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Sample records for pulsed ultrasound therapy

  1. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound: Nonunions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijkman Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonunions occur in 5-10% of fractures and are characterized by the failure to heal without further intervention. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy has been developed as an alternative to surgery in the treatment of nonunions. We describe a systematic review on trials of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy for healing of nonunions. We searched the electronic databases Medline and the Cochrane library for articles on ultrasound and healing of nonunions published up to 2008. Trials selected for the review met the following criteria: treatment of at least one intervention group with low intensity pulsed ultrasound; inclusion of patients (humans with one or more nonunions (defined as "established" or as a failure to heal for a minimum of eight months after initial injury; and assessment of healing and time to healing, as determined radiographically. The following data were abstracted from the included studies: sample size, ultrasound treatment characteristics, nonunion location, healing rate, time to fracture healing, fracture age, and demographic information. We found 79 potentially eligible publications, of which 14 met our inclusion criteria. Of these, eight studies were used for data abstraction. Healing rates averaged 87%, (range 65.6%-100% among eight trials. Mean time to healing was 146.5 days, (range 56-219 days. There is evidence from trials that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound may be an effective treatment for healing of nonunions. More homogeneous and larger controlled series are needed to further investigate its efficacy.

  2. Noninvasive treatment of deep venous thrombosis using pulsed ultrasound cavitation therapy (histotripsy) in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Adam D; Owens, Gabe; Gurm, Hitinder S; Ives, Kimberly; Myers, Daniel D; Xu, Zhen

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluated histotripsy as a noninvasive, image-guided method of thrombolysis in a porcine model of deep vein thrombosis. Histotripsy therapy uses short, high-intensity, focused ultrasound pulses to cause mechanical breakdown of targeted soft tissue by acoustic cavitation, which is guided by real-time ultrasound imaging. This is an in vivo feasibility study of histotripsy thrombolysis. Acute thrombi were formed in the femoral vein of juvenile pigs weighing 30-40 kg by balloon occlusion with two catheters and thrombin infusion. A 10-cm-diameter 1-MHz focused transducer was used for therapy. An 8-MHz ultrasound imager was used to align the clot with the therapy focus. Therapy consisted of five cycle pulses delivered at a rate of 1 kHz and peak negative pressure between 14 and 19 MPa. The focus was scanned along the long axis of the vessel to treat the entire visible clot during ultrasound exposure. The targeted region identified by a hyperechoic cavitation bubble cloud was visualized via ultrasound during treatment. Thrombus breakdown was apparent as a decrease in echogenicity within the vessel in 10 of 12 cases and in 7 cases improved flow through the vein as measured by color Doppler. Vessel histology found denudation of vascular endothelium and small pockets of hemorrhage in the vessel adventitia and underlying muscle and fatty tissue, but perforation of the vessel wall was never observed. The results indicate histotripsy has potential for development as a noninvasive treatment for deep vein thrombosis. Copyright © 2011 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. MR-Guided Pulsed High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Enhancement of Gene Therapy Combined With Androgen Deprivation and Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    ultrasound . J. Acoust. Soc.Am. 72 1926-1932, (1982) (7) Neppiras E A. Acoustic cavitation . Physics reports 61(3): 159-251, (1980) (8) ter Haar G R, Daniels...Guided Pulsed High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Enhancement of 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0469 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...failing to This work is aimed to study MR guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) enhancement of gene therapy for Prostate Cancer. The

  4. Non-Thermal High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Breast Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Comet assay reveals DNA strand breaks induced by ultrasonic cavitation in vitro, Ultrasound in medicine & biology 1995; 21: 841-8. 3. Dalecki D...doxorubicin, focused ultrasound , HIFU, prostate cancer I. INTRODUCTION Pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pFUS) is able to create acoustic cavitation ... ultrasound for breast cancer therapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Chang Ming (Charlie) Ma, Ph.D

  5. Enhancement or Reduction of Sonochemical Activity of Pulsed Ultrasound Compared to Continuous Ultrasound at 20 kHz?

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    Yujing Sun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the efficacy of pulsed ultrasound compared with continuous ultrasound. Previous studies on the efficacy of pulsed ultrasound were not systematic and gave different results. In this study, the effects of pulse length, pulse interval, pulse length × pulse intervals, and treatment time on sonochemical activity were investigated using a simple oxidation of iodide method and a comparison of the efficacy of pulsed ultrasound and continuous ultrasound is made. The results showed that the main factor in the efficacy of pulsed ultrasound was pulse length when pulse length varied from 0.1 to 1 s. However, the main factors were pulse length, the pulse length × pulse interval, and pulse interval when pulse length varied from 1 to 9 s. Pulsed ultrasound had no effect when the pulse length was 0.1 s; however, the sonochemical activity of pulsed ultrasound decreased compared to continuous ultrasound as the pulse length varied from 0.1 to 1 s. The sonochemical activity of pulsed ultrasound either increased or decreased compared to continuous ultrasound when pulse length varied from 1 to 9 s, but the increase or decrease had no clear trend. The sonochemical activity was constant at Ton/Toff = 2 s/2 s and slightly decreased at Ton/Toff = 3 s/2 s with time, whereas the sonochemical activity of continuous ultrasound significantly decreased with time. Enhancement or reduction of sonochemical activity of pulsed ultrasound compared to continuous ultrasound depended on the pulse length and pulse interval.

  6. Pulsed ultrasounds accelerate healing of rib fractures in an experimental animal model: an effective new thoracic therapy?

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    Santana-Rodríguez, Norberto; Clavo, Bernardino; Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; Rivero, José C; Travieso, María M; Fiuza, María D; Villar, Jesús; García-Castellano, José M; Hernández-Pérez, Octavio; Déniz, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Rib fractures are a frequent traumatic injury associated with a relatively high morbidity. Currently, the treatment of rib fractures is symptomatic. Since it has been reported that pulsed ultrasounds accelerates repair of limb fractures, we hypothesized that the application of pulsed ultrasounds will modify the course of healing in an animal model of rib fracture. We studied 136 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were randomly assigned to different groups of doses (none, 50, 100, and 250 mW/cm(2) of intensity for 3 minutes per day) and durations (2, 10, 20, and 28 days) of treatment with pulsed ultrasounds. In every subgroup, we analyzed radiologic and histologic changes in the bone callus. In addition, we examined changes in gene expression of relevant genes involved in wound repair in both control and treated animals. Histologic and radiologic consolidation was significantly increased by pulsed ultrasound treatment when applied for more than 10 days. The application of 50 mW/cm(2) was the most effective dose. Only the 100 and 250 mW/cm(2) doses were able to significantly increase messenger RNA expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, suppressor of cytokine signaling-2 and -3, and vascular endothelial growth factor and decrease monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and collagen type II-alpha 1. Our findings indicate that pulsed ultrasound accelerates the consolidation of rib fractures. This study is the first to show that pulsed ultrasound promotes the healing of rib fractures. From a translational point of view, this easy, cheap technique could serve as an effective new therapeutic modality in patients with rib fractures. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Controlling the acoustic streaming by pulsed ultrasounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Mauricio; Castro, Angélica

    2013-01-01

    We propose a technique based on pulsed ultrasounds for controlling, reducing to a minimum observable value the acoustic streaming in closed ultrasonic standing wave fluidic resonators. By modifying the number of pulses and the repetition time it is possible to reduce the velocity of the acoustic streaming with respect to the velocity generated by the continuous ultrasound mode of operation. The acoustic streaming is observed at the nodal plane where a suspension of 800nm latex particles was focused by primary radiation force. A mixture of 800nm and 15μm latex particles has been also used for showing that the acoustic streaming is hardly reduced while primary and secondary forces continue to operate. The parameter we call "pulse mode factor" i.e. the time of applied ultrasound divided by the duty cycle, is found to be the adequate parameter that controls the acoustic streaming. We demonstrate that pulsed ultrasound is more efficient for controlling the acoustic streaming than the variation of the amplitude of the standing waves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fetal stimulation by pulsed diagnostic ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, M; Ogburn, P L; Greenleaf, J F

    2001-08-01

    To show that pulsed ultrasound from a clinical ultrasonic imaging system can stimulate the fetus. Stimulation is defined mainly as increased fetal gross body movements in response to excitation. Fetuses of a group of 9 volunteer women (mean gestational age, 33.37 weeks; range, 25-40 weeks) were evaluated for body movement under 3 different conditions: (1) control, with no ultrasound exposure; (2) ultrasound in continuous wave Doppler mode; and (3) pulsed ultrasound in pulsed Doppler and B modes. A conventional external fetal monitor, with negligible ultrasonic output, was used to monitor fetal gross body motions. After an initial rest period of 3 minutes with 1 or no fetal motion, fetuses were monitored for an additional 3 minutes under the exposure criterion defined for each condition. Resulting fetal motions under the 3 conditions were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The test showed that fetuses moved significantly more frequently under condition 3 (mean +/- SD, 3.43 +/- 1.93 movements per minute) than under condition 1 (0.40 +/- 7.33 movements per minute) or condition 2 (0.63 +/- 7.67 movements per minute); P = .004 and .016, respectively. Fetal movements under conditions 1 and 2 did not differ significantly. Diagnostic ultrasound may stimulate fetal body motion.

  9. Probability of cavitation for single ultrasound pulses applied to tissues and tissue-mimicking materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Adam D; Cain, Charles A; Hall, Timothy L; Fowlkes, J Brian; Xu, Zhen

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the negative pressure values at which inertial cavitation consistently occurs in response to a single, two-cycle, focused ultrasound pulse were measured in several media relevant to cavitation-based ultrasound therapy. The pulse was focused into a chamber containing one of the media, which included liquids, tissue-mimicking materials, and ex vivo canine tissue. Focal waveforms were measured by two separate techniques using a fiber-optic hydrophone. Inertial cavitation was identified by high-speed photography in optically transparent media and an acoustic passive cavitation detector. The probability of cavitation (P(cav)) for a single pulse as a function of peak negative pressure (p(-)) followed a sigmoid curve, with the probability approaching one when the pressure amplitude was sufficient. The statistical threshold (defined as P(cav) = 0.5) was between p(-) = 26 and 30 MPa in all samples with high water content but varied between p(-) = 13.7 and >36 MPa in other media. A model for radial cavitation bubble dynamics was employed to evaluate the behavior of cavitation nuclei at these pressure levels. A single bubble nucleus with an inertial cavitation threshold of p(-) = 28.2 megapascals was estimated to have a 2.5 nm radius in distilled water. These data may be valuable for cavitation-based ultrasound therapy to predict the likelihood of cavitation at various pressure levels and dimensions of cavitation-induced lesions in tissue. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Maximum likelihood estimation of the attenuated ultrasound pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Klaus Bolding

    1994-01-01

    The attenuated ultrasound pulse is divided into two parts: a stationary basic pulse and a nonstationary attenuation pulse. A standard ARMA model is used for the basic pulse, and a nonstandard ARMA model is derived for the attenuation pulse. The maximum likelihood estimator of the attenuated...

  11. Pulsed ultrasound therapy accelerates the recovery of skeletal muscle damage induced by Bothrops jararacussu venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Saturnino-Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of pulsed ultrasound therapy (UST and antibothropic polyvalent antivenom (PAV on the regeneration of mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle following damage by Bothrops jararacussu venom. Animals (Swiss male and female mice weighing 25.0 ± 5.0 g; 5 animals per group received a perimuscular injection of venom (1 mg/kg and treatment with UST was started 1 h later (1 min/day, 3 MHz, 0.3 W/cm², pulsed mode. Three and 28 days after injection, muscles were dissected and processed for light microscopy. The venom caused complete degeneration of muscle fibers. UST alone and combined with PAV (1.0 mL/kg partially protected these fibers, whereas muscles receiving no treatment showed disorganized fascicules and fibers with reduced diameter. Treatment with UST and PAV decreased the effects of the venom on creatine kinase content and motor activity (approximately 75 and 48%, respectively. Sonication of the venom solution immediately before application decreased the in vivo and ex vivo myotoxic activities (approximately 60 and 50%, respectively. The present data show that UST counteracts some effects of B. jararacussu venom, causing structural and functional improvement of the regenerated muscle after venom injury.

  12. Non-invasive pulsed cavitational ultrasound for fetal tissue ablation: feasibility study in a fetal sheep model.

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    Kim, Y; Gelehrter, S K; Fifer, C G; Lu, J C; Owens, G E; Berman, D R; Williams, J; Wilkinson, J E; Ives, K A; Xu, Z

    2011-04-01

    Currently available fetal intervention techniques rely on invasive procedures that carry inherent risks. A non-invasive technique for fetal intervention could potentially reduce the risk of fetal and obstetric complications. Pulsed cavitational ultrasound therapy (histotripsy) is an ablation technique that mechanically fractionates tissue at the focal region using extracorporeal ultrasound. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using histotripsy as a non-invasive approach to fetal intervention in a sheep model. The experiments involved 11 gravid sheep at 102-129 days of gestation. Fetal kidney, liver, lung and heart were exposed to ultrasound pulses (bones. Histological assessment confirmed lesion locations and sizes corresponding to regions where cavitation was monitored, with no lesions found when cavitation was absent. Inability to generate cavitation was primarily associated with increased depth to target and obstructing structures such as fetal limbs. Extracorporeal histotripsy therapy successfully created targeted lesions in fetal sheep organs without significant damage to overlying structures. With further improvements, histotripsy may evolve into a viable technique for non-invasive fetal intervention procedures. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effects of placebo-controlled continuous and pulsed ultrasound treatments on carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized trial

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    Onur Armagan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the effects of pulsed and continuous ultrasound treatments combined with splint therapy on patients with mild and moderate idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. METHODS: The study included 46 carpal tunnel syndrome patients who were randomly divided into 3 groups. The first group (n = 15 received a 0 W/cm2 ultrasound treatment (placebo; the second group (n = 16 received a 1.0 W/cm2 continuous ultrasound treatment and the third group (n = 15 received a 1.0 W/cm2 1:4 pulsed ultrasound treatment 5 days a week for a total of 15 sessions. All patients also wore night splints during treatment period. Pre-treatment and post-treatment Visual Analogue Scale, Symptom Severity Scale and Functional Status Scale scores, median nerve motor conduction velocity and distal latency and sensory conduction velocities of the median nerve in the 2nd finger and palm were compared. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02054247. RESULTS: There were significant improvements in all groups in terms of the post-treatment Functional Status Scale score (p<0.05 for all groups, Symptom Severity Scale score (first group: p<0.05, second group: p<0.01, third group: p<0.001 and Visual Analogue Scale score (first and third groups: p<0.01, second group: p<0.001. Sensory conduction velocities improved in the second and third groups (p<0.01. Distal latency in the 2nd finger showed improvement only in the third group (p<0.01 and action potential latency in the palm improved only in the second group (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that splinting therapy combined with placebo and pulsed or continuous ultrasound have similar effects on clinical improvement. Patients treated with continuous and pulsed ultrasound showed electrophysiological improvement; however, the results were not superior to those of the placebo.

  14. Estimation of in-vivo pulses in medical ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1994-01-01

    and the three-dimensional, attenuated ultrasound field for a concave transducer. Pulses are estimated from in-vivo liver data showing good resemblance to a pulse measured as the response from a planar reflector and then properly attenuated. The main application for the algorithm is to function......An algorithm for the estimation of one-dimensional in-vivo ultrasound pulses is derived. The routine estimates a set of ARMA parameters describing the pulse and uses data from a number of adjacent rf lines. Using multiple lines results in a decrease in variance on the estimated parameters...... and significantly reduces the risk of terminating the algorithm at a local minimum. Examples from use on synthetic data confirms the reduction in variance and increased chance of successful minimization termination. Simulations are also reported indicating the relation between the one-dimensional pulse...

  15. Pulse Compression Techniques for Laser Generated Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, R. F.; Madaras, E. I.

    1999-01-01

    Laser generated ultrasound for nondestructive evaluation has an optical power density limit due to rapid high heating that causes material damage. This damage threshold limits the generated ultrasound amplitude, which impacts nondestructive evaluation inspection capability. To increase ultrasound signal levels and improve the ultrasound signal-to-noise ratio without exceeding laser power limitations, it is possible to use pulse compression techniques. The approach illustrated here uses a 150mW laser-diode modulated with a pseudo-random sequence and signal correlation. Results demonstrate the successful generation of ultrasonic bulk waves in aluminum and graphite-epoxy composite materials using a modulated low-power laser diode and illustrate ultrasound bandwidth control.

  16. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation for mandibular condyle osteoarthritis lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaguchi Arita, A; Yonemitsu, I; Ikeda, Y; Miyazaki, M; Ono, T

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated low-intensity pulsed ultrasound effects for temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis in adult rats. Osteoarthritis-like lesions were induced in 24 adult rats' temporomandibular joints with low-dose mono-iodoacetate injections. The rats were divided into four groups: control and mono-iodoacetate groups, injected with contrast media and mono-iodoacetate, respectively, at 12 weeks and observed until 20 weeks; and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and mono-iodoacetate + low-intensity pulsed ultrasound groups, injected with contrast media and mono-iodoacetate, respectively, at 12 weeks with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound performed from 16 to 20 weeks. Condylar bone mineral density, bone mineral content and bone volume were evaluated weekly with microcomputed tomography. Histological and immunohistochemical staining for matrix metalloproteinases-13 was performed at 20 weeks. At 20 weeks, the mono-iodoacetate + low-intensity pulsed ultrasound group showed significantly higher bone mineral density, bone mineral content and bone volume than the mono-iodoacetate group; however, these values remained lower than those in the other two groups. On histological and immunohistochemical analysis, the chondrocytes were increased, and fewer matrix metalloproteinases-13 immunopositive cells were identified in the mono-iodoacetate + low-intensity pulsed ultrasound group than mono-iodoacetate group. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound for 2 weeks may have therapeutic potential for treating temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis lesions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Angular Spectrum Simulation of Pulsed Ultrasound Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    frequencies must be performed. Combining it with Field II, the generation of non-linear simulation for any geometry with any excitation array transducer becomes feasible. The purpose of this paper is to make a general pulsed simulation software using the modified ASA. Linear and phased array transducers......The optimization of non-linear ultrasound imaging should in a first step be based on simulation, as this makes parameter studies considerably easier than making transducer prototypes. Such a simulation program should be capable of simulating non-linear pulsed fields for arbitrary transducer...... geometries for any kind of focusing and apodization. The Angular Spectrum Approach (ASA) is capable of simulating monochromatic non-linear acoustic wave propagation. However, for ultrasound imaging the time response of each specific point in space is required, and a pulsed ASA simulation with multi temporal...

  18. Pulsed-low intensity ultrasound enhances extracellular matrix production by fibroblasts encapsulated in alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti PM Bohari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of pulsed-low intensity ultrasound on cell proliferation, collagen production and glycosaminoglycan deposition by 3T3 fibroblasts encapsulated in alginate was evaluated. Hoechst 33258 assay for cell number, hydroxyproline assay for collagen content and dimethylamine blue assay for glycosaminoglycan content were performed on samples from cell cultures treated with pulsed-low intensity ultrasound and a control group. Pulsed-low intensity ultrasound shows no effect on cell proliferation, while collagen and glycosaminoglycan contents were consistently higher in the samples treated with pulsed-low intensity ultrasound, showing a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 on day 10. Alcian blue staining showed that glycosaminoglycans were deposited around the cells in both groups. These results suggest that pulsed-low intensity ultrasound shows no effect on cell proliferation but has potential for inducing collagen and glycosaminoglycan production in cells cultured in alginate gels.

  19. Accurate step-FMCW ultrasound ranging and comparison with pulse-echo signaling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Shyam; Singh, Rahul S.; Lee, Michael; Cox, Brian P.; Culjat, Martin O.; Grundfest, Warren S.; Lee, Hua

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a method setup for high-frequency ultrasound ranging based on stepped frequency-modulated continuous waves (FMCW), potentially capable of producing a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared to traditional pulse-echo signaling. In current ultrasound systems, the use of higher frequencies (10-20 MHz) to enhance resolution lowers signal quality due to frequency-dependent attenuation. The proposed ultrasound signaling format, step-FMCW, is well-known in the radar community, and features lower peak power, wider dynamic range, lower noise figure and simpler electronics in comparison to pulse-echo systems. In pulse-echo ultrasound ranging, distances are calculated using the transmit times between a pulse and its subsequent echoes. In step-FMCW ultrasonic ranging, the phase and magnitude differences at stepped frequencies are used to sample the frequency domain. Thus, by taking the inverse Fourier transform, a comprehensive range profile is recovered that has increased immunity to noise over conventional ranging methods. Step-FMCW and pulse-echo waveforms were created using custom-built hardware consisting of an arbitrary waveform generator and dual-channel super heterodyne receiver, providing high SNR and in turn, accuracy in detection.

  20. Estimation of pulses in ultrasound B-scan images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1991-01-01

    It is shown, based on an expression for the received pressure field in pulsed medical ultrasound systems, that a common one-dimensional pulse can be estimated from individual A-lines. An autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model is suggested for the pulse, and an estimator based on the prediction...... error method is derived. The estimator is used on a segment of an A-line, assuming that the pulse does not change significantly inside the segment. Several examples of the use of the estimator on synthetic data measured from a tissue phantom and in vitro data measured from a calf's liver are given....... They show that a pulse can be estimated even at moderate signal-to-noise ratios...

  1. Comparison of Thresholds for Pulmonary Capillary Hemorrhage Induced by Pulsed-wave and B-mode Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Douglas L.; Dou, Chunyan; Raghavendran, Krishnan

    Pulsed ultrasound was found to induce pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) in mice about 25 years ago but remains a poorly understood risk factor for pulmonary diagnostic ultrasound. In early research using laboratory fixed beam ultrasound, thresholds for PCH had frequency variation from 1-4 MHz similar to the Mechanical Index. In recent research, thresholds for B mode diagnostic ultrasound from 1.5-12 MHz had little dependence on frequency. To compare the diagnostic ultrasound method to laboratory pulsed exposure, thresholds for fixed beam ultrasound were determined using comparable methods at 1.5 and 7.5 MHz. PCH thresholds were lower for simple fixed-beam pulse modes than for B mode and in approximate agreement with early research. However, for comparable timing parameters, PCH thresholds had little dependence on ultrasonic frequency. These findings suggest that the MI may not be directly useful as a dosimetric parameter for safety guidance in pulmonary ultrasound.

  2. A REVIEW OF LOW-INTENSITY ULTRASOUND FOR CANCER THERAPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    WOOD, ANDREW K. W.; SEHGAL, CHANDRA M.

    2015-01-01

    The literature describing the use of low-intensity ultrasound in four major areas of cancer therapy was reviewed - sonodynamic therapy, ultrasound mediated chemotherapy, ultrasound mediated gene delivery and antivascular ultrasound therapy. Each technique consistently resulted in the death of cancer cells and the bioeffects of ultrasound were primarily attributed to thermal actions and inertial cavitation. In each therapeutic modality, theranostic contrast agents composed of microbubbles played a role in both therapy and vascular imaging. The development of these agents is important as it establishes a therapeutic-diagnostic platform which can monitor the success of anti-cancer therapy. Little attention, however, has been given to either the direct assessment of the underlying mechanisms of the observed bioeffects or to the viability of these therapies in naturally occurring cancers in larger mammals; if such investigations provided encouraging data there could be a prompt application of a therapy technique in treating cancer patients. PMID:25728459

  3. A simulation model for predicting the temperature during the application of MR-guided focused ultrasound for stroke treatment using pulsed ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjisavvas, V.; Damianou, C.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper a simulation model for predicting the temperature during the application of MR-guided focused ultrasound for stroke treatment using pulsed ultrasound is presented. A single element spherically focused transducer of 5 cm diameter, focusing at 10 cm and operating at either 0.5 MHz or 1 MHz was considered. The power field was estimated using the KZK model. The temperature was estimated using the bioheat equation. The goal was to extract the acoustic parameters (power, pulse duration, duty factor and pulse repetition frequency) that maintain a temperature increase of less than 1 °C during the application of a pulse ultrasound protocol. It was found that the temperature change increases linearly with duty factor. The higher the power, the lower the duty factor needed to keep the temperature change to the safe limit of 1 °C. The higher the frequency the lower the duty factor needed to keep the temperature change to the safe limit of 1 °C. Finally, the deeper the target, the higher the duty factor needed to keep the temperature change to the safe limit of 1 °C. The simulation model was tested in brain tissue during the application of pulse ultrasound and the measured temperature was in close agreement with the simulated temperature. This simulation model is considered to be very useful tool for providing acoustic parameters (frequency, power, duty factor, pulse repetition frequency) during the application of pulsed ultrasound at various depths in tissue so that a safe temperature is maintained during the treatment. This model could be tested soon during stroke clinical trials.

  4. A new coding concept for fast ultrasound imaging using pulse trains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, T.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    Frame rate in ultrasound imaging can he increased by simultaneous transmission of multiple beams using coded waveforms. However, the achievable degree of orthogonality among coded waveforms is limited in ultrasound, and the image quality degrades unacceptably due to interbeam interference....... In this paper, an alternative combined time-space coding approach is undertaken. In the new method all transducer elements are excited with short pulses and the high time-bandwidth (TB) product waveforms are generated acoustically. Each element transmits a short pulse spherical wave with a constant transmit...... delay from element to element, long enough to assure no pulse overlapping for all depths in the image. Frequency shift keying is used for "per element" coding. The received signals from a point scatterer are staggered pulse trains which are beamformed for all beam directions and further processed...

  5. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments affect degeneration of cultured articular cartilage explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lijun; Ren, Yijin; van Kooten, Theo G.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Kuijer, Roelof

    PURPOSE: Articular cartilage has some capacity for self-repair. Clinically used low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments were compared in their potency to prevent degeneration using an explant model of porcine cartilage. METHODS: Explants of porcine

  6. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments affect degeneration of cultured articular cartilage explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lijun; Tan, Lijun; Ren, Yijin; van Kooten, Theo G.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Kuijer, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Articular cartilage has some capacity for self-repair. Clinically used low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments were compared in their potency to prevent degeneration using an explant model of porcine cartilage. Methods: Explants of porcine

  7. Disruption of tumor neovasculature by microbubble enhanced ultrasound: a potential new physical therapy of anti-angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Gao, Shunji; Zhao, Yang; Li, Peijing; Liu, Jia; Li, Peng; Tan, Kaibin; Xie, Feng

    2012-02-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is of vital importance to the growth and metastasis of solid tumors. The angiogenesis is featured with a defective, leaky and fragile vascular construction. Microbubble enhanced ultrasound (MEUS) cavitation is capable of mechanical disruption of small blood vessels depending on effective acoustic pressure amplitude. We hypothesized that acoustic cavitation combining high-pressure amplitude pulsed ultrasound (US) and circulating microbubble could potentially disrupt tumor vasculature. A high-pressure amplitude, pulsed ultrasound device was developed to induce inertial cavitation of circulating microbubbles. The tumor vasculature of rat Walker 256 was insonated percutaneously with two acoustic pressures, 2.6 MPa and 4.8 MPa, both with intravenous injection of a lipid microbubble. The controls were treated by the ultrasound only or sham ultrasound exposure. Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and histology were performed to assess tumor circulation and pathological changes. The CEUS results showed that the circulation of Walker 256 tumors could be completely blocked off for 24 hours in 4.8 MPa treated tumors. The CEUS gray scale value (GSV) indicated that there was significant GSV drop-off in both of the two experimental groups but none in the controls. Histology showed that the tumor microvasculature was disrupted into diffuse hematomas accompanied by thrombosis, intercellular edema and multiple cysts formation. The 24 hours of tumor circulation blockage resulted in massive necrosis of the tumor. MEUS provides a new, simple physical method for anti-angiogenic therapy and may have great potential for clinical applications. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Contrast generation in the nuclear-spin tomography by pulsed ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehms, Ole Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis a combined method of ultrasound and nuclear-spin tomography is presented. Via ultrasound pulses by the sound-radiation force in liquids and tissue phantoms motions are generated, which depend on ther viscoelastic properties. This motions are made visible by a motion-sensitive tomograph sequence in the phase image of the tomograph in form of a phase change. The first measurements on simple phantoms and liquids are presented. [de

  9. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound affects human articular chondrocytes in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstjens, C.M.; van der Rijt, R.H.H.; Albers, G.H.; Semeins, C.M.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) stimulates chondrocyte proliferation and matrix production in explants of human articular cartilage obtained from donors suffering from unicompartimental osteoarthritis of the knee, as well as in isolated human chondrocytes in vitro.

  10. Fermentation Assisted by Pulsed Electric Field and Ultrasound: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Galván-D’Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Various novel techniques are proposed to improve process efficiency, quality, and safety of fermented food products. Ultrasound and pulsed electric field (PEF are versatile technologies that can be employed in conjunction with fermentation processes to enhance process efficiency and production rates by improving mass transfer and cell permeability. The aim of this review is to highlight current and potential applications of ultrasound and PEF techniques in food fermentation processes. Their effects on microbial enzymes, along with mechanisms of action, are also discussed.

  11. The science of ultrasound therapy for fracture healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Rocca Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fracture healing involves a complex interplay of cellular processes, culminating in bridging of a fracture gap with bone. Fracture healing can be compromised by numerous exogenous and endogenous patient factors, and intense research is currently going on to identify modalities that can increase the likelihood of successful healing. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS has been proposed as a modality that may have a benefit for increasing reliable fracture healing as well as perhaps increasing the rate of fracture healing. We conducted a review to establish basic scince evidence of therapeutic role of lipus in fracture healing. An electronic search without language restrictions was accomplished of three databases (PubMed, Embase, Cinahl for ultrasound-related research in osteocyte and chondrocyte cell culture and in animal fracture models, published from inception of the databases through December, 2008. Studies deemed to be most relevant were included in this review. Multiple in vitro and animal in vivo studies were identified. An extensive body of literature exists which delineates the mechanism of action for ultrasound on cellular and tissue signaling systems that may be related to fracture healing. Research on LIPUS in animal fracture models has demonstrated promising results for acceleration of fracture healing and for promotion of fracture healing in compromised tissue beds. A large body of cellular and animal research exists which reveals that LIPUS may be beneficial for accelerating normal fracture healing or for promoting fracture healing in compromised tissue beds. Further investigation of the effects of LIPUS in human fracture healing is warranted for this promising new therapy.

  12. Combined photothermal therapy and magneto-motive ultrasound imaging using multifunctional nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Ma, Li L.; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Qu, Min; Joshi, Pratixa; Chen, Raeanna M.; Johnston, Keith P.; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2010-02-01

    Photothermal therapy is a laser-based non-invasive technique for cancer treatment. Photothermal therapy can be enhanced by employing metal nanoparticles that absorb the radiant energy from the laser leading to localized thermal damages. Targeting of nanoparticles leads to more efficient uptake and localization of photoabsorbers thus increasing the effectiveness of the treatment. Moreover, efficient targeting can reduce the required dosage of photoabsorbers; thereby reducing the side effects associated with general systematic administration of nanoparticles. Magnetic nanoparticles, due to their small size and response to an external magnetic field gradient have been proposed for targeted drug delivery. In this study, we investigate the applicability of multifunctional nanoparticles (e.g., magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles) and magneto-motive ultrasound imaging for image-guided photothermal therapy. Magneto-motive ultrasound imaging is an ultrasound based imaging technique capable of detecting magnetic nanoparticles indirectly by utilizing a high strength magnetic field to induce motion within the magnetically labeled tissue. The ultrasound imaging is used to detect the internal tissue motion. Due to presence of the magnetic component, the proposed multifunctional nanoparticles along with magneto-motive ultrasound imaging can be used to detect the presence of the photo absorbers. Clearly the higher concentration of magnetic carriers leads to a monotonic increase in magneto-motive ultrasound signal. Thus, magnetomotive ultrasound can determine the presence of the hybrid agents and provide information about their location and concentration. Furthermore, the magneto-motive ultrasound signal can indicate the change in tissue elasticity - a parameter that is expected to change significantly during the photothermal therapy. Therefore, a comprehensive guidance and assessment of the photothermal therapy may be feasible through magneto-motive ultrasound imaging and

  13. Targeted therapy of animal eyes with tumors by laser-generated focused ultrasound (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taehwa; Luo, Wei; Demirci, Hakan; Guo, L. Jay

    2016-03-01

    Cavitation therapy based on high-amplitude focused ultrasound (e.g., Histotripsy) has shown great promise in clinical trials. The technique realizes localized treatments of tissues and diseased cells by controlling cavitation zones, which can be even smaller than its acoustic spot sizes. Also, the short pressure pulse used in the technique can minimize the unwanted heat accumulation, which the conventional piezoelectric transducers suffer from due to low operating frequencies and relatively long acoustic pulses. However, this modality requires bulky system composed of array of piezoelectric elements and electric amplifiers in order to obtain high pressure amplitude. Moreover, especially when treating an area much smaller than the acoustic spot size, this approach may be vulnerable to nucleation sites within the focal volume, which can potentially induce cavitation and thus enlarge the total treatment area. Here, we show targeted cell-level therapy by using laser generated ultrasound. By employing a concave lens coated by a carbon nanotube (CNT)-polymer composite, high-amplitude acoustic pressure can be obtained at a tight focal spot (small focal spot, comparable to cavitation zone, lead to controlled cavitation treatment. Such feature can be exploited for treating intraocular tumors but without harming other parts of the eye (e.g. healthy retina and choroid) and therefore preserve the vision of the patients. We demonstrate that the localized disruption effects can be used for cell-level surgery to remove cells and to kill cells. Some experimental examples are shown using animal eyeballs.

  14. Angular spectrum approach for fast simulation of pulsed non-linear ultrasound fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an Angular Spectrum Approach (ASA) for simulating pulsed non-linear ultrasound fields. The source of the ASA is generated by Field II, which can simulate array transducers of any arbitrary geometry and focusing. The non-linear ultrasound simulation program - Abersim, is used...... as the reference. A linear array transducer with 64 active elements is simulated by both Field II and Abersim. The excitation is a 2-cycle sine wave with a frequency of 5 MHz. The second harmonic field in the time domain is simulated using ASA. Pulse inversion is used in the Abersim simulation to remove...... the fundamental and keep the second harmonic field, since Abersim simulates non-linear fields with all harmonic components. ASA and Abersim are compared for the pulsed fundamental and second harmonic fields in the time domain at depths of 30 mm, 40 mm (focal depth) and 60 mm. Full widths at -6 dB (FWHM) are f0...

  15. Comparison of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and pulsed electromagnetic field treatments on OPG and RANKL expression in human osteoblast-like cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, Manon A.; Ren, Yijin; de Haan-Visser, H. Willy; Kuijer, Roel

    OBJECTIVE: To compare two clinically applied treatments to stimulate bone healing-low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF)-for their effects on RANKL and OPG expression in osteoblast-like cells in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LIPUS or PEMF was applied to

  16. Outcome in hyperglycemic stroke with ultrasound-augmented thrombolytic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, S R; Hill, M D; Alexandrov, A V; Molina, C A; Kent, T A

    2006-08-22

    Hyperglycemia independently predicts poor outcome after acute ischemic stroke. CLOTBUST (Combined Lysis Of Thrombus in Brain ischemia using transcranial Ultrasound and Systemic tPA) demonstrated that ultrasound-augmented thrombolysis improves recanalization and 24-hour outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We hypothesized that ultrasound would preferentially benefit hyperglycemic patients, and reviewed CLOTBUST with respect to admission glucose and good outcome. We found that ultrasound's benefit on 90-day outcome was primarily apparent at higher glucose levels, suggesting that ultrasound therapy may improve outcome following hyperglycemic stroke.

  17. TU-EF-210-04: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, K. [National Cancer Institute (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The use of therapeutic ultrasound to provide targeted therapy is an active research area that has a broad application scope. The invited talks in this session will address currently implemented strategies and protocols for both hyperthermia and ablation applications using therapeutic ultrasound. The role of both ultrasound and MRI in the monitoring and assessment of these therapies will be explored in both pre-clinical and clinical applications. Katherine Ferrara: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, Drug Delivery, and Immunotherapy Rajiv Chopra: Translating Localized Doxorubicin Delivery to Pediatric Oncology using MRI-guided HIFU Elisa Konofagou: Real-time Ablation Monitoring and Lesion Quantification using Harmonic Motion Imaging Keyvan Farahani: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy Learning Objectives: Understand the role of ultrasound in localized drug delivery and the effects of immunotherapy when used in conjunction with ultrasound therapy. Understand potential targeted drug delivery clinical applications including pediatric oncology. Understand the technical requirements for performing targeted drug delivery. Understand how radiation-force approaches can be used to both monitor and assess high intensity focused ultrasound ablation therapy. Understand the role of AAPM task groups in ultrasound imaging and therapies. Chopra: Funding from Cancer Prevention and Research Initiative of Texas (CPRIT), Award R1308 Evelyn and M.R. Hudson Foundation; Research Support from Research Contract with Philips Healthcare; COI are Co-founder of FUS Instruments Inc Ferrara: Supported by NIH, UCDavis and California (CIRM and BHCE) Farahani: In-kind research support from Philips Healthcare.

  18. TU-EF-210-04: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farahani, K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of therapeutic ultrasound to provide targeted therapy is an active research area that has a broad application scope. The invited talks in this session will address currently implemented strategies and protocols for both hyperthermia and ablation applications using therapeutic ultrasound. The role of both ultrasound and MRI in the monitoring and assessment of these therapies will be explored in both pre-clinical and clinical applications. Katherine Ferrara: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, Drug Delivery, and Immunotherapy Rajiv Chopra: Translating Localized Doxorubicin Delivery to Pediatric Oncology using MRI-guided HIFU Elisa Konofagou: Real-time Ablation Monitoring and Lesion Quantification using Harmonic Motion Imaging Keyvan Farahani: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy Learning Objectives: Understand the role of ultrasound in localized drug delivery and the effects of immunotherapy when used in conjunction with ultrasound therapy. Understand potential targeted drug delivery clinical applications including pediatric oncology. Understand the technical requirements for performing targeted drug delivery. Understand how radiation-force approaches can be used to both monitor and assess high intensity focused ultrasound ablation therapy. Understand the role of AAPM task groups in ultrasound imaging and therapies. Chopra: Funding from Cancer Prevention and Research Initiative of Texas (CPRIT), Award R1308 Evelyn and M.R. Hudson Foundation; Research Support from Research Contract with Philips Healthcare; COI are Co-founder of FUS Instruments Inc Ferrara: Supported by NIH, UCDavis and California (CIRM and BHCE) Farahani: In-kind research support from Philips Healthcare

  19. Concurrent Chemotherapy and Pulsed High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy for the Treatment of Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer: Initial Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Young; Choi, Byung Ihn; Ryu, Ji Kon; Kim, Yong Tae; Kim, Se Hyung; Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Joo Ha [University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle (United States)

    2011-04-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the potential clinical value of concurrent chemotherapy and pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy (CCHT), as well as the safety of pulsed HIFU, for the treatment of unresectable pancreatic cancer. Twelve patients were treated with HIFU from October 2008 to May 2010, and three of them underwent CCHT as the main treatment (the CCHT group). The overall survival (OS), the time to tumor progression (TTP), the complications and the current performance status in the CCHT and non-CCHT groups were analyzed. Nine patients in the non-CCHT group were evaluated to determine why CCHT could not be performed more than twice. The OS of the three patients in the CCHT group was 26.0, 21.6 and 10.8 months, respectively, from the time of diagnosis. Two of them were alive at the time of preparing this manuscript with an excellent performance status, and one of them underwent a surgical resection one year after the initiation of CCHT. The TTP of the three patients in the CCHT group was 13.4, 11.5 and 9.9 months, respectively. The median OS and TTP of the non-CCHT group were 10.3 months and 4.4 months, respectively. The main reasons why the nine patients of the non-CCHT group failed to undergo CCHT more than twice were as follows: pancreatitis (n = 1), intolerance of the pain during treatment (n = 4), palliative use of HIFU for pain relief (n = 1) and a poor physical condition due to disease progression (n = 3). No major complications were encountered except one case of pancreatitis. This study shows that CCHT is a potentially effective and safe modality for the treatment of unresectable pancreatic cancer

  20. Fast simulation of non-linear pulsed ultrasound fields using an angular spectrum approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2013-01-01

    A fast non-linear pulsed ultrasound field simulation is presented. It is implemented based on an angular spectrum approach (ASA), which analytically solves the non-linear wave equation. The ASA solution to the Westervelt equation is derived in detail. The calculation speed is significantly...... increased compared to a numerical solution using an operator splitting method (OSM). The ASA has been modified and extended to pulsed non-linear ultrasound fields in combination with Field II, where any array transducer with arbitrary geometry, excitation, focusing and apodization can be simulated...... with a center frequency of 5 MHz. The speed is increased approximately by a factor of 140 and the calculation time is 12 min with a standard PC, when simulating the second harmonic pulse at the focal point. For the second harmonic point spread function the full width error is 1.5% at 6 dB and 6.4% at 12 d...

  1. Therapeutic Ultrasound Examination of Follicular Reserve, and Ovarian Tissue Angiogenesis in Mice, 14 Days after Heterotopic Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Abtahi

    2014-06-01

    Results: The study results showed that the CD31 angiogenic factor was expressed more in the irradiated animals than in control group animals and ultrasound-therapy resulted in better follicular preservation. Conclusion: The ultrasound therapy can improve preservation of ovarian follicle .This is probably due to acceleration of angiogenesis and increase in production of growth factors by low intensity pulse ultrasound.

  2. CLINICAL FIELD NOTE - ULTRASOUND THERAPY: GETTING IT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Incorporating this vital information has led to a turn around in the evidence of ultrasound research ... in clinical practice, there has not been enough research evidence to support its .... Parameters: 1W/cm , 50% duty cycle (pulsed), 15 minutes,. 2 with a 5cm ... New England Journal of Medicine 317: 141-145. Gam, A.N., F.

  3. [Focused ultrasound therapy: current status and potential applications in neurosurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervishi, E; Aubry, J-F; Delattre, J-Y; Boch, A-L

    2013-12-01

    High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) therapy is an innovative approach for tissue ablation, based on high intensity focused ultrasound beams. At the focus, HIFU induces a temperature elevation and the tissue can be thermally destroyed. In fact, this approach has been tested in a number of clinical studies for the treatment of several tumors, primarily the prostate, uterine, breast, bone, liver, kidney and pancreas. For transcranial brain therapy, the skull bone is a major limitation, however, new adaptive techniques of phase correction for focusing ultrasound through the skull have recently been implemented by research systems, paving the way for HIFU therapy to become an interesting alternative to brain surgery and radiotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultrasound-based guidance of intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, Albert Y.C.; Ayyangar, Komanduri M.; Djajaputra, David; Nehru, Ramasamy M.; Enke, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    In ultrasound-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of prostate cancer, ultrasound imaging ascertains the anatomical position of patients during x-ray therapy delivery. The ultrasound transducers are made of piezoelectric ceramics. The same crystal is used for both ultrasound production and reception. Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound devices capture and correlate series of 2-dimensional (2D) B-mode images. The transducers are often arranged in a convex array for focusing. Lower frequency reaches greater depth, but results in low resolution. For clear image, some gel is usually applied between the probe and the skin contact surface. For prostate positioning, axial and sagittal scans are performed, and the volume contours from computed tomography (CT) planning are superimposed on the ultrasound images obtained before radiation delivery at the linear accelerator. The planning volumes are then overlaid on the ultrasound images and adjusted until they match. The computer automatically deduces the offset necessary to move the patient so that the treatment area is in the correct location. The couch is translated as needed. The currently available commercial equipment can attain a positional accuracy of 1-2 mm. Commercial manufacturer designs differ in the detection of probe coordinates relative to the isocenter. Some use a position-sensing robotic arm, while others have infrared light-emitting diodes or pattern-recognition software with charge-couple-device cameras. Commissioning includes testing of image quality and positional accuracy. Ultrasound is mainly used in prostate positioning. Data for 7825 daily fractions of 234 prostate patients indicated average 3D inter-fractional displacement of about 7.8 mm. There was no perceivable trend of shift over time. Scatter plots showed slight prevalence toward superior-posterior directions. Uncertainties of ultrasound guidance included tissue inhomogeneities, speckle noise, probe pressure, and inter

  5. Comparative study of the effects of the Ga-As (904 nm, 150 mW) laser and the pulsed ultrasound of 1 MHz in inflammation of tibialis muscle of Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Marcus Vinicius de Mello; Rocha, Lamara Laguardia Valente; Santos, Helio Ricardo dos; Silva, Andre Luis dos Santos; Barbosa, Luis Guilherme; Reis, Joao Batista Alves dos [Centro Universitario de Caratinga, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail; orofacial_1@hotmail.com; Costa, Daniel Almeida da [Faculdade de Minas, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2008-12-15

    This paper aims to compare the therapeutic effect of the laser As-Ga of 904 nm and pulsed Ultrasound of 1 MHz applied in striated skeletal muscle of inflamed rats. The animals received an intramuscular injection of bupivacaine hydrochloride in tibialis muscle in order to induce the inflammatory process, and after 24 hours, the time was considered 0 for the initiation of therapy, using a laser and ultrasound. Samples collected the muscles of the animals were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and histological sections of the groups used for the analysis of the muscle tissue in relation to reducing the inflammatory process, comparing the results of the two therapies used. In this study it is suggested that both treatment with laser as with ultrasound can act as anti-inflammatory. However, the laser seems to have anti-inflammatory effect for all periods observed, while the ultrasound was only able to induce declining inflammatory response to seven days. (author)

  6. Comparative study of the effects of the Ga-As (904 nm, 150 mW) laser and the pulsed ultrasound of 1 MHz in inflammation of tibialis muscle of Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Marcus Vinicius de Mello; Rocha, Lamara Laguardia Valente; Santos, Helio Ricardo dos; Silva, Andre Luis dos Santos; Barbosa, Luis Guilherme; Reis, Joao Batista Alves dos . E-mail; Costa, Daniel Almeida da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to compare the therapeutic effect of the laser As-Ga of 904 nm and pulsed Ultrasound of 1 MHz applied in striated skeletal muscle of inflamed rats. The animals received an intramuscular injection of bupivacaine hydrochloride in tibialis muscle in order to induce the inflammatory process, and after 24 hours, the time was considered 0 for the initiation of therapy, using a laser and ultrasound. Samples collected the muscles of the animals were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and histological sections of the groups used for the analysis of the muscle tissue in relation to reducing the inflammatory process, comparing the results of the two therapies used. In this study it is suggested that both treatment with laser as with ultrasound can act as anti-inflammatory. However, the laser seems to have anti-inflammatory effect for all periods observed, while the ultrasound was only able to induce declining inflammatory response to seven days. (author)

  7. Efficacy of therapeutic ultrasound and exercise therapy in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Findings of the study revealed no significant difference in VAS, ROM and WOMAC scores in the study and control groups. Conclusions: This study confirms that therapeutic ultrasound is of no additional benefit to exercise therapy in the management of chronic osteoarthritis. Key words: Ultrasound; Exercise; ...

  8. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) for bone healing: A clinical practice guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Poolman (Rudolf); Agoritsas, T. (Thomas); Siemieniuk, R.A.C. (Reed A C); I. Harris (Ian); I.B. Schipper (Inger); Mollon, B. (Brent); Smith, M. (Maureen); Albin, A. (Alexandra); Nador, S. (Sally); Sasges, W. (Will); S. Schandelmaier; Lytvyn, L. (Lyubov); T. Kuijpers (Ton); Van Beers, L.W.A.H. (Loes W A H); M.H.J. Verhofstad (Michiel); P.O. Vandvik (Per)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractDoes low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) accelerate recovery in adults and children who have experienced bone fractures or osteotomy (cutting of a bone)? An expert panel rapidly produced these recommendations based on a linked systematic review triggered by a large multi-centre

  9. Pulsed ultrasound modulated optical tomography with harmonic lock-in holography detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Haowen; Mather, Melissa L; Morgan, Stephen P

    2013-07-01

    A method that uses digital heterodyne holography reconstruction to extract scattered light modulated by a single-cycle ultrasound (US) burst is demonstrated and analyzed. An US burst is used to shift the pulsed laser frequency by a series of discrete harmonic frequencies which are then locked on a CCD. The analysis demonstrates that the unmodulated light's contribution to the detected signal can be canceled by appropriate selection of the pulse repetition frequency. It is also shown that the modulated signal can be maximized by selecting a pulse sequence which consists of a pulse followed by its inverted counterpart. The system is used to image a 12 mm thick chicken breast with 2 mm wide optically absorbing objects embedded at the midplane. Furthermore, the method can be revised to detect the nonlinear US modulated signal by locking at the second harmonic US frequency.

  10. In vitro characterization of perfluorocarbon droplets for focused ultrasound therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schad, Kelly C; Hynynen, Kullervo, E-mail: khynynen@sri.utoronto.c [Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Ave, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto (Canada)

    2010-09-07

    Focused ultrasound therapy can be enhanced with microbubbles by thermal and cavitation effects. However, localization of treatment is difficult as bioeffects can occur outside of the target region. Spatial control of bubbles can be achieved by ultrasound-induced conversion of liquid perfluorocarbon droplets to gas bubbles. This study was undertaken to determine the acoustic parameters for bubble production by droplet conversion and how it depends on the acoustic conditions and droplet physical parameters. Lipid-encapsulated droplets containing dodecafluoropentane were manufactured with sizes ranging from 1.9 to 7.2 {mu}m in diameter and diluted to a concentration of 8 x 10{sup 6} droplets mL{sup -1}. The droplets were sonicated in vitro with a focused ultrasound transducer and varying frequency and exposure under flow conditions through an acoustically transparent vessel. The sonications were 10 ms in duration at frequencies of 0.578, 1.736 and 2.855 MHz. The pressure threshold for droplet conversion was measured with an active transducer operating in pulse-echo mode and simultaneous measurements of broadband acoustic emissions were performed with passive acoustic detection. The results show that droplets cannot be converted at low frequency without broadband emissions occurring. However, the pressure threshold for droplet conversion decreased with increasing frequency, exposure and droplet size. The pressure threshold for broadband emissions was independent of the droplet size and was 2.9, 4.4 and 5.3 MPa for 0.578, 1736 and 2.855 MHz, respectively. In summary, we have demonstrated that droplet conversion is feasible for clinically relevant sized droplets and acoustic exposures.

  11. In vitro characterization of perfluorocarbon droplets for focused ultrasound therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schad, Kelly C; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2010-01-01

    Focused ultrasound therapy can be enhanced with microbubbles by thermal and cavitation effects. However, localization of treatment is difficult as bioeffects can occur outside of the target region. Spatial control of bubbles can be achieved by ultrasound-induced conversion of liquid perfluorocarbon droplets to gas bubbles. This study was undertaken to determine the acoustic parameters for bubble production by droplet conversion and how it depends on the acoustic conditions and droplet physical parameters. Lipid-encapsulated droplets containing dodecafluoropentane were manufactured with sizes ranging from 1.9 to 7.2 μm in diameter and diluted to a concentration of 8 x 10 6 droplets mL -1 . The droplets were sonicated in vitro with a focused ultrasound transducer and varying frequency and exposure under flow conditions through an acoustically transparent vessel. The sonications were 10 ms in duration at frequencies of 0.578, 1.736 and 2.855 MHz. The pressure threshold for droplet conversion was measured with an active transducer operating in pulse-echo mode and simultaneous measurements of broadband acoustic emissions were performed with passive acoustic detection. The results show that droplets cannot be converted at low frequency without broadband emissions occurring. However, the pressure threshold for droplet conversion decreased with increasing frequency, exposure and droplet size. The pressure threshold for broadband emissions was independent of the droplet size and was 2.9, 4.4 and 5.3 MPa for 0.578, 1736 and 2.855 MHz, respectively. In summary, we have demonstrated that droplet conversion is feasible for clinically relevant sized droplets and acoustic exposures.

  12. In vitro characterization of perfluorocarbon droplets for focused ultrasound therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Kelly C.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2010-09-01

    Focused ultrasound therapy can be enhanced with microbubbles by thermal and cavitation effects. However, localization of treatment is difficult as bioeffects can occur outside of the target region. Spatial control of bubbles can be achieved by ultrasound-induced conversion of liquid perfluorocarbon droplets to gas bubbles. This study was undertaken to determine the acoustic parameters for bubble production by droplet conversion and how it depends on the acoustic conditions and droplet physical parameters. Lipid-encapsulated droplets containing dodecafluoropentane were manufactured with sizes ranging from 1.9 to 7.2 µm in diameter and diluted to a concentration of 8 × 106 droplets mL-1. The droplets were sonicated in vitro with a focused ultrasound transducer and varying frequency and exposure under flow conditions through an acoustically transparent vessel. The sonications were 10 ms in duration at frequencies of 0.578, 1.736 and 2.855 MHz. The pressure threshold for droplet conversion was measured with an active transducer operating in pulse-echo mode and simultaneous measurements of broadband acoustic emissions were performed with passive acoustic detection. The results show that droplets cannot be converted at low frequency without broadband emissions occurring. However, the pressure threshold for droplet conversion decreased with increasing frequency, exposure and droplet size. The pressure threshold for broadband emissions was independent of the droplet size and was 2.9, 4.4 and 5.3 MPa for 0.578, 1736 and 2.855 MHz, respectively. In summary, we have demonstrated that droplet conversion is feasible for clinically relevant sized droplets and acoustic exposures.

  13. Combined ultrasound and MR imaging to guide focused ultrasound therapies in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Costas D.; Livingstone, Margaret S.; McDannold, Nathan

    2013-07-01

    Several emerging therapies with potential for use in the brain, harness effects produced by acoustic cavitation—the interaction between ultrasound and microbubbles either generated during sonication or introduced into the vasculature. Systems developed for transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thermal ablation can enable their clinical translation, but methods for real-time monitoring and control are currently lacking. Acoustic emissions produced during sonication can provide information about the location, strength and type of the microbubble oscillations within the ultrasound field, and they can be mapped in real-time using passive imaging approaches. Here, we tested whether such mapping can be achieved transcranially within a clinical brain MRgFUS system. We integrated an ultrasound imaging array into the hemisphere transducer of the MRgFUS device. Passive cavitation maps were obtained during sonications combined with a circulating microbubble agent at 20 targets in the cingulate cortex in three macaques. The maps were compared with MRI-evident tissue effects. The system successfully mapped microbubble activity during both stable and inertial cavitation, which was correlated with MRI-evident transient blood-brain barrier disruption and vascular damage, respectively. The location of this activity was coincident with the resulting tissue changes within the expected resolution limits of the system. While preliminary, these data clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that it is possible to construct maps of stable and inertial cavitation transcranially, in a large animal model, and under clinically relevant conditions. Further, these results suggest that this hybrid ultrasound/MRI approach can provide comprehensive guidance for targeted drug delivery via blood-brain barrier disruption and other emerging ultrasound treatments, facilitating their clinical translation. We anticipate that it will also prove to be an important research tool that will

  14. Combined ultrasound and MR imaging to guide focused ultrasound therapies in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvanitis, Costas D; McDannold, Nathan; Livingstone, Margaret S

    2013-01-01

    Several emerging therapies with potential for use in the brain, harness effects produced by acoustic cavitation—the interaction between ultrasound and microbubbles either generated during sonication or introduced into the vasculature. Systems developed for transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thermal ablation can enable their clinical translation, but methods for real-time monitoring and control are currently lacking. Acoustic emissions produced during sonication can provide information about the location, strength and type of the microbubble oscillations within the ultrasound field, and they can be mapped in real-time using passive imaging approaches. Here, we tested whether such mapping can be achieved transcranially within a clinical brain MRgFUS system. We integrated an ultrasound imaging array into the hemisphere transducer of the MRgFUS device. Passive cavitation maps were obtained during sonications combined with a circulating microbubble agent at 20 targets in the cingulate cortex in three macaques. The maps were compared with MRI-evident tissue effects. The system successfully mapped microbubble activity during both stable and inertial cavitation, which was correlated with MRI-evident transient blood–brain barrier disruption and vascular damage, respectively. The location of this activity was coincident with the resulting tissue changes within the expected resolution limits of the system. While preliminary, these data clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that it is possible to construct maps of stable and inertial cavitation transcranially, in a large animal model, and under clinically relevant conditions. Further, these results suggest that this hybrid ultrasound/MRI approach can provide comprehensive guidance for targeted drug delivery via blood–brain barrier disruption and other emerging ultrasound treatments, facilitating their clinical translation. We anticipate that it will also prove to be an important research tool that

  15. Ultrasound-guided interventional therapy for recurrent ovarian chocolate cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu-Lu; Dong, Xiao-Qiu; Shao, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Si-Ming

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound-guided interventional therapy in the treatment of postoperative recurrent chocolate cysts. The 198 patients enrolled in this study were divided into three groups. In group 1, the saline washing group, the cavity of the cyst was washed thoroughly with warm saline. In group 2, the ethanol short-time retention group, after washing with saline, the cyst was injected with 95% ethanol with a volume of half of the fluid aspirated from the cyst. Ten minutes later, the rest of the ethanol was aspirated. In group 3, the ethanol retention group, the procedures were the same as with the ethanol short-time retention group, except that 95% of the ethanol was retained in the cyst. An ultrasound examination was performed in the third, sixth and 12th months after therapy. The chocolate cyst cure rate was significantly higher in the ethanol retention group (96%, 66/69) than in the ethanol short-time retention group (82%, 56/68) and no case was cured in the first group (saline washing). We conclude that ultrasound-guided injection and 95% ethanol retention are an effective therapy for the treatment of postoperative recurrent chocolate cysts. Copyright © 2011 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. WE-H-209-01: Advances in Ultrasound Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hynynen, K. [University of Toronto (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Focused ultrasound has been shown to be the only method that allows noninvasive thermal coagulation of tissues and recently this potential has been explored for image-guided drug delivery. In this presentation, the advances in ultrasound phased array technology for energy delivery, exposure monitoring and control will be discussed. Experimental results from novel multi-frequency transmit/receive arrays will be presented. In addition, the feasibility of fully electronically focused and steered high power arrays with many thousands of transducer elements will be discussed. Finally, some of the recent clinical and preclinical results for the treatment of brain disease will be reviewed. Learning Objectives: Introduce FUS therapy principles and modern techniques Discuss use of FUS for drug delivery Cover the technology required to deliver FUS and monitor therapy Present clinical examples of the uses of these techniques This research was supported by funding from The Canada Research Chair Program, Grants from CIHR and NIH (no. EB003268).; K. Hynynen, Canada Foundation for Innovation; Canadian Institutes of Health Research; Focused Ultrasound Surgery Foundation; Canada Research Chair Program; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; Ontario Research Fund; National Institutes of Health; Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute; The Weston Brain Institute; Harmonic Medical; Focused Ultrasound Instruments.

