for NOx control. In most solid fuel fired systems oxidation of fuel-bound nitrogen constitutes the dominating source of nitrogen oxides. The paper reviews some fundamental aspects of fuel nitrogen conversion in these systems, emphasizing combustion of coal since most previous work deal with this fuel. Results on biomass combustion are also discussed. Homogeneous and heterogeneous pathways in fuel NO formation and destruction are discussed and the effect of fuel characteristics, devolatilization conditions and combustion mode on the oxidation selectivity towards NO and N{sub 2} is evaluated. Results indicate that even under idealized conditions, such as a laminar pulverized-fuel flame, the governing mechanisms for fuel nitrogen conversion are not completely understood. Light gases, tar, char and soot may all be important vehicles for fuel-N conversion, with their relative importance depending on fuel rank and reaction conditions. Oxygen availability and fuel-nitrogen level are major parameters determining the oxidation selectivity of fuel-N towards NO and N{sub 2}, but also the ability of char and soot to reduce NO is potentially important. The impact of fuel/oxidizer mixing pattern on NO formation appears to be less important in solid-fuel flames than in homogeneous flames. 247 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Numerical simulation of the influence of stationary louver and coal particle size on distribution of pulverized coal to the feed ducts of a power plant burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Goran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key requirements related to successful utilization of plasma technology as an oil-free backup system for coal ignition and combustion stabilization in power plant boilers is provision of properly regulated pulverized coal distribution to the feed ducts leading the fuel mixture to a burner. Proper regulation of coal distribution is deemed essential for achieving an adequate pulverized coal concentration in the zone where thermal plasma is being introduced. The said can be efficiently achieved by installation of stationary louver in the coal-air mixing duct ahead of the feed ducts of a burner. The paper addresses numerical simulation of a two-phase flow of air-pulverized coal mixture in the mixing ducts, analyzing the effects of particle size distribution on pulverized coal distribution to the burner feed ducts. Numerical simulation was performed using the FLUENT 6.3 commercial code and related poly-dispersed flow module, based on the PSI-CELL approach. Numerical experiments have been performed assuming a mono-dispersed solid phase with particle diameter ranging from 45 mm to 1200 mm. Distance between the louver blades and the resulting effect on the flow profile was analyzed as well. Results obtained indicate that the size of coal particles considerably influence the overall solid phase distribution. While fine particles, with diameters at the lower end of the above specified range, almost fully follow the streamlines of the continuous phase, coarser particles, which hit the louver blades, deflect towards the thermal plasma zone. In this manner, a desired phase concentration in the considered zone can be reached. For the said reason, installation of stationary louver have been deemed a very efficient way to induce phase separation, primarily due to more pronounced impact of the installed louver on discrete phase flow then the impact on the flow of the continuous phase.

  20. Combustion and economics of coal slurry fuels: a look at coal-fuel oil slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, T.; Matsuoka, H.

    1984-01-01

    With the aim of reducing dependence on petroleum, research has been going ahead into the development of various alternative fuels. Of these, coal slurry fuels are regarded as being first in line for commercialization. The authors discuss the combustion of coal-oil fuels. The combustion of fuel oil, pulverized coal and coal-water slurry is also examined. In each case, combustion properties and associated problems are discussed. Finally, the economics of these fuels are examined and trends in research and development surveyed. 23 references.

  1. Application of the NOx Reaction Model for Development of Low-NOx Combustion Technology for Pulverized Coals by Using the Gas Phase Stoichiometric Ratio Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Yamamoto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously proposed the gas phase stoichiometric ratio (SRgas as an index to evaluate NOx concentration in fuel-rich flames. The SRgas index was defined as the amount of fuel required for stoichiometric combustion/amount of gasified fuel, where the amount of gasified fuel was the amount of fuel which had been released to the gas phase by pyrolysis, oxidation and gasification reactions. In the present study we found that SRgas was a good index to consider the gas phase reaction mechanism in fuel-rich pulverized coal flames. When SRgas < 1.0, NOx concentration was strongly influenced by the SRgas value. NOx concentration was also calculated by using a reaction model. The model was verified for various coals, particle diameters, reaction times, and initial oxygen concentrations. The most important reactions were gas phase NOx reduction reactions by hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon concentration was estimated based on SRgas. We also investigated the ratio as an index to develop a new low-NOx combustion technology for pulverized coals. We examined the relation between local SRgas distribution in the fuel-rich region in the low-NOx flame and NOx emissions at the furnace exit, by varying burner structures. The relationship between local SRgas value and local NOx concentration was also examined. When a low-NOx type burner was used, the value of SRgas in the flame was readily decreased. When the local SRgas value was the same, it was difficult to influence the local NOx concentration by changing the burner structure. For staged combustion, the most important item was to design the burner structure and arrangement so that SRgas could be lowered as much as possible just before mixing with staged air.

  2. Assessment against Experiments of Devolatilization and Char Burnout Models for the Simulation of an Aerodynamically Staged Swirled Low-NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Torresi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the next few years, even though there will be a continuous growth of renewables and a loss of the share of fossil fuel, energy production will still be strongly dependent on fossil fuels. It is expected that coal will continue to play an important role as a primary energy source in the next few decades due to its lower cost and higher availability with respect to other fossil fuels. However, in order to improve the sustainability of energy production from fossil fuels, in terms of pollutant emissions and energy efficiency, the development of advanced investigation tools is crucial. In particular, computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations are needed in order to support the design process of low emission burners. Even if in the literature several combustion models can be found, the assessment of their performance against detailed experimental measurements on full-scale pulverized coal burners is lacking. In this paper, the numerical simulation of a full-scale low-NO x , aerodynamically-staged, pulverized coal burner for electric utilities tested in the 48 MW th plant at the Combustion Environment Research Centre (CCA - Centro Combustione e Ambiente of Ansaldo Caldaie S.p.A. in Gioia del Colle (Italy is presented. In particular, this paper is focused on both devolatilization and char burnout models. The parameters of each model have been set according to the coal characteristics without any tuning based on the experimental data. Thanks to a detailed description of the complex geometry of the actual industrial burner and, in particular, of the pulverized coal inlet distribution (considering the entire primary air duct, in order to avoid any unrealistic assumption, a correct selection of both devolatilization and char burnout models and a selection of suited parameters for the NO x modeling, accurate results have been obtained in terms of NO x formation. Since the model parameters have been evaluated a priori, the numerical approach proposed

  3. Industrial Experimental Study and Application of Plasma Pulverized Coal Ignition Burner%等离子煤粉点火燃烧器工业性试验研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔凤誉; 张玉周

    2001-01-01

    This paper systematically explains the content and method of industrial experiment in plasma pulverized coal ignition burner analyzes the experiment results,and puts forward the two-parameter concentration of pulverized coal and fuel ratio combustion regulation-control of plasma pulverized coal ignition burner.On the basis of the industrial experiment,Shandong Yantai Coal-fired Power Plant has realized successfully the boiler ignition without oil aid by using plasma pulverized coal ignition burner for the first time.%阐释等离子煤粉点火燃烧器工业试验的内容及方法,并对其试验结果进行分析。提出等离子煤粉点火燃烧器燃烧调整的双参数煤粉浓度、燃功比控制法。在对等离子煤粉点火燃烧器工业试验基础上,2000年2月15日,山东烟台发电厂利用等离子煤粉点火燃烧器首次实现了机组无油点火。

  4. EVALUATION OF BIOMSS AND COAL SLURRIES AS FUEL-LEAN REBURN FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijay K. Sethi

    2006-11-06

    Breen Energy Solutions (BES) and Western Research Institute (WRI) tested biomass and coal slurries and other carbonaceous substances such as fuel oil/water emulsions as NO{sub x} reburn fuel in the combustion test facility (CTF). The overall goal of the project was to determine the NO{sub x} reduction potential of various biomass and coal reburn fuels, and to identify the optimum conditions for NO{sub x} control. Specific objectives were to inject biomass, biosolids, coal, biomass/coal, and biosolids/coal slurries into the upper furnace of CTF and determine the resulting NO{sub x} reductions and CO emissions, to identify optimum injection rates and injection locations for these reburn fuels, and to install a reaction zone stabilizer device in CTF and determine its effectiveness in reducing CO and further reducing NO{sub x}. Combustion tests achieved 40% to 60% NO{sub x} reductions with 10% to 20% reburn fuel heat input. The project has demonstrated the technical feasibility of in-situ gasification of slurries including pulverized coal and 75% pulverized coal/25% biosolids by weight, and the ability to utilize the gasification products as NO{sub x} reburn fuel. This work also demonstrated that pulverized coal/water slurries can be successfully gasified and used as reburn fuels, and there is no need for use of micronized coal. Very good burnout of the pulverized coal slurry was demonstrated in this work. Similarly, the project has demonstrated the technical feasibility of in-situ gasification of oil/water emulsion and the ability to utilize the associated gasification products as NO{sub x} reburn fuel.

  5. Effect of CO2 gasification reaction on oxycombustion of pulverized coal char.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Alejandro (Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin, Colombia); Hecht, Ethan S.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Haynes, Brian S. (University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia)

    2010-07-01

    For oxy-combustion with flue gas recirculation, as is commonly employed, it is recognized that elevated CO{sub 2} levels affect radiant transport, the heat capacity of the gas, and other gas transport properties. A topic of widespread speculation has concerned the effect of the CO{sub 2} gasification reaction with coal char on the char burning rate. To give clarity to the likely impact of this reaction on the oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized coal char, the Surface Kinetics in Porous Particles (SKIPPY) code was employed for a range of potential CO{sub 2} reaction rates for a high-volatile bituminous coal char particle (130 {micro}m diameter) reacting in several O{sub 2} concentration environments. The effects of boundary layer chemistry are also examined in this analysis. Under oxygen-enriched conditions, boundary layer reactions (converting CO to CO{sub 2}, with concomitant heat release) are shown to increase the char particle temperature and burning rate, while decreasing the O{sub 2} concentration at the particle surface. The CO{sub 2} gasification reaction acts to reduce the char particle temperature (because of the reaction endothermicity) and thereby reduces the rate of char oxidation. Interestingly, the presence of the CO{sub 2} gasification reaction increases the char conversion rate for combustion at low O{sub 2} concentrations, but decreases char conversion for combustion at high O{sub 2} concentrations. These calculations give new insight into the complexity of the effects from the CO{sub 2} gasification reaction and should help improve the understanding of experimentally measured oxy-fuel char combustion and burnout trends in the literature.

  6. Design and manufacture of the dry pulverizing{center_dot}mixing device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Hoo; Yoon, Ji Sup; Kim, Young Hwan; Jin, Jae Hyoun [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    The dry pulverizing/mixing device is used to deal with the spent fuels for the safe disposal. The separated pellets from hulls by a slitting device are put and oxidized from UO{sub 2} solid pellet to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder in the device. The device have been developed based on a voloxidation method which is one of several dry de-cladding methods. We have benchmarked dry de-cladding methods, analyzed applicability to the advanced spent fuel management process, integrated and compared several configuration, and finally derived detailed specifications proper to requirements for the device. Also, thermal characteristics of the device such as thermal stress and strain have been analyzed by the commercial software, I-DEAS, and the reliability of the results have been verified by the KOLAS(KOrea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme). The UO{sub 2} solid pellets are put in the device which has a capacity of 20 kgHM per a batch, heated up about 600 .deg. C in the air environment. Then, the UO{sub 2} solid pellets are oxidized into the U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder, and the powder is collected in a special vessel. The device has been designed and developed as follows: the multi-staged fine hole meshes are used to reduce the size of the powder gradually, heat and air(oxygen) are supplied continuously to reduce the reaction time, and slight vibration effect are applied to collect powder cling to the device.

  7. Study on the NOx release rule along the boiler during pulverized coal combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Jing; ZHANG Zhongxiao; LI Ruiyang

    2007-01-01

    Numerical simulation and experimental study on NOx release along the boiler during pulverized coal combustion have been conducted.With the increase of temperature the NOx emission increased and the peak value of NOx release moved forward.But when the temperature increased to a certain degree,NOx emission began to reduce.NOx emission increased with the increase of nitrogen content of coal.The peak value of NOx release moved backwards with the increase of coal rank.NOx emission increased obviously with the increase of stoichiometric ratio.There existed a critical average diameter of the pulverized coal (de).If d≤dc,NOx emission reduced with the decrease of pulverized coal size.If d>de,NOx emission reduced with the increase of the pulverized coal size.The results showed that the simulation results are in agreement with the experimental results for concentration distribution of NOx along the axis of the furnace.

  8. Comparison of efficacy of pulverization and sterile paper point techniques for sampling root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kenny T; Torabinejad, Mahmoud; Shabahang, Shahrokh; Retamozo, Bonnie; Aprecio, Raydolfo M; Chen, Jung-Wei

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of the pulverization and sterile paper point techniques for sampling root canals using 5.25% NaOCl/17% EDTA and 1.3% NaOCl/MTAD (Dentsply, Tulsa, OK) as irrigation regimens. Single-canal extracted human teeth were decoronated and infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Roots were randomly assigned to 2 irrigation regimens: group A with 5.25% NaOCl/17% EDTA (n = 30) and group B with 1.3% NaOCl/MTAD (n = 30). After chemomechanical debridement, bacterial samplings were taken using sterile paper points and pulverized powder of the apical 5 mm root ends. The sterile paper point technique did not show growth in any samples. The pulverization technique showed growth in 24 of the 60 samples. The Fisher exact test showed significant differences between sampling techniques (P technique showed no difference between irrigation regimens. However, 17 of the 30 roots in group A and 7 of the 30 roots in group B resulted in growth as detected by pulverization technique. Data showed a significant difference between irrigation regimens (P = .03) in pulverization technique. The pulverization technique was more efficacious in detecting viable bacteria. Furthermore, this technique showed that 1.3% NaOCl/MTAD regimen was more effective in disinfecting root canals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Liquefaction behavior of finely pulverized coal. Chobifunsaitan no ekika hanno kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Y.; Kamo, T.; Miki, K.; Yamamoto, Y. (National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1992-11-05

    The reaction process of coal liquefaction which uses ultrafine pulverized coal having a particle diameter of several micrometers was investigated in order to improve the catalytic efficiency between coal and catalyst. Two kinds of samples were prepared by crushing Taiheiyo-coal into less than 100-mesh by usual technique and further pulverizing the crushed coal to several [mu]m. When iron oxide catalyst, sulfur and tetralin solvent were used, pulverizing does not bring a significant improvement in conversion rate and the yield of liquefaction oil capable of being distillated. This is considered to be due to the coagulation between fine particles before or during reaction, suggesting the importance of selecting reaction conditions etc. In the case of pulverized coal, hydrogen consumption is high and hydrogenation of heavy fractions such as SRC proceeds. When liquefaction-oil circulating solvent and red mud-sulfur-based catalyst were used, gas yield was low in pulverized coal, but no significant improvement was not shown in oil yield of liquefaction oil. The conversion rate and SRC yield were somewhat high in the case of pulverized coal. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Numerical analysis of loads effect on combustion performance and NO{sub x} emissions of a 220 MW pulverized coal boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Weihong; Blasiak, Wlodzimierz [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Energy and Furnace Technology; Jankowski, Radoslaw; Kotecki, Michal; Szewczyk, Dariusz [Industrial Combustion Systems (ICS) Company, Poznan (Poland); Brzdekiewicz, Artur [Remak-Rozruch SA, Opole (Poland)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents numerical study on the combustion performance and NO{sub x} emissions of a 220 MW pulverized coal boiler. Three different loads have been simulated with combusting coal, 200, 170 and 140 MW, respectively. In order to get as precise as possible numerical analysis results, two-step simulation method has been adopted in this work, namely, air supply system simulation and furnace simulation. After air supply system simulation, the results have been taken as the initial and boundary conditions for furnace simulation. The comparison between the measured values and predicted results from 200 MW case shows much better agreement. According to the simulation results, the adopted two-step simulation method is reasonable and suitable for predicting the characters of the flow and combustion process. It is concluded that the distributions of temperature, O{sub 2} and CO concentration inside furnace with different loads shows good similarly. The total NOx emissions decreased with the boiler load reducing, and fuel NO{sub x} has the same trend as total NO{sub x}, and fuel NO{sub x} account for about 66% in total NO{sub x} in all the three cases. More important, thermal NO{sub x} slowly decreased with the rise of boiler load. More detailed results presented in this paper enhance the understanding of combustion processes and complex flow patterns of front-wall pulverized coal boilers.

  11. Solid fuels as engine fuels. Kiinteiden polttoaineiden kaeyttoemahdollisuudet moottoripolttoaineena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakkilainen, A.; Nylund, N.-O.

    1986-07-01

    The use of solid fuels as engine fuels is discussed in this literature study. The present liquid fuel engines require extensive and expensive changes to overcome difficulties due to solid fuels. The solid particles result in increasing wear in the engine, in the fuel feed system and everywhere, where the particles come into touch with moving surfaces. The rate of wear has been as high as 100-fold compared to that caused by liquid fuels. Large medium-fast or slow diesel engines seem to meet best the requirements set by solid fuels. The experiment carried out by the Swiss Sulzer Engine Works are the most promising engine experiments carried out so far. In Sulzer's experiments, coal-water slurries containing 50-70 wt-% coal have been used as the fuel. Burning has been rather complete, but wear and the high price of the coal-water slurry seem to be unsolvable problems. The development work on enines is still at an early stage and a solid fuel engine will not be manufactured in series in the near future. The pulverous fuel of the future will be a mixture of some liquid and of some solid fuel powder, and hence the handling-technical problems will be considerably smaller than using powder only. Powder manufacture with the present techniques is energy-wasting. Most engine experiments have been carried out on on coal slurries with < 30 ..mu..m particle size. It is not economic to produce such powders at present.

  12. Analysis of Chemical Reaction Kinetics Behavior of Nitrogen Oxide During Air-staged Combustion in Pulverized Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Xia Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Because the air-staged combustion technology is one of the key technologies with low investment running costs and high emission reduction efficiency for the pulverized boiler, it is important to reveal the chemical reaction kinetics mechanism for developing various technologies of nitrogen oxide reduction emissions. At the present work, a three-dimensional mesh model of the large-scale four corner tangentially fired boiler furnace is established with the GAMBIT pre-processing of the FLUENT software. The partial turbulent premixed and diffusion flame was simulated for the air-staged combustion processing. Parameters distributions for the air-staged and no the air-staged were obtained, including in-furnace flow field, temperature field and nitrogen oxide concentration field. The results show that the air-staged has more regular velocity field, higher velocity of flue gas, higher turbulence intensity and more uniform temperature of flue gas. In addition, a lower negative pressure zone and lower O2 concentration zone is formed in the main combustion zone, which is conducive to the NO of fuel type reduced to N2, enhanced the effect of NOx reduction. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 5th November 2015; Revised: 14th January 2016; Accepted: 16th January 2016  How to Cite: Zhang, J.X., Zhang, J.F. (2016. Analysis of Chemical Reaction Kinetics Behavior of Nitrogen Oxide During Air-staged Combustion in Pulverized Boiler. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (1: 100-108. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.1.431.100-108 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.1.431.100-108

  13. Physicochemical characterization of pulverized phyllite rocks to geopolymer resin synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, L.G.A. [Instituto Militar de Enegenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pires, E.F.C. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, R.A.; Silva, F.J. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Raneiro (IFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Geopolymeric materials have common properties considered unique, such as: early-high compressive strength, durability, high chemical resistance to acids and sulfates attacks, ability to immobilize toxic and radioactive compounds, low porosity, low permeability, and resistance to high temperatures. Together with its environmental benefits, such as low energy consumption and low carbon dioxide emissions during production, these inorganic polymers are strategic materials for sustainable development and a good alternative to Portland cement. The main objective for introducing alternative materials is to lower the associated costs of its industrial process. Thus, the use of phyllite as the geopolymer precursor, is encouraged by its abundance, low cost, and the fact that it already is applied to the ceramic industries as kaolin substitute. This paper presents a physical characterization using TEM, SEM, XRD and XRF techniques of two pulverized phyllite rocks used as geopolymer precursors for refractory applications. It was found that both phyllite rocks studied have a high quartz content of approximately 50% that can be explored as 'filler' function in the microstructure, which stabilizes residual tensions after curing. Kaolinite and muscovite minerals are present up to 40% and are responsible for the high strengths in the geopolymer resins, as determined by compressive strength tests. (author)

  14. COMPUTATIONAL MODELING AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON NOx REDUCTION UNDER PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subha K. Kumpaty; Kannikeswaran Subramanian; Victor P. Nokku; Tyrus L. Hodges; Adel Hassouneh; Ansumana Darboe; Sravan K. Kumpati

    1998-06-01

    In this work, both computer simulation and experimental studies were conducted to investigate several strategies for NO{sub x} reduction under pulverized coal combustion conditions with an aim to meet the stringent environmental standards for NO{sub x} control. Both computer predictions and reburning experiments yielded favorable results in terms of NO{sub x} control by reburning with a combination of methane and acetylene as well as non-selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with ammonia following reburning with methane. The greatest reduction was achieved at the reburning stoichiometric ratio of 0.9; the reduction was very significant, as clearly shown in Chapters III and V. Both the experimental and computational results favored mixing gases: methane and acetylene (90% and 10% respectively) and methane and ammonia (98% and 2%) in order to get optimum reduction levels which can not be achieved by individual gases at any amounts. Also, the above gaseous compositions as reburning fuels seemed to have a larger window of stoichiometric ratio (SR2 < 0.9) as opposed to just methane (SR2=0.9) so as to reduce and keep NO{sub x} at low ppm levels. From the various computational runs, it has been observed that although there are several pathways that contribute to NO{sub x} reduction, the key pathway is NO {r_arrow} HCN {r_arrow} NH{sub 3} {r_arrow} N{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. With the trends established in this work, it is possible to scale the experimental results to real time industrial applications using computational calculations.

  15. A kinetic model of carbon burnout in pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, R.; Jian-Kuan Sun; Lunden, M. [Brown University, Providence, RI (United States). Division of Engineering

    1998-04-01

    The degree of carbon burnout is an important operating characteristic of full-scale suspension-fired coal combustion systems affecting boiler efficiency, electrostatic precipitator operation and the value of fly ash as a saleable product. Prediction of carbon loss requires special char combustion kinetics valid through the very high conversions targeted in industry (typically {gt} 99.5%), and valid for a wide-range of particle temperature histories occurring in full-scale furnaces. The paper presents high-temperature kinetic data for five coal chars in the form of time-resolved burning profiles that include the late stages of combustion. It then describes the development and validation of the Carbon Burnout Kinetic Model (CBK), a coal-general kinetics package that is specifically designed to predict the total extent of carbon burnout and ultimate fly ash carbon content for prescribed temperature/oxygen histories typical of pulverized coal combustion systems. The model combines the single-film treatment of cha oxidation with quantitative descriptions of thermal annealing, statistical kinetics, statistical densities, and ash inhibition in the late stages of combustion. In agreement with experimental observations, the CBK model predicts (1) low reactivities for unburned carbon residues extracted from commercial ash samples, (2) reactivity loss in the late stages of laboratory combustion, (3) the observed sensitivity of char reactivity to high-temperature heat treatment on second and subsecond time scales, and (4) the global reaction inhibition by mineral matter in the late stages of combustion observed in single-particle imaging studies. The model ascribes these various char deactivation phenomena to the combined effects of thermal annealing, ash inhibition, and the preferential consumption of more reactive particles (statistical kinetics), the relative contributions of which vary greatly with combustion conditions. 39 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs., 1 app.

  16. Fuel nitrogen conversion in solid fuel fired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glarborg, P.; Jensen, A.D.; Johnsson, J.E. [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Understanding of the chemical and physical processes that govern formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) in combustion of solid fuels continues to be a challenge. Even though this area has been the subject of extensive research over the last three decades, there are still unresolved issues that may limit the potential of primary measures for NO{sub x} control. In most solid fuel fired systems oxidation of fuel-bound nitrogen constitutes the dominating source of nitrogen oxides. The present paper reviews some fundamental aspects of fuel nitrogen conversion in these systems, emphasizing mostly combustion of coal since most previous work deal with this fuel. However, also results on biomass combustion is discussed. Homogeneous and heterogeneous pathways in fuel NO formation and destruction are discussed and the effect of fuel characteristics, devolatilization conditions and combustion mode on the oxidation selectivity towards NO and N{sub 2} is evaluated. Results indicate that even under idealized conditions, such as a laminar pulverized-fuel flame, the governing mechanisms for fuel nitrogen conversion are not completely understood. Light gases, tar, char and soot may all be important vehicles for fuel-N conversion, with their relative importance depending on fuel rank and reaction conditions. Oxygen availability and fuel-nitrogen level are major parameters determining the oxidation selectivity of fuel-N towards NO and N{sub 2}, but also the ability of char and soot to reduce NO is potentially important. The impact of fuel/oxidizer mixing pattern on NO formation appears to be less important in solid-fuel flames than in homogeneous flames. (author)

  17. Gasification in pulverized coal flames. First annual progress report, July 1975--June 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenzer, R. C.; George, P. E.; Thomas, J. F.; Laurendeau, N. M.

    1976-07-01

    This project concerns the production of power and synthesis gas from pulverized coal via suspension gasification. Swirling flow in both concentric jet and cyclone gasifiers will separate oxidation and reduction zones. Gasifier performance will be correlated with internally measured temperature and concentration profiles. A literature review of vortex and cyclone reactors is complete. Preliminary reviews of confined jet reactors and pulverized coal reaction models have also been completed. A simple equilibrium model for power gas production is in agreement with literature correlations. Cold gas efficiency is not a suitable performance parameter for combined cycle operation. The coal handling facility, equipped with crusher, pulverizer and sieve shaker, is in working order. Test cell flow and electrical systems have been designed, and most of the equipment has been received. Construction of the cyclone gasifier has begun. A preliminary design for the gas sampling system, which will utilize a UTI Q-30C mass spectrometer, has been developed.

  18. Application and Operational Maintenance Experience of Plasma Pulverized Coal Ignition Combustion Technology%等离子煤粉点火燃烧技术的应用及运维经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊臻

    2012-01-01

    介绍了交流等离子煤粉点火系统的工作原理、点火燃烧器功能、点火燃烧机理以及在上海吴泾热电厂2台1125t/h锅炉上的应用情况。总结了等离子煤粉点火装置和稳燃系统的安装、调试与日常运维经验。实践表明,等离子煤粉点火技术是一种节能、环保、快速升负荷的技术。锅炉点火燃油零消耗,既提高了煤粉燃烧的经济性,又减少了燃煤电厂的烟尘排放;既改善了厂区周边环境,又降低了生产成本。交流等离子煤粉点火系统的应用,可以获得较好的经济及社会效益。%The essay introduces operational principle of alternating plasma pulverized coal ignition system, the function of ignition burner, mechanization of ignition combustion and the application of plasma pulverized coal ignition combustion technology on two 1 125 t/h boilers in Shanghai Wujing Thermal Power Plant. It also makes a summary of installation, debugging and routine operational maintenance experience for plasma pulverized coal ignition device and stabilized combustion system. The practice proves that plasma pulverized coal ignition technology is a new technology with conservation of energy, environmental protection and quick power increasing. With ignition fuel oil zero consumption, it not only raises economical efficiency of pulverized coal burning, but also reduces smoke dust discharging in coal fired power plant, and improves power plant's surroundings as well as lowers the production cost effectively. The application of alternating plasma pulverized coal ignition system brings better economic and social benefits.

  19. Simulation of low-temperature plasma interaction with pulverized coal for incineration improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Askarova; E. Karpenko; V. Messerle; A. Ustimenko [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan). Department of Physics

    2003-07-01

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmental friendly low-grade coals incineration. The work presents numerical modeling results of plasma ignition, gasification and thermochemical preparation of a pulverized coal for incineration at power boilers. Thermodynamic code TERRA allows calculating products compound of plasma activated pulverized coal depended on temperature, pressure and plasma source power. Considering plasma source kinetic code PLASMA-COAL gives initial data for 3D-modeling of power boilers furnaces by FLOREAN code. 5 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Ash formation under pressurized pulverized coal combustion conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila Latorre, Aura Cecilia

    Coal combustion is a source of inorganic particulate matter (ash), which can deposit in boilers and also be emitted into the atmosphere becoming part of ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5). In order to decrease coal combustion emissions per unit of power produced, higher efficiency systems have been proposed, including systems operating at elevated pressures. These new operating conditions will affect pollutant formation mechanisms, particularly those associated with the conversion of mineral matter to ash. Ash particle formation mechanisms are particularly sensitive to changes in pressure as they are related to the structure of coal char particles at early stages of combustion. To assess the importance of pressure on ash particle formation, pyrolyzed chars and ash particles from pressurized pulverized combustion of two bituminous and one subbituminous U.S. coals at operating pressures up to 30 atm were studied. Pressure changes the distribution of char particle types, changing the spatial distribution of the minerals during the combustion process and therefore affecting particle formation mechanisms. Chars were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and classified into two different types (cenospheric and solid) depending on porosity and wall thickness. A correlation for estimating the amount of these cenospheric char particles was then proposed for bituminous coals based on the operating conditions and coal maceral analysis. The ash particle size distribution of the coals combusted at different operating pressures was measured using Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM). The results of the char characterization and ash particle size distribution measurements were then incorporated into an ash particle formation algorithm that was proposed and implemented. The model predicts ash particle size and composition distributions at elevated pressures under conditions of complete char burnout. Ash predictions were calculated by first

  1. DETERMINATION OF GRANULOMETRIC COMPOSITION OF PULVERIZED COAL BY AUTOMATED SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Chernenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of granulometric composition determination of dry powders by a shadow method in the automated system of determination of quantitative structure is described. The granulometric analysis of coal-dust fuel particles is carried out. Comparison with results of digital microscopy allowed to establish a variety of used method advantages.

  2. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project is to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend leading submodels of coal transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation energy technologies. During the first two projects years, significant progress was made on most of the tasks, as described in detail in the two previous annual reports. In the current third annual report, we report in detail on the BYU task on the properties and intrinsic reactivities of chars prepared at high-pressure. A flat-flame burner was used in a high pressure laminar flow facility to conduct high temperature, high heating rate coal pyrolysis experiments. Heating rates were approximately 10{sup 5} K/s, which is higher than in conventional drop tube experiments. Char samples from a Pitt No.8 coal and lignite were collected at 1300 C at 1, 6, 10, and 15 atm. Swelling ratios of the lignite were less than 1.0, and only about 1.3 for the Pitt No.8 coal. All coals showed slight increases in swelling behavior as pressure increased. The swelling behavior observed for the Pitt No.8 coal at each pressure was lower than reported in high pressure drop tube experiments, indicating the effect of heating rate on particle swelling. This heating rate effect was similar to that observed previously at atmospheric pressure. SEM photos revealed that bituminous coal has large physical structure transformations, with popped bubbles due to the high heating rate. TGA char oxidation reactivities were measured at the same total pressure as the char preparation pressure. The general trend was that the TGA reactivity on a gram per gram available basis decreased for both Pitt No.8 and Knife River lignite coal chars with increasing char formation pressure. The Pitt No.8 char intrinsic activation energy and oxygen reaction order remained relatively constant with increasing pressure. This new data provides some of the only information available on the morphology, structure, and reactivity of chars prepared in high pressure flames.

  3. Measurements and modeling of pulverized fuel char in an entrained flow reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebria, Mazdak

    In recent years, the combustion zone of utility boilers were modified for NOx control and this made the task of maintaining low residual carbon levels in boiler fly ash much more difficult. To predict the relationships between boiler operating conditions and residual carbon-in-ash, there is a need for improvements in determining the appropriate char reactivity to use in simulating coal-fired combustors and in relating this reactivity to unburned coal characteristics. To aid in this effort, a tubular, downward-fired, refractory-lined, laminar entrained flow reactor (EFR) was built to provide a pilot scale environment with 2 seconds residence time for studying coal combustion. Using a commercial CFD code (FLUENT), a three dimensional numerical model of coal burning in the EFR was created to evaluate common char burnout kinetic modeling approaches. EFR experimental data was obtained for operating conditions adjusted to reproduce particle Lagrangian temperature and oxygen concentration time histories typically found in coal-fired utility boilers. The radial temperature profiles were measured at different axial locations in the EFR with a suction pyrometer and thermocouples. The temperature distribution in the reactor agreed well with the simulations. A gas analyzer with a quenching probe was used to measure the oxygen distribution to similarly confirm oxygen distribution in the EFR. A semi-isokinetic particulate sampling probe was used to extract ash samples at different heights in the reactor to measure the evolution of loss on ignition (LOI). Measured LOI values were used to validate the model against predicted values. Reaction kinetics rates in the model were adjusted to bring agreement between calculated LOI and the measured values from the experimental results. The LOI predictions by kinetic-diffusion and CBK model are very similar at the late stage of char burnout. The results indicate that we can achieve sufficient accuracy for the prediction of final carbon-in-ash using the much simpler kinetic-diffusion model. The ratio of reaction rates of two coals in the low temperature TGA experiment were compared with the high temperature EFR experiment. The ratio of reaction rate between two coal chars in the TGA experiments was nearly one order of magnitude higher than in the EFR experiments.

  4. Coal selection for NO{sub x} reduction in pulverized fuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbins, J.R.; Lockwood, F.C.; Man, C.K.; Williamson, J.; Hesselman, G.J.; Downer, B.M.; Skorupska, N.M. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    A major factor affecting a coal`s performance in air-staged low-NO{sub x} burners is the amount of nitrogen remaining in the char after devolatilisation. Current standard proximate devolatilisation tests do not apply realistic heating conditions for PF combustion, but a recently-developed high-temperature wire-mesh reactor now allows relatively simple captive-sample measurements at heating rates of 10{sup 4} K/s. Char nitrogen data is reported for devolatilisation temperatures from 400{degree}C to 1800{degree}C, including values for a range of UK and world-traded coals for which NO{sub x} measurements from three full-scale low-NO{sub x} utility plants and/or a pilot combustor are available. The most general correlation between char nitrogen and combustion NO{sub x} is observed for a peak preparation temperature of 1800{degree}C with 0.15 s (or 2 s) hold time or 1600{degree}C with 2 s hold, conditions which give the maximum release of nitrogen from the char. 18 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Danish Experiences with Deposit Probe Measurements in Grate and Pulverized Fuel Biomass Power Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Several measuring campaigns with focus on deposition behavior have been conducted at full-scale power plants firing biomass in Denmark. These campaigns have been reviewed in this work. The focus is the obtained experiences on deposit formation, shedding and chemistry. When comparing results from...

  6. Deposit Probe Measurements in Danish Grate and Pulverized Fuel Biomass Power Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Broholm; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Several measuring campaigns with focus on deposition behavior have been conducted at full-scale power plants firing biomass in Denmark. These measuring campaigns have been reviewed in this work. The focus of the review is the obtained experiences on deposit formation, chemistry and shedding...

  7. A Model for Nitrogen Chemistry in Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Pulverized Coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Hansen, Stine; Toftegaard, Maja Bøg

    2011-01-01

    involving both char and soot. Here, the tar yield of the volatiles is mainly converted to soot and H2, limiting the concentration of hydrocarbons and thereby the importance of gas-phase removal of NO. Our work emphasizes the need for accurate descriptions of mixing, volatile composition (fate of tar...

  8. Water permeabilities of pulverized fuel ash; Bifuntan sekitanbai no tosui tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Nagataki, S. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan); Hosoda, N. [Kumagai Gumi Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Utsuki, T. [The Coal Mining Research Center, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Kubo, H. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    It is intended to establish a technology to utilize coal ash in bulk to deal with its increasing production. In order to expand its use into earth engineering materials, two kinds of combustion ashes produced from dust coal burning power plants were used for studies using different kinds of tests. The tests were carried out on strength properties, water permeability, and characteristics of dissolving trace amounts of chemical constituents, with regard to addition effects of cement into compacted and slurry-state dust coal burned ashes. The derived findings may be summarized as follows: as the strength properties, the strength for both of the compacted and slurry-state ashes increases as the cement addition ratio is increased; growth of the strength due to the cement addition ratio and material age varies depending on the kinds of dust coal burned ash; comparison of strengths of the compacted and the slurry-state ashes indicates the strength of the latter ash is about one-third to quarter of that of the former ash; water permeability of the ashes decreases both in the compacted and slurry- state ashes as the cement addition ratio is increased; and the cement addition ratio gives greater impact to the water permeability than the density of the ashes. 28 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Pyrometric fuel particle measurements in pressurised reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Joutsenoja, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    A fiberoptic two-colour pyrometric technique for fuel particle temperature and size measurement is modified and applied to three pressurized reactors of different type in Finland, Germany and France. A modification of the pyrometric method for simultaneous in situ measurement of the temperature and size of individual pulverized coal particles at the pressurized entrained flow reactor in Jyvaeskylae was developed and several series of measurements were made. In Orleans a fiberoptic pyrometric device was installed to a pressurised thermogravimetric reactor and the two-colour temperatures of fuel samples were measured. Some results of these measurements are presented. The project belongs to EU`s Joule 2 extension research programme. (author)

  10. Taste acceptability of pulverized brand-name and generic drugs containing amlodipine or candesartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uestuener, Peter; Ferrarini, Alessandra; Santi, Maristella; Mardegan, Chiara; Bianchetti, Mario G; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Milani, Gregorio P; Lava, Sebastiano A G

    2014-07-01

    Trials with pulverized brand-name antihypertensive drugs suggest that, from the perspective of taste acceptability, crushed candesartan, chlortalidon, hydrochlorothiazide, lercanidipine and lisinopril should be preferred to pulverized amlodipine, atenolol, bisoprolol, enalapril, irbesartan, losartan, ramipril, telmisartan and valsartan. Brand-name antihypertensive drugs and the corresponding generic medicines have never been compared with respect to their taste acceptability. We therefore investigated among healthy health care workers the taste acceptability of a pulverized 1 mg-test dose of the brand-name and two generics containing either the dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker amlodipine (Norvasc(®), Amlodipin-Mepha(®) and Amlodipin Pfizer(®)) or the angiotensin receptor antagonist candesartan (Atacand(®), Cansartan-Mepha(®) and Pemzek(®)). For this purpose, a smiley-face scale depicting four degrees of pleasure was used. Between November and December 2013, the taste test was performed among 19 nurses (15 female and 4 male subjects) and 12 physicians (5 female and 7 male subjects) aged between 25 and 49 years. Pulverized brand-names and generics containing either amlodipine or candesartan did not differ with respect to their taste acceptability.

  11. A New Agro/Forestry Residues Co-Firing Model in a Large Pulverized Coal Furnace: Technical and Economic Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shien Hui

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the existing biomass co-firing technologies and the known innate drawbacks of dedicated biomass firing, including slagging, corrosion and the dependence on fuel, a new model of agro/forestry residue pellets/shreds and coal co-fired in a large Pulverized Coal (PC furnace was proposed, and the corresponding technical and economic assessments were performed by co-firing testing in a 300 MW PC furnace and discounted cash flow technique. The developed model is more dependent on injection co-firing and combined with co-milling co-firing. Co-firing not only reduces CO2 emission, but also does not significantly affect the fly ash use in cement industry, construction industry and agriculture. Moreover, economic assessments show that in comparison with dedicated firing in grate furnace, agro/forestry residues and coal co-firing in a large PC furnace is highly economic. Otherwise, when the co-firing ratio was below 5 wt%, the boiler co-firing efficiency was 0.05%–0.31% higher than that of dedicated PC combustion, and boiler efficiencies were about 0.2% higher with agro/forestry residues co-firing in the bottom and top burner systems than that in a middle burner system.