  17. WE-H-209-01: Advances in Ultrasound Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hynynen, K.

    2016-01-01

    Focused ultrasound has been shown to be the only method that allows noninvasive thermal coagulation of tissues and recently this potential has been explored for image-guided drug delivery. In this presentation, the advances in ultrasound phased array technology for energy delivery, exposure monitoring and control will be discussed. Experimental results from novel multi-frequency transmit/receive arrays will be presented. In addition, the feasibility of fully electronically focused and steered high power arrays with many thousands of transducer elements will be discussed. Finally, some of the recent clinical and preclinical results for the treatment of brain disease will be reviewed. Learning Objectives: Introduce FUS therapy principles and modern techniques Discuss use of FUS for drug delivery Cover the technology required to deliver FUS and monitor therapy Present clinical examples of the uses of these techniques This research was supported by funding from The Canada Research Chair Program, Grants from CIHR and NIH (no. EB003268).; K. Hynynen, Canada Foundation for Innovation; Canadian Institutes of Health Research; Focused Ultrasound Surgery Foundation; Canada Research Chair Program; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; Ontario Research Fund; National Institutes of Health; Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute; The Weston Brain Institute; Harmonic Medical; Focused Ultrasound Instruments

  18. Comparison of steroid pulse therapy and conventional oral steroid therapy as initial treatment for autoimmune pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, Takashi; Uchida, Kazushige; Matsushita, Mitsunobu; Ikeura, Tsukasa; Fukui, Toshiro; Takaoka, Makoto; Nishio, Akiyoshi; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of oral steroid therapy for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is well known, and oral prednisolone treatment is most usually commenced at 30-40 mg/day, but there have been few reports about comparative studies of oral steroid therapy and steroid pulse therapy as the initial treatment for AIP. We studied the clinical course and image findings to estimate the utility of steroid pulse therapy for AIP, comparing it with oral steroid therapy. Laboratory and image findings were assessed retrospectively in 11 patients who received steroid pulse therapy, and the findings were compared to those in 10 patients who received conventional oral steroid therapy. Change in pancreatic size showed no significant difference between the therapies after 2 weeks of treatment. Significant improvement of lower bile duct strictures after 2 weeks of treatment and that of immunoglobulin values within 6 months were shown with both therapies. However, steroid pulse therapy showed significant improvement of γ-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) in 2 weeks and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in 2 and 8 weeks, compared with oral steroid therapy. Moreover, there was one patient in whom the lower bile duct stricture was not improved by oral steroid therapy, but it did show improvement with steroid pulse therapy. Initial steroid pulse therapy is a beneficial alternative to oral steroid therapy for the improvement of bile duct lesions. In future, the accumulation of a larger number of patients receiving steroid pulse therapy is needed, and prospective studies will be required. (author)

  19. Optimization of ultrasound parameters of myocardial cavitation microlesions for therapeutic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Douglas L; Dou, Chunyan; Owens, Gabe E; Kripfgans, Oliver D

    2014-06-01

    Intermittent high intensity ultrasound scanning with contrast microbubbles can induce scattered cavitation microlesions in the myocardium, which may be of value for tissue reduction therapy. Anesthetized rats were treated in a heated water bath with 1.5 MHz focused ultrasound pulses, guided by an 8 MHz imaging transducer. The relative efficacy with 2 or 4 MPa pulses, 1:4 or 1:8 trigger intervals and 5 or 10 cycle pulses was explored in six groups. Electrocardiogram premature complexes (PCs) induced by the triggered pulse bursts were counted, and Evans blue stained cardiomyocyte scores (SCSs) were obtained. The increase from 2 to 4 MPa produced significant increases in PCs and SCSs and eliminated an anticipated decline in the rate of PC induction with time, which might hinder therapeutic efficacy. Increased intervals and pulse durations did not yield significant increases in the effects. The results suggest that cavitation microlesion production can be refined and potentially lead to a clinically robust therapeutic method. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biological response in vitro of skeletal muscle cells treated with different intensity continuous and pulsed ultrasound fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrunhosa, Viviane M; Costa-Felix, Rodrigo P B [Laboratory of Ultrasound, Directory of Scientific and Industrial Metrology (DIMCI), National Institute of Metrology, Standardization, and Industrial Quality (Inmetro), Av. Nossa Sra das Gracas, 50 Predio 1, Duque de Caxias, RJ, ZIP 25250-020 (Brazil); Mermelstein, Claudia S; Costa, Manoel L, E-mail: rpfelix@inmetro.gov.br [Laboratory of Muscle Differentiation and Cytoskeleton, Biomedical Sciences Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, ZIP 21949-590 (Brazil)

    2011-02-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound has been used in physiotherapy to accelerate tissue healing. Although the ultrasonic wave is widely used in clinical practice, not much is known about the biological effects of ultrasound on cells and tissues. This study aims to evaluate the biological response of ultrasound in primary cultures of chick myogenic cells. To ensure the metrological reliability of whole measurement process, the ultrasound equipment was calibrated in accordance with IEC 61689:2007. The skeletal muscle cells were divided in four samples. One sample was used as a control group and the others were submitted to different time and intensity and operation mode of ultrasound: 1) 0.5 W/cm{sup 2} continuous for 5 minutes, 2) 0.5 W/cm{sup 2} pulsed for 5 minutes, 3) 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} pulsed for 10 minutes. The samples were analyzed with phase contrast optical microscopy before and after the treatment. The results showed alignment of myogenic cells in the sample treated with 0.5 W/cm{sup 2} continuous during 5 minutes when compared with the control group and the other samples. This study is a first step towards a metrological and scientific based protocol to cells and tissues treatment under different ultrasound field exposures.

  1. Biological response in vitro of skeletal muscle cells treated with different intensity continuous and pulsed ultrasound fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrunhosa, Viviane M; Costa-Felix, Rodrigo P B; Mermelstein, Claudia S; Costa, Manoel L

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound has been used in physiotherapy to accelerate tissue healing. Although the ultrasonic wave is widely used in clinical practice, not much is known about the biological effects of ultrasound on cells and tissues. This study aims to evaluate the biological response of ultrasound in primary cultures of chick myogenic cells. To ensure the metrological reliability of whole measurement process, the ultrasound equipment was calibrated in accordance with IEC 61689:2007. The skeletal muscle cells were divided in four samples. One sample was used as a control group and the others were submitted to different time and intensity and operation mode of ultrasound: 1) 0.5 W/cm 2 continuous for 5 minutes, 2) 0.5 W/cm 2 pulsed for 5 minutes, 3) 1.0 W/cm 2 pulsed for 10 minutes. The samples were analyzed with phase contrast optical microscopy before and after the treatment. The results showed alignment of myogenic cells in the sample treated with 0.5 W/cm 2 continuous during 5 minutes when compared with the control group and the other samples. This study is a first step towards a metrological and scientific based protocol to cells and tissues treatment under different ultrasound field exposures.

  2. Pulsed radiofrequency on radial nerve under ultrasound guidance for treatment of intractable lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dae Seok; Kang, Tae Hyung; Kim, Hyae Jin

    2016-06-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a painful and functionally limiting disorder. Although lateral elbow pain is generally self-limiting, in a minority of people symptoms persist for a long time. When various conservative treatments fail, surgical approach is recommended. Surgical denervation of several nerves that innervate the lateral humeral epicondyle could be considered in patients with refractory pain because it denervates the region of pain. Pulsed radiofrequency is a minimally invasive procedure that improves chronic pain when applied to various neural tissues without causing any significant destruction and painful complication. This procedure is safe, minimally invasive, and has less risk of complications relatively compared to the surgical approach. The radial nerve can be identified as a target for pulsed radiofrequency lesioning in lateral epicondylitis. This innovative method of pulsed radiofrequency applied to the radial nerve has not been reported before. We reported on two patients with intractable lateral epicondylitis suffering from elbow pain who did not respond to nonoperative treatments, but in whom the ultrasound-guided pulsed radiofrequency neuromodulation of the radial nerve induced symptom improvement. After a successful diagnostic nerve block, radiofrequency probe adjustment around the radial nerve was performed on the lateral aspect of the distal upper arm under ultrasound guidance and multiple pulsed treatments were applied. A significant reduction in pain was reported over the follow-up period of 12 weeks.

  3. Preliminary assessment of one-dimensional MR elastography for use in monitoring focused ultrasound therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Le; Glaser, Kevin J; Rouviere, Olivier; Gorny, Krzysztof R; Chen, Shigao; Manduca, Armando; Ehman, Richard L; Felmlee, Joel P

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to assess a fast technique that measures tissue stiffness and temperature during focused ultrasound thermal therapy (FUS). A one-dimensional (1D) MR elastography (MRE) pulse sequence was evaluated for the purpose of obtaining rapid measurements of thermally induced changes in tissue stiffness and temperature for monitoring FUS treatments. The accuracy of the 1D measurement was studied by comparing tissue displacements measured by 1D MRE with those measured by the well-established 2D MRE pulse sequence. The reproducibility of the 1D MRE measurement was assessed, in gel phantoms and ex vivo porcine tissue, for varied FUS intensity levels (31.5-199.9 W cm -2 ) and over a range of displacements at the focus (0.1-1 μm). Temperature elevations in agarose gel phantoms were measured using 1D MRE and calibrated using fiberoptic-thermometer-based measurements. The 1D MRE displacement measurements are highly correlated with those obtained with the 2D technique (R 2 = 0.88-0.93), indicating that 1D MRE can successfully measure tissue displacement. Ten repeated trials at each FUS power level yielded a minimum detectable displacement change of 0.2 μm in phantoms and 0.4 μm in tissue (at 95% confidence level). The 1D MRE temperature measurements correlated well with temperature changes measured simultaneously with fiberoptic thermometers (R 2 = 0.97). The 1D MRE technique is capable of detecting tissue displacements as low as 0.4 μm, which is an order of magnitude smaller than 5 μm displacements expected during FUS therapy (Le et al 2005 AIP Conf. Proc.: Ther. Ultrasound 829 186-90). Additionally, 1D MRE was shown to provide adequate measurements of temperature elevations in tissue. These findings indicate that 1D MRE may be an effective tool for monitoring FUS treatments

  4. High amplitude ultrasound pulse generation using time-reversal through a multiple scattering medium

    OpenAIRE

    ARNAL , Bastien; Pernot , Mathieu; Fink , Mathias; Tanter , Mickaël

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In histotripsy, soft tissues can be fragmented using very high pressure ultrasound pulses. Using time-reversal cavity is a way to generate high pressure pulses with a limited number of acoustic sources. The principle was already demonstrated by Montaldo et al. using a solid metal cavity, but low transmission coefficient was obtained due to the strong impedance mismatch at the metal/water interface. We propose here to use a waveguide filled with water containing a 2D mu...

  5. Removal of residual nuclei following a cavitation event using low-amplitude ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duryea, Alexander P; Cain, Charles A; Tamaddoni, Hedieh A; Roberts, William W; Hall, Timothy L

    2014-10-01

    Microscopic residual bubble nuclei can persist on the order of 1 s following a cavitation event. These bubbles can limit the efficacy of ultrasound therapies such as shock wave lithotripsy and histotripsy, because they attenuate pulses that arrive subsequent to their formation and seed repetitive cavitation activity at a discrete set of sites (cavitation memory). Here, we explore a strategy for the removal of these residual bubbles following a cavitation event, using low-amplitude ultrasound pulses to stimulate bubble coalescence. All experiments were conducted in degassed water and monitored using high-speed photography. In each case, a 2-MHz histotripsy transducer was used to initiate cavitation activity (a cavitational bubble cloud), the collapse of which generated a population of residual bubble nuclei. This residual nuclei population was then sonicated using a 1 ms pulse from a separate 500-kHz transducer, which we term the bubble removal pulse. Bubble removal pulse amplitudes ranging from 0 to 1.7 MPa were tested, and the backlit area of shadow from bubbles remaining in the field following bubble removal was calculated to quantify efficacy. It was found that an ideal amplitude range exists (roughly 180 to 570 kPa) in which bubble removal pulses stimulate the aggregation and subsequent coalescence of residual bubble nuclei, effectively removing them from the field. Further optimization of bubble removal pulse sequences stands to provide an adjunct to cavitation-based ultrasound therapies such as shock wave lithotripsy and histotripsy, mitigating the effects of residual bubble nuclei that currently limit their efficacy.

  6. MATLAB/Simulink Pulse-Echo Ultrasound System Simulator Based on Experimentally Validated Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehoon; Shin, Sangmin; Lee, Hyongmin; Lee, Hyunsook; Kim, Heewon; Shin, Eunhee; Kim, Suhwan

    2016-02-01

    A flexible clinical ultrasound system must operate with different transducers, which have characteristic impulse responses and widely varying impedances. The impulse response determines the shape of the high-voltage pulse that is transmitted and the specifications of the front-end electronics that receive the echo; the impedance determines the specification of the matching network through which the transducer is connected. System-level optimization of these subsystems requires accurate modeling of pulse-echo (two-way) response, which in turn demands a unified simulation of the ultrasonics and electronics. In this paper, this is realized by combining MATLAB/Simulink models of the high-voltage transmitter, the transmission interface, the acoustic subsystem which includes wave propagation and reflection, the receiving interface, and the front-end receiver. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our simulator, the models are experimentally validated by comparing the simulation results with the measured data from a commercial ultrasound system. This simulator could be used to quickly provide system-level feedback for an optimized tuning of electronic design parameters.

  7. Predicting the growth of nanoscale nuclei by histotripsy pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bader, Kenneth B; Holland, Christy K

    2016-01-01

    Histotripsy is a focused ultrasound therapy that ablates tissue through the mechanical action of cavitation. Histotripsy-initiated cavitation activity is generated from shocked ultrasound pulses that scatter from incidental nuclei (shock scattering histotripsy), or purely tensile ultrasound pulses (microtripsy). The Yang/Church model was numerically integrated to predict the behavior of the cavitation nuclei exposed to measured shock scattering histotripsy pulses. The bubble motion exhibited expansion only behavior, suggesting that the ablative action of a histotripsy pulse is related to the maximum size of the bubble. The analytic model of Holland and Apfel was extended to predict the maximum size of cavitation nuclei for both shock scattering histotripsy and microtripsy excitations. The predictions of the analytic model and the numerical model agree within 2% for fully developed shock scattering histotripsy pulses (>72 MPa peak positive pressure). For shock scattering histotripsy pulses that are not fully developed (<72 MPa), the analytic model underestimated the maximum size by less than 5%. The analytic model was also used to predict bubble growth nucleated from microtripsy insonations, and was found to be consistent with experimental observations. Based on the extended analytic model, metrics were developed to predict the extent of the treatment zone from histotripsy pulses. (paper)

  8. Effectiveness of using ultrasound therapy and manual therapy in the conservative treatment of calcaneal spur – pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twarowska Natalia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calcaneal spur is a pathology of the fibrocartilage enthesis of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia or a pathology of the mixed enthesis of the flexor digitorum brevis muscle. Ultrasound therapy is commonly applied in the conservative treatment of a calcaneal spur. Foot muscle strengthening exercises, stretching exercises and soft tissue therapy are indicated as effective methods of conservative treatment. The aim of the study was to compare and assess the effects of ultrasound therapy and selected techniques of manual therapy on pain level and functional state in patients with calcaneal spur.

  9. Pulsed magnetic field versus ultrasound in the treatment of postnatal carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized controlled trial in the women of an Egyptian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia M. Kamel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of pulsed electromagnetic field versus pulsed ultrasound in treating patients with postnatal carpal tunnel syndrome. The study was a randomized, double-blinded trial. Forty postnatal female patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome were divided randomly into two equal groups. One group received pulsed electromagnetic field, with nerve and tendon gliding exercises for the wrist, three times per week for four weeks. The other group received pulsed ultrasound and the same wrist exercises. Pain level, sensory and motor distal latencies and conduction velocities of the median nerve, functional status scale and hand grip strength were assessed pre- and post-treatment. There was a significant decrease (P  0.05. In conclusion, while the symptoms were alleviated in both groups, pulsed electromagnetic field was more effective than pulsed ultrasound in treating postnatal carpal tunnel syndrome.

  10. Effect of pulsed ultrasound in combination with gentamicin on bacterial viability in biofilms on bone cements in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, GT; Roeder, BL; Nelson, JL; van Horn, [No Value; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Pitt, WG

    2005-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate whether pulsed ultrasound (US) in combination with gentamicin yields a decreased viability of bacteria in biofilms on bone cements in vivo. Methods and Results: Bacterial survival on bone cement in the presence and absence of ultrasound was compared in a

  11. Effect of pulsed ultrasound in combination with gentamicin on bacterial killing of biofilms on bone cements in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensing, G.T.; Roeder, B.L.; Nelson, J.L.; van Horn, J.R.; van der Mei, H.C.; Busscher, H.J.; Pitt, W.G.

    2008-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to investigate whether pulsed ultrasound in combination with gentamicin yields increased killing of bacterial biofilms on bone cements in vivo. Methods and Results Bacterial survival on bone cement in the presence and absence of ultrasound was compared in a rabbit model. Two bone cement samples with E. coli ATCC 10798 biofilm were implanted in a total of nine rabbits. In two groups bone cement disks loaded with gentamicin were used, and in one group unloaded bone cement disks in combination with systemically administered gentamicin were used. Pulsed ultrasound with a mean acoustic intensity of 167 mW cm−2 and a maximum acoustic intensity of 500 mW cm−2 was applied from 24 h till 72 h post surgery on one of the two implanted disks. After euthanization, the bacteria removed from the disk were quantified. Application of ultrasound, combined with gentamicin, reduced the biofilm in all three groups varying between 58 to 69% compared to the negative control. Ultrasound proved to be safe with respect to creating skin lesions. Conclusions Ultrasound resulted in an tendency of improved efficacy of gentamicin, either applied locally or systemically. Significance and impact of Study This study implies that ultrasound could improve the prevention of infection, especially because the biomaterials, gentamicin and ultrasound used in this model are all in clinical usage, but not yet combined in clinical practice. PMID:16108785

  12. The effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on tendon-bone healing in a transosseous-equivalent sheep rotator cuff model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovric, Vedran; Ledger, Michael; Goldberg, Jerome; Harper, Wade; Bertollo, Nicky; Pelletier, Matthew H; Oliver, Rema A; Yu, Yan; Walsh, William R

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound has on initial tendon-bone healing in a clinically relevant extra-articular transosseous-equivalent ovine rotator cuff model. Eight skeletally mature wethers, randomly allocated to either control group (n = 4) or treatment group (n = 4), underwent rotator cuff surgery following injury to the infraspinatus tendon. All animals were killed 28 days post surgery to allow examination of early effects of Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound treatment. General improvement in histological appearance of tendon-bone integration was noted in the treatment group. Newly formed woven bone with increased osteoblast activity along the bone surface was evident. A continuum was observed between the tendon and bone in an interdigitated fashion with Sharpey's fibres noted in the treatment group. Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound treatment also increased bone mineral density at the tendon-bone interface (p < 0.01), while immunohistochemistry results revealed an increase in the protein expression patterns of VEGF (p = 0.038), RUNX2 (p = 0.02) and Smad4 (p = 0.05). The results of this study indicate that Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound may aid in the initial phase of tendon-bone healing process in patients who have undergone rotator cuff repair. This treatment may also be beneficial following other types of reconstructive surgeries involving the tendon-bone interface.

  13. Ultrasound-mediated microbubble enhancement of radiation therapy studied using three-dimensional high-frequency power Doppler ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sheldon J J; El Kaffas, Ahmed; Lai, Priscilla; Al Mahrouki, Azza; Lee, Justin; Iradji, Sara; Tran, William Tyler; Giles, Anoja; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2013-11-01

    Tumor responses to high-dose (>8 Gy) radiation therapy are tightly connected to endothelial cell death. In the study described here, we investigated whether ultrasound-activated microbubbles can locally enhance tumor response to radiation treatments of 2 and 8 Gy by mechanically perturbing the endothelial lining of tumors. We evaluated vascular changes resulting from combined microbubble and radiation treatments using high-frequency 3-D power Doppler ultrasound in a breast cancer xenograft model. We compared treatment effects and monitored vasculature damage 3 hours, 24 hours and 7 days after treatment delivery. Mice treated with 2 Gy radiation and ultrasound-activated microbubbles exhibited a decrease in vascular index to 48 ± 10% at 24 hours, whereas vascular indices of mice treated with 2 Gy radiation alone or microbubbles alone were relatively unchanged at 95 ± 14% and 78 ± 14%, respectively. These results suggest that ultrasound-activated microbubbles enhance the effects of 2 Gy radiation through a synergistic mechanism, resulting in alterations of tumor blood flow. This novel therapy may potentiate lower radiation doses to preferentially target endothelial cells, thus reducing effects on neighboring normal tissue and increasing the efficacy of cancer treatments. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system for the ex vivo measurement of mechanical properties of crystalline lenses with laser-induced microbubbles interrogated by acoustic radiation force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sangpil; Emelianov, Stanislav; Aglyamov, Salavat; Karpiouk, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    A high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system for an ex vivo measurement of mechanical properties of an animal crystalline lens was developed and validated. We measured the bulk displacement of laser-induced microbubbles created at different positions within the lens using nanosecond laser pulses. An impulsive acoustic radiation force was applied to the microbubble, and spatio-temporal measurements of the microbubble displacement were assessed using a custom-made high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system consisting of two 25 MHz focused ultrasound transducers. One of these transducers was used to emit a train of ultrasound pulses and another transducer was used to receive the ultrasound echoes reflected from the microbubble. The developed system was operating at 1 MHz pulse repetition frequency. Based on the measured motion of the microbubble, Young’s moduli of surrounding tissue were reconstructed and the values were compared with those measured using the indentation test. Measured values of Young’s moduli of four bovine lenses ranged from 2.6 ± 0.1 to 26 ± 1.4 kPa, and there was good agreement between the two methods. Therefore, our studies, utilizing the high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system, suggest that the developed approach can be used to assess the mechanical properties of ex vivo crystalline lenses. Furthermore, the potential of the presented approach for in vivo measurements is discussed. (paper)

  15. Low-pressure pulsed focused ultrasound with microbubbles promotes an anticancer immunological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao-Li; Hsieh, Han-Yi; Lu, Li-An; Kang, Chiao-Wen; Wu, Ming-Fang; Lin, Chun-Yen

    2012-11-11

    High-intensity focused-ultrasound (HIFU) has been successfully employed for thermal ablation of tumors in clinical settings. Continuous- or pulsed-mode HIFU may also induce a host antitumor immune response, mainly through expansion of antigen-presenting cells in response to increased cellular debris and through increased macrophage activation/infiltration. Here we demonstrated that another form of focused ultrasound delivery, using low-pressure, pulsed-mode exposure in the presence of microbubbles (MBs), may also trigger an antitumor immunological response and inhibit tumor growth. A total of 280 tumor-bearing animals were subjected to sonographically-guided FUS. Implanted tumors were exposed to low-pressure FUS (0.6 to 1.4 MPa) with MBs to increase the permeability of tumor microvasculature. Tumor progression was suppressed by both 0.6 and 1.4-MPa MB-enhanced FUS exposures. We observed a transient increase in infiltration of non-T regulatory (non-Treg) tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and continual infiltration of CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). The ratio of CD8+/Treg increased significantly and tumor growth was inhibited. Our findings suggest that low-pressure FUS exposure with MBs may constitute a useful tool for triggering an anticancer immune response, for potential cancer immunotherapy.

  16. Effect of pulsed ultrasound in combination with gentamicin on bacterial viability in biofilms on bone cements in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensing, G T; Roeder, B L; Nelson, J L; van Horn, J R; van der Mei, H C; Busscher, H J; Pitt, W G

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether pulsed ultrasound (US) in combination with gentamicin yields a decreased viability of bacteria in biofilms on bone cements in vivo. Bacterial survival on bone cement in the presence and absence of ultrasound was compared in a rabbit model. Two bone cement samples with an Escherichia coli ATCC 10798 biofilm were implanted in a total of nine rabbits. In two groups bone cement discs loaded with gentamicin, freshly prepared and aged were used, and in one group unloaded bone cement discs in combination with systemically administered gentamicin. Pulsed ultrasound with a frequency of 28.48 kHz and a maximum acoustic intensity of 500 mW cm(-2) was applied continuously from 24 h till 72 h postsurgery on one of the two implanted discs. After euthanization and removal of the bacteria from the discs, the number of viable bacteria were quantified and skin samples were analysed for histopathological examination. Application of ultrasound, combined with gentamicin, reduced the viability of the biofilms in all three groups varying between 58 and 69% compared with the negative control. Histopathological examinations showed no skin lesions. Ultrasound resulted in a tendency of improved efficacy of gentamicin, either applied locally or systemically. Usage of ultrasound in this model proved to be safe. This study implies that ultrasound could improve the prevention of infection immediately after surgery, especially because the biomaterials, gentamicin and ultrasound used in this model are all in clinical usage, but not yet combined in clinical practice.

  17. Cavitation enhances coagulated size during pulsed high-intensity focussed ultrasound ablation in an isolated liver perfusion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu-Yan; Liu, Shan; Chen, Zong-Gui; Zou, Jian-Zhong; Wu, Feng

    2016-11-24

    To investigate whether cavitation enhances the degree of coagulation during pulsed high-intensity focussed ultrasound (HIFU) in an isolated liver perfusion system. Isolated liver was treated by pulsed HIFU or continuous-wave HIFU with different portal vein flow rates. The cavitation emission during exposure was recorded, and real-time ultrasound images were used to observe changes in the grey scale. The coagulation size was measured and calculated. HIFU treatment led to complete coagulation necrosis and total cell destruction in the target regions. Compared to exposure at a duty cycle (DC) of 100%, the mean volumes of lesions induced by 6 s exposure at DCs of 50% and 10% were significantly larger (P cavitation activity for the pulsed-HIFU (P > .05). For continuous-wave HIFU exposure, there was a significant decrease in the necrosis volume and cavitation activity for exposure times of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 s with increasing portal perfusion rates. Perfusion flow rates negatively influence cavitation activity and coagulation volume. Ablation is significantly enhanced during pulsed HIFU exposure compared with continuous-wave HIFU.

  18. Segmentation of tumor ultrasound image in HIFU therapy based on texture and boundary encoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dong; Xu, Menglong; Quan, Long; Yang, Yan; Qin, Qianqing; Zhu, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    It is crucial in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy to detect the tumor precisely with less manual intervention for enhancing the therapy efficiency. Ultrasound image segmentation becomes a difficult task due to signal attenuation, speckle effect and shadows. This paper presents an unsupervised approach based on texture and boundary encoding customized for ultrasound image segmentation in HIFU therapy. The approach oversegments the ultrasound image into some small regions, which are merged by using the principle of minimum description length (MDL) afterwards. Small regions belonging to the same tumor are clustered as they preserve similar texture features. The mergence is completed by obtaining the shortest coding length from encoding textures and boundaries of these regions in the clustering process. The tumor region is finally selected from merged regions by a proposed algorithm without manual interaction. The performance of the method is tested on 50 uterine fibroid ultrasound images from HIFU guiding transducers. The segmentations are compared with manual delineations to verify its feasibility. The quantitative evaluation with HIFU images shows that the mean true positive of the approach is 93.53%, the mean false positive is 4.06%, the mean similarity is 89.92%, the mean norm Hausdorff distance is 3.62% and the mean norm maximum average distance is 0.57%. The experiments validate that the proposed method can achieve favorable segmentation without manual initialization and effectively handle the poor quality of the ultrasound guidance image in HIFU therapy, which indicates that the approach is applicable in HIFU therapy. (paper)

  19. Image-guided ultrasound phased arrays are a disruptive technology for non-invasive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynynen, Kullervo; Jones, Ryan M

    2016-09-07

    Focused ultrasound offers a non-invasive way of depositing acoustic energy deep into the body, which can be harnessed for a broad spectrum of therapeutic purposes, including tissue ablation, the targeting of therapeutic agents, and stem cell delivery. Phased array transducers enable electronic control over the beam geometry and direction, and can be tailored to provide optimal energy deposition patterns for a given therapeutic application. Their use in combination with modern medical imaging for therapy guidance allows precise targeting, online monitoring, and post-treatment evaluation of the ultrasound-mediated bioeffects. In the past there have been some technical obstacles hindering the construction of large aperture, high-power, densely-populated phased arrays and, as a result, they have not been fully exploited for therapy delivery to date. However, recent research has made the construction of such arrays feasible, and it is expected that their continued development will both greatly improve the safety and efficacy of existing ultrasound therapies as well as enable treatments that are not currently possible with existing technology. This review will summarize the basic principles, current statures, and future potential of image-guided ultrasound phased arrays for therapy.

  20. Pulsed cavitational therapy using high-frequency ultrasound for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis in an in vitro model of human blood clot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudot, G.; Mirault, T.; Arnal, B.; Boisson-Vidal, C.; Le Bonniec, B.; Gaussem, P.; Galloula, A.; Tanter, M.; Messas, E.; Pernot, M.

    2017-12-01

    Post-thrombotic syndrome, a frequent complication of deep venous thrombosis, can be reduced with early vein recanalization. Pulsed cavitational therapy (PCT) using ultrasound is a recent non-invasive approach. We propose to test the efficacy and safety of high-frequency focused PCT for drug-free thrombolysis (thrombotripsy) in a realistic in vitro model of venous thrombosis. To reproduce venous thrombosis conditions, human whole blood was allowed to clot by stasis in silicone tubes (6 mm internal diameter) at a 30 cm H2O pressure, maintained during the whole experiment. We engineered an ultrasound device composed of dual 2.25 MHz transducers centered around a 6 MHz imaging probe. A therapeutic focus was generated at a 3.2 cm depth from the probe. Thrombotripsy was performed by longitudinally scanning the thrombus at three different speeds: 1 mm s-1 (n  =  6) 2 mm s-1 (n  =  6) 3 mm s-1 (n  =  12). Restored outflow was measured every three passages. Filters were placed to evaluate the debris size. Twenty-four occlusive thrombi, of 2.5 cm mean length and 4.4 kPa mean stiffness, were studied. Flow restoration was systematically obtained by nine subsequent passages (4.5 min maximum). By varying the device’s speed, we found an optimal speed of 1 mm s-1 to be efficient for effective recanalization with 90 s (three passages). Within 90 s, flow restoration was of 80, 62 and 74% at respectively 1, 2 and 3 mm s-1. For all groups, cavitation cloud drilled a 1.7 mm mean diameter channel throughout the clot. Debris analysis showed 92% of debris    200 µm.

  1. Interstitial Matrix Prevents Therapeutic Ultrasound From Causing Inertial Cavitation in Tumescent Subcutaneous Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulakis, John P; Rouch, Joshua; Huynh, Nhan; Dubrovsky, Genia; Dunn, James C Y; Putterman, Seth

    2018-01-01

    We search for cavitation in tumescent subcutaneous tissue of a live pig under application of pulsed, 1-MHz ultrasound at 8 W cm -2 spatial peak and pulse-averaged intensity. We find no evidence of broadband acoustic emission indicative of inertial cavitation. These acoustic parameters are representative of those used in external-ultrasound-assisted lipoplasty and in physical therapy and our null result brings into question the role of cavitation in those applications. A comparison of broadband acoustic emission from a suspension of ultrasound contrast agent in bulk water with a suspension injected subcutaneously indicates that the interstitial matrix suppresses cavitation and provides an additional mechanism behind the apparent lack of in-vivo cavitation to supplement the absence of nuclei explanation offered in the literature. We also find a short-lived cavitation signal in normal, non-tumesced tissue that disappears after the first pulse, consistent with cavitation nuclei depletion in vivo. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolution of contrast agents for ultrasound imaging and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera ePaefgen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound is one of the most frequently used diagnostic methods. It is a non-invasive, comparably inexpensive imaging method with a broad spectrum of applications, which can be increased even more by using bubbles as contrast agents. There are various different types of bubbles: filled with different gases, composed of soft- or hard-shell materials, and ranging in size from nano- to micrometers. These intravascular contrast agents enable functional analyses, e.g. to acquire organ perfusion in real-time. Molecular analyses are achieved by coupling specific ligands to the bubbles’ shell, which bind to marker molecules in the area of interest. Bubbles can also be loaded with or attached to drugs, peptides or genes and can be destroyed by ultrasound pulses to locally release the entrapped agent. Recent studies show that ultrasound contrast agents are also valuable tools in hyperthermia-induced ablation therapy of tumors, or can increase cellular uptake of locally released drugs by enhancing membrane permeability. This review summarizes important steps in the development of ultrasound contrast agents and introduces the current clinical applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Additionally, an overview of the recent developments in ultrasound probe design for functional and molecular diagnosis as well as for drug delivery is given.

  3. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ... Abdomen Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding ... Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored by Please ...

  4. MRI-controlled interstitial ultrasound brain therapy: An initial in-vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Djin, W. Apoutou; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Lipsman, Nir; Bronskill, Michael; Schwartz, Michael; Kucharczyk, Walter; Chopra, Rajiv

    2012-11-01

    The recent emergence at the clinical level of minimally-invasive focal therapy such as laser-induced thermal therapy (LITT) has demonstrated promise in the management of brain metastasis [1], although control over the spatial pattern of heating is limited. Delivery of HIFU from minimally-invasive applicators enables high spatial control of the heat deposition in biological tissues, large treatment volumes and high treatment rate in well chosen conditions [2,3]. In this study, the feasibility of MRI-guided interstitial ultrasound therapy in brain was studies in-vivo in a porcine model. A prototype system originally developed for transurethral ultrasound therapy [4,5,6] was used in this study. Two burr holes of 12 mm in diameter were created in the animal's skull to allow the insertion of the therapeutic ultrasound applicator (probe) into the brain at two locations (right and left frontal lobe). A 4-element linear ultrasound transducer (f = 8 MHz) was mounted at the tip of a 25-cm linear probe (6 mm in diameter). The target boundary was traced to cover in 2D a surface compatible with the treatment of a 2 cm brain tumor. Acoustic power of each element and rotation rate of the device were adjusted in real-time based on MR-thermometry feedback control to optimize heat deposition at the target boundary [2,4,5]. Two MRT-controlled ultrasound brain treatments per animal have been performed using a maximal surface acoustic power of 10W.cm-2. In all cases, it was possible to increase accurately the temperature of the brain tissues in the targeted region over the 55°C threshold necessary for the creation of irreversible thermal lesion. Tissue changes were visible on T1w contrast-enhanced images immediately after treatment. These changes were also evident on T2w FSE images taken 2 hours after the 1st treatment and correlated well with the temperature image. On average, the targeted volume was 4.7 ± 2.3 cm3 and the 55°C treated volume was 6.7 ± 4.4 cm3. The volumetric

  5. Combining multi-pulse excitation and chirp coding in contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocco, M; Sciallero, C; Trucco, A; Pellegretti, P

    2009-01-01

    The development of techniques to separate the response of the contrast agent from that of the biological tissues is of great importance in ultrasound medical imaging. In the literature, one can find various solutions involving the use of multiple transmitted signals and the weighted sum of related echoes. In this paper, the combination of one of these multi-pulse techniques with a coded excitation is proposed and assessed. Coded excitation has been used mainly to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the penetration depth, provided that a matched filtering is applied in the reception chain. However, it has been shown that a signal with a long duration time also increases the backscattered echoes produced by the microbubbles and, consequently, the contrast-to-tissue ratio. Therefore, the implementation of a multi-pulse technique using a long coded pulse can yield a better contrast-to-tissue ratio and SNR. This paper investigates the combination of the linear chirp pulse with a multi-pulse technique based on the transmission of three pulses. The performance was evaluated using both simulated and real signals, assessing the improvement in the contrast-to-tissue ratio and SNR, the visual quality of the images obtained and the axial accuracy. A comparison with the same multi-pulse technique implemented using a traditional amplitude-modulated pulse revealed that the deployment of a chirp pulse produces several noticeable advantages and only a minor drawback

  6. Pulsed radiofrequency of brachial plexus under ultrasound guidance for refractory stump pain: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng B

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bixin Zheng, Li Song, Hui Liu Department of Pain Management, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China Abstract: The post-amputation (pain syndrome, including stump pain, phantom limb sensation, and phantom limb pain is common but difficult to treat. Refractory stump pain in the syndrome is an extremely challenging and troublesome clinical condition. Patients respond poorly to drugs, nerve blocks, and other effective treatments like spinal cord stimulation and surgery. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF technique has been shown to be effective in reducing neuropathic pain. This report describes a patient with persistent and refractory upper limb stump pain being successfully relieved with PRF of brachial plexus under ultrasound guidance after a 6-month follow-up period, suggesting that PRF may be considered as an alternative treatment for refractory stump-neuroma pain. Keywords: ultrasound guidance, pulsed radiofrequency, brachial plexus, refractory stump pain 

  7. Monitoring of transient cavitation induced by ultrasound and intense pulsed light in presence of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Shanei, Ahmad; Shanei, Mohammad Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in medical treatment is invention of a minimally invasive approach in order to induce lethal damages to cancer cells. Application of high intensity focused ultrasound can be beneficial to achieve this goal via the cavitation process. Existence of the particles and vapor in a liquid decreases the ultrasonic intensity threshold required for cavitation onset. In this study, synergism of intense pulsed light (IPL) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) has been investigated as a means of providing nucleation sites for acoustic cavitation. Several approaches have been reported with the aim of cavitation monitoring. We conducted the experiments on the basis of sonochemiluminescence (SCL) and chemical dosimetric methods. The acoustic cavitation activity was investigated by determining the integrated SCL signal acquired over polyacrylamide gel phantoms containing luminol in the presence and absence of GNPs in the wavelength range of 400-500 nm using a spectrometer equipped with cooled charged coupled devices (CCD) during irradiation by different intensities of 1 MHz ultrasound and IPL pulses. In order to confirm these results, the terephthalic acid chemical dosimeter was utilized as well. The SCL signal recorded in the gel phantoms containing GNPs at different intensities of ultrasound in the presence of intense pulsed light was higher than the gel phantoms without GNPs. These results have been confirmed by the obtained data from the chemical dosimetry method. Acoustic cavitation in the presence of GNPs and intense pulsed light has been suggested as a new approach designed for decreasing threshold intensity of acoustic cavitation and improving targeted therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Design evolution enhances patient compliance for low-intensity pulsed ultrasound device usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pounder NM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Neill M Pounder, John T Jones, Kevin J Tanis Bioventus LLC, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Poor patient compliance or nonadherence with prescribed treatments can have a significant unfavorable impact on medical costs and clinical outcomes. In the current study, voice-of-the-customer research was conducted to aid in the development of a next-generation low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS bone healing product. An opportunity to improve patient compliance reporting was identified, resulting in the incorporation into the next-generation device of a visual calendar that provides direct feedback to the patient, indicating days for which they successfully completed treatment. Further ­investigation was done on whether inclusion of the visual calendar improved patient adherence to the prescribed therapy (20 minutes of daily treatment over a 6-month period. Thus, 12,984 data files were analyzed from patients prescribed either the earlier- or the next-generation LIPUS device. Over the 6-month period, overall patient compliance was 83.8% with the next-generation LIPUS device, compared with 74.2% for the previous version (p<0.0001. Incorporation of the calendar feature resulted in compliance never decreasing below 76% over the analysis period, whereas compliance with the earlier-generation product fell to 51%. A literature review on the LIPUS device shows a correlation between clinical effectiveness and compliance rates more than 70%. Incorporation of stakeholder feedback throughout the design and innovation process of a next-generation LIPUS device resulted in a measurable improvement in patient adherence, which may help to optimize clinical outcomes. Keywords: LIPUS, ultrasound, compliance, patient adherence, medical device design

  9. Pulse therapy in pemphigus: report of 11 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Nurimar Conceicao; Menezes, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    In this study, five cases of pemphigus vulgaris and two cases of pemphigus foliaceus were treated with cyclophosphamide pulse therapy associated with prednisone, resulting in the need for a smaller maintenance dose of prednisone. In three cases of pemphigus vulgaris and one case of pemphigus foliaceus, dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide pulse therapy associated with prednisone helped the lesions to heal more rapidly. Neither treatment however prevented the recurrence of the disease. Amenorrhe...

  10. Relationship between thrombolysis efficiency induced by pulsed focused ultrasound and cavitation bubble size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S; Liu, X; Wang, S; Wan, M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between the efficiency of pulsed focused ultrasound (FUS)-induced thrombolysis and the size distribution of cavitation bubbles has been studied. Firstly, the thrombolysis efficiency, evaluated by degree of mechanical fragmentation was investigated with varying duty cycle. Secondly, the size distribution of cavitation bubbles after the 1st, 10 3 th and 10 5 th pulse during experiments for various duty cycles was studied. It was revealed that the thrombolysis efficiency was highest when the cavitation bubble size distribution was centred around linear resonance radius of the emission frequency of the FUS transducer. Therefore, in cavitation enhanced therapeutic applications, the essential of using a pulsed FUS may be controlling the size distribution of cavitation nuclei within an active size range so as to increase the treatment efficiency. (paper)

  11. High-intensity focused ultrasound for ex vivo kidney tissue ablation: influence of generator power and pulse duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häcker, Axel; Köhrmann, Kai Uwe; Knoll, Thomas; Langbein, Sigrun; Steidler, Annette; Kraut, Oliver; Marlinghaus, Ernst; Alken, Peter; Michel, Maurice Stephan

    2004-11-01

    The therapeutic application of noninvasive tissue ablation by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) requires precise physical definition of the focal size and determination of control parameters. The objective of this study was to measure the extent of ex-vivo porcine kidney tissue ablation at variable generator parameters and to identify parameters to control lesion size. The ultrasound waves generated by a cylindrical piezoceramic element (1.04 MHz) were focused at a depth of 100 mm using a parabolic reflector (diameter 100 mm). A needle hydrophone was used to measure the field distribution of the sound pressure. The morphology and extent of tissue necrosis were examined at generator powers of up to 400 W (P(el)) and single pulse durations of as long as 8 seconds. The two-dimensional field distribution resulted in an approximately ellipsoidal focus of 32 x 4 mm (-6 dB). A sharp demarcation between coagulation necrosis and intact tissue was observed. Lesion size was controlled by both the variation of generator power and the pulse duration. At a constant pulse duration of 2 seconds, a generator power of 100 W remained below the threshold doses for inducing a reproducible lesion. An increase in power to as high as 400 W induced lesions with average dimensions of as much as 11.2 x 3 mm. At constant total energy (generator power x pulse duration), lesion size increased at higher generator power. This ultrasound generator can induce defined and reproducible necrosis in ex-vivo kidney tissue. Lesion size can be controlled by adjusting the generator power and pulse duration. Generator power, in particular, turned out to be a suitable control parameter for obtaining a lesion of a defined size.

  12. Determination of free cisplatin in medium by differential pulse polarography after ultrasound and cisplatin treatment of a cancer cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Vladan; Skorpikova, Jirina; Mornstein, Vojtech; Fojt, Lukas

    2011-01-01

    The in vitro study was carried out for detection of the cisplatin in free form and in culture medium, depending on various conditions of sonodynamic human ovarian cancer cells A2780 treatment by differential pulse polarography (DPP). For sonodynamic treatment, we used cisplatin alone and combined cisplatin/ultrasound treatments. The ultrasound exposure intensity of 1.0 and 2.0 Wcm 2 in far field for incubation periods 1, 24 and 48 h was used. The parameters of DPP measurements were - 1 s drop time, 5 mV.s -1 voltage scan rate, 50 mV modulation amplitude and negative scanning direction; platinum wire served as counter electrode and Ag|AgCl|3 M KCI as reference electrode. The results showed the dependence of free platinum quantities in culture medium on incubation time and treatment protocol. We found difference in concentration of free cisplatin between conventional application of cisplatin and sonodynamic treatment. The sonodynamic combined treatment of cisplatin and ultrasound field showed a higher cisplatin content in the culture medium than cisplatin treatment alone; a difference of 20% was observed for incubation time 48 h. The results also showed the influence of a time sequence of ultrasound and cytostatics in the sonodynamic treatment. The highest amount of free cisplatin in the solution was found for primary application of cisplatin and the subsequent ultrasound exposure. The quantity of free cisplatin increased with time, namely for time intervals 1-24 h. There was no difference between the DPP signal of cisplatin in reaction mixture containing cells in small quantities and micro-filtered mixture without cells. Thus, the DPP method is suitable for the detection and quantification of free cisplatin in the culture medium of cell suspension. Ultrasound field can be important factor during cytostatic therapy. (author)

  13. Potential mechanism in sonodynamic therapy and focused ultrasound induced apoptosis in sarcoma 180 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Liu, Quanhong; Wang, Xiaobing; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Jing; Cao, Bing

    2009-12-01

    Sonodynamic therapy employs a combination of ultrasound and a sonosensitizer to enhance the cytotoxic effect of ultrasound and promote apoptosis. However, the mechanism underlying the synergistic effect of ultrasound and hematoporphyrin is still unclear. In this study, we investigated mechanism of the induction of apoptosis by sonodynamic therapy in Sarcoma 180 cells. The cell suspension was treated by 1.75-MHz focused continuous ultrasound at an acoustic power (I(SATA)) of 1.4+/-0.07 W/cm(2) for 3 min in the absence or presence of 20 microg/ml hematoporphyrin. The proportion of apoptotic cells was determined by flow cytometry. We then analyzed the reactive oxygen species generation and localization by confocal microscopy. Western blotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction were used to analyze the expression of caspase-8, caspase-9, poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase, and nuclear factor-kappaB. The findings of our study indicate that ultrasound treatment induced the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB as an early stress response. When cells were pretreated with hematoporphyrin, the initial response to the therapy was the formation of (1)O(2) in the mitochondria. Our results primarily demonstrate that the mechanisms of induction of apoptosis by ultrasound and hematoporphyrin-sonodynamic therapies are very different. Our findings can provide a basis for explaining the synergistic effect of ultrasound and hematoporphyrin.

  14. Analysis of ultrasound propagation in high-temperature nuclear reactor feedwater to investigate a clamp-on ultrasonic pulse doppler flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Kenichi; Mori, Michitsugu; Wada, Sanehiro; Aritomi, Masanori; Kikura, Hiroshige; Sakai, Yukihiro

    2008-01-01

    The flow rate of nuclear reactor feedwater is an important factor in the operation of a nuclear power reactor. Venturi nozzles are widely used to measure the flow rate. Other types of flowmeters have been proposed to improve measurement accuracy and permit the flow rate and reactor power to be increased. The ultrasonic pulse Doppler system is expected to be a candidate method because it can measure the flow profile across the pipe cross section, which changes with time. For accurate estimation of the flow velocity, the incidence angle of ultrasound entering the fluid should be estimated using Snell's law. However, evaluation of the ultrasound propagation is not straightforward, especially for a high-temperature pipe with a clamp-on ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. The ultrasound beam path may differ from what is expected from Snell's law due to the temperature gradient in the wedge and variation in the acoustic impedance between interfaces. Recently, simulation code for ultrasound propagation has come into use in the nuclear field for nondestructive testing. This article analyzes and discusses ultrasound propagation, using 3D-FEM simulation code plus the Kirchhoff method, as it relates to flow profile measurement in nuclear reactor feedwater with the ultrasonic pulse Doppler system. (author)

  15. Laser-Activated Polymeric Microcapsules for Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy: In Vitro Feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lajoinie, Guillaume; van Rooij, Tom; Skachkov, Ilya; Blazejewski, Emilie; Veldhuis, Gert; de Jong, Nico; Kooiman, Klazina; Versluis, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Polymeric microcapsules with a light-absorbing dye incorporated in their shell can generate vapor microbubbles that can be spatiotemporally controlled by pulsed laser irradiation. These contrast agents of 6–8 μm in diameter can circulate through the vasculature, offering possibilities for ultrasound

  16. MR-guided pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound enhancement of docetaxel combined with radiotherapy for prostate cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Zhaomei; Ma, C-M; Chen Xiaoming; Cvetkovic, Dusica; Chen Lili; Pollack, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the enhancement of docetaxel by pulsed focused ultrasound (pFUS) in combination with radiotherapy (RT) for treatment of prostate cancer in vivo. LNCaP cells were grown in the prostates of male nude mice. When the tumors reached a designated volume by MRI, tumor bearing mice were randomly divided into seven groups (n = 5): (1) pFUS alone; (2) RT alone; (3) docetaxel alone; (4) docetaxel + pFUS; (5) docetaxel + RT; (6) docetaxel + pFUS + RT, and (7) control. MR-guided pFUS treatment was performed using a focused ultrasound treatment system (InSightec ExAblate 2000) with a 1.5T GE MR scanner. Animals were treated once with pFUS, docetaxel, RT or their combinations. Docetaxel was given by i.v. injection at 5 mg kg −1 before pFUS. RT was given 2 Gy after pFUS. Animals were euthanized 4 weeks after treatment. Tumor volumes were measured on MRI at 1 and 4 weeks post-treatment. Results showed that triple combination therapies of docetaxel, pFUS and RT provided the most significant tumor growth inhibition among all groups, which may have potential for the treatment of prostate cancer due to an improved therapeutic ratio. (paper)

  17. MR-guided pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound enhancement of docetaxel combined with radiotherapy for prostate cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Zhaomei; Ma, C.-M.; Chen, Xiaoming; Cvetkovic, Dusica; Pollack, Alan; Chen, Lili

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the enhancement of docetaxel by pulsed focused ultrasound (pFUS) in combination with radiotherapy (RT) for treatment of prostate cancer in vivo. LNCaP cells were grown in the prostates of male nude mice. When the tumors reached a designated volume by MRI, tumor bearing mice were randomly divided into seven groups (n = 5): (1) pFUS alone; (2) RT alone; (3) docetaxel alone; (4) docetaxel + pFUS (5) docetaxel + RT (6) docetaxel + pFUS + RT, and (7) control. MR-guided pFUS treatment was performed using a focused ultrasound treatment system (InSightec ExAblate 2000) with a 1.5T GE MR scanner. Animals were treated once with pFUS, docetaxel, RT or their combinations. Docetaxel was given by i.v. injection at 5 mg kg-1 before pFUS. RT was given 2 Gy after pFUS. Animals were euthanized 4 weeks after treatment. Tumor volumes were measured on MRI at 1 and 4 weeks post-treatment. Results showed that triple combination therapies of docetaxel, pFUS and RT provided the most significant tumor growth inhibition among all groups, which may have potential for the treatment of prostate cancer due to an improved therapeutic ratio.

  18. Enhancement of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Heating by Short-Pulse Generated Cavitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Yoshizawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A target tissue can be thermally coagulated in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU treatment noninvasively. HIFU thermal treatments have been clinically applied to various solid tumors. One of the problems in HIFU treatments is a long treatment time. Acoustically driven microbubbles can accelerate the ultrasonic heating, resulting in the significant reduction of the treatment time. In this paper, a method named “trigger HIFU exposure” which employs cavitation microbubbles is introduced and its results are reviewed. A trigger HIFU sequence consists of high-intensity short pulses followed by moderate-intensity long bursts. Cavitation bubbles induced in a multiple focal regions by rapidly scanning the focus of high-intensity pulses enhanced the temperature increase significantly and produced a large coagulation region with high efficiency.

  19. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound: Fracture healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundi Raman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Annually, millions of people across the world are inflicted with bone fracture injuries. Untimely healing is a significant burden in terms of socioeconomic costs, personal costs, and patients′ quality of life. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS has gained much attention as a potential adjunctive therapy for accelerating fresh fracture healing, but its efficacy remains controversial. This paper is presented in two parts a literature review followed by a systematic review. The literature review highlights the physiology of fracture healing and the influence LIPUS exerts on cells and molecules involved in this healing process. In part two, we present a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs assessing the clinical effectiveness of LIPUS in accelerating the time to fracture healing. The electronic databases we searched for the systematic review are as follows: MEDLINE (from 1996 to November 2008, EMBASE (from 1996 to November 2008, and Healthstar (from 1966 to October 2008. A two-step screening process was used to assess the eligibility of studies yielded by our search. The first step was a review of titles and abstracts for the selection of studies that met the following criteria: (i inclusion of skeletally mature patients with a fresh fracture, (ii a minimum of two treatment arms with at least one arm receiving LIPUS treatment and another arm receiving placebo, (iii random allocation of patients to the different treatment arms, (iv radiological assessment of time to fracture healing, and (v publication in the English language. In the second step, selected articles were reviewed in full text. Eligible trials were all scored independently by two reviewers for methodological reporting quality using the 15-item CLEAR NPT checklist (Checklist to Evaluate the Report of a Nonpharmacological Trial. We identified a total of seventy seven studies, nine of which met our inclusion criteria after the initial screening. Of these nine

  20. Dynamic contrast enhanced ultrasound for therapy monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, John M. [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Williams, Ross [Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada); Tremblay-Darveau, Charles; Sheeran, Paul S. [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Milot, Laurent [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bjarnason, Georg A. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Toronto, and Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Burns, Peter N., E-mail: burns@sri.utoronto.ca [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Imaging Research, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Quantitative imaging is a crucial component of the assessment of therapies that target the vasculature of angiogenic or inflamed tissue. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) using microbubble contrast offers the advantages of being sensitive to perfusion, non-invasive, cost effective and well suited to repeated use at the bedside. Uniquely, it employs an agent that is truly intravascular. This papers reviews the principles and methodology of DCE-US, especially as applied to anti-angiogenic cancer therapies. Reproducibility is an important attribute of such a monitoring method: results are discussed. More recent technical advances in parametric and 3D DCE-US imaging are also summarised and illustrated.

  1. Imaging monitored loosening of dense fibrous tissues using high-intensity pulsed ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Chia-Lun; Li, Pai-Chi; Kuo, Po-Ling; Shih, Wen-Pin; Huang, Pei-Shin

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is proposed as a new alternative treatment for contracture of dense fibrous tissue. It is hypothesized that the pulsed-HIFU can release the contracted tissues by attenuating tensile stiffness along the fiber axis, and that the stiffness reduction can be quantitatively monitored by change of B-mode images. Fresh porcine tendons and ligaments were adapted to an ex vivo model and insonated with pulsed-HIFU for durations ranging from 5 to 30 min. The pulse length was 91 µs with a repetition frequency of 500 Hz, and the peak rarefactional pressure was 6.36 MPa. The corresponding average intensities were kept around 1606 W cm −2 for I SPPA and 72.3 W cm −2 for I SPTA . B-mode images of the tissues were acquired before and after pulsed-HIFU exposure, and the changes in speckle intensity and organization were analyzed. The tensile stiffness of the HIFU-exposed tissues along the longitudinal axis was examined using a stretching machine. Histology examinations were performed by optical and transmission electron microscopy. Pulsed-HIFU exposure significantly decreased the tensile stiffness of the ligaments and tendons. The intensity and organization of tissue speckles in the exposed region were also decreased. The speckle changes correlated well with the degree of stiffness alteration. Histology examinations revealed that pulsed-HIFU exposure probably damages tissues via a cavitation-mediated mechanism. Our results suggest that pulsed-HIFU with a low duty factor is a promising tool for developing new treatment strategies for orthopedic disorders. (paper)

  2. Ultrasound Pulsed-Wave Doppler Detects an Intrathecal Location of an Epidural Catheter Tip: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsharkawy, Hesham; Saasouh, Wael; Patel, Bimal; Babazade, Rovnat

    2018-04-01

    Currently, no gold standard method exists for localization of an epidural catheter after placement. The technique described in this report uses pulsed-wave Doppler (PWD) ultrasound to identify intrathecal location of an epidural catheter. A thoracic epidural catheter was inserted after multiple trials with inconclusive aspiration and test dose. Ultrasound PWD confirmed no flow in the epidural space and positive flow in the intrathecal space. A fluid aspirate was positive for glucose, reconfirming intrathecal placement. PWD is a potential tool that can be used to locate the tip of an epidural catheter.

  3. In vivo hyperthermia effect induced by high-intensity pulsed ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Wei-Cheng; Tu Juan; Li Qian; Fan Ting-Bo; Zhang Dong; Chen Wei-Zhong; Joo-Ha Hwang; Chen Jing-Hai

    2012-01-01

    Hyperthermia effects (39–44 °C) induced by pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) have been regarded as a promising therapeutic tool for boosting immune responses or enhancing drug delivery into a solid tumor. However, previous studies also reported that the cell death occurs when cells are maintained at 43 °C for more than 20 minutes. The aim of this study is to investigate thermal responses inside in vivo rabbit auricular veins exposed to pulsed HIFU (1.17 MHz, 5300 W/cm 2 , with relatively low-duty ratios (0.2%–4.3%). The results show that: (1) with constant pulse repetition frequency (PRF) (e.g., 1 Hz), the thermal responses inside the vessel will increase with the increasing duty ratio; (2) a temperature elevation to 43 °C can be identified at the duty ratio of 4.3%; (3) with constant duty ratios, the change of PRF will not significantly affect the temperature measurement in the vessel; (4) as the duty ratios lower than 4.3%, the presence of microbubbles will not significantly enhance the thermal responses in the vessel, but will facilitate HIFU-induced inertial cavitation events. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  4. Poststenotic flow disturbance in the dog aorta as measured with pulsed Doppler ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, N; Fulenwider, J T; Mabon, R F; Giddens, D P

    1986-08-01

    Blood flow velocity was measured in the dog aorta distal to mechanically induced constrictions of various degrees of severity employing an 8-MHz pulsed Doppler ultrasound velocimeter and a phase-lock loop frequency tracking method for extracting velocity from the Doppler quadrature signals. The data were analyzed to construct ensemble average velocity waveforms and random velocity disturbances. In any individual animal the effect of increasing the degree of stenosis beyond approximately 25 percent area reduction was to produce increasing levels of random velocity disturbance. However, variability among animals was such that the sensitivity of random behavior to the degree of stenosis was degraded to the point that it appears difficult to employ Doppler ultrasound measurements of random disturbances to discriminate among stenoses with area reductions less than approximately 75 percent. On the other hand, coherent vortex structures in velocity waveforms consistently occurred distal to mild constrictions (25-50 percent area reduction). Comparison of the phase-lock loop Doppler ultrasound data with simultaneous measurements using invasive hot-film anemometry, which possesses excellent frequency response, demonstrates that the ultrasound method can reliably detect those flow phenomena in such cases. Thus, the identification of coherent, rather than random, flow disturbances may offer improved diagnostic capability for noninvasively detecting arteriosclerotic plaques at relatively early stages of development.

  5. Stable cavitation induces increased cytoplasmic calcium in L929 fibroblasts exposed to 1-MHz pulsed ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Akira; Higashiyama, Satoru; Yoshida, Kenji; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Furukawa, Katsuko S; Ushida, Takashi

    2011-12-01

    An increase in cytoplasmic calcium (Ca(2+) increase) is a second messenger that is often observed under ultrasound irradiation. We hypothesize that cavitation is a physical mechanism that underlies the increase in Ca(2+) in these experiments. To control the presence of cavitation, the wave type was controlled in a sonication chamber. One wave type largely contained a traveling wave (wave type A) while the other wave type largely contained a standing wave (wave type B). Fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis of a sound field produced by the wave types ascertained that stable cavitation was present only under wave type A ultrasound irradiation. Under the two controlled wave types, the increase in Ca(2+) in L929 fibroblasts was observed with fluorescence imaging. Under wave type A ultrasound irradiation, an increase in Ca(2+) was observed; however, no increase in Ca(2+) was observed under wave type B ultrasound irradiation. We conclude that stable cavitation is involved in the increase of Ca(2+) in cells subjected to pulsed ultrasound. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Patient-exposure data for doppler ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, H.F.; Silvis, P.X.; Smith, S.W.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years ultrasound imaging and Doppler blood flow measurements have become important tools for use in diagnostic medicine. Commercial pulse-echo imaging equipment was first introduced into commerce in 1963. The first commercial continuous wave Doppler unit was introduced to the marketplace in 1966. As equipment improved and applications developed, the industry experienced rapid growth in the 1970s. One of the more recent growth areas in the application of diagnostic ultrasound has been the use of pulsed Doppler equipment for cardiac applications. Prior to 1976, some continuous wave Doppler ultrasound was used for cardiovascular diagnosis. However, only a single manufacturer marketed a pulsed Doppler clinical instrument for cardiac or peripheral vascular diagnosis. Currently, many continuous wave and pulsed Doppler instruments are commercially available for both peripheral vascular and cardiac diagnosis. This chapter (1) briefly reviews current safety guidelines, regulations, and recommendations for diagnostic ultrasound; (2) discusses the patient-exposure intensities associated with Doppler ultrasound medical equipment and compare these levels of exposure with intensities from other medical ultrasound devices; and (3) considers some of the current information as it relates to the safety of diagnostic ultrasound

  7. Effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on bone regeneration: biochemical and radiologic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomini, Karina T; Andreo, Jesus C; Rodrigues, Antonio de C; de O Gonçalves, Jéssica B; Daré, Letícia R; German, Iris J S; Rosa, Geraldo M; Buchaim, Rogerio L

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound at 1.0 MHz on the healing process of fractures with bone loss in the rat fibula by alkaline phosphate level measurement and radiologic analyses. Thirty 70-day-old male Wistar rats underwent a bone resection of 2.5 to 3.0 mm between the proximal and middle third of the right fibular diaphysis. The animals were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups: reference (uninjured), control (injured only), and treated (injured and treated with 5 applications of ultrasound, interspersed by 2 days of rest, beginning 24 hours after the osteotomy). Euthanasia was performed at experimental periods of 7 and 14 days. The right hind limb was removed for radiologic analysis. The blood was collected via cardiac puncture to determine the serum alkaline phosphatase activity. The bone fractures had not been completely consolidated in the treated and control group when analysis of the bone took place. At day 7, the serum alkaline phosphatase activity was higher in the treated group (mean ± SD, 72.17 ± 7.02 U/L) compared to the control (65.26 ± 8.41 U/L) and reference (67.21 ± 7.86 U/L) groups. At day 14, higher alkaline phosphatase activity was seen in the control group (68.96 ± 8.12 U/L) compared to the treated (66.09 ± 8.46 U/L) and reference (67.14 ± 7.96 U/L) groups. The biochemical and radiologic results suggest that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound can be used as an auxiliary method to consolidate fractures and probably reduces the bone healing time, offering clinical benefits.

  8. Jets from pulsed-ultrasound-induced cavitation bubbles near a rigid boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brujan, Emil-Alexandru

    2017-06-01

    The dynamics of cavitation bubbles, generated from short (microsecond) pulses of ultrasound and situated near a rigid boundary, are investigated numerically. The temporal development of the bubble shape, bubble migration, formation of the liquid jet during bubble collapse, and the kinetic energy of the jet are investigated as a function of the distance between bubble and boundary. During collapse, the bubble migrates towards the boundary and the liquid jet reaches a maximum velocity between 80 m s-1 and 120 m s-1, depending on the distance between bubble and boundary. The conversion of bubble energy to kinetic energy of the jet ranges from 16% to 23%. When the bubble is situated in close proximity to the boundary, the liquid jet impacts the boundary with its maximum velocity, resulting in an impact pressure of the order of tens of MPa. The rapid expansion of the bubble, the impact of the liquid jet onto the nearby boundary material, and the high pressure developed inside the bubble at its minimum volume can all contribute to the boundary material damage. The high pressure developed during the impact of the liquid jet onto the biological material and the shearing forces acting on the material surface as a consequence of the radial flow of the jet outward from the impact site are the main damage mechanisms of rigid biological materials. The results are discussed with respect to cavitation damage of rigid biological materials, such as disintegration of renal stones and calcified tissue and collateral effects in pulsed ultrasound surgery.

  9. Jets from pulsed-ultrasound-induced cavitation bubbles near a rigid boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brujan, Emil-Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of cavitation bubbles, generated from short (microsecond) pulses of ultrasound and situated near a rigid boundary, are investigated numerically. The temporal development of the bubble shape, bubble migration, formation of the liquid jet during bubble collapse, and the kinetic energy of the jet are investigated as a function of the distance between bubble and boundary. During collapse, the bubble migrates towards the boundary and the liquid jet reaches a maximum velocity between 80 m s −1 and 120 m s −1 , depending on the distance between bubble and boundary. The conversion of bubble energy to kinetic energy of the jet ranges from 16% to 23%. When the bubble is situated in close proximity to the boundary, the liquid jet impacts the boundary with its maximum velocity, resulting in an impact pressure of the order of tens of MPa. The rapid expansion of the bubble, the impact of the liquid jet onto the nearby boundary material, and the high pressure developed inside the bubble at its minimum volume can all contribute to the boundary material damage. The high pressure developed during the impact of the liquid jet onto the biological material and the shearing forces acting on the material surface as a consequence of the radial flow of the jet outward from the impact site are the main damage mechanisms of rigid biological materials. The results are discussed with respect to cavitation damage of rigid biological materials, such as disintegration of renal stones and calcified tissue and collateral effects in pulsed ultrasound surgery. (paper)

  10. SU-F-J-215: Non-Thermal Pulsed High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy Combined with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid: An in Vivo Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, B; He, W; Cvetkovic, D; Chen, L; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: It has recently been shown that non-thermal pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) has a cell-killing effect. The purpose of the study is to investigate the sonosensitizing effect of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (5-ALA) in non-thermal pHIFU cancer therapy. Methods: FaDu human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells were injected subcutaneously in the flanks of nude mice. After one to two weeks, the tumors reached the volume of 112 ± 8 mm3 and were assigned randomly into a non-thermal pHIFU group (n=9) and a non-thermal sonodynamic therapy (pHIFU after 5-ALA administration) group (n=7). The pHIFU treatments (parameters: 1 MHz frequency; 25 W acoustic power; 0.1 duty cycle; 60 seconds duration) were delivered using an InSightec ExAblate 2000 system with a GE Signa 1.5T MR scanner. The mice in the non-thermal sonodynamic group received 5-ALA tail-vein injection 4 hours prior to the pHIFU treatment. The tumor growth was monitored using the CT scanner on a Sofie-Biosciences G8 PET/CT system. Results: The tumors in this study grew very aggressively and about 60% of the tumors in this study developed ulcerations at various stages. Tumor growth delay after treatments was observed by comparing the treated (n=9 in pHIFU group; n=7 in sonodynamic group) and untreated tumors (n=17). However, no statistically significant differences were found between the non-thermal pHIFU and non-thermal sonodynamic group. The mean normalized tumor volume of the untreated tumors on Day 7 after their first CT scans was 7.05 ± 0.54, while the normalized volume of the treated tumors on Day 7 after treatment was 5.89 ± 0.79 and 6.27 ± 0.47 for the sonodynamic group and pHIFU group, respectively. Conclusion: In this study, no significant sonosensitizing effects of 5-ALA were obtained on aggressive FaDu tumors despite apparent tumor growth delay in some mice treated with non-thermal sonodynamic therapy.

  11. Integrated ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging for simultaneous temperature and cavitation monitoring during focused ultrasound therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Costas D; McDannold, Nathan

    2013-11-01

    Ultrasound can be used to noninvasively produce different bioeffects via viscous heating, acoustic cavitation, or their combination, and these effects can be exploited to develop a wide range of therapies for cancer and other disorders. In order to accurately localize and control these different effects, imaging methods are desired that can map both temperature changes and cavitation activity. To address these needs, the authors integrated an ultrasound imaging array into an MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) system to simultaneously visualize thermal and mechanical effects via passive acoustic mapping (PAM) and MR temperature imaging (MRTI), respectively. The system was tested with an MRgFUS system developed for transcranial sonication for brain tumor ablation in experiments with a tissue mimicking phantom and a phantom-filled ex vivo macaque skull. In experiments on cavitation-enhanced heating, 10 s continuous wave sonications were applied at increasing power levels (30-110 W) until broadband acoustic emissions (a signature for inertial cavitation) were evident. The presence or lack of signal in the PAM, as well as its magnitude and location, were compared to the focal heating in the MRTI. Additional experiments compared PAM with standard B-mode ultrasound imaging and tested the feasibility of the system to map cavitation activity produced during low-power (5 W) burst sonications in a channel filled with a microbubble ultrasound contrast agent. When inertial cavitation was evident, localized activity was present in PAM and a marked increase in heating was observed in MRTI. The location of the cavitation activity and heating agreed on average after registration of the two imaging modalities; the distance between the maximum cavitation activity and focal heating was -3.4 ± 2.1 mm and -0.1 ± 3.3 mm in the axial and transverse ultrasound array directions, respectively. Distortions and other MRI issues introduced small uncertainties in the PAM

  12. Pulsed magneto-motive ultrasound imaging to detect intracellular accumulation of magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Qu Min; Sokolov, Konstantin V; Emelianov, Stanislav Y; Ma, Li L; Johnston, Keith P; Romanovicz, Dwight K

    2011-01-01

    As applications of nanoparticles in medical imaging and biomedicine rapidly expand, the interactions of nanoparticles with living cells have become an area of active interest. For example, intracellular accumulation of nanoparticles-an important part of cell-nanoparticle interaction-has been well studied using plasmonic nanoparticles and optical or optics-based techniques due to the change in optical properties of the nanoparticle aggregates. However, magnetic nanoparticles, despite their wide range of clinical applications, do not exhibit plasmonic-resonant properties and therefore their intracellular aggregation cannot be detected by optics-based imaging techniques. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of a novel imaging technique-pulsed magneto-motive ultrasound (pMMUS)-to identify intracellular accumulation of endocytosed magnetic nanoparticles. In pMMUS imaging a focused, high intensity, pulsed magnetic field is used to excite the cells labeled with magnetic nanoparticles, and ultrasound imaging is then used to monitor the mechanical response of the tissue. We demonstrated previously that clusters of magnetic nanoparticles amplify the pMMUS signal in comparison to the signal from individual nanoparticles. Here we further demonstrate that pMMUS imaging can identify interaction between magnetic nanoparticles and living cells, i.e. intracellular accumulation of nanoparticles within the cells. The results of our study suggest that pMMUS imaging can not only detect the presence of magnetic nanoparticles but also provides information about their intracellular accumulation non-invasively and in real-time.

  13. Ultrasound propagation in steel piping at electric power plant using clamp-on ultrasonic pulse doppler velocity-profile flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Kenichi; Mori, Michitsugu; Wada, Sanehiro; Aritomi, Masanori; Kikura, Hiroshige

    2008-01-01

    Venturi nozzles are widely used to measure the flow rates of reactor feedwater. This flow rate of nuclear reactor feedwater is an important factor in the operation of nuclear power reactors. Some other types of flowmeters have been proposed to improve measurement accuracy. The ultrasonic pulse Doppler velocity-profile flowmeter is expected to be a candidate method because it can measure the flow profiles across the pipe cross sections. For the accurate estimation of the flow velocity, the incidence angle of ultrasonic entering the fluid should be carefully estimated by the theoretical approach. However, the evaluation of the ultrasound propagation is not straightforward for the several reasons such as temperature gradient in the wedge or mode conversion at the interface between the wedge and pipe. In recent years, the simulation code for ultrasound propagation has come into use in the nuclear field for nondestructive testing. This article analyzes and discusses ultrasound propagation in steel piping and water, using the 3D-FEM simulation code and the Kirchhoff method, as it relates to the flow profile measurements in power plants with the ultrasonic pulse Doppler velocity-profile flowmeter. (author)

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may produce minimal discomfort. If a Doppler ultrasound study is performed, you may actually hear pulse-like sounds that change in pitch as the blood flow is monitored and measured. Most ultrasound examinations ...

  15. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Imaging? Ultrasound waves are disrupted by air or gas; therefore ultrasound is not an ideal imaging technique ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer ...

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... the transducer is pressed against the skin, it directs small pulses of inaudible, high-frequency sound waves ...

  17. WE-H-209-00: Carson/Zagzebski Distinguished Lectureship: Image Guided Ultrasound Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    Focused ultrasound has been shown to be the only method that allows noninvasive thermal coagulation of tissues and recently this potential has been explored for image-guided drug delivery. In this presentation, the advances in ultrasound phased array technology for energy delivery, exposure monitoring and control will be discussed. Experimental results from novel multi-frequency transmit/receive arrays will be presented. In addition, the feasibility of fully electronically focused and steered high power arrays with many thousands of transducer elements will be discussed. Finally, some of the recent clinical and preclinical results for the treatment of brain disease will be reviewed. Learning Objectives: Introduce FUS therapy principles and modern techniques Discuss use of FUS for drug delivery Cover the technology required to deliver FUS and monitor therapy Present clinical examples of the uses of these techniques This research was supported by funding from The Canada Research Chair Program, Grants from CIHR and NIH (no. EB003268).; K. Hynynen, Canada Foundation for Innovation; Canadian Institutes of Health Research; Focused Ultrasound Surgery Foundation; Canada Research Chair Program; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; Ontario Research Fund; National Institutes of Health; Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute; The Weston Brain Institute; Harmonic Medical; Focused Ultrasound Instruments.

  18. Spatiotemporal evolution of cavitation dynamics exhibited by flowing microbubbles during ultrasound exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, James J; Coussios, Constantin-C

    2012-11-01

    Ultrasound and microbubble-based therapies utilize cavitation to generate bioeffects, yet cavitation dynamics during individual pulses and across consecutive pulses remain poorly understood under physiologically relevant flow conditions. SonoVue(®) microbubbles were made to flow (fluid velocity: 10-40 mm/s) through a vessel in a tissue-mimicking material and were exposed to ultrasound [frequency: 0.5 MHz, peak-rarefactional pressure (PRP): 150-1200 kPa, pulse length: 1-100,000 cycles, pulse repetition frequency (PRF): 1-50 Hz, number of pulses: 10-250]. Radiated emissions were captured on a linear array, and passive acoustic mapping was used to spatiotemporally resolve cavitation events. At low PRPs, stable cavitation was maintained throughout several pulses, thus generating a steady rise in energy with low upstream spatial bias within the focal volume. At high PRPs, inertial cavitation was concentrated in the first 6.3 ± 1.3 ms of a pulse, followed by an energy reduction and high upstream bias. Multiple pulses at PRFs below a flow-dependent critical rate (PRF(crit)) produced predictable and consistent cavitation dynamics. Above the PRF(crit), energy generated was unpredictable and spatially biased. In conclusion, key parameters in microbubble-seeded flow conditions were matched with specific types, magnitudes, distributions, and durations of cavitation; this may help in understanding empirically observed in vivo phenomena and guide future pulse sequence designs.

  19. Effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on new trabecular bone during bone-tendon junction healing in a rabbit model: a synchrotron radiation micro-CT study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Lu

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on bone regeneration during the bone-tendon junction healing process and to explore the application of synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography in three dimensional visualization of the bone-tendon junction to evaluate the microarchitecture of new trabecular bone. Twenty four mature New Zealand rabbits underwent partial patellectomy to establish a bone-tendon junction injury model at the patella-patellar tendon complex. Animals were then divided into low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment (20 min/day, 7 times/week and placebo control groups, and were euthanized at week 8 and 16 postoperatively (n = 6 for each group and time point. The patella-patellar tendon specimens were harvested for radiographic, histological and synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography detection. The area of the newly formed bone in the ultrasound group was significantly greater than that of control group at postoperative week 8 and 16. The high resolution three dimensional visualization images of the bone-tendon junction were acquired by synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment promoted dense and irregular woven bone formation at week 8 with greater bone volume fraction, number and thickness of new trabecular bone but with lower separation. At week 16, ultrasound group specimens contained mature lamellar bone with higher bone volume fraction and thicker trabeculae than that of control group; however, there was no significant difference in separation and number of the new trabecular bone. This study confirms that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment is able to promote bone formation and remodeling of new trabecular bone during the bone-tendon junction healing process in a rabbit model, and the synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography could be applied for three dimensional visualization to quantitatively evaluate

  20. No midterm benefit from low intensity pulsed ultrasound after chevron osteotomy for hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacherl, Max; Gruber, Gerald; Radl, Roman; Rehak, Peter H; Windhager, Reinhard

    2009-08-01

    Chevron osteotomy is a widely accepted method for correction of symptomatic hallux valgus deformity. Full weight bearing in regular shoes is not recommended before 6 weeks after surgery. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound is known to stimulate bone formation leading to more stable callus and faster bony fusion. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study on 44 participants (52 feet) who underwent chevron osteotomy to evaluate the influence of daily transcutaneous low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) treatment at the site of osteotomy. Follow-up at 6 weeks and 1 year included plain dorsoplantar radiographs, hallux-metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scale and a questionnaire on patient satisfaction. There was no statistical difference in any pre- or postoperative clinical features, patient satisfaction or radiographic measurements (hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, sesamoid index and metatarsal index) except for the first distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA). The DMAA showed statistically significant (p = 0.046) relapse in the placebo group upon comparison of intraoperative radiographs after correction and fixation (5.2 degrees) and at the 6-week follow-up (10.6 degrees). Despite potential impact of LIPUS on bone formation, we found no evidence of an influence on outcome 6 weeks and 1 year after chevron osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus deformity.

  1. WE-G-12A-01: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Surgery and Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, K [National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States); O' Neill, B [The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    More and more emphasis is being made on alternatives to invasive surgery and the use of ionizing radiation to treat various diseases including cancer. Novel screening, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of response to treatment are also hot areas of research and new clinical technologies. Ultrasound(US) has gained traction in all of the aforementioned areas of focus. Especially with recent advances in the use of ultrasound to noninvasively treat various diseases/organ systems. This session will focus on covering MR-guided focused ultrasound and the state of the art clinical applications, and the second speaker will survey the more cutting edge technologies e.g. Focused Ultrasound (FUS) mediated drug delivery, principles of cavitation and US guided FUS. Learning Objectives: Fundamental physics and physical limitations of US interaction with tissue and nanoparticles The alteration of tissue transport using focused ultrasound US control of nanoparticle drug carriers for targeted release The basic principles of MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) surgery and therapy the current state of the art clinical applications of MRgFUS requirements for quality assurance and treatment planning.

  2. Harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU): a fully integrated technique for sonication and monitoring of thermal ablation in tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleke, C; Konofagou, E E

    2008-01-01

    FUS (focused ultrasound), or HIFU (high-intensity-focused ultrasound) therapy, a minimally or non-invasive procedure that uses ultrasound to generate thermal necrosis, has been proven successful in several clinical applications. This paper discusses a method for monitoring thermal treatment at different sonication durations (10 s, 20 s and 30 s) using the amplitude-modulated (AM) harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) technique in bovine liver samples in vitro. The feasibility of HMI for characterizing mechanical tissue properties has previously been demonstrated. Here, a confocal transducer, combining a 4.68 MHz therapy (FUS) and a 7.5 MHz diagnostic (pulse-echo) transducer, was used. The therapy transducer was driven by a low-frequency AM continuous signal at 25 Hz, producing a stable harmonic radiation force oscillating at the modulation frequency. A pulser/receiver was used to drive the pulse-echo transducer at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 5.4 kHz. Radio-frequency (RF) signals were acquired using a standard pulse-echo technique. The temperature near the ablation region was simultaneously monitored. Both RF signals and temperature measurements were obtained before, during and after sonication. The resulting axial tissue displacement was estimated using one-dimensional cross correlation. When temperature at the focal zone was above 48 deg. C during heating, the coagulation necrosis occurred and tissue damage was irreversible. The HMI displacement profiles in relation to the temperature and sonication durations were analyzed. At the beginning of heating, the temperature at the focus increased sharply, while the tissue stiffness decreased resulting in higher HMI displacements. This was confirmed by an increase of 0.8 μm deg. C -1 (r = 0.93, p -1 , r = -0.92, p -1 , prior to and after lesion formation in seven bovine liver samples, respectively. This technique was thus capable of following the protein-denatured lesion formation based on the

  3. Low-Frequency Ultrasound Therapy in Combination Treatment of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YE.E. LAVRINENKO

    2013-04-01

    Results. The beginning of therapeutic effect was observed after 2 procedures of the ultrasound exposure. The maximum effect is appeared after 8–10 treatment sessions. The positive dynamics of complex treatment is improving the general state of health, a disappearance of asthenization, and a decrease in the symptoms of cardiovascular disorders, achieving faster compensation of carbohydrate metabolism. The course of treatment contributed to the hyperglycemia reduction in patients with newly detected type 2 DM. After ultrasound treatment, the authors noted a positive dynamics of clinical symptoms: an improvement of the general health status, a decrease in fatigue, an improvement of psycho-emotional indices, disappearance of pain in the right upper quadrant, and a decrease in liver size in all the patients under study. Conclusions. The use of low-frequency ultrasound therapy on cutaneous projection of the liver in patients with type 2 DM promotes the normalization both fasting and postprandial glycemia. The effect of low-frequency ultrasound on cutaneous projection of the liver is significantly decreasing parameters that characterize the pancreatic insulin synthesizing function (immunoreactive insulin, C-peptide in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 DM and a BMI > 25 kg/m2. Low-frequency ultrasound reduces the glucagon secretion and thereby positively affects the hepatic gluconeogenesis. Ultrasound therapy can be used in the complex treatment of patients with newly diagnosed type 2 DM.

  4. pH/Ultrasound Dual-Responsive Gas Generator for Ultrasound Imaging-Guided Therapeutic Inertial Cavitation and Sonodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qianhua; Zhang, Wanxia; Yang, Xuemei; Li, Yuzhen; Hao, Yongwei; Zhang, Hongling; Hou, Lin; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2018-03-01

    Herein, a pH/ultrasound dual-responsive gas generator is reported, which is based on mesoporous calcium carbonate (MCC) nanoparticles by loading sonosensitizer (hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME)) and modifying surface hyaluronic acid (HA). After pinpointing tumor regions with prominent targeting efficiency, HMME/MCC-HA decomposes instantaneously under the cotriggering of tumoral inherent acidic condition and ultrasound (US) irradiation, concurrently accompanying with CO 2 generation and HMME release with spatial/temporal resolution. Afterward, the CO 2 bubbling and bursting effect under US stimulus results in cavitation-mediated irreversible cell necrosis, as well as the blood vessel destruction to further occlude the blood supply, providing a "bystander effect." Meanwhile, reactive oxygen species generated from HMME can target the apoptotic pathways for effective sonodynamic therapy. Thus, the combination of apoptosis/necrosis with multimechanisms consequently results in a remarkable antitumor therapeutic efficacy, simultaneously minimizing the side effects on major organs. Moreover, the echogenic property of CO 2 make the nanoplatform as a powerful ultrasound contrast agent to identify cancerous lesions. Based on the above findings, such all-in-one drug delivery platform of HMME/MCC-HA is utilized to provide the US imaging guidance for therapeutic inertial cavitation and sonodynamic therapy simultaneously, which highlights possibilities of advancing cancer theranostics in biomedical fields. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Thin-film sparse boundary array design for passive acoustic mapping during ultrasound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coviello, Christian M; Kozick, Richard J; Hurrell, Andrew; Smith, Penny Probert; Coussios, Constantin-C

    2012-10-01

    A new 2-D hydrophone array for ultrasound therapy monitoring is presented, along with a novel algorithm for passive acoustic mapping using a sparse weighted aperture. The array is constructed using existing polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) ultrasound sensor technology, and is utilized for its broadband characteristics and its high receive sensitivity. For most 2-D arrays, high-resolution imagery is desired, which requires a large aperture at the cost of a large number of elements. The proposed array's geometry is sparse, with elements only on the boundary of the rectangular aperture. The missing information from the interior is filled in using linear imaging techniques. After receiving acoustic emissions during ultrasound therapy, this algorithm applies an apodization to the sparse aperture to limit side lobes and then reconstructs acoustic activity with high spatiotemporal resolution. Experiments show verification of the theoretical point spread function, and cavitation maps in agar phantoms correspond closely to predicted areas, showing the validity of the array and methodology.

  6. Pulse Clarithromycin Therapy In Severe ACNE Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi Sanjay K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Three patients with severe acne vulgaris, not responding with long courses of doxycycline, minocycline and erythromycin were given oral clarithromycin in pulsed regimen. The patients were given 7 days course of clarithromycin 250mg twice daily, which was repeated after a gap of 10 days. Such 3 courses were given. The lesions responded significantly. No significant side effect was noted. Pulse clarithromycin therapy seems to be a good alternative and effective tool in the management of severe acne vulgaris.

  7. Randomized, double-blind, comparative study on efficacy and safety of itraconazole pulse therapy and terbinafine pulse therapy on nondermatophyte mold onychomycosis: A study with 90 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranawaka, Ranthilaka R; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Gunasekara, Thusitha Aravinda; Weerakoon, Hema S; de Silva, S H Padmal

    2016-08-01

    Nondermatophyte mold (NDM) onychomycosis shows poor response to current topical, oral or device-related antifungal therapies. This study was aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of itraconazole and terbinafine pulse therapy on NDM onychomycosis. Mycologically proven subjects were treated with itraconazole 400 mg daily or terbinafine 500 mg daily for 7 days/month; two pulses for fingernails and three pulses for toenails(SLCTR/2013/013). One-hundred seventy-eight patients underwent mycological studies and 148 had positive fungal isolates. NDM were the prevailing fungi, 68.2%, followed by candida species 21.6%, and dermatophytes made up only 10.1%. Out of NDM Aspergillus spp (75.1%) predominated followed by 8.9% Fusarium spp and 4.95% Penicillium spp. The clinical cure at completion of pulse therapy was statistically significant 9.2% versus 2.0% (p terbinafine pulse cured 55.0% Aspergillus spp and 50.0% Fusarium spp. NDM was the prevailing fungi in onychomycosis in Sri Lanka. Both itraconazole and terbinafine were partially effective on NDM onychomycosis showing a clinical cure of 54-65%. Future research should focus on searching more effective antifungal for NDM onychomycosis.

  8. Investigation of cellular and molecular responses to pulsed focused ultrasound in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R Burks

    Full Text Available Continuous focused ultrasound (cFUS has been widely used for thermal ablation of tissues, relying on continuous exposures to generate temperatures necessary to induce coagulative necrosis. Pulsed FUS (pFUS employs non-continuous exposures that lower the rate of energy deposition and allow cooling to occur between pulses, thereby minimizing thermal effects and emphasizing effects created by non-thermal mechanisms of FUS (i.e., acoustic radiation forces and acoustic cavitation. pFUS has shown promise for a variety of applications including drug and nanoparticle delivery; however, little is understood about the effects these exposures have on tissue, especially with regard to cellular pro-homing factors (growth factors, cytokines, and cell adhesion molecules. We examined changes in murine hamstring muscle following pFUS or cFUS and demonstrate that pFUS, unlike cFUS, has little effect on the histological integrity of muscle and does not induce cell death. Infiltration of macrophages was observed 3 and 8 days following pFUS or cFUS exposures. pFUS increased expression of several cytokines (e.g., IL-1α, IL-1β, TNFα, INFγ, MIP-1α, MCP-1, and GMCSF creating a local cytokine gradient on days 0 and 1 post-pFUS that returns to baseline levels by day 3 post-pFUS. pFUS exposures induced upregulation of other signaling molecules (e.g., VEGF, FGF, PlGF, HGF, and SDF-1α and cell adhesion molecules (e.g., ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on muscle vasculature. The observed molecular changes in muscle following pFUS may be utilized to target cellular therapies by increasing homing to areas of pathology.

  9. NMR guided focused ultrasound for myoma therapy - results from the first radiology-gynecology expert meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, A.; Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin; David, M.; Kroencke, T.; Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Berlin

    2013-01-01

    The contribution on the results from the first radiology-gynecology expert meeting concerning NMR guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) for myoma therapy covers the following topics: structural prerequisites for MRgFUS therapy; required examinations before MRgFUS therapy; indication for MRgFUS therapy; success criteria for the MRgFUS therapy; contraindications; MRgFUS therapy for patients that want to have children; side effects and complications of MRgFUS therapy; post-examination after MRgFUS therapy.

  10. Lipid nano-bubble combined with ultrasound for anti-keloids therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Qing; Li, Zhou-Na; Wang, Qi-Ming; Jin, Hong-Yan; Gao, Zhonggao; Jin, Zhe-Hu

    2018-03-01

    Keloids were characterized by excessive growth of fibrous tissues, and shared several pathological characteristics with cancer. They did put physical and emotional stress on patients in that keloids could badly change appearance of patients. N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4HPR) showed cytotoxic activity on a wide variety of invasive-growth cells. Our work was aim to prepare N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide-loaded lipid microbubbles (4HPR-LM) combined with ultrasound for anti-keloid therapy. 4HPR-loaded liposomes (4HPR-L) were first prepared by film evaporation method, and then 4HPR-LM were manufactured by mixing 4HPR-L and perfluoropentane (PFP) with ultrasonic cavitation method. The mean particle size and entrapment efficiency 4HPR-LM were 113 nm and 95%, respectively. The anti-keloids activity of 4HPR-LM was assessed with BALB/c nude mice bearing subcutaneous xenograft keloids model. 4HPR-LM, combined with ultrasound, could significantly induce apoptosis of keloid fibroblasts in vitro and inhibited growth of keloids in vivo. Thus, 4HPR-LM could be considered as a promising agent for anti-keloids therapy.

  11. A region-based segmentation method for ultrasound images in HIFU therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dong; Liu, Yu; Yang, Yan; Xu, Menglong; Yan, Yu; Qin, Qianqing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Precisely and efficiently locating a tumor with less manual intervention in ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy is one of the keys to guaranteeing the therapeutic result and improving the efficiency of the treatment. The segmentation of ultrasound images has always been difficult due to the influences of speckle, acoustic shadows, and signal attenuation as well as the variety of tumor appearance. The quality of HIFU guidance images is even poorer than that of conventional diagnostic ultrasound images because the ultrasonic probe used for HIFU guidance usually obtains images without making contact with the patient’s body. Therefore, the segmentation becomes more difficult. To solve the segmentation problem of ultrasound guidance image in the treatment planning procedure for HIFU therapy, a novel region-based segmentation method for uterine fibroids in HIFU guidance images is proposed. Methods: Tumor partitioning in HIFU guidance image without manual intervention is achieved by a region-based split-and-merge framework. A new iterative multiple region growing algorithm is proposed to first split the image into homogenous regions (superpixels). The features extracted within these homogenous regions will be more stable than those extracted within the conventional neighborhood of a pixel. The split regions are then merged by a superpixel-based adaptive spectral clustering algorithm. To ensure the superpixels that belong to the same tumor can be clustered together in the merging process, a particular construction strategy for the similarity matrix is adopted for the spectral clustering, and the similarity matrix is constructed by taking advantage of a combination of specifically selected first-order and second-order texture features computed from the gray levels and the gray level co-occurrence matrixes, respectively. The tumor region is picked out automatically from the background regions by an algorithm according to a priori

  12. A region-based segmentation method for ultrasound images in HIFU therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dong, E-mail: dongz@whu.edu.cn; Liu, Yu; Yang, Yan; Xu, Menglong; Yan, Yu [School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Qin, Qianqing [State Key Laboratory of Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Precisely and efficiently locating a tumor with less manual intervention in ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy is one of the keys to guaranteeing the therapeutic result and improving the efficiency of the treatment. The segmentation of ultrasound images has always been difficult due to the influences of speckle, acoustic shadows, and signal attenuation as well as the variety of tumor appearance. The quality of HIFU guidance images is even poorer than that of conventional diagnostic ultrasound images because the ultrasonic probe used for HIFU guidance usually obtains images without making contact with the patient’s body. Therefore, the segmentation becomes more difficult. To solve the segmentation problem of ultrasound guidance image in the treatment planning procedure for HIFU therapy, a novel region-based segmentation method for uterine fibroids in HIFU guidance images is proposed. Methods: Tumor partitioning in HIFU guidance image without manual intervention is achieved by a region-based split-and-merge framework. A new iterative multiple region growing algorithm is proposed to first split the image into homogenous regions (superpixels). The features extracted within these homogenous regions will be more stable than those extracted within the conventional neighborhood of a pixel. The split regions are then merged by a superpixel-based adaptive spectral clustering algorithm. To ensure the superpixels that belong to the same tumor can be clustered together in the merging process, a particular construction strategy for the similarity matrix is adopted for the spectral clustering, and the similarity matrix is constructed by taking advantage of a combination of specifically selected first-order and second-order texture features computed from the gray levels and the gray level co-occurrence matrixes, respectively. The tumor region is picked out automatically from the background regions by an algorithm according to a priori

  13. Wound healing treatment by high frequency ultrasound, microcurrent, and combined therapy modifies the immune response in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raciele I. G. Korelo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Therapeutic high-frequency ultrasound, microcurrent, and a combination of the two have been used as potential interventions in the soft tissue healing process, but little is known about their effect on the immune system. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of therapeutic high frequency ultrasound, microcurrent, and the combined therapy of the two on the size of the wound area, peritoneal macrophage function, CD4+ and CD8+, T lymphocyte populations, and plasma concentration of interleukins (ILs. METHOD: Sixty-five Wistar rats were randomized into five groups, as follows: uninjured control (C, group 1, lesion and no treatment (L, group 2, lesion treated with ultrasound (LU, group 3, lesion treated with microcurrent (LM, group 4, and lesion treated with combined therapy (LUM, group 5. For groups 3, 4 and 5, treatment was initiated 24 hours after surgery under anesthesia and each group was allocated into three different subgroups (n=5 to allow for the use of the different therapy resources at on days 3, 7 and 14 Photoplanimetry was performed daily. After euthanasia, blood was collected for immune analysis. RESULTS: Ultrasound increased the phagocytic capacity and the production of nitric oxide by macrophages and induced the reduction of CD4+ cells, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and the plasma concentration of IL-1β. Microcurrent and combined therapy decreased the production of superoxide anion, nitric oxide, CD4+-positive cells, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and IL-1β concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic high-frequency ultrasound, microcurrent, and combined therapy changed the activity of the innate and adaptive immune system during healing process but did not accelerate the closure of the wound.

  14. Ultrasound stimulation of mandibular bone defect healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, Jurjen

    2004-01-01

    The conclusions of the experimental work presented in this thesis are: 1. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound is not effective in stimulating bone growth into a rat mandibular defect, either with or without the use of osteoconductive membranes. 2. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound does not seem to have an

  15. Safety of Medical Diagnostic Ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breyer, B.

    1998-01-01

    Large numbers of people (both sick and healthy) are routinely exposed to ultrasound waves. We shall discuss wave parameters and scanner properties that are relevant to the safety aspect. This includes central pulse frequency, pulse length, intensity (ISPTA and others), focusing, pulse repetition frequency, pulse pressure, etc. Since the transmitted ultrasound power has steadily been increasing during the last two decades, the problems are becoming more serious with time. Doppler methods have gained importance and 'popularity, which additionally increases ultrasound power requirements since the reflectivity of red blood cells is so small that the backscattered pressure is about 100 times less than that from soft tissue structures in the body. Main mechanisms that can potentially present hazard are heating and cavitation. The basic parameter used to assess thermal hazard is ISPTA and the optimal predictor of cavitation hazard is the peak rarefractional pressure. The hazard of heating-up can be summarized in saying that temperatures up to 38.5 o C are safe, while temperatures above 41 o C are definitely not. Care must be taken to stay within the safe zone. However, there does not exist a confirmed report of any type of hazardous effects on humans using intensities presently applied in diagnostic ultrasound scanners. Taking this into account, various international bodies have put limits to the application of ultrasound, which is best summarized in the FDA (USA) regulation that diagnostic apparatus may have an output of maximally 720 mW/cm 2 (derated) provided thermal and mechanical properties are indicated (onscreen) by properly defined Thermal Indices (TI) and Mechanical Index (MI). These aspects shall be discussed in some detail. We shall give the rules for the operator to apply ultrasound with minimal hazard. The general conclusion is that diagnostic ultrasound, as presently known, may be used whenever a qualified expert expects essential medical benefit for the

  16. Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound and Halo Immobilization Is an Effective Treatment for Nonunion Following Traumatic Spondylolisthesis of the Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Kohtaroh; Ohba, Tetsuro; Ebata, Shigeto; Haro, Hirotaka

    2017-10-01

    This case report describes a unique case involving traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis that resulted in nonunion, angulation, and displacement after conservative treatment with a cervical collar, but which was successfully achieved union with halo immobilization and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS). Halo immobilization of a traumatic spondylolisthesis in a 20-year-old patient, that previously failed to improve after wearing a cervical collar for 3 months, was immediately followed by treatment with a LIPUS device (SAFHS 4000J; Teijin Pharma, Tokyo, Japan) 20 minutes once daily to the right and left fracture sites which were located using fluoroscopic guidance. Radiographs and computed tomography showed conclusive evidence of bone union after 10 weeks of treatment with halo immobilization. No adverse events were observed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing that the combination of halo immobilization and LIPUS therapy might be a safe, effective, and feasible method by which to treat cervical spine fractures.

  17. Ultrasound-microbubble mediated cavitation of plant cells: effects on morphology and viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Peng; Xu, Lin; Zhong, Wenjing; Yu, Alfred C H

    2012-06-01

    The interaction between ultrasound pulses and microbubbles is known to generate acoustic cavitation that may puncture biological cells. This work presents new experimental findings on the bioeffects of ultrasound-microbubble mediated cavitation in plant cells with emphasis on direct observations of morphological impact and analysis of viability trends in tobacco BY-2 cells that are widely studied in higher plant physiology. The tobacco cell suspensions were exposed to 1 MHz ultrasound pulses in the presence of 1% v/v microbubbles (10% duty cycle; 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency; 70 mm between probe and cells; 1-min exposure time). Few bioeffects were observed at low peak negative pressures (cavitation presumably occurred. In contrast, at 0.9 MPa peak negative pressure (with more inertial cavitation activities according to our passive cavitation detection results), random pores were found on tobacco cell wall (observed via scanning electron microscopy) and enhanced exogenous uptake into the cytoplasm was evident (noted in our fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran uptake analysis). Also, instant lysis was observed in 23.4% of cells (found using trypan blue staining) and programmed cell death was seen in 23.3% of population after 12 h (determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling [TUNEL]). These bioeffects generally correspond in trend with those for mammalian cells. This raises the possibility of developing ultrasound-microbubble mediated cavitation into a targeted gene transfection paradigm for plant cells and, conversely, adopting plant cells as experimental test-beds for sonoporation-based gene therapy in mammalian cells. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of intense pulse light therapy and tripple combination cream versus intense pulse light therapy and tripple combination cream alone in epidermal melasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakeeb, N.; Noor, S.M.; Paracha, M.M.; Ullah, G.

    2018-01-01

    Objective:To compare the efficacy of intense pulse light therapy (IPL) and triple combination cream (TCC) versus intense pulse light therapy and triple combination cream alone in epidermal melasma treatment, downgrading MASI score to more than 10. Study Design:Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study:Dermatology Department, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, from August 2014 to January 2015. Methodology:Patients of 18-45 years were included in the study with Fitzpatrick skin type II-V. Sample of 96 patients was divided in to three groups of 32 each, through consecutive (non-probability) sampling method. Detailed history was taken, Woods Lamp Examination done, and melasma area and severity index (MASI) score was calculated. TCC had to be applied daily at night for two months by group A patients while group B was consigned for IPL therapy fortnightly, and those in group C were given both for two months. Efficacy was compared by recalculating MASI score at treatment end as well as at follow-up after 4 weeks, using Chi-square test with significance at p < 0.05. Results:Male and female patients were 10 (31.2%) and 22 (68.8%) in group A, 7 (21.9%) and 25 (78.1%) in group B, while in group C were 12 (37.5%) and 20 (62.5%). The average age was 28.70 +8.70 years. MASI score reduction was achieved in 22 (68.8%) patients in group A; whereas, in 20 (62.5%) and 30(93.8%) patients in group B and C, respectively. Efficacy-wise distribution was significant (p=0.009). Conclusion:Intense pulse light therapy and triple combination cream are more efficacious in epidermal melasma treatment than intense pulse light therapy and triple combination cream alone. (author)

  19. Effects of low intensity pulsed ultrasound with and without increased cortical porosity on structural bone allograft incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrhart Nicole

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though used for over a century, structural bone allografts suffer from a high rate of mechanical failure due to limited graft revitalization even after extended periods in vivo. Novel strategies that aim to improve graft incorporation are lacking but necessary to improve the long-term clinical outcome of patients receiving bone allografts. The current study evaluated the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS, a potent exogenous biophysical stimulus used clinically to accelerate the course of fresh fracture healing, and longitudinal allograft perforations (LAP as non-invasive therapies to improve revitalization of intercalary allografts in a sheep model. Methods Fifteen skeletally-mature ewes were assigned to five experimental groups based on allograft type and treatment: +CTL, -CTL, LIPUS, LAP, LIPUS+LAP. The +CTL animals (n = 3 received a tibial ostectomy with immediate replacement of the resected autologous graft. The -CTL group (n = 3 received fresh frozen ovine tibial allografts. The +CTL and -CTL groups did not receive LAP or LIPUS treatments. The LIPUS treatment group (n = 3, following grafting with fresh frozen ovine tibial allografts, received ultrasound stimulation for 20 minutes/day, 5 days/week, for the duration of the healing period. The LAP treatment group (n = 3 received fresh frozen ovine allografts with 500 μm longitudinal perforations that extended 10 mm into the graft. The LIPUS+LAP treatment group (n = 3 received both LIPUS and LAP interventions. All animals were humanely euthanized four months following graft transplantation for biomechanical and histological analysis. Results After four months of healing, daily LIPUS stimulation of the host-allograft junctions, alone or in combination with LAP, resulted in 30% increases in reconstruction stiffness, paralleled by significant increases (p Conclusion The current study has demonstrated in a large animal model the potential of both LIPUS and LAP

  20. TREATMENT OF DERMATOPHYTE ONYCHOMYCOSIS WITH TERBINAFINE (LAMISIL PULSE THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Valkova

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Terbinafine is the most active currently available antidermatophyte agent with fungicidal action. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of terbinafine pulse therapy in the treatment of dermatophyte nail infections. Seven patients (two with fingernail, four with toenail and one with mixed onychomycosis have been treated with 500 mg terbinafine daily for one week per month. The duration of the treatment was four months for toenail and three months for fingernail onychomycosis. At the end of the follow-up period (six months after discontinuation of treatment 6 out of 7 patients (87% were mycologically cured. In conclusion, pulse terbinafine therapy is an effective regimen for the treatment of dermatophyte nail infections.

  1. Comparison of the effect of low-power laser with therapeutic ultrasound on the treatment of rotator cuff tendonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    asghar Akbari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Akbari A1 1. Assistant Professor, Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Shoulder pain is the third most prevalent cause of musculoskeletal disorder after low back and cervical pains. Most of the shoulder symptoms are attributed to the rotator cuff. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of low-power laser therapy with ultrasound therapy on the patients with rotator cuff tendonitis. Materials and methods: This clinical trial was performed in Zahedan university of medical sciences in 2006. Thirty patients with rotator cuff tendonitis were randomly assigned to either a low-power laser therapy group (15 patients or an ultrasound therapy group (15 patients. Strength (kg of shoulder abductor, and internal and external rotator muscles, as well as range (degree of shoulder abduction, and internal and external rotation were measured before and after intervention using hand-held dynamometer and goniometer respectively. The pain was evaluated using the visual analogue scale. In the laser group, a low-level Ga-As laser was applied with a 100 mw point probe (average power, wave length of 905 nm, pulse duration of 200 ns, 6 J/cm2 dosage, 5 KHz frequency, and lasting 3 minutes. The ultrasound treatment was applied with a power of 1 W/cm2, a frequency of 1 MHz, pulse mode of 1:4, and lasting 10 minutes on each occasion. The treatment was carried out 3 times weekly for 10 days. The data were analyzed using independent sample t-test and paired t-test. Results: The pain in the laser group was significantly decreased from 6.06±1.6 to 5±1.3 in abduction, from 5.3±1.5 to 4.7±1.3 in internal rotation, and from 5.06±1.4 to 4.3±1.44 in external rotation (p0.05. A significant improvement after treatment was observed in the laser group in measures of shoulder abductor, internal rotator and external rotator muscles strength compared to those of the ultrasound therapy group (p<0

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... the transducer is pressed against the skin, it directs small pulses of inaudible, high-frequency sound waves ...

  3. TU-B-210-00: MR-Guided Focused Ultrasound Therapy in Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    MR guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS), or alternatively high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU), is approved for thermal ablative treatment of uterine fibroids and pain palliation in bone metastases. Ablation of malignant tumors is under active investigation in sites such as breast, prostate, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, and soft tissue. Hyperthermia therapy with MRgFUS is also feasible, and may be used in conjunction with radiotherapy and for local targeted drug delivery. MRI allows in situ target definition and provides continuous temperature monitoring and subsequent thermal dose mapping during HIFU. Although MRgHIFU can be very precise, treatment of mobile organs is challenging and advanced techniques are required because of artifacts in MR temperature mapping, the need for intercostal firing, and need for gated HIFU or tracking of the lesion in real time. The first invited talk, “MR guided Focused Ultrasound Treatment of Tumors in Bone and Soft Tissue”, will summarize the treatment protocol and review results from treatment of bone tumors. In addition, efforts to extend this technology to treat both benign and malignant soft tissue tumors of the extremities will be presented. The second invited talk, “MRI guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound – Advanced Approaches for Ablation and Hyperthermia”, will provide an overview of techniques that are in or near clinical trials for thermal ablation and hyperthermia, with an emphasis of applications in abdominal organs and breast, including methods for MRTI and tracking targets in moving organs. Learning Objectives: Learn background on devices and techniques for MR guided HIFU for cancer therapy Understand issues and current status of clinical MRg HIFU Understand strategies for compensating for organ movement during MRgHIFU Understand strategies for strategies for delivering hyperthermia with MRgHIFU CM - research collaboration with Philips.

  4. Detection of transient cavitation in aqueous solutions exposed to microsecond pulses of ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, A.J.; Mossoba, M.M.; Riesz, P.; Christman, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Recent theoretical calculations have shown that small gas nuclei in water exposed to μs ultrasonic pulses above an intensity threshold may grow into transient cavities that collapse violently. The high temperatures and pressures thus generated lead to the formation of OH radicals and H atoms. These can be detected by spin trapping and ESR. This work was carried out in a special exposure apparatus in which the acoustic exposure field can be measured accurately. For continuous 1 MHz ultrasound, the spatial average temporal average (SATA) intensity threshold for radical production was found to be about 0.25 Watts/cm/sup 2/. The yields of OH radicals varied, however, when a response was recorded the yields were linear as a function of intensity and the plots intersected at a common threshold. Aqueous solutions were studied over a range of pulse widths from 1 ms to 5 μs and pulse repetition frequencies from 4-50 kHz at a SATA intensity of 1.5 Watts/cm/sup 2/. Even for the case of 5 μs and 4kHz a significant OH radical yield was observed. These results indicate that in aqueous solutions free radicals are produced under simulated diagnostic exposure conditions

  5. Magnetic resonance guided focalized ultrasound thermo-ablation: A promising oncologic local therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannessi, A.; Doyen, J.; Leysalle, A.; Thyss, A.

    2014-01-01

    Pain management of bone metastases is usually made using systemic and local therapy. Even though radiations are nowadays the gold standard for painful metastases, innovations regarding minimally invasive treatment approaches have been developed because of the existing non-responder patients [1]. Indeed, cementoplasty and thermo-ablations like radiofrequency or cryotherapy have shown to be efficient on pain [2-4]. Among thermo-therapy, magnetic resonance guided focalized ultrasound is now a new non-invasive weapon for bone pain palliation. (authors)

  6. Dose Dependent Survival Response in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia under Continuous and Pulsed Targeted Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzolato, N.; Valenti, D.; Spagnolo, B.; Persano Adorno, D.

    2010-01-01

    A simulative study of cancer growth dynamics in patients affected by Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML), under the effect of a targeted dose dependent continuous or pulsed therapy, is presented. We have developed a model for the dynamics of CML in which the stochastic evolution of white blood cell populations are simulated by adopting a Monte Carlo approach. Several scenarios in the evolutionary dynamics of white blood cells, as a consequence of the efficacy of the different modelled therapies, pulsed or continuous, are described. The best results, in terms of a permanent disappearance of the leukemic phenotype, are achieved with a continuous therapy and higher dosage. However, our findings demonstrate that an intermittent therapy could represent a valid choice in patients with high risk of toxicity, when a long-term therapy is considered. A suitably tuned pulsed therapy can enhance the treatment efficacy and reduce the percentage of patients developing resistance. (authors)

  7. Dexamethasone cyclophosphamid pulse therapy in pemphigus-appraisal of its outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhash Kulhari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction :- Pemphigus is the commonest autoimmune vesicobullous disorder on the the Indian subcontinent. the mainstay of treatment of the disease is systemic steroid and other immunosuppresive therapies. Dexamethasone-cyclophosphamide(DCP pulse therapy was designated by pasricha for pemphigus in 1981 with the aim of reducing toxicity of corticosteroid and also achieve better results. Method:- Thirty one patients admitted at department of dermatology ASSAM MEDICAL COLLEGE,DIBRUGARH were enrolled for study prospectively from 2008-2011.Diagnosis of pemphigus was based on clinical feature, tzanck smear and biopsy. Confirmation was carried out by direct immunofluorascence.DCP pulse was given to confirmed cases of pemphigus. we enrolled 31 patients with pemphigus for DCP pulse therapy in our hospital during this period out of which 27 patients were pemphigus vulgaris and 4 were pemphigus folIacious. male to female ratio was 1.2:1.Of 31 patients enrolled for this treatment,6 patients could not complete the treatment and 2 patient died due to cardiovascular failure(not related to treatment. Of remaining 23 patients ,15 have alredy completed the treatment and are free of disease even after withdrawl of all treatment. 5 patients are in remission but have not completed the treatment schedule whereas 3 patients are still having clinical evidence of disease although it has already become much milder .Various side effects seen in our patients were candidiasis (2,tuberculosis(1, acneiform eruption(2, osteoporosis(1, cataract(2, hair fall(2, gastritis(3, avascular necrosis(1.Our finding are very consistent with previous reports that DCP pulse therapy is very effective in pemphigus and having lesser side effects in comparison to daily steroid .

  8. Therapeutic Ultrasound Bypasses Canonical Syndecan-4 Signaling to Activate Rac1*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Claire M.; Morgan, Mark R.; Harrison, Andrew; Humphries, Martin J.; Bass, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    The application of pulsed, low intensity ultrasound is emerging as a potent therapy for the treatment of complex bone fractures and tissue damage. Ultrasonic stimuli accelerate fracture healing by up to 40% and enhance tendon and ligament healing by promoting cell proliferation, migration, and matrix synthesis through an unresolved mechanism. Ultrasound treatment also induces closure of nonunion fractures, at a success rate (85% of cases) similar to that of surgical intervention (68-96%) while avoiding the complications associated with surgery. The regulation of cell adhesion necessary for wound healing depends on cooperative engagement of the extracellular matrix receptors, integrin and syndecan, as exemplified by the wound healing defects observed in syndecan- and integrin-knock-out mice. This report distinguishes the influence of ultrasound on signals downstream of the prototypic fibronectin receptors, α5β1 integrin and syndecan-4, which cooperate to regulate Rac1 and RhoA. Ultrasonic stimulation fails to activate integrins or induce cell spreading on poor, electrostatic ligands. By contrast, ultrasound treatment overcomes the necessity of engagement or expression of syndecan-4 during the process of focal adhesion formation, which normally requires simultaneous engagement of both receptors. Ultrasound exerts an influence downstream of syndecan-4 and PKCα to specifically activate Rac1, itself a critical regulator of tissue repair, and to a lesser extent RhoA. The ability of ultrasound to bypass syndecan-4 signaling, which is known to facilitate efficient tissue repair, explains the reduction in healing times observed in ultrasound-treated patients. By substituting for one of the key axes of adhesion-dependent signaling, ultrasound therapy has considerable potential as a clinical technique. PMID:19147498

  9. Ultra-som pulsado de baixa intensidade em fraturas diafisárias: aplicação clínica em cães Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in diaphyseal fractures: clinical application in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Lima de Sousa

    2008-08-01

    enrolled in the study. All dogs presented fresh closed diaphyseal fractures in the radius and ulna, femur or tibia and fibula stabilized with osteosynthesis techniques (intramedullary pinning, external skeletal fixation or the combination of both. The dogs were divided into two groups: stabilized fractures treated by low-intensity ultrasound (treatment group, n=8; stabilized fractures not treated by ultrasound stimulation (control group, n=8. The animals were assessed by means of clinical examination and radiographic studies in the preoperative period, immediate postoperative period, and every 30 days after the surgical procedures. The treatment was performed using stationary low-intensity (30mW cm-2 pulsed ultrasound (sine wave signal of 1.5MHz frequency, 200µs pulse width and 1kHz repetition frequency on the fracture site. Ultrasound therapy was carried out 20 minute per day, for 21 consecutive days, starting between the 1st and the 9th postoperative day. The Student’s t test was used for the statistical analysis and showed a significant difference (P<0.001 and alpha=0.05 between the mean time for bone healing of the animals in the treatment group (mean of 67.5 days and that of animals in the control group (mean of 106 days. This protocol of ultrasound stimulation promoted clinical and radiographic signs of bone healing acceleration in the treated fractures. The results of this study suggest that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound may be indicated as an adjuvant therapy in fresh diaphyseal fractures in dogs.

  10. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound enhances angiogenesis and ameliorates contractile dysfunction of pressure-overloaded heart in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ogata

    Full Text Available Chronic left ventricular (LV pressure overload causes relative ischemia with resultant LV dysfunction. We have recently demonstrated that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS improves myocardial ischemia in a pig model of chronic myocardial ischemia through enhanced myocardial angiogenesis. In the present study, we thus examined whether LIPUS also ameliorates contractile dysfunction in LV pressure-overloaded hearts.Chronic LV pressure overload was induced with transverse aortic constriction (TAC in mice. LIPUS was applied to the whole heart three times in the first week after TAC and was repeated once a week for 7 weeks thereafter (n = 22. Animals in the control groups received the sham treatment without LIPUS (n = 23. At 8 weeks after TAC, LV fractional shortening was depressed in the TAC-Control group, which was significantly ameliorated in the TAC-LIPUS group (30.4±0.5 vs. 36.2±3.8%, P<0.05. Capillary density was higher and perivascular fibrosis was less in the LV in the TAC-LIPUS group than in the TAC-Control group. Myocardial relative ischemia evaluated with hypoxyprobe was noted in the TAC-Control group, which was significantly attenuated in the TAC-LIPUS group. In the TAC-LIPUS group, as compared with the control group, mRNA expressions of BNP and collagen III were significantly lower (both P<0.05 and protein expressions of VEGF and eNOS were significantly up-regulated associated with Akt activation (all P<0.05. No adverse effect related to the LIPUS therapy was noted.These results indicate that the LIPUS therapy ameliorates contractile dysfunction in chronically pressure-overloaded hearts through enhanced myocardial angiogenesis and attenuated perivascular fibrosis. Thus, the LIPUS therapy may be a promising, non-invasive treatment for cardiac dysfunction due to chronic pressure overload.

  11. Ultrasound therapy applicators for controlled thermal modification of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, E. Clif; Lichtenstiger, Carol; Rund, Laurie; Keralapura, Mallika; Gossett, Chad; Stahlhut, Randy; Neubauer, Paul; Komadina, Bruce; Williams, Emery; Alix, Chris; Jensen, Tor; Schook, Lawrence; Diederich, Chris J.