  12. CFD simulation and experimental validation of co-combustion of chicken litter and MBM with pulverized coal in a flow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkinen, J.M.; Venneker, B.C.H.; di Nola, G.; de Jong, W.; Spliethoff, H. [Energy Technology section, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, NL-2628 CA Delft (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    The influence of co-combustion of solid biomass fuels with pulverized coal on burnout and CO emissions was studied using a flow reactor. The thermal input on a fuel feeding basis of the test rig was approximately 7 kW. Accompanied with the measurements, a reactor model using the CFD code AIOLOS was set up and first applied for two pure coal flames (with and without air staging). Reasonable agreement between measurements and simulations was found. An exception was the prediction of the CO concentration under sub-stoichiometric conditions (primary zone). As model input for the volatile matter release, the HTVM (high temperature volatile matter as defined by IFRF [IFRF, www.handbook.ifrf.net/handbook/glossary.html. ]) was used. Furthermore, a relatively slow CO oxidation rate obtained from the literature and the ERE (Extended Resistance Equation) model for char combustion were selected. Furthermore, the model was used for simulating co-firing of coal with chicken litter (CL) and meat and bone meal (MBM). The conditions applied are relevant for future co-firing practice with high thermal shares of secondary fuels (larger than 20%). The major flue gas concentrations were quite well described, however, CO emission predictions were only qualitatively following the measured trends when O{sub 2} is available and severely under-predicted under substoichiometric conditions. However, on an engineering level of accuracy, and concerning burnout, this work shows that co-combustion of the fuels can reasonably well be described with coal combustion sub-models. (author)

  13. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  14. CFD analysis of the pulverized coal combustion processes in a 160 MWe tangentially-fired-boiler of a thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cristiano V. da; Beskow, Arthur B. [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Misses (LABSIM/GEAPI/URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia e Ciencia da Computacao. Grupo de Engenharia Aplicada a Processos Industriais], Emails: cristiano@uricer.edu.br, Arthur@uricer.edu.br; Indrusiak, Maria Luiza S. [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica], E-mail: sperbindrusiak@via-rs.net

    2010-10-15

    The strategic role of energy and the current concern with greenhouse effects, energetic and exegetic efficiency of fossil fuel combustion greatly enhance the importance of the studies of complex physical and chemical processes occurring inside boilers of thermal power plants. The state of the art in computational fluid dynamics and the availability of commercial codes encourage numeric studies of the combustion processes. In the present work the commercial software CFX Ansys Europe Ltd. was used to study the combustion of coal in a 160 MWe commercial thermal power plant with the objective of simulating the operational conditions and identifying factors of inefficiency. The behavior of the flow of air and pulverized coal through the burners was analyzed, and the three-dimensional flue gas flow through the combustion chamber and heat exchangers was reproduced in the numeric simulation. (author)

  15. [An investigation of the formation of] polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions when firing pulverized coal in a bench-scale drop tube reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisupati, S.V.; Wasco, R.S.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Combustion Lab.

    1998-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 contain provisions which will set standards for the allowable emissions of 188 analytes designated as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). This list of HAPs was used to establish an initial list of source categories for which EPA would be required to establish technology-based emission standards, which would result in regulated sources sharply reducing routine emissions of toxic air pollutants. Polycyclic organic matter (POM) has also been referred to as polynuclear or polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Nine major categories of POM have been defined by EPA. The study of organic compounds from coal combustion is complex and the results obtained so far are inconclusive with respect to emission factors. The most common organic compounds in the flue gas of coal-fired power plants are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Furthermore, EPA has specified 16 PAH compounds as priority pollutants. These are naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and dibenz[ah]anthracene. Penn State`s Combustion Laboratory is equipped to collect and analyze the HAPs in the flue gas from fossil fuels combustion. The overall objective of this study was to examine the effect of unit temperature on PAH emissions. A Modified Method 5 sampling train was used to isokinetically collect samples at desired locations in flue gas streams. The collected sample can be separated into solid, condensed liquid and gaseous phases. The PAHs of interest are extracted from the collected sample, concentrated, then separated and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This study was conducted using a bench-scale drop-tube reactor (DTR). The fuel selected for this study was a Middle Kittanning seam coal pulverized to 80% passing US Standard 200 mesh (commonly

  16. The Influencing Factors and Countermeasures for Self-ignition of Pulverized Coal Warehouse in Pulverized Coal Milling System%中间储仓式制粉系统粉仓自燃影响因素及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金帆; 李善涛

    2012-01-01

    针对中国石化上海石油化工股份有限公司热电部410 t/h煤粉炉在停炉抢修期间中间储仓式的粉仓内温度急剧上升、煤粉自燃的现象,分析了引起煤粉自燃的影响因素。根据实际情况,提出了煤粉自燃的防治措施和预防粉仓温度升高的方法。%Regarding the quick rising of temperature in the middle-warehouse pulverized coal house and self-ignition of pulverized coal in 410 t/a pulverized coal furnace during shutdown and emergency repairing period,the influencing factors causing self-ignition of pulverized coal were analyzed.Based on the practical situation,the preventions for self-ignition of pulverized coal and methods for preventing temperature in pulverized coal house from rising were raised.

  17. Cold Gas-particle Flows in a New Swirl Pulverized-coal Burner by PDPA Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new type of swirl burner has been developed to stabilize pulverized-coal combustion by burning different types of coal at different loads and to reduce NOx formation during combustion. The burner uses a device to concentrate the coal powder in the primary-air tube that divides the primary coal-air into two streams with different pulverized-coal concentrations. This paper reports the measurement of gas-particle flows at the exit of the different swirl burners using a 3-D Phase Doppler Particle Anemometer (PDPA). The effect of different geometrical configurations on the two-phase flow field is studied. The results that give the two-phase flow fields and particle concentrations show the superiority of the new swirl burner.

  18. XRF Analysis of mineralogical matrix effects and differences between pulverized and fused ferromanganese slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA ZIVANOVIC

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination and analysis is only as good as the sample preparation that preceded it. Even the most sophisticated analysis is worthless if it follows sloppy sampling and poor preparation. Whether one does plasma emission, infrared or X-ray fluorescence or another spectroscopic technique, it is essential to get reproducible and accurate analysis. This paper shows the effect of mineralogical matrix differences in quantitative measurements by XRF of the main elements (Al, Ca, Mg, Si, Mn and K as oxides of ferromanganese alloy slag. Fused and pulverized slag show a significant difference in XRF microstructure, micro heterogeneity and mineralogy although the results of measurements between pulverized and fused slag, expressed as a percentage of the main elements, is not different. Other analytical techniques such as ICP-OES and classical gravimetric and titrimetric were also used for checking the XRF calibration accuracy

  19. New computer program plots coal particle size to monitor pulverizer performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tartar, A.M. (Univ. of Missouri, St. Louis, MO (United States)); Mueller, W.K. (Union Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Marrero, T.R.

    1994-11-01

    Maintaining proper coal particle size and distribution is one of many considerations in achieving efficient combustion performance. Improper pulverizer operation and maintenance can result in an excessive percentage of either coarse coal particles, which tends to increase the amount of unburned carbon in the ash, or fine coal particles, which can limit the throughput of the pulverizer and, if too fine, can affect coal burning rates and residence time in boilers. Traditionally, coal particle size plotting and distribution have been done by hand and required special graphing paper formulated using the Rosin and Rammler equation. Now there is an alternative. This article describes a computerized procedure for plotting the fineness of coal particles after the milling process developed by engineers at Union Electric Co., St. Louis, Mo., and the University of Missouri, Columbia. Known as an ANTAR-UE, this procedure is being used by the Betterment Engineering group at Union Electric to plot mill fineness data.

  20. Pulverized-coal-firing small-size boiler for coal-cartridge system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-01

    Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. supplied a test boiler plant to the Iwakuni Experimental Station of the Coal Cartridge System (CCS) Promotion Association in September 1985; this was the first pulverized-coal-fired small industrial boiler in Japan. Tests will be performed for two years, until fiscal 1987, at the CCS Iwakuni Experimental Station to establish a method of coal-firing with a performance comparable to heavy oil firing. The boiler plant has been operating satisfactorily.

  1. Small scale experiment on the plasma assisted thermal chemical preparation and combustion of pulverized coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaya, Sugimoto; Koichi, Takeda [Akita Prefectural University (Japan); Solonenko, O.P. [Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sakashita, M.; Nakamura, M. [Japan Technical Information Service, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Ignition and stable combustion of pulverized coal with Nitrogen and Air plasmas are investigated experimentally for some different types of coal. The experimental results show that air plasma has strong effect for ignition and stabilization of coal combustion. In addition, suppression of NO{sub x} production could be possible even in air plasma. It is possible to ignite and burn stably for the inferior coal that contains volatile matter in the ratio of only 10% of dry total mass. (authors)

  2. Analysis of Fracture Pattern of Pulverized Quartz Formed by Stick Slip Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Osamu; Muto, Jun; Otsuki, Kenshiro; Kano, Harumasa; Sasaki, Osamu

    2013-04-01

    In order to clarify how wall rocks of faults are damaged, fracture pattern analysis was performed imaging experimentally pulverized rocks by a micro-focus X-ray CT. Analyzed samples are core (diameter of 2cm) of single crystals of synthetic quartz and natural quartzites, which were pre-cut 50° to the core axis and mirror-polished. Experiments were conducted with axial strain rate of 10-3/s under the confining pressure of 180 MPa and room temperature using gas apparatus. Intense fracturing of the core occurred during the stick-slip with very large stress drop. Although thin melt layer is formed on the slip plane, the core is pulverized overall by tensile fracturing characterized by apparent lack of shear deformation. X-ray CT images demonstrate the fracture pattern being strongly controlled by slip direction and shear sense. Cracks are exponentially increased toward the slip plane and concentrated in the central portion rather than outer margin of core. Cracks tend to develop parallel to core axis and at high to moderate angles (90° ~ ±50°) with the plane including both core axis and slip direction, and lean to be higher angle to the surface near the slip plane. Due to this fracture pattern, the pulverized fragments show polygonal column or needle in shape with sharp and curving edges irrespective of their sizes, and the intensely fractured slip surface exhibit distinct rugged topography of an array of ridges developed perpendicular to slip direction. Mode and distribution pattern of fractures indicate that the stress concentration at the rupture front during dynamic rupture propagation or the constructive interference of reflected seismic waves focused at the center of core are possible mechanisms of pulverization.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL RADIATIVELY/CONDUCTIVELY STABILIZED BURNER FOR SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION OF NOx EMISSIONS AND FOR ADVANCING THE MODELING AND UNDERSTANDING OF PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noam Lior; Stuart W. Churchill

    2003-10-01

    The primary objective of the proposed study was the study and analysis of, and design recommendations for, a novel radiatively-conductively stabilized combustion (RCSC) process for pulverized coal, which, based on our prior studies with both fluid fuels and pulverized coal, holds a high promise to reduce NO{sub x} production significantly. We have primarily engaged in continuing and improving our process modeling and analysis, obtained a large amount of quantitative information about the effects of the major parameters on NO{sub x} production, conducted an extensive exergy analysis of the process, evaluated the practicalities of employing the Radiatively-Conductively Stabilized Combustor (RCSC) to large power and heat plants, and improved the experimental facility. Prior experimental work has proven the feasibility of the combustor, but slagging during coal combustion was observed and should be dealt with. The primary outcomes and conclusions from the study are: (1) we developed a model and computer program that represents the pulverized coal combustion in the RCSC, (2) the model predicts that NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced by a number of methods, detailed in the report. (3) the exergy analysis points out at least a couple of possible ways to improve the exergetic efficiency in this combustor: increasing the effectiveness of thermal feedback, and adjusting the combustor mixture exit location, (4) because of the low coal flow rates necessitated in this study to obtain complete combustion in the burner, the size of a burner operating under the considered conditions would have to be up to an order of magnitude, larger than comparable commercial burners, but different flow configurations of the RCSC can yield higher feed rates and smaller dimensions, and should be investigated. Related to this contract, eleven papers were published in journals and conference proceedings, and ten invited presentations were given at university and research institutions, as well as at

  4. Advanced char burnout models for the simulation of pulverized coal fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Severin; S. Wirtz; V. Scherer [Ruhr-University, Bochum (Germany). Institute of Energy Plant Technology (LEAT)

    2005-07-01

    The numerical simulation of coal combustion processes is widely used as an efficient means to predict burner or system behaviour. In this paper an approach to improve CFD simulations of pulverized coal fired boilers with advanced coal combustion models is presented. In simple coal combustion models, first order Arrhenius rate equations are used for devolatilization and char burnout. The accuracy of such simple models is sufficient for the basic aspects of heat release. The prediction of carbon-in-ash is one aspect of special interest in the simulation of pulverized coal fired boilers. To determine the carbon-in-ash levels in the fly ash of coal fired furnaces, the char burnout model has to be more detailed. It was tested, in how far changing operating conditions affect the carbon-in-ash prediction of the simulation. To run several test cases in a short time, a simplified cellnet model was applied. To use a cellnet model for simulations of pulverized coal fired boilers, it was coupled with a Lagrangian particle model, used in CFD simulations, too. 18 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Insights into pulverized rock formation from dynamic rupture models of earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, R. M.; Duan, B.

    2017-02-01

    Pulverized rocks (PR) are extremely incohesive and highly fractured rocks found within the damage zones of several large strike-slip faults around the world. They maintain their crystal structure, show little evidence of shearing or chemical alteration, and are believed to be produced by strong tensile forces. Several mechanisms for pulverization have been proposed based on simple qualitative analyses or laboratory experiments under simplified loading conditions. Numerical modelling, however, can offer new insights into what is needed to produce PR and likely conditions of formation. We perform dynamic rupture simulations of different earthquakes, varying the magnitude, the slip distribution, and the rupture speed (supershear and subshear), while measuring the stresses produced away from the fault. To contextualize our results, a basic threshold of 10 MPa is set as the tensile strength of the rock mass and recordings are made of where, when, and by how much this threshold is exceeded for each earthquake type. Guided by field observations, we discern that a large (>Mw 7.1) subshear earthquake along a bimaterial fault produces a pulverized rock distribution most consistent with observations. The damage is asymmetric with the majority on the stiffer side of the fault extending out for several hundred metres. Within this zone there is a large and sudden volumetric expansion in all directions as the rupture passes. We propose that such an extreme tensile stress state, repeated for every earthquake, eventually produces the PR seen in the field.

  6. Effect of microstructure on the breakage of tin bronze machining chips during pulverization via jet milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Elham; Ghambari, Mohammad; Farhangi, Hasan

    2016-11-01

    In this study, jet milling was used to recycle tin bronze machining chips into powder. The main purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the microstructure of tin bronze machining chips on their breakage behavior. An experimental target jet mill was used to pulverize machining chips of three different tin bronze alloys containing 7wt%, 10wt%, and 12wt% of tin. Optical and electron microscopy, as well as sieve analysis, were used to follow the trend of pulverization. Each alloy exhibited a distinct rate of size reduction, particle size distribution, and fracture surface appearance. The results showed that the degree of pulverization substantially increased with increasing tin content. This behavior was attributed to the higher number of machining cracks as well as the increased volume fraction of brittle δ phase in the alloys with higher tin contents. The δ phase was observed to strongly influence the creation of machining cracks as well as the nucleation and propagation of cracks during jet milling. In addition, a direct relationship was observed between the mean δ-phase spacing and the mean size of the jet-milled product; i.e., a decrease in the δ-phase spacing resulted in smaller particles.

  7. Scaling up nano-milling of poorly water soluble compounds using a rotation/revolution pulverizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuminoki, K; Tachibana, S; Nishimura, Y; Mori, H; Takatsuka, T; Hashimoto, N

    2016-02-01

    We previously reported that a rotation/revolution pulverizer (NP-100) could mill a small amount of a drug (0.1 g) into nanoparticles in several minutes. In this investigation, scale up from the milligram to the kilogram scale of the nano-milling process by the rotation/revolution pulverizer was studied. Phenytoin was used as a model drug with low solubility in water. After confirming the improvement of the phenytoin bioavailability by milling to nanoparticles using NP-100, scaling parameters were evaluated using NP-100 and the middle scale model of NP-100 (ARV-3000T). A theoretical equation for the specific collisional energy was adapted for wet milling; this suggested that the relative centrifugal acceleration of revolution (revolution G) and the drug concentration in the suspension were the two most important parameters. The results obtained using NP-100 and ARV-3000T correlated well when these two parameters were identical. These results were applied to the large scale model of NP-100 (ARV-10KT), where 2 kg (1 kg x 2) of phenytoin nanoparticles were obtained in 60 min. The results from PXRD and DSC indicated that the milled phenytoin by ARV-3000T and ARV-10KT maintained its crystallinity. These results suggest nano-milling using a rotation/revolution pulverizer will be widely applicable to the development of nano-medicine.

  8. Experimental and theoretical analyses of pulverization and recycling of vulcanized rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Ecevit Atalay

    A two-stage process for recycling of vulcanized rubber was proposed. In the first stage, the vulcanized rubber was shredded into granulates, and then the granulates were pulverized into fine particles using a single screw extruder in the solid state shear extrusion (SSSE) process. In the second stage, the produced rubber powder was compression molded to produce new items. The major objective of this research is to understand the fundamental aspects of the pulverization and the compression molding of the rubber powder. Fine rubber particles were obtained using the SSSE process when the granulates were compressed sufficiently, and loss of strain energy due to viscoelastic stress relaxation was minimized by significant cooling in the pulverization zone. Agglomeration of rubber particles was found to be competing with the pulverization process. A sharp temperature gradient in the rubber was experimentally determined, which was qualitatively predicted by our heat transfer computer simulation. The rubber particles produced by the SSSE process and the unprocessed rubber granulates were analyzed using physical, thermal, and chemical characterization methods. The characterization study showed that the particles had irregular shapes with convoluted surfaces, and that the powder had a larger specific surface area compared with a cryogenically produced powder. The particles had lower crosslink density than the granulates indicating the breakage of sulfur crosslinks in the rubber, which makes the SSSE powder very suitable for many recycling applications. In the second stage, the produced powder within several size ranges was compression molded at various processing conditions. Rubber slabs with low-medium tensile strength were obtained without using any virgin rubber. It was found that the strength of the slabs is strongly dependent on the degree of particle bonding. Inhomogeneous shearing deformations of a homogeneous thermoelastic slab and a non-homogeneous rubber-like slab

  9. Pulverized coal injection at BF N5 during campaign extension period : ArcelorMittal South Africa, Newcastle Works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtz, V. [ArcelorMittal South Africa, Newcastle, KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    Blast furnace no. 5 at ArcelorMittal South Africa's Newcastle facility was constructed in 1976 and designed to produce 5000 thm/day, with a hearth diameter of 10.14 m and a working volume of 2017 m{sup 3}. In April 2005, it began using pulverized coal (PC) following a planned maintenance shutdown. Initially, the PC was injected at a rate of 70 kg/thm, but within 5 months, the PC injection (PCI) rate was increased to 160 kg/thm. This was achieved with good replacement ratios, despite a burden that consisted of 40 per cent lump ore. However, the success was brief because of the high rate of unprepared burden, inadequate raw material quality and an aging hearth. The coke rate was therefore increased to reduce hearth wear while maintaining decent hot metal production, resulting in a lower than expected PCI rate of 100 kg/thm. The injection coal rate of 160 kg/thm will be targeted again once the hearth is replaced. Very few changes had been made in the PCI blend in the past because of the low-cost local supply of high volatile, medium ash coals. However, a new coal mine that opened in Newcastle in July 2007 made it possible to partially replace the coal in use. This paper described the operating parameters for the campaign extension period, which required a less than standard injection practice to reduce the amount of production outages. The hearth and stave conditions during the campaign extension were found to be the major barriers to injecting high PCI rates. It was concluded that it is important to re-evaluate the raw material cost for all the fuels used on a regular basis, since the costs to produce coke for higher injection rates could outweigh the advantages at the blast furnace. 3 refs., 1 tabs., 3 figs.

  10. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1991-09-20

    Reburning is examined as a means of NO{sub x} destruction in a 17 kW down-fired pulverized coal combustor. In reburning, a secondary fuel is introduced downstream of the primary flame to produce a reducing zone, favorable to NO destruction, and air is introduced further downstream to complete the combustion. Emphasis is on natural gas reburning and a bituminous coal primary flame. A parametric examination of reburning employing a statistical experimental design, is conducted, complemented by detailed experiments. Mechanisms governing the inter-conversion of nitrogenous species in the fuel rich reburn zone is explored. The effect of reburning on N{sub 2}O emissions, the effect of primary flame mode (premixed and diffusion) and the effect of distributing the reburning fuel, are also investigated.

  11. Modeling and full-scale tests of vortex plasma-fuel systems for igniting high-ash power plant coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Karpenko, Yu. E.; Chernetskiy, M. Yu.; Dekterev, A. A.; Filimonov, S. A.

    2015-06-01

    The processes of supplying pulverized-coal fuel into a boiler equipped with plasma-fuel systems and its combustion in the furnace of this boiler are investigated. The results obtained from 3D modeling of conventional coal combustion processes and its firing with plasma-assisted activation of combustion in the furnace space are presented. The plasma-fuel system with air mixture supplied through a scroll is numerically investigated. The dependence of the swirled air mixture flow trajectory in the vortex plasma-fuel system on the scroll rotation angle is revealed, and the optimal rotation angle at which stable plasma-assisted ignition of pulverized coal flame is achieved is determined.

  12. pulver: an R package for parallel ultra-rapid p-value computation for linear regression interaction terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnos, Sophie; Baumbach, Clemens; Wahl, Simone; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Strauch, Konstantin; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Waldenberger, Melanie; Meitinger, Thomas; Adamski, Jerzy; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Suhre, Karsten; Peters, Annette; Grallert, Harald; Theis, Fabian J; Gieger, Christian

    2017-09-29

    Genome-wide association studies allow us to understand the genetics of complex diseases. Human metabolism provides information about the disease-causing mechanisms, so it is usual to investigate the associations between genetic variants and metabolite levels. However, only considering genetic variants and their effects on one trait ignores the possible interplay between different "omics" layers. Existing tools only consider single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-SNP interactions, and no practical tool is available for large-scale investigations of the interactions between pairs of arbitrary quantitative variables. We developed an R package called pulver to compute p-values for the interaction term in a very large number of linear regression models. Comparisons based on simulated data showed that pulver is much faster than the existing tools. This is achieved by using the correlation coefficient to test the null-hypothesis, which avoids the costly computation of inversions. Additional tricks are a rearrangement of the order, when iterating through the different "omics" layers, and implementing this algorithm in the fast programming language C++. Furthermore, we applied our algorithm to data from the German KORA study to investigate a real-world problem involving the interplay among DNA methylation, genetic variants, and metabolite levels. The pulver package is a convenient and rapid tool for screening huge numbers of linear regression models for significant interaction terms in arbitrary pairs of quantitative variables. pulver is written in R and C++, and can be downloaded freely from CRAN at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/pulver/ .

  13. Iron making technology with fuels and other materials injection in blast furnace tuyeres. Part 1. Auxiliary fuels characteristics and its influence in the blast furnace process; Tecnologia de fabricacion de arrabio con la inyeccion de combustibles y otros materiales por toberas en el horno alto. I parte. Caracteristicas de los combustibles auxiliares y su influencia en el proceso del horno alto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L. [Union de Empresas de Recuperacion de Materias Primas. Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba); Cores, A.; Formoso, A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas. Madrid (Spain); Babich, A.; Yaroshevskii, S. [Universidad Estatal Tecnologica de Donetsk. Ucrania (Ukraine)

    1998-06-01

    The injection of fuels by tuyeres in the blast furnace is a used practice in most furnaces with the principal aim to reduce the coke consumption by ton of pig iron produced. The nature of these fuels is very diverse and depends on the resources of each country and of the fuel price. At this moment the coal injection (pulverized and granular) is the most extended practice, and the number of furnaces with facilities for coal injection increases continuously. (Author) 14 refs.

  14. Anatomy of an upgraded pulverized coal facility: Combustion modification through flue gas scrubbing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, J.U. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Federal Energy Technology Center; Savichky, W.J.; O`Dea, D.T. [New York State Electric and Gas Corp., Binghamton, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Regeneration is a biological term for formation or creating anew. In the case of Milliken station, a species of steam generation (Tangentus coali) regeneration refers to refitting critical systems with the latest technological advances to reduce emissions while maintaining or improving performance. The plant has undergone a series of operations which provided anatomical changes as well as a face lift. Each of the two units were place in suspended animation (outage) to allow these changes to be made. The paper describes the project which includes retrofitting combustion systems, pulverizers, boiler liners, scrubbers, and control room. This retrofit is meant to increase thermal efficiency while reducing the formation of nitrogen oxides.

  15. A novel model for cost performance evaluation of pulverized coal injected into blast furnace based on effective calorific value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐润生; 张建良; 左海滨; 李克江; 宋腾飞; 邵久刚

    2015-01-01

    The combustion process of pulverized coal injected into blast furnace involves a lot of physical and chemical reactions. Based on the combustion behaviors of pulverized coal, the conception of coal effective calorific value representing the actual thermal energy provided for blast furnace was proposed. A cost performance evaluation model of coal injection was built up for the optimal selection of various kinds of coal based on effective calorific value. The model contains two indicators: coal effective calorific value which has eight sub-indicators and coal injection cost which includes four sub-indicators. In addition, the calculation principle and application of cost performance evaluation model in a Chinese large-scale iron and steel company were comprehensively introduced. The evaluation results finally confirm that this novel model is of great significance to the optimal selection of blast furnace pulverized coal.

  16. 小型常压煤粉仓惰性气体保护系统设计及应用%Design and Application of Inert Gas Protection System to Small-Scale Atmospheric Pressure Pulverized Coal Bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐尧; 王乃继; 肖翠微

    2012-01-01

    According to the fuel safety storage requirements of the pulverized coal-fired industrial boiler, in order to solve the coal spon- taneous combustion problems caused by CO content and the temperature increased in the coal bunker, with the related national standards and overseas design handbook, the design calculation method and system control plan of the inert gas protection system was provided for the small-scale atmospheric pressure pulverized coal bunker. According to the two coal bunkers with volume of 40 m^3 , an inert gas pro- tection system of the small-scale atmospheric pressure pulverized coal bunker was designed. When the CO content in the pulverized coal bunker reached at 1 200×10^-6 or the temperature at the any location of the bunker was over 70 ℃, the inert gas protection system would have a protection to the coal bunker with the automatic start, manual start or mechanical emergency start. The project cases were applied to verify the inert gas protection system. The result showed that when the storage value of the protective gas CO2 would be 355 kg, the low pressure CO2 inerting system applied to the protection of the pulverized coal bunker could remarkably reduce the risks of the pulverized coal spontaneous combustion.%为解决煤粉仓CO浓度或温度增高导致的自燃问题,根据煤粉工业锅炉系统燃料安全储存需求,参照相关国家标准和国外设计手册,提出了小型常压煤粉仓惰性气体保护系统设计计算方法和系统控制方案。针对2台容积40m^3的煤粉仓设计了小型常压煤粉仓惰性气体保护系统,当检测到煤粉仓内CO体积分数达1200×10^-6或任意一处温度高于70℃时,系统可通过自动启动、手动启动、机械应急启动3种方式对煤粉仓保护,结合工程实例对该系统予以验证。结果表明:采用低压CO2惰化系统对煤粉仓实施保护,当保护气体CO2的储存量为355kg,可明显降低煤粉自燃的风险。

  17. Engineering and organizational solutions for improvement of engineering and economic characteristics of the TPE-216 boilers equipped with MV-3300/800/490 pulverizing fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, M. V.; Safronov, P. G.

    2014-07-01

    Efficiency of coal-fired boilers is determined in many respects by optimal operation of the coal-pulverizing plants that are increasingly frequently equipped with pulverizing fans. By an example of retrofitted MV-3300/800/490 pulverizing fans, the effects of different factors on the performance and economic efficiency of the coal-pulverizing plants are analyzed. The experience gained in retrofitting MV-3300/800/490 pulverizing fans by introducing the three-crusher operation mode of a TPE-216 boiler employing the internal recirculation and a blading device in the classifier was also studied. Optimization of the boiler's operation mode was made when switching over from the four-crusher to the three-crusher mode, which considerably improved the engineering and economic characteristics.

  18. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was

  19. Investigation on Pulverized Coal Combustion Behavior by Non-Isothermic Integral Thermogravimetry Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Cheng-lin; ZHANG Jian-liang; LIN Xiang-hai; LIU Qin-yuan; WANG Xiao-liu

    2011-01-01

    The combustion process of pulverized coal was investigated by non-isothermic integral thermogravimetry. The thermogravimetry curves were fitted by the Coats-Redferm approximation function, and kinetic parameters and characteristic temperatures were obtained. The optimal mixing ratio and particle size can be ascertained. The characteristic temperature of pulverized coal can be obtained from the thermogravimetry curve, and the combustion of coal can be divided into homogeneous and heterogeneous combustion according to the differential thermal analysis curve. The activation energy of a single type of coal ranking from low to high is as follows: bituminous coal, meager-lean coal, and anthracite. In the first mixing method, with more low-price meager-lean coal B replacing high price anthracite A, the activation energy slightly decreases; with more bituminous coal replacing meager-lean coal, total tendency makes a declining of activation. In the later mixing method, with an increase in particle size, a declining activation energy can be seen in total tendency.

  20. SYSTEM OF PRECISE DOSING OF COAGULANT IN THE PULVERIZING AERATOR POWERED BY WIND USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Osuch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods used to support land restoration lakes is the method of pulverizing aeration. Use of aerators powered exclusively by wind improves the condition of reservoirs, while not compromising the environment. The pulverizing aeration process drive is windy on the water aeration zone near bottom, while removing harmful gases anaerobic metabolism. Aerators of this type due to the unique method of operation also enable dosing of inactivation coagulants with oxygenated water to the depths of the lake. Mileage coagulant dosing can be made dependent on the speed of the wind, which has an impact on the performance of his work, because with the increase of wind speed dispensing valve coagulants should be stronger open. One of the methods for assessing the state of lakes is to measure water transparency. The softer visibility, the most likely state of the water is better. Dosage of coagulant so you can make the transparency of the water. Similarly, with increasing transparency water dispensing valve should be more covered up. Control of the drain valve dispenser coagulant can be simultaneously dependent on two factors. The study was designed method of control drain valve dispenser coagulant using fuzzy inference.

  1. Relationship between Particle Size Distribution of Low-Rank Pulverized Coal and Power Plant Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajive Ganguli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of particle size distribution (PSD of pulverized, low rank high volatile content Alaska coal on combustion related power plant performance was studied in a series of field scale tests. Performance was gauged through efficiency (ratio of megawatt generated to energy consumed as coal, emissions (SO2, NOx, CO, and carbon content of ash (fly ash and bottom ash. The study revealed that the tested coal could be burned at a grind as coarse as 50% passing 76 microns, with no deleterious impact on power generation and emissions. The PSD’s tested in this study were in the range of 41 to 81 percent passing 76 microns. There was negligible correlation between PSD and the followings factors: efficiency, SO2, NOx, and CO. Additionally, two tests where stack mercury (Hg data was collected, did not demonstrate any real difference in Hg emissions with PSD. The results from the field tests positively impacts pulverized coal power plants that burn low rank high volatile content coals (such as Powder River Basin coal. These plants can potentially reduce in-plant load by grinding the coal less (without impacting plant performance on emissions and efficiency and thereby, increasing their marketability.

  2. Effects of pulverized coal fly-ash addition as a wet-end filler in papermaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, A.S.K. [SLIET, Longowal (India). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    2008-09-15

    This experimental study is based on the innovative idea of using pulverized coal fly ash as a wet-end filler in papermaking. This is the first evaluation of the possible use of fly ash in the paper industry. Coal-based thermal power plants throughout the world are generating fly ash as a solid waste product. The constituents of fly ash can be used effectively in papermaking. Fly ash has a wide variation in particle size, which ranges from a few micrometers to one hundred micrometers. Fly ash acts as an inert material in acidic, neutral, and alkaline papermaking processes. Its physical properties such as bulk density (800-980 kg/m{sup 3}), porosity (45%-57%), and surface area (0.138-2.3076 m{sup 2}/g) make it suitable for use as a paper filler. Fly ash obtained from thermal power plants using pulverized coal was fractionated by a vibratory-sieve stack. The fine fraction with a particle size below 38 micrometers was used to study its effect on the important mechanical-strength and optical properties of paper. The effects of fly-ash addition on these properties were compared with those of kaolin clay. Paper opacity was found to be much higher with fly ash as a filler, whereas brightness decreased as the filler percentage increased Mechanical strength properties of the paper samples with fly ash as filler were superior to those with kaolin clay.

  3. Pulverizing Portraits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    on interdisciplinary approaches to poetry via visual aesthetics, poststructuralist literary and theoretical perspectives, and philosophy. Camelia Elias takes a look at what characterizes contemporary American prose poetry, namely an intensified awareness of being close to something. Poets such as Lynn Emanuel have...

  4. Organic coal-water fuel: Problems and advances (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, D. O.; Strizhak, P. A.; Chernetskii, M. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The study results of ignition of organic coal-water fuel (OCWF) compositions were considered. The main problems associated with investigation of these processes were identified. Historical perspectives of the development of coal-water composite fuel technologies in Russia and worldwide are presented. The advantages of the OCWF use as a power-plant fuel in comparison with the common coal-water fuels (CWF) were emphasized. The factors (component ratio, grinding degree of solid (coal) component, limiting temperature of oxidizer, properties of liquid and solid components, procedure and time of suspension preparation, etc.) affecting inertia and stability of the ignition processes of suspensions based on the products of coaland oil processing (coals of various types and metamorphism degree, filter cakes, waste motor, transformer, and turbine oils, water-oil emulsions, fuel-oil, etc.) were analyzed. The promising directions for the development of modern notions on the OCWF ignition processes were determined. The main reasons limiting active application of the OCWF in power generation were identified. Characteristics of ignition and combustion of coal-water and organic coal-water slurry fuels were compared. The effect of water in the composite coal fuels on the energy characteristics of their ignition and combustion, as well as ecological features of these processes, were elucidated. The current problems associated with pulverization of composite coal fuels in power plants, as well as the effect of characteristics of the pulverization process on the combustion parameters of fuel, were considered. The problems hindering the development of models of ignition and combustion of OCWF were analyzed. It was established that the main one was the lack of reliable experimental data on the processes of heating, evaporation, ignition, and combustion of OCWF droplets. It was concluded that the use of high-speed video recording systems and low-inertia sensors of temperature and gas

  5. Deposit formation in a full-scale pulverized wood-fired power plant with and without coal fly ash addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    temperatures of ~1300oC and ~800oC, respectively. It was found that during pulverized wood combustion, the deposit formation at the hightemperature location was characterized by a slow and continuous growth of deposits followed by the shedding of a large layer of deposits, while the deposit formation...

  6. Optimize to pulverizing system control method for the Indonesian high moisture lignite coal%针对印尼高水分褐煤的制粉系统优化控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程学安

    2012-01-01

      This paper introduces the main problem of the lignite pulverizing system of large power stations, the use of actual production experience in Indonesia, for high-moisture lignite explosive the drying capacity demand large, the optimal control method. Domestic medium-speed mill boilers fueled with high moisture lignite certain reference.%  该文介绍了现有燃用褐煤的大型电站的制粉系统出现的主要问题,并利用在印尼实际的生产经验,针对高水分褐煤易爆炸,干燥出力需求大等特点,提出了相应的优化控制方法。对国内中速磨锅炉燃用高水分褐煤有一定的借鉴作用。

  7. Experimental and modeling study of the effect of CH(4) and pulverized coal on selective non-catalytic reduction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Cai, Ningsheng; Yang, Jingbiao; Xu, Bo

    2008-10-01

    The reduction of nitric oxide using ammonia combined with methane and pulverized coal additives has been studied in a drop tube furnace reactor. Simulated flue gas with 1000 ppm NO(x) and 3.4% excess oxygen was generated by cylinder gas. Experiments were performed in the temperature range of 700-1200 degrees C to investigate the effects of additives on the DeNO(x) performance. Subsequently, a kinetic mechanism was modified and validated based on experimental results, and a computational kinetic modeling with CHEMKIN was conducted to analyze the secondary pollutants. For both methane and pulverized coal additives, the temperature window is shifted towards lower temperatures. The appropriate reaction temperature is shifted to about 900 and 800 degrees C, respectively with 1000 ppm methane and 0.051 g min(-1) pulverized lignite coal. The addition of methane and pulverized coal widens the temperature window towards lower temperature suggesting a low temperature application of the process. Furthermore, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) reaction rate is accelerated evidently with additives and the residence time to complete the reaction is shortened distinctly. NO(x) reduction efficiency with 80% is achieved in about 0.3s without additive at 1000 degrees C. However, it is achieved in only about 0.2s with 100 ppm methane as additive, and only 0.07 and 0.05s are needed respectively for the cases of 500 and 1000 ppm methane. The modified kinetic modeling agrees well with the experimental results and reveals additional information about the process. Investigation on the byproducts where NO(2) and N(2)O were analyzed by modeling and the others were investigated by experimental means indicates that emissions would not increase with methane and pulverized coal additions in SNCR process and the efficacious temperature range of SNCR reaction is widened approximately with 100 degrees C.

  8. A Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Optimized for Oxyfuel Combustion Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Dlouhý

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on modifying a pulverized coal-fired steam boiler in a 250 MWe power plant for oxygen combustion conditions. The entry point of the study is a boiler that was designed for standard air combustion. It has been proven that simply substituting air by oxygen as an oxidizer is not sufficient for maintaining a satisfactory operating mode, not even with flue gas recycling. Boiler design optimization aggregating modifications to the boiler’s dimensions, heating surfaces and recycled flue gas flow rate, and specification of a flue gas recycling extraction point is therefore necessary in order to achieve suitable conditions for oxygen combustion. Attention is given to reducing boiler leakage, to which external pre-combustion coal drying makes a major contribution. The optimization is carried out with regard to an overall power plant conception for which a decrease in efficiency due to CO2 separation is formulated.

  9. Impact of petrographic properties on the burning behavior of pulverized coal using a drop tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Biswas; N. Choudhury; S. Ghosal; T. Mitra; A. Mukherjee; S.G. Sahu; M. Kumar [Jadavpur University, Dhanbad (India). Central Fuel Research Institute]. sb_cfri@yahoo.co.in

    2007-12-15

    The combustion behavior of three Indian coals of different rank with wide variation in ash content and maceral compositions were studied using a drop tube furnace (DTF). Each coal was pulverized into a specific size (80% below 200 mesh) and fed into the DTF separately. The DTF runs were carried out under identical conditions for all of the coals. The carbon burnout was found out from the chemical analyses of the feed coals and the char samples collected from different ports of the DTF. Char morphology analyses was carried on the burnout residues of the top port. The top port results show better burnout of the lower rank coals which however was not observed in the last port. An attempt has been made to account for this variation in terms of rank and petrographic parameters of the respective coals. 20 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  10. Burnout of pulverized biomass particles in large scale boiler - Single particle model approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, Jaakko; Aho, Martti; Moilanen, Antero [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Box 1603, 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Soerensen, Lasse Holst [ReaTech/ReAddit, Frederiksborgsveij 399, Niels Bohr, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Clausen, Soennik [Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Berg, Mogens [ENERGI E2 A/S, A.C. Meyers Vaenge 9, DK-2450 Copenhagen SV (Denmark)

    2010-05-15

    Burning of coal and biomass particles are studied and compared by measurements in an entrained flow reactor and by modelling. The results are applied to study the burning of pulverized biomass in a large scale utility boiler originally planned for coal. A simplified single particle approach, where the particle combustion model is coupled with one-dimensional equation of motion of the particle, is applied for the calculation of the burnout in the boiler. The particle size of biomass can be much larger than that of coal to reach complete burnout due to lower density and greater reactivity. The burner location and the trajectories of the particles might be optimised to maximise the residence time and burnout. (author)

  11. Breaking and Characteristics of Ganoderma Lucidum Spores by High Speed Entrifugal Shearing Pulverizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The spores of Ganoderma lucidum were ground and broken to ultrafine particles by high speed centrifugal shearing(HSCS) pulverizer. The characteristics of Ganoderma lucidum spores were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR). Ultraviolet-visible pectrophotometer was used to determine the extraction ratio of aqueous solubility polysaccharide between the raw and broken spores. The immunological function on the mice before and after the breaking of spores was investigated. The experimental results show that after being ground, the sporoderm-broken ratio reachs 100%,the original active ingredients of ganoderma lucidum spores do not change, and the extraction ratio of aqueous solubility polysaccharide is greatly increased by 40.08%. The broken spores show much higher immunological activity comparing with original spores of Ganoderma lucidum.