    2011-03-01

    Heat therapy has long been used for treatments in dermatology and sports medicine. The use of laser, RF, microwave, and more recently, ultrasound treatment, for psoriasis, collagen reformation, and skin tightening has gained considerable interest over the past several years. Numerous studies and commercial devices have demonstrated the efficacy of these methods for treatment of skin disorders. Despite these promising results, current systems remain highly dependent on operator skill, and cannot effectively treat effectively because there is little or no control of the size, shape, and depth of the target zone. These limitations make it extremely difficult to obtain consistent treatment results. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility for using acoustic energy for controlled dose delivery sufficient to produce collagen modification for the treatment of skin tissue in the dermal and sub-dermal layers. We designed and evaluated a curvilinear focused ultrasound device for treating skin disorders such as psoriasis, stimulation of wound healing, tightening of skin through shrinkage of existing collagen and stimulation of new collagen formation, and skin cancer. Design parameters were examined using acoustic pattern simulations and thermal modeling. Acute studies were performed in 201 freshly-excised samples of young porcine underbelly skin tissue and 56 in-vivo treatment areas in 60- 80 kg pigs. These were treated with ultrasound (9-11MHz) focused in the deep dermis. Dose distribution was analyzed and gross pathology assessed. Tissue shrinkage was measured based on fiducial markers and video image registration and analyzed using NIH Image-J software. Comparisons were made between RF and focused ultrasound for five energy ranges. In each experimental series, therapeutic dose levels (60degC) were attained at 2-5mm depth. Localized collagen changes ranged from 1-3% for RF versus 8-15% for focused ultrasound. Therapeutic ultrasound applied at high

  12. A Split-and-Merge-Based Uterine Fibroid Ultrasound Image Segmentation Method in HIFU Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglong Xu

    Full Text Available High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy has been used to treat uterine fibroids widely and successfully. Uterine fibroid segmentation plays an important role in positioning the target region for HIFU therapy. Presently, it is completed by physicians manually, reducing the efficiency of therapy. Thus, computer-aided segmentation of uterine fibroids benefits the improvement of therapy efficiency. Recently, most computer-aided ultrasound segmentation methods have been based on the framework of contour evolution, such as snakes and level sets. These methods can achieve good performance, although they need an initial contour that influences segmentation results. It is difficult to obtain the initial contour automatically; thus, the initial contour is always obtained manually in many segmentation methods. A split-and-merge-based uterine fibroid segmentation method, which needs no initial contour to ensure less manual intervention, is proposed in this paper. The method first splits the image into many small homogeneous regions called superpixels. A new feature representation method based on texture histogram is employed to characterize each superpixel. Next, the superpixels are merged according to their similarities, which are measured by integrating their Quadratic-Chi texture histogram distances with their space adjacency. Multi-way Ncut is used as the merging criterion, and an adaptive scheme is incorporated to decrease manual intervention further. The method is implemented using Matlab on a personal computer (PC platform with Intel Pentium Dual-Core CPU E5700. The method is validated on forty-two ultrasound images acquired from HIFU therapy. The average running time is 9.54 s. Statistical results showed that SI reaches a value as high as 87.58%, and normHD is 5.18% on average. It has been demonstrated that the proposed method is appropriate for segmentation of uterine fibroids in HIFU pre-treatment imaging and planning.

  13. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction enhances naked plasmid DNA transfection in rabbit Achilles tendons in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L; Zhang, L; Wang, L; Jiang, Y; Luo, Y; Peng, Y; Lin, L

    2012-07-01

    The study was to investigate the probability of increasing the transfection of the gene in tendons by ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD), and to search for the most suitable transfection conditions. A mixture of microbubbles and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) plasmids was injected into rabbit Achilles tendons by different administration routes and the tendons were ultrasound pulse by different ultrasonic conditions in order to determine the most appropriate conditions. Then, the rabbits were divided into four groups: (1) ultrasound + microbubbles + plasmid; (2) ultrasound+ plasmid; (3) microbubble + plasmid; (4) plasmid only. EGFP expression in the tendons and other tissues, and the damage to tendon and paratenon were all observed. The results showed that EGFP expression in the tendon was higher by ultrasound pulse with 2 W cm(-2) of output intensity and a 20% duty cycle for 10 min. Local injection was determined to be the better administration route. Among the four groups, EGFP expression in Group 1 was higher than that in other groups. EGFP expression was highest on seventh day, then it gradually decrease over time, and lasted more than 56 days. EGFP expression was not found in other tissues. There was no obvious injury caused by UTMD. Under suitable conditions, it is feasible to use UTMD as a safe and effective gene transfection therapy for tendon injuries.

  14. Contrast generation in the nuclear-spin tomography by pulsed ultrasound; Kontrasterzeugung in der Kernspintomographie durch gepulsten Ultraschall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehms, Ole Benjamin

    2009-07-10

    In the framework of this thesis a combined method of ultrasound and nuclear-spin tomography is presented. Via ultrasound pulses by the sound-radiation force in liquids and tissue phantoms motions are generated, which depend on ther viscoelastic properties. This motions are made visible by a motion-sensitive tomograph sequence in the phase image of the tomograph in form of a phase change. The first measurements on simple phantoms and liquids are presented. [German] Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird eine kombinierte Methode aus Ultraschall und Kernspintomographie vorgestellt. Ueber Ultraschallpulse werden durch die Schallstrahlungskraft in Fluessigkeiten und Gewebephantomen Bewegungen erzeugt, die von den viskoelastischen Eigenschaften abhaengen. Diese Bewegungen werden mit einer bewegungssensitiven Tomographensequenz im Phasenbild des Tomographen in Form einer Phasenaenderung sichtbar gemacht. Die ersten Messungen an einfachen Phantomen und Fluessigkeiten werden praesentiert. (orig.)

  15. Value of combined exercise and ultrasound as an adjunct to compression therapy in chronic venous leg ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab A.E Sallam

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion Combined prescription of exercises and ultrasound as an adjunct to compression therapy would be a more effective means of promoting chronic venous ulcer healing, when standard compression therapy have failed. It is safe, easy and well tolerated and should be considered as adjunctive therapy in patients with venous leg ulcers.

  16. Ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, P.N.T.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasound is a form of energy which consists of mechanical vibrations the frequencies of which are so high that they are above the range of human hearing. The lower frequency limit of the ultrasonic spectrum may generally be taken to be about 20 kHz. Most biomedical applications of ultrasound employ frequencies in the range 1-15 MHz. At these frequencies, the wavelength is in the range 1.5 - 0.1 mm in soft tissues, and narrow beams of ultrasound can be generated which propagate through such tissues without excessive attenuation. This chapter begins with brief reviews of the physics of diagnostic ultrasound pulse-echo imaging methods and Doppler imaging methods. The remainder of the chapter is a resume of the applications of ultrasonic imaging to physiological measurement

  17. Ultrasound-Guided Greater Occipital Nerve Blocks and Pulsed Radiofrequency Ablation for Diagnosis and Treatment of Occipital Neuralgia

    OpenAIRE

    VanderHoek, Matthew David; Hoang, Hieu T; Goff, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    Occipital neuralgia is a condition manifested by chronic occipital headaches and is thought to be caused by irritation or trauma to the greater occipital nerve (GON). Treatment for occipital neuralgia includes medications, nerve blocks, and pulsed radiofrequency ablation (PRFA). Landmark-guided GON blocks are the mainstay in both the diagnosis and treatment of occipital neuralgia. Ultrasound is being utilized more and more in the chronic pain clinic to guide needle advancement when performing...

  18. Cavitation and contrast: the use of bubbles in ultrasound imaging and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stride, E P; Coussios, C C

    2010-01-01

    Microbubbles and cavitation are playing an increasingly significant role in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications of ultrasound. Microbubble ultrasound contrast agents have been in clinical use now for more than two decades, stimulating the development of a range of new contrast-specific imaging techniques which offer substantial benefits in echocardiography, microcirculatory imaging, and more recently, quantitative and molecular imaging. In drug delivery and gene therapy, microbubbles are being investigated/developed as vehicles which can be loaded with the required therapeutic agent, traced to the target site using diagnostic ultrasound, and then destroyed with ultrasound of higher intensity energy burst to release the material locally, thus avoiding side effects associated with systemic administration, e.g. of toxic chemotherapy. It has moreover been shown that the motion of the microbubbles increases the permeability of both individual cell membranes and the endothelium, thus enhancing therapeutic uptake, and can locally increase the activity of drugs by enhancing their transport across biologically inaccessible interfaces such as blood clots or solid tumours. In high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) surgery and lithotripsy, controlled cavitation is being investigated as a means of increasing the speed and efficacy of the treatment. The aim of this paper is both to describe the key features of the physical behaviour of acoustically driven bubbles which underlie their effectiveness in biomedical applications and to review the current state of the art.

  19. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... insertion. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... the transducer is pressed against the skin, it directs small pulses of inaudible, high-frequency sound waves ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gel. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... the transducer is pressed against the skin, it directs small pulses of inaudible, high-frequency sound waves ...

  1. Application of a drug delivery system using ultrasound and nano/microbubbles for anti-angiogenic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Sachiko; Kodama, Tetsuya; Sato, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    The drug delivery system using ultrasound and nano/microbubbles is a molecular delivery approach using the mechanism of sonoporation. With sonoporation, an endothelium-derived negative-feedback regulator of angiogenesis, Vasohibin-1 (VASH1), was introduced specifically into tumor vessels. We found VASH1 in tumor vessels induce normalization of tumor vessels and inhibited tumor growth. A recent topic regarding tumor angiogenesis is vascular normalization. Tumor vessels are abnormal or immature that cause hyperpermeability and impaired blood flow. Tumor vascular normalization improves blood flow and tissue hypoxia, which increase the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy and reduce tumor cell malignancy. In this review, application of drug delivery system using ultrasound for an anti-angiogenic therapy, a tumor vessel normalization therapy to treat cancer, is summarized. (author)

  2. Ultrasound therapy for recalcitrant diabetic foot ulcers: results of a randomized, double-blind, controlled, multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, William J; Foremann, Phil; Mozen, Neal; Massey, Joi; Conner-Kerr, Teresa; Meneses, Patricio

    2005-08-01

    An estimated 15% of patients with diabetes will develop a foot ulcer sometime in their life, making them 30 to 40 times more likely to undergo amputation due to a non-healing foot ulcer than the non-diabetic population. To determine the safety and efficacy of a new, non-contact, kilohertz ultrasound therapy for the healing of recalcitrant diabetic foot ulcers - as well as to evaluate the impact on total closure and quantitative bacterial cultures and the effect on healing of various levels of sharp/surgical debridement - a randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in hospital-based and private wound care clinics. Patients (55 met criteria for efficacy analysis) received standard of care, which included products that provide a moist environment, offloading diabetic shoes and socks, debridement, wound evaluation, and measurement. The "therapy" was either active 40 KHz ultrasound delivered by a saline mist or a "sham device" which delivered a saline mist without the use of ultrasound. After 12 weeks of care, the proportion of wounds healed (defined as complete epithelialization without drainage) in the active ultrasound therapy device group was significantly higher than that in the sham control group (40.7% versus 14.3%, P = 0.0366, Fisher's exact test). The ultrasound treatment was easy to use and no difference in the number and type of adverse events between the two treatment groups was noted. Of interest, wounds were debrided at baseline followed by a quantitative culture biopsy. The results of these cultures demonstrated a significant bioburden (greater than 10(5)) in the majority of cases, despite a lack of clinical signs of infection. Compared to control, this therapeutic modality was found to increase the healing rate of recalcitrant, diabetic foot ulcers.

  3. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) stimulates mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells through calcium and phosphate uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassinary, João Alberto Fioravante; Lunardelli, Adroaldo; Basso, Bruno de Souza; Dias, Henrique Bregolin; Catarina, Anderson Velasque; Stülp, Simone; Haute, Gabriela Viegas; Martha, Bianca Andrade; Melo, Denizar Alberto da Silva; Nunes, Fernanda Bordignon; Donadio, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes; Oliveira, Jarbas Rodrigues de

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on pre-osteoblast mineralization using in vitro bioassays. Pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were exposed to LIPUS at 1 MHz frequency, 0.2 W/cm 2 intensity and 20% duty cycle for 30 min. The analyses were carried out up to 336 h (14 days) after exposure. The concentration of collagen, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, calcium and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) in cell supernatant and the presence of calcium deposits in the cells were analyzed. Our results showed that LIPUS promotes mineralized nodules formation. Collagen, phosphate, and calcium levels were decreased in cell supernatant at 192 h after LIPUS exposure. However, alkaline phosphatase and TGF-β1 concentrations remained unchanged. Therapeutic pulsed ultrasound is capable of stimulating differentiation and mineralization of pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells by calcium and phosphate uptake with consequent hydroxyapatite formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamic Behavior of Microbubbles during Long Ultrasound Tone-Burst Excitation: Mechanistic Insights into Ultrasound-Microbubble Mediated Therapeutics Using High-Speed Imaging and Cavitation Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xucai; Wang, Jianjun; Pacella, John J; Villanueva, Flordeliza S

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasound (US)-microbubble (MB)-mediated therapies have been found to restore perfusion and enhance drug/gene delivery. On the presumption that MBs do not persist during long US exposure under high acoustic pressures, most schemes use short US pulses when a high US pressure is employed. However, we recently observed an enhanced thrombolytic effect using long US pulses at high acoustic pressures. Therefore, we explored the fate of MBs during long tone-burst exposures (5 ms) at various acoustic pressures and MB concentrations via direct high-speed optical observation and passive cavitation detection. MBs first underwent stable or inertial cavitation depending on the acoustic pressure and then formed gas-filled clusters that continued to oscillate, break up and form new clusters. Cavitation detection confirmed continued, albeit diminishing, acoustic activity throughout the 5-ms US excitation. These data suggest that persisting cavitation activity during long tone bursts may confer additional therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. SU-F-J-225: Histology Study of MR Guided Pulsed Focused Ultrasound On Treatment of Prostate Cancer in Vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L; Cvetkovic, D; Chen, X; Wang, B; Gupta, R; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Our previous study demonstrated significant tumor growth delay in the mice treated with pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU). The purpose of this study is to understand the cell killing mechanisms of pHIFU. Methods: Prostate cancer cells (LNCaP), were grown orthotopically in 17 nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice were treated using pHIFU with an acoustic power of 25W, pulse width 100msec and 300 pulses in one sonication under MR guidance. Mutiple sonications were used to cover the whole tumor volume. The temperature (less than 40 degree centigrade in the focal spot) was monitored using MR thermometry. Animals were euthanized at pre-determined time points (n=2) after treatment: 0 hours; 6 hrs; 24 hrs; 48 hrs; 4 days and 7 days. Two tumorbearing mice were used as control. Three tumor-bearing mice were treated with radiation (RT, 2 Gy) using 6 MV photon beams. RT treated mice were euthanized at 0 hr, 6 hrs and 24 hrs. The tumors were processed for immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for PARP (a surrogate of apoptosis). A multispectral imaging analysis system was used to quantify the expression of PARP staining. Cell apoptosis was calculated based on the PARP expression level using the DAB analysis software. Results: Our data showed that PARP related apoptosis peaked at 48 hrs and 7 days in pHIFU treated mice, which is comparable to that for the RT group at 24 hrs. The preliminary results from this study were consistent with our previous study on tumor growth delay using pHIFU. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that non-thermal pHIFU increased apoptotic tumor cell death through the PARP related pathway. MR guided pHIFU may have a great potential as a safe, noninvasive treatment modality for cancer therapy. This treatment modality may synergize with PARP inhibitors to achieve better therapeutic result.

  6. SU-F-J-225: Histology Study of MR Guided Pulsed Focused Ultrasound On Treatment of Prostate Cancer in Vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L; Cvetkovic, D; Chen, X; Wang, B; Gupta, R; Ma, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Our previous study demonstrated significant tumor growth delay in the mice treated with pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU). The purpose of this study is to understand the cell killing mechanisms of pHIFU. Methods: Prostate cancer cells (LNCaP), were grown orthotopically in 17 nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice were treated using pHIFU with an acoustic power of 25W, pulse width 100msec and 300 pulses in one sonication under MR guidance. Mutiple sonications were used to cover the whole tumor volume. The temperature (less than 40 degree centigrade in the focal spot) was monitored using MR thermometry. Animals were euthanized at pre-determined time points (n=2) after treatment: 0 hours; 6 hrs; 24 hrs; 48 hrs; 4 days and 7 days. Two tumorbearing mice were used as control. Three tumor-bearing mice were treated with radiation (RT, 2 Gy) using 6 MV photon beams. RT treated mice were euthanized at 0 hr, 6 hrs and 24 hrs. The tumors were processed for immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for PARP (a surrogate of apoptosis). A multispectral imaging analysis system was used to quantify the expression of PARP staining. Cell apoptosis was calculated based on the PARP expression level using the DAB analysis software. Results: Our data showed that PARP related apoptosis peaked at 48 hrs and 7 days in pHIFU treated mice, which is comparable to that for the RT group at 24 hrs. The preliminary results from this study were consistent with our previous study on tumor growth delay using pHIFU. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that non-thermal pHIFU increased apoptotic tumor cell death through the PARP related pathway. MR guided pHIFU may have a great potential as a safe, noninvasive treatment modality for cancer therapy. This treatment modality may synergize with PARP inhibitors to achieve better therapeutic result.

  7. Multifunctional pulse generator for high-intensity focused ultrasound system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamano, Satoshi; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-Ichiro

    2017-07-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can achieve high spatial resolution for the treatment of diseases. A major technical challenge in implementing a HIFU therapeutic system is to generate high-voltage high-current signals for effectively exciting a multichannel HIFU transducer at high efficiencies. In this paper, we present the development of a multifunctional multichannel generator/driver. The generator can produce a long burst as well as an extremely high-voltage short pulse of pseudosinusoidal waves (trigger HIFU) and second-harmonic superimposed waves for HIFU transmission. The transmission timing, waveform, and frequency can be controlled using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) via a universal serial bus (USB) microcontroller. The hardware is implemented in a compact printed circuit board. The test results of trigger HIFU reveal that the power consumption and the temperature rise of metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors were reduced by 19.9% and 38.2 °C, respectively, from the previous design. The highly flexible performance of the novel generator/driver is demonstrated in the generation of second-harmonic superimposed waves, which is useful for cavitation-enhanced HIFU treatment, although the previous design exhibited difficulty in generating it.

  8. Laser-nucleated acoustic cavitation in focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerold, Bjoern; Kotopoulis, Spiros; McDougall, Craig; McGloin, David; Postema, Michiel; Prentice, Paul

    2011-04-01

    Acoustic cavitation can occur in therapeutic applications of high-amplitude focused ultrasound. Studying acoustic cavitation has been challenging, because the onset of nucleation is unpredictable. We hypothesized that acoustic cavitation can be forced to occur at a specific location using a laser to nucleate a microcavity in a pre-established ultrasound field. In this paper we describe a scientific instrument that is dedicated to this outcome, combining a focused ultrasound transducer with a pulsed laser. We present high-speed photographic observations of laser-induced cavitation and laser-nucleated acoustic cavitation, at frame rates of 0.5×10(6) frames per second, from laser pulses of energy above and below the optical breakdown threshold, respectively. Acoustic recordings demonstrated inertial cavitation can be controllably introduced to the ultrasound focus. This technique will contribute to the understanding of cavitation evolution in focused ultrasound including for potential therapeutic applications. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  9. Effect of acoustic parameters on the cavitation behavior of SonoVue microbubbles induced by pulsed ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yutong; Lin, Lizhou; Cheng, Mouwen; Jin, Lifang; Du, Lianfang; Han, Tao; Xu, Lin; Yu, Alfred C H; Qin, Peng

    2017-03-01

    SonoVue microbubbles could serve as artificial nuclei for ultrasound-triggered stable and inertial cavitation, resulting in beneficial biological effects for future therapeutic applications. To optimize and control the use of the cavitation of SonoVue bubbles in therapy while ensuring safety, it is important to comprehensively understand the relationship between the acoustic parameters and the cavitation behavior of the SonoVue bubbles. An agarose-gel tissue phantom was fabricated to hold the SonoVue bubble suspension. 1-MHz transmitting transducer calibrated by a hydrophone was used to trigger the cavitation of SonoVue bubbles under different ultrasonic parameters (i.e., peak rarefactional pressure (PRP), pulse repetition frequency (PRF), and pulse duration (PD)). Another 7.5-MHz focused transducer was employed to passively receive acoustic signals from the exposed bubbles. The ultraharmonics and broadband intensities in the acoustic emission spectra were measured to quantify the extent of stable and inertial cavitation of SonoVue bubbles, respectively. We found that the onset of both stable and inertial cavitation exhibited a strong dependence on the PRP and PD and a relatively weak dependence on the PRF. Approximate 0.25MPa PRP with more than 20μs PD was considered to be necessary for ultraharmonics emission of SonoVue bubbles, and obvious broadband signals started to appear when the PRP exceeded 0.40MPa. Moreover, the doses of stable and inertial cavitation varied with the PRP. The stable cavitation dose initially increased with increasing PRP, and then decreased rapidly after 0.5MPa. By contrast, the inertial cavitation dose continuously increased with increasing PRP. Finally, the doses of both stable and inertial cavitation were positively correlated with PRF and PD. These results could provide instructive information for optimizing future therapeutic applications of SonoVue bubbles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Relapse and long-term cognitive performance after brief pulse or ultrabrief pulse right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy: A multicenter naturalistic follow up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijk, E.; Spaans, H.P.; Comijs, H.C.; Kho, K.H.; Sienaert, P.; Bouckaert, F.; Obbels, J.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Stek, M.L.; Kok, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Superior cognitive functioning for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) with right unilateral (RUL) ultrabrief pulse (UBP) stimulation compared to RUL brief pulse (BP) stimulation is not clearly established and long-term data is needed. Methods We conducted a prospective naturalistic follow-up

  11. Prolonged methylprednisolone therapy after the pulse treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe paraquat poisoning: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Feng, ShunYi; Wang, Jian; Yang, SiYuan; Li, Yong

    2017-06-01

    This retrospective study aims to evaluate the effect of prolonged methylprednisolone (MP) therapy on the mortality of patients with moderate-to-severe paraquat (PQ) poisoning after the pulse treatment.We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with acute moderate-to-severe PQ poisoning that were admitted to the emergency department from May 2012 to August 2016. Out of 138 patients, 60 were treated with pulse treatment (15 mg kg day MP for 3 days) and 78 were treated with prolonged MP therapy after pulse treatment (15 mg kg day MP for 3 days; afterward, the dosage was reduced in half every 2 days, and the MP therapy was terminated until 0.47 mg kg day). Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare the mortality between the 2 groups. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).The mortality of the prolonged MP therapy after pulse treatment group was lower than that of the pulse group (47.4% vs 63.3%; log-rank tests, P  =  .003). According to the multivariate Cox analysis, the prolonged MP therapy after pulse treatment was significantly associated with a lower mortality risk (HR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.19-0.52, P treatment caused more incidences of leucopenia than the pulse treatment alone (25.6% vs 11.7%, P  =  .04).The prolonged MP therapy after pulse treatment can reduce the mortality of moderate-to-severe PQ poisoning patients.

  12. Generation of ultrasound in materials using continuous-wave lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, James N; DiComo, Gregory P; Nikitin, Sergei

    2012-03-01

    Generating and detecting ultrasound is a standard method of nondestructive evaluation of materials. Pulsed lasers are used to generate ultrasound remotely in situations that prohibit the use of contact transducers. The scanning rate is limited by the repetition rates of the pulsed lasers, ranging between 10 and 100 Hz for lasers with sufficient pulse widths and energies. Alternately, a high-power continuous-wave laser can be scanned across the surface, creating an ultrasonic wavefront. Since generation is continuous, the scanning rate can be as much as 4 orders of magnitude higher than with pulsed lasers. This paper introduces the concept, comparing the theoretical scanning speed with generation by pulsed laser. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  13. A 1372-element Large Scale Hemispherical Ultrasound Phased Array Transducer for Noninvasive Transcranial Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Junho; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive transcranial therapy using high intensity focused ultrasound transducers has attracted high interest as a promising new modality for the treatments of brain related diseases. We describe the development of a 1372 element large scale hemispherical ultrasound phased array transducer operating at a resonant frequency of 306 kHz. The hemispherical array has a diameter of 31 cm and a 15.5 cm radius of curvature. It is constructed with piezoelectric (PZT-4) tube elements of a 10 mm in diameter, 6 mm in length and 1.4 mm wall thickness. Each element is quasi-air backed by attaching a cork-rubber membrane on the back of the element. The acoustic efficiency of the element is determined to be approximately 50%. The large number of the elements delivers high power ultrasound and offers better beam steering and focusing capability. Comparisons of sound pressure-squared field measurements with theoretical calculations in water show that the array provides good beam steering and tight focusing capability over an efficient volume of approximately 100x100x80 mm 3 with nominal focal spot size of approximately 2.3 mm in diameter at -6 dB. We also present its beam steering and focusing capability through an ex vivo human skull by measuring pressure-squared amplitude after phase corrections. These measurements show the same efficient volume range and focal spot sizes at -6 dB as the ones in water without the skull present. These results indicate that the array is sufficient for use in noninvasive transcranial ultrasound therapy.

  14. Complex tibial fracture outcomes following treatment with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kwok-Sui; Lee, Wing-Sze; Tsui, Hon-For; Liu, Paul Po-Lung; Cheung, Wing-Hoi

    2004-03-01

    A clinical study was conducted to investigate the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (US) stimulation (LIPUS) on the healing of complex tibial fractures. Thirty complex tibial fractures were randomly assigned to the treatment with LIPUS (n = 16) or by a dummy machine (sham-exposed: n = 14). The fractures were immobilized by either internal or external fixations according to the clinical indications. LIPUS was given 20 min/day for 90 days. Fracture healing was monitored by clinical, radiological, densitometric and biochemical assessments. The LIPUS-treated group showed statistically significantly better healing, as demonstrated by all assessments. Complications were minimal in the LIPUS group. There were two cases of delayed union, with one in each group. There were two cases of infection in the control group. The delayed-union cases were subsequently treated by LIPUS and the infection cases were treated with standard protocol. Fracture healing in these patients was again treated by LIPUS.

  15. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sexes without x-ray exposure. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ... and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page ...

  16. Increasing vaccine production using pulsed ultrasound waves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jida Xing

    Full Text Available Vaccination is a safe and effective approach to prevent deadly diseases. To increase vaccine production, we propose that a mechanical stimulation can enhance protein production. In order to prove this hypothesis, Sf9 insect cells were used to evaluate the increase in the expression of a fusion protein from hepatitis B virus (HBV S1/S2. We discovered that the ultrasound stimulation at a frequency of 1.5 MHz, intensity of 60 mW/cm2, for a duration of 10 minutes per day increased HBV S1/S2 by 27%. We further derived a model for transport through a cell membrane under the effect of ultrasound waves, tested the key assumptions of the model through a molecular dynamics simulation package, NAMD (Nanoscale Molecular Dynamics program and utilized CHARMM force field in a steered molecular dynamics environment. The results show that ultrasound waves can increase cell permeability, which, in turn, can enhance nutrient / waste exchange thus leading to enhanced vaccine production. This finding is very meaningful in either shortening vaccine production time, or increasing the yield of proteins for use as vaccines.

  17. Vectorization of ultrasound-responsive nanoparticles in placental mesenchymal stem cells for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Juan L; de la Torre, Paz; Victoria Cabañas, M; Manzano, Miguel; Grau, Montserrat; Flores, Ana I; Vallet-Regí, María

    2017-05-04

    A new platform constituted by engineered responsive nanoparticles transported by human mesenchymal stem cells is here presented as a proof of concept. Ultrasound-responsive mesoporous silica nanoparticles are coated with polyethylenimine to favor their effective uptake by decidua-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The responsive-release ability of the designed nanoparticles is confirmed, both in vial and in vivo. In addition, this capability is maintained inside the cells used as carriers. The migration capacity of the nanoparticle-cell platform towards mammary tumors is assessed in vitro. The efficacy of this platform for anticancer therapy is shown against mammary tumor cells by inducing the release of doxorubicin only when the cell vehicles are exposed to ultrasound.

  18. High-Frequency, Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Enhances Alveolar Bone Healing of Extraction Sockets in Rats: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Lhi; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Park, Joon Bong; Heo, Jung Sun; Choi, Yumi

    2016-02-01

    Most studies of the beneficial effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on bone healing have used frequencies between 1.0 and 1.5 MHz. However, after consideration of ultrasound wave characteristics and depth of target tissue, higher-frequency LIPUS may have been more effective on superficially positioned alveolar bone. We investigated this hypothesis by applying LIPUS (frequency, 3.0 MHz; intensity, 30 mW/cm(2)) on shaved right cheeks over alveolar bones of tooth extraction sockets in rats for 10 min/d for 2 wk after tooth extraction; the control group (left cheek of the same rats) did not receive LIPUS treatment. Compared with the control group, the LIPUS group manifested more new bone growth inside the sockets on histomorphometric analysis (maximal difference = 2.5-fold on the seventh day after extraction) and higher expressions of osteogenesis-related mRNAs and proteins than the control group did. These findings indicate that 3.0-MHz LIPUS could enhance alveolar bone formation and calcification in rats. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Relative ultrasound energy measurement circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, E.Martin I.; Johansson, Jonny; Delsing, Jerker

    2005-01-01

    A relative ultrasound energy estimation circuit has been designed in a standard 0.35-μm CMOS process, to be a part of a thumb size internet connected wireless ultrasound measurement system. This circuit measures the relative energy between received ultrasound pulses, and presents an output signal that is linear to the received energy. Post-layout simulations indicate 7 bit linearity for 500 mV input signals, 5 μsec startup and stop times, 2.6 mW power consumption during active state. The acti...

  20. Prediction for effectiveness of steroid pulse therapy by MRI in Graves' ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masayuki; Hiromatsu, Yuji; Tanaka, Kiyoko; Nonaka, Kyohei; Kojima, Kazuyuki; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nishida, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) were treated with intravenous methylprednisolone (steroid pulse therapy, one g daily for 3 days a week, 2-4 times) and followed up by ophthalmological assessment and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The signal intensity of enlarged eye muscle and retrobulbar fat was examined with MRI at 0.5 T with short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. The signal intensity of eye muscle and retrobulbar fat tissue in STIR was evaluated as the ratio to cerebral substantia alba (signal intensity ratio). The thickness of enlarged eye muscle was measured by T1-weighted coronal images. The signal intensity ratios of enlarged eye muscle of GO patients were significantly higher than those of eight normal subjects. Although the signal intensity ratios of muscle and retrobulbar fat before therapy were not related to the severity of clinical findings of GO assessed by ophthalmopathy index, the initial signal intensity ratios of eye muscle and retrobulbar fat of ten patients with improved clinical findings of GO after steroid pulse therapy tended to be higher than those of five patients without improvement by the therapy. After the therapy the signal intensity ratios of muscle and retrobulbar fat were significantly decreased in ten patients with favorable response. Our data suggested that high signal intensity in STIR may reflect edema caused by acute inflammation associated with GO. In conclusion, MRI may be a useful tool for determining the indication and prognosis of steroid pulse therapy. We strongly recommend measuring the signal intensity of eye muscle as well as muscle thickness in MRI to evaluate the activity of GO. (author)

  1. Ultrasound-responsive gene-activated matrices for osteogenic gene therapy using matrix-assisted sonoporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikou, N; Feichtinger, G A; Saha, S; Nuernberger, S; Heimel, P; Redl, H; McHale, A P

    2018-01-01

    Gene-activated matrix (GAM)-based therapeutics for tissue regeneration are limited by efficacy, the lack of spatiotemporal control and availability of target cells, all of which impact negatively on their translation to the clinic. Here, an advanced ultrasound-responsive GAM is described containing target cells that facilitates matrix-assisted sonoporation (MAS) to induce osteogenic differentiation. Ultrasound-responsive GAMs consisting of fibrin/collagen hybrid-matrices containing microbubbles, bone morphogenetic protein BMP2/7 coexpression plasmids together with C2C12 cells were treated with ultrasound either in vitro or following parenteral intramuscular implantation in vivo. Using direct measurement for alkaline phosphatase activity, von Kossa staining and immunohistochemical analysis for osteocalcin expression, MAS-stimulated osteogenic differentiation was confirmed in the GAMs in vitro 7 days after treatment with ultrasound. At day 30 post-treatment with ultrasound, ectopic osteogenic differentiation was confirmed in vivo using X-ray microcomputed tomography and histological analysis. Osteogenic differentiation was indicated by the presence of ectopic bone structures in all animals treated with MAS. In addition, bone volumes in this group were statistically greater than those in the control groups. This novel approach of incorporating a MAS capability into GAMs could be exploited to facilitate ex vivo gene transfer with subsequent surgical implantation or alternatively provide a minimally invasive means of stimulating in situ transgene delivery for osteoinductive gene-based therapies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Intravenous Dexamethasone Pulse Therapy For Extensive Alopecia Areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa Devinder Mohan

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient with extensive alopecia areata (>30% scalp involvement were given 32mg of dexamethasone in 200 ml of 5% dextrose intravenously on three consecutive days (total 96mg every four weeks. Response was quantified as 1 to 25%, 25% to 50%, 50 to 75% and 75 to 100% of terminal hair growth by mapping and serial photographs. They were examined monthly for side effects of steroids. Six patients (5 male and 1 female with a mean age of 32 years were recruited. They had alopecia areata for a period ranging from 3 months to 2.5 years. All the six cases did not show further worsening of alopecia after 3 pulses. However, two of them showed less than 25% hair growth after 4 pulses and did not turn up for follow up. In 2 cases, 25 to 50% growth was observed an 50 to 75% growth was seen in 2 patients (one of them with ophiasic pattern after 6 pulses. The results were cosmetically acceptable for three of them. No adverse effect to steroids was encountered and the patients are still under follow up. The preliminary results show that dexamethasone pulse therapy is safe and effective for extensive alopecia areata.

  3. Pulsed ultrasound enhances the delivery of nitric oxide from bubble liposomes to ex vivo porcine carotid tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton JT

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available JT Sutton,1 JL Raymond,1 MC Verleye,2 GJ Pyne-Geithman,3 CK Holland4 1University of Cincinnati, Biomedical Engineering Program, Cincinnati, OH, 2University of Notre Dame Department of Chemical Engineering, Notre Dame, IN, 3University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery and the University of Cincinnati Neuroscience Institute, and Mayfield Clinic, Cincinnati, OH, 4University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine, Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Cincinnati, OH, USA Abstract: Ultrasound-mediated drug delivery is a novel technique for enhancing the penetration of drugs into diseased tissue beds noninvasively. By encapsulating drugs into microsized and nanosized liposomes, the therapeutic can be shielded from degradation within the vasculature until delivery to a target site by ultrasound exposure. Traditional in vitro or ex vivo techniques to quantify this delivery profile include optical approaches, cell culture, and electrophysiology. Here, we demonstrate an approach to characterize the degree of nitric oxide (NO delivery to porcine carotid tissue by direct measurement of ex vivo vascular tone. An ex vivo perfusion model was adapted to assess ultrasound-mediated delivery of NO. This potent vasodilator was coencapsulated with inert octafluoropropane gas to produce acoustically active bubble liposomes. Porcine carotid arteries were excised post mortem and mounted in a physiologic buffer solution. Vascular tone was assessed in real time by coupling the artery to an isometric force transducer. NO-loaded bubble liposomes were infused into the lumen of the artery, which was exposed to 1 MHz pulsed ultrasound at a peak-to-peak acoustic pressure amplitude of 0.34 MPa. Acoustic cavitation emissions were monitored passively. Changes in vascular tone were measured and compared with control and sham NO bubble liposome exposures. Our results demonstrate that ultrasound-triggered NO release from bubble liposomes

  4. Pulsed cavitational ultrasound for non-invasive chordal cutting guided by real-time 3D echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemain, Olivier; Kwiecinski, Wojciech; Bel, Alain; Robin, Justine; Bruneval, Patrick; Arnal, Bastien; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu; Messas, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    Basal chordae surgical section has been shown to be effective in reducing ischaemic mitral regurgitation (IMR). Achieving this section by non-invasive mean can considerably decrease the morbidity of this intervention on already infarcted myocardium. We investigated in vitro and in vivo the feasibility and safety of pulsed cavitational focused ultrasound (histotripsy) for non-invasive chordal cutting guided by real-time 3D echocardiography. Experiments were performed on 12 sheep hearts, 5 in vitro on explanted sheep hearts and 7 in vivo on beating sheep hearts. In vitro, the mitral valve (MV) apparatus including basal and marginal chordae was removed and fixed on a holder in a water tank. High-intensity ultrasound pulses were emitted from the therapeutic device (1-MHz focused transducer, pulses of 8 µs duration, peak negative pressure of 17 MPa, repetition frequency of 100 Hz), placed at a distance of 64 mm under 3D echocardiography guidance. In vivo, after sternotomy, the same therapeutic device was applied on the beating heart. We analysed MV coaptation and chordae by real-time 3D echocardiography before and after basal chordal cutting. After sacrifice, the MV apparatus were harvested for anatomical and histological post-mortem explorations to confirm the section of the chordae. In vitro, all chordae were completely cut after a mean procedure duration of 5.5 ± 2.5 min. The procedure duration was found to increase linearly with the chordae diameter. In vivo, the central basal chordae of the anterior leaflet were completely cut. The mean procedure duration was 20 ± 9 min (min = 14, max = 26). The sectioned chordae was visible on echocardiography, and MV coaptation remained normal with no significant mitral regurgitation. Anatomical and histological post-mortem explorations of the hearts confirmed the section of the chordae. Histotripsy guided by 3D echo achieved successfully to cut MV chordae in vitro and in vivo in beating heart. We hope that this technique will

  5. Progetto EURAMET: HLT03 DUTy - Dosimetria per terapie ultrasonore. Confronto tra metodi di misura - EURAMET: HLT03 DUTy - Dosimetry for ultrasound therapy. Intercomparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Durando

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La mancanza di una definizione della dose ultrasonora rende di fatto impossibile la valutazione della più appropriata “quantità” energia ceduta ai tessuti dal fascio ultrasonoro emesso da un trasduttore durante una terapia. Il progetto di ricerca “Dosimetry for Ultrasound Therapy - DUTy”, finanziato dal programma di ricerca EURAMET EMRP, aveva tra i suoi principali obiettivi, oltre al confronto interlaboratorio che validasse le capacità metrologiche dei laboratori partecipanti, la ricerca della definizione di dose ultrasonora che consentisse la definizione di un piano terapeutico specifico per ogni paziente. ------ Standardized and traceable dose has not yet been developed for medical ultrasound applications. This means that the ‘amount’ of ultrasound required for a particular therapy cannot be calculated and that the ‘amount’ actually delivered quantified. The aim of EURAMET EMRP project “Dosimetry for Ultrasound Therapy - DUTy” project was developing the metrological infrastructure (definitions, validated measurement and modelling methods which underpins the specification of dose for therapeutic ultrasound applications allowing appropriate treatment planning and risk assessment.

  6. Contrast ultrasound-guided photothermal therapy using gold nanoshelled microcapsules in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shumin [Department of Ultrasonography, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100083 (China); Ordos Center Hospital, Ordos, Inner Mongolia 017000 (China); Dai, Zhifei [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ke, Hengte [Nanomedicine and Biosensor Laboratory, School of Life Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Qu, Enze [Department of Ultrasonography, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100083 (China); Qi, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Kuo [Department of Laboratory Animal Science, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100019 (China); Wang, Jinrui, E-mail: jinrui_wang@sina.com [Department of Ultrasonography, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test whether dual functional gold nano-shelled microcapsules (GNS-MCs) can be used as an ultrasound imaging enhancer and as an optical absorber for photothermal therapy (PTT) in a rodent model of breast cancer. Methods: GNS-MCs were fabricated with an inner air and outer gold nanoshell spherical structure. Photothermal cytotoxicity of GNS-MCs was tested with BT474 cancer cells in vitro and non-obese diabetes-SCID (NOD/SCID) mice with breast cancer. GNS-MCs were injected into the tumor under ultrasound guidance and treated with near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. The photothermal ablative effectiveness of GNS-MCs was evaluated by measuring the surface and internal temperature of the tumor as well as the size of the tumor using histological confirmation. Results: NIR laser irradiation resulted in significant tumor cell death in GNS-MCs-treated BT474 cells in vitro. GNS-MCs were able to serve as an ultrasound enhancer to guide the intratumoral injection of GNS-MCs and ensure their uniform distribution. In vivo studies revealed that NIR laser irradiation increased the intratumoral temperature to nearly 70 °C for 8 min in GNS-MCs-treated mice. Tumor volumes decreased gradually and tumors were completely ablated in 6 out of 7 mice treated with GNS-MCs and laser irradiation by 17 days after treatment. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that ultrasound-guided PTT with theranostic GNS-MCs is a promising technique for in situ treatment of breast cancer.

  7. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound induces angiogenesis and ameliorates left ventricular dysfunction in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichiro Hanawa

    Full Text Available Although a significant progress has been made in the management of ischemic heart disease (IHD, the number of severe IHD patients is increasing. Thus, it is crucial to develop new, non-invasive therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we aimed to develop low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS therapy for the treatment of IHD.We first confirmed that in cultured human endothelial cells, LIPUS significantly up-regulated mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF with a peak at 32-cycle (P<0.05. Then, we examined the in vivo effects of LIPUS in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF (n = 28. The heart was treated with either sham (n = 14 or LIPUS (32-cycle with 193 mW/cm2 for 20 min, n = 14 at 3 different short axis levels. Four weeks after the treatment, LVEF was significantly improved in the LIPUS group (46±4 to 57±5%, P<0.05 without any adverse effects, whereas it remained unchanged in the sham group (46±5 to 47±6%, P = 0.33. Capillary density in the ischemic region was significantly increased in the LIPUS group compared with the control group (1084±175 vs. 858±151/mm2, P<0.05. Regional myocardial blood flow was also significantly improved in the LIPUS group (0.78±0.2 to 1.39±0.4 ml/min/g, P<0.05, but not in the control group (0.84±0.3 to 0.97±0.4 ml/min/g. Western blot analysis showed that VEGF, eNOS and bFGF were all significantly up-regulated only in the LIPUS group.These results suggest that the LIPUS therapy is promising as a new, non-invasive therapy for IHD.

  8. Interference-free ultrasound imaging during HIFU therapy, using software tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezy, Shahram (Inventor); Held, Robert (Inventor); Sikdar, Siddhartha (Inventor); Managuli, Ravi (Inventor); Zderic, Vesna (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a method for obtaining a composite interference-free ultrasound image when non-imaging ultrasound waves would otherwise interfere with ultrasound imaging. A conventional ultrasound imaging system is used to collect frames of ultrasound image data in the presence of non-imaging ultrasound waves, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). The frames are directed to a processor that analyzes the frames to identify portions of the frame that are interference-free. Interference-free portions of a plurality of different ultrasound image frames are combined to generate a single composite interference-free ultrasound image that is displayed to a user. In this approach, a frequency of the non-imaging ultrasound waves is offset relative to a frequency of the ultrasound imaging waves, such that the interference introduced by the non-imaging ultrasound waves appears in a different portion of the frames.

  9. Inertial cavitation initiated by polytetrafluoroethylene nanoparticles under pulsed ultrasound stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qiaofeng; Kang, Shih-Tsung; Chang, Yuan-Chih; Zheng, Hairong; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2016-09-01

    Nanoscale gas bubbles residing on a macroscale hydrophobic surface have a surprising long lifetime (on the order of days) and can serve as cavitation nuclei for initiating inertial cavitation (IC). Whether interfacial nanobubbles (NBs) reside on the infinite surface of a hydrophobic nanoparticle (NP) and could serve as cavitation nuclei is unknown, but this would be very meaningful for the development of sonosensitive NPs. To address this problem, we investigated the IC activity of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) NPs, which are regarded as benchmark superhydrophobic NPs due to their low surface energy caused by the presence of fluorocarbon. Both a passive cavitation detection system and terephthalic dosimetry was applied to quantify the intensity of IC. The IC intensities of the suspension with PTFE NPs were 10.30 and 48.41 times stronger than those of deionized water for peak negative pressures of 2 and 5MPa, respectively. However, the IC activities were nearly completely inhibited when the suspension was degassed or ethanol was used to suspend PTFE NPs, and they were recovered when suspended in saturated water, which may indicates the presence of interfacial NBs on PTFE NPs surfaces. Importantly, these PTFE NPs could sustainably initiate IC for excitation by a sequence of at least 6000 pulses, whereas lipid microbubbles were completely depleted after the application of no more than 50 pulses under the same conditions. The terephthalic dosimetry has shown that much higher hydroxyl yields were achieved when PTFE NPs were present as cavitation nuclei when using ultrasound parameters that otherwise did not produce significant amounts of free radicals. These results show that superhydrophobic NPs may be an outstanding candidate for use in IC-related applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Successful switch from bilateral brief pulse to right unilateral ultrabrief pulse electroconvulsive therapy after failure to induce seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawashima H

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hirotsugu Kawashima,1 Yuko Kobayashi,1 Taro Suwa,2 Toshiya Murai,2 Ryuichi Yoshioka1 1Department of Psychiatry, Toyooka Hospital, Toyooka, Hyogo, Japan; 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan Abstract: Inducing adequate therapeutic seizures during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is sometimes difficult due to a high seizure threshold, even at the maximum stimulus charge. Previous studies have demonstrated that seizure threshold is lower in patients treated with right unilateral ultrabrief pulse (RUL-UBP ECT than in those treated with bilateral or brief pulse (BL-BP ECT. Therefore, switching to RUL-UBP ECT may be beneficial for patients in whom seizure induction is difficult with conventional ECT. In the present report, we discuss the case of a patient suffering from catatonic schizophrenia in whom BL-BP ECT failed to induce seizures at the maximum charge. However, RUL-UBP ECT successfully elicited therapeutic seizures and enabled the patient to achieve complete remission. This case illustrates that, along with other augmentation strategies, RUL-UBP ECT represents an alternative for seizure induction in clinical practice. Keywords: electroconvulsive therapy, augmentation, ultrabrief pulse, electrode placement, seizure threshold

  11. Insufficient scientific evidence for efficacy of widely used electrotherapy, laser therapy, and ultrasound treatment in physiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouter, L M

    2000-01-01

    The Dutch Health Council recently published a report on the efficacy of electrotherapy, laser therapy and ultrasound treatment for musculoskeletal disorders. The assessment was based on three systematic reviews, including 169 randomized clinical trials, and focused on a best-evidence synthesis.

  12. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ... with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. ... Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored by Please ...

  13. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Cancer Therapy--harnessing its non-linearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haar, Gail ter

    2008-01-01

    In medicine in general, and for cancer treatments in particular, there is a drive to find effective non-invasive therapies. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) represents one such technique. In principle, it is simple--a high energy ultrasound beam is brought to a tight focus within a target which may lie several centimetres below the skin surface (for example, in a tumour of the liver), and is used to destroy a selected tissue volume. The main mechanism for cell killing in a HIFU beam is heat. Ultrasound energy absorption is frequency dependent, the higher frequencies being absorbed most strongly. Significant thermal advantage may therefore be gained from non-linear propagation, which generates higher harmonics, in tissue. Acoustic cavitation and thermal exsolution of gas (boiling) also contribute to tissue damage. This activity leads to the local mechanical disruption of cells. In addition, the non-linear oscillation of these bubbles leads to enhanced energy deposition. The acoustic emissions from such bubbles are characteristic of their behaviour and may be correlated to some extent with the appearance of the disruption produced. The more widespread clinical acceptance of HIFU is awaiting faster, and more efficient, energy delivery and treatment monitoring. A better understanding of the nonlinear aspects of HIFU propagation in tissue is thus important if this technique is to benefit more patients

  14. Laser generated ultrasound sources using polymer nanocomposites for high frequency metrology

    KAUST Repository

    Rajagopal, Srinath

    2017-11-22

    Accurate characterization of ultrasound fields generated by diagnostic and therapeutic transducers is critical for patient safety. This requires hydrophones calibrated to a traceable standard and currently the upper calibration frequency range available to the user community is limited to a frequency of 40 MHz. However, the increasing use of high frequencies for both imaging and therapy necessitates calibrations to frequencies well beyond this range. For this to be possible, a source of high amplitude, broadband, quasi-planar and stable ultrasound fields is required. This is difficult to achieve using conventional piezoelectric sources, but laser generated ultrasound is a promising technique in this regard. In this study, various polymer-carbon nanotube nanocomposites (PNC) were fabricated and tested for their suitability for such an application by varying the polymer type, carbon nanotubes weight content in the polymer, and PNC thickness. A broadband hydrophone was used to measure the peak pressure and bandwidth of the laser generated ultrasound pulse. Peak-positive pressures of up to 8 MPa and −6dB bandwidths of up to 40 MHz were recorded. There is a nonlinear dependence of the peak pressure on the laser fluence and the bandwidth scales inversely proportionally to the peak pressure. The high-pressure plane waves generated from this preliminary investigation has demonstrated that laser generated ultrasound sources are a promising technique for high frequency calibration of hydrophones.

  15. Acoustic bubble sorting for ultrasound contrast agent enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, T.J.; Versluis, Michel

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) suspension contains encapsulated microbubbles with a wide size distribution, with radii ranging from 1 to 10 μm. Medical transducers typically operate at a single frequency, therefore only a small selection of bubbles will resonate to the driving ultrasound pulse.

  16. Experimental investigations of an endoluminal ultrasound applicator for MR-guided thermal therapy of pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew; Salgaonkar, Vasant; Jones, Peter; Plata, Juan; Chen, Henry; Pauly, Kim Butts; Sommer, Graham; Diederich, Chris

    2017-03-01

    An MR-guided endoluminal ultrasound applicator has been proposed for palliative and potential curative thermal therapy of pancreatic tumors. Minimally invasive ablation or hyperthermia treatment of pancreatic tumor tissue would be performed with the applicator positioned in the gastrointestinal (GI) lumen, and sparing of the luminal tissue would be achieved with a water-cooled balloon surrounding the ultrasound transducers. This approach offers the capability of conformal volumetric therapy for fast treatment times, with control over the 3D spatial deposition of energy. Prototype endoluminal ultrasound applicators have been fabricated using 3D printed fixtures that seat two 3.2 or 5.6 MHz planar or curvilinear transducers and contain channels for wiring and water flow. Spiral surface coils have been integrated onto the applicator body to allow for device localization and tracking for therapies performed under MR guidance. Heating experiments with a tissue-mimicking phantom in a 3T MR scanner were performed and demonstrated capability of the prototype to perform volumetric heating through duodenal luminal tissue under real-time PRF-based MR temperature imaging (MRTI). Additional experiments were performed in ex vivo pig carcasses with the applicator inserted into the esophagus and aimed towards liver or soft tissue surrounding the spine under MR guidance. These experiments verified the capacity of heating targets up to 20-25 mm from the GI tract. Active device tracking and automated prescription of imaging and temperature monitoring planes through the applicator were made possible by using Hadamard encoded tracking sequences to obtain the coordinates of the applicator tracking coils. The prototype applicators have been integrated with an MR software suite that performs real-time device tracking and temperature monitoring.

  17. Third Harmonic Imaging using a Pulse Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim; Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    The pulse inversion (PI) technique can be utilized to separate and enhance harmonic components of a waveform for tissue harmonic imaging. While most ultrasound systems can perform pulse inversion, only few image the 3rd harmonic component. PI pulse subtraction can isolate and enhance the 3rd...

  18. Non-Invasive In Vivo Ultrasound Temperature Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Mahdi

    New emerging technologies in thermal therapy require precise monitoring and control of the delivered thermal dose in a variety of situations. The therapeutic temperature changes in target tissues range from few degrees for releasing chemotherapy drugs encapsulated in the thermosensitive liposomes to boiling temperatures in complete ablation of tumors via cell necrosis. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has emerged as a promising modality for noninvasive surgery due to its ability to create precise mechanical and thermal effects at the target without affecting surrounding tissues. An essential element in all these procedures, however, is accurate estimation of the target tissue temperature during the procedure to ensure its safety and efficacy. The advent of diagnostic imaging tools for guidance of thermal therapy was a key factor in the clinical acceptance of these minimally invasive or noninvasive methods. More recently, ultrasound and magnetic resonance (MR) thermography techniques have been proposed for guidance, monitoring, and control of noninvasive thermal therapies. MR thermography has shown acceptable sensitivity and accuracy in imaging temperature change and it is currently FDA-approved on clinical HIFU units. However, it suffers from limitations like cost of integration with ultrasound therapy system and slow rate of imaging for real time guidance. Ultrasound, on the other hand, has the advantage of real time imaging and ease of integration with the therapy system. An infinitesimal model for imaging temperature change using pulse-echo ultrasound has been demonstrated, including in vivo small-animal imaging. However, this model suffers from limitations that prevent demonstration in more clinically-relevant settings. One limitation stems from the infinitesimal nature of the model, which results in spatial inconsistencies of the estimated temperature field. Another limitation is the sensitivity to tissue motion and deformation during in vivo, which

  19. Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements at the Heel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugschies, M.; Brixen, K.; Hermann, P.

    2015-01-01

    Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound can be used to predict osteoporotic fracture risk, but its ability to monitor therapy is unclear possibly because of its limited precision. We developed a quantitative ultrasound device (foot ultrasound scanner) that measures the speed of sound at the heel...... with the foot ultrasound scanner reduced precision errors by half (p quantitative ultrasound measurements is feasible. (E-mail: m.daugschies@rad.uni-kiel.de) (C) 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology....

  20. Random Sequence for Optimal Low-Power Laser Generated Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangi, D.; Virga, A.; Gulino, M. S.

    2017-08-01

    Low-power laser generated ultrasounds are lately gaining importance in the research world, thanks to the possibility of investigating a mechanical component structural integrity through a non-contact and Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) procedure. The ultrasounds are, however, very low in amplitude, making it necessary to use pre-processing and post-processing operations on the signals to detect them. The cross-correlation technique is used in this work, meaning that a random signal must be used as laser input. For this purpose, a highly random and simple-to-create code called T sequence, capable of enhancing the ultrasound detectability, is introduced (not previously available at the state of the art). Several important parameters which characterize the T sequence can influence the process: the number of pulses Npulses , the pulse duration δ and the distance between pulses dpulses . A Finite Element FE model of a 3 mm steel disk has been initially developed to analytically study the longitudinal ultrasound generation mechanism and the obtainable outputs. Later, experimental tests have shown that the T sequence is highly flexible for ultrasound detection purposes, making it optimal to use high Npulses and δ but low dpulses . In the end, apart from describing all phenomena that arise in the low-power laser generation process, the results of this study are also important for setting up an effective NDT procedure using this technology.

  1. Spatial Angular Compounding Technique for H-Scan Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairalseed, Mawia; Xiong, Fangyuan; Kim, Jung-Whan; Mattrey, Robert F; Parker, Kevin J; Hoyt, Kenneth

    2018-01-01

    H-Scan is a new ultrasound imaging technique that relies on matching a model of pulse-echo formation to the mathematics of a class of Gaussian-weighted Hermite polynomials. This technique may be beneficial in the measurement of relative scatterer sizes and in cancer therapy, particularly for early response to drug treatment. Because current H-scan techniques use focused ultrasound data acquisitions, spatial resolution degrades away from the focal region and inherently affects relative scatterer size estimation. Although the resolution of ultrasound plane wave imaging can be inferior to that of traditional focused ultrasound approaches, the former exhibits a homogeneous spatial resolution throughout the image plane. The purpose of this study was to implement H-scan using plane wave imaging and investigate the impact of spatial angular compounding on H-scan image quality. Parallel convolution filters using two different Gaussian-weighted Hermite polynomials that describe ultrasound scattering events are applied to the radiofrequency data. The H-scan processing is done on each radiofrequency image plane before averaging to get the angular compounded image. The relative strength from each convolution is color-coded to represent relative scatterer size. Given results from a series of phantom materials, H-scan imaging with spatial angular compounding more accurately reflects the true scatterer size caused by reductions in the system point spread function and improved signal-to-noise ratio. Preliminary in vivo H-scan imaging of tumor-bearing animals suggests this modality may be useful for monitoring early response to chemotherapeutic treatment. Overall, H-scan imaging using ultrasound plane waves and spatial angular compounding is a promising approach for visualizing the relative size and distribution of acoustic scattering sources. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Cognitive Functions of Rats with Depression-Like Disorders Induced by Ultrasound Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, V M; Zubkov, E A; Morozova, A Y; Gorlova, A V; Pavlov, D A; Inozemtsev, A N; Chekhonin, V P

    2017-09-01

    We studied the effect of electroconvulsive therapy on cognitive functions in rats with depression-like disorder caused by exposure to ultrasound of varying frequency (20-45 kHz). Object recognition and Morris water-maze tests revealed no negative effects of the therapy on memory. Moreover, positive effect of therapy was demonstrated that manifested in amelioration of memory disturbances in depression-like disorders in these behavioral tests. The results of this study do not support the idea about side effects of electroconvulsive therapy, in particular, development of transient amnesia, and are a prerequisite for a more thorough study of internal mechanisms of the effect of the therapy on cognitive sphere.

  3. Efficacy and cognitive side effects after brief pulse and ultrabrief pulse right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy for major depression: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, H.P.; Verwijk, E.; Comijs, H.C.; Kok, R.M.; Sienaert, P.; Bouckaert, F.; Fannes, K.; Vandepoel, K.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Stek, M.L.; Kho, K.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and cognitive side effects of high-dose unilateral brief pulse electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) with those of high-dose unilateral ultrabrief pulse ECT in the treatment of major depression. Method: From April 2007 until March 2011, we conducted a prospective,

  4. Subacute posteromedial impingement of the ankle in athletes: MR imaging evaluation and ultrasound guided therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messiou, Christina; Robinson, Philip; O'Connor, Philip J.; Grainger, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    To describe the use of MR imaging and efficacy of ultrasound-guided steroid injection in the diagnosis and management of athletes with clinical posteromedial impingement of the ankle. A retrospective analysis of imaging findings on MR was undertaken in nine elite athletes with clinical posteromedial ankle impingement. MR studies from six professional athletes with posterolateral pain were also reviewed as an imaging control group. The two reviewing radiologists were blinded to the clinical details and the proportion of control and study subjects. The nine study athletes also underwent diagnostic ultrasound and ultrasound-guided injection of steroid and anaesthetic into the posteromedial capsular abnormality. Follow-up was by telephone interview. Posteromedial capsular thickening was seen only in athletes with posteromedial impingement (7/9). Posteromedial synovitis was present in all athletes with posteromedial impingement; however, posterior and posterolateral synovitis was also seen in these athletes. Mild posteromedial synovitis was present in two control athletes. Ultrasound identified abnormal posteromedial soft tissue thickening deep to tibialis posterior between the medial malleolus and talus in all nine athletes. After injection all athletes returned to their previous level of sport, with eight of the nine not experiencing any residual or recurrent symptoms. If MR imaging excludes significant coexistent abnormality, ultrasound can localise posteromedial soft tissue abnormality and guide injection therapy, allowing return to athletic activity without surgical intervention. (orig.)

  5. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound enhances bone formation around miniscrew implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzorig, Khaliunaa; Kuroda, Shingo; Maeda, Yuichi; Mansjur, Karima; Sato, Minami; Nagata, Kumiko; Tanaka, Eiji

    2015-06-01

    Miniscrew implants (MSIs) are currently used to provide absolute anchorage in orthodontics; however, their initial stability is an issue of concern. Application of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) can promote bone healing. Therefore, LIPUS application may stimulate bone formation around MSIs and enhance their initial stability. To investigate the effect of LIPUS exposure on bone formation after implantation of titanium (Ti) and stainless steel (SS) MSIs. MSIs made of Ti-6Al-4V and 316L SS were placed on rat tibiae and treated with LIPUS. The bone morphology around MSIs was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and three-dimensional micro-computed tomography. MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on Ti and SS discs were treated with LIPUS, and the temporary expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was examined. Bone-implant contact increased gradually from day 3 to day 14 after MSI insertion. LIPUS application increased the cortical bone density, cortical bone thickness, and cortical bone rate after implantation of Ti and SS MSIs (P<0.05). LIPUS exposure induced ALP upregulation in MC3T3-E1 cells at day 3 (P<0.05). LIPUS enhanced bone formation around Ti and SS MSIs, enhancing the initial stability of MSIs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding Acoustic Cavitation Initiation by Porous Nanoparticles: Toward Nanoscale Agents for Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Adem; Chattaraj, Rajarshi; Blum, Nicholas T; Goodwin, Andrew P

    2016-08-23

    Ultrasound is widely applied in medical diagnosis and therapy due to its safety, high penetration depth, and low cost. In order to improve the contrast of sonographs and efficiency of the ultrasound therapy, echogenic gas bodies or droplets (with diameters from 200 nm to 10 µm) are often used, which are not very stable in the bloodstream and unable to penetrate into target tissues. Recently, it was demonstrated that nanobubbles stabilized by nanoparticles can nucleate ultrasound responsive microbubbles under reduced acoustic pressures, which is very promising for the development of nanoscale (ultrasound agents. However, there is still very little understanding about the effects of nanoparticle properties on the stabilization of nanobubbles and nucleation of acoustic cavitation by these nanobubbles. Here, a series of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with sizes around 100 nm but with different morphologies were synthesized to understand the effects of nanoparticle porosity, surface roughness, hydrophobicity, and hydrophilic surface modification on acoustic cavitation inception by porous nanoparticles. The chemical analyses of the nanoparticles showed that, while the nanoparticles were prepared using the same silica precursor (TEOS) and surfactant (CTAB), they revealed varying amounts of carbon impurities, hydroxyl content, and degrees of silica crosslinking. Carbon impurities or hydrophobic modification with methyl groups is found to be essential for nanobubble stabilization by mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The acoustic cavitation experiments in the presence of ethanol and/or bovine serum albumin (BSA) demonstrated that acoustic cavitation is predominantly nucleated by the nanobubbles stabilized at the nanoparticle surface not inside the mesopores. Finally, acoustic cavitation experiments with rough and smooth nanoparticles were suggested that a rough nanoparticle surface is needed to largely preserve surface nanobubbles after coating the surface with hydrophilic

  7. Harmonic pulsed excitation and motion detection of a vibrating reflective target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Matthew W; Greenleaf, James F

    2008-01-01

    Elasticity imaging is an emerging medical imaging modality. Methods involving acoustic radiation force excitation and pulse-echo ultrasound motion detection have been investigated to assess the mechanical response of tissue. In this work new methods for dynamic radiation force excitation and motion detection are presented. The theory and model for harmonic motion detection of a vibrating reflective target are presented. The model incorporates processing of radio frequency data acquired using pulse-echo ultrasound to measure harmonic motion with amplitudes ranging from 100 to 10,000 nm. A numerical study was performed to assess the effects of different parameters on the accuracy and precision of displacement amplitude and phase estimation and showed how estimation errors could be minimized. Harmonic pulsed excitation is introduced as a multifrequency radiation force excitation method that utilizes ultrasound tonebursts repeated at a rate f(r). The radiation force, consisting of frequency components at multiples of f(r), is generated using 3.0 MHz ultrasound, and motion detection is performed simultaneously with 9.0 MHz pulse-echo ultrasound. A parameterized experimental analysis showed that displacement can be measured with small errors for motion with amplitudes as low as 100 nm. The parameterized numerical and experimental analyses provide insight into how to optimize acquisition parameters to minimize measurement errors.

  8. Ultrasound-enhanced nanotherapy of pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, N.; Nam, K.-H.; Christensen, D. A.; Kennedy, A. M.; Shea, J. E.; Scaife, C. L.

    2010-03-01

    The paper reports in vivo results of ultrasonic nanotherapy of orthotopically grown pancreatic cancer. Phase-shift paclitaxel (PTX) loaded perfluoropentane (PFP) nanoemusions combined with tumor-directed ultrasound have been used with a considerable success for tumor-targeted chemotherapy of gemcitabin (GEM)-refractory pancreatic cancer (PC). The GEM-resistant pancreatic cancer proved sensitive to treatment by a micellar PTX formulation Genexol PM (GEN) andor nanodroplet PTX formulation ndGEN. Due to increased permeability of tumor blood vessels, drug-loaded nanodroplets accumulated in the tumor via passive targeting, which was confirmed by ultrasound imaging. Nanodroplets converted into microbubbles in situ under the action of tumor-directed 1-MHz therapeutic ultrasound. The strongest therapeutic effect was observed for the combination therapy by PTX-loaded nanodroplets, GEM and ultrasound (ndGEN+GEM+ultrasound). This combination therapy resulted in a spectacular tumor regression and in some cases complete tumor resolution. Moreover, formation of metastases was dramatically decreased and ascitis generation was completely suppressed. However for all animal groups, local tumor recurrence was observed after the completion of the treatment indicating that some cancer cells survived the treatment. The recurrent tumors proved more resistant to the repeated therapy than initial tumors.

  9. Anticoagulant therapy for venous thromboembolism detected by Doppler ultrasound in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer receiving bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suenaga M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitsukuni Suenaga, Nobuyuki Mizunuma, Eiji Shinozaki, Satoshi Matsusaka, Masato Ozaka, Mariko Ogura, Keisho Chin, Toshiharu Yamaguchi Department of Gastroenterology, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo, Japan Background: Doppler ultrasound imaging is useful for management of venous thromboembolism associated with a subclavicular implantable central venous access system in patients receiving bevacizumab (Bev. We investigated the efficacy and safety of our anticoagulant regimen based on Doppler findings.Methods: Patients aged ≤75 years with metastatic colorectal cancer, no history of thromboembolism, and no prior use of Bev received chemotherapy plus Bev. Doppler ultrasound imaging of the deep venous system to detect thrombosis was performed after the first course of Bev and repeated after the third course in patients with asymptomatic thrombosis. Indications for anticoagulant therapy in patients with asymptomatic thrombosis were as follows: enlarging thrombus (E, thrombus >40 mm in diameter (S, thrombus involving the superior vena cava (C, and decreased blood flow (V.Results: Among 79 patients enrolled in this study, asymptomatic thrombosis was detected in 56 patients (70.9% by Doppler ultrasound imaging after the first course of Bev and there was no thrombus in 23 patients (29.1%. Of these 56 patients, 11 (19.6% received anticoagulant therapy with warfarin, including eight after the first course and three after follow-up imaging. S + V was observed in four of 11 patients (36.4%, as well as V in two (18.2%, S + V + C in one (9.1%, E + S + V in one (9.1%, E + C in one (9.1%, E in one (9.1%, and C in one (9.1%. All patients resumed chemotherapy, including seven who resumed Bev. Improvement or stabilization of thrombi was achieved in ten patients (90.9%. Only one patient had symptomatic thromboembolism. Mild bleeding due to anticoagulant therapy occurred in six patients (54.5%, but there were no treatment

  10. Temporal regularization of ultrasound-based liver motion estimation for image-guided radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Shea, Tuathan P., E-mail: tuathan.oshea@icr.ac.uk; Bamber, Jeffrey C.; Harris, Emma J. [Joint Department of Physics, The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS foundation Trust, Sutton, London SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Ultrasound-based motion estimation is an expanding subfield of image-guided radiation therapy. Although ultrasound can detect tissue motion that is a fraction of a millimeter, its accuracy is variable. For controlling linear accelerator tracking and gating, ultrasound motion estimates must remain highly accurate throughout the imaging sequence. This study presents a temporal regularization method for correlation-based template matching which aims to improve the accuracy of motion estimates. Methods: Liver ultrasound sequences (15–23 Hz imaging rate, 2.5–5.5 min length) from ten healthy volunteers under free breathing were used. Anatomical features (blood vessels) in each sequence were manually annotated for comparison with normalized cross-correlation based template matching. Five sequences from a Siemens Acuson™ scanner were used for algorithm development (training set). Results from incremental tracking (IT) were compared with a temporal regularization method, which included a highly specific similarity metric and state observer, known as the α–β filter/similarity threshold (ABST). A further five sequences from an Elekta Clarity™ system were used for validation, without alteration of the tracking algorithm (validation set). Results: Overall, the ABST method produced marked improvements in vessel tracking accuracy. For the training set, the mean and 95th percentile (95%) errors (defined as the difference from manual annotations) were 1.6 and 1.4 mm, respectively (compared to 6.2 and 9.1 mm, respectively, for IT). For each sequence, the use of the state observer leads to improvement in the 95% error. For the validation set, the mean and 95% errors for the ABST method were 0.8 and 1.5 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Ultrasound-based motion estimation has potential to monitor liver translation over long time periods with high accuracy. Nonrigid motion (strain) and the quality of the ultrasound data are likely to have an impact on tracking

  11. Ultrasound to stimulate mandibular bone defect healing : A placebo-controlled single-blind study in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, J; Ruben, JL; Raghoebar, GM; Stegenga, B

    Purpose: Because of the limitations of the body to heal large maxillofacial bone defects, an attempt was made to stimulate mandibular defect healing with low intensity pulsed ultrasound in rats. This ultrasound consists of a 1.5-MHz pressure wave administered in pulses of 200 musec, with an average

  12. Ultrasound induced by CW laser cavitation bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korneev, N; Montero, P Rodriguez; Ramos-Garcia, R; Ramirez-San-Juan, J C; Padilla-Martinez, J P

    2011-01-01

    The generation of ultrasound by a collapsing single cavitation bubble in a strongly absorbing liquid illuminated with a moderate power CW laser is described. The ultrasound shock wave is detected with hydrophone and interferometric device. To obtain a stronger pulse it is necessary to adjust a liquid absorption and a beam diameter. Their influence can be qualitatively understood with a simple model.

  13. An optimum method for pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound treatment of large volumes using the InSightec ExAblate (registered) 2000 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, B E; Karmonik, C; Li, K C P, E-mail: beoneill@tmhs.or [The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, 6565 Fannin, Houston TX 77030 (United States)

    2010-11-07

    Pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) is a method for delivering ultrasound to tissue while avoiding high temperatures. The technique has been suggested for non-destructively enhancing local uptake of drugs. Side effects include thermal necrosis; therefore, real-time monitoring of tissue temperature is advantageous. This paper outlines a method for improving the treatment efficiency of pHIFU using the MR image-guided InSightec ExAblate (registered) 2000 system, an ultrasound system integrated into a whole body human MRI scanner with the ability to measure temperature at the treatment location in near real time. Thermal measurements obtained during treatment of a tissue phantom were used to determine appropriate heating parameters, and compared to in vivo treatment of rabbit muscle. Optimization of the treatment procedure and ultrasound transducer steering patterns was then conducted with the goal of minimizing treatment time while avoiding overheating. The optimization was performed on the basis of approximate solutions to the standard bioheat equation. The commercial system software of the Exablate (registered) system was modified to assist in this optimization. Depending on the size of the treatment volume, the presented results demonstrate that it is possible to use the technique described to cut treatment times significantly, up to one-third of that required by the current standard treatment cycle.

  14. Neurocognitive effects after brief pulse and ultrabrief pulse unilateral electroconvulsive therapy for major depression: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwijk, Esmée; Comijs, Hannie C; Kok, Rob M; Spaans, Harm-Pieter; Stek, Max L; Scherder, Erik J A

    2012-11-01

    Neurocognitive functioning is well known to be affected after ECT. However quantified data about the severity of the cognitive impairment after ultrabrief pulse and brief pulse ECT are limited, which makes it hard to judge its clinical relevance. To review all prospective studies using right unilateral (ultra) brief pulse index electroconvulsive therapy published up until February 2011 which used at least one instrument for cognitive assessment before and after ECT. The severity and persistence of neurocognitive side effects immediately (one to seven days post ECT), between one and six months and after six months post ECT were assessed by calculating effect sizes using Cohen's d. Ten studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and provided detailed information to compute effect sizes. The results indicate loss of autobiographical memory and impairment of verbal fluency, anterograde verbal and non-verbal memory immediately after brief pulse RUL ECT. To a lesser extent impairment of working memory and reduced speed of processing is found. Autobiographical memory is the only domain still being impaired between one and six months post ECT, but improved in this period. Verbal fluency normalized to baseline performance between one and six months post ECT whereas anterograde verbal and non-verbal memory normalized or even improved. Speed of processing improved within six months after ECT. Long-term data on these cognitive domains were not available. Based on two of the ten included studies the results suggest that ultrabrief pulse RUL ECT causes less decline in autobiographical and anterograde memory after ECT than brief pulse RUL ECT. This review may be limited because of the small number of included studies and due to unreliable effect sizes. Furthermore, few data were available for non-memory domains and cognitive functioning after six months. Loss of autobiographical memory is still present between one and six months after unilateral brief pulse ECT. Ultrabrief pulse RUL

  15. Simulation of excitation and propagation of pico-second ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Yong; Kim, No Hyu

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analytic and numerical simulation of the generation and propagation of pico-second ultrasound with nano-scale wavelength, enabling the production of bulk waves in thin films. An analytic model of laser-matter interaction and elasto-dynamic wave propagation is introduced to calculate the elastic strain pulse in microstructures. The model includes the laser-pulse absorption on the material surface, heat transfer from a photon to the elastic energy of a phonon, and acoustic wave propagation to formulate the governing equations of ultra-short ultrasound. The excitation and propagation of acoustic pulses produced by ultra-short laser pulses are numerically simulated for an aluminum substrate using the finite-difference method and compared with the analytical solution. Furthermore, Fourier analysis was performed to investigate the frequency spectrum of the simulated elastic wave pulse. It is concluded that a pico-second bulk wave with a very high frequency of up to hundreds of gigahertz is successfully generated in metals using a 100-fs laser pulse and that it can be propagated in the direction of thickness for thickness less than 100 nm

  16. Simulation of excitation and propagation of pico-second ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Yong; Kim, No Hyu [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This paper presents an analytic and numerical simulation of the generation and propagation of pico-second ultrasound with nano-scale wavelength, enabling the production of bulk waves in thin films. An analytic model of laser-matter interaction and elasto-dynamic wave propagation is introduced to calculate the elastic strain pulse in microstructures. The model includes the laser-pulse absorption on the material surface, heat transfer from a photon to the elastic energy of a phonon, and acoustic wave propagation to formulate the governing equations of ultra-short ultrasound. The excitation and propagation of acoustic pulses produced by ultra-short laser pulses are numerically simulated for an aluminum substrate using the finite-difference method and compared with the analytical solution. Furthermore, Fourier analysis was performed to investigate the frequency spectrum of the simulated elastic wave pulse. It is concluded that a pico-second bulk wave with a very high frequency of up to hundreds of gigahertz is successfully generated in metals using a 100-fs laser pulse and that it can be propagated in the direction of thickness for thickness less than 100 nm.

  17. Simulation of excitation and propagation of pico-second ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Yong; Kim, No Kyu [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This paper presents an analytic and numerical simulation of the generation and propagation of pico-second ultrasound with nano-scale wavelength, enabling the production of bulk waves in thin films. An analytic model of laser-matter interaction and elasto-dynamic wave propagation is introduced to calculate the elastic strain pulse in microstructures. The model includes the laser-pulse absorption on the material surface, heat transfer from a photon to the elastic energy of a phonon, and acoustic wave propagation to formulate the governing equations of ultra-short ultrasound. The excitation and propagation of acoustic pulses produced by ultra-short laser pulses are numerically simulated for an aluminum substrate using the finite-difference method and compared with the analytical solution. Furthermore, Fourier analysis was performed to investigate the frequency spectrum of the simulated elastic wave pulse. It is concluded that a pico-second bulk wave with a very high frequency of up to hundreds of gigahertz is successfully generated in metals using a 100-fs laser pulse and that it can be propagated in the direction of thickness for thickness less than 100 nm.

  18. Principle and performance of the transverse oscillation vector velocity technique in medical ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Udesen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Medical ultrasound systems measure the blood velocity by tracking the blood cells motion along the ultrasound field. The is done by pulsing in the same direction a number of times and then find e.q. the shift in phase between consecutive pulses. Properly normalized this is directly proportional...... a double oscillating field. A special estimator is then used for finding both the axial and lateral velocity component, so that both magnitude and phase can be calculated. The method for generating double oscillating ultrasound fields and the special estimator are described and its performance revealed...

  19. Design of patient-specific focused ultrasound arrays for non-invasive brain therapy with increased trans-skull transmission and steering range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alec; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2017-09-01

    The use of a phased array of ultrasound transducer elements to sonicate through the skull has opened the way for new treatments and the delivery of therapeutics beyond the blood-brain barrier. The limited steering range of current clinical devices, particularly at higher frequencies, limits the regions of the brain that are considered treatable by ultrasound. A new array design is introduced that allows for high levels of beam steering and increased transmission throughout the brain. These improvements are achieved using concave transducers normal to the outer-skull surface in a patient-specific configuration to target within the skull, so that the far-field of each beam is within the brain. It is shown that by using pulsed ultrasound waves timed to arrive in-phase at the desired target, sufficient levels of acoustic energy are delivered for blood-brain barrier opening throughout the brain.

  20. Variation in resistance of natural isolates of Staphylococcus aureus to heat, pulsed electric field and ultrasound under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Calleja, J M; Cebrián, G; Condón, S; Mañas, P

    2006-05-01

    To study and compare the resistance of 15 Staphylococcus aureus isolates to heat, pulsed electric field (PEF) and ultrasound (UW) under pressure (manosonication, MS). Survival curves to heat (58 degrees C), to PEF (22 kV cm(-1), 2 micros square wave pulses) and to UW under pressure (117 microm, 20 kHz, 200 kPa) were obtained and inactivation parameters (decimal reduction times for heat and UW under pressure, and b-values for PEF) were calculated. A wide resistance variation to heat treatment, but not to PEF and MS, was observed amongst the 15 strains. There was no relationship between the resistances to the three physical agents studied. Staphylococcus aureus was relatively resistant to MS but sensitive to PEF. Heat resistance varied with strain and was positively correlated to carotenoid pigment content. Results would help in defining safe food preservation processes. Care should be taken to choose the most adequate strain of S. aureus to model food preservation processing.

  1. Ultrasound generation with high power and coil only EMAT concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueter, Dirk; Morgenstern, Tino

    2014-12-01

    Electro-magnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) are intended as non-contact and non-destructive ultrasound transducers for metallic material. The transmitted intensities from EMATS are modest, particularly at notable lift off distances. Some time ago a concept for a "coil only EMAT" was presented, without static magnetic field. In this contribution, such compact "coil only EMATs" with effective areas of 1-5cm(2) were driven to excessive power levels at MHz frequencies, using pulsed power technologies. RF induction currents of 10kA and tens of Megawatts are applied. With increasing power the electroacoustic conversion efficiency also increases. The total effect is of second order or quadratic, therefore non-linear and progressive, and yields strong ultrasound signals up to kW/cm(2) at MHz frequencies in the metal. Even at considerable lift off distances (cm) the ultrasound can be readily detected. Test materials are aluminum, ferromagnetic steel and stainless steel (non-ferromagnetic). Thereby, most metal types are represented. The technique is compared experimentally with other non-contact methods: laser pulse induced ultrasound and spark induced ultrasound, both damaging to the test object's surface. At small lift off distances, the intensity from this EMAT concept clearly outperforms the laser pulses or heavy spark impacts. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The comparison of manual lymph drainage and ultrasound therapy on the leg swelling caused by wearing high heels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeop; Han, Ji-Su; Jang, Eun-Ji; Seo, Dong-Kwon; Hong, Ji-Heon; Lee, Sang-Sook; Lee, Dong-Geol; Yu Lee, Jae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    One of the major symptoms when women are wearing high heels for a long time is leg swelling. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of manual lymph drainage with ultrasound therapy. The forty-five healthy women of twenties were participated in this study and divided randomly into three groups; manual lymph drainage group (n=15), ultrasound therapy group (n=15) and control group (n=15). Swelling was measured before wearing the high heels (10 cm-height), after one-hour of wearing the high heels, wearing the high heels of one-hour after the intervention of 15 minutes. Also swelling was calculated by using a tape measure, volumeter and body composition analyzer. Statistical analysis of the comparison between the three groups was performed by one-way ANOVA. Also comparison to the mean value in swelling according to the time was performed by repeated measure ANOVA. As the result of this study, a significant changes have emerged within each of manual lymph drainage, ultrasound therapy and control group (p 0.05). But the mean value of manual lymph drainage group showed the tendency of fast recovering before causing swelling. Therefore, we consider that the clinical treatment of manual lymph drainage and ongoing studies will be made since manual lymph drainage is very effective in releasing the leg swelling caused by wearing high heels and standing for a long time at work.

  3. EVALUATION OF ULTRASOUND REMISSION CRITERIA IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS DURING TOCILIZUMAB THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Aleksandrovna Osipyants; D E Karateev; E Yu Panasyuk; G V Lukina; A V Smirnov; S I Glukhova; E N Aleksandrova; A V Volkov; E L Nasonov

    2013-01-01

    Objective: to study the association of ultrasound (US) remission criteria with the clinical and laboratory indicators of inflammatory activity, functional status, and X-ray changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during tocilizumab (TCZ) therapy.Subjects and methods. The trial included 36 patients with RA (meeting the 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria) who had received TCZ for 6 months. The authors made a clinical and laboratory assessment of RA activity (DAS28-C...

  4. Ultrasound Assessment of Carotid Plaque Echogenicity Response to Statin Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimi, Pranvera; Jashari, Fisnik; Bajraktari, Gani; Wester, Per; Henein, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate in a systematic review and meta-analysis model the effect of statin therapy on carotid plaque echogenicity assessed by ultrasound. Methods: We have systematically searched electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Center Register) up to April, 2015, for studies evaluating the effect of statins on plaque echogenicity. Two researchers independently determined the eligibility of studies evaluating the effect of statin therapy on carotid plaque echogenicity that used ultrasound and grey scale median (GSM) or integrated back scatter (IBS). Results: Nine out of 580 identified studies including 566 patients’ carotid artery data were meta-analyzed for a mean follow up of 7.2 months. A consistent increase in the echogenicity of carotid artery plaques, after statin therapy, was reported. Pooled weighted mean difference % (WMD) on plaque echogenicity after statin therapy was 29% (95% CI 22%–36%), p < 0.001, I2 = 92.1%. In a meta-regression analysis using % mean changes of LDL, HDL and hsCRP as moderators, it was shown that the effects of statins on plaque echogenicity were related to changes in hsCRP, but not to LDL and HDL changes from the baseline. The effect of statins on the plaque was progressive; it showed significance after the first month of treatment, and the echogenicity continued to increase in the following six and 12 months. Conclusions: Statin therapy is associated with a favorable increase of carotid plaque echogenicity. This effect seems to be dependent on the period of treatment and hsCRP change from the baseline, independent of changes in LDL and HDL. PMID:25984600

  5. Deconvolution of in vivo ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1990-01-01

    In an ultrasound image, the influence of the pulse and attenuation should be removed from the picture in order to display a more consistent and uniform image. The author describes an algorithm to remove the influence of the attenuated pulse on the image. The algorithm takes into account the varying...... pulse, noise in the acquired signal, and the changing reflectivity in the tissue. Both one- and two-dimensional processing can be implemented. The algorithm relies on prior knowledge of the pulse and of the covariance of the noise and the reflections. Algorithms to estimate these factors are given...

  6. Optimization of Contrast-to-Tissue Ratio by Adaptation of Transmitted Ternary Signal in Ultrasound Pulse Inversion Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Ménigot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound contrast imaging has provided more accurate medical diagnoses thanks to the development of innovating modalities like the pulse inversion imaging. However, this latter modality that improves the contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR is not optimal, since the frequency is manually chosen jointly with the probe. However, an optimal choice of this command is possible, but it requires precise information about the transducer and the medium which can be experimentally difficult to obtain, even inaccessible. It turns out that the optimization can become more complex by taking into account the kind of generators, since the generators of electrical signals in a conventional ultrasound scanner can be unipolar, bipolar, or tripolar. Our aim was to seek the ternary command which maximized the CTR. By combining a genetic algorithm and a closed loop, the system automatically proposed the optimal ternary command. In simulation, the gain compared with the usual ternary signal could reach about 3.9 dB. Another interesting finding was that, in contrast to what is generally accepted, the optimal command was not a fixed-frequency signal but had harmonic components.

  7. Variations of bubble cavitation and temperature elevation during lesion formation by high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yufeng; Gao, Xiaobin Wilson

    2013-08-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as an effective therapeutic modality in both thermal ablations for solid tumor/cancer and soft-tissue fragmentation. Mechanical and thermal effects, which play an important role in the HIFU treatment simultaneously, are dependent on the operating parameters and may vary with the progress of therapy. Mechanical erosion in the shape of a "squid," a "dumbbell" lesion with both mechanical and thermal lesions, or a "tadpole" lesion with mechanical erosion at the center and thermal necrosis on the boundary in the transparent gel phantom could be produced correspondingly with the pulse duration of 5-30 ms, which is much longer than histotripsy burst but shorter than the time for tissue boiling, and pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 0.2-5 Hz. Meanwhile, variations of bubble cavitation (both inertial and stable cavitation) and temperature elevation in the focal region (i.e., z = -2.5, 0, and 2.5 mm) were measured by passive cavitation detection (PCD) and thermocouples during the therapeutic procedure, respectively. Stable cavitation increased with the pulse duration, PRF, and the number of pulses delivered. However, inertial cavitation was found to increase initially and then decrease with long pulse duration and high PRF. Temperature in the pre-focal region is always higher than those at the focal and post-focal position in all tests. Great variations of PCD signals and temperature elevation are due to the generation and persistence of large bubble, which is resistant to collapse and occurs with the increase of pulse duration and PRF. Similar lesion pattern and variations were also observed in ex vivo porcine kidneys. Hyperechoes in the B-mode ultrasound image were comparable to the shape and size of lesions in the dissected tissue. Thermal lesion volume increased with the increase of pulse duration and PRF, but mechanical erosion reached its maximum volume with the pulse duration of 20 ms and PRF of 1

  8. MO-AB-210-00: Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging Quality Control and High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy Hands-On Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate advancements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound. HIFU is a therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves as carriers of energy. HIFU is used to focus a beam of ultrasound energy into a small volume at specific target locations within the body. The focused beam causes localized high temperatures and produces a well-defined regions of necrosis. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation and targeted drug delivery. At the workshop, attendees will see configurations, applications, and hands-on demonstrations with on-site instructors at separate stations. The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. At the workshop, an array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be provided for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environment with live demonstrations of the techniques. Target audience: Medical physicists and other medical professionals in diagnostic imaging and radiation oncology with interest in high-intensity focused ultrasound and in diagnostic ultrasound QC. Learning Objectives: Learn ultrasound physics and safety for HIFU applications through live demonstrations Get an overview of the state-of-the art in HIFU technologies and equipment Gain familiarity with common elements of a quality control program for diagnostic ultrasound imaging Identify QC tools available for testing diagnostic ultrasound systems and learn how to use these tools List of supporting vendors for HIFU and diagnostic ultrasound QC hands-on workshop: Philips Healthcare Alpinion Medical Systems Verasonics, Inc Zonare Medical Systems, Inc Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS), Inc. GAMMEX, Inc., Cablon Medical BV Steffen Sammet: NIH/NCI grant 5R25CA132822, NIH/NINDS grant 5R25NS

  9. MO-AB-210-00: Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging Quality Control and High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy Hands-On Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate advancements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound. HIFU is a therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves as carriers of energy. HIFU is used to focus a beam of ultrasound energy into a small volume at specific target locations within the body. The focused beam causes localized high temperatures and produces a well-defined regions of necrosis. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation and targeted drug delivery. At the workshop, attendees will see configurations, applications, and hands-on demonstrations with on-site instructors at separate stations. The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. At the workshop, an array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be provided for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environment with live demonstrations of the techniques. Target audience: Medical physicists and other medical professionals in diagnostic imaging and radiation oncology with interest in high-intensity focused ultrasound and in diagnostic ultrasound QC. Learning Objectives: Learn ultrasound physics and safety for HIFU applications through live demonstrations Get an overview of the state-of-the art in HIFU technologies and equipment Gain familiarity with common elements of a quality control program for diagnostic ultrasound imaging Identify QC tools available for testing diagnostic ultrasound systems and learn how to use these tools List of supporting vendors for HIFU and diagnostic ultrasound QC hands-on workshop: Philips Healthcare Alpinion Medical Systems Verasonics, Inc Zonare Medical Systems, Inc Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS), Inc. GAMMEX, Inc., Cablon Medical BV Steffen Sammet: NIH/NCI grant 5R25CA132822, NIH/NINDS grant 5R25NS

  10. Effect of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Joint Injury and Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis: an Animal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Talal; Mitchell, Reed; Bhasin, Priya; Guo, Yi; Paudel, Sharada; Schon, Lew; Zhang, Zijun

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the therapeutic potential of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) in post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Intra-articular fracture of the medial tibial plateau was surgically created in 30 rats. LIPUS was applied to the operated joints either for the first 2 wk (LIPUS 1-2 group) or in weeks 4 and 5 after intra-articular fracture (LIPUS 4-5 group). In controls, the operated knees were not treated with LIPUS (LIPUS 0 group). The rats were monitored with weekly gait analysis and euthanized at week 8. Among the altered gait parameters, the maximal and average paw print areas in the LIPUS 1-2 and LIPUS 4-5 groups, but not the LIPUS 0 group, had either reached baseline or significantly recovered (70%, p <0.05) by week 8. PTOA pathology in both the LIPUS 1-2 and LIPUS 4-5 groups was less severe than that in the LIPUS 0 group (Mankin score: 5.4 and 4.5 vs. 8.8, p <0.05). In conclusion, LIPUS treatment partially improved the gait of the affected limbs and reduced cartilage degeneration in PTOA. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Registration of human skull computed tomography data to an ultrasound treatment space using a sparse high frequency ultrasound hemispherical array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Reilly, Meaghan A., E-mail: moreilly@sri.utoronto.ca; Jones, Ryan M. [Physical Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7 (Canada); Birman, Gabriel [Physical Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Hynynen, Kullervo [Physical Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7 (Canada); Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G9 (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) shows great promise for a range of therapeutic applications in the brain. Current clinical investigations rely on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor treatments and for the registration of preoperative computed tomography (CT)-data to the MR images at the time of treatment to correct the sound aberrations caused by the skull. For some applications, MRI is not an appropriate choice for therapy monitoring and its cost may limit the accessibility of these treatments. An alternative approach, using high frequency ultrasound measurements to localize the skull surface and register CT data to the ultrasound treatment space, for the purposes of skull-related phase aberration correction and treatment targeting, has been developed. Methods: A prototype high frequency, hemispherical sparse array was fabricated. Pulse-echo measurements of the surface of five ex vivo human skulls were made, and the CT datasets of each skull were obtained. The acoustic data were used to rigidly register the CT-derived skull surface to the treatment space. The ultrasound-based registrations of the CT datasets were compared to the gold-standard landmark-based registrations. Results: The results show on an average sub-millimeter (0.9 ± 0.2 mm) displacement and subdegree (0.8° ± 0.4°) rotation registration errors. Numerical simulations predict that registration errors on this scale will result in a mean targeting error of 1.0 ± 0.2 mm and reduction in focal pressure of 1.0% ± 0.6% when targeting a midbrain structure (e.g., hippocampus) using a commercially available low-frequency brain prototype device (InSightec, 230 kHz brain system). Conclusions: If combined with ultrasound-based treatment monitoring techniques, this registration method could allow for the development of a low-cost transcranial FUS treatment platform to make this technology more widely available.

  12. Registration of human skull computed tomography data to an ultrasound treatment space using a sparse high frequency ultrasound hemispherical array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Meaghan A; Jones, Ryan M; Birman, Gabriel; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2016-09-01

    Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) shows great promise for a range of therapeutic applications in the brain. Current clinical investigations rely on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor treatments and for the registration of preoperative computed tomography (CT)-data to the MR images at the time of treatment to correct the sound aberrations caused by the skull. For some applications, MRI is not an appropriate choice for therapy monitoring and its cost may limit the accessibility of these treatments. An alternative approach, using high frequency ultrasound measurements to localize the skull surface and register CT data to the ultrasound treatment space, for the purposes of skull-related phase aberration correction and treatment targeting, has been developed. A prototype high frequency, hemispherical sparse array was fabricated. Pulse-echo measurements of the surface of five ex vivo human skulls were made, and the CT datasets of each skull were obtained. The acoustic data were used to rigidly register the CT-derived skull surface to the treatment space. The ultrasound-based registrations of the CT datasets were compared to the gold-standard landmark-based registrations. The results show on an average sub-millimeter (0.9 ± 0.2 mm) displacement and subdegree (0.8° ± 0.4°) rotation registration errors. Numerical simulations predict that registration errors on this scale will result in a mean targeting error of 1.0 ± 0.2 mm and reduction in focal pressure of 1.0% ± 0.6% when targeting a midbrain structure (e.g., hippocampus) using a commercially available low-frequency brain prototype device (InSightec, 230 kHz brain system). If combined with ultrasound-based treatment monitoring techniques, this registration method could allow for the development of a low-cost transcranial FUS treatment platform to make this technology more widely available.

  13. FPGA-based reconfigurable processor for ultrafast interlaced ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasemi, Umar; Li, Hai; Aguirre, Andrés; Zhu, Quing

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we report, to the best of our knowledge, a unique field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based reconfigurable processor for real-time interlaced co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging and its application in imaging tumor dynamic response. The FPGA is used to control, acquire, store, delay-and-sum, and transfer the data for real-time co-registered imaging. The FPGA controls the ultrasound transmission and ultrasound and photoacoustic data acquisition process of a customized 16-channel module that contains all of the necessary analog and digital circuits. The 16-channel module is one of multiple modules plugged into a motherboard; their beamformed outputs are made available for a digital signal processor (DSP) to access using an external memory interface (EMIF). The FPGA performs a key role through ultrafast reconfiguration and adaptation of its structure to allow real-time switching between the two imaging modes, including transmission control, laser synchronization, internal memory structure, beamforming, and EMIF structure and memory size. It performs another role by parallel accessing of internal memories and multi-thread processing to reduce the transfer of data and the processing load on the DSP. Furthermore, because the laser will be pulsing even during ultrasound pulse-echo acquisition, the FPGA ensures that the laser pulses are far enough from the pulse-echo acquisitions by appropriate time-division multiplexing (TDM). A co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system consisting of four FPGA modules (64-channels) is constructed, and its performance is demonstrated using phantom targets and in vivo mouse tumor models.

  14. Ten good reasons to practice ultrasound in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Daniel; van Hooland, Simon; Elbers, Paul; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, critical care ultrasound has gained its place in the armamentarium of monitoring tools. A greater understanding of lung, abdominal, and vascular ultrasound plus easier access to portable machines have revolutionised the bedside assessment of our ICU patients. Because ultrasound is not only a diagnostic test, but can also be seen as a component of the physical exam, it has the potential to become the stethoscope of the 21st century. Critical care ultrasound is a combination of simple protocols, with lung ultrasound being a basic application, allowing assessment of urgent diagnoses in combination with therapeutic decisions. The LUCI (Lung Ultrasound in the Critically Ill) consists of the identification of ten signs: the bat sign (pleural line); lung sliding (seashore sign); the A-lines (horizontal artefact); the quad sign and sinusoid sign indicating pleural effusion; the fractal and tissue-like sign indicating lung consolidation; the B-lines and lung rockets indicating interstitial syndromes; abolished lung sliding with the stratosphere sign suggesting pneumothorax; and the lung point indicating pneumothorax. Two more signs, the lung pulse and the dynamic air bronchogram, are used to distinguish atelectasis from pneumonia. The BLUE protocol (Bedside Lung Ultrasound in Emergency) is a fast protocol (respiratory failure. With this protocol, it becomes possible to differentiate between pulmonary oedema, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and pneumothorax, each showing specific ultrasound patterns and profiles. The FALLS protocol (Fluid Administration Limited by Lung Sonography) adapts the BLUE protocol to be used in patients with acute circulatory failure. It makes a sequential search for obstructive, cardiogenic, hypovolemic, and distributive shock using simple real-time echocardiography in combination with lung ultrasound, with the appearance of B-lines considered to be the endpoint for fluid therapy

  15. Pulmonary Capillary Hemorrhage Induced by Different Imaging Modes of Diagnostic Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Douglas L; Dong, Zhihong; Dou, Chunyan; Raghavendran, Krishnan

    2018-05-01

    The induction of pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) is a well-established non-thermal biological effect of pulsed ultrasound in animal models. Typically, research has been done using laboratory pulsed ultrasound systems with a fixed beam and, recently, by B-mode diagnostic ultrasound. In this study, a GE Vivid 7 Dimension ultrasound machine with 10 L linear array probe was used at 6.6 MHz to explore the relative PCH efficacy of B-mode imaging, M-mode (fixed beam), color angio mode Doppler imaging and pulsed Doppler mode (fixed beam). Anesthetized rats were scanned in a warmed water bath, and thresholds were determined by scanning at different power steps, 2 dB apart, in different groups of six rats. Exposures were performed for 5 min, except for a 15-s M-mode group. Peak rarefactional pressure amplitude thresholds were 1.5 MPa for B-mode and 1.1 MPa for angio Doppler mode. For the non-scanned modes, thresholds were 1.1 MPa for M-mode and 0.6 MPa for pulsed Doppler mode with its relatively high duty cycle (7.7 × 10 -3 vs. 0.27 × 10 -3 for M-mode). Reducing the duration of M-mode to 15 s (from 300 s) did not significantly reduce PCH (area, volume or depth) for some power settings, but the threshold was increased to 1.4 MPa. Pulmonary sonographers should be aware of this unique adverse bio-effect of diagnostic ultrasound and should consider reduced on-screen mechanical index settings for potentially vulnerable patients. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High power phased array prototype for clinical high intensity focused ultrasound : applications to transcostal and transcranial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernot, M; Aubry, J -F; Tanter, M; Marquet, F; Montaldo, G; Boch, A -L; Kujas, M; Seilhean, D; Fink, M

    2007-01-01

    Bursts of focused ultrasound energy three orders of magnitude more intense than diagnostic ultrasound became during the last decade a noninvasive option for treating cancer from breast to prostate or uterine fibroid. However, many challenges remain to be addressed. First, the corrections of distortions induced on the ultrasonic therapy beam during its propagation through defocusing obstacles like skull bone or ribs remain today a technological performance that still need to be validated clinically. Secondly, the problem of motion artifacts particularly important for the treatment of abdominal parts becomes today an important research topic. Finally, the problem of the treatment monitoring is a wide subject of interest in the growing HIFU community. For all these issues, the potential of new ultrasonic therapy devices able to work both in Transmit and Receive modes will be emphasized. A review of the work under achievement at L.O.A. using this new generation of HIFU prototypes on the monitoring, motion correction and aberrations corrections will be presented.

  17. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging and in vivo circulatory kinetics with low-boiling-point nanoscale phase-change perfluorocarbon agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paul S; Rojas, Juan D; Puett, Connor; Hjelmquist, Jordan; Arena, Christopher B; Dayton, Paul A

    2015-03-01

    Many studies have explored phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) that can be vaporized by an ultrasonic pulse to form microbubbles for ultrasound imaging and therapy. However, few investigations have been published on the utility and characteristics of PCCAs as contrast agents in vivo. In this study, we examine the properties of low-boiling-point nanoscale PCCAs evaluated in vivo and compare data with those for conventional microbubbles with respect to contrast generation and circulation properties. To do this, we develop a custom pulse sequence to vaporize and image PCCAs using the Verasonics research platform and a clinical array transducer. Results indicate that droplets can produce contrast enhancement similar to that of microbubbles (7.29 to 18.24 dB over baseline, depending on formulation) and can be designed to circulate for as much as 3.3 times longer than microbubbles. This study also reports for the first time the ability to capture contrast washout kinetics of the target organ as a measure of vascular perfusion. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Therapeutic ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, Lawrence A

    2004-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy, and the enhancement of natural physiological functions such as wound healing and tissue regeneration. A particularly attractive aspect of this technology is that diagnostic and therapeutic systems can be combined to produce totally non-invasive, imageguided therapy. This general lecture will review a number of these exciting new applications of ultrasound and address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. We shall particularly emphasize the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors as well as the introduction of acoustic hemostasis, especially in organs which are difficult to treat using conventional medical and surgical techniques. (amum lecture)

  19. The dynamic behavior of microbubbles during long ultrasound tone-burst excitation: mechanistic insights into ultrasound-microbubble mediated therapeutics using high-speed imaging and cavitation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacella, John J.; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound (US)-microbubble (MB) mediated therapies have been shown to restore perfusion and enhance drug/gene delivery. Due to the presumption that MBs do not persist during long US exposure under high acoustic pressures, most schemes utilize short US pulses when a high US pressure is employed. However, we recently observed an enhanced thrombolytic effect using long US pulses at high acoustic pressures. Therefore we explored the fate of MBs during long tone-burst exposures (5 ms) at various acoustic pressures and MB concentrations via direct high-speed optical observation and passive cavitation detection. MBs first underwent stable or inertial cavitation depending on the acoustic pressure, and then formed gas-filled clusters that continued to oscillate, break up, and form new clusters. Cavitation detection confirmed continued, albeit diminishing acoustic activity throughout the 5-ms US excitation. These data suggest that persisting cavitation activity during long tone-bursts may confer additional therapeutic effects. PMID:26603628

  20. Tools for improving the diagnosis of atherosclerotic plaque using ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Søren Kragh

    1997-01-01

    topics have been investigated: an ultrasound pulse-echo simulation tool and a new compound imaging technique for improving visualization of atherosclerotic disease.A tool for simulation of the received electrical signal in a pulse-echo ultrasound system, due to a reflector surface of arbitrary geometry......, has been developed. The method is denoted the Diffraction Response Interpolation Method (DRIM) and is based on the pulse-echo diffraction impulse response method. The DRIM is a computationally efficient tool for calculating the integral of the spatially varying pulse-echo diffraction impulse response...... definition of the interfaces in the cases where one or more of the beams had near-normal incidence on the interface, i.e. an improved visualization over an angular range of interface orientations roughly corresponding to the range of beam angles used. The speckle statistics and the speckle reduction have...

  1. Influence of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on osteogenic tissue regeneration in a periodontal injury model: X-ray image alterations assessed by micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunji; Chai, Zhaowu; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Deng, Feng; Wang, Zhibiao; Song, Jinlin

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate, with micro-computed tomography, the influence of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on wound-healing in periodontal tissues. Periodontal disease with Class II furcation involvement was surgically produced at the bilateral mandibular premolars in 8 adult male beagle dogs. Twenty-four teeth were randomly assigned among 4 groups (G): G1, periodontal flap surgery; G2, periodontal flap surgery+low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS); G3, guided tissue regeneration (GTR) surgery; G4, GTR surgery plus LIPUS. The affected area in the experimental group was exposed to LIPUS. At 6 and 8weeks, the X-ray images of regenerated teeth were referred to micro-CT scanning for 3-D measurement. Bone volume (BV), bone surface (BS), and number of trabeculae (Tb) in G2 and G4 were higher than in G1 and G3 (pperiodontal flap surgery group. LIPUS irradiation increased the number, volume, and area of new alveolar bone trabeculae. LIPUS has the potential to promote the repair of periodontal tissue, and may work effectively if combined with GTR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gold nanoparticle nucleated cavitation for enhanced high intensity focused ultrasound therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlan, J. R.; Cowell, D. M. J.; Freear, S.

    2018-01-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or focused ultrasound surgery is a non-invasive technique for the treatment of cancerous tissue, which is limited by difficulties in getting real-time feedback on treatment progress and long treatment durations. The formation and activity of acoustic cavitation, specifically inertial cavitation, during HIFU exposures has been demonstrated to enhance heating rates. However, without the introduction of external nuclei its formation an activity can be unpredictable, and potentially counter-productive. In this study, a combination of pulse laser illumination (839 nm), HIFU exposures (3.3 MHz) and plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNR) was demonstrated as a new approach for the guidance and enhancement of HIFU treatments. For imaging, short duration HIFU pulses (10 μs) demonstrated broadband acoustic emissions from AuNR nucleated cavitation with a signal-to-noise ranging from 5-35 dB for peak negative pressures between 1.19-3.19  ±  0.01 MPa. In the absence of either AuNR or laser illumination these emissions were either not present or lower in magnitude (e.g. 5 dB for 3.19 MPa). Continuous wave (CW) HIFU exposures for 15 s, were then used to generate thermal lesions for peak negative pressures from 0.2-2.71  ±  0.01 MPa at a fluence of 3.4 mJ cm-2 . Inertial cavitation dose (ICD) was monitored during all CW exposures, where exposures combined with both laser illumination and AuNRs resulted in the highest level of detectable emissions. This parameter was integrated over the entire exposure to give a metric to compare with measured thermal lesion area, where it was found that a minimum total ICD of 1.5 × 103 a.u. was correlated with the formation of thermal lesions in gel phantoms. Furthermore, lesion area (mm2) was increased for equivalent exposures without either AuNRs or laser illumination. Once combined with cancer targeting AuNRs this approach could allow for the future theranostic use of HIFU, such as

  3. Evaluation of frequency-dependent ultrasound attenuation in transparent medium using focused shadowgraph technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yukina; Kudo, Nobuki

    2017-07-01

    Acoustic fields of a short-pulsed ultrasound propagating through a transparent medium with ultrasound attenuation were visualized by the focused shadowgraph technique. A brightness waveform and its spatial integrations were derived from a visualized field image and compared with a pressure waveform measured by a membrane hydrophone. The experimental results showed that first-order integration of the brightness wave has good agreement with the pressure waveforms. Frequency-dependent attenuation of the pulse propagating through castor oil was derived from brightness and pressure waveforms, and attenuation coefficients determined from focused shadowgraphy and hydrophone techniques showed good agreement. The results suggest the usefulness of the shadowgraph technique not only for the visualization of ultrasound fields but also for noncontact estimation of rough pressure waveforms and correct ultrasound attenuation.

  4. Synergistic effects of Combined Therapy: nonfocused ultrasound plus Aussie current for noninvasive body contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Vivianne Carvalho; Crivelaro, Cinthia Nicoletti; Ferla, Luciane Zacchi; Pelozo, Gisele Marques; Azevedo, Juliana; Liebano, Richard Eloin; Nogueira, Caroline; Guidi, Renata Michelini; Grecco, Clóvis; Sant'Ana, Estela

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, there are several noninvasive technologies being used for improving of body contouring. The objectives of this pilot study were to verify the effectiveness of the Heccus ® device, emphasizing the synergism between nonfocused ultrasound plus Aussie current in the improvement of body contour, and to determine if the association of this therapy with whole-body vibration exercises can have additional positive effects in the results of the treatments. Twenty healthy women aged 20-40 years participated in the study. Ten patients received Combined Therapy treatment (G1) and the other 10 participants received Combined Therapy with additional vibratory platform treatment (G2). Anthropometric and standardized photography analysis, ultrasonography, cutometry and self-adminestered questionnaires of tolerance and satisfaction levels with the treatment were used. Compared with baseline values, reduction of fat thickness was observed by ultrasonography in the posterior thigh area in the G1 group ( P <0.05) and in the buttocks ( P <0.05) and the posterior thigh areas ( P <0.05) in the G2. All the treated areas in both groups showed reduction in cellulite degree in the buttocks, G1 ( P <0.05) and G2 ( P <0.05), and in posterior thigh areas, G1 ( P <0.05) and G2 ( P <0.05). Optimal improvement of skin firmness (G1, P <0.0001; G2, P =0.0034) in the treated areas was observed in both groups. We conclude that the synergistic effects of the Combined Therapy (nonfocused ultrasound plus Aussie current) might be a good option with noninvasive body contouring treatment for improving the aspect of the cellulite, skin firmness and localized fat. If used in association with the whole-body vibratory platform, the results can be better, especially in the treatment of localized fat. Further studies with larger sample size should be performed to confirm these results.

  5. HematoPorphyrin Monomethyl Ether polymer contrast agent for ultrasound/photoacoustic dual-modality imaging-guided synergistic high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Sijing; Lu, Min; Ding, Xiaoya; Chen, Fei; He, Xuemei; Xu, Chunyan; Zhou, Hang; Wang, Qi; Hao, Lan; Zou, Jianzhong

    2016-08-18

    This study is to prepare a hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microcapsules (HMME/PLGA), which could not only function as efficient contrast agent for ultrasound (US)/photoacoustic (PA) imaging, but also as a synergistic agent for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. Sonosensitizer HMME nanoparticles were integrated into PLGA microcapsules with the double emulsion evaporation method. After characterization, the cell-killing and cell proliferation-inhibiting effects of HMME/PLGA microcapsules on ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells were assessed. The US/PA imaging-enhancing effects and synergistic effects on HIFU were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. HMME/PLGA microcapsules were highly dispersed with well-defined spherical morphology (357 ± 0.72 nm in diameter, PDI = 0.932). Encapsulation efficiency and drug-loading efficiency were 58.33 ± 0.95% and 4.73 ± 0.15%, respectively. The HMME/PLGA microcapsules remarkably killed the SKOV3 cells and inhibited the cell proliferation, significantly enhanced the US/PA imaging results and greatly enhanced the HIFU ablation effects on ovarian cancer in nude mice by the HMME-mediated sono-dynamic chemistry therapy (SDT). HMME/PLGA microcapsules represent a potential multifunctional contrast agent for HIFU diagnosis and treatment, which might provide a novel strategy for the highly efficient imaging-guided non-invasive HIFU synergistic therapy for cancers by SDT in clinic.

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ... and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...

  7. Enhanced pulsed magneto-motive ultrasound imaging using superparamagnetic nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrmohammadi, M; Qu, M; Emelianov, S Y; Yoon, K Y; Johnston, K P

    2011-01-01

    Recently, pulsed magneto-motive ultrasound (pMMUS) imaging augmented with ultra-small magnetic nanoparticles has been introduced as a tool capable of imaging events at molecular and cellular levels. The sensitivity of a pMMUS system depends on several parameters, including the size, geometry and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles. Under the same magnetic field, larger magnetic nanostructures experience a stronger magnetic force and produce larger displacement, thus improving the sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of pMMUS imaging. Unfortunately, large magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles are typically ferromagnetic and thus are very difficult to stabilize against colloidal aggregation. In the current study we demonstrate improvement of pMMUS image quality by using large size superparamagnetic nanoclusters characterized by strong magnetization per particle. Water-soluble magnetic nanoclusters of two sizes (15 and 55 nm average size) were synthesized from 3 nm iron precursors in the presence of citrate capping ligand. The size distribution of synthesized nanoclusters and individual nanoparticles was characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tissue mimicking phantoms containing single nanoparticles and two sizes of nanoclusters were imaged using a custom-built pMMUS imaging system. While the magnetic properties of citrate-coated nanoclusters are identical to those of superparamagnetic nanoparticles, the magneto-motive signal detected from nanoclusters is larger, i.e. the same magnetic field produced larger magnetically induced displacement. Therefore, our study demonstrates that clusters of superparamagnetic nanoparticles result in pMMUS images with higher contrast and SNR.