  12. Low-cost Evaporator Protection Method against Corrosion in a Pulverized Coal Fired Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Krzysztof Dyjakon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion processes appearing on the watertubes in a combustion chamber of pulverized coal-fired boilers require permanent control and service. Subject to the power plant strategy, different anti-corrosion protection methods can be applied. Technical-economical analysis has been performed to evaluate and support the decisions on maintenance and operation services. The paper presents and discusses results of the application of an air protection system in boiler OP-230 in view of anti-corrosion measures. It is indicated that a low-cost protection method of watertubes (evaporator against corrosion can be efficient and lead to financial savings in comparison to the standard procedure of replacement of watertube panels.

  13. Adapter for converting an oil burner head for burning of pulverized coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, J.E.

    1988-03-29

    This patent describes a burner head means forming a primary air passage in the burner head including a portion of generally circular configuration in cross-section having openings uniformally circularly disposed about its periphery, and a manifold effective to envelope the primary air passage means. The manifold has inlet means for connection to a source of pulverized coal and air, internal coal and air passages downstream of the inlet effective to divide incoming coal and air into a plurality of discrete streams thereof, and a manifold coal and air outlet opening from each coal and air passage. The manifold outlet openings each are in communication with a duct means having an outlet discharging into one of the openings about the periphery of the primary air passage means.

  14. Influence of constricted air distribution on NOx emissions in pulverized coal combustion boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Feng(魏风); ZHANG Jun-ying(张军营); TANG Bi-guang(唐必光); ZHENG Chu-guang(郑楚光)

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports a field testing of full scale PCC (Pulverized Coal Combustion) boiler study into the influence of constricted air distribution on NOx emissions at unit 3 (125 MW power units, 420 t/h boiler) of Guixi power station, Jiangxi and puts forward the methods to decrease NOx emissions and the principle of boiler operation and regulation through analyzing NOx emissions state under real running condition. Based on boiler constricted air distribution, the experiment mainly tested the influence of primary air, excessive air, boiler load and milling sets (tertiary air) on NOx emissions and found its influence characteristics. A degraded bituminous coal is simply adopted to avoid the test results from other factors.

  15. Flame radiant image numeralization for pulverized coal combustion in BF raceway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Liang-ying; OU Yang-qi; BAI Chen-guang; WANG Hua

    2005-01-01

    In order to establish correlativity between pulverized coal combustion in a blast furnace raceway and its radiant image, we investigated the relationships between two dimensional radiant images and three dimensional radiant energy in a blast furnace raceway, focusing on the correlativity of the numerical simulation of combustion processes with the connection of radiant images information and space temperature distribution. We calculated the uneven radiate characteristic parameterby taking radiant images as a kind of radiative boundary for numerical simulation of combustion processes, and put forward a method to examine three-dimensional temperatures distribution in blast furnace raceway by radiant image processing. The numeral temperature fields matching the real combustion can be got by the numeric image processing technique.

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2008-10-15

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

  17. Practice of promoting pulverized coal injection rate at no.4 blast furnace of China Steel Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, N.W.; Chang, C.T [China Steel Corp., Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2008-07-01

    In 2006, the China Steel Corporation (CSC) upgraded the injection system of its no.4 blast furnace to increase the pulverized coal (PC) rate which averaged 136 to 143 kg/thm. This paper described the scheduled shutdown of the furnace in May 2007 in order to modify it from a dilute phase injection system to a dense phase system using the technology of the Kuettner Company. Through proper burden distribution and operational parameter adjustments, the pulverized coal (PC) rate was increased to 178 kg/thm by November 2007, corresponding to a 65 t/hr injection rate with a productivity of 2.58 t/m{sup 3}/d. This paper described the challenges encountered following commissioning as well as the strategies of process control. The main differences between the existing and new injection system were that nitrogen was used to substitute compressed air as the conveying gas and the coal to gas ratio was increased from about 10 to 30 kg/kg. As a result, the transport method and the operation pressure had to be reassessed. This paper described the coal blend injection; screening facility for coal preparation; location of the distributor; and coal accumulation in the coal flow meter. The blast furnace adjustments included burden thickness control; burden distribution adjustment; improvement of raw material quality; and theoretical flame temperature adjustment. The upgrade project has proven to be very successful and has improved the competitiveness of CSC blast furnace no.4 significantly. Plans to upgrade the no.2 and no.3 blast furnaces are underway. Once completed, the operating cost and coke consumption of the blast furnaces will be reduced considerably. The modification to dense phase conveying system has shown that coal with high Hardgrove Index requires a higher driving force in the pneumatic dense phase transport and that coal mill equipped with a rotating classifier is recommended along with screens at the upstream of the feed tank. 3 refs., 6 tabs., 9 figs.

  18. Novel fragmentation model for pulverized coal particles gasification in low temperature air thermal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Rastko D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New system for start-up and flame support based on coal gasification by low temperature air thermal plasma is planned to supplement current heavy oil system in Serbian thermal power plants in order to decrease air pollutions emission and operational costs. Locally introduced plasma thermal energy heats up and ignites entrained coal particles, thus starting chain process which releases heat energy from gasified coal particles inside burner channel. Important stages during particle combustion, such as particle devolatilisation and char combustion, are described with satisfying accuracy in existing commercial CFD codes that are extensively used as powerful tool for pulverized coal combustion and gasification modeling. However, during plasma coal gasification, high plasma temperature induces strong thermal stresses inside interacting coal particles. These stresses lead to “thermal shock” and extensive particle fragmentation during which coal particles with initial size of 50-100 m disintegrate into fragments of at most 5-10 m. This intensifies volatile release by a factor 3-4 and substantially accelerates the oxidation of combustible matter. Particle fragmentation, due to its small size and thus limited influence on combustion process is commonly neglected in modelling. The main focus of this work is to suggest novel approach to pulverized coal gasification under high temperature conditions and to implement it into commercial comprehensive code ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. Proposed model was validated against experimental data obtained in newly built pilot scale D.C plasma burner test facility. Newly developed model showed very good agreement with experimental results with relative error less than 10%, while the standard built-in gasification model had error up to 25%.

  19. New perspectives on the transition between discrete fracture, fragmentation, and pulverization during brittle failure of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, W. A.; Ghaffari, H.; Barber, T. J.; Borjas, C.

    2015-12-01

    The motions of Earth's tectonic plates are typically measured in millimeters to tens of centimeters per year, seemingly confirming the generally-held view that tectonic processes are slow, and have been throughout Earth's history. In line with this perspective, the vast majority of laboratory rock mechanics research focused on failure in the brittle regime has been limited to experiments utilizing slow loading rates. On the other hand, many natural processes that pose significant risk for humans (e.g., earthquakes and extraterrestrial impacts), as well as risks associated with human activities (blow-outs, explosions, mining and mine failures, projectile penetration), occur at rates that are hundreds to thousands of times faster than those typically simulated in the laboratory. Little experimental data exists to confirm or calibrate theoretical models explaining the connection between these dramatic events and the pulverized rocks found in fault zones, impacts, or explosions; however the experimental data that does exist is thought-provoking: At the earth's surface, the process of brittle fracture passes through a critical transition in rocks at high strain rates (101-103s-1) between regimes of discrete fracture and distributed fragmentation, accompanied by a dramatic increase in strength. Previous experimental works on this topic have focused on key thresholds (e.g., peak stress, peak strain, average strain rate) that define this transition, but more recent work suggests that this transition is more fundamentally dependent on characteristics (e.g., shape) of the loading pulse and related microcrack dynamics, perhaps explaining why for different lithologies different thresholds more effectively define the pulverization transition. In this presentation we summarize some of our work focused on this transition, including the evolution of individual defects at the microscopic, microsecond scale and the energy budget associated with the brittle fragmentation process as a

  20. [Controlled release of prednisolone from suppository prepared using powder of pulverized tablet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Akitoshi; Oda, Shoko; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Muraoka, Reiko; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Tanaka, Kuniyoshi; Shikata, Toshiyuki; Tatsumi, Sumiyo; Tagawa, Noriko; Kobayashi, Yoshiharu; Hamaguchi, Tsuneo; Kadobayashi, Muneo

    2008-04-01

    Prednisolone suppositories have been used successfully for the treatment of ulcerative colitis in hospital settings. However, the raw material of prednisolone suppository, JP prednisolone powder (JP Powder), was recently removed from the market. Therefore we studied the effects of raw material and suppository base on the release of prednisolone suppository for the purpose of designing a new suppository with similar effects to those of suppository prepared using JP powder (old suppository). New suppositories consisting of the powder of pulverized tablet as raw material and Witepsol H-15 and Witepsol E-75 as suppository base were prepared according to the fusion method. Suppository release test was performed by reciprocating dialysis tube method with tapping (RDT method) and dialysis tubing method (DT method). Both RDT method and DT method were performed using a suppository dissolution apparatus (modified JP disintegration apparatus) and a JP15 paddle apparatus, respectively. The test fluid was 50 mM phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) maintained at 37+/-0.5 degrees C. The results of release test by RDT method were similar to those of DT method. Release rate of prednisolone from the new suppository was much faster than that of old suppository. The addition of Witepsol E-75 to new suppository base markedly delayed the release of prednisolone from the new suppository. Release rate of prednisolone from the new suppository, consisting of pulverized tablet and Witepsol H-15 and Witepsol E-75 (76:24), corresponded well with that of the old suppository. It was suggested that this suppository could be used as incoming preparation of suppository prepared using JP powder.

  1. Remote fabrication and irradiation test of recycled nuclear fuel prepared by the oxidation and reduction of spent oxide fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin Ryu, Ho; Chan Song, Kee; Il Park, Geun; Won Lee, Jung; Seung Yang, Myung

    2005-02-01

    A direct dry recycling process was developed in order to reuse spent pressurized light water reactor (LWR) nuclear fuel in CANDU reactors without the separation of sensitive nuclear materials such as plutonium. The benefits of the dry recycling process are the saving of uranium resources and the reduction of spent fuel accumulation as well as a higher proliferation resistance. In the process of direct dry recycling, fuel pellets separated from spent LWR fuel rods are oxidized from UO2 to U3O8 at 500 °C in an air atmosphere and reduced into UO2 at 700 °C in a hydrogen atmosphere, which is called OREOX (oxidation and reduction of oxide fuel). The pellets are pulverized during the oxidation and reduction processes due to the phase transformation between cubic UO2 and orthorhombic U3O8. Using the oxide powder prepared from the OREOX process, the compaction and sintering processes are performed in a remote manner in a shielded hot cell due to the high radioactivity of the spent fuel. Most of the fission gas and volatile fission products are removed during the OREOX and sintering processes. The mini-elements fabricated by the direct dry recycling process are irradiated in the HANARO research reactor for the performance evaluation of the recycled fuel pellets. Post-irradiation examination of the irradiated fuel showed that microstructural evolution and fission gas release behavior of the dry-recycled fuel were similar to high burnup UO2 fuel.

  2. Inquiry into Safety Problems in Production of Shell Pulverized Coal Gasifier%Shell粉煤气化生产中安全问题的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于英慧

    2011-01-01

    详细介绍了Shell粉煤气化工艺生产过程中常见的安全异常情况.探讨并提出了Shell粉煤气化工艺不同工段的安全措施.%Details are given of common abnormal conditions in safety during Shell pulverized coal gasification. An inquiry is made and safety measures are proposed for the various sections of the Shell pulverized coal gasification process.

  3. Modeling radiation in particle clouds: On the importance of inter-particle radiation for pulverized solid fuel combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Haugen, Nils Erland L

    2014-01-01

    The importance of inter-particle radiation for clusters of gray and diffuse particles is investigated. The radiative cooling of each individual particle is found to vary strongly with its position in the cluster, and a mean radiative particle cooling term is proposed for single particle simulations of particle clusters or for high detail simulation, like Direct Numerical Simulations of small sub-volumes of large clusters of particles. Radiative cooling is shown to be important both for furnaces for coal gasification and coal combustion. Broadening the particle size distribution is found to have just a minor effect on the radiative particle cooling. This is particularly the case for large and dense particle clusters where there is essentially no effect of size distribution broadening at all. For smaller and more dilute particle clusters, the effect of distribution broadening is clear but still not dominant.

  4. Reconstruction of the aero-mixture channels of the pulverized coal plant of the 100MW power plant unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanovic Vladan B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After the last revitalization of thermal power block of 100 MW in TPP “Kostolac A”, made in the year 2004, during the operation of the plant, pulverized coal deposition often occurred in horizontal sections of the aero-mixture channels. Deposition phenomenon manifested itself in places ahead of spherical compensators in the direction of flow of pulverized coal to the burners, due to unfavorable configuration of these channels. Coal dust deposited in the channels dried and spontaneously combusted, causing numerous damage to channels and its isolation as well as the frequent stoppage of the operation for necessary interventions. The paper presents the original solution of reconstruction of aero-mixture channels which prevented deposition of coal dust and its eventual ignition. In this way the reliability of the mill plant is maximized and higher availability of boiler and block as a whole is achieved.

  5. Influence of the feed moisture, rotor speed, and blades gap on the performances of a biomass pulverization technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Siyi; Zhou, Yangmin; Yi, Chuijie; Luo, Yin; Fu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a novel biomass pulverization technology was proposed by our group. In this paper, further detailed studies of this technology were carried out. The effects of feed moisture and crusher operational parameters (rotor speed and blades gap) on product particle size distribution and energy consumption were investigated. The results showed that higher rotor speed and smaller blades gap could improve the hit probability between blades and materials and enhance the impacting and grinding effects to generate finer products, however, resulting in the increase of energy consumption. Under dry conditions finer particles were much more easily achieved, and there was a tendency for the specific energy to increase with increasing feed moisture. Therefore, it is necessary for the raw biomass material to be dried before pulverization.

  6. Fast-pulverization enabled simultaneous enhancement on cycling stability and rate capability of C@NiFe2O4 hierarchical fibrous bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zerui; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xiaoling; Sun, Wenping; Dou, Shixue; Huang, Xin; Shi, Bi

    2017-09-01

    Electrochemical-grinding induced pulverization is the origin of capacity fading in NiFe2O4. Increasing current density normally accelerates the pulverization that deteriorates lithium storage properties of NiFe2O4. Here we show that the high current induced fast-pulverization can serve as an efficient activation strategy for quick and simultaneous enhancement on cycling stability and rate capability of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) that are densely packed on the hierarchically structured carbon nanofiber strand. At a high current density, the pulverization of NiFe2O4 NPs can be accomplished in a few cycles exposing more active surface. During the fast-pulverization, the hierarchically structured carbon nanofiber strand maintains conductive contact for the densely packed NiFe2O4 NPs regardless of charge or discharge, which also effectively suppresses the repetitive breaks and growths of solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) via multiple-level structural adaption that favourites the quick formation of a thin and dense SEI, thus providing strong interparticle connectivity with enhancement on cycling stability and rate capability (e.g. doubled capacity). Our findings demonstrate the potential importance of high current induced fast-pulverization as an efficient activation strategy for achieving durable electrode materials suffering from electrochemical-grinding effects.

  7. Numerical study of Pavlovskiy coal pulverized combustion in the furnace of BKZ-210-140 steam boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorin, A. S.; Gil, A. V.; Khaustov, P. S.; Tabakaev, R. B.; Buslov, D. A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper pulverized combustion of insufficiently investigated low-grade Pavlovskiy coal is simulated using the modern engineering software FIRE 3D. The object of study is a widespread in Russia BKZ-210-140 steam boiler. The results of computer simulation are represented with average temperatures in horizontal sections and oxygen concentration. Curves are plotted for three steam generating capacity loads of the boiler: 100%, 70% and 50%.

  8. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1991-09-20

    Reburning is examined as a means of NO{sub x} destruction in a 17 kW down-fired pulverized coal combustor. In reburning, a secondary fuel is introduced downstream of the primary flame to produce a reducing zone, favorable to NO destruction, and air is introduced further downstream to complete the combustion. Emphasis is on natural gas reburning and a bituminous coal primary flame. A parametric examination of reburning employing a statistical experimental design, is conducted, complemented by detailed experiments. Mechanisms governing the inter-conversion of nitrogenous species in the fuel rich reburn zone is explored. The effect of reburning on N{sub 2}O emissions, the effect of primary flame mode (premixed and diffusion) and the effect of distributing the reburning fuel, are also investigated.

  9. Pyrometric fuel particle measurements in pressurized reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joutsenoja, T.; Stenberg, J.; Hernberg, R.; Aho, M.; Richard, J.-R.; Mallet, C.; Bonn, B. [Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1998-12-31

    A fibre-optic two-colour pyrometric technique for fuel particle temperature and size measurement is modified and applied to three pressurised reactors of different type in Finland, Germany and France. A modification of the pyrometric method for simultaneous in situ measurement of the temperature and size of individual pulverised coal particles at the pressurised entrained flow reactor of VTT Energy in Jyvaskyla was developed and several series of measurements were made in order to study the effects of oxygen concentration (3-30 vol%) and pressure (0.2-1.0 MPa) on the particle temperature. The fuels used in the experiments were Westerholt, Polish and Gottelborn hvb coals. Gardanne lignite and Niederberg anthracite. The initial nominal fuel particle size varied in the experiments from 70 to 250 {mu}m and the gas temperature was typically 1173 K. For the anthracite also the effects of gas temperature (1073-1423 K) and CO{sub 2} concentration (6-80 vol%) were studied. In Orleans a fibre-optic pyrometric device was installed to a pressurised thermogravimetric reactor of CNRS and the two-colour temperatures of fuel samples were measured. The fuel in the experiments was pulverized Gottelborn char. The reliability of optical temperature measurement in this particular application was analysed. In Essen a fibre-optic pyrometric technique that is capable to measure bed and fuel particle temperatures was applied to an atmospheric fluidised bed reactor of DMT. The effects of oxygen concentration (3-8 vol%) and bed temperature (1123-1193 K) on the fuel particle temperature were studied. The fuels in these were Westerholt coal and char and EBV-coal. 17 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Comparisons between oxy-fuel combustion and IGCC technologies in China coal- energy industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xue; Clemente Jul, María del Carmen

    2010-01-01

    A comparison between oxy-fuel combustion plants and IGCC plants has been carried out. Oxy-fuel combustion performs better for the retrofit of exist pulverized coal plants after the evaluation of efficiency, retrofit cost and O&M cost. China is currently and will depending on coal for its energy for a long time. Plenty of PC plants are used in existing power plants due to its lower coal consumption. One way to reduce CO2 emission with CCS is to equip existing power plants with appliance...

  11. Trace element emissions when firing pulverized coal in a pilot-scale combustion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.F.; Wincek, R.T.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Title Ed of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 designates 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Fourteen of the 189 substances identified are: antimony (Sb), beryllium (Be), chlorine (0), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), fluorine (F), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and phosphorous (P). Eleven of these elements have been detected in the flue gas of pulverized coal-fired utility boilers. Currently there are no regulations that limit the emissions of these elements during coal combustion in utility- or industrial-scale boilers. Given the growing body of risk assessment data on these elements and their impact on the environment and human health, it is possible that regulations on emission levels for certain elements will be imposed. A knowledge of the occurrence of trace elements in coal and their behavior during combustion is essential to predict emissions and to develop control technologies for remediation. The partitioning of trace elements during combustion can be traced to their volatility within the system. For purposes of this paper, the classification of trace elements summarized by Clarke and Sloss will be used: Group I elements, i.e., elements that are not easily volatilized and form larger bottom ash and fly ash particles; Group H elements, i.e., elements that are partially or completely volatilization followed by condensation as small particles or on the surface of small particles; and Group III elements, i.e., elements that are readily volatilized and usually remain in the gas phase system.

  12. Feasibility investigation and combustion enhancement of a new burner functioning with pulverized solid olive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bounaouara H., Sautet J.C., Ben Ticha H., Mhimid A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an experimental study on solid olive residue (olive cake combustion in form of pulverized jet. This is a contribution to the valorization of olive residue as a source of renewable energy available in the majority of mediterranean countries. A sample of olive cake from Tunisian origin is prepared for the experiment; this sample is crushed, dried and sifted in order to obtain the desired particles form. A new burner made up of a coaxial cylindrical tube is especially designed and fabricated. In order to start the combustion of olive cake and maintain the main flame, two types of pilot flame were used: a central premixed flame of methane/oxygen and an annular diffusion flame of methane. This paper shows the conditions for an efficient olive cake burner operation in free air. The effects of particle size and pilot flame position have been discussed. The olive cake combustion is possible only with particles at a size below 200 μm. Moreover, the combustion maintained by the annular pilot flame ensures better burning conditions than the central pilot flame. Finally, the inserted preheating system has improved the olive cake combustion.

  13. The past, present and future of pulverized coal injection at ThyssenKrupp Steel AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, M.; Korthas, B.; Schmole, P. [ThyssenKrupp Steel AG., Duisburg (Germany). Hot Metal Production-Metallurgy Division

    2008-07-01

    Coal injection has been used to optimize blast furnace operation at the ThyssenKrupp Steel (TKS) plants in Germany for over 25 years. The main TKS plants are located at Duisburg on the Rhine river with optimum logistical conditions for raw materials and finished products. This presentation described the long history of blast furnace operation at TKS and the optimization of the combustion process in the raceway. The key factors for controlling coal combustion were coal properties; lance design; partial pressure of oxygen in the raceway; amount of nitrogen for the pneumatic coal transport; and additives to the coal. When changing over from the all-coke to the pulverized coal (PC)-coke mode of operation, the main attention was directed to blast velocity and burden distribution. Initially, 2 injection systems were developed in 1982 for a blast furnace pilot facility in Hamborn where coal was injected through 3 tuyeres of the blast furnace. The experience gained at the pilot facility was used for other production facilities. They were evaluated in terms of plant wear, pneumatic conveying characteristics, and behaviour of the system when using different types of coal. In 1987, the Schwelgern blast furnace was equipped with the dense flow system and the blast furnace in Ruhrort was equipped with an entrained flow system and metering valves. In February 1991, blast furnace no. 9 in Hamborn was equipped with the dense flow for all 28 tuyeres and is designed for an injection rate of 250 kg/THM. 21 figs.

  14. Asphalt modified with nonmetals separated from pulverized waste printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiuyong; Guo, Jie; Wang, Shifeng; Xu, Zhenming

    2009-01-15

    Nonmetals separated from pulverized waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) were reused as a new modifier to improve the performance of asphalt. The classical and rheological properties of unmodified asphalt and non-metal-modified asphalt (NMA) were determined. Specifically, the influence of nonmetals content and particle size on these properties has been studied. When the nonmetals content was 25 wt% and the particle size group was 0.07-0.09 mm, the NMA had a viscosity of 1225 cP at 135 degrees C, a penetration of 53.7 dmm at 15 degrees C, a ring and ball softening point of 54 degrees C, a ductility of 43.5 cm at 15 degrees C, a G*/sin delta of 3995.27 Pa at 60 degrees C, and an upper limit temperature (G*/sin delta = 1 kPa) of 69.4 degrees C, all of which showed that the high temperature performance of asphalt was improved significantly. Therefore, this study gives a fundamental understanding of NMA and represents a novel attempt to deal with the fast increasing quantities of nonmetals from waste PCBs, which is significant from an environmental and economic standpoint.

  15. 椰壳粉碎机的研制%Development of coconut pulverizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙忠; 张燕; 梁栋

    2013-01-01

    介绍一种新型的椰子壳粉碎机,并介绍其双子滚齿、双子转子.该机械采用机械的方法实现自动粉碎椰壳.使用碾压和研磨相结合,粉碎率达到90%以上,成品细度能达到300目.并可以通过传送带对椰壳进行投料,粉碎过程可实现自动化,从而减少人工劳动力,提高粉碎效率.%Introduced a new type of coconut pulverizer,with the twin roll teeth and twin rotor.The pulverzier realized grinding coconut shell automatically with mechanical method.Combined with rolling and grinding,the degradation rate was over 90 percents,and the finish fineness reached 300 mesh.The process could realize atomization by carry belt,with less manual labor and high efficiency.

  16. Three Dimensional Modeling of Pulverized Coal combustion in a 600MW Corner Fired Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SandroDal-Secco

    2000-01-01

    The three-dimensional code ESTET developed at the LNH has been used to predict the reactive flow in a 600 W coal fired boiler,Assuming a no-slip condition between the gas and the coal,the equations for a gas-particle mixture can e written.The pulverized coal particle size distribution is represented by a discrete number of particle size groups determined by the measured fineness distrbution.The combustion models taking into account the pyrolysis of the particle and the heterogeneous combustion of char have been validated using intensive measurements performed on the 600MW utility boiler.Heat fluxes were measured along the walls of the furnace and satisfactory agreement between computation and measurements has been achieved in terms of maximum flux location and heat flux intensity.Local measurements of velocities using LDV probe.gas temperature and gas species concentrations were performed in the vicinity of one burner and compared with the computed variables.Again we have observed a good agreement between the computations and the measurements in terms of jet penetration,temperature distribution.oxygen concentration and ash content.

  17. Experimental study on cement clinker co-generation in pulverized coal combustion boilers of power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenlong; Luo, Zhongyang; Shi, Zhenglun; Cen, Kefa

    2006-06-01

    The idea to co-generate cement clinker in pulverized coal combustion (PCC) boilers of power plants is introduced and discussed. An experimental study and theoretical analysis showed this idea to be feasible and promising. By adding quick lime as well as other mineralizers to the coal and grinding the mixture before combustion, sulfoaluminate cement clinker with a high content of silicate (SCCHS) could be generated. The main mineral phases in SCCHS are 2CaO x SiO2 (dicalcium-silicate), 3CaO x 3Al2O3 x CaSO4 (calcium-sulfoaluminate) and 2CaO x A12O3 SiO2 (gehlenite). Performance tests showed that the SCCHS met the requirements for utilization in common construction. Based on this idea, zero solid waste generation from PCC would be realized. Furthermore, thermal power production and cement production could be combined, and this would have a significant effect on both environmental protection and natural resource saving.

  18. Occurrence and volatility of several trace elements in pulverized coal boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ya-ji; JIN Bao-sheng; ZHONG Zhao-ping; XIAO Rui; TANG Zhi-yong; REN Hui-feng

    2004-01-01

    The contents of eight trace elements(Mn, Cr, Pb, As, Se, Zn, Cd, Hg) in raw coal, bottom ash and flyash were measured in a 220 t/h pulverized coal boiler. Factors affecting distribution of trace elements wereinvestigated, including fly ash diameter, furnace temperature, oxygen content and trace elements' characters. Onecoefficient of Meij was also improved to more directly show element enrichment in combustion products. Theseelements may be classified into three groups according to their distribution: Group 1: Hg, which is very volatile.Group 2: Pb, Zn, Cd, which are partially volatile. Group 3: Mn, which is hardly volatile. Se may be locatedbetween groups 1 and 2. Cr has properties of both group 1 and 3. In addition, the smaller diameter of fly ash, themore relative enrichment of trace elements( except Mn). The fly ash showed different adsorption mechanisms oftrace elements and the volatilization of trace elements rises with furnace temperature. Relative enrichments of traceelements(except Mn and Cr) in fly ash are larger than that in bottom ash. Low oxygen content can not alwaysimprove the volatilization of trace elements. Pb is easier to form chloride than Cd during coal combustion. Traceelements should be classified in accordance with factors.

  19. Pack Carburization of Mild Steel, using Pulverized Bone as Carburizer: Optimizing Process Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Olatunde BORODE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation was conducted into the mechanical properties of mild steel subjected to packed carburization treatment using pulverized bone as the carburizer, carburized at 850C, 900C and 950C, soaked at the carburizing temperature for 15 minutes and 30 minutes, quenched in oil and tempered at 550C. Prior carburization process, standard test samples were prepared from the as received specimen for tensile and impact tests. After carburization process, the test samples were subjected to the standard test and from the data obtained, ultimate tensile strength, engineering strain, impact strength, Youngs moduli were calculated. The case and core hardness of the carburized tempered samples were measured. It was observed that the mechanical properties of mild steels were found to be strongly influenced by the process of carburization, carburizing temperature and soaking time at carburizing temperature. It was concluded that the sample carburized at 900C soaked for 15 minutes and the one carburized at 850C soaked for 30 minutes followed by oil quenching and tempering at 550C were better because they showed a trend of hard case with softer core.

  20. Effective identification of the three particle modes generated during pulverized coal combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU DunXi; XU MingHou; YAO Hong; LIU XiaoWei; ZHOU Ke

    2008-01-01

    Based on the mass fraction size distribution of aluminum (AI), an improved method for effectively identifying the modes of particulate matter from pulverized coal combustion is proposed in this study. It is found that the particle size distributions of coal-derived particulate matter actually have three modes, rather than just mere two. The ultrafine mode is mainly generated through the vaporization and condensation processes. The coarse mode is primarily formed by the coalescence of molten minerals, while the newly-found central mode is attributed to the heterogeneous condensation or adsorption of vaporized species on fine residual ash particles. The detailed investigation of the mass fraction size distribution of sulfur (S) further demonstrates the rationality and effectiveness of the mass fraction size distribution of the AI in identifying three particle modes. The results show that not only can the number of particle modes be identified in the mass fraction size distributions of the AI but also can their size boundaries be more accurately defined. This method provides new insights in elucidating particle formation mechanisms and their physico-chemical characteristics.

  1. Two-stage numerical simulation for temperature profile in furnace of tangentially fired pulverized coal boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Nai-jun; XU Qiong-hui; ZHOU Ping

    2005-01-01

    Considering the fact that the temperature distribution in furnace of a tangential fired pulverized coal boiler is difficult to be measured and monitored, two-stage numerical simulation method was put forward. First, multi-field coupling simulation in typical work conditions was carried out off-line with the software CFX-4.3, and then the expression of temperature profile varying with operating parameter was obtained. According to real-time operating parameters, the temperature at arbitrary point of the furnace can be calculated by using this expression. Thus the temperature profile can be shown on-line and monitoring for combustion state in the furnace is realized. The simul-ation model was checked by the parameters measured in an operating boiler, DG130-9.8/540. The maximum of relative error is less than 12% and the absolute error is less than 120 ℃, which shows that the proposed two-stage simulation method is reliable and able to satisfy the requirement of industrial application.

  2. Investigation of swirling flow mixing for application in an MHD pulverized coal combustor using isothermal modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, W. H.

    1980-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate combustor reactant mixing with swirling oxidizer flow. The combustor configuration that was considered was designed to simulate a 4 lbm/sec mas flow pulverized coal combustor being tested in The University of Tennessee Space Institute MHD Facility. A one-fourth dimensionally scaled combustor model was developed for isothermal flow testing. A comparison was made of cold flow tests using 3 swirler designs with a base case oxidizer injector design of perforated plated which demonstrated acceptable performance in the 4 lbm/sec MHD combustor. The three swirlers that were evaluated were designed to allow a wide range of swirl intensity to be investigated. The design criterion of the swirler was the swirl number which has been related to swirler geometry. The results of the study showed that the swirlers that were tested fell short of the mixing characteristics displayed with the perforated plate base case oxidizer injector. Test data obtained with the cold flow model established that the actual swirl numbers of two of the swirlers were much lower than the design swirl numbers. Recirculation zones were defined for all configurations that were tested, and a comparison of velocity profiles was made for the configurations.

  3. Influence of high-energy impact on the physical and technical characteristics of coal fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal'tsev, L. I.; Belogurova, T. P.; Kravchenko, I. V.

    2017-08-01

    Currently, in the world's large-scale coal-fired power industry, the combustion of pulverized coal is the most widely spread technology of combusting the coals. In recent years, the micropulverization technology for preparation and combustion of the coal has been developed in this field. As applied to the small-scale power industry, the method of combusting the coal in the form of a coal-water slurry has been explored for years. Fine coal powders are produced and used in the pulverized-coal gasification. Therefore, the coal preparation methods that involve high-dispersion disintegration of coals attract the greatest interest. The article deals with the problems of high-energy impact on the coal during the preparation of pulverized-coal fuels and coal-water slurries, in particular, during the milling of the coal in ball drum mills and the subsequent regrinding in disintegrators or the cavitation treatment of the coal-water slurries. The investigations were conducted using samples of anthracite and lignite from Belovskii open-pit mine (Kuznetsk Basin). It is shown that both the disintegration and the cavitation treatment are efficient methods for controlling the fuel characteristics. Both methods allow increasing the degree of dispersion of the coal. The content of the small-sized particles reground by cavitation considerably exceeds the similar figure obtained using the disintegrator. The specific surface area of the coal is increased by both cavitation and disintegration with the cavitation treatment producing a considerably greater effect. Being subjected to the cavitation treatment, most coal particles assume the form of a split characterized by the thermodynamically nonequilibrium state. Under external action, in particular, of temperature, the morphological structure of such pulverized materials changes faster and, consequently, the combustion of the treated coal should occur more efficiently. The obtained results are explained from the physical point of view.

  4. Upgraded fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, V.P.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper

  5. Numerical Simulation of Combustion Characteristics of a 300 MW Blast Furnace Gas/Pulverized Coal Combined Combustion Boiler%300MW煤粉/高炉煤气混燃锅炉燃烧特性数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春波; 魏建国; 盛金贵; 李艳奇

    2012-01-01

    Blast furnace gas(BFG) produced from steel mill is a low heat value fuel,which combined with pulverized coal to combust in boiler is one of effective ways.However,the combustion characteristics would be changed greatly when compared with only pulverized coal combustion.For example,superheaters and reheaters are easy to excess rated temperatures and carbon content in fly ash will become higher,etc.All these problems lead to its limited application today.Take a 300MW BFG/pulverized coal boiler for example,the combustion characteristics were simulated by means of two mixture fractions way.The pure coal condition and three BFG ratio: 10%,20% and 30% conditions were investigated.It shows the temperature level in boiler is lowered obviously when BFG was mixed into boiler.For example,the maximal temperature is lowered about 81K when BFG ratio is 10% for a boiler section.Also,the temperature becomes lower with the BFG ratio.When BFG was mixed into boiler the flue gases volume would be increased.So,the actual stay time for pulverized coal in boiler will be shortened and it is more difficulty for coal to combust completely.Aslo,it is helpfully for control NO emission when BFG was mixed into boiler.%钢厂高炉煤气是一种低热值燃料,它和煤粉在炉内掺烧是其一种有效的利用途径。但煤粉掺烧高炉煤气后燃烧特性与纯煤粉燃烧有很大不同,掺烧过程中易发生过/再热器超温、飞灰含碳量过高等问题,导致其在大型锅炉上的应用很少。针对某钢厂300MW四角切圆煤粉/高炉煤气混燃锅炉,使用二混合分数法对其燃烧特性进行数值模拟。对比研究了纯燃煤工况和高炉煤气掺烧量分别为10%、20%、30%的工况,发现掺烧高炉煤气时炉内温度水平有明显下降(如,掺烧10%高炉煤气时截面最高温度降低81K),且随着掺烧量的增加而加剧,但下降的趋势变缓。掺烧高炉煤气后产生烟气量增多,炉膛出口烟速有明显增加,

  6. Formation of NOx precursors during Chinese pulverized coal pyrolysis in an arc plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-ren Bao; Jin-cao Zhang; Fan Li; Li-ping Chang [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology

    2007-08-15

    The formation of NOx precursors (HCN and NH{sub 3}) from the pyrolysis of several Chinese pulverized coals in an arc plasma jet was investigated through both thermodynamic analysis of the C-H-O-N system and experiments. Results of thermodynamic analysis show that the dominant N-containing gaseous species is HCN together with a small amount of ammonia above the temperature of 2000 K. The increase of H content advances the formation of HCN and NH{sub 3}, but the yields of HCN and NH{sub 3} are decreased with a high concentration of O in the system. These results are accordant with the experimental data. The increasing of input power promotes the formation of HCN and NH{sub 3} from coal pyrolysis in an arc plasma jet. Tar-N is not formed during the process. The yield of HCN changes insignificantly with the changing of the residence time of coal particles in the reactor, but that of NH{sub 3} decreases as residence times increase because of the relative instability at high temperature. Adsorption and gasification of CO{sub 2} on the coal surface also can restrain the formation of HCN and NH{sub 3} compare to the results in an Ar plasma jet. Yields of HCN and NH{sub 3} are sensitive to the coal feeding rate, indicating that NOx precursors could interact with the nascent char to form other N-containing species. The formation of HCN and NH{sub 3} during coal pyrolysis in a H{sub 2}/Ar plasma jet are not dependent on coal rank. The N-containing gaseous species is released faster than others in the volatiles during coal pyrolysis in an arc plasma jet, and the final nitrogen content in the char is lower than that in the parent coal, which it is independent of coal type. 16 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Distribution of trace elements in selected pulverized coals as a function of particle size and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, C.L.; Zeng, T.; Che, J.; Ames, M.R.; Sarofim, A.F.; Olmez, I.; Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Mroczkowski, S.; Palmer, C.; Finkelman, R.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements in coal have diverse modes of occurrence that will greatly influence their behavior in many coal utilization processes. Mode of occurrence is important in determining the partitioning during coal cleaning by conventional processes, the susceptibility to oxidation upon exposure to air, as well as the changes in physical properties upon heating. In this study, three complementary methods were used to determine the concentrations and chemical states of trace elements in pulverized samples of four US coals: Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, Elkhorn and Hazard, and Wyodak coals. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was used to measure the absolute concentration of elements in the parent coals and in the size- and density-fractionated samples. Chemical leaching and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to provide information on the form of occurrence of an element in the parent coals. The composition differences between size-segregated coal samples of different density mainly reflect the large density difference between minerals, especially pyrite, and the organic portion of the coal. The heavy density fractions are therefore enriched in pyrite and the elements associated with pyrite, as also shown by the leaching and XAFS methods. Nearly all the As is associated with pyrite in the three bituminous coals studied. The sub-bituminous coal has a very low content of pyrite and arsenic; in this coal arsenic appears to be primarily organically associated. Selenium is mainly associated with pyrite in the bituminous coal samples. In two bituminous coal samples, zinc is mostly in the form of ZnS or associated with pyrite, whereas it appears to be associated with other minerals in the other two coals. Zinc is also the only trace element studied that is significantly more concentrated in the smaller (45 to 63 ??m) coal particles.

  8. Effect of multiphase radiation on coal combustion in a pulverized coal jet flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bifen; Roy, Somesh P.; Zhao, Xinyu; Modest, Michael F.

    2017-08-01

    The accurate modeling of coal combustion requires detailed radiative heat transfer models for both gaseous combustion products and solid coal particles. A multiphase Monte Carlo ray tracing (MCRT) radiation solver is developed in this work to simulate a laboratory-scale pulverized coal flame. The MCRT solver considers radiative interactions between coal particles and three major combustion products (CO2, H2O, and CO). A line-by-line spectral database for the gas phase and a size-dependent nongray correlation for the solid phase are employed to account for the nongray effects. The flame structure is significantly altered by considering nongray radiation and the lift-off height of the flame increases by approximately 35%, compared to the simulation without radiation. Radiation is also found to affect the evolution of coal particles considerably as it takes over as the dominant mode of heat transfer for medium-to-large coal particles downstream of the flame. To investigate the respective effects of spectral models for the gas and solid phases, a Planck-mean-based gray gas model and a size-independent gray particle model are applied in a frozen-field analysis of a steady-state snapshot of the flame. The gray gas approximation considerably underestimates the radiative source terms for both the gas phase and the solid phase. The gray coal approximation also leads to under-prediction of the particle emission and absorption. However, the level of under-prediction is not as significant as that resulting from the employment of the gray gas model. Finally, the effect of the spectral property of ash on radiation is also investigated and found to be insignificant for the present target flame.