  8. Ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion blocks combined with pharmacological and occupational therapy in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS): a pilot case series ad interim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Karin; Feldmann, Robert E; Brascher, Anne-Kathrin; Benrath, Justus

    2014-12-01

    This preliminary and retrospective pilot case series examines a treatment concept consisting of ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion blocks (SGBs) combined with pharmacological and occupational therapy in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) of the hand. Efficacy of combined treatment concepts and safety of ultrasound-guided SGB have not been sufficiently investigated yet. A total number of 156 blocks were evaluated in 16 patients with CRPS in a retrospective analysis. All patients received pharmacotherapy and a standard regimen of occupational therapy offered simultaneously to the SGBs. Changes in both spontaneous and evoked pain levels were assessed by numerical pain rating score before and after the last blockade of a series. Side effects were documented. The overall mean pain reduction was 63.2% regarding spontaneous and 45.3% regarding evoked pain. Mild complications, such as hoarseness or dysphagia, occurred in 13.5% of the blocks (21 SGBs). Serious complications, such as plexus paresis or accidental puncture of vessels or other structures, did not occur. Time between symptom onset and start of treatment did not affect the extent of pain reduction. The combination of ultrasound-guided SGB and simultaneous pharmacological and occupational therapy showed encouraging treatment results under conditions of this pilot case series. Assessment of efficacy of this combined treatment concept and safety of ultrasound-guided SGB require further prospective clinical studies with larger number of participants. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. MO-AB-210-02: Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy-Hands On Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammet, S.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate advancements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound. HIFU is a therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves as carriers of energy. HIFU is used to focus a beam of ultrasound energy into a small volume at specific target locations within the body. The focused beam causes localized high temperatures and produces a well-defined regions of necrosis. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation and targeted drug delivery. At the workshop, attendees will see configurations, applications, and hands-on demonstrations with on-site instructors at separate stations. The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. At the workshop, an array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be provided for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environment with live demonstrations of the techniques. Target audience: Medical physicists and other medical professionals in diagnostic imaging and radiation oncology with interest in high-intensity focused ultrasound and in diagnostic ultrasound QC. Learning Objectives: Learn ultrasound physics and safety for HIFU applications through live demonstrations Get an overview of the state-of-the art in HIFU technologies and equipment Gain familiarity with common elements of a quality control program for diagnostic ultrasound imaging Identify QC tools available for testing diagnostic ultrasound systems and learn how to use these tools List of supporting vendors for HIFU and diagnostic ultrasound QC hands-on workshop: Philips Healthcare Alpinion Medical Systems Verasonics, Inc Zonare Medical Systems, Inc Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS), Inc. GAMMEX, Inc., Cablon Medical BV Steffen Sammet: NIH/NCI grant 5R25CA132822, NIH/NINDS grant 5R25NS

  10. MO-AB-210-01: Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy-Hands On Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate advancements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound. HIFU is a therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves as carriers of energy. HIFU is used to focus a beam of ultrasound energy into a small volume at specific target locations within the body. The focused beam causes localized high temperatures and produces a well-defined regions of necrosis. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation and targeted drug delivery. At the workshop, attendees will see configurations, applications, and hands-on demonstrations with on-site instructors at separate stations. The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. At the workshop, an array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be provided for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environment with live demonstrations of the techniques. Target audience: Medical physicists and other medical professionals in diagnostic imaging and radiation oncology with interest in high-intensity focused ultrasound and in diagnostic ultrasound QC. Learning Objectives: Learn ultrasound physics and safety for HIFU applications through live demonstrations Get an overview of the state-of-the art in HIFU technologies and equipment Gain familiarity with common elements of a quality control program for diagnostic ultrasound imaging Identify QC tools available for testing diagnostic ultrasound systems and learn how to use these tools List of supporting vendors for HIFU and diagnostic ultrasound QC hands-on workshop: Philips Healthcare Alpinion Medical Systems Verasonics, Inc Zonare Medical Systems, Inc Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS), Inc. GAMMEX, Inc., Cablon Medical BV Steffen Sammet: NIH/NCI grant 5R25CA132822, NIH/NINDS grant 5R25NS

  11. MO-AB-210-02: Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy-Hands On Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sammet, S. [University of Chicago Medical Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate advancements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound. HIFU is a therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves as carriers of energy. HIFU is used to focus a beam of ultrasound energy into a small volume at specific target locations within the body. The focused beam causes localized high temperatures and produces a well-defined regions of necrosis. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation and targeted drug delivery. At the workshop, attendees will see configurations, applications, and hands-on demonstrations with on-site instructors at separate stations. The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. At the workshop, an array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be provided for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environment with live demonstrations of the techniques. Target audience: Medical physicists and other medical professionals in diagnostic imaging and radiation oncology with interest in high-intensity focused ultrasound and in diagnostic ultrasound QC. Learning Objectives: Learn ultrasound physics and safety for HIFU applications through live demonstrations Get an overview of the state-of-the art in HIFU technologies and equipment Gain familiarity with common elements of a quality control program for diagnostic ultrasound imaging Identify QC tools available for testing diagnostic ultrasound systems and learn how to use these tools List of supporting vendors for HIFU and diagnostic ultrasound QC hands-on workshop: Philips Healthcare Alpinion Medical Systems Verasonics, Inc Zonare Medical Systems, Inc Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS), Inc. GAMMEX, Inc., Cablon Medical BV Steffen Sammet: NIH/NCI grant 5R25CA132822, NIH/NINDS grant 5R25NS

  12. MO-AB-210-01: Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy-Hands On Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z. [University of Chicago (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The goal of this ultrasound hands-on workshop is to demonstrate advancements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and to demonstrate quality control (QC) testing in diagnostic ultrasound. HIFU is a therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves as carriers of energy. HIFU is used to focus a beam of ultrasound energy into a small volume at specific target locations within the body. The focused beam causes localized high temperatures and produces a well-defined regions of necrosis. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation and targeted drug delivery. At the workshop, attendees will see configurations, applications, and hands-on demonstrations with on-site instructors at separate stations. The involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic ultrasound imaging service is increasing due to QC and accreditation requirements. At the workshop, an array of ultrasound testing phantoms and ultrasound scanners will be provided for attendees to learn diagnostic ultrasound QC in a hands-on environment with live demonstrations of the techniques. Target audience: Medical physicists and other medical professionals in diagnostic imaging and radiation oncology with interest in high-intensity focused ultrasound and in diagnostic ultrasound QC. Learning Objectives: Learn ultrasound physics and safety for HIFU applications through live demonstrations Get an overview of the state-of-the art in HIFU technologies and equipment Gain familiarity with common elements of a quality control program for diagnostic ultrasound imaging Identify QC tools available for testing diagnostic ultrasound systems and learn how to use these tools List of supporting vendors for HIFU and diagnostic ultrasound QC hands-on workshop: Philips Healthcare Alpinion Medical Systems Verasonics, Inc Zonare Medical Systems, Inc Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS), Inc. GAMMEX, Inc., Cablon Medical BV Steffen Sammet: NIH/NCI grant 5R25CA132822, NIH/NINDS grant 5R25NS

  13. Thermal therapy for breast tumors by using a cylindrical ultrasound phased array with multifocus pattern scanning: a preliminary numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C-S; Ju, K-C; Cheng, T-Y; Chen, Y-Y; Lin, W-L

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using a 1 MHz cylindrical ultrasound phased array with multifocus pattern scanning to produce uniform heating for breast tumor thermal therapy. The breast was submerged in water and surrounded by the cylindrical ultrasound phased array. A multifocus pattern was generated and electrically scanned by the phased array to enlarge the treatment lesion in single heating. To prevent overheating normal tissues, a large planning target volume (PTV) would be divided into several planes with several subunits on each plane and sequentially treated with a cooling phase between two successive heatings of the subunit. Heating results for different target temperatures (T tgt ), blood perfusion rates and sizes of the PTV have been studied. Furthermore, a superficial breast tumor with different water temperatures was also studied. Results indicated that a higher target temperature would produce a slightly larger thermal lesion, and a higher blood perfusion rate would not affect the heating lesion size but increase the heating time significantly. The acoustic power deposition and temperature elevations in ribs can be minimized by orienting the acoustic beam from the ultrasound phased array approximately parallel to the ribs. In addition, a large acoustic window on the convex-shaped breast surface for the proposed ultrasound phased array and the cooling effect of water would prevent the skin overheating for the production of a lesion at any desired location. This study demonstrated that the proposed cylindrical ultrasound phased array can provide effective heating for breast tumor thermal therapy without overheating the skin and ribs within a reasonable treatment time

  14. Improving ultrasound gene transfection efficiency by controlling ultrasound excitation of microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Z.; Chen, D.; Deng, C.X.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound application in the presence of microbubbles has shown great potential for non-viral gene transfection via transient disruption of cell membrane (sonoporation). However, improvement of its efficiency has largely relied on empirical approaches without consistent and translatable results. The goal of this study is to develop a rational strategy based on new results obtained using novel experimental techniques and analysis to improve sonoporation gene transfection. We conducted experiments using targeted microbubbles that were attached to cell membrane to facilitate sonoporation. We quantified the dynamic activities of microbubbles exposed to pulsed ultrasound and the resulting sonoporation outcome and identified distinct regimes of characteristic microbubble behaviors: stable cavitation, coalescence and translation, and inertial cavitation. We found that inertial cavitation generated the highest rate of membrane poration. By establishing direct correlation of ultrasound-induced bubble activities with intracellular uptake and pore size, we designed a ramped pulse exposure scheme for optimizing microbubble excitation to improve sonoporation gene transfection. We implemented a novel sonoporation gene transfection system using an aqueous two phase system (ATPS) for efficient use of reagents and high throughput operation. Using plasmid coding for the green fluorescence protein (GFP), we achieved a sonoporation transfection efficiency in rate aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) of 6.9% ± 2.2% (n = 9), comparable with lipofection (7.5% ± 0.8%, n = 9). Our results reveal characteristic microbubble behaviors responsible for sonoporation and demonstrated a rational strategy to improve sonoporation gene transfection. PMID:23770009

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page ... to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  16. Adjuvant hormone therapy in patients undergoing high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Neimark

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency and safety of using the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone leuprorelin with the Atrigel delivery system in doses of 7.5, 22.5, and 45 mg as an adjuvant regimen in high- and moderate-risk cancer patients who have received high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy.Subjects and methods. Moderate- and high-risk locally advanced prostate cancer (PC patients treated with HIFU (n = 28 and HIFU in combination with hormone therapy during 6 months (n = 31 were examined.Results. The investigation has shown that leuprorelin acetate monotherapy used within 6 months after HIFU therapy can achieve the highest reduction in prostate-specific antigen levels and positively affect the symptoms of the disease. HIFU in combination with androgen deprivation substantially diminishes the clinical manifestations of the disease and improves quality of life in HIFU-treated patients with PC, by reducing the degree of infravesical obstruction (according to uroflowmetric findings and IPSS scores, and causes a decrease in prostate volume as compared to those who have undergone HIFU only. Treatment with leuprorelin having the Atrigel delivery system has demonstrated the low incidence of adverse reactions and good tolerability.

  17. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Săftoiu, A; Dietrich, C F; Vilmann, P

    2012-01-01

    Second-generation intravenous blood-pool ultrasound contrast agents are increasingly used in endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for characterization of microvascularization, differential diagnosis of benign and malignant focal lesions, and improving staging and guidance of therapeutic procedures. Although...... initially used as Doppler signal enhancers, second-generation microbubble contrast agents are now used with specific contrast harmonic imaging techniques, which benefit from the highly nonlinear behavior of the microbubbles. Contrast-specific modes based on multi-pulse technology are used to perform...... contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS based on a very low mechanical index (0.08 - 0.12). Quantification techniques based on dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound have been recommended for perfusion imaging and monitoring of anti-angiogenic treatment, mainly based on time-intensity curve analysis. Most...

  18. Comparison of photobiomodulation therapy and suprascapular nerve-pulsed radiofrequency in chronic shoulder pain: a randomized controlled, single-blind, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ökmen, Burcu Metin; Ökmen, Korgün

    2017-11-01

    Shoulder pain can be difficult to treat due to its complex anatomic structure, and different treatment methods can be used. We aimed to examine the efficacy of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) and suprascapular nerve (SSN)-pulsed radiofrequency (RF) therapy. In this prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blind study, 59 patients with chronic shoulder pain due to impingement syndrome received PBMT (group H) or SSN-pulsed RF therapy (group P) in addition to exercise therapy for 14 sessions over 2 weeks. Records were taken using visual analog scale (VAS), Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), and Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) scoring systems for pretreatment (PRT), posttreatment (PST), and PST follow-up at months 1, 3, and 6. There was no statistically significant difference in initial VAS score, SPADI, and NHP values between group H and group P (p > 0.05). Compared to the values of PRT, PST, and PST at months 1, 3, and 6, VAS, SPADI, and NHP values were statistically significantly lower in both groups (p measurement times in VAS, SPADI, and NHP between the two groups. We established that PBMT and SSN-pulsed RF therapy are effective methods, in addition to exercise therapy, in patients with chronic shoulder pain. PBMT seems to be advantageous compared to SSN-pulsed RF therapy, as it is a noninvasive method.

  19. Efficacy of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in the prevention of osteoporosis following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, S J; Bennell, K L; Matthews, B; Brown, D J; McMeeken, J M; Wark, J D

    2001-11-01

    Ultrasound (US), a high-frequency acoustic energy traveling in the form of a mechanical wave, represents a potential site-specific intervention for osteoporosis. Bone is a dynamic tissue that remodels in response to applied mechanical stimuli. As a form of mechanical stimulation, US is anticipated to produce a similar remodeling response. This theory is supported by growing in vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrating an osteogenic effect of pulsed-wave US at low spatial-averaged temporal-averaged intensities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low-intensity pulsed US could prevent calcaneal osteoporosis in individuals following spinal cord injury (SCI). Fifteen patients with a 1-6 month history of SCI were recruited. Active US was introduced to one heel for 20 min/day, 5 days/week, over 6 weeks. The contralateral heel was simultaneously treated with inactive US. Patients were blind to which heel was being actively treated. Active US pulsed with a 10 microsec burst of 1.0 MHz sine waves repeating at 3.3 kHz. The spatial-averaged temporal-averaged intensity was set at 30 mW/cm(2). Bone status was assessed at baseline and following the intervention period by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and quantitative US. SCI resulted in significant bone loss. Bone mineral content decreased by 7.5 +/- 3.0% in inactive US-treated calcanei (p 0.05). These findings confirm the negative skeletal impact of SCI, and demonstrate that US at the dose and mode administered was not a beneficial intervention for SCI-induced osteoporosis. This latter finding may primarily relate to the inability of US to effectively penetrate the outer cortex of bone due to its acoustic properties.

  20. CT and Ultrasound Guided Stereotactic High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Bradford J.; Yanof, J.; Frenkel, V.; Viswanathan, A.; Dromi, S.; Oh, K.; Kruecker, J.; Bauer, C.; Seip, R.; Kam, A.; Li, K. C. P.

    2006-05-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of CT and B-mode Ultrasound (US) targeted HIFU, a prototype coaxial focused ultrasound transducer was registered and integrated to a CT scanner. CT and diagnostic ultrasound were used for HIFU targeting and monitoring, with the goals of both thermal ablation and non-thermal enhanced drug delivery. A 1 megahertz coaxial ultrasound transducer was custom fabricated and attached to a passive position-sensing arm and an active six degree-of-freedom robotic arm via a CT stereotactic frame. The outer therapeutic transducer with a 10 cm fixed focal zone was coaxially mounted to an inner diagnostic US transducer (2-4 megahertz, Philips Medical Systems). This coaxial US transducer was connected to a modified commercial focused ultrasound generator (Focus Surgery, Indianapolis, IN) with a maximum total acoustic power of 100 watts. This pre-clinical paradigm was tested for ability to heat tissue in phantoms with monitoring and navigation from CT and live US. The feasibility of navigation via image fusion of CT with other modalities such as PET and MRI was demonstrated. Heated water phantoms were tested for correlation between CT numbers and temperature (for ablation monitoring). The prototype transducer and integrated CT/US imaging system enabled simultaneous multimodality imaging and therapy. Pre-clinical phantom models validated the treatment paradigm and demonstrated integrated multimodality guidance and treatment monitoring. Temperature changes during phantom cooling corresponded to CT number changes. Contrast enhanced or non-enhanced CT numbers may potentially be used to monitor thermal ablation with HIFU. Integrated CT, diagnostic US, and therapeutic focused ultrasound bridges a gap between diagnosis and therapy. Preliminary results show that the multimodality system may represent a relatively inexpensive, accessible, and simple method of both targeting and monitoring HIFU effects. Small animal pre-clinical models may be translated to large

  1. Factors influencing the examinations by means of ultrasounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocco, M.

    1988-01-01

    The reliability of ultrasound examination can be influenced by many variables: the pulse generator and receiver, the material under examination, size, type, position and orientation of a defect inside the material. The results of a study aiming at evaluating the amplitude of the response signals as a means to size defects are exposed. The conclusions have been drawn considering the influence that a defect and an ultrasound system have on the power absorbed. The results show that the orientation, the geometry and the band width of the ultrasound system

  2. Combined Treatment of Alendronate and Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS Increases Bone Mineral Density at the Cancellous Bone Osteotomy Site in Aged Rats: A Preliminary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Aonuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During fracture healing, alendronate encourages callus volume by inhibiting bone resorption, whereas low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS enhances bone regeneration by promoting an anabolic response. Methods: In the present study, 9-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats, with a unilateral proximal tibial osteotomy, were treated with alendronate (daily, 1 g/kg plus sham-LIPUS (n = 14, saline plus LIPUS (20 min/day (n = 18, alendronate plus LIPUS (n = 16, or saline plus sham- LIPUS as a control (n = 13 for 4 weeks. The rats were then examined for changes in bone mineral density (BMD during metaphyseal bone repair. Results: The combined therapy signi cantly increased BMD at the osteotomy site at 4 weeks (p < 0.001 compared with the control, without affecting the contralateral, non-osteotomized tibia. Both alendronate and LIPUS alone also exerted a positive, albeit less, effect on BMD in the affected limb (p < 0.001 and p = 0.006, respectively. Conclusions: Alendronate and LIPUS cooperate to enhance BMD during metaphyseal bone healing. Keywords: LIPUS, bisphosphonate, bone mineral density.

  3. Power cavitation-guided blood-brain barrier opening with focused ultrasound and microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, M. T.; Apostolakis, I.; Konofagou, E. E.

    2018-03-01

    Image-guided monitoring of microbubble-based focused ultrasound (FUS) therapies relies on the accurate localization of FUS-stimulated microbubble activity (i.e. acoustic cavitation). Passive cavitation imaging with ultrasound arrays can achieve this, but with insufficient spatial resolution. In this study, we address this limitation and perform high-resolution monitoring of acoustic cavitation-mediated blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening with a new technique called power cavitation imaging. By synchronizing the FUS transmit and passive receive acquisition, high-resolution passive cavitation imaging was achieved by using delay and sum beamforming with absolute time delays. Since the axial image resolution is now dependent on the duration of the received acoustic cavitation emission, short pulses of FUS were used to limit its duration. Image sets were acquired at high-frame rates for calculation of power cavitation images analogous to power Doppler imaging. Power cavitation imaging displays the mean intensity of acoustic cavitation over time and was correlated with areas of acoustic cavitation-induced BBB opening. Power cavitation-guided BBB opening with FUS could constitute a standalone system that may not require MRI guidance during the procedure. The same technique can be used for other acoustic cavitation-based FUS therapies, for both safety and guidance.

  4. Ultrasound in sports medicine-A critical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Gina M.; Wilson, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This article will discuss the aspects of sports medicine where ultrasound imaging has advantages when compared to MRI looking at the strengths and weaknesses of ultrasound in the context of diagnosis and management. It will also assess the use of ultrasound in therapy including guided injections and current thoughts on novel forms of treatment. We will particularly emphasise the role of ultrasound imaging in the management of injuries of tendon, ligament and muscle

  5. Effects and Mechanisms of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound for Chronic Prostatitis and Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiting Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS is one of the most common urologic diseases, and no curative treatments have been identified. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS has been successfully used in promoting tissue healing, inhibiting inflammation and pain, differentiating stem cells, and stimulating nerve regeneration/muscle regeneration, as well as enhancing angiogenesis. Very recently, LIPUS has been proven an effective approach for CP/CPPS. This review summarizes the possible mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic effect of LIPUS for CP/CPPS. To search publications relevant to the topics of this review, the search engine for life sciences of Entrez was used. We reviewed the available evidence from 1954 through 2015 concerning LIPUS for CP/CPPS. According to the literature, both transrectal and transperineal approaches of LIPUS are effective for CP/CPPS.

  6. 99mTechnetium-methylene diphosphonate bone imaging using low-intensity pulsed ultrasound: promotion of bone formation during mandibular distraction osteogenesis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuxiang; Li, Guoquan; Ao, Jianhua; Zhou, Libin; Ma, Qin; Liu, Yanpu

    2010-03-01

    Our objective was to assess the value of (99m)technetium-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) bone imaging in the use of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound to promote bony formation during mandibular distraction osteogenesis in dogs. The body of the mandibles in 7 dogs were cut between the first and the second premolar and were lengthened at the rate of 1mm/day, twice a day, for 20 days. During the period of distraction one lateral distraction gap was irradiated with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) for 10min twice a day, and the other side was used as control. Serial radiographic inspections were made at different periods (0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks) during the consolidation phase, followed by a plain radiograph and histological examination. The (99m)Tc-MDP imaging showed that the ratio of bone formation on the LIPUS-treated side was significantly higher than that on the control side during the early period of consolidation (before the 4th week), but later this was reversed and there were no significant differences between the two sides by the 12th week. Plain radiographs and histological examination showed that the new bone on the experimental side had matured earlier than that on the control side. Radionuclide bone imaging is a good way to assess the formation of bone after distraction osteogenesis.

  7. Ultrasound fields in an attenuating medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gandhi,, D; O'Brien,, W.D., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    of the rectangles and sums all contributions to arrive at the spatial impulse response for the aperture and field point. This approach makes it possible to model all transducer apertures, and the program can readily calculate the emitted, pulse-echo and continuous wave field. Attenuation is included by splitting...... it into a frequency dependent part and frequency independent part. The latter results in an attenuation factor that is multiplied onto the responses from the individual elements, and the frequency dependent part is handled by attenuating the basic one-dimensional pulse. The influence on ultrasound fields from......Ultrasound fields propagating in tissue will undergo changes in shape not only due to diffraction, but also due to the frequency dependent attenuation. Linear fields can be fairly well predicted for a non-attenuating medium like water by using the Tupholme-Stepanishen method for calculating...

  8. Ultrasound strain imaging using Barker code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Tie, Juhong; Guo, Dequan

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound strain imaging is showing promise as a new way of imaging soft tissue elasticity in order to help clinicians detect lesions or cancers in tissues. In this paper, Barker code is applied to strain imaging to improve its quality. Barker code as a coded excitation signal can be used to improve the echo signal-to-noise ratio (eSNR) in ultrasound imaging system. For the Baker code of length 13, the sidelobe level of the matched filter output is -22dB, which is unacceptable for ultrasound strain imaging, because high sidelobe level will cause high decorrelation noise. Instead of using the conventional matched filter, we use the Wiener filter to decode the Barker-coded echo signal to suppress the range sidelobes. We also compare the performance of Barker code and the conventional short pulse in simulation method. The simulation results demonstrate that the performance of the Wiener filter is much better than the matched filter, and Baker code achieves higher elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNRe) than the short pulse in low eSNR or great depth conditions due to the increased eSNR with it.

  9. Safety and Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Fiducial Marker Implantation for CyberKnife Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Hong, Seong; Sook; Kim, Jung Hoon; Park, Hyun Jeong; Chang, Yun Woo; Chang, A Ram [Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Seok Beom [Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    To evaluate the safety and technical success rate of an ultrasound-guided fiducial marker implantation in preparation for CyberKnife radiation therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 270 percutaneous ultrasound-guided fiducial marker implantations in 77 patients, which were performed from June 2008 through March 2011. Of 270 implantations, 104 were implanted in metastatic lymph nodes, 96 were in the liver, 39 were in the pancreas, and 31 were in the prostate. During and after the implantation, major and minor procedure-related complications were documented. We defined technical success as the implantation enabling adequate treatment planning and CT simulation. The major and minor complication rates were 1% and 21%, respectively. One patient who had an implantation in the liver suffered severe abdominal pain, biloma, and pleural effusion, which were considered as major complication. Abdominal pain was the most common complication in 11 patients (14%). Among nine patients who had markers inserted in the prostate, one had transient hematuria for less than 24 hours, and the other experienced transient voiding difficulty. Of the 270 implantations, 261 were successful (97%). The reasons for unsuccessful implantations included migration of fiducial markers (five implantations, 2%) and failure to discriminate the fiducial markers (three implantations, 1%). Among the unsuccessful implantation cases, six patients required additional procedures (8%). The symptomatic complications following ultrasound-guided percutaneous implantation of fiducial markers are relatively low. However, careful consideration of the relatively higher rate of migration and discrimination failure is needed when performing ultrasound-guided percutaneous implantations of fiducial markers.

  10. Symptomatic aggravation after corticosteroid pulse therapy in definite sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with the feature of Hashimoto's encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Won; Park, So Young; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Jung E; Kim, SangYun

    2014-09-08

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Hashimoto's encephalopathy often show similar clinical presentation. Among Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease mimics, Hashimoto's encephalopathy is particularly important as it is treatable with corticosteroids. Thus, in cases of middle-aged woman diagnosed with probable Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and who exhibit high titers of antithyroid antibodies, corticosteroid pulse therapy is typically performed with expectations of near complete recovery from Hashimoto's encephalopathy. Herein, we provide the first case report that exhibited a negative effect of corticosteroid pulse therapy for a patient with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with features of Hashimoto's encephalopathy. We report a case of 59-year-old Asian woman with blurred vision, dysarthria, myoclonus, and rapidly progressive dementia. Cerebrospinal fluid showed 14-3-3 protein positive. Electroencephalogram showed periodic sharp waves (1.5 Hz) at the bilateral frontal or occipital areas. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal intensities at the bilateral cerebral cortex, caudate nucleus, and putamen. The patient was diagnosed with probable Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. However, serum analysis showed a high titer of antithyroid antibodies. We started corticosteroid pulse therapy with subsequent aggravation of seizure activity including generalized myoclonus, epilepsia parialis continua, and ballistic dyskinesia, which was effectively treated with clonazepam. We provide evidence of a case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease that exhibited clinical deterioration after corticosteroid therapy. Although histopathological confirmation with brain biopsy is not easily available in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients, selective initiation of corticosteroid pulse therapy should be considered in cases of uncertain diagnosis for differentiation with Hashimoto's encephalopathy.

  11. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound increases bone volume, osteoid thickness and mineral apposition rate in the area of fracture healing in patients with a delayed union of the osteotomized fibula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, S.; Nolte, P.A.; Korstjens, C.M.; van Duin, M.A.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) accelerates impaired fracture healing, but the exact mechanism is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate how LIPUS affects bone healing at the tissue level in patients with a delayed union of the osteotomized fibula, by using histology

  12. Detecting cavitation in vivo from shock-wave therapy devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matula, Thomas J.; Yu, Jinfei; Bailey, Michael R.

    2005-04-01

    Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) has been used as a treatment for plantar faciitis, lateral epicondylitis, shoulder tendonitis, non-unions, and other indications where conservative treatments have been unsuccessful. However, in many areas, the efficacy of SW treatment has not been well established, and the mechanism of action, particularly the role of cavitation, is not well understood. Research indicates cavitation plays an important role in other ultrasound therapies, such as lithotripsy and focused ultrasound surgery, and in some instances, cavitation has been used as a means to monitor or detect a biological effect. Although ESWT can generate cavitation easily in vitro, it is unknown whether or not cavitation is a significant factor in vivo. The purpose of this investigation is to use diagnostic ultrasound to detect and monitor cavitation generated by ESWT devices in vivo. Diagnostic images are collected at various times during and after treatment. The images are then post-processed with image-processing algorithms to enhance the contrast between bubbles and surrounding tissue. The ultimate goal of this research is to utilize cavitation as a means for optimizing shock wave parameters such as amplitude and pulse repetition frequency. [Work supported by APL internal funds and NIH DK43881 and DK55674.

  13. Microbubbles in macrocysts - Contrast-enhanced ultrasound assisted sclerosant therapy of a congenital macrocystic lymphangioma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Castro, Carlos; Zapke, Maren; Fahlbusch, Fabian; von Goessel, Heiko; Rascher, Wolfgang; Jüngert, Jörg

    2017-07-06

    Congenital cystic lymphangiomas are benign malformations due to a developmental disorder of lymphatic vessels. Besides surgical excision, sclerosant therapy of these lesions by intracavitary injection of OK-432 (Picibanil®), a lyophilized mixture of group A Streptococcus pyogenes, is a common therapeutical option. For an appropriate application of OK-432, a detailed knowledge about the structure and composition of the congenital cystic lymphangioma is essential. SonoVue® is a commercially available contrast agent commonly used in sonography by intravenous and intracavitary application. Here we report the case of 2 month old male patient with a large thoracic congenital cystic lymphangioma. Preinterventional imaging of the malformation was performed by contrast-enhanced ultrasound after intracavitary application of SonoVue® immediately followed by a successful sclerotherapy with OK-432. Contrast agent-enhanced ultrasound imaging offers a valuable option to preinterventionally clarify the anatomic specifications of a congenital cystic lymphangioma in more detail than by single conventional sonography. By the exact knowledge about the composition and especially about the intercystic communications of the lymphangioma sclerosant therapy becomes safer and more efficient.

  14. Pulsed-ultrasound tagging of light in living tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Aner; Rubanov, E.; Pomerantz, Ami; Sfez, Bruno G.

    2004-07-01

    Ultrasound can be used in order to locally modulate, or tag, light in a turbid medium. This tagging process is made possible due to the extreme sensitivity of laser speckle distribution to minute changes within the medium. This hybrid technique presents several advantages compared to all-optical tomographic techniques, in that the image resolution is fixed by the ultrasound focus diameter. To our best knowledge, only in vitro experiments have been performed, either on tissue-like phantoms or meat. However a strong difference exists between these sample and living tissues. In living tissues, different kind of liquids flow through the capillaries, strongly reducing the sspeckle autocorrelation time. We have performed experiments on both mice and humans, showing that the autocorrelation time is much shorter than what was previously thought. We show however that it is possible to obtain signal with acceptable signal to noise ratio down to a few cm depth. We will also discuss the origin and characteristics of the speckle noise.

  15. Crossed SMPS MOSFET-based protection circuit for high frequency ultrasound transceivers and transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojong; Shung, K Kirk

    2014-06-12

    The ultrasonic transducer is one of the core components of ultrasound systems, and the transducer's sensitivity is significantly related the loss of electronic components such as the transmitter, receiver, and protection circuit. In an ultrasonic device, protection circuits are commonly used to isolate the electrical noise between an ultrasound transmitter and transducer and to minimize unwanted discharged pulses in order to protect the ultrasound receiver. However, the performance of the protection circuit and transceiver obviously degrade as the operating frequency or voltage increases. We therefore developed a crossed SMPS (Switching Mode Power Supply) MOSFET-based protection circuit in order to maximize the sensitivity of high frequency transducers in ultrasound systems.The high frequency pulse signals need to trigger the transducer, and high frequency pulse signals must be received by the transducer. We therefore selected the SMPS MOSFET, which is the main component of the protection circuit, to minimize the loss in high frequency operation. The crossed configuration of the protection circuit can drive balanced bipolar high voltage signals from the pulser and transfer the balanced low voltage echo signals from the transducer. The equivalent circuit models of the SMPS MOSFET-based protection circuit are shown in order to select the proper device components. The schematic diagram and operation mechanism of the protection circuit is provided to show how the protection circuit is constructed. The P-Spice circuit simulation was also performed in order to estimate the performance of the crossed MOSFET-based protection circuit. We compared the performance of our crossed SMPS MOSFET-based protection circuit with a commercial diode-based protection circuit. At 60 MHz, our expander and limiter circuits have lower insertion loss than the commercial diode-based circuits. The pulse-echo test is typical method to evaluate the sensitivity of ultrasonic transducers

  16. Design and application of pulse information acquisition and analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... two-dimensional information acquisition, multiplex signals combination and deep data mining. Conclusions: The newly developed system could translate the pulse signals into digital, visual and measurable motion information of vessel. Keywords: Visualized pulse information; Radial artery; B mode ultrasound; Traditional ...

  17. The Role of Acoustic Cavitation in Ultrasound-triggered Drug Release from Echogenic Liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopechek, Jonathan A.

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and globally. CVD-related mortality, including coronary heart disease, heart failure, or stroke, generally occurs due to atherosclerosis, a condition in which plaques build up within arterial walls, potentially causing blockage or rupture. Targeted therapies are needed to achieve more effective treatments. Echogenic liposomes (ELIP), which consist of a lipid membrane surrounding an aqueous core, have been developed to encapsulate a therapeutic agent and/or gas bubbles for targeted delivery and ultrasound image enhancement. Under certain conditions ultrasound can cause nonlinear bubble growth and collapse, known as "cavitation." Cavitation activity has been associated with enhanced drug delivery across cellular membranes. However, the mechanisms of ultrasound-mediated drug release from ELIP have not been previously investigated. Thus, the objective of this dissertation is to elucidate the role of acoustic cavitation in ultrasound-mediated drug release from ELIP. To determine the acoustic and physical properties of ELIP, the frequency-dependent attenuation and backscatter coefficients were measured between 3 and 30 MHz. The results were compared to a theoretical model by measuring the ELIP size distribution in order to determine properties of the lipid membrane. It was found that ELIP have a broad size distribution and can provide enhanced ultrasound image contrast across a broad range of clinically-relevant frequencies. Calcein, a hydrophilic fluorescent dye, and papaverine, a lipophilic vasodilator, were separately encapsulated in ELIP and exposed to color Doppler ultrasound pulses from a clinical diagnostic ultrasound scanner in a flow system. Spectrophotometric techniques (fluorescence and absorbance measurements) were used to detect calcein or papaverine release. As a positive control, Triton X-100 (a non-ionic detergent) was added to ELIP samples not exposed to ultrasound in order

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an area of tenderness, your child may feel pressure or minor pain from the procedure. If a Doppler ultrasound study is performed, your child may actually hear pulse-like sounds that change in pitch as the blood flow is monitored and measured. Once the imaging ...

  19. Modeling of ultrasound transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David

    This Ph.D. dissertation addresses ultrasound transducer modeling for medical ultrasound imaging and combines the modeling with the ultrasound simulation program Field II. The project firstly presents two new models for spatial impulse responses (SIR)s to a rectangular elevation focused transducer...... (REFT) and to a convex rectangular elevation focused transducer (CREFT). These models are solvable on an analog time scale and give exact smooth solutions to the Rayleigh integral. The REFT model exhibits a root mean square (RMS) error relative to Field II predictions of 0.41 % at 3400 MHz, and 1.......37 % at 100MHz. The CREFT model exhibits a RMS deviation of 0.01 % relative to the exact numerical solution on a CREFT transducer. A convex non-elevation focused, a REFT, and a linear flat transducer are shown to be covered with the CREFT model as well. Pressure pulses calculated with a one...

  20. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy versus Temporal Pulse Amplitude Biofeedback Training for Recurrent Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul R.; Forsyth, Michael R.; Reece, John

    2007-01-01

    Sixty-four headache sufferers were allocated randomly to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), temporal pulse amplitude (TPA) biofeedback training, or waiting-list control. Fifty-one participants (14M/37F) completed the study, 30 with migraine and 21 with tension-type headache. Treatment consisted of 8, 1-hour sessions. CBT was highly effective,…

  1. Improving ultrasound gene transfection efficiency by controlling ultrasound excitation of microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Z; Chen, D; Deng, C X

    2013-09-28

    Ultrasound application in the presence of microbubbles has shown great potential for non-viral gene transfection via transient disruption of cell membrane (sonoporation). However, improvement of its efficiency has largely relied on empirical approaches without consistent and translatable results. The goal of this study is to develop a rational strategy based on new results obtained using novel experimental techniques and analysis to improve sonoporation gene transfection. In this study, we conducted experiments using targeted microbubbles that were attached to cell membrane to facilitate sonoporation. We quantified the dynamic activities of microbubbles exposed to pulsed ultrasound and the resulting sonoporation outcome, and identified distinct regimes of characteristic microbubble behaviors: stable cavitation, coalescence and translation, and inertial cavitation. We found that inertial cavitation generated the highest rate of membrane poration. By establishing direct correlation of ultrasound-induced bubble activities with intracellular uptake and pore size, we designed a ramped pulse exposure scheme for optimizing microbubble excitation to improve sonoporation gene transfection. We implemented a novel sonoporation gene transfection system using an aqueous two phase system (ATPS) for efficient use of reagents and high throughput operation. Using plasmids coding for the green fluorescence protein (GFP), we achieved a sonoporation transfection efficiency in rate aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) of 6.9%±2.2% (n=9), comparable with lipofection (7.5%±0.8%, n=9). Our results reveal characteristic microbubble behaviors responsible for sonoporation and demonstrated a rational strategy to improve sonoporation gene transfection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of pulsed electromagnetic therapy in the management of backache: a study conducted at armed forces institute of rehabilitation medicine, rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumtaz, N.; Ahmad, K.; Shah, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the role of pulsed electromagnetic therapy in providing pain relief for backache. Study Design: This was a quasi experimental study. Place and Duration: This study was conducted at Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from Jan 2012 to June 2012. Material and Methods: This study included 65 consecutive patients with backache. The pain was assessed on 11 points (0-10) Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) and patients with score = 1 were included in the study. Detailed history was obtained and examination was performed. All patients were subjected to pulsed electromagnetic therapy. The pain was assessed at first week, 2nd week, third week and six week after start of the pulsed electromagnetic therapy. Data was compiled and analysed using SPSS version 17. A p-value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: There was marked reduction in pain of patients with backache after treatment with pulsed electromagnetic therapy. Reduction in pain as calculated by the NRS (numeric rating scale) value after 1st week was 25.35% (p=0.002), after 2nd week was 43.66% (p=0.001), after 3rd week was 50.7% (p=0.001) and after 6 weeks was 71.83% (p=0.001). Conclusion: Pulsed electromagnetic therapy is very effective in relieving pain in patients with backache. (author)

  3. EFFECACY OF PULSE-THERAPY WIHT GLUCOCORTICOSTEROIDS AND METHOTREXATE IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N YU Lashina

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary Aim of study: Comparative study of clinical efficacy and tolerability of pulse-therapy (PT by glucocorticosteroids and methotrexate in RA pts and frequency of side effects and aggravations. Material and methods: 31 pts with seropositive RA (M:F=4:27 with disease activity 2-3 were examined. 16 pts had pulse-therapy by dexaven in dosage of 2 mg/kg of weight for 3 consecutive days, 15 pts of the 2nd group had methypred in classic dose of1000 mg No3. After PT on the 7th and 30th day pts had PT by methotrexate 100 mg and dexaven 16 mg. Therapy effect was evaluated after PT, in a month, 6 month and a year. During examination the following parameters were registered: severity of arthralgia, morning stiffness duration, grip strength, number of inflamedjoints, Ritchie's, Li, Landsbery indices, extra-articular manifestations. ESR, hemoglobin content, leukocytes, fibrinogen, seromucoid, C-reactive protein, CIC, RF were determined. Results: After PT in both groups arthralgia, morning stiffness, number of inflamed joints considerably subsided. Dynamics of medial indices of activity decreased by 2-3 times. Side effects after the procedures were minimal and were stopped without additional treatment.

  4. Radiation therapy for renal transplant rejection refractory to pulse steroids and OKT3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, William R.; Rodriguez, Rey; Knechtle, Stuart J.; Pirsch, John D.; Sollinger, Hans W.; D'Alessandro, Anthony M.; Chappell, Rick; Belzer, Folkert O.; Kinsella, Timothy J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the response rate and kidney graft survival following local irradiation to the transplanted renal graft undergoing persistent rejection after medical management including pulse steroids and OKT3. The role of radiation for renal transplant rejection after failure of OKT3 has not been previously reported. Methods and Materials: From July 1, 1988 to July 1, 1994, 72 consecutive patients with kidney graft rejection were treated with local irradiation to the transplanted renal graft following failure of medical management. All patients received pulse steroids and OKT3, an anti-CD3 immunosuppressant. Patients who failed to respond to methylprednisolone and OKT3 therapy were referred for radiation therapy. The median time from the diagnosis of rejection to irradiation was 8 days. All kidney grafts received local graft irradiation to a total of 8 Gy delivered in four daily fractions. Results: Sixty (83%) patients initially responded to radiotherapy at 7 days after completion of radiotherapy, as defined by a decrease in serum creatinine. Thirty-five responding patients have not experienced a second episode of graft rejection. Overall, 43 (60%) patients have renal graft survival, with a median follow-up of 16 months (range of 6-73 months). Conclusion: It is concluded that there is a subgroup of kidney graft patients undergoing graft rejection who are refractory to pulse steroids and OKT3 therapy where irradiation may be an effective modality with high rates of response and a moderate rate of graft survival. However, a prospective, randomized trial in these medically refractory patients is needed to ascertain whether these results are clinically significant

  5. Effects of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Orthodontically Induced Inflammatory Root Resorption in Ovariectomized Osteoporotic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahhas, Feras Y; El-Bialy, Tarek; Afify, Ahmed R; Hassan, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIRR) in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats. Forty-eight 28-d-old female Wistar rats were divided into ovariectomized and intact groups. In both groups, animals were left untreated; treated with 50 g mesially directed orthodontic force on the maxillary first molars using nickel-titanium closed-coil springs for 28 d; or treated with the same orthodontic protocol along with a 20-min LIPUS application on alternate days for 28 d. Extent of OTM and amount of OIRR of mesial roots were measured on three-dimensionally reconstructed micro-computed tomography images. Ovariectomy increased OIRR (p root volumetric loss regardless of ovariectomy status (p < 0.05); only ovariectomized animals had decreased OTM (p < 0.05). LIPUS normalizes OTM and attenuates OIRR in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats. It may therefore be beneficial in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Copper oxide loaded PLGA nanospheres: towards a multifunctional nanoscale platform for ultrasound-based imaging and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Or; Weitz, Iris S.; Sivan, Sarit S.; Abu-Khalla, Hiba; Benguigui, Madeleine; Shaked, Yuval; Azhari, Haim

    2018-05-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) are increasingly becoming the subject of investigation exploring their potential use for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Recent work has demonstrated their anticancer potential, as well as contrast agent capabilities for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and through-transmission ultrasound. However, no capability of CuO-NPs has been demonstrated using conventional ultrasound systems, which, unlike the former, are widely deployed in the clinic. Furthermore, in spite of their potential as multifunctional nano-based materials for diagnosis and therapy, CuO-NPs have been delayed from further clinical application due to their inherent toxicity. Herein, we present the synthesis of a novel nanoscale system, composed of CuO-loaded PLGA nanospheres (CuO-PLGA-NS), and demonstrate its imaging detectability and augmented heating effect by therapeutic ultrasound. The CuO-PLGA-NS were prepared by a double emulsion (W/O/W) method with subsequent solvent evaporation. They were characterized as sphere-shaped, with size approximately 200 nm. Preliminary results showed that the viability of PANC-1, human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells was not affected after 72 h exposure to CuO-PLGA-NS, implying that PLGA masks the toxic effects of CuO-NPs. A systematic ultrasound imaging evaluation of CuO-PLGA-NS, using a conventional system, was performed in vitro and ex vivo using poultry heart and liver, and also in vivo using mice, all yielding a significant contrast enhancement. In contrast to CuO-PLGA-NS, neither bare CuO-NPs nor blank PLGA-NS possess these unique advantageous ultrasonic properties. Furthermore, CuO-PLGA-NS accelerated ultrasound-induced temperature elevation by more than 4 °C within 2 min. The heating efficiency (cumulative equivalent minutes at 43 °C) was increased approximately six-fold, demonstrating the potential for improved ultrasound ablation. In conclusion, CuO-PLGA-NS constitute a versatile platform, potentially useful for

  7. Impact of statin therapy on coronary plaque composition: A systematic review and meta-analysis of virtual histology intravascular ultrasound studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Banach (Maciej); C. Serban (Corina); A. Sahebkar (Amirhossein); D.P. Mikhailidis (Dimitri P.); S. Ursoniu (Sorin); K.K. Ray (Kausik K.); J. Rysz (Jacek); P.P. Toth (Peter); P. Muntner (Paul); S. Mosteoru (Svetlana); H.M. Garcia-Garcia (Hector); G.K. Hovingh (Kees); J.J.P. Kastelein (John); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) imaging is an innovative tool for the morphological evaluation of coronary atherosclerosis. Evidence for the effects of statin therapy on VH-IVUS parameters have been inconclusive. Consequently, we performed a systematic

  8. Impact of statin therapy on coronary plaque composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis of virtual histology intravascular ultrasound studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, Maciej; Serban, Corina; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P.; Ursoniu, Sorin; Ray, Kausik K.; Rysz, Jacek; Toth, Peter P.; Muntner, Paul; Mosteoru, Svetlana; García-García, Hector M.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kastelein, John J. P.; Serruys, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    Virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) imaging is an innovative tool for the morphological evaluation of coronary atherosclerosis. Evidence for the effects of statin therapy on VH-IVUS parameters have been inconclusive. Consequently, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis

  9. Sonoporation-mediated transduction of siRNA ameliorated experimental arthritis using 3 MHz pulsed ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Arai, Yuji; Kishida, Tsunao; Shin-Ya, Masaharu; Terauchi, Ryu; Nakagawa, Shuji; Saito, Masazumi; Tsuchida, Shinji; Inoue, Atsuo; Shirai, Toshiharu; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Mazda, Osam; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2014-03-01

    The goal of this feasibility study was to examine whether sonoporation assisted transduction of siRNA could be used to ameliorate arthritis locally. If successful, such approach could provide an alternative treatment for the patients that have or gradually develop adverse response to chemical drugs. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) produced by synovial fibroblasts has an important role in the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis, inducing inflammation and bone destruction. In this study, we injected a mixture of microbubbles and siRNA targeting TNF-α (siTNF) into the articular joints of rats, and transduced siTNF into synovial tissue by exposure to a collimated ultrasound beam, applied through a probe 6mm in diameter with an input frequency of 3.0 MHz, an output intensity of 2.0 W/cm(2) (spatial average temporary peak; SATP), a pulse duty ratio of 50%, and a duration of 1 min. Sonoporation increased skin temperature from 26.8 °C to 27.3 °C, but there were no adverse effect such as burns. The mean level of TNF-α expression in siTNF-treated knee joints was 55% of those in controls. Delivery of siTNF into the knee joints every 3 days (i.e., 7, 10, 13, and 16 days after immunization) by in vivo sonoporation significantly reduced paw swelling on days 20-23 after immunization. Radiographic scores in the siTNF group were 56% of those in the CIA group and 61% of those in the siNeg group. Histological examination showed that the number of TNF-α positive cells was significantly lower in areas of pannus invasion into the ankle joints of siTNF- than of siNeg-treated rats. These results indicate that transduction of siTNF into articular synovium using sonoporation may be an effective local therapy for arthritis. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Computer model for harmonic ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Zagzebski, J A

    2000-01-01

    Harmonic ultrasound imaging has received great attention from ultrasound scanner manufacturers and researchers. In this paper, we present a computer model that can generate realistic harmonic images. In this model, the incident ultrasound is modeled after the "KZK" equation, and the echo signal is modeled using linear propagation theory because the echo signal is much weaker than the incident pulse. Both time domain and frequency domain numerical solutions to the "KZK" equation were studied. Realistic harmonic images of spherical lesion phantoms were generated for scans by a circular transducer. This model can be a very useful tool for studying the harmonic buildup and dissipation processes in a nonlinear medium, and it can be used to investigate a wide variety of topics related to B-mode harmonic imaging.

  11. Treatment of Refractory Idiopathic Supraorbital Neuralgia Using Percutaneous Pulsed Radiofrequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fang; Lu, Jingjing; Ji, Nan

    2018-02-26

    No ideal therapeutic method currently exists for refractory idiopathic supraorbital neuralgia patients who do not respond to conservative therapy, including medications and nerve blocks. Pulsed radiofrequency is a neuromodulation technique that does not produce sequelae of nerve damage after treatment. However, the efficacy of percutaneous pulsed radiofrequency for the treatment of refractory idiopathic supraorbital neuralgia is still not clear. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pulsed radiofrequency treatment of the supraorbital nerve for refractory supraorbital neuralgia patients. We prospectively investigated the long-term effects of ultrasound-guided percutaneous pulsed radiofrequency in the treatment of 22 refractory idiopathic supraorbital neuralgia patients. A reduction in the verbal pain numeric rating scale score of more than 50% was used as the standard of effectiveness. The effectiveness rates at different time points within 2 years were calculated. After a single pulsed radiofrequency treatment, the effectiveness rate at 1 and 3 months was 77%, and the rates at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years were 73%, 64%, and 50%, respectively. Except for a small portion of patients (23%) who experienced mild upper eyelid ecchymosis that gradually disappeared after approximately 2 weeks, no obvious complications were observed. In conclusion, the results of our study demonstrate that for patients with refractory idiopathic supraorbital neuralgia, percutaneous pulsed radiofrequency may be an effective and safe treatment choice. © 2018 World Institute of Pain.

  12. Studies of nonlinear ultrasound propagation: safety considerations in the use of ultrasound for medical diagnosis - nonlinear propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egerton, B.; Barnett, S.; Vella, G.

    1994-01-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound is an established imaging modality without any documented harmful effects. New developments such as pulsed Doppler and intracavity investigations may result in increases in ultrasound exposures which could cause harm. Thermal mechanisms and cavitation may become relevant sources of bioeffects. The preliminary study described here investigates the distribution and amplitude of harmonics generated through nonlinear propagation of ultrasound in water. Knowledge of harmonic attenuation will help predict sites of enhanced heating and enable accurate modelling of clinical situations. This presentation is concerned with thermal safety guidelines, their relationship to a typical ultrasound beam profile for a single, medium focussed, transducer operating in water and possible sites of enhanced heating due to nonlinear propagation effects. Measurements were made of the amplitudes of the harmonics generated by the nonlinear propagation of ultrasound in water. The amplitudes of the harmonics were detected up to frequencies of 35 MHz and displayed using Fast Fourier Transform facilities within the oscilloscope. The nonlinearity parameter of the ultrasonic waveforms has been identified as an important factor in thermal effects of ultrasound interactions. The appearance of nonlinear distortion is shown to be dependant on the peak compressional pressure and distance from the ultrasound source. 20 refs., 2 figs

  13. Additional Effect of Static Ultrasound and Diadynamic Currents on Myofascial Trigger Points in a Manual Therapy Program for Patients With Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; de Oliveira, Alessandra Kelly; Girasol, Carlos Eduardo; Dias, Fabiana Rodrigues Cancio; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus

    2017-04-01

    To assess the additional effect of static ultrasound and diadynamic currents on myofascial trigger points in a manual therapy program to treat individuals with chronic neck pain. A single-blind randomized trial was conducted. Both men and women, between ages 18 and 45, with chronic neck pain and active myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius were included in the study. Subjects were assigned to 3 different groups: group 1 (n = 20) was treated with manual therapy; group 2 (n = 20) was treated with manual therapy and static ultrasound; group 3 (n = 20) was treated with manual therapy and diadynamic currents. Individuals were assessed before the first treatment session, 48 hours after the first treatment session, 48 hours after the tenth treatment session, and 4 weeks after the last session. There was no group-versus-time interaction for Numeric Rating Scale, Neck Disability Index, Pain-Related Self-Statement Scale, pressure pain threshold, cervical range of motion, and skin temperature (F-value range, 0.089-1.961; P-value range, 0.106-0.977). Moreover, we found no differences between groups regarding electromyographic activity (P > 0.05). The use of static ultrasound or diadynamic currents on myofascial trigger points in upper trapezius associated with a manual therapy program did not generate greater benefits than manual therapy alone.

  14. Multi-Channel RF System for MRI-Guided Transurethral Ultrasound Thermal Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yak, Nicolas; Asselin, Matthew; Chopra, Rajiv; Bronskill, Michael

    2009-04-01

    MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound thermal therapy is an approach to treating localized prostate cancer which targets precise deposition of thermal energy within a confined region of the gland. This treatment requires a system incorporating a heating applicator with multiple planar ultrasound transducers and associated RF electronics to control individual elements independently in order to achieve accurate 3D treatment. We report the design, construction, and characterization of a prototype multi-channel system capable of controlling 16 independent RF signals for a 16-element heating applicator. The main components are a control computer, microcontroller, and a 16-channel signal generator with 16 amplifiers, each incorporating a low-pass filter and transmitted/reflected power detection circuit. Each channel can deliver from 0.5 to 10 W of electrical power and good linearity from 3 to 12 MHz. Harmonic RF signals near the Larmor frequency of a 1.5 T MRI were measured to be below -30 dBm and heating experiments within the 1.5 T MR system showed no significant decrease in SNR of the temperature images. The frequency and power for all 16 channels could be changed in less than 250 ms, which was sufficiently rapid for proper performance of the control algorithms. A common backplane design was chosen which enabled an inexpensive, modular approach for each channel resulting in an overall system with minimal footprint.

  15. Multi-frequency accelerating strategy for the contrast source inversion method of ultrasound waveform tomography using pulse data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongxiang; Azuma, Takashi; Qu, Xiaolei; Takagi, Shu

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we construct a multi-frequency accelerating strategy for the contrast source inversion (CSI) method using pulse data in the time domain. CSI is a frequency-domain inversion method for ultrasound waveform tomography that does not require the forward solver through the process of reconstruction. Several prior researches show that the CSI method has a good performance of convergence and accuracy in the low-center-frequency situation. In contrast, utilizing the high-center-frequency data leads to a high-resolution reconstruction but slow convergence on large numbers of grid. Our objective is to take full advantage of all low frequency components from pulse data with the high-center-frequency data measured by the diagnostic device. First we process the raw data in the frequency domain. Then multi-frequency accelerating strategy helps restart CSI in the current frequency using the last iteration result obtained from the lower frequency component. The merit of multi- frequency accelerating strategy is that computational burden decreases at the first few iterations. Because the low frequency component of dataset computes on the coarse grid with assuming a fixed number of points per wavelength. In the numerical test, the pulse data were generated by the K-wave simulator and have been processed to meet the computation of the CSI method. We investigate the performance of the multi-frequency and single-frequency reconstructions and conclude that the multi-frequency accelerating strategy significantly enhances the quality of the reconstructed image and simultaneously reduces the average computational time for any iteration step.

  16. Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Enhances Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Neurite Outgrowth through Mechanotransduction-Mediated ERK1/2-CREB-Trx-1 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; Feng, Yi; Hu, Hong; Shi, Aiwei; Zhang, Lei; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-12-01

    Enhancing the action of nerve growth factor (NGF) is a potential therapeutic approach to neural regeneration. To facilitate neural regeneration, we investigated whether combining low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and NGF could promote neurite outgrowth, an essential process in neural regeneration. In the present study, PC12 cells were subjected to a combination of LIPUS (1 MHz, 30 or 50 mW/cm 2 , 20% duty cycle and 100-Hz pulse repetition frequency, 10 min every other day) and NGF (50 ng/mL) treatment, and then neurite outgrowth was compared. Our findings indicated that the combined treatment with LIPUS (50 mW/cm 2 ) and NGF (50 ng/mL) promotes neurite outgrowth that is comparable to that achieved by NGF (100 ng/mL) treatment alone. LIPUS significantly increased NGF-induced neurite length, but not neurite branching. These effects were attributed to the enhancing effects of LIPUS on NGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and CREB and the expression of thioredoxin (Trx-1). Furthermore, blockage of stretch-activated ion channels with Gd 3+ suppressed the stimulating effects of LIPUS on NGF-induced neurite outgrowth and the downstream signaling activation. Taken together, our findings suggest that LIPUS enhances NGF-induced neurite outgrowth through mechanotransduction-mediated signaling of the ERK1/2-CREB-Trx-1 pathway. The combination of LIPUS and NGF could potentially be used for the treatment of nerve injury and neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A semi-analytical model of a time reversal cavity for high-amplitude focused ultrasound applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, J.; Tanter, M.; Pernot, M.

    2017-09-01

    Time reversal cavities (TRC) have been proposed as an efficient approach for 3D ultrasound therapy. They allow the precise spatio-temporal focusing of high-power ultrasound pulses within a large region of interest with a low number of transducers. Leaky TRCs are usually built by placing a multiple scattering medium, such as a random rod forest, in a reverberating cavity, and the final peak pressure gain of the device only depends on the temporal length of its impulse response. Such multiple scattering in a reverberating cavity is a complex phenomenon, and optimisation of the device’s gain is usually a cumbersome process, mostly empirical, and requiring numerical simulations with extremely long computation times. In this paper, we present a semi-analytical model for the fast optimisation of a TRC. This model decouples ultrasound propagation in an empty cavity and multiple scattering in a multiple scattering medium. It was validated numerically and experimentally using a 2D-TRC and numerically using a 3D-TRC. Finally, the model was used to determine rapidly the optimal parameters of the 3D-TRC which had been confirmed by numerical simulations.

  18. First steps towards ultrasound-based motion compensation for imaging and therapy: calibration with an optical system and 4D PET imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eSchwaab

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Target motion, particularly in the abdomen, due to respiration or patient movement is still a challenge in many diagnostic and therapeutic processes. Hence, methods to detect and compensate this motion are required. Diagnostic ultrasound represents a non-invasive and dose-free alternative to fluoroscopy, providing more information about internal target motion than respiration belt or optical tracking.The goal of this project is to develop an ultrasound based motion tracking for real time motion correction in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging, notably in 4D positron emission tomography (PET. In this work, a workflow is established to enable the transformation of ultrasound tracking data to the coordinates of the treatment delivery or imaging system – even if the ultrasound probe is moving due to respiration. It is shown that the ultrasound tracking signal is equally adequate for 4D PET image reconstruction as the clinically used respiration belt and provides additional opportunities in this concern. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the ultrasound probe being within the PET field of view generally has no relevant influence on the image quality. The accuracy and precision of all the steps in the calibration workflow for ultrasound tracking based 4D PET imaging are found to be in an acceptable range for clinical implementation. Eventually, we show in vitro that an ultrasound based motion tracking in absolute room coordinates with a moving US-transducer is feasible.

  19. Pulsed focused ultrasound combined with micro-bubble contrast agent can open the blood-brain barrier of gliblastoma patients and improve the efficacy of Temozolomide treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian DONG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective This research examined the effect of microbubble contrast agent plus ultrasound on the permeability of blood-brain barrier, and explored whether it affects the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs on cerebral glioblastoma. Methods Wistar rats were divided into three groups to find the optimal concentration of ultrasonic contrast agent. To identify the best ultrasound mode that affected the permeability of blood brain barrier, we employed transmission electron microscopy for study of brain ultrastructure. Western blotting was used to detect the tight junction protein claudin-5. Evans blue staining of brain tissues was utilized to identify the best ultrasonic contrast agent concentration and mode. Rat glioma cells (line 9L were injected into Wistar rats. After temozolomide chemotherapy, the tumor size was measured and the tumor marker GFAP in serum was detected by ELISA. Results The best contrast agent concentration which increases permeability of BBB in rats was found to be 1ml/kg and the best ultrasound mode was intermittently- triggered pulses lasting for 10min (with interval was set at 400ms. More Evans blue passed the blood-brain barrier in ultrasonic cavitation effect group than in control group (P<0.05. After temozolomide chemotherapy, more tumor marker GFAP was detected in ultrasonic cavitation effect group than in control group (P<0.05. Conclusion The permeability of BBB was increased and more temozolomide went through BBB when the rats were subjected to intermittently triggered ultrasonic pulses and were injected at contrast agent at 1ml/kg, which could help to achieve better therapeutic efficacy for glioblastoma. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.05.06

  20. Design of a randomized controlled trial on the effect on return to work with coaching plus light therapy and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy for workers with work-related chronic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius M. C. Schoutens

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-related chronic stress is a common problem among workers. The core complaint is that the employee feels exhausted, which has an effect on the well-being and functioning of the employee, and an impact on the employer and society. The employee’s absence is costly due to lost productivity and medical expenses. The usual form of care for work-related chronic stress is coaching, using a cognitive-behavioural approach whose primary aim is to reduce symptoms and improve functioning. Light therapy and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy are used for the treatment of several mental and physical disorders. The objective of this study is to determine whether coaching combined with light therapy plus pulsed electromagnetic field therapy is an effective treatment for reducing absenteeism, fatigue and stress, and improving quality of life compared to coaching alone. Methods/design The randomized placebo-controlled trial consists of three arms. The population consists of 90 participants with work-related chronic stress complaints. The research groups are: (i intervention group; (ii placebo group; and (iii control group. Participants in the intervention group will be treated with light therapy/pulsed electromagnetic field therapy for 12 weeks, twice a week for 40 min, and coaching (once a fortnight for 50 min. The placebo group receives the same treatment but with the light and pulsed electromagnetic field switched to placebo settings. The control group receives only coaching for 12 weeks, a course of six sessions, once a fortnight for 50 min. The primary outcome is the level of return to work. Secondary outcomes are fatigue, stress and quality of life. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 and 24 weeks after start of treatment. Discussion This study will provide information about the effectiveness of coaching and light therapy plus pulsed electromagnetic field therapy on return to work, and secondly on fatigue

  1. Design of a randomized controlled trial on the effect on return to work with coaching plus light therapy and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy for workers with work-related chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoutens, Antonius M C; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

    2016-07-19

    Work-related chronic stress is a common problem among workers. The core complaint is that the employee feels exhausted, which has an effect on the well-being and functioning of the employee, and an impact on the employer and society. The employee's absence is costly due to lost productivity and medical expenses. The usual form of care for work-related chronic stress is coaching, using a cognitive-behavioural approach whose primary aim is to reduce symptoms and improve functioning. Light therapy and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy are used for the treatment of several mental and physical disorders. The objective of this study is to determine whether coaching combined with light therapy plus pulsed electromagnetic field therapy is an effective treatment for reducing absenteeism, fatigue and stress, and improving quality of life compared to coaching alone. The randomized placebo-controlled trial consists of three arms. The population consists of 90 participants with work-related chronic stress complaints. The research groups are: (i) intervention group; (ii) placebo group; and (iii) control group. Participants in the intervention group will be treated with light therapy/pulsed electromagnetic field therapy for 12 weeks, twice a week for 40 min, and coaching (once a fortnight for 50 min). The placebo group receives the same treatment but with the light and pulsed electromagnetic field switched to placebo settings. The control group receives only coaching for 12 weeks, a course of six sessions, once a fortnight for 50 min. The primary outcome is the level of return to work. Secondary outcomes are fatigue, stress and quality of life. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 and 24 weeks after start of treatment. This study will provide information about the effectiveness of coaching and light therapy plus pulsed electromagnetic field therapy on return to work, and secondly on fatigue, stress and quality of life in people with work-related chronic

  2. [Research on ultrasonic permeability of low intensity pulsed ultrasound through PTFE membrane and Bio-Gide collagen membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Zhaowu; Zhao, Chunliang; Song, Jinlin; Deng, Feng; Yang, Ji; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Minyi

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect the transmission rate of ultrasonic low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) through polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane (Thickness: 0.01 mm) and Bio-Gide collagen membrane, and to provide the basis for the barrier membrane selection on the study of LIPUS combined with guided tissue regeneration (GTR). The ultrasonic (LIPUS, frequency 1.5 MHz, pulse width 200 micros, repetition rate 1.0 kHz) transmission coefficient of the two kinds of barrier membrane were detected respectively through setting ten groups from 10 to 100mW/cm2 every other 10 mW/cm2. We found in the study that the ultrasonic transmission coefficient through 0.01 mm PTFE membrane was 78.1% to 92.%, and the ultrasonic transmission coefficient through Bio-Gide collagen membrane was 43.9% to 55.8%. The ultrasonic transmission coefficient through PTFE membrane was obviously higher than that through Bio-Gide collagen membrane. The transmission coefficient of the same barrier membrane of the ultrasonic ion was statistically different under different powers (P PTFE membrane and Bio-Gide collagen membrane were relatively high. We should select barrier membranes based on different experimental needs, and exercise ultrasonic transmission coefficient experiments to ensure effective power.