  9. Economic Analysis for Rebuilding of an Aged Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler with a New Boiler in an Aged Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhanettin Cetin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fossil-fired thermal power plants (TPP produce a significant part of electricity in the world. Because of the aging TPPs and so their equipment (especially boiler, thermal power plants also produce less power than their installed capacities, and there has been power loss in time. This situation affects the supply and demand balance of countries. For this reason, aging equipments such as pulverized coal-fired boiler (PCB must be renewed and power loss must be recovered, instead of building new TPPs. In this study, economic analysis of rebuilding an aged pulverized coal-fired boiler with a new pulverized coal-fired boiler including flue gas desulfurization (FGD unit and a circulating fluidized bed boiler (FBB are investigated in an existing old TPP. Emission costs are also added to model, and the developed model is applied to a 200 MWe pulverized coal-fired thermal power plant in Turkey. As a result, the payback period and the net present value are calculated for different technical and economic parameters such as power loss, load factor, electricity price, discount rate, and escalation rate by using the annual value method. The outcomes of this study show that rebuilding of a pulverized coal-fired boiler with a new one is amortized itself in a very short time.

  10. Effect of the Reburning Zone Stoichiometry on the Nox Concentration at the Three-Stage Combustion of Pulverized Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernetskaya Nelya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical study of heat and mass transfer taking into account the combustion of coal particles in the furnace at the three-stage combustion of pulverized coal was performed. Analysis of the reburning zone stoichiometry on the concentration of nitrogen oxides at the furnace outlet was made. The values of excess air in the primary and reburning combustion zones, providing for the concentration of nitrogen oxides at the furnace outlet is not more than 350 mg/m3 and unburned carbon not more than 1 % when burning coal with a high content of nitrogen were established.

  11. Gasification in pulverized coal flames. Second quarterly progress report, October--December 1975. [Contains literature survey on vortex gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenzer, R. C.; George, P. E.; Laurendeau, N. M.

    1976-01-01

    This project is concerned with the production of power and synthesis gases from pulverized coal via suspension gasification. A literature review concerning the vortex type gasifier has been completed and a survey concerning the confined jet gasifier is underway. Preliminary design of the vortex gasifier is nearing completion. Test cell and coal handling facilities are in the final stages of design and coal handling equipment has been received. A mass spectrometer has been ordered and a preliminary survey of high-temperature probes is complete.

  12. 煤粉燃烧过程的数值模拟%Numerical simulation of pulverized-coal combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏博; 秦国彤; 纪任山; 王乃继

    2009-01-01

    The comparative study between CFD numerical results of pulverized coal combustion process and the experimental data is becoming an important measure for validating mathematical models and direct engineering practice. The CFD commercial software, FLUENT, was used to simulate the pulverized coal flow and combustion. Mixture-Fraction/PDF model was used to simulate turbulent combustion; P-1 radiation model was used for simulating radiation heat transfer; the Langrange/Euler's method was used for dealing with momentum, mass and energy exchange between the solid and the gas phase; the two-competing rates model for devolatilization and the kinitics/diffusion limited combustion model for simulating surface combustion of pulverized coal particles. The result of simulation is consistent with the data from actual combustion process. The simulation results show the rules of the volatile releasing and combustion processing of coke, which could provide important references to improve the combustion of the pulverized coal.%采用计算流体动力学软件对煤粉实际燃烧过程进行数值计算并结合其热态试验数据进行对比分析,已成为验证数学模型和指导工程实践的一种重要研究手段,应用商业软件FLUENT对煤粉燃烧及流场进行了数值模拟分析,采用混合分数/概率密度函数法模拟湍流燃烧,用P-1辐射模型开展辐射传热模拟,利用拉格朗日/欧拉法处理气固两相间的动量、质量和能量交换,对挥发份的析出采用双速率竞争模型,采用动力/扩散反应速率模型模拟煤粉颗粒的表面燃烧,并对模拟结果进行分析与对比,计算结果与实际燃烧过程有较好的一致性,数值模拟计算结果揭示了挥发分释放与焦炭燃烧的过程,为改善和优化煤粉的燃烧提供了重要的参考依据.

  13. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  14. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  15. 煤质变化对Shell粉煤气化工艺的影响%THE EFFECT OF COAL QUALITY CHANGE ON SHELL PULVERIZED-COAL GASIFICATION PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国祥

    2011-01-01

    The Shell pulverized-coal gasification process is introduced,the specific requirement for coal quality by Shell pulverized-coal gasification process summarized,several factors related to coal quality and the effect of the changes of these factors on Shell pulverized-coal gasification plant highlighted and the preventive measures based on the effects concluded.%介绍Shell粉煤气化工艺流程,总结Shell粉煤气化工艺对煤质的具体要求,阐述与煤质相关的几方面因素及这些因素的变化对Shell粉煤气化装置的影响,并根据这些影响得出相应的预防措施。

  16. 磨煤机出口风压及风温的热控安装%Thermal control installation of air pressure and air temperature of pulverizer outlet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任强

    2011-01-01

    According to the operation ot ZGM-95 type pulverizer produced by Beijing electric power equipment factory great used in northern region, formation and factors of air pressure and air temperature of pulverizer outlet, this paper made induction and analysis, and made technical reformation to the problems influence of the accuracy of air pressure and air temperature of pulverizer outlet, made its accurate measurement, normal operation.%针对北方地区大量使用的北京电力设备总厂生产的ZGM-95型磨煤机在运行过程中,磨出口风压及风温的形成关系和因素,归纳和分析,对影响磨出口风压及风温准确性的问题进行技术改造,使其测量准确,运行正常。

  17. Assessment of the potential of colloidal fuels in future energy usage. Final report. [97 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-25

    Pulverized coal has been an increasing important source of energy over the past century. Most large utility boilers, all modern coking plants, and many industrial boilers and blast furnaces employ pulverized coal as a major feed stream. In periods of oil shortages, such as during World Wars I and II, the concept of adding powdered coal to oil for use in combustion equipment originally designed for oil has been actively pursued but rarely used. Over this same period of time, there have been attempts to use air suspensions of coal dust in diesel engines in Germany, and in turbines in various countries. The economic advantages to be enjoyed by substitution of powdered coal in oil are not generally realized. Oil costs at $30/bbl represent a fuel value of about $5.00/10/sup 6/ Btu; coal at $25/ton is equivalent to approximately $1.00/10/sup 6/ Btu. Although capital costs for the use of coal are higher than those associated with the use of oil, coal is clearly becoming the least costly fuel. Not only are considerable cost advantages possible, but an improvement in balance of payments and an increase in reliability of fuel supplies are other potential benefits. It is therefore recommended that increased national attention be given to develop these finer grinds of carbonaceous fuels to be used in various suspending fluids. Technical areas where significant additional support appear desirable are described.

  18. Fuel distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tison, R.R.; Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.

    1979-07-01

    Distribution of fuel is considered from a supply point to the secondary conversion sites and ultimate end users. All distribution is intracity with the maximum distance between the supply point and end-use site generally considered to be 15 mi. The fuels discussed are: coal or coal-like solids, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Although the fuel state, i.e., gas, liquid, etc., can have a major impact on the distribution system, the source of these fuels (e.g., naturally-occurring or coal-derived) does not. Single-source, single-termination point and single-source, multi-termination point systems for liquid, gaseous, and solid fuel distribution are considered. Transport modes and the fuels associated with each mode are: by truck - coal, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, and No. 6 fuel oil; and by pipeline - coal, methane, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Data provided for each distribution system include component makeup and initial costs.

  19. Prospects for advanced coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, D.; Vanderlaag, P. C.; Oudhuis, A. B. J.; Ribberink, J. S.

    1994-04-01

    As part of ECN's in-house R&D programs on clean energy conversion systems with high efficiencies and low emissions, system assessment studies have been carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with high-temperature fuel cells (IGFC). The studies also included the potential to reduce CO2 emissions, and to find possible ways for CO2 extraction and sequestration. The development of this new type of clean coal technology for large-scale power generation is still far off. A significant market share is not envisaged before the year 2015. To assess the future market potential of coal-fueled fuel cell power plants, the promise of this fuel cell technology was assessed against the performance and the development of current state-of-the-art large-scale power generation systems, namely the pulverized coal-fired power plants and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. With the anticipated progress in gas turbine and gas clean-up technology, coal-fueled fuel cell power plants will have to face severe competition from advanced IGCC power plants, despite their higher efficiency.

  20. CFD investigation on the flow and combustion in a 300 MWe tangentially fired pulverized-coal furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaldi, Nawel; Chouari, Yoldoss; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The characteristics of the flow, combustion and temperature in a 300 MWe tangentially fired pulverized-coal furnace are numerically studied using computational fluid dynamics. The mathematical model is based on a Eulerian description for the continuum phase and a Lagrangian description for coal particles. The combustion reaction scheme was modeled using eddy dissipation concept. The application of a proper turbulence model is mandatory to generate accurate predictions of flow and heat transfer during combustion. The current work presents a comparative study to identify the suitable turbulence model for tangentially fired furnace problem. Three turbulence models including the standard k-ɛ model, the RNG k-ɛ model and the Reynolds Stress model, RSM are examined. The predictions are compared with the published experimental data of Zheng et al. (Proc Combust Inst 29: 811-818, 2002). The RNG k-ɛ model proves to be the most suitable turbulence model, offering a satisfactory prediction of the velocity, temperature and species fields. The detailed results presented in this paper may enhance the understanding of complex flow patterns and combustion processes in tangentially fired pulverized-coal furnaces.

  1. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  2. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  3. Impact of Coal Fly Ash Addition on Combustion Aerosols (PM2.5) from Full-Scale Suspension-Firing of Pulverized Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damø, Anne Juul; Wu, Hao; Frandsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    The formation of combustion aerosols was studied in an 800 MWth suspension-fired power plant boiler, during combustion of pulverized wood pellets with and without addition of coal fly ash as alkali capture additive. The aerosol particles were sampled and characterized by a low-pressure cascade...

  4. 工业煤粉锅炉控制系统的开发及应用%Development and application of industrial pulverized coal boiler control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻林

    2014-01-01

    With the promotion of energy saving and environmental protection, improve the industrial boiler thermal efficiency is one of the most important parts, small and medium-sized industrial pulverized coal boiler is developed in recent years is more efficient coal-fired industrial boilers, the boiler of 200μm pulverized coal combustion stability has a very high demand, while new auxiliary unit. According to the characteristics of the pulverized coal boiler, developed a set of pulverized coal boiler con-trol system. The characteristics of the control system mainly includes additional storage, powder, powder supply control, combus-tion control and diagnosis of combustion control, to ensure the safe, stable, efficient pulverized coal boiler operation.%随着近几年节能环保的提倡,提高工业锅炉热效率是其中重要的部分,中小型工业煤粉锅炉是近几年出现的较为高效的燃煤工业锅炉,该锅炉对200目煤粉的稳定燃烧有很高的要求,同时新增辅机配套单元。针对工业煤粉锅炉的特点,开发了一套工业煤粉锅炉控制系统。该控制系统特点主要有:储粉、供粉控制、煤粉燃烧控制和燃烧诊断控制,从而保障了工业煤粉锅炉安全、稳定、高效的运行。

  5. The application of RANS CFD for design of SNCR technology for a pulverized coal-fired boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruszak Monika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the technology of NOx emission abatement by SNCR method. The scope of research included CDF simulations as well as design and construction of the pilot plant and tests of NOx reduction by urea in the plant located in industrial pulverized-coal fired boiler. The key step of research was to determine the appropriate temperature window for the SNCR process. The proposed solution of the location of injection lances in the combustion chamber enabled to achieve over a 30% reduction of NOx. It is possible to achieve higher effectiveness of the proposed SNCR technology and meet the required emission standards via providing prior reduction of NOx to the level of 350 mg/um3 using the primary methods.

  6. Application of BCS technology in pulverized coal furnace%BCS技术在煤粉炉上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高瑞峰; 于现军

    2015-01-01

    BCS是应用于燃烧过程的通用优化控制技术,已成功应用于链条炉、 CFB锅炉、高炉热风炉、轧钢加热炉等多种炉型。在此基础上, BCS首次在某热电厂3台65 t/h煤粉炉上得到应用,并取得了良好的运行效果。%BCS is a sort of general optimization control technology for combustion process, which has been successfully applied to CFB boiler , chain boiler, hot stove for blast furnace, and reheating fur-nace for rolling etc.The optimization control system based on BCS was first put into use for 3 ×65t/h pulverized coal boiler and gets good results.

  7. Mercury speciation and its emissions from a 220 MW pulverized coal-fired boiler power plant in flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.H.; Zhuo, Y.Q.; Duan, Y.F.; Chen, L.; Yang, L.G.; Zhang, L.A.; Jiang, Y.M.; Xu, X.C. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). Thermoenergy Engineering Research Institute

    2007-07-15

    Distributions of mercury speciation of Hg{sup 0}, Hg{sup 2+} and Hg{sup P} in flue gas and fly ash were sampled by using the Ontario Hydro Method in a 220 MW pulverized coal-fired boiler power plant in China. The mercury speciation was varied greatly when flue gas going through the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The mercury adsorbed on fly ashes was found strongly dependent on unburnt carbon content in fly ash and slightly on the particle sizes, which implies that the physical and chemical features of some elemental substances enriched to fly ash surface also have a non-ignored effect on the mercury adsorption. The concentration of chlorine in coal, oxygen and NOx in flue gas has a positive correlation with the formation of the oxidized mercury, but the sulfur in coal has a positive influence on the formation of elemental mercury.

  8. Experimental investigation on NO{sub x} emission and carbon burnout from a radially biased pulverized coal whirl burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Shan; Hui, Shi' en; Zhou, Qulan; Xu, Tongmo; Hu, Hongli [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Taisheng [Dongfang Boiler Group Co., Ltd., Zigong, Sichuan 643001 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Experiments have been performed on 1 MW pulverized coal (pc) furnace in order to investigate the characteristics of coal combustion and NO{sub x} emission from a new type of radially biased dual register whirl burner. The burner is characterized by a primary air pipe with a continuously changing cross-section and an impact ring. The mixture of pulverized coal and air inside the primary pipe is split into two streams, which are the outer pc rich annular jet and the inner pc lean annular jet respectively. Three Chinese coals, which are high rank bituminous coal, low rank bituminous coal and meager coal respectively, are used in the experiments. We examine the influences of various parameters such as the relative position of the over-fire air (OFA) nozzle, over-fire air ratio (19.1%), primary air ratio, inner secondary air ratio, outer secondary air ratio, inner secondary air swirling intensity, and outer secondary air swirling intensity on NO{sub x} formation and unburned carbon in fly ash. With the primary air ratio increasing from 13.4% to 23.4%, the value of the NO{sub x} emission of the SH coal decreases by 26.7% at first, and then increases by 21.7%. In contrast, the value of the carbon in fly ash (C{sub FA}) increases by 40.1% at first, and then decreases by 58.3%. According to the experimental results, the influence of each individual parameter on NO{sub x} formation and unburned carbon in fly ash agrees well with the existing literature. In this study, the influences of various combinations of these parameters are also examined, thus providing some reference for the design of the radial biased whirl burner, the configuration of the furnace and the distribution of the air. (author)

  9. Fly Ash Formation during Suspension-Firing of Biomass. Effects of Residence Time and Fuel-Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damø, Anne Juul; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to generate comprehensive data on the formation of residual fly ash during the initial stages of suspension-firing of biomass. Combustion experiments were carried out with pulverized biomass fuels (two straw fuels and two wood fuels), in an entrained flow reactor...... at 1200-1400 °C, simulating full-scale suspension-firing of biomass. By the use of a movable, cooled and quenched gas/particle sampling probe, samples were collected at different positions along the vertical axis in the reactor, corresponding to gas residence times ranging from 0.25 – 2.0s. The collected...... particles were subjected to various analyses, including char burnout level, particle size distribution, elemental composition, and particle morphology and composition. Furthermore, the transient release, i.e. the vaporization of the flame-volatile inorganic elements K, Cl and S, from the burning fuel...

  10. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil and nucl......A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  11. The Mechanisms of Flame Stabilization and Low NOx Emission in an Eccentric Jet Pulverized Coal Combustor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunWenchao; SunYezhu; 等

    1992-01-01

    The mechanisms of flame stabilization and low NOx emission features of an accentric jet pulverzed coal combustor were studied through numerical modelling and experimental investigation.The results show that the formation of the unique flowfield structure is closely related to the interaction among combustor configuration.the primary jet and the control Jet.and that certain rules should be follwed in orber to obtain the optimum condition for flame stabilization.The distributions of temperature and concentration of NO,O2,CO and CO2 inside the combustor were experimentally measured.The effects of strustural and operational parameters on combustion and NO formation were studied.It was found that reduction of primary air,suitable use of control jet and reasonable uptilt angle of the primary jet all contributed to the reduction of NOx at the combustor exit.A new hypothesis,that reasonable separation of oxygen and fuel within the fuel-rich zone is beneficial to further reduction of NOx emission,is given,The study showed that good compatibility existed between the capability of flame stabilization and low NOX emission for this type of combustor.

  12. Fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Srivastava

    1962-05-01

    Full Text Available The current state of development of fuel cells as potential power sources is reviewed. Applications in special fields with particular reference to military requirements are pointed out.

  13. Future Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Storage Devices, Fuel Management, Gasification, Fischer-Tropsch, Syngas , Hubberts’s Peak UNCLAS UNCLAS UNCLAS UU 80 Dr. Sujata Millick (703) 696...prices ever higher, and perhaps lead to intermittent fuel shortages as production fluctuates. Clearly, this competition for resources also provides oil...producers multiple options for selling their products, and raises the possibility that the US could face shortages resulting from shifts in

  14. Simulation of a high-pressure water jet structure as an innovative tool for pulverizing copper ore in KGHM Polska Miedź S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Józef Borkowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective comminution of copper ore for further processing during flotation is still a challenge, both as a technological problem as well as for the high energy costs of such processing.A high-pressure water jet is one alternative method of preparing copper ore for final flotation, causing distinct enlargement of the surface of micronized particles, which could be profitable for copper production.As a consequence of such innovative processing, particles of copper ore become micronized, ensuring grain fractions directly useful for flotation at the exit of the pulverizing apparatus (the hydro-jetting mill.The paper presents some results of simulation as well as describing an analysis of the phenomena occurring inside the high-pressure water and abrasive-water jets of specific structures, elaborated in the aspect of developing hybrid jets of maximum erosive efficiency, potentially useful for effective pulverization.

  15. Discussion on Improvement of Chain-grate Boiler to Pulverized Coal Boiler%某链条锅炉改造为煤粉锅炉的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新龙; 王惠云; 杨林; 王鹏南

    2016-01-01

    对链条锅炉改造为煤粉锅炉做了系统的介绍。对改造中所涉及的各系统和设备进行了一定的分析,并证明链条炉改造为煤粉炉是可行的,其配套的烟气处理技术是有效的。%The improvement of the chain-grate boiler to pulverized coal boiler is systematically introduced. Based on the analysis of the related systems and equipments, it's proven that it's feasible to improve the chain-grate boiler to pulverized coal boiler and the corresponding flue gas treatment technology is efficient.

  16. 论路用混凝土掺合料——粉煤灰%Road Mixes the Material with the Concretes Pulverized Coal Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李吉平

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduced the road mixes the material pulverized coal ash with the concretes the characteristic, technical performance, to pulverized coal ash quality requirement, standard, choice, design requirements and isometric substitution law and excess substitution method com-putation principle.%文章介绍了路用混凝土掺合料粉煤灰的特点、技术性能、对粉煤灰的质量要求、标准、选择,以及设计要求和配制混凝土时取代水泥的等量取代法和超量取代法的计算原理.

  17. Particle-size distribution (PSD) of pulverized hair: A quantitative approach of milling efficiency and its correlation with drug extraction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Aline Garcia da Rosa; Spinelli, Eliani; Fiaux, Sorele Batista; Barreto, Adriana da Silva; Rodrigues, Silvana Vianna

    2017-08-01

    Different types of hair were submitted to different milling procedures and their resulting powders were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser diffraction (LD). SEM results were qualitative whereas LD results were quantitative and accurately characterized the hair powders through their particle size distribution (PSD). Different types of hair were submitted to an optimized milling conditions and their PSD was quite similar. A good correlation was obtained between PSD results and ketamine concentration in a hair sample analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Hair samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen for 5min and pulverized at 25Hz for 10min, resulting in 61% of particles 90% of particles were PSD is a key feature on analysis of pulverized hair as it can affect the method recovery and reproducibility. In addition, PSD is an important issue on sample retesting and quality control procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of the flow, combustion, heat-transfer and emissions from a 609MW utility tangentially fired pulverized-coal boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Caillat, Sébastien; Harion, Jean-Luc.;

    2002-01-01

    A numerical approach is given to investigate the performance of a 609 MW tangentially fired pulverized-coal boiler, with emphasis on formation mechanism of gas flow deviation and uneven wall temperature in crossover pass and on NOx emission. To achieve this purpose and obtain a reliable solution...... are reliable. These conclusions can be used to guide the design and operation of boilers of similar types....

  19. Waste plastics as supplemental fuel in the blast furnace process: improving combustion efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsu; Shin, Sunghye; Sohn, Seungman; Choi, Jinshik; Ban, Bongchan

    2002-10-14

    The possibility of using waste plastics as a source of secondary fuel in a blast furnace has been of recent interest. The success of this process, however, will be critically dependent upon the optimization of operating systems. For instance, the supply of waste plastics must be reliable as well as economically attractive compared with conventional secondary fuels such as heavy oil, natural gas and pulverized coal. In this work, we put special importance on the improvement of the combustibility of waste plastics as a way to enhance energy efficiency in a blast furnace. As experimental variables to approach this target, the effects of plastic particle size, blast temperature, and the level of oxygen enrichment were investigated using a custom-made blast model designed to simulate a real furnace. Lastly, the combustion efficiency of the mixture of waste plastics and pulverized coal was tested. The observations made from these experiments led us to the conclusion that with the increase of both blast temperature and the level of oxygen enrichment, and with a decrease in particle size, the combustibility of waste polyethylene could be improved at a given distance from the tuyere. Also it was found that the efficiency of coal combustion decreased with the addition of plastics; however, the combustion efficiency of mixture could be comparable at a longer distance from the tuyere.

  20. Solar fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, J.R.

    1978-11-17

    The paper is concerned with (1) the thermodynamic and kinetic limits for the photochemical conversion and storage of solar energy as it is received on the earth's surface, and (2) the evaluation of a number of possible photochemical reactions with particular emphasis on the production of solar hydrogen from water. Procedures for generating hydrogen fuel are considered. Topics examined include the general requirements for a fuel-generation reaction, the photochemical reaction, limits on the conversion of light energy to chemical energy, an estimate of chemical storage efficiency, and the water decomposition reaction.

  1. Sulfur release from Ohio coals and sorbent kinetics in pulverized coal flames. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essenhigh, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Robinson Lab.

    1992-08-01

    In this report we describe the results of investigations into the structure of combustion and sulfur release profiles from coal burning in One-Dimensional P.C. flames using a furnace of unique design for the measurements. Selected measurements were also-carried out in a special high-intensity furnace also of unique design. The formal project work started in late Fall 1989, with unfunded preliminary work in the months prior to that. The process of limestone injection into the flame to control sulfur oxides emissions is a long-standing concept that has been given particular formulation in the LIMB process, and studies of such systems provide bases for commercial system economics. Problems with LIMB and related systems indicated need for better understanding of, jointly, the sulfur release from the coal and the sorbent behavior by the limestone. The investigations as reported in Vol. 1 of this Report used 14 different coals under a range of different initial and operating conditions, and the resulting measurements have provided a database of major proportions, as tabulated in the attached Volumes 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 of this report. This database consists of sets of measurements totalling about 45,000 entries for all independent and dependent parameters involved. The independent parameters included: coal type (analysis), firing rate, stoichiometry (fuel/air ratio), and sorbent content of the

  2. Combustion of wet pulverized coal in reactor flow; Combustao de particulas de carvao pulverizado contendo umidade em seu interior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Valdeci Jose [Universidade do Planalto Catarinense (UNIPLAC), Lages, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas]. E-mail: vcosta@iscc.com.br; Krioukov, Viktor [Universidade Regional do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (UNIJUI), Ijui, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Matematica]. E-mail: krioukov@main.unijui.tche.br; Maliska, Clovis Raimundo [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: maliska@sinmec.ufsc.br

    2000-07-01

    In this work I propose a numeric study destined to the combustion of wet pulverized coal in reacting flow. The mathematical model is composed by equations for the concentration of the substances in the reacting flow, written based in the chemical kinetics and exponential form, conservation equations and devolatilization equations, combustion of the carbon and residues. The study detects fluctuation among the temperatures of the gas and of the particles. The inclusion of the humidity as constituent part of the volatile matter doesn't affect the performance of the model, however, its presence alters the temperature profiles and the gaseous composition. With the increase of the humidity in the coal have a slight reduction in the time of combustion of the particle, what agrees with experimental data. The model foresees an increment in the difference Tp-Tg and a smaller production of CO with the increase of the wetness rate. The volatile ones, in spite of they have its fraction relatively reduced with the wetness presence they are liberated more slowly with its increment, provoking change in the position of front flame. (author)

  3. Use of fine-grained shredder dust as a cement admixture after a melting, rapid-cooling and pulverizing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakimoto, K. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan). Department of Applied Chemistry; Nakano, Y. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School, Department of Engineering; Yamasaki, T.; Shimuzu, K.; Idemitsu, T. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukyoka (Japan). Department of Civil Engineering

    2004-12-01

    Shredder dust is a residue, which is removed from valuable ferrous metals found in scrap automobile and electronic waste. It is also an industrial waste byproduct which, under legislation in place since April 1996, must be disposed of in landfill sites. One method of disposing shredder dust is by scorification, however, this is a costly process and therefore impractical. Costs could be reduced if the shredder dust had a valuable use, and, in this paper, the authors examine its effectiveness as a cement admixture. First, molten shredder dust was crushed for use as a cement admixture. However, it was difficult to crush it completely because metallic grains were mixed in with molten shredder dust. These particles were removed by sifting and the molten shredder dust was crushed once again. Eventually, a fine 75 {mu}m and less powder type of slag was obtained. This slag was mixed with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) to form a cement mortar and subsequently a mortar test was conducted. From the test results, it was found that the long-term strength of the cement did not deteriorate even when it included 30% by weight of the pulverized molten shredder dust. (author)

  4. Risk management of energy efficiency projects in the industry - sample plant for injecting pulverized coal into the blast furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Filip P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the applicability of well-known risk management methodologies in energy efficiency projects in the industry. The possibilities of application of the selected risk management methodology are demonstrated within the project of the plants for injecting pulverized coal into blast furnaces nos. 1 and 2, implemented by the company US STEEL SERBIA d.o.o. in Smederevo. The aim of the project was to increase energy efficiency through the reduction of the quantity of coke, whose production requires large amounts of energy, reduction of harmful exhaust emission and increase productivity of blast furnaces through the reduction of production costs. The project was complex and had high costs, so that it was necessary to predict risk events and plan responses to identified risks at an early stage of implementation, in the course of the project design, in order to minimise losses and implement the project in accordance with the defined time and cost limitations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179081: Researching contemporary tendencies of strategic management using specialized management disciplines in function of competitiveness of Serbian economy

  5. Utilization of blended fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash in geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Rattanasak, Ubolluk

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, synthesis of geopolymer from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash was studied in order to effectively utilize both ashes. FBC-fly ash and bottom ash were inter-ground to three different finenesses. The ashes were mixed with as-received PCC-fly ash in various proportions and used as source material for synthesis of geopolymer. Sodium silicate (Na(2)SiO(3)) and 10M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions at mass ratio of Na(2)SiO(3)/NaOH of 1.5 and curing temperature of 65 degrees C for 48h were used for making geopolymer. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), degree of reaction, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the geopolymer pastes. Compressive strength was also tested on geopolymer mortars. The results show that high strength geopolymer mortars of 35.0-44.0MPa can be produced using mixture of ground FBC ash and as-received PCC-fly ash. Fine FBC ash is more reactive and results in higher degree of reaction and higher strength geopolymer as compared to the use of coarser FBC ash. Grinding increases reactivity of ash by means of increasing surface area and the amount of reactive phase of the ash. In addition, the packing effect due to fine particles also contributed to increase in strength of geopolymers.

  6. Revised users manual, Pulverized Coal Gasification or Combustion: 2-dimensional (87-PCGC-2): Final report, Volume 2. [87-PCGC-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1987-12-01

    A two-dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and non-reactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. Recent code revisions and additions are described. The model, referred to as 87-PCGC-2, is applicable to cylindrical axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using either a flux method or discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a Lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. Several multi-step coal devolatilization schemes are included along with a heterogeneous reaction scheme that allows for both diffusion and chemical reaction. Major gas-phase reactions are modeled assuming local instantaneous equilibrium, and thus the reaction rates are limited by the turbulent rate mixing. A NO/sub x/ finite rate chemistry submodel is included which integrates chemical kinetics and the statistics of the turbulence. The gas phase is described by elliptic partial differential equations that are solved by an iterative line-by-line technique. Under-relaxation is used to achieve numerical stability. The generalized nature of the model allows for calculation of isothermal fluid mechanicsgaseous combustion, droplet combustion, particulate combustion and various mixtures of the above, including combustion of coal-water and coal-oil slurries. Both combustion and gasification environments are permissible. User information and theory are presented, along with sample problems. 106 refs.

  7. The effects of unburned carbon on radiative heat transfer in a pilot pulverized coal furnace -- Numerical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zhaohui; Xing Huawei; Zhou Yingbiao; Zheng Chuguang [National Lab. of Coal Combustion, Wuhan (China)

    1997-12-31

    This paper investigates the possible effect of residue char on the radiative heat transfer in a pilot furnace. Firstly, a program is constructed to incorporate radiative properties of particles in solving the radiative heat transfer, based on a computer code for predicting turbulent gas-solid flow and combustion. The radiative properties of single unburnt char are modeled by coated sphere model of Mie theory, while the local Planck average radiative properties of particle could be obtained by a scheme based on Lagrangian approach with particle turbulent dispersion, and the radiative heat transfer is solved by Discrete Transfer method. Then, comparisons are made among predicted results for a pilot-scale pulverized coal furnace by several particulate radiative properties models. It shows even for the pilot-scale furnace, the effect of particle concentration is more important than that of distinguishing between particles of char and ash. The residue carbon in ash has a tendency to enhance the radiative heat transfer for this case. The optimized burn-off rate to separate ash from char is near 0.65.

  8. Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  9. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  10. Thermodynamic Characteristics and Economic Analysis of a BFG/Pulverized Coal Mixed Combustion Boiler%300MW高炉煤气与煤粉混燃锅炉热力特性及经济性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春波; 魏建国; 黄江城

    2012-01-01

    针对高炉煤气与煤粉混燃易发生过(再)热器超温、飞灰含碳量高等问题,对某300MW机组四角切圆高炉煤气/煤粉混燃锅炉进行了热力特性计算,并对掺烧高炉煤气后机组的经济性进行了分析.结果表明:掺烧高炉煤气后炉内温度降低,烟气量增加,辐射吸热量减少而对流吸热量增加,炉膛出口烟温及其后受热面区域的烟温升高,排烟温度升高,锅炉效率降低;掺烧高炉煤气后厂用电率有所升高,但发电煤耗降低,使发电成本降低.%To solve the problems occurring in a 300 MW tangential blast furnace gas (BFG)/pulverized coal blended combustion boiler, such as overheating of its superheater/reheater and high carbon content in the fly ash, etc. , thermodynamic calculations and an economic analysis were carried out. Results show that af- ter the fuel coal is blended with BFG, the in-furnace temperature drops, the exhaust gas volume rises, the absorption of radiation heat reduces, the absorption of convection heat increases, the gas temperatures at and after furnace outlet rise, the exhaust gas temperature increases and the boiler efficiency decreases; af- ter mixing with BFG, the house power consumption rises, but the coal consumption for power generation reduces, which helps to reduce the power generating cost.

  11. Binary Effect of Fly Ash and Palm Oil Fuel Ash on Heat of Hydration Aerated Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Mehmannavaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The binary effect of pulverized fuel ash (PFA and palm oil fuel ash (POFA on heat of hydration of aerated concrete was studied. Three aerated concrete mixes were prepared, namely, concrete containing 100% ordinary Portland cement (control sample or Type I, binary concrete made from 50% POFA (Type II, and ternary concrete containing 30% POFA and 20% PFA (Type III. It is found that the temperature increases due to heat of hydration through all the concrete specimens especially in the control sample. However, the total temperature rises caused by the heat of hydration through both of the new binary and ternary concrete were significantly lower than the control sample. The obtained results reveal that the replacement of Portland cement with binary and ternary materials is beneficial, particularly for mass concrete where thermal cracking due to extreme heat rise is of great concern.

  12. Binary effect of fly ash and palm oil fuel ash on heat of hydration aerated concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmannavaz, Taha; Ismail, Mohammad; Radin Sumadi, Salihuddin; Rafique Bhutta, Muhammad Aamer; Samadi, Mostafa; Sajjadi, Seyed Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    The binary effect of pulverized fuel ash (PFA) and palm oil fuel ash (POFA) on heat of hydration of aerated concrete was studied. Three aerated concrete mixes were prepared, namely, concrete containing 100% ordinary Portland cement (control sample or Type I), binary concrete made from 50% POFA (Type II), and ternary concrete containing 30% POFA and 20% PFA (Type III). It is found that the temperature increases due to heat of hydration through all the concrete specimens especially in the control sample. However, the total temperature rises caused by the heat of hydration through both of the new binary and ternary concrete were significantly lower than the control sample. The obtained results reveal that the replacement of Portland cement with binary and ternary materials is beneficial, particularly for mass concrete where thermal cracking due to extreme heat rise is of great concern.

  13. Fuel control system for dual fuel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmich, M.J.; Ryan, W.P.; Marvin, D.H.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel governing system for an engine adapted for operation on a first fuel and a second fuel is described comprising: a first fuel governing system including a spontaneous motion metering means; and a second fuel governing system, the second fuel governing system further comprising: means for providing a first signal indicative of position of the first fuel metering means, which signal approximates total load on the engine, means for providing a second signal of the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load, means for controlling flow of the second fuel to the engine, which flow causes reflective displacement of the first fuel metering means, means for determining the difference between the first signal and the second signal, which difference is indicative of distance the first fuel metering means must be moved to attain the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load, and means for causing operation of the means for controlling flow of the second fuel to the engine to cause displacement of the first fuel metering means equal to the distance the first fuel metering means must be moved to attain the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load.

  14. JV Task 106 - Feasibility of CO2 Capture Technologies for Existing North Dakota Lignite-Fired Pulverized Coal Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Jones; Brandon M. Pavlish; Melanie D. Jensen

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this project is to provide a technical review and evaluation of various carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture technologies, with a focus on the applicability to lignite-fired facilities within North Dakota. The motivation for the project came from the Lignite Energy Council's (LEC's) need to identify the feasibility of CO{sub 2} capture technologies for existing North Dakota lignite-fired, pulverized coal (pc) power plants. A literature review was completed to determine the commercially available technologies as well as to identify emerging CO{sub 2} capture technologies that are currently in the research or demonstration phase. The literature review revealed few commercially available technologies for a coal-fired power plant. CO{sub 2} separation and capture using amine scrubbing have been performed for several years in industry and could be applied to an existing pc-fired power plant. Other promising technologies do exist, but many are still in the research and demonstration phases. Oxyfuel combustion, a technology that has been used in industry for several years to increase boiler efficiency, is in the process of being tailored for CO{sub 2} separation and capture. These two technologies were chosen for evaluation for CO{sub 2} separation and capture from coal-fired power plants. Although oxyfuel combustion is still in the pilot-scale demonstration phase, it was chosen to be evaluated at LEC's request because it is one of the most promising emerging technologies. As part of the evaluation of the two chosen technologies, a conceptual design, a mass and energy balance, and an economic evaluation were completed.

  15. Chemical and toxicological characterization of organic constituents in fluidized-bed and pulverized coal combustion: a topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chess, E.K.; Later, D.W.; Wilson, B.W.; Harris, W.R.; Remsen, J.F.

    1984-04-01

    Coal combustion fly ash from both conventional pulverized coal combustion (PCC) and fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) have been characterized as to their organic constituents and microbial mutagenic activity. The PCC fly ash was collected from a commercial utility generating plant using a low sulfur coal. The FBC fly ash was from a bench-scale developmental unit at the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center. Bulk samples of each fly ash were extracted using benzene/methanol and further separated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Subfractions from the HPLC separation were analyzed by gas chromatography using both element-specific nitrogen-phosphorus detectors and flame ionization detectors. Microbial mutagenicity assay results indicated that the crude organic extracts were mutagenic, and that both the specific activity and the overall activity of the PCC material was greater than that of the FBC material. Comparison of results from assays using S. typhimurium, TA1538NR indicated that nitrated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) were responsible for much of the mutagenic activity of the PCC material. Similar results were obtained for assays of the FBC organic extract with standard and nitroreductase-deficient strains of S. typhimurium, TA100 and TA1538. Mutagenically active HPLC fractions were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and GC mass spectrometry (GC/MS), as well as probe inlet low and high resolutions MS. The discovery and identification of nitrated, oxygenated PAC are important because the presence of both nitro and/or keto functionalities on certain PAC has been shown to confer or enhance mutagenic activity.

  16. Experimental and numerical investigation of flame characteristics during swirl burner operation under conventional and oxy-fuel conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Rastko D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxy-fuel coal combustion, together with carbon capture and storage or utilization, is a set of technologies allowing to burn coal without emitting globe warming CO2. As it is expected that oxy-fuel combustion may be used for a retrofit of existing boilers, development of a novel oxy-burners is very important step. It is expected that these burners will be able to sustain stable flame in oxy-fuel conditions, but also, for start-up and emergency reasons, in conventional, air conditions. The most cost effective way of achieving dual-mode boilers is to introduce dual-mode burners. Numerical simulations allow investigation of new designs and technologies at a relatively low cost, but for the results to be trustworthy they need to be validated. This paper proposes a workflow for design, modeling, and validation of dual-mode burners by combining experimental investigation and numerical simulations. Experiments are performed with semi-industrial scale burners in 0.5 MWt test facility for flame investigation. Novel CFD model based on ANSYS FLUENT solver, with special consideration of coal combustion process, especially regarding devolatilization, ignition, gaseous and surface reactions, NOx formation, and radiation was suggested. The main model feature is its ability to simulate pulverized coal combustion under different combusting atmospheres, and thus is suitable for both air and oxy-fuel combustion simulations. Using the proposed methodology two designs of pulverized coal burners have been investigated both experimentally and numerically giving consistent results. The improved burner design proved to be a more flexible device, achieving stable ignition and combustion during both combustion regimes: conventional in air and oxy-fuel in a mixture of O2 and CO2 (representing dry recycled flue gas with high CO2 content. The proposed framework is expected to be of use for further improvement of multi-mode pulverized fuel swirl burners but can be also used

  17. Research Trend of Oxy-fuel Combustion for Pulverized-coal%氧煤燃烧技术研究发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田牧; 安恩科

    2010-01-01

    对氧煤燃烧技术研究的国内外发展现状进行了综述,介绍了国内外典型实验室的研究设备,归纳了主要研究方向的成果,如:氧煤着火和火焰稳定性、氧煤燃烧火焰传热传质特性、氧煤燃烧特性、氧煤燃烧污染物排放特性,并展望了氧煤燃烧技术的发展趋势.

  18. Aviation fuels outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momenthy, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    Options for satisfying the future demand for commercial jet fuels are analyzed. It is concluded that the most effective means to this end are to attract more refiners to the jet fuel market and encourage development of processes to convert oil shale and coal to transportation fuels. Furthermore, changing the U.S. refineries fuel specification would not significantly alter jet fuel availability.

  19. 低挥发分煤粉燃烧新技术发展与应用%Development and application of low volatile pulverized coal combustion technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建明

    2011-01-01

    Introduce the development and application of low volatile pulverized coal combustion technique. The representative burners and framework of boilers were demonstrated and the key techniques, including strengthening hot gas back flow,keeping adopting pulverized coal concentration,and extending length of flame,were also analyzed and these techniques can help pulverized coal ignite quickly and keep stable ignition. The suitable combustion system should be strictly chosen for low volatilization pulverized coal, such as tangentially firing, opposed firing, W-shape flame, and CUF firing and so on. Meanwhile, being the superior stability in anthracite combustion to tangential firing and opposed firing,W-shape boilers are mainly used. Having the strongpoint of stable combustion, high combustion efficiency, stepped firing in recirculation and low NO, emission, the high-temperature combustion technique for low volatilization coal will have wide application foreground.%介绍了国内外低挥发分煤粉燃烧技术及发展.对具有代表性的燃烧器及炉膛结构进行简要分析,说明热回流、煤粉浓缩、延长火焰长度等关键技术在实现低挥发分难燃煤粉快速着火、稳定燃烧中的应用.指出尽管燃烧器在应用中取得一定的效果,但仍然存在一些问题,因而对于低挥发分煤种还需要同时选择合理的燃烧方式,如切向燃烧、对冲燃烧、W型火焰燃烧及CUF火焰燃烧等技术.其中,W型火焰燃烧方式对难燃无烟煤的燃烧稳定性优于四角和对冲燃烧方式,是目前主要采用的燃烧结构.高温空气燃烧技术对低挥发分煤具有火焰稳定、热效率高、再循环分级燃烧,低NOx排放等优点,将成为更有前景的燃烧技术.

  20. Subtask 3.11 - Production of CBTL-Based Jet Fuels from Biomass-Based Feedstocks and Montana Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ramesh

    2014-06-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from Exxon Mobil, undertook Subtask 3.11 to use a recently installed bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. The process involves liquefaction of Rosebud mine coal (Montana coal) coupled with an upgrading scheme to produce a naphthenic fuel. The upgrading comprises catalytic hydrotreating and saturation to produce naphthenic fuel. A synthetic jet fuel was prepared by blending equal volumes of naphthenic fuel with similar aliphatic fuel derived from biomass and 11 volume % of aromatic hydrocarbons. The synthetic fuel was tested using standard ASTM International techniques to determine compliance with JP-8 fuel. The composite fuel thus produced not only meets but exceeds the military aviation fuel-screening criteria. A 500-milliliter synthetic jet fuel sample which met internal screening criteria was submitted to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria. The results show that this fuel meets or exceeds the key specification parameters for JP-8, a petroleum-based jet fuel widely used by the U.S. military. JP-8 specifications include parameters such as freeze point, density, flash point, and others; all of which were met by the EERC fuel sample. The fuel also exceeds the thermal stability specification of JP-8 fuel as determined by the quartz crystalline microbalance (QCM) test also performed at an independent laboratory as well as AFRL. This means that the EERC fuel looks and acts identically to petroleum-derived jet fuel and can be used

  1. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 17, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1993-08-01

    Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1993, the following technical progress was made: Completed modeling calculations of coal mineral matter transformations, deposition behavior, and heat transfer impacts of six test fuels; and ran pilot-scale tests of Upper Freeport feed coal, microagglomerate product, and mulled product.

  2. Ranking of enabling technologies for oxy-fuel based carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochs, T.L.; Oryshchyn, D.L.; Ciferno, J.P.

    2007-06-01

    The USDOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has begun a process to identify and rank enabling technologies that have significant impacts on pulverized coal oxy-fuel systems. Oxy-fuel combustion has been identified as a potential method for effectively capturing carbon in coal fired power plants. Presently there are a number of approaches for carbon capture via oxy-fuel combustion and it is important to order those approaches so that new research can concentrate on those technologies with high potentials to substantially lower the cost of reduced carbon electricity generation. NETL evaluates these technologies using computer models to determine the energy use of each technology and the potential impact of improvements in the technologies on energy production by a power plant. Near-term sub-critical boiler technologies are targeted for this analysis because: • most of the world continues to build single reheat sub-critical plants; • the overwhelming number of coal fired power plants requiring retrofit for CO2 capture are sub-critical plants. In addition, even in the realm of new construction, subcritical plants are common because they are well understood, easy to operate and maintain, fuel tolerant, and reliable. Following the initial investigation into sub-critical oxy-fuel technology, future investigations will move into the supercritical range.

  3. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 8, January--March 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1991-07-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. During the third quarter of 1991, the following technical progress was made: Calculated the kinetic characteristics of chars from the combustion of spherical oil agglomeration beneficiated products; continued drop tube devolatilization tests of the spherical oil agglomeration beneficiated products; continued analyses of the data and samples from the CE pilot-scale tests of nine fuels; and started writing a summary topical report to include all results on the nine fuels tested.

  4. Fuel processors for fuel cell APU applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicher, T.; Lenz, B.; Gschnell, F.; Groos, U.; Federici, F.; Caprile, L.; Parodi, L.

    The conversion of liquid hydrocarbons to a hydrogen rich product gas is a central process step in fuel processors for auxiliary power units (APUs) for vehicles of all kinds. The selection of the reforming process depends on the fuel and the type of the fuel cell. For vehicle power trains, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline, kerosene, and diesel are utilized and, therefore, they will also be the fuel for the respective APU systems. The fuel cells commonly envisioned for mobile APU applications are molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Since high-temperature fuel cells, e.g. MCFCs or SOFCs, can be supplied with a feed gas that contains carbon monoxide (CO) their fuel processor does not require reactors for CO reduction and removal. For PEMFCs on the other hand, CO concentrations in the feed gas must not exceed 50 ppm, better 20 ppm, which requires additional reactors downstream of the reforming reactor. This paper gives an overview of the current state of the fuel processor development for APU applications and APU system developments. Furthermore, it will present the latest developments at Fraunhofer ISE regarding fuel processors for high-temperature fuel cell APU systems on board of ships and aircrafts.

  5. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL)Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  6. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL) Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  7. Fuel cells: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of fuel cell technology and applications is presented. The operating principles, performance capabilities, and limitations of fuel cells are discussed. Diagrams of fuel cell construction and operating characteristics are provided. Photographs of typical installations are included.

  8. Future aviation fuels overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The outlook for aviation fuels through the turn of the century is briefly discussed and the general objectives of the NASA Lewis Alternative Aviation Fuels Research Project are outlined. The NASA program involves the evaluation of potential characteristics of future jet aircraft fuels, the determination of the effects of those fuels on engine and fuel system components, and the development of a component technology to use those fuels.

  9. Experiments and computational modeling of pulverized-coal ignition. Semiannual report, Apr 1, 1998--Sep 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Chen; Samuel Owusu-Ofori

    1998-10-31

    Under typical conditions of pulverized-coal combustion, which is characterized by fine particles heated at very high rates, there is currently a lack of certainty regarding the ignition mechanism of bituminous and lower rank coals. It is unclear whether ignition occurs first at the particle-oxygen interface (heterogeneous ignition) or if it occurs in the gas phase due to ignition of the devolatilization products (homogeneous ignition). Furthermore, there have been no previous studies aimed at determining the dependence of the ignition mechanism on variations in experimental conditions, such as particle size, oxygen concentration, and heating rate. Finally, there is a need to improve current mathematical models of ignition to realistically and accurately depict the particle-to-particle variations that exist within a coal sample. Such a model is needed to extract useful reaction parameters from ignition studies, and to interpret ignition data in a more meaningful way. The authors propose to examine fundamental aspects of coal ignition through (1) experiments to determine the ignition mechanism of various coals by direct observation, and (2) modeling of the ignition process to derive rate constants and to provide a more insightful interpretation of data from ignition experiments. They propose to use a novel laser-based ignition experiment to achieve their objectives. The heating source will be a pulsed, carbon dioxide laser in which both the pulse energy and pulse duration are independently variable, allowing for a wide range of heating rates and particle temperatures--both of which are decoupled from each other and from the particle size. This level of control over the experimental conditions is truly novel in ignition and combustion experiments. Laser-ignition experiments also offer the distinct advantage of easy optical access to the particles because of the absence of a furnace or radiating walls, and thus permit direct observation and particle temperature

  10. Selection of Special Valves in Pulverized Coal Gasiifcation Industry%粉煤气化特殊阀门选型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张赫

    2016-01-01

    China is a country of ‘lean oil, less gas, rich in coal’, therewith the technology of coal gasification is an important means to realize the clean and efficient use of coal. Moreover the technology of pressured pulverized coal gasification recognized as a mature technology in the industry possess advantages of large production capacity and high gasification efficiency. However, the erosion of special valve from abrasion by particles of process fluid can be serious, which will cause the short service cycle and huge economic losses. This paper is based on the successful experience in the similar domestic plants among these years, summarize the application of variety of special valves in the industry, put forward suggestions of instrument selection, and provide the reference for the engineering of similar projects in the future.%我国是一个“贫油、少气、富煤”的国家,煤气化技术是实现煤炭清洁高效利用的重要手段。粉煤加压气化技术是目前业内认可较为成熟的技术,具有生产能力大、气化效率高的特点。然而由于其工艺介质的特点,其中所应用的特殊阀门磨损严重,使用周期短,导致装置频繁停车,造成了巨大的经济损失。本文根据近些年国内粉煤气化的成功运行经验,对其中多种特殊应用的阀门使用进行了总结探讨,提出建议的仪表选型,为同类项目的仪表设计工作提供参考依据。

  11. Catalytic Fuel Conversion Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility enables unique catalysis research related to power and energy applications using military jet fuels and alternative fuels. It is equipped with research...

  12. Fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi.

    1989-05-22

    This invention aims to maintain a long-term operation with stable cell output characteristics by uniformly supplying an electrolyte from the reserver to the matrix layer over the entire matrix layer, and further to prevent the excessive wetting of the catalyst layer by smoothly absorbing the volume change of the electrolyte, caused by the repeated stop/start-up of the fuel cell, within the reserver system. For this purpose, in this invention, an electrolyte transport layer, which connects with an electrolyte reservor formed at the electrode end, is partly formed between the electrode material and the catalyst layer; a catalyst layer, which faces the electrolyte transport layer, has through-holes, which connect to the matrix, dispersely distributed. The electrolyte-transport layer is a thin sheet of a hydrophilic fibers which are non-wovens of such fibers as carbon, silicon carbide, silicon nitride or inorganic oxides. 11 figs.

  13. Technological Analysis on Choren High-Pressure Pulverized Coal Gasification Process%科林高压干粉煤气化工艺技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小倩; 胡长胜

    2011-01-01

    The process and features of Choren high-pressure pulveried coal gasification are presented. Operability of the gasification technology is analysed. And the operation data as compared with the other two coal gasification processes, i.e. pulverized coal gasification process with waste heat boiler and coal-water slurry pressure gasification process, using in China are described briefly. Choren high-pressure pulverized coal gasification process is featured with simple in equipment structure, wider applicability of coal variety, lower consumption and high localization of equipment.%介绍了科林高压干粉煤气化的工艺流程、工艺特点.对该气化技术的可操作性进行了分析,并与国内应用的2种煤气化工艺(干粉煤废锅气化工艺和水煤浆加压气化工艺)数据进行了简单对比.科林高压干粉煤气化工艺具有设备结构简单、煤种适用性更宽、消耗低和设备国产化程度高的特点.

  14. HT-L与Shell及Texaco粉煤气化技术的比较%Technological Comparison of HT-L with Shell and Texaco Pulverized Coal Gasification Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴胜军

    2011-01-01

    介绍了HT-L粉煤气化技术的工艺特点,并从比氧耗、有效气成分、煤气化效率、能耗等方面与Shell 及Texaco粉煤气化技术进行了分析比较.结果表明:HT-L粉煤气化技术具有高效节能、煤种适用范围广、气化效率高、能耗低、建设和运行成本低、工艺成熟可靠并具有自主知识产权的优点,具有广阔的发展前景.%Process features are described of the HT-L pulverized coal gasification technology, and an analytical comparison is done with the Shell and Texaco pulverized coal gasification technology in terms of specific oxygen consumption, active gas constituent, coal gasification efficiency, and energy consumption. The results show that the HT-L technology has the advantages of highly efficient energy saving, wide scope of application to various coal types, high gasification efficiency, low energy consumption, low construction and operation cost, mature and reliable technology, and possession of independent intellectual property, and so it brings about broad prospects for development.

  15. PARTICLE SIZE-DEPENDENT PULVERIZATION OF B4C AND GENERATION OF B4C/STS NANOPARTICLES USED FOR NEUTRON ABSORBING COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAEWOO KIM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pulverization of two different sized micro-B4C particles (∼10 μm and ∼150 μm was investigated using a STS based high energy ball milling system. Shapes, generation of the impurities, and reduction of the particle size dependent on milling time and initial particle size were investigated using various analytic tools including SEM-EDX, XRD, and ICP-MS. Most of impurity was produced during the early stage of milling, and impurity content became independent on the milling time after the saturation. The degree of particle size reduction was also dependent on the initial B4C size. It was found that the STS nanoparticles produced from milling is strongly bounded with the B4C particles forming the B4C/STS composite particles that can be used as a neutron absorbing nanocomposite. Based on the morphological evolution of the milled particles, a schematic pulverization model for the B4C particles was constructed.

  16. Comparative analysis of the influence of turbulence models on the description of the nitrogen oxides formation during the combustion of swirling pulverized coal flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V.; Chernetskaya, N.; Chernetskiy, M.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents the results of numerical research on the influence of the two- parametric k-ε, and k-ω SST turbulence models as well as Reynolds stress model (RSM) on the description of the nitrogen oxides formation during the combustion of pulverized coal in swirling flow. For the numerical simulation of turbulent flow of an incompressible liquid, we used the Reynolds equation taking into account the interfacial interactions. To solve the equation of thermal radiation transfer, the P1 approximation of spherical harmonics method was employed. The optical properties of gases were described based on the sum of gray gases model. To describe the motion of coal particles we used the method of Lagrange multipliers. Burning of coke residue was considered based on diffusion - kinetic approximation. Comparative analysis has shown that the choice of turbulence model has a significant impact on the root mean square (RMS) values of the velocity and temperature pulsation components. This leads to significant differences in the calculation of the nitrogen oxides formation process during the combustion of pulverized coal.

  17. Technical notes for the conceptual design for an atmospheric fluidized-bed direct combustion power generating plant. [Comparison of AFB plant and pulverized coal plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    The first part of this report presents a comparison of the conceptual designs of a large (570 MW(e)) pulverized coal (PC) steam generator equipped with a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system and two equivalent sized atmospheric fluidized bed (AFB) steam generators including balance of plants for electric-power generation. The reader is cautioned that this portion of the report compares a zero generation AFB technology to pulverized coal technology which has been operationally and economically optimized for the past half-century. This comparison is intended to be indicative of whether further development of the AFB concept as a viable alternative to the PC/FGD concept for electric-power generation is merited. In the second part, the load-following capability of a once-through subcritical atmospheric fluidized bed boiler is analyzed. Digital computer simulation predictions of the plant's response to open loop step changes in firing rate, feedwater flow, governor valve, unit load demand, etc, are made. The predicted response of throttle pressure, steam temperature, unit load, etc, are compared to the response of a conventional coal-fired, once-through, subcritical unit. The load-following capability is assessed through this qualitative comparison. Additional model response predictions are also presented for which no test data are presently available.

  18. HTGR fuel and fuel cycle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotts, A.L.; Coobs, J.H.

    1976-08-01

    The status of fuel and fuel cycle technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) is reviewed. The all-ceramic core of the HTGRs permits high temperatures compared with other reactors. Core outlet temperatures of 740/sup 0/C are now available for the steam cycle. For advanced HTGRs such as are required for direct-cycle power generation and for high-temperature process heat, coolant temperatures as high as 1000/sup 0/C may be expected. The paper discusses the variations of HTGR fuel designs that meet the performance requirements and the requirements of the isotopes to be used in the fuel cycle. Also discussed are the fuel cycle possibilities, which include the low-enrichment cycle, the Th-/sup 233/U cycle, and plutonium utilization in either cycle. The status of fuel and fuel cycle development is summarized.

  19. Preparation and burning of water-fuel (water in oil type) emulsion in boilers of heat generating installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balabyshko, A.M.; Merzlyakov, V.D. [Skochinsky Inst. of Mining, Moscow (Russian Federation). National Scientific Center for Mining Industry; Poderni, R.Y. [Moscow State Mining Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented an effective technology used in Russia to increase the efficiency of burning petroleum and heavy oil emulsions while reducing the amount of harmful exhaust gases that are released to the atmosphere. A special fuel dispenser controls the the release of exhaust gases. The technology can be applied to heat generating installations working on liquid fuel. In addition to lowering annual fuel consumption by 5 to 10 per cent, the technology makes use of recycled waste water from fuel storage facilities when preparing the emulsion in a small, low-cost hydro-mechanical dispenser. Emissions of nitrogen oxides can be reduced by 15 to 25 per cent, and particulate matter and hydrocarbons, including carcinogens, are lowered 1.5 to 2 times. Other advantages of this technology include a small and more stable flame in the boiler and an intensified water-fuel emulsion burning process with less carbon formation on heat transfer surfaces. It also offers the ability to burn fuels of lower, non-standard quality, or to add pulverized limestone, chalk, dolomite and other admixtures to the dispenser during fuel preparation in order to neutralize acids in the exhaust gases, thereby reducing acid precipitation. The controlled addition of waste water from fuel storage facilities eliminates the risk of land and water contamination by petroleum products. Although the amount of industrial water added to the fuel is determined by the customer, it can be adjusted to between 0 and 20 per cent of the burned fuel. This paper listed the names of some Russian companies that have successfully applied this technology. 2 figs.

  20. Aspects chimiques de la combustion du charbon pulvérisé. Première partie Chemical Aspects of the Combustion of Pulverized Coal. Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G. G.

    2006-11-01

    deux mécanismes totalement différents, par exemple entre le mécanisme d'ignition homogène et le mécanisme d'ignition hétérogène du charbon, avec des conséquences pratiques pour la stabilisation de la flamme industrielle ; autre exemple : la compétition entre les divers mécanismes homogènes de formation d'oxydes d'azote et les mécanismes hétérogènes de leur réduction sur des particules solides de coke, de suie et de cendre. Avec ces idées présentes comme un leitmotiv implicite, on passe en revue les grandes étapes de la flamme industrielle de charbon pulvérisé : la dévolatilisation rapide avec la formation progressive de volatils gazeux, de goudrons et de coke ; la transformation partielle des produits gazeux et liquides de pyrolyse en suies ainsi que leur oxydation en phase gazeuse ; la combustion hétérogène du coke ; l'ignition du charbon et sa dépendance par rapport à des processus critiques homogènes et (ou hétérogènes. Comme exemple typique d'un épiphénomènechimique, on suit la transformation des espèces azotées en NO et en N2, qui se greffe en contrepoint et à chaque pas sur tes différents thèmes successifs de cette symphonie de l'oxydation du charbon. En de nombreux points de cette évolution du charbon à travers la flamme, les connaissances de la chimie de com-bustion en phase gazeuse constituent un instrument utile d'interprétation (par exemple : pour l'oxydation des volatils, pour la discussion des modalités d'ignition. II n'en reste pas moins vrai que la plupart des problèmes chimiques hétérogènes sont bien spécifiques de la flamme de charbon ; leur traitement est rendu ardu à cause de la complexité, évolutive au cours de la combustion, du combustible solide lui-même. It is not easy to obtain a full picture of the multiple chemical phenomena which occur inside a pulverized coal flame. This bibliographie review attempts to give more than just a juxtaposition of data from the recent literature and risks making

  1. A theoretical study using the multiphase numerical simulation technique for effective use of H2 as blast furnaces fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Adilson de Castro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical simulation procedure for analyzing hydrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide gases injections mixed with pulverized coals within the tuyeres of blast furnaces. Effective use of H2 rich gas is highly attractive into the steelmaking blast furnace, considering the possibility of increasing the productivity and decreasing the specific emissions of carbon dioxide becoming the process less intensive in carbon utilization. However, the mixed gas and coal injection is a complex technology since significant changes on the inner temperature and gas flow patterns are expected, beyond to their effects on the chemical reactions and heat exchanges. Focusing on the evaluation of inner furnace status under such complex operation a comprehensive mathematical model has been developed using the multi interaction multiple phase theory. The BF, considered as a multiphase reactor, treats the lump solids (sinter, small coke, pellets, granular coke and iron ores, gas, liquids metal and slag and pulverized coal phases. The governing conservation equations are formulated for momentum, mass, chemical species and energy and simultaneously discretized using the numerical method of finite volumes. We verified the model with a reference operational condition using pulverized coal of 215 kg per ton of hot metal (kg thm−1. Thus, combined injections of varying concentrations of gaseous fuels with H2, O2 and CO2 are simulated with 220 kg thm−1 and 250 kg thm−1 coals injection. Theoretical analysis showed that stable operations conditions could be achieved with productivity increase of 60%. Finally, we demonstrated that the net carbon utilization per ton of hot metal decreased 12%.

  2. The effect of fuel form on trace element emissions in an industrial-scale coal fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.F.; Wincek, R.T.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Coal Utilization Lab.

    1998-12-31

    Eleven of the fourteen inorganic hazardous air pollutants identified in Title 3 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 are present in the flue gas of pulverized coal-fired boilers. The designated elements include: antimony (Sb), beryllium (Be), chlorine (Cl), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), fluorine (F), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and phosphorus (P). Determining the risk of these elements in the environment is difficult at best. However, regulating their emission into the environment has some scientific basis and merit. Approximately 137.5 tons of mercury were emitted in the US by combustion sources in 1994--1995, with coal-fired utility boilers accounting for 37.4% (or 51.6 tons) of the total. Control of trace element emissions from coal-fired utility boilers requires an understanding of the manner in which they occur in coal, their behavior during and after combustion and their form in the stack gas. The multimedia behavior of trace elements during combustion can be traced to their volatility within the combustion and post-combustion environment. The temperature distribution within the combustion system, the mechanism of char and ash formation (e.g. duration of char burnout and char and cenosphere morphology) and the combustion efficiency determine the partitioning of trace elements during combustion. These factors can be affected by the form in which a fuel is fired, e.g., pulverized coal (PC) versus coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF). This paper presents preliminary results of emissions testing aimed at determining the effect of fuel form on the penetration and partitioning of trace elements in an industrial-scale boiler. The tests were conducted on a 2 MMBtu/hr research boiler, in which Middle Kittanning Seam coal (hvA bituminous) from Jefferson County, Pennsylvania was burned in pulverized form and as a CWSF. The tests were conducted in accordance with the procedure outlined in EPA Methods 5 and 29

  3. Novel Application of Carbonate Fuel Cell for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolly, Stephen; Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Willman, Carl; Patel, Dilip; DiNitto, M.; Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Steen, William A.

    2015-09-30

    To address concerns about climate change resulting from emission of CO2 by coal-fueled power plants, FuelCell Energy, Inc. has developed the Combined Electric Power and Carbon-dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system concept. The CEPACS system utilizes Electrochemical Membrane (ECM) technology derived from the Company’s Direct FuelCell® products. The system separates the CO2 from the flue gas of other plants and produces electric power using a supplementary fuel. FCE is currently evaluating the use of ECM to cost effectively separate CO2 from the flue gas of Pulverized Coal (PC) power plants under a U.S. Department of Energy contract. The overarching objective of the project is to verify that the ECM can achieve at least 90% CO2 capture from the flue gas with no more than 35% increase in the cost of electricity. The project activities include: 1) laboratory scale operational and performance tests of a membrane assembly, 2) performance tests of the membrane to evaluate the effects of impurities present in the coal plant flue gas, in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 3) techno-economic analysis for an ECM-based CO2 capture system applied to a 550 MW existing PC plant, in partnership with URS Corporation, and 4) bench scale (11.7 m2 area) testing of an ECM-based CO2 separation and purification system.

  4. Modelling of coal combustion enhanced through plasma-fuel systems in full-scale boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.S. Askarova; Z. Jankoski; E.I. Karpenko; E.I. Lavrischeva; F.C. Lockwood; V.E. Messerle; A.B. Ustimenko [al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan). Department of Physics

    2005-07-01

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmental friendly low-rank coal combustion. This work presents numerical modelling results of plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air-fuel mixture plasma activation, ignition and combustion. A 1D kinetic code, PLASMA-COAL, calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures and velocities of treated coal-air mixtures in a burner incorporating a plasma source. It gives initial data for 3D-modeling of power boilers furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of pulverised coal fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated. 15 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. HTGR Fuel performance basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamasundar, B.I.; Stansfield, O.M.; Jensen, D.D.

    1982-05-01

    The safety characteristics of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) during normal and accident conditions are determined in part by HTGR fuel performance. During normal operation, less than 0.1% fuel failure occurs, primarily from defective particles. This low fuel failure fraction limits circulating activity to acceptable levels. During severe accidents, the radiological consequence is influenced by high-temperature fuel particle behavior. An empirical fuel failure model, supported by recent experimental data, is presented. The onset of significant fuel particle failure occurs at temperatures in excess of 1600/sup 0/C, and complete fuel failure occurs at 2660/sup 0/C. This indicates that the fuel is more retentive at higher temperatures than previously assumed. The more retentive nature of the fuel coupled with the high thermal capacitance of the core results in slow release of fission products from the core during severe accidents.

  6. Principles of Selecting Type of Direct Flow Pulverized Coal Burner before Retrofit%直流煤粉燃烧器改造前的选型原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤瑞

    2001-01-01

    针对锅炉燃烧器改造问题,提出在燃烧器改造前如何根据锅炉实际情况选择合适燃烧器类型的5项选型原则,包括煤种匹配原则、炉型匹配原则、工作业绩及创新性原则、经济性及安装检修方便性原则、运行自适应原则。对电厂煤粉燃烧器的改造有一定参考作用。%Which structure type of burner should be adopted for various utilities pulverized coal-fired boilers﹖ This paper puts forward five principles of selecting burner's type being of directive significance for the power plant that is going to retrofit burners.

  7. Fuels Combustion Research: Supercritical Fuel Pyrolysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glassman, Irvin

    2001-01-01

    Present and anticipated variation in jet propulsion fuels due to advanced engine compression ratios and airframe cooling requirements necessitate greater understanding of chemical phenomena associated...

  8. Fuels Combustion Research: Supercritical Fuel Pyrolysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glassman, Irvin

    2000-01-01

    Present and anticipated variation in jet propulsion fuels due to advanced engine compression ratios and airframe cooling requirements necessitate greater understanding of chemical phenomena associated...

  9. Influence of the gray gases number in the weighted sum of gray gases model on the radiative heat exchange calculation inside pulverized coal-fired furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnomarković Nenad Đ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the number of gray gases in the weighted sum in the gray gases model on the calculation of the radiative heat transfer is discussed in the paper. A computer code which solved the set of equations of the mathematical model describing the reactive two-phase turbulent flow with radiative heat exchange and with thermal equilibrium between phases inside the pulverized coal-fired furnace was used. Gas-phase radiative properties were determined by the simple gray gas model and two combinations of the weighted sum of the gray gases models: one gray gas plus a clear gas and two gray gases plus a clear gas. Investigation was carried out for two values of the total extinction coefficient of the dispersed phase, for the clean furnace walls and furnace walls covered by an ash layer deposit, and for three levels of the approximation accuracy of the weighting coefficients. The influence of the number of gray gases was analyzed through the relative differences of the wall fluxes, wall temperatures, medium temperatures, and heat transfer rate through all furnace walls. The investigation showed that there were conditions of the numerical investigations for which the relative differences of the variables describing the radiative heat exchange decrease with the increase in the number of gray gases. The results of this investigation show that if the weighted sum of the gray gases model is used, the complexity of the computer code and calculation time can be reduced by optimizing the number of gray gases. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in-house developed software tools

  10. 77 FR 699 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... January 5, 2012 Part V Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 80 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard... Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under...

  11. Materials for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sossina M Haile

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of their potential to reduce the environmental impact and geopolitical consequences of the use of fossil fuels, fuel cells have emerged as tantalizing alternatives to combustion engines. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell uses some sort of chemical fuel as its energy source but, like a battery, the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, without an often messy and relatively inefficient combustion step. In addition to high efficiency and low emissions, fuel cells are attractive for their modular and distributed nature, and zero noise pollution. They will also play an essential role in any future hydrogen fuel economy.

  12. Composite nuclear fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dollard, W.J.; Ferrari, H.M.

    1982-04-27

    An open lattice elongated nuclear fuel assembly including small diameter fuel rods disposed in an array spaced a selected distance above an array of larger diameter fuel rods for use in a nuclear reactor having liquid coolant flowing in an upward direction. Plenums are preferably provided in the upper portion of the upper smaller diameter fuel rods and in the lower portion of the lower larger diameter fuel rods. Lattice grid structures provide lateral support for the fuel rods and preferably the lowest grid about the upper rods is directly and rigidly affixed to the highest grid about the lower rods.

  13. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Rho, G. H.; Park, J. W. [and others

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition.

  14. NEW SOLID FUELS FROM COAL AND BIOMASS WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid Farzan

    2001-09-24

    Under DOE sponsorship, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Minergy Corporation developed and evaluated a sludge derived fuel (SDF) made from sewage sludge. Our approach is to dry and agglomerate the sludge, combine it with a fluxing agent, if necessary, and co-fire the resulting fuel with coal in a cyclone boiler to recover the energy and to vitrify mineral matter into a non-leachable product. This product can then be used in the construction industry. A literature search showed that there is significant variability of the sludge fuel properties from a given wastewater plant (seasonal and/or day-to-day changes) or from different wastewater plants. A large sewage sludge sample (30 tons) from a municipal wastewater treatment facility was collected, dried, pelletized and successfully co-fired with coal in a cyclone-equipped pilot. Several sludge particle size distributions were tested. Finer sludge particle size distributions, similar to the standard B and W size distribution for sub-bituminous coal, showed the best combustion and slagging performance. Up to 74.6% and 78.9% sludge was successfully co-fired with pulverized coal and with natural gas, respectively. An economic evaluation on a 25-MW power plant showed the viability of co-firing the optimum SDF in a power generation application. The return on equity was 22 to 31%, adequate to attract investors and allow a full-scale project to proceed. Additional market research and engineering will be required to verify the economic assumptions. Areas to focus on are: plant detail design and detail capital cost estimates, market research into possible project locations, sludge availability at the proposed project locations, market research into electric energy sales and renewable energy sales opportunities at the proposed project location. As a result of this program, wastes that are currently not being used and considered an environmental problem will be processed into a renewable

  15. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  16. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  17. Navy Fuel Specification Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    surfaced periodically to convert further to a single-fuel operation, i.e., one fuel for both aircraft and ship propulsion /power systems. This study...lead to the development of a single distillate fuel for ship propulsion , resulting eventually in the MIL-F-16884 Naval Distillate Fuel (NDF) used today...for both aircraft and ship propulsion /power systems. This report summarizes a study to consider this problem in light of current systems and

  18. Modeling: driving fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Francis

    2002-05-01

    Fuel cells were invented in 1839 by Sir William Grove, a Welsh judge and gentleman scientist, as a result of his experiments on the electrolysis of water. To put it simply, fuel cells are electrochemical devices that take hydrogen gas from fuel, combine it with oxygen from the air, and generate electricity and heat, with water as the only by-product.

  19. Alternate Fuels Combustion Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    properties of the other fuels are varied systematically beyond the specification limits imposed on the reference fuels, principally in the direction of...lower hydrogen content- Comparison of fuel nozzles, Figurae ,6.32. shows stronger dependence bet- ween oeiseslona and hydrogen content for airblast and

  20. Vented nuclear fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Leonard N.; Kaznoff, Alexis I.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel cell for use in a thermionic nuclear reactor in which a small conduit extends from the outside surface of the emitter to the center of the fuel mass of the emitter body to permit escape of volatile and gaseous fission products collected in the center thereof by virtue of molecular migration of the gases to the hotter region of the fuel.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  2. Fuel cell catalyst degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenz, Matthias; Zana, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are an important piece in our quest for a sustainable energy supply. Although there are several different types of fuel cells, the by far most popular is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among its many favorable properties are a short start up time and a high power density...

  3. Alternative aviation turbine fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased smoke and carbon formation, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. This paper discusses the effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications.

  4. Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-09-23

    pulverizer performance (mill capacity and outlet temperatures) could become greater concerns when firing composite fuels which contain higher percentages of high-moisture biomass materials, such as paper sludge and some wood wastes.

  5. Fuel cells : a viable fossil fuel alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduada, M.

    2007-02-15

    This article presented a program initiated by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to develop proof-of-concept of underground mining vehicles powered by fuel cells in order to eliminate emissions. Recent studies on American and Canadian underground mines provided the basis for estimating the operational cost savings of switching from diesel to fuel cells. For the Canadian mines evaluated, the estimated ventilation system operating cost reductions ranged from 29 per cent to 75 per cent. In order to demonstrate the viability of a fuel cell-powered vehicle, NRCan has designed a modified Caterpillar R1300 loader with a 160 kW hybrid power plant in which 3 stacks of fuel cells deliver up to 90 kW continuously, and a nickel-metal hydride battery provides up to 70 kW. The battery subsystem transiently boosts output to meet peak power requirements and also accommodates regenerative braking. Traction for the loader is provided by a brushless permanent magnet traction motor. The hydraulic pump motor is capable of a 55 kW load continuously. The loader's hydraulic and traction systems are operated independently. Future fuel cell-powered vehicles designed by the program may include a locomotive and a utility vehicle. Future mines running their operations with hydrogen-fueled equipment may also gain advantages by employing fuel cells in the operation of handheld equipment such as radios, flashlights, and headlamps. However, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells used in the project are prohibitively expensive. The catalytic content of a fuel cell can add hundreds of dollars per kW of electric output. Production of catalytic precious metals will be strongly connected to the scale of use and acceptance of fuel cells in vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of hydrogen production and delivery is significantly lower than the well-to-tank efficiency of many conventional fuels. It was concluded that an adequate hydrogen infrastructure will be required for the mining industry

  6. PASSIVE CONTROL OF PARTICLE DISPERSION IN A PARTICLE-LADEN CIRCULAR JET USING ELLIPTIC CO-ANNULAR FLOW: A MEANS FOR IMPROVING UTILIZATION AND EMISSION REDUCTIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL BURNER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahsan R. Choudhuri

    2003-06-01

    A passive control technology utilizing elliptic co-flow to control the particle flinging and particle dispersion in a particle (coal)-laden flow was investigated using experimental and numerical techniques. Preferential concentration of particles occurs in particle-laden jets used in pulverized coal burner and causes uncontrollable NO{sub x} formation due to inhomogeneous local stoichiometry. This particular project was aimed at characterizing the near-field flow behavior of elliptic coaxial jets. The knowledge gained from the project will serve as the basis of further investigation on fluid-particle interactions in an asymmetric coaxial jet flow-field and thus is important to improve the design of pulverized coal burners where non-homogeneity of particle concentration causes increased NO{sub x} formation.

  7. Effect of Ultra-fine Pulverization on the Dietary Fiber of Eleocharis tuberose Peel%超微粉碎对荸荠皮膳食纤维的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志明; 陈振林; 罗杨合; 解庆林; 甘任民

    2012-01-01

    为研究超微粉碎对荸荠皮膳食纤维的影响,考察了不同超微粉碎时间下荸荠皮膳食纤维质量分数、组成,以及可溶性膳食纤维的溶出速度.结果表明,通过超微粉碎,荸荠皮总膳食纤维质量分数提高了8.57%,同时,不溶性膳食纤维质量分数下降了21.19%,而可溶性膳食纤维能提高了137.84%.此外,通过超微粉碎处理,荸荠皮可溶性膳食纤维的溶出速度能得到显著提高.%To evaluate the effect of ultra-fine pulverization on the dietary fiber in Eleocharis tuberose peel, the total content, composition of dietary fiber and dissolution velocity of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) in E. Tuberose peel powder treated by ultra-fine pulverization for different time were determined. The results showed that after ultra-fine pulverization, the total dietary fiber content in E. Tuberose peel increased by 8.75%; Meanwhile, the insoluble dietary fiber content decreased by 21.19% while soluble dietary fiber content increased by 137.84%. In addition, the dissolution velocity of soluble dietary fiber in E. Tuberose peel was observably rised by ultra-fine pulverization.

  8. Kinetic analysis of single-particle pulverized coal during high-gradient magnetic separation%高梯度磁选中单颗粒微粉煤的动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏; 焦红光

    2012-01-01

    为了建立气固流态化磁选过程中颗粒群的相互作用模型,优化了高梯度磁选设备工作参数,在单颗粒微粉煤比磁化率一定的条件下,通过对高梯度磁选中单颗粒球形微粉煤的动力学分析,建立了气固流态化分选过程中的单颗粒煤粉运动的动态数学模型;进而探索出聚磁介质当量直径的临界模型,并分析了单颗粒微粉煤被捕集到聚磁介质上时相对气体流速的运动速度。%To establish the model of granule group interaction during gas-solid fluidization magnetic separa- tion, the paper optimized the operation parameters of the high-gradient magnetic separation equipment. On thecondition of keeping the specific magnetic susceptibility constant, through kinetic analysis of the spherical sin- gle-particle pulverized coal during high-gradient magnetic separation, a dynamic mathematical model of single- particle pulverized coal during gas-solid fluidization magnetic separation was established. And then the critical model of the equivalent diameter of the magnetic medium was achieved. Finally the relative gas flow velocity of single-particle pulverized coal was analyzed when single-particle pulverized coal was trapped onto the mag- netic medium.

  9. 邯钢高炉喷吹煤粉的快速热解机制%Flash Pyrolysis of Pulverized Injection Coal at Hansteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘然; 高永亮; 王杏娟; 吕庆; 杜林森; 王竹民

    2012-01-01

    Aimed at increasing pulverized coal injection at Handan Steel,the pyrolysis of coal in raceway was simulated.The coal of CL and DW were selected and the decomposition rate was calculated by plasma pyrolysis.Gas products were analyzed by gas chromatography and morphology of residues were observed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM).The results show that CL and DW decomposition rate is 43.10% and 52.04% respectively and gas products of coal after plasma pyrolysis,which are different from general pyrolysis,consist of CO,H2,CH4,C2H2 and small content of C2H4,etc.Pyrolysis product has changed evidently,particle size become smaller.The vesicular structure occurs in coal grains when DW is added in the sample,which makes the specific surface area of coal grain increase.The solid carbon combustion ratio in tuyeres can be enhanced,which will provide the theoretical basis for pulverized coal combustion rate.%为了提高邯钢高炉喷吹煤比,模拟煤粉在高炉内的热解。以邯钢喷吹用长治煤(以下简称CL)和大湾煤(以下简称DW)为原料,采用等离子体进行快速热解,计算反应后煤粉的分解率,利用气相色谱仪对气体产物进行分析以及用扫描电镜(SEM)观察反应产物的形貌特征。试验结果表明,CL和DW的分解率分别为43.10%和52.04%,气相产物主要为CO、H2、CH4、C2H2及少量C2H4等气体,热解产物的粒径减小,形貌发生明显变化。在CL煤的基础上配加不同比例的DW后,煤粉颗粒出现了孔状结构,因此可以提高炉内风口回旋区固定碳颗粒的燃烧率,为提高煤粉燃烧率提供理论依据。

  10. Fuel safety research 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-07-01

    In April 1999, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory was newly established as a result of reorganization of the Nuclear Safety Research Center, JAERI. The laboratory was organized by combining three laboratories, the Reactivity Accident Laboratory, the Fuel Reliability Laboratory, and a part of the Sever Accident Research Laboratory. Consequently, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is now in charge of all the fuel safety research in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are conducted in the laboratory by using the unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and hot cells in JAERI. The laboratory consists of five research groups corresponding to each research fields. They are; (a) Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). (b) Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). (c) Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). (d) Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). (e) Research group of FP release/transport behavior from irradiated fuel (VEGA group). This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 1999 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

  11. Fuel related risks; Braenslerisker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englund, Jessica; Sernhed, Kerstin; Nystroem, Olle; Graveus, Frank (Grontmij AB, (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    The project, within which this work report was prepared, aimed to complement the Vaermeforsk publication 'Handbook of fuels' on fuel related risks and measures to reduce the risks. The fuels examined in this project where the fuels included in the first version of the handbook from 2005 plus four additional fuels that will be included in the second and next edition of the handbook. Following fuels were included: woodfuels (sawdust, wood chips, powder, briquettes), slash, recycled wood, salix, bark, hardwood, stumps, straw, reed canary grass, hemp, cereal, cereal waste, olive waste, cocoa beans, citrus waste, shea, sludge, forest industrial sludge, manure, Paper Wood Plastic, tyre, leather waste, cardboard rejects, meat and bone meal, liquid animal and vegetable wastes, tall oil pitch, peat, residues from food industry, biomal (including slaughterhouse waste) and lignin. The report includes two main chapters; a general risk chapter and a chapter of fuel specific risks. The first one deals with the general concept of risk, it highlights laws and rules relevant for risk management and it discuss general risks that are related to the different steps of fuel handling, i.e. unloading, storing, processing the fuel, transportation within the facility, combustion and handling of ashes. The information that was used to produce this chapter was gathered through a literature review, site visits, and the project group's experience from risk management. The other main chapter deals with fuel-specific risks and the measures to reduce the risks for the steps of unloading, storing, processing the fuel, internal transportation, combustion and handling of the ashes. Risks and measures were considered for all the biofuels included in the second version in the handbook of fuels. Information about the risks and risk management was gathered through interviews with people working with different kinds of fuels in electricity and heat plants in Sweden. The information from

  12. The applicability analysis of burning Indonesian coal in small efficient pulverized coal fired boiler%小型高效煤粉锅炉燃用印尼煤的适用性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠会; 马文静; 李会强; 马维唯

    2015-01-01

    结合高效煤粉锅炉的工艺流程、技术特点及印尼煤的煤质分析,探讨了小型高效煤粉锅炉燃用印尼煤的适用性分析。由小型工业煤粉锅炉燃用印尼煤的实际运行结果可知,可选择适合小型煤粉锅炉燃用的印尼煤燃料,以确保锅炉的正常运行。%The applicability analysis of burning Indonesian coal in small efficient pulverized coal fired boiler was done combined with efficient pulverized coal fired boiler process flow,technical features and coal quality analysis of the Indonesian coal.The practical operating results of small efficient pulverized coal fired boiler burning Indonesian coal showed that choosing the suitable Indonesian coal could ensure the normal operation of the boiler.