  3. Model of the electromagnetic waves processing in ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrego L, J.; Azorin N, J.; Siles A, S.; Cruz O, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, a model to process the electromagnetic waves in ultrasonic equipment is proposed and it is experimentally demonstrated that, the origin of the ultrasound is electronic and non mechanic. The above mentioned, it has been demonstrated when making in an electronic equipment a spectral analysis the one that indicated an unfolding of the original ultrasonic pulses of 17 K Hz., to 88 K Hz., and of 5 MHz., to 23 GHz. Also, it was obtained the degradation with ultrasound of particles of Hematite and of Galena, as well as the fading of the methylene blue and the generation of an electric current exciting with ultrasound. (Author)

  4. Effects of Pulse Width and Electrode Placement on the Efficacy and Cognitive Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackeim, Harold A.; Prudic, Joan; Nobler, Mitchell S.; Fitzsimons, Linda; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Payne, Nancy; Berman, Robert M.; Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Perera, Tarique; Devanand, D. P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depression is effective, cognitive effects limit its use. Reducing the width of the electrical pulse and using the right unilateral electrode placement may decrease adverse cognitive effects, while preserving efficacy. METHODS In a double-masked study, we randomly assigned 90 depressed patients to right unilateral ECT at 6 times seizure threshold or bilateral ECT at 2.5 times seizure threshold, using either a traditional brief pulse (1.5 ms) or an ultrabrief pulse (0.3 ms). Depressive symptoms and cognition were assessed before, during, and immediately, two, and six months after therapy. Patients who responded were followed for a one-year period. RESULTS The final remission rate for ultrabrief bilateral ECT was 35 percent, compared with 73 percent for ultrabrief unilateral ECT, 65 percent for standard pulse width bilateral ECT, and 59 percent for standard pulse width unilateral ECT (all P’stherapy. Both the ultrabrief stimulus and right unilateral electrode placement produced less short- and long-term retrograde amnesia. Patients rated their memory deficits as less severe following ultrabrief right unilateral ECT compared to each of the other three conditions (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS The use of an ultrabrief stimulus markedly reduces adverse cognitive effects, and when coupled with markedly suprathreshold right unilateral ECT, also preserves efficacy. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00487500.) PMID:19756236

  5. Preliminary results on the feasibility of using ultrasound to monitor intrafractional motion during radiation therapy for pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omari, Eenas A.; Erickson, Beth; Noid, George; Li, X. Allen, E-mail: ali@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States); Ehlers, Christopher; Quiroz, Francisco [Department of Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States); Cooper, David T.; Lachaine, Martin [Elekta Ltd., Montreal, Québec H3A 2J5 (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: Substantial intrafraction organ motion during radiation therapy (RT) for pancreatic cancer is well recognized as a major limiting factor for accurate delivery of RT. The aim of this work is to determine the feasibility of monitoring the intrafractional motion of the pancreas or surrounding structures using ultrasound for RT delivery. Methods: Transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) and 4DCT data were acquired on ten pancreatic cancer patients during radiation therapy process in a prospective study. In addition, TAUS and MRI were collected for five healthy volunteers. The portal vein (PV) and the head of the pancreas (HP) along with other structures were contoured on these images. Volume changes, distance between the HP and PV, and motion difference between the HP and PV were measured to examine whether PV can be used as a motion surrogate for HP. TAUS images were acquired and processed using a research version of the Clarity autoscan ultrasound system (CAUS). Motion monitoring was performed with the ultrasound probe mounted on an arm fixed to the couch. Video segments of the monitoring sessions were captured. Results: On TAUS, PV is better visualized than HP. The measured mean volume deviation for all patients for the HP and PV was 1.4 and 0.6 ml, respectively. The distance between the HP and PV was close to a constant with 0.22 mm mean deviation throughout the ten breathing phases. The mean of the absolute motion difference for all patients was 1.7 ± 0.8 mm in LR, 1.5 ± 0.5 mm in AP, and 2.3 ± 0.7 mm in SI, suggesting that the PV is a good surrogate for HP motion estimation. By using this surrogate, the HP motion tracking using TAUS was demonstrated. Conclusions: Large intrafractional organ motion due to respiratory and/or bowel motion is a limiting factor in administering curative radiation doses to pancreatic tumors. The authors investigate the use of real-time ultrasound to track pancreas motion. Due to the poor visibility of the pancreas head on an

  6. Preliminary results on the feasibility of using ultrasound to monitor intrafractional motion during radiation therapy for pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omari, Eenas A.; Erickson, Beth; Noid, George; Li, X. Allen; Ehlers, Christopher; Quiroz, Francisco; Cooper, David T.; Lachaine, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Substantial intrafraction organ motion during radiation therapy (RT) for pancreatic cancer is well recognized as a major limiting factor for accurate delivery of RT. The aim of this work is to determine the feasibility of monitoring the intrafractional motion of the pancreas or surrounding structures using ultrasound for RT delivery. Methods: Transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) and 4DCT data were acquired on ten pancreatic cancer patients during radiation therapy process in a prospective study. In addition, TAUS and MRI were collected for five healthy volunteers. The portal vein (PV) and the head of the pancreas (HP) along with other structures were contoured on these images. Volume changes, distance between the HP and PV, and motion difference between the HP and PV were measured to examine whether PV can be used as a motion surrogate for HP. TAUS images were acquired and processed using a research version of the Clarity autoscan ultrasound system (CAUS). Motion monitoring was performed with the ultrasound probe mounted on an arm fixed to the couch. Video segments of the monitoring sessions were captured. Results: On TAUS, PV is better visualized than HP. The measured mean volume deviation for all patients for the HP and PV was 1.4 and 0.6 ml, respectively. The distance between the HP and PV was close to a constant with 0.22 mm mean deviation throughout the ten breathing phases. The mean of the absolute motion difference for all patients was 1.7 ± 0.8 mm in LR, 1.5 ± 0.5 mm in AP, and 2.3 ± 0.7 mm in SI, suggesting that the PV is a good surrogate for HP motion estimation. By using this surrogate, the HP motion tracking using TAUS was demonstrated. Conclusions: Large intrafractional organ motion due to respiratory and/or bowel motion is a limiting factor in administering curative radiation doses to pancreatic tumors. The authors investigate the use of real-time ultrasound to track pancreas motion. Due to the poor visibility of the pancreas head on an

  7. Dietary protein and fat emulsions, processed by ultrasound and pulsed magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Verboloz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the baking of baked goods in order to save fats, different types of endorsement and protein-fatty emulsions which are used as ingredients in goods and for the protection of metal moulds from burning. Usually emulsion is prepared on bakery enterprises by National State Standard Р 51785–2001, involving mechanical beating up of ingredients. The authors suggested and studied the way of manufacturing of more stable food protein-fatty emulsions using ultrasonic transmitter with rigid neodymium magnets on its thickener. As ingredients, there were applied curd whey diluted with water, unpurified sunflower oil and sunflower phosphatides. Ratio of whey and water is 1:7. Physical effects of ultrasound and field of magnets in contact layer of liquid ingredients being dispersed have increased the viscosity and dispersion of protein-fatty emulsions. Hypothesis of increase of stability and sterility of protein-fatty emulsion by the selection of parameters of magnetic field and power of ultrasound transmitter is confirmed experimentally. Microscopic analysis shows high degree of homogeneity of emulsion under the time of processing 3-4 minutes and intensity of ultrasound 2 W/cm2, that is energetically profitable. There was revealed synergism of influence of physical effects of ultrasound and magnetic field on the durability and steadiness of emulsion to mechanical and temperature effect and also cidal effect, prolonging terms of product using. Manufacture of emulsions by the declared way using the ultrasound and magnetic field of constant neodymium magnets decreases number of injected elements-emulsifiers by 3-4 times or excludes their use at all. Existing piezoelectric ultrasound units as well as neodymium magnets have small sizes and low energy consumption, easily built into the line of continuous manufacture of emulsion for the bread production. Such emulsions are less demanding to the storage and transportation.

  8. Synergistic effects of Combined Therapy: nonfocused ultrasound plus Aussie current for noninvasive body contouring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canela VC

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vivianne Carvalho Canela,1 Cinthia Nicoletti Crivelaro,1 Luciane Zacchi Ferla,1 Gisele Marques Pelozo,1 Juliana Azevedo,2 Richard Eloin Liebano,3 Caroline Nogueira,4,5 Renata Michelini Guidi,4,5 Clóvis Grecco,4 Estela Sant’Ana4 1Ibramed Center for Education and Advanced Training (CEFAI, Amparo, SP, Brazil; 2CDE Medical Imaging Department, Brazilian College of Radiology (CBR, Amparo, SP, Brazil; 3Department of Physiotherapy, Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar, São Carlos, SP, Brazil; 4Research, Development and Innovation Department, Ibramed Research Group (IRG, IBRAMED, Amparo, SP, Brazil; 5Biomedical Engineering Department, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Campinas (UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil Background and objectives: Nowadays, there are several noninvasive technologies being used for improving of body contouring. The objectives of this pilot study were to verify the effectiveness of the Heccus® device, emphasizing the synergism between nonfocused ultrasound plus Aussie current in the improvement of body contour, and to determine if the association of this therapy with whole-body vibration exercises can have additional positive effects in the results of the treatments.Subjects and methods: Twenty healthy women aged 20–40 years participated in the study. Ten patients received Combined Therapy treatment (G1 and the other 10 participants received Combined Therapy with additional vibratory platform treatment (G2. Anthropometric and standardized photography analysis, ultrasonography, cutometry and self-adminestered questionnaires of tolerance and satisfaction levels with the treatment were used.Results: Compared with baseline values, reduction of fat thickness was observed by ultrasonography in the posterior thigh area in the G1 group (P<0.05 and in the buttocks (P<0.05 and the posterior thigh areas (P<0.05 in the G2. All the treated areas in both groups showed reduction in cellulite degree in the

  9. Virtual ultrasound sources in high-resolution ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    beamforming procedure for 3D ultrasound imaging. The position of the virtual source, and the created waveform are investigated with simulation, and with pulse-echo measurements. There is good agreement between the estimated wavefront and the theoretically tted one. Several examples of the use of virtual...... source elements are considered. Using SAF on data acquired for a conventional linear array imaging improves the penetration depth for the particular imaging situation from 80 to 110 mm. The independent use of virtual source elements in the elevation plane decreases the respective size of the point spread...

  10. Ultrasound applicability in Speech Language Pathology and Audiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberena, Luciana da Silva; Brasil, Brunah de Castro; Melo, Roberta Michelon; Mezzomo, Carolina Lisbôa; Mota, Helena Bolli; Keske-Soares, Márcia

    2014-01-01

    To present recent studies that used the ultrasound in the fields of Speech Language Pathology and Audiology, which evidence possibilities of the applicability of this technique in different subareas. A bibliographic research was carried out in the PubMed database, using the keywords "ultrasonic," "speech," "phonetics," "Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences," "voice," "deglutition," and "myofunctional therapy," comprising some areas of Speech Language Pathology and Audiology Sciences. The keywords "ultrasound," "ultrasonography," "swallow," "orofacial myofunctional therapy," and "orofacial myology" were also used in the search. Studies in humans from the past 5 years were selected. In the preselection, duplicated studies, articles not fully available, and those that did not present direct relation between ultrasound and Speech Language Pathology and Audiology Sciences were discarded. The data were analyzed descriptively and classified subareas of Speech Language Pathology and Audiology Sciences. The following items were considered: purposes, participants, procedures, and results. We selected 12 articles for ultrasound versus speech/phonetics subarea, 5 for ultrasound versus voice, 1 for ultrasound versus muscles of mastication, and 10 for ultrasound versus swallow. Studies relating "ultrasound" and "Speech Language Pathology and Audiology Sciences" in the past 5 years were not found. Different studies on the use of ultrasound in Speech Language Pathology and Audiology Sciences were found. Each of them, according to its purpose, confirms new possibilities of the use of this instrument in the several subareas, aiming at a more accurate diagnosis and new evaluative and therapeutic possibilities.

  11. MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP3-04: Feasibility Study of Real-Time Ultrasound Monitoring for Abdominal Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Lin; Kien Ng, Sook; Zhang, Ying; Herman, Joseph; Wong, John; Ding, Kai [Department of Radiation Oncology, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ji, Tianlong [Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Iordachita, Iulian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tutkun Sen, H.; Kazanzides, Peter; Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A. [Department of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Ultrasound is ideal for real-time monitoring in radiotherapy with high soft tissue contrast, non-ionization, portability, and cost effectiveness. Few studies investigated clinical application of real-time ultrasound monitoring for abdominal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of real-time monitoring of 3D target motion using 4D ultrasound. Methods: An ultrasound probe holding system was designed to allow clinician to freely move and lock ultrasound probe. For phantom study, an abdominal ultrasound phantom was secured on a 2D programmable respiratory motion stage. One side of the stage was elevated than another side to generate 3D motion. The motion stage made periodic breath-hold movement. Phantom movement tracked by infrared camera was considered as ground truth. For volunteer study three healthy subjects underwent the same setup for abdominal SBRT with active breath control (ABC). 4D ultrasound B-mode images were acquired for both phantom and volunteers for real-time monitoring. 10 breath-hold cycles were monitored for each experiment. For phantom, the target motion tracked by ultrasound was compared with motion tracked by infrared camera. For healthy volunteers, the reproducibility of ABC breath-hold was evaluated. Results: Volunteer study showed the ultrasound system fitted well to the clinical SBRT setup. The reproducibility for 10 breath-holds is less than 2 mm in three directions for all three volunteers. For phantom study the motion between inspiration and expiration captured by camera (ground truth) is 2.35±0.02 mm, 1.28±0.04 mm, 8.85±0.03 mm in LR, AP, SI directly, respectively. The motion monitored by ultrasound is 2.21±0.07 mm, 1.32±0.12mm, 9.10±0.08mm, respectively. The motion monitoring error in any direction is less than 0.5 mm. Conclusion: The volunteer study proved the clinical feasibility of real-time ultrasound monitoring for abdominal SBRT. The phantom and volunteer ABC

  12. MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP3-04: Feasibility Study of Real-Time Ultrasound Monitoring for Abdominal Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Lin; Kien Ng, Sook; Zhang, Ying; Herman, Joseph; Wong, John; Ding, Kai; Ji, Tianlong; Iordachita, Iulian; Tutkun Sen, H.; Kazanzides, Peter; Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Ultrasound is ideal for real-time monitoring in radiotherapy with high soft tissue contrast, non-ionization, portability, and cost effectiveness. Few studies investigated clinical application of real-time ultrasound monitoring for abdominal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of real-time monitoring of 3D target motion using 4D ultrasound. Methods: An ultrasound probe holding system was designed to allow clinician to freely move and lock ultrasound probe. For phantom study, an abdominal ultrasound phantom was secured on a 2D programmable respiratory motion stage. One side of the stage was elevated than another side to generate 3D motion. The motion stage made periodic breath-hold movement. Phantom movement tracked by infrared camera was considered as ground truth. For volunteer study three healthy subjects underwent the same setup for abdominal SBRT with active breath control (ABC). 4D ultrasound B-mode images were acquired for both phantom and volunteers for real-time monitoring. 10 breath-hold cycles were monitored for each experiment. For phantom, the target motion tracked by ultrasound was compared with motion tracked by infrared camera. For healthy volunteers, the reproducibility of ABC breath-hold was evaluated. Results: Volunteer study showed the ultrasound system fitted well to the clinical SBRT setup. The reproducibility for 10 breath-holds is less than 2 mm in three directions for all three volunteers. For phantom study the motion between inspiration and expiration captured by camera (ground truth) is 2.35±0.02 mm, 1.28±0.04 mm, 8.85±0.03 mm in LR, AP, SI directly, respectively. The motion monitored by ultrasound is 2.21±0.07 mm, 1.32±0.12mm, 9.10±0.08mm, respectively. The motion monitoring error in any direction is less than 0.5 mm. Conclusion: The volunteer study proved the clinical feasibility of real-time ultrasound monitoring for abdominal SBRT. The phantom and volunteer ABC

  13. Acoustic bubble sorting for ultrasound contrast agent enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Tim; Versluis, Michel

    2014-05-21

    An ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) suspension contains encapsulated microbubbles with a wide size distribution, with radii ranging from 1 to 10 μm. Medical transducers typically operate at a single frequency, therefore only a small selection of bubbles will resonate to the driving ultrasound pulse. Thus, the sensitivity can be improved by narrowing down the size distribution. Here, we present a simple lab-on-a-chip method to sort the population of microbubbles on-chip using a traveling ultrasound wave. First, we explore the physical parameter space of acoustic bubble sorting using well-defined bubble sizes formed in a flow-focusing device, then we demonstrate successful acoustic sorting of a commercial UCA. This novel sorting strategy may lead to an overall improvement of the sensitivity of contrast ultrasound by more than 10 dB.

  14. Pulsed laser radiation therapy of skin tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, A.P.; Moskalik, K.G.

    1980-11-15

    Radiation from a neodymium laser was used to treat 846 patients with 687 precancerous lesions or benign tumors of the skin, 516 cutaneous carcinomas, 33 recurrences of cancer, 51 melanomas, and 508 metastatic melanomas in the skin. The patients have been followed for three months to 6.5 years. No relapses have been observed during this period. Metastases to regional lymph nodes were found in five patients with skin melanoma. Pulsed laser radiation may be successfully used in the treatment of precancerous lesions and benign tumors as well as for skin carcinoma and its recurrences, and for skin melanoma. Laser radiation is more effective in the treatment of tumors inaccessible to radiation therapy and better in those cases in which surgery may have a bad cosmetic or even mutilating effect. Laser beams can be employed in conjunction with chemo- or immunotherapy.

  15. Proof of principle in vitro study of a prototype ultrasound technology to size stone fragments during ureteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Mathew D; Teichman, Joel M H; Bailey, Michael R

    2009-07-01

    Proof-of-principle in vitro experiments evaluated a prototype ultrasound technology to size kidney stone fragments. Nineteen human stones were measured using manual calipers. A 10-MHz, 1/8'' (10F) ultrasound transducer probe pinged each stone on a kidney tissue phantom submerged in water using two methods. In Method 1, the instrument was aligned such that the ultrasound pulse traveled through the stone. In Method 2, the instrument was aligned partially over the stone such that the ultrasound pulse traveled through water. For Method 1, the correlation between caliper- and ultrasound-determined stone size was r(2) = 0.71 (P stone measurements were accurate and precise to within 1 mm. For Method 2, the correlation was r(2) = 0.99 (P stone size with good accuracy and precision. This technology may be possible to incorporate into ureteroscopy.

  16. Feasibility study of local ultrasound hyperthermia in cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.G.; Straube, W.; Emami, B.; Perez, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a retrospective analysis of patients treated at Washington University for recurrent or persistent cancer with Ultrasound Hyperthermia between October 1984 and June 1986. Fifteen of 102 lesions were treated during this time period with Ultrasound Hyperthermia instead of microwave hyperthermia due to the size of the lesion needing heat at depths greater than 4 cm. Also, the patients' lesion could not be implanted for interstitial microwave hyperthermia. Fourteen of the treated patients received concomitant radiotherapy, while one received concomitant Bleomycin. There were 79 total hyperthermia treatments delivered, of which 67 achieved a therapeutic temperature of 43 0 C for 60 minutes. During 15/79 treatments, patients experienced pain; of which 11/15 lead to poor heating. Only one treatment of the twelve poor treatments was secondary to technical difficulties. Complete local control was accomplished in seven patients, a partial response in four patients. The results of therapeutic heating and its relationship to the site of treatment and local control are presented, along with phantom studies of Ultrasound microwave hyperthermia reemphasizing the feasibility of using Ultrasound Hyperthermia

  17. Mechanic effect of pulsed focused ultrasound in tumor and muscle tissue evaluated by MRI, histology, and microarray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundt, Walter; Yuh, Esther L.; Steinbach, Silke; Bednarski, Mark D.; Guccione, Samira

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to tumor and muscle tissue. Pulsed HIFU was applied to tumor and muscle tissue in C3H/Km mice. Three hours after HIFU treatment pre- and post-contrast T1-wt, T2-wt images and a diffusion-wt STEAM-sequence were obtained. After MR imaging, the animals were euthenized and the treated tumor and muscle was taken out for histology and functional genomic analysis. In the tumor tissue a slight increase of the diffusion coefficient could be found. In the muscle tissue T2 images showed increased signal intensity and post-contrast T1 showed a decreased contrast uptake in the center and a severe contrast uptake in the surrounding muscle tissue. A significant increase of the diffusion coefficient was found. Gene expression analysis revealed profound changes in the expression levels of 29 genes being up-regulated and 3 genes being down-regulated in the muscle tissue and 31 genes being up-regulated and 15 genes being down-regulated in the SCCVII tumor tissue. Seven genes were up-regulated in both tissue types. The highest up-regulated gene in the tumor and muscle tissue encoded for Mouse histone H2A.1 gene (FC = 13.2 ± 20.6) and Apolipoprotein E (FC = 12.8 ± 27.4) respectively MHC class III (FC = 83.7 ± 67.4) and hsp70 (FC = 75.3 ± 85.0). Immunoblot confirmed the presence of HSP70 protein in the muscle tissue. Pulsed HIFU treatment on tumor and muscle tissue results in dramatic changes in gene expression, indicating that the effect of pulsed HIFU is in some regard dependent and also independent of the tissue type.

  18. Harmonic generation with a dual frequency pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keravnou, Christina P; Averkiou, Michalakis A

    2014-05-01

    Nonlinear imaging was implemented in commercial ultrasound systems over the last 15 years offering major advantages in many clinical applications. In this work, pulsing schemes coupled with a dual frequency pulse are presented. The pulsing schemes considered were pulse inversion, power modulation, and power modulated pulse inversion. The pulse contains a fundamental frequency f and a specified amount of its second harmonic 2f. The advantages and limitations of this method were evaluated with both acoustic measurements of harmonic generation and theoretical simulations based on the KZK equation. The use of two frequencies in a pulse results in the generation of the sum and difference frequency components in addition to the other harmonic components. While with single frequency pulses, only power modulation and power modulated pulse inversion contained odd harmonic components, with the dual frequency pulse, pulse inversion now also contains odd harmonic components.

  19. Effect of hydrodynamic cavitation in the tissue erosion by pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yufeng; Gao, Xiaobin Wilson

    2016-09-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as an effective therapeutic modality in clinics. Besides the thermal ablation, tissue disintegration is also possible because of the interaction between the distorted HIFU bursts and either bubble cloud or boiling bubble. Hydrodynamic cavitation is another type of cavitation and has been employed widely in industry, but its role in mechanical erosion to tissue is not clearly known. In this study, the bubble dynamics immediately after the termination of HIFU exposure in the transparent gel phantom was captured by high-speed photography, from which the bubble displacement towards the transducer and the changes of bubble size was quantitatively determined. The characteristics of hydrodynamic cavitation due to the release of the acoustic radiation force and relaxation of compressed surrounding medium were found to associate with the number of pulses delivered and HIFU parameters (i.e. pulse duration and pulse repetition frequency). Because of the initial big bubble (~1 mm), large bubble expansion (up to 1.76 folds), and quick bubble motion (up to ~1 m s-1) hydrodynamic cavitation is significant after HIFU exposure and may lead to mechanical erosion. The shielding effect of residual tiny bubbles would reduce the acoustic energy delivered to the pre-existing bubble at the focus and, subsequently, the hydrodynamic cavitation effect. Tadpole shape of mechanical erosion in ex vivo porcine kidney samples was similar to the contour of bubble dynamics in the gel. Liquefied tissue was observed to emit towards the transducer through the punctured tissue after HIFU exposure in the sonography. In summary, the release of HIFU exposure-induced hydrodynamic cavitation produces significant bubble expansion and motion, which may be another important mechanism of tissue erosion. Understanding its mechanism and optimizing the outcome would broaden and enhance HIFU applications.

  20. Effect of hydrodynamic cavitation in the tissue erosion by pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yufeng; Gao, Xiaobin Wilson

    2016-09-21

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as an effective therapeutic modality in clinics. Besides the thermal ablation, tissue disintegration is also possible because of the interaction between the distorted HIFU bursts and either bubble cloud or boiling bubble. Hydrodynamic cavitation is another type of cavitation and has been employed widely in industry, but its role in mechanical erosion to tissue is not clearly known. In this study, the bubble dynamics immediately after the termination of HIFU exposure in the transparent gel phantom was captured by high-speed photography, from which the bubble displacement towards the transducer and the changes of bubble size was quantitatively determined. The characteristics of hydrodynamic cavitation due to the release of the acoustic radiation force and relaxation of compressed surrounding medium were found to associate with the number of pulses delivered and HIFU parameters (i.e. pulse duration and pulse repetition frequency). Because of the initial big bubble (~1 mm), large bubble expansion (up to 1.76 folds), and quick bubble motion (up to ~1 m s -1 ) hydrodynamic cavitation is significant after HIFU exposure and may lead to mechanical erosion. The shielding effect of residual tiny bubbles would reduce the acoustic energy delivered to the pre-existing bubble at the focus and, subsequently, the hydrodynamic cavitation effect. Tadpole shape of mechanical erosion in ex vivo porcine kidney samples was similar to the contour of bubble dynamics in the gel. Liquefied tissue was observed to emit towards the transducer through the punctured tissue after HIFU exposure in the sonography. In summary, the release of HIFU exposure-induced hydrodynamic cavitation produces significant bubble expansion and motion, which may be another important mechanism of tissue erosion. Understanding its mechanism and optimizing the outcome would broaden and enhance HIFU applications.

  1. Improved detection and biopsy of solid liver lesions using pulse-inversion ultrasound scanning and contrast agent infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoldbye, B.; Pedersen, Morten Høgholm; Struckmann, J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of pulse-inversion ultrasound (US) scanning (PIUS), combined with an IV contrast agent, to detect malignant liver lesions and its impact on patient management (resectability). Additionally, to determine the feasibility of US-guided biopsy of new...... PIUS-findings at the same session. A total of 30 patients with known or clinically suspected cancer underwent conventional B-mode scanning and PIUS with IV-administered contrast agent. The number of liver metastases in the right and the left liver lobe, respectively, was recorded. All patients...... findings were performed in 17 of 18 patients. All biopsies of additional findings confirmed malignancy. PIUS with an IV contrast agent increased the ability to detect liver metastases compared to conventional US scanning. The technique had a high impact on patient management. The results showed that PIUS...

  2. Current regimen of pulse therapy for pemphigus: Minor modifications, improved results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: If administered properly, dexamethasone cyclophosphamide pulse (DCP therapy has the potential to effect lifelong recovery from pemphigus. Aims: The objective of this paper is to highlight various parameters of DCP therapy and also, to report the effects of a few modifications in the regimen. Methods: An analysis of 123 patients treated with the DCP/DP regimen over a period of five years (1998 to 2002 is presented here. Seventeen patients who did not start/continue the treatment and three patients who died during the treatment have been excluded from the analysis. Twenty patients who had not yet started families were given only dexamethasone pulses (DPs while 103 patients received DCPs. Low dose (50 mg/day cyclophosphamide was used as in the standard regimen. The three modifications introduced into the regimen were: (1 an additional daily dose of oral betamethasone sufficient to control the disease activity during phase I, which was progressively tapered off completely as the patient recovered, (2 use of systemic antibiotics if the patient had skin lesions, and oral anti-candida drugs if the patient had oral ulcers until complete healing, and (3 insistence on thorough cleaning of the skin and scalp with a normal soap and shampoo, and proper maintenance of oral hygiene in spite of skin/mucosal lesions. The regimen consisted of DCP/DP repeated in exactly 28-day cycles, along with 50 mg cyclophosphamide per day, insistence on completing the treatment and avoiding irregular pulses in all patients. The number of DCPs/DPs during phase I varied in different patients depending upon the dose of betamethasone used and the rate of recovery, but phase II (nine DCPs/DPs in exactly 28-day cycles along with 50 mg cyclophosphamide per day and phase III (only 50 mg cyclophosphamide per day was fixed at nine months each. This was followed by posttreatment follow-up (phase IV. Results: At present, all the patients are in complete remission. The

  3. Deconvolution of In Vivo Ultrasound B-Mode Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Stage, Bjarne; Mathorne, Jan

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm for deconvolution of medical ultrasound images is presented. The procedure involves estimation of the basic one-dimensional ultrasound pulse, determining the ratio of the covariance of the noise to the covariance of the reflection signal, and finally deconvolution of the rf signal from...... the transducer. Using pulse and covariance estimators makes the approach self-calibrating, as all parameters for the procedure are estimated from the patient under investigation. An example of use on a clinical, in-vivo image is given. A 2 × 2 cm region of the portal vein in a liver is deconvolved. An increase...... in axial resolution by a factor of 2.4 is obtained. The procedure can also be applied to whole images, when it is ensured that the rf signal is properly measured. A method for doing that is outlined....

  4. Effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on injured skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila S. Montalti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS has been shown to stimulate tissue metabolism and accelerate muscle healing. However, the optimal parameters in the use of LIPUS are still not clear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of LIPUS on muscle healing in rats subjected to a cryolesion. METHOD: Twenty rats were divided into the following groups: an injured control group (CG and an injured treated group (TG. Both groups were divided into 2 sub-groups (n=5 each that were sacrificed 7 and 13 days post-surgery. Treatments were started 24 hours after the surgical procedure and consisted of 3 or 6 sessions. After euthanasia, the muscles were submitted to standard histological procedures. RESULTS: Qualitative analyses were based on morphological assessments of the muscle. The histopathological analysis on day 7 revealed that the muscles in the CG and the TG presented an intense inflammatory infiltrate, a large necrotic area and a disorganized tissue structure. After 13 days, both the CG and the TG had granulation tissue and newly formed fibers. The TG presented a more organized tissue structure. The quantitative analysis of collagen indicated similar findings among the groups, although the qualitative analysis revealed a better organization of collagen fibers in the TG at 13 days. The immunohistochemical analysis indicated that, at both time points, the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 was upregulated in the TG compared to the CG. CONCLUSIONS: LIPUS used as a treatment for muscle injury induced a more organized tissue structure at the site of the injury and stimulated the expression of COX-2 and the formation of new muscle fibers.

  5. Improved healing response in delayed unions of the tibia with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound: results of a randomized sham-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aigner Julia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared the healing response of tibial delayed unions between subjects treated with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS (n = 51 and subjects treated with a sham device (n = 50. Fracture age was ≥ 4 months in all cases. Study personnel and participants were blinded to random treatment assignment throughout the study. Methods This multi-center randomized sham-controlled trial was undertaken at six hospitals in Germany. Adult patients who had sustained a tibial shaft fracture that subsequently showed inadequate progress toward healing (i.e., delayed union were enrolled and randomized to receive either LIPUS (Exogen 2000/2000+, Smith & Nephew GmbH, Schenefeld, Germany or an identical nonoperative sham device. The daily treatment duration was 20 minutes, for a period of 16 weeks. Subjects randomly assigned to active treatment had the ultrasound pressure wave signal set at the following parameters: 1.5 MHz frequency, 1 kHz repetition rate, 200 μs pulse duration, 30 mW/cm2 spatial intensity. Progress toward healing was estimated from changes in bone mineral density (BMD and gap area as determined from computed tomography scans. Intention-to-treat analysis was conducted using a multiple imputation methodology. Results Based on log-transformed data, mean improvement in BMD was 1.34 (90% confidence interval (CI 1.14 to 1.57 times greater for LIPUS-treated subjects compared to sham (p = 0.002. A mean reduction in bone gap area also favored LIPUS treatment (p = 0.014. Conclusions These findings demonstrate significantly greater progress toward bone healing after LIPUS treatment compared to no LIPUS treatment in subjects with established delayed unions of the tibia.

  6. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound regulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts through osteocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lei; Yang, Zheng; Zhang, Hai; Chen, Wenchuan; Chen, Mengshi; Zhu, Zhimin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CM from LIPUS-stimulated osteocytes inhibits proliferation of osteoblasts. ► CM from LIPUS-stimulated osteocytes enhances differentiation of osteoblasts. ► LIPUS stimulates MLO-Y4 cells to secrete PGE 2 and NO. -- Abstract: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been used as a safe and effective modality to enhance fracture healing. As the most abundant cells in bone, osteocytes orchestrate biological activities of effector cells via direct cell-to-cell contacts and by soluble factors. In this study, we have used the osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells to study the effects of conditioned medium from LIPUS-stimulated MLO-Y4 cells on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Conditioned media from LIPUS-stimulated MLO-Y4 cells (LIPUS-Osteocyte-CM) were collected and added on MC3T3-E1 cell cultures. MC3T3-E1 cells cultured in LIPUS-Osteocyte-CM demonstrated a significant inhibition of proliferation and an increased alkaline phosphatase activity. The results of PGE 2 and NO assay showed that LIPUS could enhance PGE 2 and NO secretion from MLO-Y4 cells at all time points within 24 h after LIPUS stimulation. We conclude that LIPUS regulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts through osteocytes in vitro. Increased secretion of PGE 2 from osteocytes may play a role in this effect.

  7. Advances in ultrasound-targeted microbubble-mediated gene therapy for liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cuiyuan; Zhang, Hong; Bai, Ruidan

    2017-07-01

    Hepatic fibrosis develops as a wound-healing scar in response to acute and chronic liver inflammation and can lead to cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C. The condition arises due to increased synthesis and reduced degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and is a common pathological sequela of chronic liver disease. Excessive deposition of ECM in the liver causes liver dysfunction, ascites, and eventually upper gastrointestinal bleeding as well as a series of complications. However, fibrosis can be reversed before developing into cirrhosis and has thus been the subject of extensive researches particularly at the gene level. Currently, therapeutic genes are imported into the damaged liver to delay or prevent the development of liver fibrosis by regulating the expression of exogenous genes. One technique of gene delivery uses ultrasound targeting of microbubbles combined with therapeutic genes where the time and intensity of the ultrasound can control the release process. Ultrasound irradiation of microbubbles in the vicinity of cells changes the permeability of the cell membrane by its cavitation effect and enhances gene transfection. In this paper, recent progress in the field is reviewed with emphasis on the following aspects: the types of ultrasound microbubbles, the construction of an ultrasound-mediated gene delivery system, the mechanism of ultrasound microbubble-mediated gene transfer and the application of ultrasound microbubbles in the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  8. Advances in ultrasound-targeted microbubble-mediated gene therapy for liver fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiyuan Huang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic fibrosis develops as a wound-healing scar in response to acute and chronic liver inflammation and can lead to cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C. The condition arises due to increased synthesis and reduced degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM and is a common pathological sequela of chronic liver disease. Excessive deposition of ECM in the liver causes liver dysfunction, ascites, and eventually upper gastrointestinal bleeding as well as a series of complications. However, fibrosis can be reversed before developing into cirrhosis and has thus been the subject of extensive researches particularly at the gene level. Currently, therapeutic genes are imported into the damaged liver to delay or prevent the development of liver fibrosis by regulating the expression of exogenous genes. One technique of gene delivery uses ultrasound targeting of microbubbles combined with therapeutic genes where the time and intensity of the ultrasound can control the release process. Ultrasound irradiation of microbubbles in the vicinity of cells changes the permeability of the cell membrane by its cavitation effect and enhances gene transfection. In this paper, recent progress in the field is reviewed with emphasis on the following aspects: the types of ultrasound microbubbles, the construction of an ultrasound-mediated gene delivery system, the mechanism of ultrasound microbubble–mediated gene transfer and the application of ultrasound microbubbles in the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  9. The Use of Acoustic Radiation Force Decorrelation-Weighted Pulse Inversion for Enhanced Ultrasound Contrast Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Elizabeth B; Unnikrishnan, Sunil; Wang, Shiying; Klibanov, Alexander L; Hossack, John A; Mauldin, Frank William

    2017-02-01

    The use of ultrasound imaging for cancer diagnosis and screening can be enhanced with the use of molecularly targeted microbubbles. Nonlinear imaging strategies such as pulse inversion (PI) and "contrast pulse sequences" (CPS) can be used to differentiate microbubble signal, but often fail to suppress highly echogenic tissue interfaces. This failure results in false-positive detection and potential misdiagnosis. In this study, a novel acoustic radiation force (ARF)-based approach was developed for superior microbubble signal detection. The feasibility of this technique, termed ARF decorrelation-weighted PI (ADW-PI), was demonstrated in vivo using a subcutaneous mouse tumor model. Tumors were implanted in the hindlimb of C57BL/6 mice by subcutaneous injection of MC38 cells. Lipid-shelled microbubbles were conjugated to anti-VEGFR2 antibody and administered via bolus injection. An image sequence using ARF pulses to generate microbubble motion was combined with PI imaging on a Verasonics Vantage programmable scanner. ADW-PI images were generated by combining PI images with interframe signal decorrelation data. For comparison, CPS images of the same mouse tumor were acquired using a Siemens Sequoia clinical scanner. Microbubble-bound regions in the tumor interior exhibited significantly higher signal decorrelation than static tissue (n = 9, P < 0.001). The application of ARF significantly increased microbubble signal decorrelation (n = 9, P < 0.01). Using these decorrelation measurements, ADW-PI imaging demonstrated significantly improved microbubble contrast-to-tissue ratio when compared with corresponding CPS or PI images (n = 9, P < 0.001). Contrast-to-tissue ratio improved with ADW-PI by approximately 3 dB compared with PI images and 2 dB compared with CPS images. Acoustic radiation force can be used to generate adherent microbubble signal decorrelation without microbubble bursting. When combined with PI, measurements of the resulting microbubble signal

  10. The use of Acoustic Radiation Force decorrelation-weighted pulse inversion (ADW-PI) for enhanced ultrasound contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Elizabeth; Unnikrishnan, Sunil; Wang, Shiying; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Hossack, John A.; Mauldin, F. William

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The use of ultrasound imaging for cancer diagnosis and screening can be enhanced with the use of molecularly targeted microbubbles. Nonlinear imaging strategies such as pulse inversion (PI) and “contrast pulse sequences” (CPS) can be used to differentiate microbubble signal, but often fail to suppress highly echogenic tissue interfaces. This failure results in false positive detection and potential misdiagnosis. In this study, a novel Acoustic Radiation Force (ARF) based approach was developed for superior microbubble signal detection. The feasibility of this technique, termed ARF-decorrelation-weighted PI (ADW-PI), was demonstrated in vivo using a subcutaneous mouse tumor model. Materials and Methods Tumors were implanted in the hindlimb of C57BL/6 mice by subcutaneous injection of MC38 cells. Lipid-shelled microbubbles were conjugated to anti-VEGFR2 antibody and administered via bolus injection. An image sequence using ARF pulses to generate microbubble motion was combined with PI imaging on a Verasonics Vantage programmable scanner. ADW-PI images were generated by combining PI images with inter-frame signal decorrelation data. For comparison, CPS images of the same mouse tumor were acquired using a Siemens Sequoia clinical scanner. Results Microbubble-bound regions in the tumor interior exhibited significantly higher signal decorrelation than static tissue (n = 9, p < 0.001). The application of ARF significantly increased microbubble signal decorrelation (n = 9, p < 0.01). Using these decorrelation measurements, ADW-PI imaging demonstrated significantly improved microbubble contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR) when compared to corresponding CPS or PI images (n = 9, p < 0.001). CTR improved with ADW-PI by approximately 3 dB compared to PI images and 2 dB compared to CPS images. Conclusions Acoustic radiation force can be used to generate adherent microbubble signal decorrelation without microbubble bursting. When combined with pulse inversion

  11. A retrospective case series of ultrasound-guided suprascapular nerve pulsed radiofrequency treatment for hemiplegic shoulder pain in patients with chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picelli A

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Picelli,1,2 Davide Lobba,1 Patrizia Vendramin,3 Giuseppe Castellano,3 Elena Chemello,1 Vittorio Schweiger,4,5 Alvise Martini,4,5 Massimo Parolini,4,5 Marialuisa Gandolfi,1,2 Enrico Polati,4,5 Nicola Smania1,2 1Neuromotor and Cognitive Rehabilitation Research Center, Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 2Neurorehabilitation Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy; 3Anesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Therapy Unit, “Girolamo Fracastoro” Hospital, San Bonifacio, Italy; 4Anesthesia and Intensive Care Section, Department of Surgery, Dentistry, Pediatrics and Gynecology, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 5Pain Therapy Center, Department of Emergency and Intensive Care, Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy Purpose: Hemiplegic shoulder pain (HSP is the most common pain condition after stroke. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF treatment of the suprascapular nerve (SSN effectively relieves shoulder pain conditions. To date, there is no study about the effects of PRF treatment for HSP. Thus, our aim was to report on a case series about its use in chronic stroke. Patients and methods: Six chronic stroke patients with HSP (visual analog scale [VAS] score for pain ≥30 mm underwent ultrasound-guided SSN PRF treatment. All were evaluated before treatment and at 4 and 16 weeks of follow-up. The main outcome was VAS score. Secondary outcomes were Modified Ashworth Scale, shoulder passive range of motion (PROM, Disability Assessment Scale (DAS, Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and EuroQol-5 dimension questionnaire (EuroQol-5D scores. Results: As compared with baseline, improvement was observed in the following parameters: VAS for pain (at 4 weeks, P=0.023; at 16 weeks, P=0.023; shoulder PROM for abduction (at 4 weeks, P=0.023; at 16 weeks, P=0.024, flexion (at 4 and 16 weeks, P=0.024, extension (at 4 and 16 weeks, P=0.02, and external rotation (4 and 16

  12. Prediction of thermal coagulation from the instantaneous strain distribution induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Ryosuke; Takagi, Ryo; Tomiyasu, Kentaro; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2017-07-01

    The targeting of the ultrasound beam and the prediction of thermal lesion formation in advance are the requirements for monitoring high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment with safety and reproducibility. To visualize the HIFU focal zone, we utilized an acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging-based method. After inducing displacements inside tissues with pulsed HIFU called the push pulse exposure, the distribution of axial displacements started expanding and moving. To acquire RF data immediately after and during the HIFU push pulse exposure to improve prediction accuracy, we attempted methods using extrapolation estimation and applying HIFU noise elimination. The distributions going back in the time domain from the end of push pulse exposure are in good agreement with tissue coagulation at the center. The results suggest that the proposed focal zone visualization employing pulsed HIFU entailing the high-speed ARFI imaging method is useful for the prediction of thermal coagulation in advance.

  13. Ultrasound motion tracking for radiation therapy; Ultraschallbewegungstracking fuer die Strahlentherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenne, J. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bildgestuetzte Medizin MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Mediri GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Schwaab, J. [Mediri GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    In modern radiotherapy the radiation dose can be applied with an accuracy in the range of 1-2 mm provided that the exact position of the target is known. If, however, the target (the tumor) is located in the lungs or the abdomen, respiration or peristalsis can cause substantial movement of the target. Various methods for intrafractional motion detection and compensation are currently under consideration or are already applied in clinical practice. Sonography is one promising option, which is now on the brink of clinical implementation. Ultrasound is particularly suited for this purpose due to the high soft tissue contrast, real-time capability, the absence of ionizing radiation and low acquisition costs. Ultrasound motion tracking is an image-based approach, i.e. the target volume or an adjacent structure is directly monitored and the motion is tracked automatically on the ultrasound image. Diverse algorithms are presently available that provide the real-time target coordinates from 2D as well as 3D images. Definition of a suitable sonographic window is not, however, trivial and a gold standard for positioning and mounting of the transducer has not yet been developed. Furthermore, processing of the coordinate information in the therapy unit and the dynamic adaptation of the radiation field are challenging tasks. It is not clear whether ultrasound motion tracking will become established in the clinical routine although all technical prerequisites can be considered as fulfilled, such that exciting progress in this field of research is still to be expected. (orig.) [German] In der modernen Strahlentherapie kann die Dosis mit einer Genauigkeit von 1-2 mm appliziert werden, sofern die Position der Zielstruktur genau bekannt ist. Liegt diese Zielstruktur (der Tumor) jedoch in der Lunge oder im Abdomen, koennen u. a. die Atmung oder die Peristaltik zu einer substanziellen Bewegung des Zielvolumens fuehren. Verschiedene Methoden zur intrafraktionellen Bewegungsdetektion

  14. MRI tracing non-invasive TiO2-based nanoparticles activated by ultrasound for multi-mechanism therapy of prostatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Pu; Song, Dongkui

    2018-03-01

    To reduce the side effects of chemotherapy and achieve effective and safe therapy for prostate cancer, herein a simple but multi-functional TiO2:Gd@DOX/FA system activated by ultrasound was developed for the MRI-guided multi-mechanism therapy of prostate cancer. TiO2 nanoparticles served as a sonosensitizer as well as a nanocarrier with the pH-responsive release of DOX. The doping of Gd was not only able to endow the TiO2 with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ability, but also further improve the sonodynamic ability of the TiO2. The characterization of the as-prepared TiO2:Gd@DOX/FA showed sensitive pH-responsive drug release, high reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, T 1-MRI contrast performance and excellent biocompatibility. The cytotoxicity assay in vitro showed cell death up to 91.68% after 48 h incubation induced by the TiO2:Gd@DOX + ultrasound group. Meanwhile, in the in vivo synergistic therapy studies, the tumor sizes of all the nanomedicine groups were smaller than for the free DOX (V:V 0 = 4.2). More importantly, the body showed nearly no weight loss. This safety was also confirmed by the H&E staining, biodistribution experiment and serum biochemistry results. Altogether, TiO2:Gd@DOX/FA significantly reduced the side effects of DOX, augmented the levels of ROS and achieved effective and safe therapy, indicating its potential for the multi-mechanism therapy of prostate cancer. There is no conflict of interest in this study and no funding has been received for it. We received the approval of the Research Ethics Committee before conducting this study.

  15. Low-frequency quantitative ultrasound imaging of cell death in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Falou, Omar; Czarnota, Gregory J.; Papanicolau, Naum; Tadayyon, Hadi; Lee, Justin; Zubovits, Judit; Sadeghian, Alireza; Karshafian, Raffi; Al-Mahrouki, Azza; Giles, Anoja; Kolios, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Currently, no clinical imaging modality is used routinely to assess tumor response to cancer therapies within hours to days of the delivery of treatment. Here, the authors demonstrate the efficacy of ultrasound at a clinically relevant frequency to quantitatively detect changes in tumors in response to cancer therapies using preclinical mouse models.Methods: Conventional low-frequency and corresponding high-frequency ultrasound (ranging from 4 to 28 MHz) were used along with quantitative spectroscopic and signal envelope statistical analyses on data obtained from xenograft tumors treated with chemotherapy, x-ray radiation, as well as a novel vascular targeting microbubble therapy.Results: Ultrasound-based spectroscopic biomarkers indicated significant changes in cell-death associated parameters in responsive tumors. Specifically changes in the midband fit, spectral slope, and 0-MHz intercept biomarkers were investigated for different types of treatment and demonstrated cell-death related changes. The midband fit and 0-MHz intercept biomarker derived from low-frequency data demonstrated increases ranging approximately from 0 to 6 dBr and 0 to 8 dBr, respectively, depending on treatments administrated. These data paralleled results observed for high-frequency ultrasound data. Statistical analysis of ultrasound signal envelope was performed as an alternative method to obtain histogram-based biomarkers and provided confirmatory results. Histological analysis of tumor specimens indicated up to 61% cell death present in the tumors depending on treatments administered, consistent with quantitative ultrasound findings indicating cell death. Ultrasound-based spectroscopic biomarkers demonstrated a good correlation with histological morphological findings indicative of cell death (r 2 = 0.71, 0.82; p < 0.001).Conclusions: In summary, the results provide preclinical evidence, for the first time, that quantitative ultrasound used at a clinically relevant frequency, in

  16. Low-frequency quantitative ultrasound imaging of cell death in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Falou, Omar; Czarnota, Gregory J. [Imaging Research – Physical Science, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Papanicolau, Naum; Tadayyon, Hadi [Imaging Research – Physical Science, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Lee, Justin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Zubovits, Judit [Department of Pathology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Sadeghian, Alireza [Department of Computer Science, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Karshafian, Raffi [Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Al-Mahrouki, Azza; Giles, Anoja [Imaging Research – Physical Science, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Kolios, Michael C. [Department of Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Currently, no clinical imaging modality is used routinely to assess tumor response to cancer therapies within hours to days of the delivery of treatment. Here, the authors demonstrate the efficacy of ultrasound at a clinically relevant frequency to quantitatively detect changes in tumors in response to cancer therapies using preclinical mouse models.Methods: Conventional low-frequency and corresponding high-frequency ultrasound (ranging from 4 to 28 MHz) were used along with quantitative spectroscopic and signal envelope statistical analyses on data obtained from xenograft tumors treated with chemotherapy, x-ray radiation, as well as a novel vascular targeting microbubble therapy.Results: Ultrasound-based spectroscopic biomarkers indicated significant changes in cell-death associated parameters in responsive tumors. Specifically changes in the midband fit, spectral slope, and 0-MHz intercept biomarkers were investigated for different types of treatment and demonstrated cell-death related changes. The midband fit and 0-MHz intercept biomarker derived from low-frequency data demonstrated increases ranging approximately from 0 to 6 dBr and 0 to 8 dBr, respectively, depending on treatments administrated. These data paralleled results observed for high-frequency ultrasound data. Statistical analysis of ultrasound signal envelope was performed as an alternative method to obtain histogram-based biomarkers and provided confirmatory results. Histological analysis of tumor specimens indicated up to 61% cell death present in the tumors depending on treatments administered, consistent with quantitative ultrasound findings indicating cell death. Ultrasound-based spectroscopic biomarkers demonstrated a good correlation with histological morphological findings indicative of cell death (r{sup 2}= 0.71, 0.82; p < 0.001).Conclusions: In summary, the results provide preclinical evidence, for the first time, that quantitative ultrasound used at a clinically relevant frequency

  17. SU-E-J-114: Towards Integrated CT and Ultrasound Guided Radiation Therapy Using A Robotic Arm with Virtual Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, K; Zhang, Y; Sen, H; Lediju Bell, M; Goldstein, S; Kazanzides, P; Iordachita, I; Wong, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Currently there is an urgent need in Radiation Therapy for noninvasive and nonionizing soft tissue target guidance such as localization before treatment and continuous monitoring during treatment. Ultrasound is a portable, low cost option that can be easily integrated with the LINAC room. We are developing a cooperatively controlled robot arm that has high intrafraction reproducibility with repositioning of the ultrasound probe. In this study, we introduce virtual springs (VS) to assist with interfraction probe repositioning and we compare the soft tissue deformation introduced by VS to the deformation that would exist without them. Methods: Three metal markers were surgically implanted in the kidney of one dog. The dog was anesthetized and immobilized supine in an alpha cradle. The reference ultrasound probe position and force to ideally visualize the kidney was defined by an experienced ultrasonographer using the Clarity ultrasound system and robot sensor. For each interfraction study, the dog was removed from the cradle and re-setup based on CBCT with bony anatomy alignment to mimic regular patient setup. The ultrasound probe was automatically returned to the reference position using the robot. To accommodate the soft tissue anatomy changes between each setup the operator used the VS feature to adjust the probe and obtain an ultrasound image that matched the reference image. CBCT images were acquired and each interfraction marker location was compared with the first interfraction Result. Results: Analysis of the marker positions revealed that the kidney was displaced by 18.8 ± 6.4 mm without VS and 19.9 ± 10.5 mm with VS. No statistically significant differences were found between two procedures. Conclusion: The VS feature is necessary to obtain matching ultrasound images, and they do not introduce further changes to the tissue deformation. Future work will focus on automatic VS based on ultrasound feedback. Supported in part by: NCI R01 CA161613

  18. SU-E-J-114: Towards Integrated CT and Ultrasound Guided Radiation Therapy Using A Robotic Arm with Virtual Springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, K; Zhang, Y; Sen, H; Lediju Bell, M; Goldstein, S; Kazanzides, P; Iordachita, I; Wong, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Currently there is an urgent need in Radiation Therapy for noninvasive and nonionizing soft tissue target guidance such as localization before treatment and continuous monitoring during treatment. Ultrasound is a portable, low cost option that can be easily integrated with the LINAC room. We are developing a cooperatively controlled robot arm that has high intrafraction reproducibility with repositioning of the ultrasound probe. In this study, we introduce virtual springs (VS) to assist with interfraction probe repositioning and we compare the soft tissue deformation introduced by VS to the deformation that would exist without them. Methods: Three metal markers were surgically implanted in the kidney of one dog. The dog was anesthetized and immobilized supine in an alpha cradle. The reference ultrasound probe position and force to ideally visualize the kidney was defined by an experienced ultrasonographer using the Clarity ultrasound system and robot sensor. For each interfraction study, the dog was removed from the cradle and re-setup based on CBCT with bony anatomy alignment to mimic regular patient setup. The ultrasound probe was automatically returned to the reference position using the robot. To accommodate the soft tissue anatomy changes between each setup the operator used the VS feature to adjust the probe and obtain an ultrasound image that matched the reference image. CBCT images were acquired and each interfraction marker location was compared with the first interfraction Result. Results: Analysis of the marker positions revealed that the kidney was displaced by 18.8 ± 6.4 mm without VS and 19.9 ± 10.5 mm with VS. No statistically significant differences were found between two procedures. Conclusion: The VS feature is necessary to obtain matching ultrasound images, and they do not introduce further changes to the tissue deformation. Future work will focus on automatic VS based on ultrasound feedback. Supported in part by: NCI R01 CA161613

  19. 3D-printed adaptive acoustic lens as a disruptive technology for transcranial ultrasound therapy using single-element transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimbourg, Guillaume; Houdouin, Alexandre; Deffieux, Thomas; Tanter, Mickael; Aubry, Jean-François

    2018-01-01

    The development of multi-element arrays for better control of the shape of ultrasonic beams has opened the way for focusing through highly aberrating media, such as the human skull. As a result, the use of brain therapy with transcranial-focused ultrasound has rapidly grown. Although effective, such technology is expensive. We propose a disruptive, low-cost approach that consists of focusing a 1 MHz ultrasound beam through a human skull with a single-element transducer coupled with a tailored silicone acoustic lens cast in a 3D-printed mold and designed using computed tomography-based numerical acoustic simulation. We demonstrate on N  =  3 human skulls that adding lens-based aberration correction to a single-element transducer increases the deposited energy on the target 10 fold.

  20. The effect of androgen deprivation on the early changes in prostate volume following transperineal ultrasound guided interstitial therapy for localized carcinoma of the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittington, Richard; Broderick, Gregory A; Arger, Peter; Malkowicz, S Bruce; Epperson, Robert D; Arjomandy, Bijan; Kassaee, Alireza

    1999-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the change in volume of the prostate as a result of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation prior to prostate implant and in the early postimplant period following transperineal ultrasound guided palladium-103 brachytherapy for early-stage prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Sixty-nine men received 3 to 6 months of androgen deprivation therapy followed by treatment planning ultrasound followed 4 to 8 weeks later by palladium-103 implant of the prostate. All patients had clinical and radiographic stage T1c-T2b adenocarcinoma of the prostate. A second ultrasound study was carried out 11 to 13 days following the implant to determine the change in volume of the prostate as a result of the implant. The prehormonal and preimplant volumes were compared to the postimplant volume to determine the effect of hormones and brachytherapy on prostate volume. Results: The median decrease in prostate volume as a result of androgen deprivation was 33% among the 54 patients with prostate volume determinations prior to hormonal therapy. The reduction in volume was greatest in the quartile of men with the largest initial gland volume (59%) and least in the quartile of men with smallest glands (10%). The median reduction in prostate volume between the treatment planning ultrasound and the follow-up study after implant was 3%, but 23 (33%) patients had an increase in prostate volume, including 16 (23%) who had an increase in volume >20%; 11 of these patients (16%) had an increase in volume >30%. The time course of development and resolution of this edema is not known. The severity of the edema was not related to initial or preimplant prostate volume or duration of hormonal therapy. Conclusions: Prostate edema may significantly affect the dose delivered to the prostate following transperineal ultrasound guided brachytherapy. The effect on the actual delivered dose will be greater when shorter lived isotopes are used. It remains to be observed whether this edema will

  1. Dexamethasone-Cyclophosphamide Pulse Therapy In Pemphigus : An Appraisal OF Its Outcome In A Tertiary Health Care Center In South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa Devinder Mohan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Dexamethasone-cyclophoshamide pulse (DCP therapy, designed by Pasricha and Gupta for pemphigus was first used in 1981 with the aim of reducing the toxicity of corticosteroids and also to achieve better therapeutic results. We have been using the same pulse therapy and herewith are presenting the results of pulse therapy in pemphigus were included in the study over a period of 6 years. They consisted of 51 cases of pemphigus vulgaris and 4 cases of pemphigus foliaceous. The male to female ration was 1.2:1. The age distribution showed a bimodal pattern with peaks at 21-30 years and 51-60 years. The body surface area involved at the time of initiation of DCP was less than 25% in 25, 25-50% in 19 and more than 50% in 11 cases. Oral cavity was involved in all cases of pemphigus vulgaris and eyes were affected in 4 patients. Twentysix cases were managed with DCP pulses only and were in remission in phase II and three of our patients in remission in phase III relapsed at 6 to 9 months. Interpulse steroids were required to induce remission in 11 patients. The remaining 18 patients did not proceed to phase II as they was either defaulting or had active disease. Only four cases progressed into phase IV and were declared cured. The various complications seen in our patients were candidiasis (n=5, hiccups (2, acneiform eruption (2, iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome (1, herpes zoster (1, striae distensae (1, umbilical abscess (1, alopecia (1, azoospermia (1 pneumonia (1 and deep vein thrombosis (1. Two Patients on pulse therapy died of septicemia.