  13. Optimization Renovation of Low NOx Combustion in Pulverized Coal Fired Boiler of Thermal Power Plant%电厂煤粉锅炉的低氮燃烧优化改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常志国

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism for generation of NOx in the combustion process of pulverized coal fired boiler was introduced. Connecting with renovation of pulverized coal fired boiler, the principle of reducing NOx discharge through air classification combustion was introduced, and the experimental result was analyzed and discussed. After air classification combustion renovation, the discharge of NOx from pulverized coal fired boiler decreased substantially, and the main performance indexes of boiler were improved, which achieved good economic profit and environmental protection effects.%阐述了在煤粉锅炉燃烧过程中氮氧化物(NOx)的产生机理和影响因素,结合煤粉锅炉改造,介绍了采用空气分级燃烧降低NOx排放的原理,并对试验结果进行了分析和讨论。实施空气分级燃烧改造后,煤粉锅炉的NOx排放量大幅减少,锅炉的主要性能参数指标得到提升,取得了良好的经济效益和环保效果。

  14. Direct Fuel Injector Temporal Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    optimize engine performance and emissions. Fuel injectors contain an actuator, pintle (or needle), and nozzle. The most common actuator is a solenoid ...Introduction Fuel injectors have a long history in metering fuel in modern engines by either port fuel injection (PFI) or direct fuel injection (DFI...Compared with a carburetor, fuel injectors have more accurate fuel delivering capability, thus giving engineers and technicians more flexibility to

  15. Assessment of pulverized-coal-fired combustion performance: Final report for the period September 1980--September 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, W.F.; Clark, W.; Pohl, J.H.; Payne, R.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this program was to evaluate an engineering analysis procedure which could be used to assess the impact on thermal performance of converting gas and oil fired equipment to coal. The program consisted of four major tasks: (1) Engineering Analysis. The objective was to evaluate currently available models which could be used to predict combustor performance and to define a procedure which could be used to assess the impact of a coal firing in a boiler or furnace; (2) Reactor Studies. The purpose was to evaluate, under controlled conditions, the radiative properties of fly ash clouds; (3) Pilot Scale Experiments. This involved a combustion trial with gas and coals which were burned at 0.7 /times/ 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr in a pilot-scale combustor. The purpose was to verify and supplement the results of the small-scale reactor studies on the radiant properties of coal flames at larger scale; (4) Reporting. Engineering analysis procedures were used to identify those fuels related properties which had a major impact on the thermal performance of furnaces. The major result of the study is that thermal performance of coal-fired furnaces is dominated by the formation of fly ash deposits on the heat transfer surfaces. The key parameters which influence thermal performance are: thickness, thermal conductivity, and surface emissivity or absorptivity. 105 refs., 170 figs., 29 tabs.

  16. Duquesne Light Company`s modifications for nitric oxide RACT compliance on a 200 MW face fired pulverized coal unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, B.P.; Bionda, J.P.; Gabrielson, J.E. [Energy Systems Associates, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hallo, A.; Gretz, G.F. [Duquesne Light Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the results of a research test program conducted on Duquesne Light Company`s Elrama Unit 4. The program was designed to determine the viability of achieving compliance with the recently enacted PA DER Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) regulations. These regulations stipulate presumptive RACT requirements for wall fired boilers which include the installation and operation of low NO{sub x} burners with separated overfire air. Duquesne Light Company contracted Energy Systems Associates (ESA) to aide in the design and testing of a novel low NO{sub x} burner design and separated overfire air system. A three-dimensional computational furnace model was developed by ESA of the Elrama Unit 4 furnace, and a two-dimensional fluid dynamics model was developed of the coal burner. By modifying the coal burners, it has been possible to reduce the nitric oxide emissions by 30% on Unit 4, with minimal impact of the unburned carbon in the ash. The burner modifications create fuel rich streams which are surrounded by air rich zones in the primary flame region, thus staging combustion at the burner. Additional nitric oxide reductions are realized when the combustion is further staged by use of the separated overfire air system.

  17. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Basel, Richard A.; Zhang, Gong

    2011-10-25

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  18. HTPEM Fuel Cell Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg

    As part of the process to create a fossil free Denmark by 2050, there is a need for the development of new energy technologies with higher efficiencies than the current technologies. Fuel cells, that can generate electricity at higher efficiencies than conventional combustion engines, can...... potentially play an important role in the energy system of the future. One of the fuel cell technologies, that receives much attention from the Danish scientific community is high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cells based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) with phosphoric acid as proton conductor....... This type of fuel cell operates at higher temperature than comparable fuel cell types and they distinguish themselves by high CO tolerance. Platinum based catalysts have their efficiency reduced by CO and the effect is more pronounced at low temperature. This Ph.D. Thesis investigates this type of fuel...

  19. Solid electrolytic fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Masayasu; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Kamisaka, Mitsuo; Notomi, Kei.

    1989-04-21

    Concerning a solid electrolytic fuel cell with a gas permeable substrate pipe, a fuel electrode installed on this substrate pipe and an air electrode which is laminated on this fuel electrode with the electrolyte in between, the existing fuel cell of this kind uses crystals of CaMnO3, etc. for the material of the air electrode, but its electric resistance is big and in order to avert this, it is necessary to make the film thickness of the air electrode big. However, in such a case, the entry of the air into its inside worsens and the cell performance cannot develop satisfactorily. In view of the above, in order to obtain a high performance solid electrolytic fuel cell which can improve electric conductivity without damaging diffusion rate of the air, this invention proposes with regard to the aforementioned solid electrolytic fuel cell to install a heat resistant and conductive member inside the above air electrode. 6 figs.

  20. Spiral cooled fuel nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Timothy; Schilp, Reinhard

    2012-09-25

    A fuel nozzle for delivery of fuel to a gas turbine engine. The fuel nozzle includes an outer nozzle wall and a center body located centrally within the nozzle wall. A gap is defined between an inner wall surface of the nozzle wall and an outer body surface of the center body for providing fuel flow in a longitudinal direction from an inlet end to an outlet end of the fuel nozzle. A turbulating feature is defined on at least one of the central body and the inner wall for causing at least a portion of the fuel flow in the gap to flow transverse to the longitudinal direction. The gap is effective to provide a substantially uniform temperature distribution along the nozzle wall in the circumferential direction.

  1. Fuel safety research 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    The Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is in charge of research activity which covers almost research items related to fuel safety of water reactor in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are being conducted by using some unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) of JAERI. The research to confirm the safety of high burn-up fuel and MOX fuel under accident conditions is the most important item among them. The laboratory consists of following five research groups corresponding to each research fields; Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). Research group of radionuclides release and transport behavior from irradiated fuel under severe accident conditions (VEGA group). The research conducted in the year 2001 produced many important data and information. They are, for example, the fuel behavior data under BWR power oscillation conditions in the NSRR, the data on failure-bearing capability of hydrided cladding under LOCA conditions and the FP release data at very high temperature in steam which simulate the reactor core condition during severe accidents. This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 2001 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

  2. Liquid fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  3. Portable Fuel Quality Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-27

    other transportation industries, such as trucking. The PFQA could also be used in fuel blending operations performed at petroleum, ethanol and biodiesel plants. ...used to identify fuel type and determine performance properties. The Phase I measurements identified the best spectral resolution, spectral region and...identified the best spectral resolution, spectral region and sample path length to differentiate between diesel and jet fuels, as well as to determine

  4. Alternative Fuels (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-19

    feedstock for HRJ, plant cost for F-T) Courtesy AFRL, Dr. Tim Edwards Unclassified • Agricultural crop oils (canola, jatropha, soy, palm , etc...Fuels Focus  Various conversion processes  Upgraded to meet fuel specs Diverse energy sources Petroleum Crude Oil Petroleum based Single Fuel in the...University of North Dakota EERC – UOP – General Electric (GE) – Swedish Biofuels AB • Cellulosic and algal feedstocks that are non- competitive with

  5. Fuel Tank Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    structures b) - Equal thermic inertia c) - Equal fluid volume d) - Equal pressure variation on both wings at the change of the room temperature - This...individual fuel sections. Each fuel section is further ccmpartmentated by metall tank shear walls and tank floors into three individual fuel cells to...plate Dy a stretch forming process, and the metallic tank floors . The air intake segments extend from one bulkhead to the other, thus reducing assembly

  6. Novel approaches in advanced combustion characterization of fuels for advanced pressurized combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, M.; Haemaelaeinen, J. [VTT Energy (Finland); Joutsenoja, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    This project is a part of the EU Joule 2 (extension) programme. The objective of the research of Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) is to produce experimental results of the effects of pressure and other important parameters on the combustion of pulverized coals and their char derivates. The results can be utilized in modelling of pressurized combustion and in planning pilot-scale reactors. The coals to be studied are Polish hvb coal, French lignite (Gardanne), German anthracite (Niederberg) and German (Goettelbom) hvb coal. The samples are combusted in an electrically heated, pressurized entrained flow reactor (PEFR), where the experimental conditions are controlled with a high precision. The particle size of the fuel can vary between 100 and 300 {mu}m. The studied things are combustion rates, temperatures and sizes of burning single coal and char particles. The latter measurements are performed with a method developed by Tampere University of Technology, Finland. In some of the experiments, mass loss and elemental composition of the char residue are studied in more details as the function of time to find out the combustion mechanism. Combustion rate of pulverized (140-180 {mu}m) Gardanne lignite and Niederberg anthracite were measured and compared with the data obtained earlier with Polish hvb coal at various pressures, gas temperatures, oxygen partial pressures and partial pressures of carbon dioxide in the second working period. In addition, particle temperatures were measured with anthracite. The experimental results were treated with multivariable partial least squares (PLS) method to find regression equation between the measured things and the experimental variables. (author)

  7. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  8. Fuels Processing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Fuels Processing Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, provides researchers with the equipment they need to thoroughly explore the catalytic issues associated with...

  9. Fuel assembly reconstitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, Mario M.; Oliveira, Monica G.N.; Ferreira Junior, Decio B.M.; Santos, Barbara O. dos; Santos, Jorge E. dos, E-mail: mongeor@eletronuclear.gov.b [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. - ELETRONUCLEAR, Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Fuel failures have been happened in Nuclear Power Plants worldwide, without lost of integrity and safety, mainly for the public, environment and power plants workers. The most common causes of these events are corrosion (CRUD), fretting and pellet cladding interaction. These failures are identified by increasing the activity of fission products, verified by chemical analyses of reactor coolant. Through these analyses, during the fourth operation cycle of Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant, was possible to observe fuel failure indication. This indication was confirmed in the end of the cycle during the unloading of reactor core through leakage tests of fuel assembly, using the equipment called 'In Mast Sipping' and 'Box Sipping'. After confirmed, the fuel assembly reconstitution was scheduled, and happened in April, 2007, where was identified the cause and the fuel rod failure, which was substitute by dummy rods (zircaloy). The cause was fretting by 'debris'. The actions to avoid and prevent fuel assemblies failures are important. The goals of this work are to describe the methodology of fuel assembly reconstitution using the FARE (Fuel Assembly Reconstitution Equipment) system, to describe the results of this task in economic and security factors of the company and show how the fuel assembly failures are identified during operation and during the outage. (author)

  10. Rethinking nuclear fuel recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Frank N

    2008-05-01

    Spent nuclear fuel contains plutonium which can be extracted and used in new fuel. To reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive waste, the U.S. Department of Energy has proposed reprocessing spent fuel in this way and then "burning" the plutonium in special reactors. But reprocesssing is very expensive. Also, spent fuel emits lethal radiation, whereas separated plutonium can be handled easily. So reprocessing invites the possibility that terrorists might steal plutonium and construct an atom bormb. The authors argue against reprocessing and for storing the waste in casks until an underground repository is ready.

  11. 合同能源管理在煤粉工业锅炉岛市场化中的应用%Energy performance contracting in marketization of industrial pulverized coal boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪任山

    2014-01-01

    为探索煤粉工业锅炉岛的合理经营模式,介绍了合同能源管理( EPC)的基本理论,并以案例从节能效果、其他实际应用效果(减员效果、节能减排效果)、项目经济性及节能效益、风险分析与控制等各方面分析了EPC模式在高效煤粉锅炉中的具体应用和EPC模式为高效煤粉锅炉带来的市场优势。结果表明,EPC模式是适合高效煤粉锅炉市场化推广的有效模式,也为其他高科技节能产品的商业化、产业化提供了成功的案例。组建合同能源管理联盟,为项目参与各方的发展提供良好的交流平台,也是未来的趋势。%In order to explore the reasonable management mode of pulverized coal fired industrial boiler island, introduce the profiles of in-dustrial boilers and the new technology system of pulverized coal industrial boilers island and the basic theory of energy performance con-tracting(EPC).At the same time,the energy saving effects,other practical application effects,economic projects,risk analysis and control of contract in pulverized coal fired boiler in the specific application and EPC model bring to the market advantages of efficient pulverized coal fired boiler were analyzed by cases.The results show that the EPC model is suitable,effective mode for the popularization of efficient pulverized coal boiler,which provides a successful case for the commercialized and industrialized of other high-tech energy-saving prod-ucts.Building an energy performance contracting alliances,which provides a good exchange platform for the development of the parties in-volved in a project,and it is the future trend.

  12. Fuel Cells: Reshaping the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toay, Leo

    2004-01-01

    In conjunction with the FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Fuel Initiative, President George W. Bush has pledged nearly two billion dollars for fuel cell research. Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors have unveiled fuel cell demonstration vehicles, and all three of these companies have invested heavily in fuel cell research. Fuel cell…

  13. Research on Turmeric Fine Pulverizing Process and Its Powder Properties%郁金微细粉碎工艺及其微细粉的粉体学性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝月莆; 秦春凤; 向孙敏; 杨安东; 逯多

    2014-01-01

    目的:对郁金微细粉碎工艺及粉碎过后的郁金微细粉的粉体学性质进行研究分析,为郁金作为中药制剂原料药使用提供依据。方法:以d50为指标,运用正交设计优选郁金的微细粉碎工艺,并通过微细粉碎前后外观性状、红外光谱、流动性、吸湿性等方面进行比较研究,评价不同粒径郁金粉体的粉体学性质。结果:根据正交设计结果优选出了最佳微细粉碎工艺,即投料量为1200 g、含水量为5.5%、粉碎时间为40 min;郁金超微前后粉末的粉体学性质对比结果显示,随粒径变小,郁金粉体逐渐出现团聚现象,颗粒感消失,颜色变浅,粉末细腻,化学成分和分子结构未发生改变,流动性降低,平衡吸湿量增加,吸湿初始速度增大,但吸湿加速度降低,吸湿性略增强。结论:郁金微细粉碎工艺简便,可靠,粒径小,可行性高,可用于郁金的微细粉碎,综合评价优选微细粉四为较优粉体。%This paper was aimed to analyze and study the process of Turmeric fine pulverizing; and the powder properties of Turmeric ultra-micro powder after the process. Based on d50, the powder properties of Turmeric ultra-micro powder were summarized by using orthogonal design to select the optimal Turmeric fine pulverizing. Compari-sons were made on powder properties, such as exterior characters, IR spectra, fluidity and hygroscopicity before and after fine pulverizing. The results showed that optimal fine pulverizing process was determined based on orthogonal design. The conditions were that the material was 1 200 g, with water of 5.5% and crushing for 40 min. Compari-son of powder properties of Turmeric powders before and after fine pulverizing showed that as the diameter of the particle decreased. Turmeric particle gradually showed signs of aggregation. At the same time, granular sensation disappeared;the color turned lighter;powder became finer

  14. Framing car fuel efficiency : linearity heuristic for fuel consumption and fuel-efficiency ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, T.M.; Bolderdijk, J.W.; Steg, L.

    2014-01-01

    People are sensitive to the way information on fuel efficiency is conveyed. When the fuel efficiency of cars is framed in terms of fuel per distance (FPD; e.g. l/100 km), instead of distance per units of fuel (DPF; e.g. km/l), people have a more accurate perception of potential fuel savings. People

  15. 77 FR 13009 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AR07 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... January 5, 2012 to amend the Renewable Fuel Standard program regulations. Because EPA received...

  16. A comparative overview of coal-water slurry fuels produced from waste coal fines for utility-scale co-firing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    The recovery and utilization of coal fines, both impounded and in cleaning plant effluent streams, have received close attention from both coal producers and coal-fixed utilities during the last few years. Many coal producers view impounded fines as an environmental liability and the discarded fines in plant effluent streams as contributing to a loss in Btu recovery. In addition, the rejected coal fines increase the quantity and cost of refuse disposal. The handleability of fine coal has always been a problem. Dewatering cleaned fine coal is costly. Excessive fugitive dust emissions are commonly associated with handling dry fine coal. Wet fine coal sticks to conveyor belts, blocks fuel chutes, and may limit pulverizer capacity. The preparation of coal water slurry fuel (CWSF) from wet coal fines alleviates the necessity of drying while at the same time eliminates the flow problems that wet fine coal poses to the end user. Furthermore, the utilization of CWSF as an opportunity fuel converts coal fines into a revenue source rather than a liability. Several utilities are evaluating the co-firing of low solids, low viscosity CWSF with their normal coal feedstock in an effort to lower fuel cost and/or as a NO{sub x} reduction technique. The utilization of this opportunity fuel is being driven by a changing electric industry in which utilities continually strive to reduce plant emissions while simultaneously reducing their operating costs to become more competitive as the generation side of the industry prepares for deregulation.

  17. www.FuelEconomy.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — FuelEconomy.gov provides comprehensive information about vehicles' fuel economy. The official U.S. government site for fuel economy information, it is operated by...

  18. Improved hybrid rocket fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David L.

    1995-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, as part of its Independent R&D, has initiated development of a clean burning, high performance hybrid fuel for consideration as an alternative to the solid rocket thrust augmentation currently utilized by American space launch systems including Atlas, Delta, Pegasus, Space Shuttle, and Titan. It could also be used in single stage to orbit or as the only propulsion system in a new launch vehicle. Compared to solid propellants based on aluminum and ammonium perchlorate, this fuel is more environmentally benign in that it totally eliminates hydrogen chloride and aluminum oxide by products, producing only water, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon oxides, and trace amounts of nitrogen oxides. Compared to other hybrid fuel formulations under development, this fuel is cheaper, denser, and faster burning. The specific impulse of this fuel is comparable to other hybrid fuels and is between that of solids and liquids. The fuel also requires less oxygen than similar hybrid fuels to produce maximum specific impulse, thus reducing oxygen delivery system requirements.

  19. Durable fuel electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    the composite. The invention also relates to the use of the composite as a fuel electrode, solid oxide fuel cell, and/or solid oxide electrolyser. The invention discloses a composite for an electrode, comprising a three-dimensional network of dispersed metal particles, stabilised zirconia particles and pores...

  20. Toward sustainable fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, Ifan; Rossmeisl, Jan; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2016-01-01

    to a regular gasoline car. However, current fuel cells require 0.25 g of platinum (Pt) per kilowatt of power (2) as catalysts to drive the electrode reactions. If the entire global annual production of Pt were devoted to fuel cell vehicles, fewer than 10 million vehicles could be produced each year, a mere 10...

  1. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  2. Solar Fuel Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The disclosure provides conductive membranes for water splitting and solar fuel generation. The membranes comprise an embedded semiconductive/photoactive material and an oxygen or hydrogen evolution catalyst. Also provided are chassis and cassettes containing the membranes for use in fuel generation.

  3. Bioethanol: fuel or feedstock?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Falsig, Hanne; Jørgensen, Betina

    2007-01-01

    Increasing amounts of bioethanol are being produced from fermentation of biomass, mainly to counteract the continuing depletion of fossil resources and the consequential escalation of oil prices. Today, bioethanol is mainly utilized as a fuel or fuel additive in motor vehicles, but it could also...

  4. Nanofluidic fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-11-01

    Fuel cells are gaining momentum as a critical component in the renewable energy mix for stationary, transportation, and portable power applications. State-of-the-art fuel cell technology benefits greatly from nanotechnology applied to nanostructured membranes, catalysts, and electrodes. However, the potential of utilizing nanofluidics for fuel cells has not yet been explored, despite the significant opportunity of harnessing rapid nanoscale reactant transport in close proximity to the reactive sites. In the present article, a nanofluidic fuel cell that utilizes fluid flow through nanoporous media is conceptualized and demonstrated for the first time. This transformative concept captures the advantages of recently developed membraneless and catalyst-free fuel cell architectures paired with the enhanced interfacial contact area enabled by nanofluidics. When compared to previously reported microfluidic fuel cells, the prototype nanofluidic fuel cell demonstrates increased surface area, reduced activation overpotential, superior kinetic characteristics, and moderately enhanced fuel cell performance in the high cell voltage regime with up to 14% higher power density. However, the expected mass transport benefits in the high current density regime were constrained by high ohmic cell resistance, which could likely be resolved through future optimization studies.

  5. Are Solar Fuels Sustainable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwese, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Summary The combined problems of too little fossil fuels to supply the world’s future energy needs and the possible negative environmental effects of carbon dioxide emissions which are coupled to their usage has led to the development of fuels based on s

  6. Fuel cells: Operating flexibly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Moo

    2016-09-01

    Fuel cells typically function well only in rather limited temperature and humidity ranges. Now, a proton exchange membrane consisting of ion pair complexes is shown to enable improved fuel cell performance under a wide range of conditions that are unattainable with conventional approaches.

  7. Are Solar Fuels Sustainable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwese, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Summary The combined problems of too little fossil fuels to supply the world’s future energy needs and the possible negative environmental effects of carbon dioxide emissions which are coupled to their usage has led to the development of fuels based on s

  8. Solar fuel generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Nathan S.; West, William C.

    2017-01-17

    The disclosure provides conductive membranes for water splitting and solar fuel generation. The membranes comprise an embedded semiconductive/photoactive material and an oxygen or hydrogen evolution catalyst. Also provided are chassis and cassettes containing the membranes for use in fuel generation.

  9. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy

  10. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, Adelbert; van de Sanden, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy efficiency.

  11. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy

  12. PLATINUM AND FUEL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platinum requirements for fuel cell vehicles (FCVS) have been identified as a concern and possible problem with FCV market penetration. Platinum is a necessary component of the electrodes of fuel cell engines that power the vehicles. The platinum is deposited on porous electrodes...

  13. Hydrogen Fuel Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-16

    For the past 6 years, open discussions and/or meetings have been held and are still on-going with OEM, Hydrogen Suppliers, other test facilities from the North America Team and International collaborators regarding experimental results, fuel clean-up cost, modeling, and analytical techniques to help determine levels of constituents for the development of an international standard for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12). Significant progress has been made. The process for the fuel standard is entering final stages as a result of the technical accomplishments. The objectives are to: (1) Determine the allowable levels of hydrogen fuel contaminants in support of the development of science-based international standards for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12); and (2) Validate the ASTM test method for determining low levels of non-hydrogen constituents.

  14. Assessment of automotive fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, G.

    Energy demand all over the world increases steadily and, within the next decades, is almost completely met by fossil fuels. This poses increasing pressure on oil supply and reserves. Concomitant is the concern about environmental pollution, especially by carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion, with the risk of global warming. Environmental well-being requires a modified mix of energy sources to emit less carbon dioxide, starting with a move to natural gas and ending with the market penetration of renewable energies. Efforts should focus on advanced oil and gas production and processing technologies and on regeneratively produced fuels like hydrogen or bio-fuels as well. Within the framework of an industrial initiative in Germany, a process of defining one or two alternative fuels was started, to bring them into the market within the next years.

  15. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt

    2016-08-17

    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  16. Rejuvenation of automotive fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Langlois, David A.

    2016-08-23

    A process for rejuvenating fuel cells has been demonstrated to improve the performance of polymer exchange membrane fuel cells with platinum/ionomer electrodes. The process involves dehydrating a fuel cell and exposing at least the cathode of the fuel cell to dry gas (nitrogen, for example) at a temperature higher than the operating temperature of the fuel cell. The process may be used to prolong the operating lifetime of an automotive fuel cell.

  17. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  18. Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Zhu, Yimin; Kahn, Zakia; Man, Malcolm

    2009-11-17

    A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

  19. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefore, direct methanol fuel cell is proper to use for the energy source of small electrical devices and vehicles etc.

  20. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily ``skimmed`` from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

  1. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Marvin

    1991-12-01

    METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily skimmed'' from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

  2. Feasibility of semi coke combustion in industrial pulverized coal boiler%煤粉工业锅炉燃烧兰炭试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛芳

    2015-01-01

    In order to burn semi coke in industrial pulverized coal boiler,taking the semi coke produced by Shaanxi Coal and Chemical In-dustry Group as research object,the pulverized coal combustion test in industrial boiler was conducted. The ignition,stable combustion and after-combustion were investigated. The corresponding reform measures were provided. The results showed that,the unique double-cone structure of the combustor and the mode of dense phase combustion provided favorable conditions for the ignition and stable combustion of semi coke. The blue coke could be ignited and burned stably when the excess air coefficient was 1. 2 and the proportion of primary air,sec-ondary air and tertiary air was 0. 11,0. 47,0. 42,the combustor was preheated for 3 minutes and the semi coke burned with oil for 4 mi-nutes. During combustion,the temperature in the back of furnace remained 550 ℃,while the temperature in the middle was over 800 ℃. In order to lower burning point,improve temperature in the fire area and make semi coke full combustion,the structure and size of combus-tor was adjusted,the preheating time was prolonged.%为提高兰炭在煤粉工业锅炉上的燃烧效率,以陕西煤业化工集团生产的兰炭为原料,进行煤粉工业锅炉燃烧试验,分析了兰炭着火、稳燃、燃烬情况;针对兰炭燃烧过程中存在的问题提出解决方案。结果表明:高效煤粉工业锅炉双锥燃烧器的独特结构和浓相燃烧的方式,为兰炭的着火和稳燃提供了良好条件。在过量空气系数1.2,一、二、三次风比例分别为0.11、0.47、0.42,预热时间3 min,伴燃时间4 min的条件下,实现了兰炭粉的着火和自维持稳定燃烧,燃烧期间后部温度保持在550℃,炉膛中部温度大于800℃。针对兰炭燃烧存在燃烧器内燃点靠后、着火区域温度低和兰炭燃烧不完全等问题,提出可通过调整燃烧室的结构和尺寸,使燃烧器蓄热能力增强,

  3. Efficient Lignite-fired Power Generation Technology Based on Open Pulverizing Systems With Flue Gas Drying Fan Mill and Recovery of Heat and Water From Pulverizing Exhaust%基于炉烟干燥及水回收风扇磨仓储式制粉系统的高效褐煤发电技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马有福; 郭晓克; 肖峰; 施登宇

    2013-01-01

    提出了一种基于炉烟干燥及水回收风扇磨仓储式制粉系统的高效褐煤发电技术,并以某在役600 MW超临界褐煤(全水分39.5%)机组为对比工程,对应用炉烟干燥及水回收仓储式制粉系统的安全性、节能性及水回收效益进行了计算比较和分析讨论.结果表明:该技术可降低机组标煤发电煤耗10 g/(kW·h)左右,同时锅炉岛投资有所减小,厂用电基本不变;通过高湿制粉乏气的冷却,可回收大量原煤中水资源,若将其用于补充电厂水耗,有望实现“零水耗”褐煤电厂;以惰性烟气为制粉系统干燥剂,解决了困扰燃褐煤机组安全运行的制粉系统爆炸问题;在实现上述效果的同时,未产生新的污染物排放.该技术工艺及设备成熟,工程可行性佳;而且与以提高蒸汽参数为主要思路的超临界、超超临界、二次再热及700℃发电技术均可组合应用.该技术对加快褐煤产区电源基地建设和改善当地生态环境具有重大社会意义和显著经济效益,是值得深入研究与推广应用的绿色高效燃煤发电技术.%This paper advanced an efficient lignite-fired power generation technology based on open pulverizing system with flue gas drying fan mill and recovery of heat and water from pulverizing exhaust. In order to demonstrate the security, energy saving and water recovery advantages of this new technology, a detailed comparative calculation and analysis was performed by comparison with an operating 600 MW power generating unit which fired Chinese lignite with total moisture 39.5% and applied traditional direct-fired pulverizing system. The calculation results show that the gross standard coal consumption rate could be reduced about 10 g/(kWh) by applying this new technology, meanwhile the investment of boiler island could be slightly reduced and the service power remained unchanged on the whole. On the other hand, a mass of water resource could be recovered from

  4. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 15, October--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

    1993-03-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coa1 (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1992, the following technical progress was made: Continued analyses of drop tube furnace samples to determine devolatilization kinetics; re-analyzed the samples from the pilot-scale ash deposition tests of the first nine feed coals and BCFs using a modified CCSEM technique; updated the topical summary report; and prepared for upcoming tests of new BCFs being produced.

  5. Fuel and emissions properties of Stirling engine operated with wood powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akio Nishiyama; Hidetoshi Shimojima; Akira Ishikawa; Yoshinori Itaya; Shinji Kambara; Hiroshi Moritomi; Shigekatsu Mori [C-Tech Corporation Ltd., Nagoya (Japan). Engineering Development Group

    2007-10-15

    From viewpoints of the environment and fuel cost reduction, small-scale biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants are in demand, especially wood-waste fueled system, which are simple to operate and maintenance-free with high thermal efficiency similar to oil fired units. These are requested by wood and other industries located in mountainous region. To meet these requirements, a Stirling engine CHP system combined with simplified biomass combustion process with pulverized wood powder was developed. In an R&D project started in 2004 considering wood powder properties as a fuel, combustion performance and emissions in combustion flue gas were tested using combustion test apparatus with commercial size units. The wood powder combustion system was modified and optimized during the combustion test results, and the design of the demonstration plant combined with 55 kW{sub e} Stirling engine power unit was considered. The demonstration plant was finally completed in March of 2006, and test operation has been progressed for the future commercial CHP system. In the wood powder combustion test, wood powder of less than 500 {mu}m is mainly used, and a combustion chamber length of 3 m is applied. In these conditions, the air ratio can be reduced to 1.1 without increasing CO emission of less than 10 ppm and combustion efficiency of 99.9%. In the same conditions, NOx emission is estimated to be less than 120 ppm (6% O{sub 2} basis). Wood powder was confirmed to have excellent properties as a fuel for Stirling engine CHP system. This paper summarizes the wood powder combustion test, and presents the evaluation of the burner design parameters for the biomass Stirling engine system. 28 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Metallic fuels for advanced reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmack, W. J.; Porter, D. L.; Chang, Y. I.; Hayes, S. L.; Meyer, M. K.; Burkes, D. E.; Lee, C. B.; Mizuno, T.; Delage, F.; Somers, J.

    2009-07-01

    In the framework of the Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactor Program, the Advanced Fuel Project has conducted an evaluation of the available fuel systems supporting future sodium cooled fast reactors. This paper presents an evaluation of metallic alloy fuels. Early US fast reactor developers originally favored metal alloy fuel due to its high fissile density and compatibility with sodium. The goal of fast reactor fuel development programs is to develop and qualify a nuclear fuel system that performs all of the functions of a conventional fast spectrum nuclear fuel while destroying recycled actinides. This will provide a mechanism for closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. Metal fuels are candidates for this application, based on documented performance of metallic fast reactor fuels and the early results of tests currently being conducted in US and international transmutation fuel development programs.

  7. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Bill [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Curtin, Sandra [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Delmont, Elizabeth [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  8. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  9. Numerical study on the impact of varying operation conditions on NOx emissions of large-scale pulverized coal-fired utility boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yue-yun [Jiangsu Institute of Economic and Trade Technology, Nanjing (China); Gao, Xiao-tao [Jiangsu Electric Power Test and Research CO., LTD, Nanjing (China); Zhang, Ming-yao [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2013-07-01

    For complying with the increasingly strengthened regulation on NOx emission from coal fired power plant, newly built large-scale pulverized coal-fired utility boilers are all installed with low-NOx combustion systems to low NOx emissions. Understanding the characteristics of the system is essential for fully utilizing the system without affecting the combustion performance. In the present work, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was applied to simulate the combustion and NOx formation processes in the furnace of 1,000 MW ultra- supercritical boiler equipped with an advanced low-NOx combustion system so as to study the impacts of varying the operation conditions on its NOx emission as well as combustion characteristics. The combustion system is the Mitsubishi Advanced Combustion Technology system consisting of six levels corner-fired pollution minimum (PM) coal burners and additional air to achieve air staging combustion. With the help of CFD simulation, the distributions of the combustion temperature and CO, O{sub 2} and NO concentrations were calculated and analyzed. The main influential operation parameters studied include coal type, additional air flow rate, excess air level and mill groups in service. The CFD simulations indicated that the main reasons of the low NOx emission from this boiler are on two aspects: rationally organizing the combustion process to achieve relatively uniform temperature distribution and reducing combustion environment in the main combustion zone, and combining the utilizations of the large amount of additional air to achieve deep air stage and the low excess air level as well as PM burners. It was also found that varying the operational parameters had considerable effects on the performance of the combustion system.

  10. Pulverized Coal Fired Boiler Water Wall Welding Method Exploration%煤粉锅炉水冷壁的焊接方法探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波涛; 江一平; 霍雅洁

    2016-01-01

    During tube header and tube bundle welding of pulverized coal fired boiler water wall tube, sometimes due to improper handling can cause severe wave tube deformation, individual fins seal defects such as cracks. In addition, because of the limitation of space position during welding, the operation is very difficult. In order to ensure the welding quality of tube header and tube bundle, reduce welding defects, more easily to conduct welding operation, a new welding way was designed. And the site-welding experiment for this welding way was carried out. The test results of welding sample showed that this welding method can obtain good effect, and once qualified rate reached 95%.%在煤粉锅炉水冷壁管屏的管集箱和管排焊接时,有时由于处理不当会造成管屏产生波浪变形,个别鳍片出现密封裂纹等缺陷.另外,由于焊接时空间位置的限制,操作相当困难.为了保证管集箱和管排的焊接质量,减少焊接缺陷,更方便地进行焊接操作,设计了一种新型焊接方法,并进行了现场焊接试验.对焊接试样的检测结果表明,该焊接方法可以取得较好的焊接效果,检测一次合格率达到95%.

  11. Analysis of the Common Faults of Coal Pulverizing System of Thermal Power Plant%火力电厂制粉系统常见故障分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炀文; 张超; 刘学伟

    2014-01-01

    Mill is the coal drying and grinding into qualified coal fineness to the boiler burner, the boiler to meet the load de-mand of machinery. ZGM-123G type coal pulverizer is a kind of medium speed coal mill of type system, its advantages of sim-ple, compact layout, power consumption is low, the disadvantage is the requirement to control boiler operation, such as milling system fault is a direct threat to the normal operation of the boiler. Abnormal phenomenon it is necessary to often happen on mill-ing system in the production process and the reason to make the summary, and put forward the accident processing method.%磨煤机是将原煤经干燥和碾磨后制成细度合格的煤粉送到锅炉燃烧器,以满足锅炉负荷的需求的机械。ZGM-123G型磨煤机是一种中速辊盘式磨煤机,其优点系统简单,布置紧凑,运行电耗也较低,缺点是对锅炉运行操作控制要求高,如制粉系统中出现故障就直接威胁到锅炉的正常运行。因此有必要对生产过程中制粉系统常发生的异常现象及原因做出总结,并针对性提出事故处理方法。

  12. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  13. Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1999-03-17

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  14. Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1998-11-09

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  15. FUEL3-D: A Spatially Explicit Fractal Fuel Distribution Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell A. Parsons

    2006-01-01

    Efforts to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of fuels treatments are hampered by inconsistencies between the spatial scale at which fuel treatments are implemented and the spatial scale, and detail, with which we model fire and fuel interactions. Central to this scale inconsistency is the resolution at which variability within the fuel bed is considered. Crown...

  16. Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2012-10-02

    A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

  17. Fuel nozzle tube retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cihlar, David William; Melton, Patrick Benedict

    2017-02-28

    A system for retaining a fuel nozzle premix tube includes a retention plate and a premix tube which extends downstream from an outlet of a premix passage defined along an aft side of a fuel plenum body. The premix tube includes an inlet end and a spring support feature which is disposed proximate to the inlet end. The premix tube extends through the retention plate. The spring retention feature is disposed between an aft side of the fuel plenum and the retention plate. The system further includes a spring which extends between the spring retention feature and the retention plate.

  18. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  19. Co-combustion of fossil fuels and waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao

    2011-05-15

    The Ph.D. thesis deals with the alternative and high efficiency methods of using waste-derived fuels in heat and power production. The focus is on the following subjects: 1) co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel (SRF) under pulverized fuel combustion conditions; 2) dust-firing of straw and the utilization of a waste-derived material as an additive; 3) the combustion of a biomass residue rich in phosphorus. Co-combustion of coal and SRF was conducted in an entrained flow reactor (EFR). The work revealed that when coal was co-fired with up to 25 wt% SRF, the burnout and the emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO were decreased with increasing share of SRF. The Cl content in the fly ash was very low (<0.07 wt%) when coal was co-fired up to 25 wt% SRF, indicating that the majority of the Cl in the SRF were released to gas phase during cocombustion. The formation of fouling deposits on a probe was reduced with increasing share of SRF and the resulting deposits had a very small Cl content (<0.01 wt%). On the other hand, when NaCl or PVC was added to the mixture of coal and SRF, the formation of alkali chlorides was significantly promoted. The partitioning of trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Sb and Zn) during co-combustion of coal and SRF was investigated through the experiments in the EFR. They revealed that As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn were highly volatile during combustion, while the volatility of Cr was relatively low. The volatility of Cd, Pb and Zn increased significantly with the injection of Cl based additives such as PVC and NaCl, while the addition of ammonium sulphate generally decreased the volatility of trace elements. The addition of kaolinite reduced the volatility of Pb, while the effect on other trace elements was insignificant. Full-scale tests on co-combustion of coal and SRF were carried out in a pulverized coal-fired power plant, and the formation of fine particles was evaluated by applying a low-pressure cascade impactor. Compared to dedicated coal

  20. Reactivity to CO{sub 2} of chars prepared in O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures for pulverized coal injection (PCI) in blast furnace in relation to char petrographic characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlmann, Juliana G.; Osorio, Eduardo; Vilela, Antonio C.F. [Iron and Steelmaking Laboratory, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Borrego, Angeles G. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-12-01

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) is employed in blast furnace tuyeres in order to increase the injection rate without increasing the amount of unburned char inside the stack. When coal is injected with air in the region of tuyeres, the resolidified char will burn in an atmosphere with progressively lower oxygen content and higher CO{sub 2} concentration. In this study, an experimental approach comprising refiring has been followed to separate the combustion process into two distinct devolatilization and combustion steps. A drop tube furnace (DTF) operating at 1300 C in an atmosphere with low oxygen concentration was used to simulate devolatilization and then the char was refired into DTF at the same temperature under two different atmospheres O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (typical combustion) and O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} (oxy-combustion) with the same oxygen concentration. Coal injection was also performed under a higher oxygen concentration in both typical combustion and oxy-combustion atmospheres. The fuels tested comprised a petroleum coke and coals ranging in rank from high to low volatile bituminous, currently used for PCI injection. Specific surface areas, reactivity to CO{sub 2} and char petrography have been used to chars characterization. The morphology and appearance of the chars generated under oxy-fuel (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}) and conventional combustion (O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) conditions with similar amount of oxygen were similar for each parent coal. Vitrinite-rich particles generated cenospheres with anisotropic optical texture increasing in size with increasing coal rank, whereas inertinite yielded a variety of morphologies and optical textures. The apparent reactivity to CO{sub 2} measured at high temperature (1000 C) tended to increase with burnout reflecting the operation under a regime controlled by internal diffusion in which surface area also increased. This may have a significant effect in the reactivity to CO{sub 2} of the chars inside the stack of the blast furnace

  1. Ammonia as a Suitable Fuel for Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel ...

  2. Ammonia as a suitable fuel for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong eLan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.

  3. Organic fuel cells and fuel cell conducting sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Ha, Su; Adams, Brian

    2007-10-16

    A passive direct organic fuel cell includes an organic fuel solution and is operative to produce at least 15 mW/cm.sup.2 when operating at room temperature. In additional aspects of the invention, fuel cells can include a gas remover configured to promote circulation of an organic fuel solution when gas passes through the solution, a modified carbon cloth, one or more sealants, and a replaceable fuel cartridge.

  4. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels DOE-DOD Workshop Washington, DC. January 13, 2011 reliable, efficient, ultra-clean Report...2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels 5a. CONTRACT...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES presented at the DOE-DOD Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Workshop held

  5. Test analysis of pulverizer starting up or shutting down without burner firing oil%锅炉磨煤机启停不投油的试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺光宇; 陈祥

    2015-01-01

    针对火电厂磨煤机启停时锅炉需投油助燃,增加发电成本的问题,华能大坝电厂对现有的磨煤机启停规程进行调整,对4台锅炉的磨煤机在设定条件下进行了启停不投油试验,确定了磨煤机启停时对应的燃烧器不投助燃油的锅炉运行条件。应用结果表明:实施磨煤机启停燃烧器不投油技术后,大坝电厂4台机组2014年至少节约燃油575 t,约合人民币413万多元,经济效益非常显著。%Aiming at the problem that when the pulverizer starting up or shutting down,burner need add oil to support hearth combustion,increasing the generation cost of coal-fired plant,under designed condition,makes the test of pulverizer starting up or shutting down without burner firing oil in Huaneng Ningxia Daba Power Plant,confirms the boiler running conditions of burner without the oil when the pulverizer starting up or shutting down. The application result shows that:after to implement the technology,4 units at least saving burning oil 575 ton,or about 4 130 000 Chinese yuan in Huaneng Ningxia Daba Power Plant,the economic benefit is evident.

  6. 运行参数对粉煤流化床(PC-FB)燃烧效率的影响%The Effect of Operation Parameters on the Combustion Efficiency of a Pulverized-coal Fluidized Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鸿伟; 金保升; 徐益谦

    2001-01-01

    With the help of a pulverized-coal fluidized bed (PC-FB) test rig with 0.3 MW heat input test data were obtained of the PC-FB combustion efficiency under various operation parameters. A detailed discussion and study was conducted focusing on the mechanism of influence of these operation parameters on PC-FB combustion efficiency. The study results indicate that the combustion efficiency of the PC-FB can be as high as 98% - 99%, comparable with that of a pulverized-coal furnace. The authors also pointed out for the first time in the present study that under a certain set of conditions it is possible to realize a low-temperature high-efficiency combustion of the pulverized-coal. These conditions include, among others, a rational matching of the following items: combustion temperature, particle residence time, flame turbulence and in-furnace oxygen concentration and particle concentration%在一座0.3 MW热输入的PC-FBC试验台上进行了试验研究,获得了不同操作参数下PC-FB燃烧效率的试验数据,详细讨论了这些参数对PC-FB燃烧效率的影响规律。研究结果表明,粉煤流化床的燃烧效率最高达98%~99%,可与煤粉炉相媲美。本试验研究亦首次提出,只要燃烧温度、颗粒停留时间、火焰湍流度(3T)及炉内氧浓度、颗粒浓度(2C)合理匹配,就能够实现煤粉的低温高效燃烧。

  7. Advanced Fuels Campaign 2012 Accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed

    2012-11-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is responsible for developing fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. The fiscal year 2012 (FY 2012) accomplishments are highlighted below. Kemal Pasamehmetoglu is the National Technical Director for AFC.

  8. Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NETL

    2004-11-01

    Provides an overview of fuel cell technology and research projects. Discusses the basic workings of fuel cells and their system components, main fuel cell types, their characteristics, and their development status, as well as a discussion of potential fuel cell applications.

  9. BIOCHEMICAL FUEL CELLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    used to evaluate kinetics of alcoholic fermentation . Evaluation of results indicated that 1% ethanol can be generated in 1 hour. One per cent ethanol is the minimum fuel concentration required for this system. (Author)

  10. Fuels and Lubricants Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Modern naval aircraft and turbine-powered craft require reliable and high-quality fuels and lubricants to satisfy the demands imposed upon them for top performance...

  11. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael F. Simpson; Jack D. Law

    2010-02-01

    This is an a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. No formal abstract was required for the article. The full article will be attached.

  12. Renewable jet fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Pauli; Pásztor, András; Akhtar, M Kalim; Jones, Patrik R

    2014-04-01

    Novel strategies for sustainable replacement of finite fossil fuels are intensely pursued in fundamental research, applied science and industry. In the case of jet fuels used in gas-turbine engine aircrafts, the production and use of synthetic bio-derived kerosenes are advancing rapidly. Microbial biotechnology could potentially also be used to complement the renewable production of jet fuel, as demonstrated by the production of bioethanol and biodiesel for piston engine vehicles. Engineered microbial biosynthesis of medium chain length alkanes, which constitute the major fraction of petroleum-based jet fuels, was recently demonstrated. Although efficiencies currently are far from that needed for commercial application, this discovery has spurred research towards future production platforms using both fermentative and direct photobiological routes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Alternative fuel information sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  14. Hydrogen as a fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    A panel of the Committee on Advanced Energy Storage Systems of the Assembly of Engineering has examined the status and problems of hydrogen manufacturing methods, hydrogen transmission and distribution networks, and hydrogen storage systems. This examination, culminating at a time when rapidly changing conditions are having noticeable impact on fuel and energy availability and prices, was undertaken with a view to determining suitable criteria for establishing the pace, timing, and technical content of appropriate federally sponsored hydrogen R and D programs. The increasing urgency to develop new sources and forms of fuel and energy may well impact on the scale and timing of potential future hydrogen uses. The findings of the panel are presented. Chapters are devoted to hydrogen sources, hydrogen as a feedstock, hydrogen transport and storage, hydrogen as a heating fuel, automotive uses of hydrogen, aircraft use of hydrogen, the fuel cell in hydrogen energy systems, hydrogen research and development evaluation, and international hydrogen programs.

  15. Vibrating fuel grapple. [LMFBR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertock, A.J.; Fox, J.N.; Weissinger, R.B.

    A reactor refueling method is described which utilizes a vibrating fuel grapple for removing spent fuel assemblies from a reactor core. It incorporates a pneumatic vibrator in the grapple head which allows additional withdrawal capability without exceeding the allowable axial force limit. The only moving part in the vibrator is a steel ball, pneumatically driven by a gas, such as argon, around a track, with centrifugal force created by the ball being transmitted through the grapple to the assembly handling socket.

  16. Solar fuels generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Nathan S.; Spurgeon, Joshua M.

    2016-10-25

    The solar fuels generator includes an ionically conductive separator between a gaseous first phase and a second phase. A photoanode uses one or more components of the first phase to generate cations during operation of the solar fuels generator. A cation conduit is positioned provides a pathway along which the cations travel from the photoanode to the separator. The separator conducts the cations. A second solid cation conduit conducts the cations from the separator to a photocathode.

  17. Environmentally safe aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberio, Patricia D.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the Air Force directive to remove Ozone Depleting Chemicals (ODC's) from military specifications and Defense Logistics Agency's Hazardous Waste Minimization Program, we are faced with how to ensure a quality aviation fuel without using such chemicals. Many of these chemicals are found throughout the fuel and fuel related military specifications and are part of test methods that help qualify the properties and quality of the fuels before they are procured. Many years ago there was a directive for military specifications to use commercially standard test methods in order to provide standard testing in private industry and government. As a result the test methods used in military specifications are governed by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). The Air Force has been very proactive in the removal or replacement of the ODC's and hazardous materials in these test methods. For example, ASTM D3703 (Standard Test Method for Peroxide Number of Aviation Turbine Fuels), requires the use of Freon 113, a known ODC. A new rapid, portable hydroperoxide test for jet fuels similar to ASTM D3703 that does not require the use of ODC's has been developed. This test has proved, in limited testing, to be a viable substitute method for ASTM D3703. The Air Force is currently conducting a round robin to allow the method to be accepted by ASTM and therefore replace the current method. This paper will describe the Air Force's initiatives to remove ODC's and hazardous materials from the fuel and fuel related military specifications that the Air Force Wright Laboratory.

  18. TARDEC Assured Fuels Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-07

    Objectives • Develop and build two microchannel reactors − FT reactor : convert CO + H2 to long-chain hydrocarbons − Hydrocracker: upgrade FT wax to...present depending on the FT reactor conditions and catalyst used and subsequent upgrade-to-finished fuel processing • Lack of aromatics impacts fuel... Microchannel Processing Technology (MPT) The Technology • Stacks of closely spaced thin plates form microchannels • Process fluids pass through

  19. Nuclear fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadowcroft, Ronald Ross; Bain, Alastair Stewart

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element wherein a tubular cladding of zirconium or a zirconium alloy has a fission gas plenum chamber which is held against collapse by the loops of a spacer in the form of a tube which has been deformed inwardly at three equally spaced, circumferential positions to provide three loops. A heat resistant disc of, say, graphite separates nuclear fuel pellets within the cladding from the plenum chamber. The spacer is of zirconium or a zirconium alloy.

  20. Modeling of pulverized coal combustion processes in a vortex furnace of improved design. Part 2: Combustion of brown coal from the Kansk-Achinsk Basin in a vortex furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasinsky, D. V.; Salomatov, V. V.; Anufriev, I. S.; Sharypov, O. V.; Shadrin, E. Yu.; Anikin, Yu. A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper continues with the description of study results for an improved-design steam boiler vortex furnace, for the full-scale configuration of which the numerical modeling of a three-dimensional turbulent two-phase reacting flow has been performed with allowance for all the principal heat and mass transfer processes in the torch combustion of pulverized Berezovsk brown coal from the Kansk-Achinsk Basin. The detailed distributions of velocity, temperature, concentration, and heat flux fields in different cross sections of the improved vortex furnace have been obtained. The principal thermoengineering and environmental characteristics of this furnace are given.

  1. Investigation on Collection Performances of Plasma Signal for Pulverized Particle Coal Flow in Different Optical Collection%不同收光方式下煤粉流的等离子体信号探测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世和; 陆继东; 钟子铭; 潘凤萍; 潘刚; 张曦; 姚顺春; 罗嘉; 李军

    2013-01-01

    In order to reduce the adverse impact of the inhomogeneous of pulverized coal components, different optical path systems were set up and used to research the collection performances of plasma of pulverized coal by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. The coal samples, Shenmuhun, was chosen for experiment. The detected count and stability of special lines of coal in different optical collection were investigated on the self-built two-phase particle flow experiment bench, which was used to produce stable pulverized coal stream. The analysis results show that in the steadily repeat measurements, the counts of the lines collected by backside are weaker because of the intermediate perforated mirror, while the stability of the lines collected by side are worse because of the position change of plasma along the laser beam, the spatial inhomogeneity of plasma and the blocking effect of pulverized coal.%针对煤粉流组分分布的不均匀性,研究不同收光方式对煤粉流的激光诱导等离子体的光谱信号收集效果的影响.选用电厂常用燃煤神木混为实验对象,利用自行搭建的气固两相流实验台架产生稳定煤粉流,对比同向收光方式和侧向收光方式下煤的特征谱线信号探测的强度和稳定性.研究结果表明,相同实验条件下,中间穿孔反射镜使同向收光方式下探测的光谱信号强度较弱,而等离子体信号源位置沿激光束轴线的变化、等离子体信号本身沿空间分布的不均匀性及煤粉流的阻挡作用使侧向收光方式下探测的光谱信号稳定性较弱.

  2. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capossela, Harry J.; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Luce, Robert G.; McCoy, Daniel F.; Merriman, Floyd C.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect.

  3. EPRI fuel cladding integrity program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, R. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the EPRI fuel program is to supplement the fuel vendor research to assure that utility economic and operational interests are met. To accomplish such objectives, EPRI has conducted research and development efforts to (1) reduce fuel failure rates and mitigate the impact of fuel failures on plant operation, (2) provide technology to extend burnup and reduce fuel cycle cost. The scope of R&D includes fuel and cladding. In this paper, only R&D related to cladding integrity will be covered. Specific areas aimed at improving fuel cladding integrity include: (1) Fuel Reliability Data Base; (2) Operational Guidance for Defective Fuel; (3) Impact of Water Chemistry on Cladding Integrity; (4) Cladding Corrosion Data and Model; (5) Cladding Mechanical Properties; and (6) Transient Fuel Cladding Response.

  4. Hydrogen fuel - Universal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, A. G.; Burg, J. A.

    The technology for the production, storage, transmission, and consumption of hydrogen as a fuel is surveyed, with the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen examined as they affect its use as a fuel. Sources of hydrogen production are described including synthesis from coal or natural gas, biomass conversion, thermochemical decomposition of water, and electrolysis of water, of these only electrolysis is considered economicially and technologically feasible in the near future. Methods of production of the large quantities of electricity required for the electrolysis of sea water are explored: fossil fuels, hydroelectric plants, nuclear fission, solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy, tidal power, wave motion, electrochemical concentration cells, and finally ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The wind power and OTEC are considered in detail as the most feasible approaches. Techniques for transmission (by railcar or pipeline), storage (as liquid in underwater or underground tanks, as granular metal hydride, or as cryogenic liquid), and consumption (in fuel cells in conventional power plants, for home usage, for industrial furnaces, and for cars and aircraft) are analyzed. The safety problems of hydrogen as a universal fuel are discussed, noting that they are no greater than those for conventional fuels.

  5. Alternative Fuels: Research Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 1: Pollutant Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of Biofuels and Biofuel/Diesel Blends in Laminar and Turbulent Gas Jet Flames. R. N. Parthasarathy, S. R. Gollahalli Chapter 2: Sustainable Routes for The Production of Oxygenated High-Energy Density Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass. Juan A. Melero, Jose Iglesias, Gabriel Morales, Marta Paniagua Chapter 3: Optical Investigations of Alternative-Fuel Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine. T. Huelser, M. Jakob, G. Gruenefeld, P. Adomeit, S. Pischinger Chapter 4: An Insight into Biodiesel Physico-Chemical Properties and Exhaust Emissions Based on Statistical Elaboration of Experimental Data. Evangelos G. Giakoumis Chapter 5: Biodiesel: A Promising Alternative Energy Resource. A.E. Atabani Chapter 6: Alternative Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines: An Overview of the Current Research. Ahmed A. Taha, Tarek M. Abdel-Salam, Madhu Vellakal Chapter 7: Investigating the Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends as a Fuel in Internal Combustion Engine. ?lker YILMAZ Chapter 8: Conversion of Bus Diesel Engine into LPG Gaseous Engine; Method and Experiments Validation. M. A. Jemni , G. Kantchev , Z. Driss , R. Saaidia , M. S. Abid Chapter 9: Predicting the Combustion Performance of Different Vegetable Oils-Derived Biodiesel Fuels. Qing Shu, ChangLin Yu Chapter 10: Production of Gasoline, Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel, and Fuel Oil Range Fuels from Polypropylene and Polystyrene Waste Plastics Mixture by Two-Stage Catalytic Degradation using ZnO. Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid

  6. Nalco Fuel Tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalak, S.

    1995-12-31

    The Nalco Fuel Tech with its seat at Naperville (near Chicago), Illinois, is an engineering company working in the field of technology and equipment for environmental protection. A major portion of NALCO products constitute chemical materials and additives used in environmental protection technologies (waste-water treatment plants, water treatment, fuel modifiers, etc.). Basing in part on the experience, laboratories and RD potential of the mother company, the Nalco Fuel Tech Company developed and implemented in the power industry a series of technologies aimed at the reduction of environment-polluting products of fuel combustion. The engineering solution of Nalco Fuel Tech belong to a new generation of environmental protection techniques developed in the USA. They consist in actions focused on the sources of pollutants, i.e., in upgrading the combustion chambers of power engineering plants, e.g., boilers or communal and/or industrial waste combustion units. The Nalco Fuel Tech development and research group cooperates with leading US investigation and research institutes.

  7. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  8. Motor Fuel Excise Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

  9. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel

  10. Electrochemical, interfacial, and surface studies of the conversion of carbon dioxide to liquid fuels on tin electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjie

    The electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) into liquid fuels especially coupling with the intermittent renewable electricity offers a promising means of storing electricity in chemical form, which reduces the dependence on fossil fuels and mitigates the negative impact of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on the planet. Although converting CO2 to fuels is not in itself a new concept, the field has not substantially advanced in the last 30 years primarily because of the challenge of discovery of structural electrocatalysts and the development of membrane architectures for efficient collection of reactants and separation of products. An efficient catalyst for the electrochemical conversion of CO2 to fuels must be capable of mediating a proton-coupled electron transfer reaction at low overpotentials, reducing CO2 in the presence of water, selectively converting CO 2 to desirable chemicals, and sustaining long-term operations (Chapter 1). My Ph.D. research was an investigation of the electroreduction of CO2 on tin-based electrodes and development of an electrochemical cell to convert CO2 to liquid fuels. The initial study focused on understanding the CO2 reduction reaction chemistry in the electrical double layer with an emphasis on the effects of electrostatic adsorption of cations, specific adsorption of anion and electrolyte concentration on the potential and proton concentration at outer Helmholtz plane at which reduction reaction occurs. The variation of potential and proton concentration at outer Helmholtz plane accounts for the difference in activity and selectivity towards CO2 reduction when using different electrolytes (Chapter 2). Central to the highly efficient CO2 reduction is an optimum microstructure of catalyst layer in the Sn gas diffusion electrode (GDE) consisting of 100 nm Sn nanoparticles to facilitate gas diffusion and charge transfer. This microstructure in terms of the proton conductor fraction and catalyst layer thickness was optimized to

  11. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushee, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  12. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  13. 78 FR 14190 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AR07 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is issuing a final rule identifying additional...

  14. Problems of renewal of the main resources and experience in ecological improvement of coal fuels at TPS of 'OAO Sverdlovenergo'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korelkin, G.; Knyazev, A.

    2003-07-01

    From 1990 up to now, the rate of renewal of the main power generating capacities in Russia as well as in the Ural region decreased considerably. Accordingly, the problems of physical depreciation and obsolescence of equipment installed at TPS, heating and electric networks have become acute during the past few years. This resulted in deterioration of boiler performance and gradual reduction of general effectiveness of power generating facilities. Sverdlovskenergo faces the problems too. Over the past 15 years intense convection transfer surfaces (ribbed, membrane-, band-spiral and combined type) were introduced at 17 boilers. This retrofit gave fuel saving up to 3000 t of conventional fuel annually per one boiler. A wide range of works is being executed to ensure ecological safety of combustion processes. Twenty one boilers of IE-14 type at Serovskaya and Verkhnetagilskaya TPS, equipped with coal handling systems with direct blow , simplified two- and three-stage solid fuel combustion schemes were introduced. Staged combustion of ekibastuz coal was realized via the formation of oxygen-deficient and oxygen-excess zones by pulverized coal redistribution between the burners. Centrifugal coal powder distributor directing air/fuel mixture to two burners located in two rows was designed. 5 figs.

  15. Apparatus and method for grounding compressed fuel fueling operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joseph Perry; Farese, David John; Xu, Jianguo

    2002-06-11

    A safety system for grounding an operator at a fueling station prior to removing a fuel fill nozzle from a fuel tank upon completion of a fuel filling operation is provided which includes a fuel tank port in communication with the fuel tank for receiving and retaining the nozzle during the fuel filling operation and a grounding device adjacent to the fuel tank port which includes a grounding switch having a contact member that receives physical contact by the operator and where physical contact of the contact member activates the grounding switch. A releasable interlock is included that provides a lock position wherein the nozzle is locked into the port upon insertion of the nozzle into the port and a release position wherein the nozzle is releasable from the port upon completion of the fuel filling operation and after physical contact of the contact member is accomplished.

  16. Progress of the DUPIC Fuel Compatibility Analysis (IV) - Fuel Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Ryu, Ho Jin; Roh, Gyu Hong; Jeong, Chang Joon; Park, Chang Je; Song, Kee Chan; Lee, Jung Won

    2005-10-15

    This study describes the mechanical compatibility of the direct use of spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel in Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactors (DUPIC) fuel, when it is loaded into a CANDU reactor. The mechanical compatibility can be assessed for the fuel management, primary heat transport system, fuel channel, and the fuel handling system in the reactor core by both the experimental and analytic methods. Because the physical dimensions of the DUPIC fuel bundle adopt the CANDU flexible (CANFLEX) fuel bundle design which has already been demonstrated for a commercial use in CANDU reactors, the experimental compatibility analyses focused on the generation of material property data and the irradiation tests of the DUPIC fuel, which are used for the computational analysis. The intermediate results of the mechanical compatibility analysis have shown that the integrity of the DUPIC fuel is mostly maintained under the high power and high burnup conditions even though some material properties like the thermal conductivity is a little lower compared to the uranium fuel. However it is required to slightly change the current DUPIC fuel design to accommodate the high internal pressure of the fuel element. It is also strongly recommended to perform more irradiation tests of the DUPIC fuel to accumulate a database for the demonstration of the DUPIC fuel performance in the CANDU reactor.

  17. Fossil fuel-fired power generation. Case studies of recently constructed coal- and gas-fired plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-23

    To meet future energy demand growth and replace older or inefficient units, a large number of fossil fuel-fired plants will be required to be built worldwide in the next decade. Yet CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fired power generation are a major contributor to climate change. As a result, new plants must be designed and operated at highest efficiency both to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and to facilitate deployment of CO{sub 2} capture and storage in the future. The series of case studies in this report, which respond to a request to the IEA from the G8 Summit in July 2005, were conducted to illustrate what efficiency is achieved now in modern plants in different parts of the world using different grades of fossil fuels. The plants were selected from different geographical areas, because local factors influence attainable efficiency. The case studies include pulverized coal combustion (PCC) with both subcritical and supercritical (very high pressure and temperature) steam turbine cycles, a review of current and future applications of coal-fuelled integrated gasification combined cycle plants (IGCC), and a case study of a natural gas fired combined cycle plant to facilitate comparisons. The results of these analyses show that the technologies for high efficiency (low CO{sub 2} emission) and very low conventional pollutant emissions (particulates, SO{sub 2}, NOx) from fossil fuel-fired power generation are available now through PCC, IGCC or NGCC at commercially acceptable cost. This report contains comprehensive technical and indicative cost information for modern fossil fuel-fired plants that was previously unavailable. It serves as a valuable sourcebook for policy makers and technical decision makers contemplating decisions to build new fossil fuel-fired power generation plants.

  18. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  19. Hydrogen-enriched fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, R. [NRG Technologies, Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    1998-08-01

    NRG Technologies, Inc. is attempting to develop hardware and infrastructure that will allow mixtures of hydrogen and conventional fuels to become viable alternatives to conventional fuels alone. This commercialization can be successful if the authors are able to achieve exhaust emission levels of less than 0.03 g/kw-hr NOx and CO; and 0.15 g/kw-hr NMHC at full engine power without the use of exhaust catalysts. The major barriers to achieving these goals are that the lean burn regimes required to meet exhaust emissions goals reduce engine output substantially and tend to exhibit higher-than-normal total hydrocarbon emissions. Also, hydrogen addition to conventional fuels increases fuel cost, and reduces both vehicle range and engine output power. Maintaining low emissions during transient driving cycles has not been demonstrated. A three year test plan has been developed to perform the investigations into the issues described above. During this initial year of funding research has progressed in the following areas: (a) a cost effective single-cylinder research platform was constructed; (b) exhaust gas speciation was performed to characterize the nature of hydrocarbon emissions from hydrogen-enriched natural gas fuels; (c) three H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} fuel compositions were analyzed using spark timing and equivalence ratio sweeping procedures and finally; (d) a full size pick-up truck platform was converted to run on HCNG fuels. The testing performed in year one of the three year plan represents a baseline from which to assess options for overcoming the stated barriers to success.

  20. Development of PEM fuel cell technology at international fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The PEM technology has not developed to the level of phosphoric acid fuel cells. Several factors have held the technology development back such as high membrane cost, sensitivity of PEM fuel cells to low level of carbon monoxide impurities, the requirement to maintain full humidification of the cell, and the need to pressurize the fuel cell in order to achieve the performance targets. International Fuel Cells has identified a hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell concept that leverages recent research advances to overcome major economic and technical obstacles.

  1. 太阳能在煤粉锅炉上的应用%Application of Solar Energy in Pulverized Coal Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春华; 李梦浩; 徐乐乐; 刘小秋; 韩长明; 梁源

    2012-01-01

    Through conducting numerical simulation on the combustion and heat transfer process of the boiler, under the conditions of the different temperature the temperature distribution and volume fraction distribution of the pollutant in the combustion chamber were predicted. The results show that when the furnace temperature met the production requirement if the secondary and tertiary air is preheated to a high - temperature, the total amount of air and coal are both reduced. Meanwhile, the amount of the pollutants could be reduced to achieve the purpose of energy - saving and emissions - reduction. As the increasing air temperature, the furnace temperature at the same section is more uniformity, thus the water wall tube would be heated uniformly, which is helpful for water cycle stability in boiler. Therefore, combustion technology of high temperature and low oxygen could be used in the pulverized coal boiler. To reach high - temperature air, a solar air - heater should be installed on boilers tail to utilize solar energy to assist the flue gas waste heat to heat the secondary and tertiary air to 873 K above.%通过对煤粉锅炉炉膛内的燃烧、传热过程进行数值计算研究,预测了不同空气温度下炉膛内的温度分布和污染物体积分数分布.结果表明,在达到工业生产要求的炉内温度时,二、三次风使用高温空气,可降低总空气量和煤粉消耗量,同时还可减少污染物的生成量,达到节能减排的目的;随着空气温度的升高,炉膛内同一截面的温度更加趋于均匀,这样水冷壁各管吸热均匀,有利于锅炉水循环的稳定性,有利于煤粉锅炉应用高温低氧燃烧技术.为了实现空气高温,可在锅炉尾部增设太阳能空气加热器,利用太阳能辅助烟气余热将二、三次风加热到873 K以上.

  2. Design and improvement of a simple type of clod pulverizer%一种简易碎土筛土机的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽伟; 蒋德云; 孔晓玲; 陈林

    2013-01-01

    介绍了一种简易碎土筛土机的设计与改进.基于CATIA对该机进行了三维实体建模,研制了样机,并针对样机试验中出现的土块回弹、土块璀积以及碎土率不高等问题进行了研究.对加料斗结构设计的改进,解决了土块回弹现象.加料斗下端与筛筒实现了平滑连接,从而使土块顺利进入破碎室.刀轴前端增加了螺旋推进刀片,在碎土的同时起到了螺旋推进的作用.通过对加料斗以及刀片的改进明显改善了土块回弹和堆积现象,提高了碎土率.利用ANSYS软件对刀轴进行了有限元分析,用以确定刀轴的结构设计与选材满足工作强度需求.%In this paper, we introduced the design and improvement of one simple clod-crushers and clod-riddlers. An three-dimensional solid model was established based on CATIA (computer aided tri-dimensional interface application) , and an improvement was made on clod rebound, clod accumulation and low crushing rate based on the prototype during the experiment. The structural design of the feed inlet was modified to solve the clod rebound considerably and manufacturing-safety issue. The improved connection between the rock-bottom of the feed inlet and the sieve tube is smooth so that the clods can successfully reach the crush room. The propeller blade added in front of the blade shaft plays a great role of spiral advance while crushing clods. The improvement of the blade and feed inlet can increase the pulverizing rate. The blade shaft was analyzed with finite element based on ANSYS software so as to determine that the structure design and material selection could meet the intensity of the work request.

  3. A LOW COST AND HIGH QUALITY SOLID FUEL FROM BIOMASS AND COAL FINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John T. Kelly; George Miller; Mehdi Namazian

    2001-07-01

    Use of biomass wastes as fuels in existing boilers would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, SO2 and NOx emissions, while beneficially utilizing wastes. However, the use of biomass has been limited by its low energy content and density, high moisture content, inconsistent configuration and decay characteristics. If biomass is upgraded by conventional methods, the cost of the fuel becomes prohibitive. Altex has identified a process, called the Altex Fuel Pellet (AFP) process, that utilizes a mixture of biomass wastes, including municipal biosolids, and some coal fines, to produce a strong, high energy content, good burning and weather resistant fuel pellet, that is lower in cost than coal. This cost benefit is primarily derived from fees that are collected for accepting municipal biosolids. Besides low cost, the process is also flexible and can incorporate several biomass materials of interest The work reported on herein showed the technical and economic feasibility of the AFP process. Low-cost sawdust wood waste and light fractions of municipal wastes were selected as key biomass wastes to be combined with biosolids and coal fines to produce AFP pellets. The process combines steps of dewatering, pellet extrusion, drying and weatherizing. Prior to pilot-scale tests, bench-scale test equipment was used to produce limited quantities of pellets for characterization. These tests showed which pellet formulations had a high potential. Pilot-scale tests then showed that extremely robust pellets could be produced that have high energy content, good density and adequate weatherability. It was concluded that these pellets could be handled, stored and transported using equipment similar to that used for coal. Tests showed that AFP pellets have a high combustion rate when burned in a stoker type systems. While NOx emissions under stoker type firing conditions was high, a simple air staging approach reduced emissions to below that for coal. In pulverized-fuel-fired tests it was

  4. Dry Process Fuel Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Song, K. C.; Moon, J. S. and others

    2005-04-15

    The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase II R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, irradiation test of DUPIC fuel was carried out in HANARO using the non-instrumented and SPND-instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase II are summarized as follows : - Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in HANARO - Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis - Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (modified ELESTRES) considering material properties of DUPIC fuel - Irradiation behavior and integrity assessment under the design power envelope of DUPIC fuel - Foundamental technology development of thermal/mechanical performance evaluation using ANSYS (FEM package)

  5. Reformer Fuel Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suder, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Today's form of jet engine power comes from what is called a gas turbine engine. This engine is on average 14% efficient and emits great quantities of green house gas carbon dioxide and air pollutants, Le. nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The alternate method being researched involves a reformer and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Reformers are becoming a popular area of research within the industry scale. NASA Glenn Research Center's approach is based on modifying the large aspects of industry reforming processes into a smaller jet fuel reformer. This process must not only be scaled down in size, but also decrease in weight and increase in efficiency. In comparison to today's method, the Jet A fuel reformer will be more efficient as well as reduce the amount of air pollutants discharged. The intent is to develop a 10kW process that can be used to satisfy the needs of commercial jet engines. Presently, commercial jets use Jet-A fuel, which is a kerosene based hydrocarbon fuel. Hydrocarbon fuels cannot be directly fed into a SOFC for the reason that the high temperature causes it to decompose into solid carbon and Hz. A reforming process converts fuel into hydrogen and supplies it to a fuel cell for power, as well as eliminating sulfur compounds. The SOFC produces electricity by converting H2 and CO2. The reformer contains a catalyst which is used to speed up the reaction rate and overall conversion. An outside company will perform a catalyst screening with our baseline Jet-A fuel to determine the most durable catalyst for this application. Our project team is focusing on the overall research of the reforming process. Eventually we will do a component evaluation on the different reformer designs and catalysts. The current status of the project is the completion of buildup in the test rig and check outs on all equipment and electronic signals to our data system. The objective is to test various reformer designs and catalysts in our test rig to determine the most

  6. HTGR spent fuel composition and fuel element block flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, C.J.; Holder, N.D.; Pierce, V.H.; Robertson, M.W.

    1976-07-01

    The High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) utilizes the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. Fully enriched uranium fissile material and thorium fertile material are used in the initial reactor core and for makeup fuel in the recycle core loadings. Bred /sup 233/U and unburned /sup 235/U fissile materials are recovered from spent fuel elements, refabricated into recycle fuel elements, and used as part of the recycle core loading along with the makeup fuel elements. A typical HTGR employs a 4-yr fuel cycle with approximately one-fourth of the core discharged and reloaded annually. The fuel element composition, including heavy metals, impurity nuclides, fission products, and activation products, has been calculated for discharged spent fuel elements and for reload fresh fuel and recycle fuel elements for each cycle over the life of a typical HTGR. Fuel element compositions are presented for the conditions of equilibrium recycle. Data describing compositions for individual reloads throughout the reactor life are available in a detailed volume upon request. Fuel element block flow data have been compiled based on a forecast HTGR market. Annual block flows are presented for each type of fuel element discharged from the reactors for reprocessing and for refabrication.

  7. Influence of staged-air on airflow, combustion characteristics and NO(x) emissions of a down-fired pulverized-coal 300 MW(e) utility boiler with direct flow split burners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqi; Kuang, Min; Zhang, Jia; Han, Yunfeng; Zhu, Qunyi; Yang, Lianjie; Kong, Weiguang

    2010-02-01

    Cold airflow experiments were conducted to investigate the aerodynamic field in a small-scale furnace of a down-fired pulverized-coal 300 MW(e) utility boiler arranged with direct flow split burners enriched by cyclones. By increasing the staged-air ratio, a deflected flow field appeared in the lower furnace; larger staged-air ratios produced larger deflections. Industrial-sized experiments on a full-scale boiler were also performed at different staged-air damper openings with measurements taken of gas temperatures in the burner region and near the right-side wall, wall heat fluxes, and gas components (O(2), CO, and NO(x)) in the near-wall region. Combustion was unstable at staged-air damper openings below 30%. For openings of 30% and 40%, late ignition of the pulverized coal developed and large differences arose in gas temperatures and heat fluxes between the regions near the front and rear walls. In conjunction, carbon content in the fly ash was high and boiler efficiency was low with high NO(x) emission above 1200 mg/m(3) (at 6% O(2) dry). For fully open dampers, differences in gas temperatures and heat fluxes, carbon in fly ash and NO(x) emission decreased yielding an increase in boiler efficiency. The optimal setting is fully open staged-air dampers.

  8. An improvement method of pulverized coal caking problem and its application%一种有效改善煤粉结块问题的方法及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪林杰; 贾明生

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with the common phenomenon of coal caking in pulverized coal bunker, analyzed the factors of the factors of pulverized coal caking and put forward an effective solution to the problem of coal caking. In combination with the practical problem encountered in engineering practice, double - layer bunker made by ourselves can preheat the inside of the bunker and preserve the heat of it by means of roots blower , thus solving the problem of coal caking successfully.%针对煤粉仓普遍存在的结块搭桥的现象,分析了造成煤粉结块的主要因素,提出了一种有效改善煤粉结块问题的方法.结合工程实践中遇到的实际问题,自制研究了双层罐结构,并充分利用罗茨风机排气对双层罐内筒进行预热和保温,成功解决了粉仓结块的问题.

  9. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M J; Ader, M; Barletta, R E

    1980-01-01

    In the program on pyrochemical and dry processing methods (PDPM) for nuclear fuel, tungsten crucibles were successfully spun for use in laboratory-scale experiments. Corrosion testing of refractory metals and alloys in PDPM environments was done. Ceramic substrates were successfully coated with tungsten. Solubility measurements were made to determine Cd/Mg alloy composition and temperature at which dissolved Th will precipitate. Experiments were started to study the reduction of high-fired ThO/sub 2/ with Ca in a molten metal-molten salt system. Work on the fused salt electrolysis of CaO was started. Equipment for determining phase diagrams for U-Cu-Mg system was set up. The reaction of UO/sub 2/ with molten equimolar NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ was studied as part of a project to identify chemically feasible nonaqueous fuel reprocessing methods. Work was continued on development of a flowsheet for reprocessing actinide oxides by extracting actinides into ammonium chloro-aluminate (and alternative salts) from a bismuth solution. Preparation of Th, U, and Pu nitrides after dissolution of spent fuel elements in molten tin is being studied. Leach rates of glass beads, pulverized beads, and beads encapsulated in a lead matrix with no protective envelope were studied. A method (employing no pressure or vacuum systems) of encapsulating various solid wastes in a lead metal matrix was developed and tested. A preliminary integration was made of earlier data on effects of impacts on metal-matrix waste forms.Leach migration experiments were compared with conventional infiltration experiments as methods of evaluating geologic formations as barriers to nuclide migration. The effect of the streaming potential on the rates of transport of radioactive I/sup -/ and Na/sup +/ through kaolinite columns was measured, as well as adsorption of iodide and iodate by several compounds; implications of the results upon the disposal of radioactive iodine are discussed.

  10. Consolidated Fuel-Reprocessing Program. Progress report, April 1 to June 30, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-08-01

    All research and development on fuel reprocessing in the United States is managed under the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. Technical progress is reported in overview fashion. Conceptual studies for the proposed Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test (BRET) have continued. Studies to date have confirmed the feasibility of modifying an existing DOE facility at Hanford, Washington. A study to measure the extent of plutonium polymerization during steam-jet transfers of nitric acid solutions indicated polymer would appear only after several successive transfers at temperatures of 75/sup 0/C or higher. Fast-Flux Test Facility fuel was processed for the first time in the Solvent Extraction Test Facility. Studies of krypton release from pulverized sputter-deposited Ni-Y-Kr matrices have shown that the release rate is inversely proportional to the particle radius at 200/sup 0/C. Preparation of the initial 500-g batch of mixed oxide gel-spheres was completed. Fabrication processing at HEDL of mixed oxide gel-spheres (DIPRES process) was initiated. Operational testing of both 8 packs of the centrifugal contactor has been completed. Fabrication of both the prototypical disassembly system and the prototypical shear system has been initiated. Planning for FY 1984 installation and modification work in the integrated equipment list facility was completed. Acceptance tests of the original Integrated Process Demonstration system have been completed. Instrumentation and controls work with the prototype multiwavelength uranium photometer was successful and has been expanded to continuously and simultaneously monitor three process streams (raffinate, aqueous feed, and organic strip) in the secondary extraction cycle. Major efforts of the environmental, safeguards, and waste management areas were directed toward providing data for BRET.

  11. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  12. Fuel Element Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, H.H. [ed.

    1956-08-01

    It is the purpose of the Fuel Element Technical Manual to Provide a single document describing the fabrication processes used in the manufacture of the fuel element as well as the technical bases for these processes. The manual will be instrumental in the indoctrination of personnel new to the field and will provide a single data reference for all personnel involved in the design or manufacture of the fuel element. The material contained in this manual was assembled by members of the Engineering Department and the Manufacturing Department at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation between the dates October, 1955 and June, 1956. Arrangement of the manual. The manual is divided into six parts: Part I--introduction; Part II--technical bases; Part III--process; Part IV--plant and equipment; Part V--process control and improvement; and VI--safety.

  13. Household fuel demand analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.; Hirst, E.; Jackson, J.

    1976-01-01

    This study develops econometric models of residential demands for electricity, natural gas, and petroleum products. Fuel demands per household are estimated as functions of fuel prices, per capita income, heating degree days, and mean July temperature. Cross-sectional models are developed using a large data base containing observations for each state and year from 1951 through 1974. Long-run own-price elasticities for all three fuels are greater than unity with natural gas showing the greatest sensitivity to own-price changes. Cross-price elasticities are all less than unity except for the elasticity of demand for oil with respect to the price of gas (which is even larger than the own-price elasticity of demand for oil). The models show considerable stabiity with respect to own-price elasticities but much instability with respect to the cross-price and income elasticities.

  14. Fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, G. [Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany); Hoehlein, B. [Research Center Juelich (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    A promising new power source for electric drive systems is the fuel cell technology with hydrogen as energy input. The worldwide fuel cell development concentrates on basic research efforts aiming at improving this new technology and at developing applications that might reach market maturity in the very near future. Due to the progress achieved, the interest is now steadily turning to the development of overall systems such as demonstration plants for different purposes: electricity generation, drive systems for road vehicles, ships and railroads. This paper does not present results concerning the market potential of fuel cells in transportation but rather addresses some questions and reflections that are subject to further research of both engineers and economists. Some joint effort of this research will be conducted under the umbrella of the IEA Implementing Agreement 026 - Annex X, but there is a lot more to be done in this challenging but also promising fields. (EG) 18 refs.

  15. Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

  16. Fuel cell engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sundmacher

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cells are attractive electrochemical energy converters featuring potentially very high thermodynamic efficiency factors. The focus of this volume of Advances in Chemical Engineering is on quantitative approaches, particularly based on chemical engineering principles, to analyze, control and optimize the steady state and dynamic behavior of low and high temperature fuel cells (PEMFC, DMFC, SOFC) to be applied in mobile and stationary systems. * Updates and informs the reader on the latest research findings using original reviews * Written by leading industry experts and scholars * Review

  17. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  18. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Čavlek, M.; Boić, M.; Kristina Gršić; V. Kozumplik

    2008-01-01

    Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11%) and, energy for bulk-curing (89%)....

  19. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold F. McFarlane; Terry Todd

    2013-11-01

    Reprocessing is essential to closing nuclear fuel cycle. Natural uranium contains only 0.7 percent 235U, the fissile (see glossary for technical terms) isotope that produces most of the fission energy in a nuclear power plant. Prior to being used in commercial nuclear fuel, uranium is typically enriched to 3–5% in 235U. If the enrichment process discards depleted uranium at 0.2 percent 235U, it takes more than seven tonnes of uranium feed to produce one tonne of 4%-enriched uranium. Nuclear fuel discharged at the end of its economic lifetime contains less one percent 235U, but still more than the natural ore. Less than one percent of the uranium that enters the fuel cycle is actually used in a single pass through the reactor. The other naturally occurring isotope, 238U, directly contributes in a minor way to power generation. However, its main role is to transmute into plutoniumby neutron capture and subsequent radioactive decay of unstable uraniumand neptuniumisotopes. 239Pu and 241Pu are fissile isotopes that produce more than 40% of the fission energy in commercially deployed reactors. It is recovery of the plutonium (and to a lesser extent the uranium) for use in recycled nuclear fuel that has been the primary focus of commercial reprocessing. Uraniumtargets irradiated in special purpose reactors are also reprocessed to obtain the fission product 99Mo, the parent isotope of technetium, which is widely used inmedical procedures. Among the fission products, recovery of such expensive metals as platinum and rhodium is technically achievable, but not economically viable in current market and regulatory conditions. During the past 60 years, many different techniques for reprocessing used nuclear fuel have been proposed and tested in the laboratory. However, commercial reprocessing has been implemented along a single line of aqueous solvent extraction technology called plutonium uranium reduction extraction process (PUREX). Similarly, hundreds of types of reactor

  20. Fuel reactivity and release of pollutants and alkali vapours in pressurized combustion for combined cycle power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, M.; Haemaelaeinen, J.; Paakkinen, K.; Rantanen, J. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hernberg, R.; Haeyrinen, V.; Joutsenoja, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Plasma Technology

    1996-12-01

    This project forms a part of the overall Pressurized Power Coal Combustion Project Area (PPFC) which aims at an assessment of the viability and technical merits of pressurized pulverized coal combustion, in an atmosphere of recycled flue gas and oxygen in a coordinated and harmonized programme. The objective of the research at Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and Tampere University of Technology (TUT) is aimed at determining the consequences of solid fuel burning in a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gases. Combustion conditions of a pressurized entrained flow of pulverized coal and char particles in PEFR are determined with high precision. The effects of experimental parameters on the formation of nitrogen oxides (N{sub 2}O, NO and NO{sub 2}) and gaseous alkali compounds (indicated as NaX(g) and KX(g)) are studied. An effective on-line analysis method for vaporised Na and K compounds was developed. The dependency between particle temperatures and the vaporisation of Na and K was measured with three coals. The results show that alkali removal before gas turbines is always necessary with these coals if combusted in combined cycles. Pressure decreases the formation of NO and has usually no clear effect on the formation of N{sub 2}O. The order of NO/N{sub 2}O ratios correspond to fuel-O/fuel-N ratios. Increase of PO{sub 2} (oxygen concentration) of combustion gas increases the formation of NO{sub 2}. Remarkable concentrations of NO{sub 2} were often measured at high PO{sub 2} at 800-850 deg C. Therefore, NO{sub 2} should be measured from pressurized fluidized bed reactors. Some trends of the formation of NO{sub 2} with coal differ clearly from those with its parent char: N{sub 2}O formation is not strongly temperature dependent with char, and the concentrations of N{sub 2}O formed from char are much lower than those of coal. PO{sub 2} does not effect on the formation of NO from char in the studied range

  1. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  2. Fuel Cell Electrodes for Hydrogen-Air Fuel Cell Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the design and evaluation of a hydrogen-air fuel cell module for use in a portable hydrid fuel cell -battery system. The fuel ... cell module consists of a stack of 20 single assemblies. Each assembly contains 2 electrically independent cells with a common electrolyte compartment

  3. Mass transfer in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Developments in the following areas are reported: surface area and pore size distribution in electrolyte matrices, electron microscopy of electrolyte matrices, surface tension of KOH solutions, water transport in fuel cells, and effectiveness factors for fuel cell components.

  4. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard; Delaforce, Philip Mark

    2016-03-08

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having an interconnect that reduces or eliminates diffusion (leakage) of fuel and oxidant by providing an increased densification, by forming the interconnect as a ceramic/metal composite.

  5. Fuel Cell Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Fuel Cell Technical Team promotes the development of a fuel cell power system for an automotive powertrain that meets the U.S. DRIVE Partnership (United States Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) goals.

  6. LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compound anode consists of a reforming catalyst bed in direct contact with a palladium-silver fuel cell anode. The objective of this study was to...prove the feasibility of operating a compound anode fuel cell on a liquid hydrocarbon and to define the important parameters that influence cell...performance. Both reformer and fuel cell tests were conducted with various liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Included in this report is a description of the

  7. Residential fuel quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa, T. [Santa Fuel, Inc., Bridgeport, CT (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This report details progress made in improving the performance of No. 2 heating oil in residential applications. Previous research in this area is documented in papers published in the Brookhaven Oil Heat Technology Conference Proceedings in 1993, 1994 and 1996. By way of review we have investigated a number of variables in the search for improved fuel system performance. These include the effect of various additives designed to address stability, dispersion, biotics, corrosion and reaction with metals. We have also investigated delivery methods, filtration, piping arrangements and the influence of storage tank size and location. As a result of this work Santa Fuel Inc. in conjunction with Mobile Oil Corporation have identified an additive package which shows strong evidence of dramatically reducing the occurrence of fuel system failures in residential oil burners. In a broad market roll-out of the additized product we have experienced a 29% reduction in fuel related service calls when comparing the 5 months ending January 1997 to the same period ending January 1996.

  8. Minimum fuel mode evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    The minimum fuel mode of the NASA F-15 research aircraft is designed to minimize fuel flow while maintaining constant net propulsive force (FNP), effectively reducing thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), during cruise flight conditions. The test maneuvers were at stabilized flight conditions. The aircraft test engine was allowed to stabilize at the cruise conditions before data collection initiated; data were then recorded with performance seeking control (PSC) not-engaged, then data were recorded with the PSC system engaged. The maneuvers were flown back-to-back to allow for direct comparisons by minimizing the effects of variations in the test day conditions. The minimum fuel mode was evaluated at subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers and focused on three altitudes: 15,000; 30,000; and 45,000 feet. Flight data were collected for part, military, partial, and maximum afterburning power conditions. The TSFC savings at supersonic Mach numbers, ranging from approximately 4% to nearly 10%, are in general much larger than at subsonic Mach numbers because of PSC trims to the afterburner.

  9. Fields of Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Rosemary S.; Wangen, Steve; Nye, D. Leith; Shapiro, R. Benjamin; Strinz, Will; Ferris, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To help teachers engage students in discussions about sustainability, the authors designed Fields of Fuel, a multiplayer, web-based simulation game that allows players to explore the environmental and economic trade-offs of a realistic sustainable system. Computer-based simulations of real-world phenomena engage students and have been shown to…

  10. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  11. Fire and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon Collins; Carl Skinner

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of historical fire regimes indicate that fires occurring prior to Euro-American settlement were characterized by a high degree of spatial complexity that was driven by heterogeneity in vegetation/fuels and topography and influenced by variability in climate, which mediated the timing, effects, and extents of fires over time. Although there are many...

  12. Future fuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is written for the TIDO-course AR0532 Smart & Bioclimatic Design Theory. The objective of this paper is to see where the possibilities are in future fuel production in a sustainable way, and the integration of it in the built environment. Technologies are compared and evaluated, and the

  13. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  14. Fuel Handbook[Wood and other renewable fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (SE)] (ed.)

    2006-03-15

    This handbook on renewable fuels is intended for power and heat producers in Sweden. This fuel handbook provides, from a plant owner's perspective, a method to evaluate different fuels on the market. The fuel handbook concerns renewable fuels (but does not include household waste) that are available on the Swedish market today or fuels that have potential to be available within the next ten years. The handbook covers 26 different fuels. Analysis data, special properties, operating experiences and literature references are outlined for each fuel. [Special properties, operating experiences and literature references are not included in this English version] The handbook also contains: A proposed methodology for introduction of new fuels. A recommendation of analyses and tests to perform in order to reduce the risk of problems is presented. [The recommendation of analyses and tests is not included in the English version] A summary of relevant laws and taxes for energy production, with references to relevant documentation. [Only laws and taxes regarding EU are included] Theory and background to evaluate a fuel with respect to combustion, ash and corrosion properties and methods that can be used for such evaluations. Summary of standards, databases and handbooks on biomass fuels and other solid fuels, and links to web sites where further information about the fuels can be found. The appendices includes: A methodology for trial firing of fuels. Calculations procedures for, amongst others, heating value, flue gas composition, key number and free fall velocity [Free fall velocity is not included in the English version]. In addition, conversion routines between different units for a number of different applications are provided. Fuel analyses are presented in the appendix. (The report is a translation of parts of the report VARMEFORSK--911 published in 2005)

  15. Nuclear fuel elements design, fabrication and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Frost, Brian R T

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Elements: Design, Fabrication and Performance is concerned with the design, fabrication, and performance of nuclear fuel elements, with emphasis on fast reactor fuel elements. Topics range from fuel types and the irradiation behavior of fuels to cladding and duct materials, fuel element design and modeling, fuel element performance testing and qualification, and the performance of water reactor fuels. Fast reactor fuel elements, research and test reactor fuel elements, and unconventional fuel elements are also covered. This volume consists of 12 chapters and begins with an overvie

  16. Fuel cell report to congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-02-28

    This report describes the status of fuel cells for Congressional committees. It focuses on the technical and economic barriers to the use of fuel cells in transportation, portable power, stationary, and distributed power generation applications, and describes the need for public-private cooperative programs to demonstrate the use of fuel cells in commercial-scale applications by 2012. (Department of Energy, February 2003).

  17. Commercialization of fuel-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.; Appleby, A.J.; Baker, B.S.; Bates, J.L.; Buss, L.B.; Dollard, W.J.; Farris, P.J.; Gillis, E.A.; Gunsher, J.A.; Khandkar, A.; Krumpelt, M.; O' Sullivan, J.B.; Runte, G.; Savinell, R.F.; Selman, J.R.; Shores, D.A.; Tarman, P.

    1995-03-01

    This report is an abbreviated version of the ''Report of the DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Commercialization Working Group (AFC2WG),'' released January 1995. We describe fuel-cell commercialization for stationary power applications of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  18. Fuel cell sub-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chang V.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell sub-assembly comprising a plurality of fuel cells, a first section of a cooling means disposed at an end of the assembly and means for connecting the fuel cells and first section together to form a unitary structure.

  19. Foaming-electrolyte fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanis, L.; Saunders, A. P.

    1970-01-01

    Foam structure feeds fuel gas solution into electrolyte. Fuel gas reacts at static, three-phase interface between fuel gas, electrolyte, and electrode material. The foam forms an electrical contact between main body of electrolyte and the electrode, and aids in removal of by-products of the chemical reaction.

  20. VIRTUAL FUEL-PUMP DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some concepts of virtual product are discussed. The key technologies of virtual fuel-pump development are in detail analysed, which include virtual fuel-pump product modeling, intelligent simulation, distributed design environment, and virtual assembly. The virtual fuel-pump development prototype system considers requirement analysis, concept design, injection preferment analysis, detailed design, and assembly analysis.

  1. Boiler design for fuel economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramaswamy, M.P.; Sastry, C.V.R.L.; Tharakraj, M.

    1980-03-01

    In view of the limited fuel resources and ever increasing demand, Bharat Heavy Electricals, Ltd. (BHEL), as the leading boiler manufacturer, always endeavours to effect fuel economy in all possible avenues, leaving no stone unturned in this effort. This paper outlines some of the major efforts of BHEL in the area of boiler design to effect fuel economy.

  2. FUEL CELL MANPACK POWER SOURCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    battery provides required power density and instantly available power while the fuel cell efficiently converts a primary fuel to electrical power at a...field supply, afford an extremely high energy density making the hybrid fuel cell system competitive on cost per kilowatt hour with standard military zinc-carbon primary batteries. (Author)

  3. Fire-safe hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodor, G.E.; Weatherford, W.D. Jr.; Wright, B.R.

    1979-11-06

    A stabilized, fire-safe, aqueous hydrocarbon fuel emulsion prepared by mixing: a diesel fuel; an emulsifier (consisting of oleyl diethanolamide, diethanolamine, and diethanolamine soap of oleic acid) which has been treated with about 0 to 7 1/2 of oleic acid. A modified version of this fuel also contains 0 to 0.5% of an antimisting agent, and water.

  4. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  5. Microbial fuel cell treatment of fuel process wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Tsouris, Constantino

    2013-12-03

    The present invention is directed to a method for cleansing fuel processing effluent containing carbonaceous compounds and inorganic salts, the method comprising contacting the fuel processing effluent with an anode of a microbial fuel ell, the anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of the carbonaceous compounds while producing electrical energy from the oxidative degradation, and directing the produced electrical energy to drive an electrosorption mechanism that operates to reduce the concentration of one or more inorganic salts in the fuel processing effluent, wherein the anode is in electrical communication with a cathode of the microbial fuel cell. The invention is also directed to an apparatus for practicing the method.

  6. LMFBR fuel assembly design for HCDA fuel dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacko, Robert E.; Tilbrook, Roger W.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel assembly for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor having an upper axial blanket region disposed in a plurality of zones within the fuel assembly. The characterization of a zone is dependent on the height of the axial blanket region with respect to the active fuel region. The net effect of having a plurality of zones is to establish a dispersal flow path for the molten materials resulting during a core meltdown accident. Upward flowing molten material can escape from the core region and/or fuel assembly without solidifying on the surface of fuel rods due to the heat sink represented by blanket region pellets.

  7. Winters fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-27

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter`s pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter`s, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year`s STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories.

  8. A solid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonetaka, K.; Iketani, Y.; Nisino, A.; Takeuti, Y.

    1983-04-15

    A solid fuel is proposed which consists of cylindrical or prismatic pieces, whose surfaces (Pv) are equipped with greater than or equal to one channel, while the pieces themselves have greater than or equal to 1 through opening; the ratio of the total surface to the surface of the channels is within 95 to 5 to 60 to 40. The presence of the channels and the through openings facilitates the feeding of air to the surface of the fuel, providing in such a way, better ignition, the propagation of the flames and the completeness of combustion of the solid fuels based on carbonaceous materials. The optimal composition of the proposed fuel is: 70 to 95 percent carbonaceous base (coal, coke, charcoal, graphite, petroleum coke and so on), 1 to 25 percent desulfurizing additive (carbonate, hydroxide or nitrate of sodium, potassium, calcium or magnesium, 0 to 15 percent combustion accelerator (oxidizers: nitrates of potassium and barium, potassium perchlorate, oxides of magnesium, iron or manganese, aluminum powder and so on), 0 to 10 percent forming additive (bentonite, talc, kaolin and so on) and 0.5 to 5 percent binder (pitch, resin, pulp, cement and so on). The optimal characteristics of the combustion process are reached at a weight of a single piece of fuel of approximately 20 grams, a seeming density of less than or equal to 1.3 grams per cubic centimeter, a cross section surface area of 25 to 1,600 square millimeters and a filling density with combustion of less than or equal to 0.8 grams per cubic centimeter.

  9. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy and Environmental Solutions

    2000-10-31

    Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed

  10. Development of DUPIC fuel cycle technology - Assessment of Wolsong NPP fuel handling system for DUPIC fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Bok Gyun; Nam, Gung Ihn [Korea Power Engineering Company, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The DUPIC fuel loading and discharge path of Wolsong NPP is studied assuming that DUPIC fuel is used at Wolsong NPP. Spent DUPIC fuel discharge path is irrelevant, since it uses the same spent fuel discharge path. Number of factors such as safety, economics of design change, radiation exposure to operators, easy of operation and maintenance, etc, are considered in the evaluation of path. A more detailed analysis of cost estimation of the selected path is also carried out. The study shows that DUPIC fuel loading path following through Spent Fuel Storage Bay and Spent Fuel Discharge Port in reverse direction will minimize the design change and additional equipment and radiation exposure to operators. The estimated total cost of using DUPIC fuel in Wolsong NPP based on price index of year 2000 is around 4.5 billion won. 4 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  11. Characterization of char derived from various types of solid wastes from the standpoint of fuel recovery and pretreatment before landfilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, I H; Matsuto, T; Tanaka, N; Sasaki, Y; Tanaami, K

    2007-01-01

    Carbonization is a kind of pyrolysis process to produce char from organic materials under an inert atmosphere. In this work, chars derived from various solid wastes were characterized from the standpoint of fuel recovery and pretreatment of waste before landfilling. Sixteen kinds of municipal and industrial solid wastes such as residential combustible wastes, non-combustible wastes, bulky wastes, construction and demolition wastes, auto shredder residue, and sludges were carbonized at 500 degrees C for 1h under nitrogen atmosphere. In order to evaluate the quality of char as fuel, proximate analysis and heating value were examined. The composition of raw waste had a significant influence on the quality of produced char. The higher the ratio of woody biomass in waste, the higher heating value of char produced. Moreover, an equation to estimate heating value of char was developed by using the weight fraction of fixed carbon and volatile matter in char. De-ashing and chlorine removal were performed to improve the quality of char. The pulverization and sieving method seems to be effective for separation of incombustibles such as metal rather than ash. Most char met a 0.5 wt% chlorine criterion for utilization as fuel in a shaft blast furnace after it was subjected to repeated water-washing. Carbonization could remove a considerable amount of organic matter from raw waste. In addition, the leaching of heavy metals such as chrome, cadmium, and lead appears to be significantly suppressed by carbonization regardless of the type of raw waste. From these results, carbonization could be considered as a pretreatment method for waste before landfilling, as well as for fuel recovery.

  12. A feasibility study of hydrothermal treatment of rice straw for multi-production of solid fuel and liquid fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samnang, S.; Prawisudha, P.; Pasek, A. D.

    2017-05-01

    Energy use has increased steadily over the last century due to population and industry increase. With the growing of GHG, biomass becomes an essential contributor to the world energy need. Indonesia is the third rice producer in the world. Rice straw has been converted to solid fuel by Hydrothermal Treatment (HT) for electricity generation. HT is a boiling solid organic or inorganic substance in water at high pressure and temperature within a holding time. HT converts high moisture content biomass into dried, uniform, pulverized, and higher energy density solid fuels. HT can effectively transport nutrient components in biomass into a liquid product known as fertilizer. This paper deals with an evaluation of hydrothermal treatment of rice straw for solid fuel and liquid fertilizer. An investigation of rice straw characteristics were completed for Bandung rice straw with various condition of temperature, biomass-water ratio, and holding time in the purpose to find the changes of calorific value for solid product and (N, P, K, and pH) for liquid product. The results showed that solid product at 225 °C and 90 min consists in a heating value 13.8 MJ/kg equal to lignite B. Liquid product at 225 °C and 90 min had the NPK content similar to that of micronutrients compound liquid fertilizer. The dried solid product should be useful for Coal Fire Power Plant, and the liquid product is suitable for plants. This research proves that hydrothermal process can be applied to rice straw to produce solid fuel and liquid fertilizer with adequate quality.

  13. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

  14. Temperature Trends in Coal Char Combustion under Oxy-fuel Conditions for the Determination of Kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Samira [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hecht, Ethan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion technology with carbon capture and storage could significantly reduce global CO2 emissions, a greenhouse gas. Implementation can be aided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, which require an accurate understanding of coal particle kinetics as they go through combustion in a range of environments. To understand the kinetics of pulverized coal char combustion, a heated flow reactor was operated under a wide range of experimental conditions. We varied the environment for combustion by modifying the diluent gas, oxygen concentration, gas flow rate, and temperature of the reactor/reacting gases. Measurements of reacting particle temperatures were made for a sub-bituminous and bituminous coal char, in environments with CO2 or N2 as the diluent gas, with 12, 24, and 36 vol-% oxygen concentration, at 50, 80, 100, and 200 standard liters per minute flowing through the reactor, reactor temperatures of 1200, 1400 K, at pressures slightly above atmospheric. The data shows consistent increasing particle temperature with increased oxygen concentration, reactor temperature and higher particle temperatures for N2 diluent than CO2. We also see the effects of CO2 gasification when different ranks of coal are used, and how the reduction in the temperature due to the CO2 diluent is greater for the coal char that has higher reactivity. Quantitative measurements for temperature are not yet complete due to ongoing calibration of detection systems.

  15. A new concept of auxiliary fuel injection through tuyeres in blast furnaces developed by numerical simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Orlando de Almeida Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Injection of powdered materials in blast furnaces is a great option for reducing costs, increasing productivity and satisfy the environmental norms. Thus, this paper presents a study on the use of a flame stabilization system with rotation, designed to promote greater coal injection in the combustion zone, reducing losses and increasing the efficiency of the equipment. A physical model was used to evaluate scattering of pulverized fuel and is compared with numerical results in the same scale. In the second step, a combustion model was added to the numerical simulation, using dimensions of a real blast furnace. Fields like temperature, velocity and behavior of chemical reactions were analyzed. The results showed that double lances promote better particle injection when compared with simple lance for reduced material injection. The new injection system proposed, with swirl numbers of 0.12 and 0.24, promoted a better injection of both reduced material and temperature in the raceway zone. The swirl 0.24 showed superior performance when compared to other injection systems.

  16. Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy withoutsacrificing safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

    2007-06-11

    The public, automakers, and policymakers have long worried about trade-offs between increased fuel economy in motor vehicles and reduced safety. The conclusion of a broad group of experts on safety and fuel economy in the auto sector is that no trade-off is required. There are a wide variety of technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle fuel economy that have no effect on vehicle safety. Conversely, there are many technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle safety that are not detrimental to vehicle fuel economy. Congress is considering new policies to increase the fuel economy of new automobiles in order to reduce oil dependence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The findings reported here offer reassurance on an important dimension of that work: It is possible to significantly increase the fuel economy of motor vehicles without compromising their safety. Automobiles on the road today demonstrate that higher fuel economy and greater safety can co-exist. Some of the safest vehicles have higher fuel economy, while some of the least safe vehicles driven today--heavy, large trucks and SUVs--have the lowest fuel economy. At an October 3, 2006 workshop, leading researchers from national laboratories, academia, auto manufacturers, insurance research industry, consumer and environmental groups, material supply industries, and the federal government agreed that vehicles could be designed to simultaneously improve safety and fuel economy. The real question is not whether we can realize this goal, but the best path to get there. The experts' studies reveal important new conclusions about fuel economy and safety, including: (1) Vehicle fuel economy can be increased without affecting safety, and vice versa; (2) Reducing the weight and height of the heaviest SUVs and pickup trucks will simultaneously increase both their fuel economy and overall safety; and (3) Advanced materials can decouple size from mass, creating important new possibilities

  17. Checklist for transition to new highway fuel(s).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risch, C.; Santini, D.J. (Energy Systems)

    2011-12-15

    Transportation is vital to the U.S. economy and society. As such, U.S. Presidents have repeatedly stated that the nation needs to reduce dependence on petroleum, especially for the highway transportation sector. Throughout history, highway transportation fuel transitions have been completed successfully both in United States and abroad. Other attempts have failed, as described in Appendix A: Historical Highway Fuel Transitions. Planning for a transition is critical because the changes can affect our nation's ability to compete in the world market. A transition will take many years to complete. While it is tempting to make quick decisions about the new fuel(s) of choice, it is preferable and necessary to analyze all the pertinent criteria to ensure that correct decisions are made. Doing so will reduce the number of changes in highway fuel(s). Obviously, changes may become necessary because of occurrences such as significant technology breakthroughs or major world events. With any and all of the possible transitions to new fuel(s), the total replacement of gasoline and diesel fuels is not expected. These conventional fuels are envisioned to coexist with the new fuel(s) for decades, while the revised fuel and vehicle infrastructures are implemented. The transition process must analyze the needs of the primary 'players,' which consist of the customers, the government, the fuel industry, and the automotive industry. To maximize the probability of future successes, the prime considerations of these groups must be addressed. Section 2 presents a succinct outline of the Checklist. Section 3 provides a brief discussion about the groupings on the Checklist.

  18. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  19. Research on aviation fuel instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C. E.; Bittker, D. A.; Cohen, S. M.; Seng, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    The problems associated with aircraft fuel instability are discussed. What is currently known about the problem is reviewed and a research program to identify those areas where more research is needed is discussed. The term fuel instability generally refers to the gums, sediments, or deposits which can form as a result of a set of complex chemical reactions when a fuel is stored for a long period at ambient conditions or when the fuel is thermally stressed inside the fuel system of an aircraft.

  20. Solar Fuels: Vision and Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Styring, Stenbjörn

    2012-01-01

    The world needs new, environmentally friendly and renewable fuels to allow an exchange from fossil fuels. The fuel must be made from cheap and ‘endless’ resources that are available everywhere. The new research area on solar fuels, which are made from solar energy and water, aims to meet this demand. The paper discusses why we need a solar fuel and why electricity is not enough; it proposes solar energy as the major renewable energy source to feed from. The present research strategies, involv...

  1. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  2. Sensor system for fuel transport vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; West, David L.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary sensor system for a fuel transport vehicle can comprise a fuel marker sensor positioned between a fuel storage chamber of the vehicle and an access valve for the fuel storage chamber of the vehicle. The fuel marker sensor can be configured to measure one or more characteristics of one or more fuel markers present in the fuel adjacent the sensor, such as when the marked fuel is unloaded at a retail station. The one or more characteristics can comprise concentration and/or identity of the one or more fuel markers in the fuel. Based on the measured characteristics of the one or more fuel markers, the sensor system can identify the fuel and/or can determine whether the fuel has been adulterated after the marked fuel was last measured, such as when the marked fuel was loaded into the vehicle.

  3. Metallic fuel design development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woan; Kang, H. Y.; Lee, B. O. and others

    1999-04-01

    This report describes the R and D results of the ''Metallic Fuel Design Development'' project that performed as a part of 'Nuclear Research and Development Program' during the '97 - '98 project years. The objectives of this project are to perform the analysis of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behaviors, and preliminary conceptual design for the fuel system of the KALIMER liquid metal reactor. The following are the major results that obtained through the project. The preliminary design requirements and design criteria which are necessary in conceptual design stage, are set up. In the field of fuel pin design, the pin behavior analysis, failure probability prediction, and sensitivity analysis are performed under the operation conditions of steady-state and transient accidents. In the area of assembly duct analysis; 1) KAFACON-2D program is developed to calculate an array configuration of inner shape of assembly duct, 2) Stress-strain analysis are performed for the components of assembly such as, handling socket, mounting rail and wire wrap, 3) The BDI program is developed to analyze mechanical interaction between pin bundle and duct, 4) a vibration analysis is performed to understand flow-induced vibration of assembly duct, 5) The NUBOW-2D, which is bowing and deformation analysis code for assembly duct, is modified to be operated in KALIMER circumstance, and integrity evaluation of KALIMER core assembly is carried out using the modified NUBOW-2D and the CRAMP code in U.K., and 6) The KALIMER assembly duct is manufactured to be used in flow test. In the area of non-fuel assembly, such as control, reflector, shielding, GEM and USS, the states-of-the-arts and the major considerations in designing are evaluated, and the design concepts are derived. The preliminary design description and their design drawing of KALIMER fuel system are prepared based upon the above mentioned evaluation and analysis. The achievement of conceptual

  4. CFD analysis of the pulverized coal combustion processes in a 160 MWe tangentially-fired-boiler of a thermal power plant

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Cristiano V. da; Indrusiak,Maria Luiza S; Beskow,Arthur B

    2010-01-01

    The strategic role of energy and the current concern with greenhouse effects, energetic and exergetic efficiency of fossil fuel combustion greatly enhance the importance of the studies of complex physical and chemical processes occurring inside boilers of thermalpower plants. The state of the art in computational fluid dynamics and the availability of commercial codes encourage numeric studies of the combustion processes. In the presentwork the commercial software CFX © Ansys Europe Ltd. was ...

  5. Nuclear fuels - Present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, D.

    2009-06-01

    The important developments in nuclear fuels and their problems are reviewed and compared with the status of present light-water reactor fuels. The limitations of LWR fuels are reviewed with respect to important recent concerns, namely provision of outlet coolant temperatures high enough for use in H 2 production, destruction of plutonium to eliminate proliferation concerns, and burning of the minor actinides to reduce the waste repository heat load and long-term radiation hazard. In addition to current oxide-based fuel rod designs, the hydride fuel with liquid-metal thermal bonding of the fuel-cladding gap is covered. Finally, two of the most promising Generation IV reactor concepts, the very high temperature reactor and the sodium fast reactor, and the accompanying reprocessing technologies, aqueous-based UREX+1a and pyrometallurgical, are summarized. In all of the topics covered, the thermodynamics involved in the fuel's behavior under irradiation and in the reprocessing schemes are emphasized.

  6. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted...... of the fuel heating value. In addition, the devolatilization time of alternative fuels cannot be neglected in kiln system process analyses, as these fuels are typically in the cm-size with devolatilization times in the order of minutes. The devolatilization characteristics of large particles of tyre rubber...... time, where increased particle size increased the devolatilization time. Model analyses demonstrated that the overall devolatilization kinetics of large particles of tyre rubber is mainly controlled by heat transfer and intrinsic pyrolysis kinetics, whereas mass transfer has negligible influence...

  7. Fuel services; Servicios de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marta, H.; Alvarez, P.; Jimenez, J.

    2006-07-01

    Refuelling outages comprise a number of maintenance tasks scheduled long in advance to assure a reliable operation throughout the next cycle and, in the long run, a safer and more efficient plant. Most of these tasks are routine service of mechanical and electrical system and likewise fuel an be considered a critical component as to handling, inspection, cleaning and repair. ENUSA-ENWESA AIE has been working in this area since 1995 growing from fuel repair to a more integrated service that includes new and spent fuel handling, inserts, failed fuel rod detection systems, ultrasonic fuel cleaning,fuel repair and a comprehensive array of inspection and tests related to the reliability of the mechanical components in the fuel assembly, all this, performed in compliance with quality, safety, health physics and any other nuclear standard. (Author)

  8. 煤在增压富氧燃烧条件下 NOx 排放特性实验研究%Experimental Study on NOx Release Characteristics During Pressurized Oxy-fuel Combustion of Pulverized Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春波; 雷鸣; 阎维平; 王松岭

    2012-01-01

      利用高压热重−傅里叶红外联用的方法研究大同烟煤在增压富氧条件下燃料 N 的释放行为,主要考察压力对 NOx排放特性的影响。实验结果表明,压力的改变对燃料 N 的迁移转化过程影响显著。由于含氮前驱体的生成机制不同,压力升高后,其转化率变化规律并不一致。随着压力的升高,挥发分产量的增加,燃料 N 向 NO 的转化率逐渐上升。在2 MPa 以下时,由于 NO 浓度和氧分压的增加,燃料 N 向NO2的转化率逐渐升高,但在3 MPa 时,随着 NO2分解速率的加快和产量的减少,NO2的转化率有所下降。燃料 N向 NOx 的转化率随着压力升高单调增加

  9. Operando fuel cell spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Ian Michael

    The active state of a catalyst only exists during catalysis (1) provided the motivation for developing operando spectroscopic techniques. A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was designed to interface with commercially available instruments for acquisition of infrared spectra of the catalytic surface of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) during normal operation. This technique has provided insight of the complex processes occurring at the electrode surface. Nafion, the solid electrolyte used in most modern-day polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), serves many purposes in fuel cell operation. However, there is little known of the interface between Nafion and the electrode surface. Previous studies of complex Stark tuning curves of carbon monoxide on the surface of a platinum electrode were attributed the co-adsorption of bisulfite ions originating from the 0.5M H2SO4 electrolyte used in the study(2). Similar tuning curves obtained on a fuel cell MEA despite the absence of supplemental electrolytes suggest the adsorption of Nafion onto platinum (3). The correlation of spectra obtained using attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (ATR) and polarization modulated IR reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) to a theoretical spectrum generated using density functional theory (DFT) lead to development of a model of Nafion and platinum interaction which identified participation of the SO3- and CF3 groups in Nafion adsorption. The use of ethanol as a fuel stream in proton exchange membrane fuel cells provides a promising alternative to methanol. Relative to methanol, ethanol has a greater energy density, lower toxicity and can be made from the fermentation of biomass(4). Operando IR spectroscopy was used to study the oxidation pathway of ethanol and Stark tuning behavior of carbon monoxide on Pt, Ru, and PtRu electrodes. Potential dependent products such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and carbon monoxide are identified as well as previously

  10. Fuel pin cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, S.; Adamson, M.G.

    1986-01-28

    Disclosed is an improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, consisting of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel and/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients. 2 figs.

  11. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-17

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide consise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; Natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s as well as selected National average prices; Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; Crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and A 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree days by city.

  12. Fuel pin cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan; Adamson, Martyn G.

    1986-01-01

    An improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, consisting of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel and/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients.

  13. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  14. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  15. Fuel storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donakowski, T.D.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-08-01

    Storage technologies are characterized for solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. Emphasis is placed on storage methods applicable to Integrated Community Energy Systems based on coal. Items discussed here include standard practice, materials and energy losses, environmental effects, operating requirements, maintenance and reliability, and cost considerations. All storage systems were found to be well-developed and to represent mature technologies; an exception may exist for low-Btu gas storage, which could have materials incompatability.

  16. Refractoriless liquid fuel burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, J.E.

    1986-07-15

    A liquid fuel burner head is described which consists of: A. a generally annular burner head housing spacedly enveloping a generally cylindrical primary air assembly, the head and assembly each having corresponding forward and rearward ends, (a) the primary air assembly having a plurality of internal primary air supply passage means extending in a generally forwardly direction in the assembly and emerging through annularly disposed primary air port means at the forward end of the primary air assembly, (b) means effective to produce a swirl of primary air in one direction about the axis of the primary air assembly as the air emerges from the primary air port means, (c) means associated with the primary air port means for adjusting the location of flame origin forward of and relative to the primary air port means, (d) the primary air assembly including a liquid fuel supply passage and a nozzle, the nozzle being centrally disposed at the forward end of the primary air assembly and encompassed by the primary air port means, the liquid fuel nozzle being effective to discharge a substantially fan-like spray of liquid fuel just forward of and across the primary air port means, (e) the primary air assembly and the nozzle together being axially movable relative to the housing between forwardmost and rearwardmost positions respectively responsive to change in burner firing rate between minimum and maximum; B. secondary air supply passage means disposed in the space between the housing and the primary air assembly; C. means rearwardly of the secondary air directional means and port means effective to meter the amount of secondary air supplied air port means from a lesser quantity when the primary air assembly and nozzle are in their forwardmost position to a greater quantity when the primary air assembly and nozzle are in their rearwardmost position.

  17. Fuel Cell Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    AD-A009 587 FUEL CELL STACKS Bernard S. Baker Energy Research Corporation Prepared for: Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development Center April... Mobility Equipment Research and Development Center Unclassified For- Belvoir, Virginia 22060 [15. DE.CLASSIFICATION/L.TWNOGRADING SCREOUJLE 16...the majority of effort has been directed at translating technoilogy for small comn- ponent manufacture on a laboratory scale into large size components

  18. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  19. Protected Nuclear Fuel Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, J. H.; Schumar, J. F.

    1962-12-01

    A stainless steel-clad actinide metal fuel rod for use in fast reactors is reported. In order to prevert cladding failures due to alloy formation between the actinide metal and the stainless steel, a mesh-like sleeve of expanded metal is interposed between them, the sleeve metal being of niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, zirconium, or vanadium. Liquid alkali metal is added as a heat transfer agent. (AEC)

  20. OPTIMIZED FUEL INJECTOR DESIGN FOR MAXIMUM IN-FURNACE NOx REDUCTION AND MINIMUM UNBURNED CARBON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAROFIM, A F; LISAUSKAS, R; RILEY, D; EDDINGS, E G; BROUWER, J; KLEWICKI, J P; DAVIS, K A; BOCKELIE, M J; HEAP, M P; PERSHING, D

    1998-01-01

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) has established a project team of experts to develop a technology for combustion systems which will minimize NO x emissions and minimize carbon in the fly ash. This much need technology will allow users to meet environmental compliance and produce a saleable by-product. This study is concerned with the NO x control technology of choice for pulverized coal fired boilers,"in-furnace NOx control," which includes: staged low-NOx burners, reburning, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and hybrid approaches (e.g., reburning with SNCR). The program has two primary objectives: 1) To improve the performance of "in-furnace" NOx control, processes. 2) To devise new, or improve existing, approaches for maximum "in-furnace" NOx control and minimum unburned carbon. The program involves: 1) fundamental studies at laboratory- and bench-scale to define NO reduction mechanisms in flames and reburning jets; 2) laboratory experiments and computer modeling to improve our two-phase mixing predictive capability; 3) evaluation of commercial low-NOx burner fuel injectors to develop improved designs, and 4) demonstration of coal injectors for reburning and low-NOx burners at commercial scale. The specific objectives of the two-phase program are to: 1 Conduct research to better understand the interaction of heterogeneous chemistry and two phase mixing on NO reduction processes in pulverized coal combustion. 2 Improve our ability to predict combusting coal jets by verifying two phase mixing models under conditions that simulate the near field of low-NOx burners. 3 Determine the limits on NO control by in-furnace NOx control technologies as a function of furnace design and coal type. 5 Develop and demonstrate improved coal injector designs for commercial low-NOx burners and coal reburning systems. 6 Modify the char burnout model in REI's coal