  2. Non-invasive assessment of peripheral arterial disease: Automated ankle brachial index measurement and pulse volume analysis compared to duplex scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jane Ea; Williams, Paul; Davies, Jane H

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to individually and cumulatively compare sensitivity and specificity of the (1) ankle brachial index and (2) pulse volume waveform analysis recorded by the same automated device, with the presence or absence of peripheral arterial disease being verified by ultrasound duplex scan. Patients (n=205) referred for lower limb arterial assessment underwent ankle brachial index measurement and pulse volume waveform recording using volume plethysmography, followed by ultrasound duplex scan. The presence of peripheral arterial disease was recorded if ankle brachial index 50% was evident with ultrasound duplex scan. Outcome measure was agreement between the measured ankle brachial index and interpretation of pulse volume waveform for peripheral arterial disease diagnosis, using ultrasound duplex scan as the reference standard. Sensitivity of ankle brachial index was 79%, specificity 91% and overall accuracy 88%. Pulse volume waveform sensitivity was 97%, specificity 81% and overall accuracy 85%. The combined sensitivity of ankle brachial index and pulse volume waveform was 100%, specificity 76% and overall accuracy 85%. Combining these two diagnostic modalities within one device provided a highly accurate method of ruling out peripheral arterial disease, which could be utilised in primary care to safely reduce unnecessary secondary care referrals.

  3. Opto-ultrasound imaging in vivo in deep tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, Ke; YanXu; Zheng, Yao; Zhu, Xinpei; Gong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    It is of keen importance of deep tissue imaging with high resolution in vivo. Here we present an opto-ultrasound imaging method which utilizes an ultrasound to confine the laser pulse in a very tiny spot as a guide star. The results show that the imaging depth is 2mm with a resolution of 10um. Meanwhile, the excitation power we used is less than 2mW, which indicates that our methods can be applied in vivo without optical toxicity and optical bleaching due to the excitation power. (paper)

  4. Non-invasive and real-time passive acoustic mapping of ultrasound-mediated drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, James J; Carlisle, Robert C; Coviello, Christian; Coussios, Constantin-C; Seymour, Len

    2014-01-01

    New classes of biologically active materials, such as viruses, siRNA, antibodies and a wide range of engineered nanoparticles have emerged as potent agents for diagnosing and treating diseases, yet many of these agents fail because there is no effective route of delivery to their intended targets. Focused ultrasound and its ability to drive microbubble-seeded cavitation have been shown to facilitate drug delivery. However, cavitation is difficult to control temporally and spatially, making prediction of therapeutic outcomes deep in the body difficult. Here, we utilized passive acoustic mapping in vivo to understand how ultrasound parameters influence cavitation dynamics and to correlate spatial maps of cavitation to drug delivery. Focused ultrasound (center frequency: 0.5 MHz, peak-rarefactional pressure: 1.2 MPa, pulse length: 25 cycles or 50,000 cycles, pulse repetition interval: 0.02, 0.2, 1 or 3 s, number of pulses: 80 pulses) was applied to murine xenograft-model tumors in vivo during systemic injection of microbubbles with and without cavitation-sensitive liposomes or type 5 adenoviruses. Analysis of in vivo cavitation dynamics through several pulses revealed that cavitation was more efficiently produced at a lower pulse repetition frequency of 1 Hz than at 50 Hz. Within a pulse, inertial cavitation activity was shown to persist but reduced to 50% and 25% of its initial magnitude in 4.3 and 29.3 ms, respectively. Both through several pulses and within a pulse, the spatial distribution of cavitation was shown to change in time due to variations in microbubble distribution present in tumors. Finally, we demonstrated that the centroid of the mapped cavitation activity was within 1.33  ±  0.6 mm and 0.36 mm from the centroid location of drug release from liposomes and expression of the reporter gene encoded by the adenovirus, respectively. Thus passive acoustic mapping not only unraveled key mechanisms whereby a successful outcome is

  5. Transcranial cavitation-mediated ultrasound therapy at sub-MHz frequency via temporal interference modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Sutton, Jonathan T.; Power, Chanikarn; Zhang, Yongzhi; Miller, Eric L.; McDannold, Nathan J.

    2017-10-01

    Sub-megahertz transmission is not usually adopted in pre-clinical small animal experiments for focused ultrasound (FUS) brain therapy due to the large focal size. However, low frequency FUS is vital for preclinical evaluations due to the frequency-dependence of cavitation behavior. To maximize clinical relevance, a dual-aperture FUS system was designed for low-frequency (274.3 kHz) cavitation-mediated FUS therapy. Combining two spherically curved transducers provides significantly improved focusing in the axial direction while yielding an interference pattern with strong side lobes, leading to inhomogeneously distributed cavitation activities. By operating the two transducers at slightly offset frequencies to modulate this interference pattern over the period of sonication, the acoustic energy was redistributed and resulted in a spatially homogenous treatment profile. Simulation and pressure field measurements in water were performed to assess the beam profiles. In addition, the system performance was demonstrated in vivo in rats via drug delivery through microbubble-mediated blood-brain barrier disruption. This design resulted in a homogenous treatment profile that was fully contained within the rat brain at a clinically relevant acoustic frequency.

  6. Gallbladder ascariasis in Kosovo - focus on ultrasound and conservative therapy: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Toro, Halim; Spahiu, Lidvana; Azemi, Mehmedali; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta; Avdiu, Muharrem; Spahiu-Konjusha, Shqipe; Jaha, Luan

    2018-01-13

    Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common intestinal infections in developing countries, including Kosovo. In contrast to migration to the bile duct, migration of the worm to the gallbladder, due to the narrow and tortuous nature of the cystic duct, is rare. When it does occur, it incites acalculous cholecystitis. This case series describes a 16-month-old Albanian girl, a 22-month-old Albanian girl, a 4-year-old Albanian girl, and a 10-year-old Albanian boy. Here we report our experience with gallbladder ascariasis including clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures, and treatment. Fever, diarrhea and vomiting, dehydration, pale appearance, and weakness were the manifestations of the primary disease. In all patients, a physical examination revealed reduced turgor and elasticity of the skin. Abdomen was at the level of the chest, soft, with minimal palpatory pain. The liver and spleen were not palpable. A laboratory examination was not specific except for eosinophilia. There were no pathogenic bacteria in coproculture but Ascaris was found in all patients. At an ultrasound examination in all cases we found single, long, linear echogenic structure without acoustic shadowing containing a central, longitudinal anechoic tube with characteristic movement within the gallbladder. Edema of the gallbladder wall was suggestive of associated inflammation. There were no other findings on adjacent structures and organs. All patients received mebendazole 100 mg twice a day for 3 days. They also received symptomatic therapy for gastroenteritis. Because of elevated markers of inflammation all patients were treated with antibiotics, assuming acute cholecystitis, although ultrasound was able to confirm cholecystitis in only two of our four patients. Since the length of stay was dependent on the primary pathology it was 7 to 10 days. At control ultrasounds on 14th day, third and sixth month, all patients were free of ascariasis. Gallbladder ascariasis should be considered in

  7. Hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemic coma induced by methylprednisolone pulse therapy for acute rejection after liver transplantation: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jian Zhou,* Weiqiang Ju,* Xiaopeng Yuan, Xiaofeng Zhu, Dongping Wang, Xiaoshun HeOrgan Transplant Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemic coma (HNKHC is a serious, rare complication induced by methylprednisolone (MP pulse therapy for acute rejection after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT. Herein, we report an unusual case of a 58-year-old woman who experienced acute rejection at 30 months after OLT, only one case in which HNKHC resulted in MP pulse therapy for acute rejection in all 913 recipients in our center. The general morbidity of HNKHC was 1.09‰ in this study. HNKHC is characterized by rapid onset, rapid progression, and a lack of specific clinical manifestations. High-dose MP management was a clear risk factor. The principle of treatment included rapid rehydration, low-dose insulin infusion, and correcting disorders of electrolytes and acidosis. In conclusion, clinicians considering MP pulse therapy after OLT should be alert to the occurrence of HNKHC. Keywords: liver transplantation, complications, hyperosmolar nonketotic hyperglycemic coma, methylprednisolone pulse therapy, principle of treatment

  8. Long-pulsed dye laser versus long-pulsed dye laser-assisted photodynamic therapy for acne vulgaris: A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, M.; Togsverd, K.; Wiegell, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Long-pulsed dye laser (LPDL)-assisted photodynamic therapy has been suggested to be superior to laser alone for acne vulgaris but no evidence is available. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of LPDL alone versus LPDL in photodynamic therapy with methylaminolevulinic acid...... (MAL-LPDL) for acne vulgaris. Methods: Fifteen patients received a series of 3 full-face LPDL treatments and half-face prelaser MAL treatments; the latter being randomly assigned to the left or right side. Results: Inflammatory lesions were reduced more on MAL-LPDL-treated than on LPDL-treated sides...... to draw conclusions about the efficacy of the LPDL, only about the efficacy of MAL-LPDL compared with LPDL alone. Conclusions: MAL-LPDL is slightly superior to LPDL for the treatment of inflammatory acne Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  9. Acoustic signal generation in excised muscle by pulsed proton beam irradiation and the possibility of its clinical application to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Yoshinori; Tada, Junichiro; Inada, Tetsuo; Kitagawa, Toshio; Wagai, Toshio; Yoshioka, Katsuya.

    1989-01-01

    Acoustic signals generated in liquids and in metals by pulsed proton beam are thought to be thermal shock wave due to localized energy deposition of incident protons. Thus the intensity of generated acoustic signals is almost proportional to the energy deposited at the region. This suggests the possibility for measuring spatial distribution of energy deposition of proton beam using the acoustic method. In proton beam radiation therapy, treatment planning is developed from data of X-ray computer tomography which reflects the information on the electron density distribution in the patient's body. Ensuring the agreement of the dose distribution in the patient with the planned one, however, is difficult. It is expected that the acoustic method can provide a useful tool for this purpose. The pulsed proton beam of 50ns in pulse width is used for cancer therapy at the University of Tsukuba. A hydrophone is used to detect acoustic signals generated by pulsed proton beam. Detected signals are amplified ten thousand times before being averaged and analyzed by digital oscilloscope. Measurements made suggest that the method could be useful for radiation therapy. (N.K.)

  10. Treatment of Movement Disorders With Focused Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S Fishman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the use of ultrasound as a potential therapeutic modality in the brain has been under study for several decades, relatively few neuroscientists or neurologists are familiar with this technology. Stereotactic brain lesioning had been widely used as a treatment for medically refractory patients with essential tremor (ET, Parkinson disease (PD, and dystonia but has been largely replaced by deep brain stimulation (DBS surgery, with advantages both in safety and efficacy. However, DBS is associated with complications including intracerebral hemorrhage, infection, and hardware malfunction. The occurrence of these complications has spurred interest in less invasive stereotactic brain lesioning methods including magnetic resonance imaging–guided high intensity–focused ultrasound (FUS surgery. Engineering advances now allow sound waves to be targeted noninvasively through the skull to a brain target. High intensities of sonic energy can create a coagulation lesion similar to that of older radiofrequency stereotactic methods, but without opening the skull, recent Food and Drug Administration approval of unilateral thalamotomy for treatment of ET. Clinical studies of stereotactic FUS for aspects of PD are underway. Moderate intensity, pulsed FUS has also demonstrated the potential to safely open the blood-brain barrier for localized delivery of therapeutics including proteins, genes, and cell-based therapy for PD and related disorders. The goal of this review is to provide basic and clinical neuroscientists with a level of understanding to interact with medical physicists, biomedical engineers, and radiologists to accelerate the application of this powerful technology to brain disease

  11. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound regulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts through osteocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lei, E-mail: geraldleelei@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Yang, Zheng [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Zhang, Hai [Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Chen, Wenchuan [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Chen, Mengshi [Department of Biomechanics, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Zhu, Zhimin, E-mail: hxzhimin@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CM from LIPUS-stimulated osteocytes inhibits proliferation of osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CM from LIPUS-stimulated osteocytes enhances differentiation of osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIPUS stimulates MLO-Y4 cells to secrete PGE{sub 2} and NO. -- Abstract: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been used as a safe and effective modality to enhance fracture healing. As the most abundant cells in bone, osteocytes orchestrate biological activities of effector cells via direct cell-to-cell contacts and by soluble factors. In this study, we have used the osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells to study the effects of conditioned medium from LIPUS-stimulated MLO-Y4 cells on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Conditioned media from LIPUS-stimulated MLO-Y4 cells (LIPUS-Osteocyte-CM) were collected and added on MC3T3-E1 cell cultures. MC3T3-E1 cells cultured in LIPUS-Osteocyte-CM demonstrated a significant inhibition of proliferation and an increased alkaline phosphatase activity. The results of PGE{sub 2} and NO assay showed that LIPUS could enhance PGE{sub 2} and NO secretion from MLO-Y4 cells at all time points within 24 h after LIPUS stimulation. We conclude that LIPUS regulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts through osteocytes in vitro. Increased secretion of PGE{sub 2} from osteocytes may play a role in this effect.

  12. Ultrasound Imaging. Chapter 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacefield, J. C. [University of Western Ontario, London (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    In the conventional method of ultrasonography, images are acquired in reflection, or pulse echo, mode. An array of small piezoelectric elements transmits a focused pulse along a specified line of sight known as a scan line. Echoes returning from the tissue are received by the same array, focused via the delay-and-sum beam forming process reviewed in Section 13.2, and demodulated to obtain the magnitude, or envelope, of the echo signal. The scanner measures the arrival time of the echoes relative to the time the pulse was transmitted and maps the arrival time to the distance from the array, using an assumed speed of sound. The earliest ultrasound systems would display the result of a single pulse acquisition in 1-D A-mode (amplitude mode) format by plotting echo magnitude as a function of distance. A 2-D or 3-D B-mode (brightness mode) image is acquired by performing a large number of pulse echo acquisitions, incrementally increasing the scan line direction between each pulse echo operation, to sweep out a 2-D or 3-D field of view (FOV). The term B-mode imaging reflects the fact that the echo magnitude from each point in the FOV is mapped to the grey level, or brightness, of the corresponding pixel in the image.

  13. Biocompatibility assessment of graphene oxide-hydroxyapatite coating applied on TiO2 nanotubes by ultrasound-assisted pulse electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathyunes, Leila; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar; Sheykholeslami, Seyed Omid Reza; Moosavifar, Maryam

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the ultrasound-assisted pulse electrodeposition was introduced to fabricate the graphene oxide (GO)-hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on TiO 2 nanotubes. The results of the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscope (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy showed the successful synthesis of GO. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images revealed that in the presence of ultrasonic waves and GO sheets a more compact HA-based coating with refined microstructure could be formed on the pretreated titanium. The results of micro-Raman analysis confirmed the successful incorporation of the reinforcement filler of GO into the coating electrodeposited by the ultrasound-assisted method. The FTIR analysis showed that the GO-HA coating was consisted predominantly of the B-type carbonated HA (CHA) phase. The pretreatment of the substrate and incorporation of the GO sheets into the HA coating had a significant effect on improving the bonding strength at the coating-substrate interface. Moreover, the results of the fibroblast cell culture and 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazolyl‑2)‑2, 5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay after 2 days demonstrated a higher percentage of cell activity for the GO-HA coated sample. Finally, the 7-day exposure to simulated body fluid (SBF) showed a faster rate of apatite precipitation on the GO-HA coating, as compared to the HA coating and pretreated titanium. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of Music in Reducing Patient Anxiety During Pediatric Ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Kesselman, Andrew; Bergen, Michael; Stefanov, Dimitre; Goldfisher, Rachelle; Amodio, John

    2016-01-01

    The use of noninvasive ultrasound examinations can potentially result in significant anxiety in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of music during pediatric ultrasound examinations to reduce anxiety measured by heart rate. A total of 44 patients were recruited; 21 controls and 23 experimental. Each participant was randomized to either music or no music (control) after parental consent was obtained. Pulse oximeters were used to monitor heart rate at...

  15. Successful treatment of nonunion in severe finger injury with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Michaela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Severe injuries of the hand or single fingers require immediate treatment but surgical fixation methods are limited depending on soft tissue damage. Thus, it is very common that severe soft tissue damage along with poor osteosynthetic bone fixation results in a delayed healing process or nonunion. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS has been proven to stimulate bone formation in in vitro studies and also to significantly accelerate nonunion healing in animal studies and clinical trials but to date there are no data with respect to nonunion in phalanx fracture. Case presentation We report a case in which we successfully used LIPUS in a 19-year-old Caucasian man with a nonunion of his ring finger after injury and first treatment with K-wire osteosynthesis. Conclusion We recommend that LIPUS be considered as an option to treat nonunions in fractures of the hand, especially because it is a soft tissue conserving method with a good functional result.

  16. HIFU Monitoring and Control with Dual-Mode Ultrasound Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Andrew Jacob

    The biological effects of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) have been known and studied for decades. HIFU has been shown capable of treating a wide variety of diseases and disorders. However, despite its demonstrated potential, HIFU has been slow to gain clinical acceptance. This is due, in part, to the difficulty associated with robustly monitoring and controlling the delivery of the HIFU energy. The non-invasive nature of the surgery makes the assessment of treatment progression difficult, leading to long treatment times and a significant risk of under treatment. This thesis research develops new techniques and systems for robustly monitoring HIFU therapies for the safe and efficacious delivery of the intended treatment. Systems and algorithms were developed for the two most common modes of HIFU delivery systems: single-element and phased array applicators. Delivering HIFU with a single element transducer is a widely used technique in HIFU therapies. The simplicity of a single element offers many benefits in terms of cost and overall system complexity. Typical monitoring schemes rely on an external device (e.g. diagnostic ultrasound or MRI) to assess the progression of therapy. The research presented in this thesis explores using the same element to both deliver and monitor the HIFU therapy. The use of a dual-mode ultrasound transducer (DMUT) required the development of an FPGA based single-channel arbitrary waveform generator and high-speed data acquisition unit. Data collected from initial uncontrolled ablations led to the development of monitoring and control algorithms which were implemented directly on the FPGA. Close integration between the data acquisition and arbitrary waveform units allowed for fast, low latency control over the ablation process. Results are presented that demonstrate control of HIFU therapies over a broad range of intensities and in multiple in vitro tissues. The second area of investigation expands the DMUT research to an

  17. An integrated circuit with transmit beamforming flip-chip bonded to a 2-D CMUT array for 3-D ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygant, Ira O; Jamal, Nafis S; Lee, Hyunjoo J; Nikoozadeh, Amin; Oralkan, Omer; Karaman, Mustafa; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T

    2009-10-01

    State-of-the-art 3-D medical ultrasound imaging requires transmitting and receiving ultrasound using a 2-D array of ultrasound transducers with hundreds or thousands of elements. A tight combination of the transducer array with integrated circuitry eliminates bulky cables connecting the elements of the transducer array to a separate system of electronics. Furthermore, preamplifiers located close to the array can lead to improved receive sensitivity. A combined IC and transducer array can lead to a portable, high-performance, and inexpensive 3-D ultrasound imaging system. This paper presents an IC flip-chip bonded to a 16 x 16-element capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array for 3-D ultrasound imaging. The IC includes a transmit beamformer that generates 25-V unipolar pulses with programmable focusing delays to 224 of the 256 transducer elements. One-shot circuits allow adjustment of the pulse widths for different ultrasound transducer center frequencies. For receiving reflected ultrasound signals, the IC uses the 32-elements along the array diagonals. The IC provides each receiving element with a low-noise 25-MHz-bandwidth transimpedance amplifier. Using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) clocked at 100 MHz to operate the IC, the IC generated properly timed transmit pulses with 5-ns accuracy. With the IC flip-chip bonded to a CMUT array, we show that the IC can produce steered and focused ultrasound beams. We present 2-D and 3-D images of a wire phantom and 2-D orthogonal cross-sectional images (Bscans) of a latex heart phantom.

  18. Noninvasive pulsed focused ultrasound allows spatiotemporal control of targeted homing for multiple stem cell types in murine skeletal muscle and the magnitude of cell homing can be increased through repeated applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Scott R; Ziadloo, Ali; Kim, Saejeong J; Nguyen, Ben A; Frank, Joseph A

    2013-11-01

    Stem cells are promising therapeutics for cardiovascular diseases, and i.v. injection is the most desirable route of administration clinically. Subsequent homing of exogenous stem cells to pathological loci is frequently required for therapeutic efficacy and is mediated by chemoattractants (cell adhesion molecules, cytokines, and growth factors). Homing processes are inefficient and depend on short-lived pathological inflammation that limits the window of opportunity for cell injections. Noninvasive pulsed focused ultrasound (pFUS), which emphasizes mechanical ultrasound-tissue interactions, can be precisely targeted in the body and is a promising approach to target and maximize stem cell delivery by stimulating chemoattractant expression in pFUS-treated tissue prior to cell infusions. We demonstrate that pFUS is nondestructive to murine skeletal muscle tissue (no necrosis, hemorrhage, or muscle stem cell activation) and initiates a largely M2-type macrophage response. We also demonstrate that local upregulation of chemoattractants in pFUS-treated skeletal muscle leads to enhance homing, permeability, and retention of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and human endothelial precursor cells (EPC). Furthermore, the magnitude of MSC or EPC homing was increased when pFUS treatments and cell infusions were repeated daily. This study demonstrates that pFUS defines transient "molecular zip codes" of elevated chemoattractants in targeted muscle tissue, which effectively provides spatiotemporal control and tunability of the homing process for multiple stem cell types. pFUS is a clinically translatable modality that may ultimately improve homing efficiency and flexibility of cell therapies for cardiovascular diseases. © AlphaMed Press.

  19. Ultrasound line-by-line scanning method of spatial-temporal active cavitation mapping for high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ting; Zhang, Siyuan; Fu, Quanyou; Xu, Zhian; Wan, Mingxi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented an ultrasound line-by-line scanning method of spatial-temporal active cavitation mapping applicable in a liquid or liquid filled tissue cavities exposed by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Scattered signals from cavitation bubbles were obtained in a scan line immediately after one HIFU exposure, and then there was a waiting time of 2 s long enough to make the liquid back to the original state. As this pattern extended, an image was built up by sequentially measuring a series of such lines. The acquisition of the beamformed radiofrequency (RF) signals for a scan line was synchronized with HIFU exposure. The duration of HIFU exposure, as well as the delay of the interrogating pulse relative to the moment while HIFU was turned off, could vary from microseconds to seconds. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated in tap-water and a tap-water filled cavity in the tissue-mimicking gelatin-agar phantom as capable of observing temporal evolutions of cavitation bubble cloud with temporal resolution of several microseconds, lateral and axial resolution of 0.50 mm and 0.29 mm respectively. The dissolution process of cavitation bubble cloud and spatial distribution affected by cavitation previously generated were also investigated. Although the application is limited by the requirement for a gassy fluid (e.g. tap water, etc.) that allows replenishment of nuclei between HIFU exposures, the technique may be a useful tool in spatial-temporal cavitation mapping for HIFU with high precision and resolution, providing a reference for clinical therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of an angular spectrum approach for pulsed ultrasound fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2013-01-01

    An Angular Spectrum Approach (ASA)is formulated and employed to simulate linear pulsed ultra sound fields for high bandwidth signals. Ageometrically focused piston transducer is used as the acoustic source. Signals are cross-correlated to findthe true sound speed during the measurement to make...... the simulated and measured pulses in phase for comparisons. The calculated sound speed in the measurement is varied between 1487.45 m/s and 1487.75 m/s by using different initial values in the ASA simulation. Results from the pulsed ASA simulation susing both Field II simulated and hydrophone measured acoustic....... Optim al parameters for the ASA are found in the simulation .The RMS error of the ASA simulation is reduced from 10.9% to 2.4% for the optimal parameters when comparing to Field II simulation s. The comparison between the ASA calculated and measured pulses are illustrated and the corresponding RMS error...

  1. A tissue phantom for visualization and measurement of ultrasound-induced cavitation damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Adam D; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Yuan, Lingqian; Duryea, Alexander P; Xu, Zhen; Cain, Charles A

    2010-12-01

    Many ultrasound studies involve the use of tissue-mimicking materials to research phenomena in vitro and predict in vivo bioeffects. We have developed a tissue phantom to study cavitation-induced damage to tissue. The phantom consists of red blood cells suspended in an agarose hydrogel. The acoustic and mechanical properties of the gel phantom were found to be similar to soft tissue properties. The phantom's response to cavitation was evaluated using histotripsy. Histotripsy causes breakdown of tissue structures by the generation of controlled cavitation using short, focused, high-intensity ultrasound pulses. Histotripsy lesions were generated in the phantom and kidney tissue using a spherically focused 1-MHz transducer generating 15 cycle pulses, at a pulse repetition frequency of 100 Hz with a peak negative pressure of 14 MPa. Damage appeared clearly as increased optical transparency of the phantom due to rupture of individual red blood cells. The morphology of lesions generated in the phantom was very similar to that generated in kidney tissue at both macroscopic and cellular levels. Additionally, lesions in the phantom could be visualized as hypoechoic regions on a B-mode ultrasound image, similar to histotripsy lesions in tissue. High-speed imaging of the optically transparent phantom was used to show that damage coincides with the presence of cavitation. These results indicate that the phantom can accurately mimic the response of soft tissue to cavitation and provide a useful tool for studying damage induced by acoustic cavitation. Copyright © 2010 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pulsoterapia com ciclofosfamida nos pênfigos: relato de sete casos Cyclophosphamide pulse therapy for pemphigus: report of seven cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurimar C. Fernandes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A eficácia da pulsoterapia com ciclofosfamida foi avaliada no pênfigo vulgar (dois homens e quatro mulheres entre 34 e 47 anos e em um homem de 56 anos com pênfigo foliáceo. Os critérios de inclusão para pulsoterapia foram: não controle com prednisona, efeitos colaterais importantes, recorrência da doença nas tentativas de redução da prednisona e dose de manutenção > 40mg/dia. Em um caso (cinco pulsos a dose de manutenção da prednisona foi reduzida para 10mg; em um caso (nove pulsos, para 20mg; em dois casos (10 pulsos, para 20mg; em um caso (nove pulsos, para 30mg; em um caso (sete pulsos foi zerada; em um caso a ciclofosfamida foi suspensa por leucopenia.The efficacy of cyclophosphamide pulse therapy was evaluated in pemphigus vulgaris (2 males and 4 females aged 34 to 47 years and in a 56-year-old male with pemphigus foliaceus. The inclusion criteria for pulse therapy were: prednisone failure, important side effects, recurrence of disease during the withdrawal and maintenance oral prednisone > 40 mg daily. In one case (5 pulses, the maintenance dose of prednisone was reduced to 10 mg; in another case (9 pulses, to 20 mg; in 2 cases (10 pulses, to 20 mg; in 1 case (9 pulses, to 30 mg; in 1 case (7 pulses, no prednisone was required; and in 1 case, the cyclophosphamide was interrupted due to leukopenia.

  3. Adaptive HIFU noise cancellation for simultaneous therapy and imaging using an integrated HIFU/imaging transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Seob; Cannata, Jonathan Matthew; Shung, K Kirk

    2010-04-07

    It was previously demonstrated that it is feasible to simultaneously perform ultrasound therapy and imaging of a coagulated lesion during treatment with an integrated transducer that is capable of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and B-mode ultrasound imaging. It was found that coded excitation and fixed notch filtering upon reception could significantly reduce interference caused by the therapeutic transducer. During HIFU sonication, the imaging signal generated with coded excitation and fixed notch filtering had a range side-lobe level of less than -40 dB, while traditional short-pulse excitation and fixed notch filtering produced a range side-lobe level of -20 dB. The shortcoming is, however, that relatively complicated electronics may be needed to utilize coded excitation in an array imaging system. It is for this reason that in this paper an adaptive noise canceling technique is proposed to improve image quality by minimizing not only the therapeutic interference, but also the remnant side-lobe 'ripples' when using the traditional short-pulse excitation. The performance of this technique was verified through simulation and experiments using a prototype integrated HIFU/imaging transducer. Although it is known that the remnant ripples are related to the notch attenuation value of the fixed notch filter, in reality, it is difficult to find the optimal notch attenuation value due to the change in targets or the media resulted from motion or different acoustic properties even during one sonication pulse. In contrast, the proposed adaptive noise canceling technique is capable of optimally minimizing both the therapeutic interference and residual ripples without such constraints. The prototype integrated HIFU/imaging transducer is composed of three rectangular elements. The 6 MHz center element is used for imaging and the outer two identical 4 MHz elements work together to transmit the HIFU beam. Two HIFU elements of 14.4 mm x 20.0 mm dimensions could

  4. Adaptive HIFU noise cancellation for simultaneous therapy and imaging using an integrated HIFU/imaging transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jong Seob; Cannata, Jonathan Matthew; Shung, K Kirk

    2010-01-01

    It was previously demonstrated that it is feasible to simultaneously perform ultrasound therapy and imaging of a coagulated lesion during treatment with an integrated transducer that is capable of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and B-mode ultrasound imaging. It was found that coded excitation and fixed notch filtering upon reception could significantly reduce interference caused by the therapeutic transducer. During HIFU sonication, the imaging signal generated with coded excitation and fixed notch filtering had a range side-lobe level of less than -40 dB, while traditional short-pulse excitation and fixed notch filtering produced a range side-lobe level of -20 dB. The shortcoming is, however, that relatively complicated electronics may be needed to utilize coded excitation in an array imaging system. It is for this reason that in this paper an adaptive noise canceling technique is proposed to improve image quality by minimizing not only the therapeutic interference, but also the remnant side-lobe 'ripples' when using the traditional short-pulse excitation. The performance of this technique was verified through simulation and experiments using a prototype integrated HIFU/imaging transducer. Although it is known that the remnant ripples are related to the notch attenuation value of the fixed notch filter, in reality, it is difficult to find the optimal notch attenuation value due to the change in targets or the media resulted from motion or different acoustic properties even during one sonication pulse. In contrast, the proposed adaptive noise canceling technique is capable of optimally minimizing both the therapeutic interference and residual ripples without such constraints. The prototype integrated HIFU/imaging transducer is composed of three rectangular elements. The 6 MHz center element is used for imaging and the outer two identical 4 MHz elements work together to transmit the HIFU beam. Two HIFU elements of 14.4 mm x 20.0 mm dimensions could

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of the femoral head to detect avascular necrosis in active rheumatoid arthritis treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vugt, R.M. van; Sijbrandij, E.S.; Bijlsma, J.W.J. [Univ. Hospital Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1996-03-01

    Efficacious management of patients with avascular necrosis of bone (AVN) necessitates the identification of patients with a high risk of collapse of the femoral head. In this prospective study we imaged both hips of 10 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis, who were treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy. MRI and conventional radiography were performed before MP-pulse therapy and 6 and 12 months thereafter. Two patients showed unilateral changes compatible with AVN. One patient became symptomatic and revealed characteristic radiographic abnormalities. The other patient remained asymptomatic and the MRI appearance returned to normal after 6 months. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of the femoral head to detect avascular necrosis in active rheumatoid arthritis treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vugt, R.M. van; Sijbrandij, E.S.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    Efficacious management of patients with avascular necrosis of bone (AVN) necessitates the identification of patients with a high risk of collapse of the femoral head. In this prospective study we imaged both hips of 10 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis, who were treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy. MRI and conventional radiography were performed before MP-pulse therapy and 6 and 12 months thereafter. Two patients showed unilateral changes compatible with AVN. One patient became symptomatic and revealed characteristic radiographic abnormalities. The other patient remained asymptomatic and the MRI appearance returned to normal after 6 months. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  7. Ultrasound-guided drug delivery in cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Sayan Mullick; Lee, Tae Hwa; Willmann, Jugen K. [Dept. of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Recent advancements in ultrasound and microbubble (USMB) mediated drug delivery technology has shown that this approach can improve spatially confined delivery of drugs and genes to target tissues while reducing systemic dose and toxicity. The mechanism behind enhanced delivery of therapeutics is sonoporation, the formation of openings in the vasculature, induced by ultrasound-triggered oscillations and destruction of microbubbles. In this review, progress and challenges of USMB mediated drug delivery are summarized, with special focus on cancer therapy.

  8. Ultrasound imaging using coded signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Athanasios

    Modulated (or coded) excitation signals can potentially improve the quality and increase the frame rate in medical ultrasound scanners. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate systematically the applicability of modulated signals in medical ultrasound imaging and to suggest appropriate...... methods for coded imaging, with the goal of making better anatomic and flow images and three-dimensional images. On the first stage, it investigates techniques for doing high-resolution coded imaging with improved signal-to-noise ratio compared to conventional imaging. Subsequently it investigates how...... coded excitation can be used for increasing the frame rate. The work includes both simulated results using Field II, and experimental results based on measurements on phantoms as well as clinical images. Initially a mathematical foundation of signal modulation is given. Pulse compression based...

  9. Synergistic effects of Combined Therapy: nonfocused ultrasound plus Aussie current for noninvasive body contouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Vivianne Carvalho; Crivelaro, Cinthia Nicoletti; Ferla, Luciane Zacchi; Pelozo, Gisele Marques; Azevedo, Juliana; Liebano, Richard Eloin; Nogueira, Caroline; Guidi, Renata Michelini; Grecco, Clóvis; Sant’Ana, Estela

    2018-01-01

    Background and objectives Nowadays, there are several noninvasive technologies being used for improving of body contouring. The objectives of this pilot study were to verify the effectiveness of the Heccus® device, emphasizing the synergism between nonfocused ultrasound plus Aussie current in the improvement of body contour, and to determine if the association of this therapy with whole-body vibration exercises can have additional positive effects in the results of the treatments. Subjects and methods Twenty healthy women aged 20–40 years participated in the study. Ten patients received Combined Therapy treatment (G1) and the other 10 participants received Combined Therapy with additional vibratory platform treatment (G2). Anthropometric and standardized photography analysis, ultrasonography, cutometry and self-adminestered questionnaires of tolerance and satisfaction levels with the treatment were used. Results Compared with baseline values, reduction of fat thickness was observed by ultrasonography in the posterior thigh area in the G1 group (Pcellulite degree in the buttocks, G1 (Ptreatment for improving the aspect of the cellulite, skin firmness and localized fat. If used in association with the whole-body vibratory platform, the results can be better, especially in the treatment of localized fat. Further studies with larger sample size should be performed to confirm these results. PMID:29731654

  10. Targeted gene delivery to the synovial pannus in antigen-induced arthritis by ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xi; Tang, Yuanjiao; Leng, Qianying; Zhang, Lingyan; Qiu, Li

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize an ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) technique to improve the in vivo transfection efficiency of the gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in the synovial pannus in an antigen-induced arthritis rabbit model. A mixture of microbubbles and plasmids was locally injected into the knee joints of an antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) rabbits. The plasmid concentrations and ultrasound conditions were varied in the experiments. We also tested local articular and intravenous injections. The rabbits were divided into five groups: (1) ultrasound+microbubbles+plasmid; (2) ultrasound+plasmid; (3) microbubble+plasmid; (4) plasmid only; (5) untreated controls. EGFP expression was observed by fluorescent microscope and immunohistochemical staining in the synovial pannus of each group. The optimal plasmid dosage and ultrasound parameter were determined based on the results of EGFP expression and the present and absent of tissue damage under light microscopy. The irradiation procedure was performed to observe the duration of the EGFP expression in the synovial pannus and other tissues and organs, as well as the damage to the normal cells. The optimal condition was determined to be a 1-MHz ultrasound pulse applied for 5 min with a power output of 2 W/cm(2) and a 20% duty cycle along with 300 μg of plasmid. Under these conditions, the synovial pannus showed significant EGFP expression without significant damage to the surrounding normal tissue. The EGFP expression induced by the local intra-articular injection was significantly more increased than that induced by the intravenous injection. The EGFP expression in the synovial pannus of the ultrasound+microbubbles+plasmid group was significantly higher than that of the other four groups (Ppannus of an AIA model. Thus, this could become a safe and effective non-viral gene transfection procedure for arthritis therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  11. Musculoskeletal ultrasound: how to treat calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff by ultrasound-guided single-needle lavage technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth S; Rosas, Humberto G

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this video article is to illustrate the ultrasound appearance of calcium deposition in the rotator cuff and provide a detailed step-by-step protocol for performing the ultrasound-guided single-needle lavage technique for the treatment of calcific tendinitis with emphasis on patient positioning, necessary supplies, real-time lavage technique, and steroid injection into the subacromial subdeltoid bursa. Musculoskeletal ultrasound is well established as a safe, cost-effective imaging tool in diagnosing and treating common musculoskeletal disorders. Calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff is a common disabling cause of shoulder pain. Although most cases are self-limiting, a subset of patients is refractory to conservative therapy and requires treatment intervention. Ultrasound-guided lavage is an effective and safe minimally-invasive treatment not readily offered in the United States as an alternative to surgery, perhaps because of the limited prevalence of musculoskeletal ultrasound programs and limited training. On completion of this video article, the participant should be able to develop an appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for the treatment of calcific tendinitis of the rotator cuff using ultrasound.

  12. Calculation of pressure fields from arbitrarily shaped, apodized, and excited ultrasound transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Svendsen, Niels Bruun

    1992-01-01

    A method for simulation of pulsed pressure fields from arbitrarily shaped, apodized and excited ultrasound transducers is suggested. It relies on the Tupholme-Stepanishen method for calculating pulsed pressure fields, and can also handle the continuous wave and pulse-echo case. The field...... is calculated by dividing the surface into small rectangles and then Summing their response. A fast calculation is obtained by using the far-field approximation. Examples of the accuracy of the approach and actual calculation times are given...

  13. Clinically insubstantial cognitive side effects of bitemporal electroconvulsive therapy at 0.5 msec pulse width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnell, Ronald L; Swartz, Conrad M; Thomson, Alice

    2011-11-01

    We measured cognitive side effects from bitemporal electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) using stimuli of 0.5 msec pulse width 900 milliamperes (mA). Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-21) were rated within 36 hours before and 36 hours after a series of 6 bitemporal ECT sessions on 15 patients age ≥45. MMSE remained high after ECT (pre-ECT mean 29, standard deviation [SD] 1.60, post-ECT mean 28.53, SD 1.36) with no significant change. The mean HRSD-21 fell from 27.5 to 16.3. Post-ECT MMSE was significantly and markedly higher than in previous studies of bitemporal ECT; all had used ECT stimuli of pulse width at least 1 msec. With stimuli of 0.5 msec pulse width and 900 mA, 6 bitemporal ECTs did not decrease MMSE score. This result leaves no opportunity for further decrease in basic cognitive side effects, and complements published reports of stronger physiological effects with stimuli of 0.5 msec pulse width and 900 mA. ECT stimuli of 0.5 msec pulse width and 900 mA are more desirable than wider pulse widths. Six bitemporal ECT sessions using these stimuli generally will not have more cognitive side effects than treatments with other placements, allowing maintenance of full efficacy with clinically insubstantial side effects.

  14. Applications of ultrasound in food and bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2015-07-01

    Improving the quality and nutritional aspects of food is one of the key issues for healthy life of human beings. The stability during storage is an important parameter in quality assurance of food products. Various processing techniques such as high pressure, thermal, pulsed electric field and microwave have been used to prolong the shelf-life of food products. In recent years, ultrasound technology has been found to be a potential food processing technique. The passage of ultrasound in a liquid matrix generates mechanical agitation and other physical effects due to acoustic cavitation. Owing to its importance, a number of review articles and book chapters on the applications of ultrasound in food processing have been published in recent years. This article provides an overview of recent developments in ultrasonic processing of food and dairy systems with a particular focus on functionality of food and dairy ingredients. More specifically, the use of high frequency ultrasound in fat separation from milk and viscosity modification in starch systems and the use of low frequency ultrasound in generating nutritional food emulsions, viscosity modification and encapsulation of nutrients have been highlighted. The issues associated with the development of large scale ultrasonic food processing equipment have also been briefly discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Comparison of daily megavoltage CT and ultrasound image guided radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Cheng; Kainz, Kristofer; Lawton, Colleen; Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    In order to quantify the differences between ultrasound-imaging and megavoltage-CT (MVCT) daily prostate localization in prostate-cancer radiotherapy and their dosimetric impacts, daily shifts were analyzed for a total of 140 prostate cancer patients; 106 positioned using ultrasound-based imaging [B-mode Acquisition and Targeting (BAT)], and 34 using the MVCT from a TomoTherapy Hi-Art unit. The shifts indicated by the two systems were compared statistically along the right/left (R/L), superior/inferior (S/I), and anterior/posterior (A/P) directions. The systematic and random variations among the daily alignments were calculated. Margins to account for these shifts were estimated. The mean shifts and standard deviations along the R/L, S/I, and A/P directions were -0.11{+-}3.80, 0.67{+-}4.67, and 2.71{+-}6.31 mm for BAT localizations and -0.98{+-}5.13, 0.27{+-}3.35, and 1.00{+-}4.22 mm for MVCT localizations, respectively. The systematic and random variations in daily shifts based on MVCT were generally smaller than those based on BAT, especially along the A/P direction. A t-test showed this difference to be statistically significant. The planning target volume margins in the A/P direction estimated to account for daily variations were 8.81 and 14.66 mm based on MVCT and BAT data, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the daily prostate movement pattern between the first few fractions and the remaining fractions. Dosimetric comparison of MVCT and BAT prostate alignments was performed for seven fractions from a patient. The degradation from the plan caused by the MVCT alignment is trivial, while that by BAT is substantial. The MVCT technique results in smaller variations in daily shifts than ultrasound imaging, indicating that MVCT is more reliable and precise for prostate localization. Ultrasound-based localization may overestimate the daily prostate motion, particularly in the A/P direction, negatively impacting prostate dose coverage

  16. A Comparison of daily megavoltage CT and ultrasound image guided radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Cheng; Kainz, Kristofer; Lawton, Colleen; Li, X. Allen

    2008-01-01

    In order to quantify the differences between ultrasound-imaging and megavoltage-CT (MVCT) daily prostate localization in prostate-cancer radiotherapy and their dosimetric impacts, daily shifts were analyzed for a total of 140 prostate cancer patients; 106 positioned using ultrasound-based imaging [B-mode Acquisition and Targeting (BAT)], and 34 using the MVCT from a TomoTherapy Hi-Art unit. The shifts indicated by the two systems were compared statistically along the right/left (R/L), superior/inferior (S/I), and anterior/posterior (A/P) directions. The systematic and random variations among the daily alignments were calculated. Margins to account for these shifts were estimated. The mean shifts and standard deviations along the R/L, S/I, and A/P directions were -0.11±3.80, 0.67±4.67, and 2.71±6.31 mm for BAT localizations and -0.98±5.13, 0.27±3.35, and 1.00±4.22 mm for MVCT localizations, respectively. The systematic and random variations in daily shifts based on MVCT were generally smaller than those based on BAT, especially along the A/P direction. A t-test showed this difference to be statistically significant. The planning target volume margins in the A/P direction estimated to account for daily variations were 8.81 and 14.66 mm based on MVCT and BAT data, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the daily prostate movement pattern between the first few fractions and the remaining fractions. Dosimetric comparison of MVCT and BAT prostate alignments was performed for seven fractions from a patient. The degradation from the plan caused by the MVCT alignment is trivial, while that by BAT is substantial. The MVCT technique results in smaller variations in daily shifts than ultrasound imaging, indicating that MVCT is more reliable and precise for prostate localization. Ultrasound-based localization may overestimate the daily prostate motion, particularly in the A/P direction, negatively impacting prostate dose coverage and rectal

  17. Ultrasound cylindrical phased array for transoesophageal thermal therapy: initial studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melodelima, David; Lafon, Cyril; Prat, Frederic; Birer, Alain; Cathignol, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    This work was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of constructing a cylindrical phased array composed of 64 elements spread around the periphery (OD 10.6 mm) for transoesophageal ultrasound thermotherapy. The underlying operating principle of this applicator is to rotate a plane ultrasound beam electronically. For this purpose, eight adjacent transducers were successively excited with appropriate delay times so as to generate a plane wave. The exposure direction was changed by exciting a different set of eight elements. For these feasibility studies, we used a cylindrical prototype (OD 10.6 mm) composed of 16 elementary transducers distributed over a quarter of the cylinder, all operating at 4.55 MHz. The active part was mechanically reinforced by a rigid damper structure behind the transducers. It was shown that an ultrasound field similar to that emitted by a plane transducer could be generated. Ex vivo experiments on pig's liver demonstrated that the ultrasound beam could be accurately rotated to generate sector-based lesions to a suitable depth (up to 19 mm). Throughout these experiments, exposures lasting 20 s were delivered at an acoustic intensity of 17 W cm -2 . By varying the power from exposure to exposure, the depth of the lesion at different angles could be controlled

  18. Ultrasound-guided drug delivery in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayan Mullick Chowdhury

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in ultrasound and microbubble (USMB mediated drug delivery technology has shown that this approach can improve spatially confined delivery of drugs and genes to target tissues while reducing systemic dose and toxicity. The mechanism behind enhanced delivery of therapeutics is sonoporation, the formation of openings in the vasculature, induced by ultrasound-triggered oscillations and destruction of microbubbles. In this review, progress and challenges of USMB mediated drug delivery are summarized, with special focus on cancer therapy.

  19. The short-term effects of TENS plus therapeutic ultrasound combinations in chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayilir, Selcuk

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the effects of TENS plus therapeutic ultrasound combinations on symptom relief, physical functionality, perceived stress levels, daytime sleepiness and neck mobility in patients with chronic neck pain (CNP). A total of 64 patients were divided into two groups as the TENS plus ultrasound group (n = 39) and the control CNP group (n = 25). The therapy comprised TENS and therapeutic ultrasound applications for 10 sessions. The control subjects were discouraged from using analgesics but were allowed to use paracetamol daily, if necessary. The Neck Disability Index (NDI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), visual analog scale (VAS) and tragus-wall/chin-manubrium distances were recorded at the baseline and after therapy. Significant improvements were detected in the TENS plus ultrasound group compared to the control CNP subjects in respect of VAS, PSS and NDI scores after the TENS plus therapeutic ultrasound therapies (all p stress levels and improving functionality in the short-term of CNP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Controlling cavitation-based image contrast in focused ultrasound histotripsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Steven P; Hall, Timothy L; Cain, Charles A; Hernandez-Garcia, Luis

    2015-01-01

    To develop MRI feedback for cavitation-based, focused ultrasound, tissue erosion surgery (histotripsy), we investigate image contrast generated by transient cavitation events. Changes in GRE image intensity are observed while balanced pairs of field gradients are varied in the presence of an acoustically driven cavitation event. The amplitude of the acoustic pulse and the timing between a cavitation event and the start of these gradient waveforms are also varied. The magnitudes and phases of the cavitation site are compared with those of control images. An echo-planar sequence is used to evaluate histotripsy lesions in ex vivo tissue. Cavitation events in water cause localized attenuation when acoustic pulses exceed a pressure threshold. Attenuation increases with increasing gradient amplitude and gradient lobe separation times and is isotropic with gradient direction. This attenuation also depends upon the relative timing between the cavitation event and the start of the balanced gradients. These factors can be used to control the appearance of attenuation while imaging ex vivo tissue. By controlling the timing between cavitation events and the imaging gradients, MR images can be made alternately sensitive or insensitive to cavitation. During therapy, these images can be used to isolate contrast generated by cavitation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Updates on ultrasound research in implant dentistry: a systematic review of potential clinical indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Vaishnavi; Chan, Hsun-Liang; MacEachern, Mark; Kripfgans, Oliver D

    2018-05-23

    Ultrasonography has shown promising diagnostic value in dental implant imaging research; however, exactly how ultrasound was used and at what stage of implant therapy it can be applied has not been systematically evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this review is to investigate potential indications of ultrasound use in the three implant treatment phases, namely planning, intraoperative and postoperative phase. Eligible manuscripts were searched in major databases with a combination of key words related to the use of ultrasound imaging in implant therapy. An initial search yielded 414 articles, after further review, 28 articles were finally included for this systematic review. Ultrasound was found valuable, though at various development stages, for evaluating (1) soft tissues, (2) hard tissues (3) vital structures and (4) implant stability. B-mode, the main function to image anatomical structures of interest, has been evaluated in pre-clinical and clinical studies. Quantitative ultrasound parameters, e.g. sound speed and amplitude, are being developed to evaluate implant-bone stability, mainly in simulation and pre-clinical studies. Ultrasound could be potentially useful in all 3 treatment phases. In the planning phase, ultrasound could evaluate vital structures, tissue biotype, ridge width/density, and cortical bone thickness. During surgery, it can provide feedback by identifying vital structures and bone boundary. At follow-up visits, it could evaluate marginal bone level and implant stability. Understanding the current status of ultrasound imaging research for implant therapy would be extremely beneficial for accelerating translational research and its use in dental clinics.

  2. WE-D-18C-01: Art of Imaging: Diagnostic Ultrasound Image Artifacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagzebski, J [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Lu, Z [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Assumptions followed during construction of B-mode and color flow images are that the pulse-echo transit time can be converted to reflector depth through uniform tissue models, echoes originate only from locations along the transmit-receive axes of pulse propagation, and first order correction schemes adequately account for acoustic wave attenuation and absorption. The latter allows the display brightness to encode tissue echogenicity. This course will challenge participants to identify imaging artifacts whose origins stem from the more complex and realistic propagating and scattering conditions common in clinical ultrasound. Speckle, a very common artifact but a clinically employed feature, originates from simultaneous echoes from diffuse scatterers and is a result of coherent detection of signals. One of the most bothersome artifacts are those due to reverberations especially that originating from superficial tissue interfaces. Methods to overcome these will be discussed. This presentation also will describe and illustrate speed of sound, refraction, enhancement, shadowing, mirroring, beam width, beam-forming, and slice thickness artifacts. All are useful examples of limitations introduced by acoustic waves propagating through complex tissue paths. New formats for physician board certification exams are demanding the inclusion of image-based examples of ultrasound physics. Instructors' knowledge of, and access to examples of ultrasound artifacts are important in this effort. The presentation will incorporate an audience response system to challenge participants in correct identification of some of these artifacts. Learning Objectives: Review basic mechanisms for producing ultrasound images. Identify the etiology of speckle, reverberation noise, beam width and slice thickness artifacts, and artifacts associated with pulse propagation. Discuss methods that reduce the impact of artifacts OR employ artifacts effectively to facilitate clinical diagnosis.

  3. Temperature dependence of acoustic harmonics generated by nonlinear ultrasound beam propagation in ex vivo tissue and tissue-mimicking phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraghechi, Borna; Kolios, Michael C; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2015-01-01

    Hyperthermia is a cancer treatment technique that could be delivered as a stand-alone modality or in conjunction with chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Noninvasive and real-time temperature monitoring of the heated tissue improves the efficacy and safety of the treatment. A temperature-sensitive acoustic parameter is required for ultrasound-based thermometry. In this paper the amplitude and the energy of the acoustic harmonics of the ultrasound backscattered signal are proposed as suitable parameters for noninvasive ultrasound thermometry. A commercial high frequency ultrasound imaging system was used to generate and detect acoustic harmonics in tissue-mimicking gel phantoms and ex vivo bovine muscle tissues. The pressure amplitude and the energy content of the backscattered fundamental frequency (p1 and E1), the second (p2 and E2) and the third (p3 and E3) harmonics were detected in pulse-echo mode. Temperature was increased from 26° to 46 °C uniformly through both samples. The amplitude and the energy content of the harmonics and their ratio were measured and analysed as a function of temperature. The average p1, p2 and p3 increased by 69%, 100% and 283%, respectively as the temperature was elevated from 26° to 46 °C in tissue samples. In the same experiment the average E1, E2 and E3 increased by 163%, 281% and 2257%, respectively. A similar trend was observed in tissue-mimicking gel phantoms. The findings suggest that the harmonics generated due to nonlinear ultrasound beam propagation are highly sensitive to temperature and could potentially be used for noninvasive ultrasound tissue thermometry.

  4. TU-FG-BRB-09: Thermoacoustic Range Verification with Perfect Co-Registered Overlay of Bragg Peak onto Ultrasound Image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patch, S; Kireeff Covo, M; Jackson, A; Qadadha, Y; Campbell, K; Albright, R; Bloemhard, P; Donoghue, A; Siero, C; Gimpel, T; Small, S; Ninemire, B; Johnson, M; Phair, L [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The potential of particle therapy has not yet been fully realized due to inaccuracies in range verification. The purpose of this work was to correlate the Bragg peak location with target structure, by overlaying thermoacoustic localization of the Bragg peak onto an ultrasound image. Methods: Pulsed delivery of 50 MeV protons was accomplished by a fast chopper installed between the ion source and the inflector of the 88″ cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. 2 Gy were delivered in 2 µs by a beam with peak current of 2 µA. Thermoacoustic emissions were detected by a cardiac array and Verasonics V1 ultrasound system, which also generated a grayscale ultrasound image. 1024 thermoacoustic pulses were averaged before filtering and one-way beamforming focused signal onto the Bragg peak location with perfect co-registration to the ultrasound images. Data was collected in a room temperature water bath and gelatin phantom with a cavity designed to mimic the intestine, in which gas pockets can displace the Bragg peak. Experiments were performed with the cavity both empty and filled with olive oil. Results: In the waterbath overlays of the Bragg peak agreed with Monte Carlo simulations to within 800±170 µm. Agreement within 1.3 ± 0.2 mm was achieved in the gelatin phantom, although relative stopping powers were estimated only to first order from CT scans. Protoacoustic signals were detected after travel from the Bragg peak through 29 mm and 65 mm of phantom material when the cavity was empty and full of olive oil, respectively. Conclusion: Protoacoustic range verification is feasible with a commercial clinical ultrasound array, but at doses exceeding the clinical realm. Further optimization of both transducer array and injection line chopper is required to enable range verification within a 2 Gy dose limit, which would enable online adaptive treatment. This work was supported in part by a UWM Intramural Instrumentation Grant and by the Director, Office

  5. High intensity focused ultrasound technology, its scope and applications in therapy and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenix, Christopher Peter; Togtema, Melissa; Pichardo, Samuel; Zehbe, Ingeborg; Curiel, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a safe, inexpensive and wide-spread diagnostic tool capable of producing real-time non-invasive images without significant biological effects. However, the propagation of higher energy, intensity and frequency ultrasound waves through living tissues can induce thermal, mechanical and chemical effects useful for a variety of therapeutic applications. With the recent development of clinically approved High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) systems, therapeutic ultrasound is now a medical reality. Indeed, HIFU has been used for the thermal ablation of pathological lesions; localized, minimally invasive ultrasound-mediated drug delivery through the transient formation of pores on cell membranes; the temporary disruption of skin and the blood brain barrier; the ultrasound induced break-down of blood clots; and the targeted release of drugs using ultrasound and temperature sensitive drug carriers. This review seeks to engage the pharmaceutical research community by providing an overview on the biological effects of ultrasound as well as highlighting important therapeutic applications, current deficiencies and future directions.

  6. Noninvasive transcranial stimulation of rat abducens nerve by focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungmin; Taghados, Seyed Javid; Fischer, Krisztina; Maeng, Lee-So; Park, Shinsuk; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2012-09-01

    Nonpharmacologic and nonsurgical transcranial modulation of the nerve function may provide new opportunities in evaluation and treatment of cranial nerve diseases. This study investigates the possibility of using low-intensity transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) to selectively stimulate the rat abducens nerve located above the base of the skull. FUS (frequencies of 350 kHz and 650 kHz) operating in a pulsed mode was applied to the abducens nerve of Sprague-Dawley rats under stereotactic guidance. The abductive eyeball movement ipsilateral to the side of sonication was observed at 350 kHz, using the 0.36-msec tone burst duration (TBD), 1.5-kHz pulse repetition frequency (PRF), and the overall sonication duration of 200 msec. Histologic and behavioral monitoring showed no signs of disruption in the blood brain barrier (BBB), as well as no damage to the nerves and adjacent brain tissue resulting from the sonication. As a novel functional neuro-modulatory modality, the pulsed application of FUS has potential for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in diseases of the peripheral nervous system. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Calibrated Pulse-Thermography Procedure for Inspecting HDPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Omar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript discusses the application of a pulse-thermography modality to evaluate the integrity of a high-density polyethylene HDPE joint for delamination, in nonintrusive manner. The inspected HDPE structure is a twin-cup shape, molded through extrusion, and the inspection system comprises a high-intensity, short-duration radiation pulse to excite thermal emission; the text calibrates the experiment settings (pulse duration, and detector sampling rate to accommodate HDPE bulks thermal response. The acquired thermal scans are processed through new contrast computation named “self-referencing”, to investigate the joint tensile strength and further map its adhesion interface in real-time. The proposed system (hardware, software combination performance is assessed through an ultrasound C-scan validation and further benchmarked using a standard pulse phase thermography (PPT routine.

  8. Recursive ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    A method and an apparatus for recursive ultrasound imaging is presented. The method uses a Synthetic Transmit Aperture, but unlike previous approaches a new frame is created at every pulse emission. In receive, parallel beam forming is implemented. The beam formed RF data is added to the previously...... created RF lines. To keep the level of the signal, the RF data obtained previously, when emitting with the same element is subtracted from the RF lines. Up to 5000 frames/sec can be achieved for a tissue depth of 15 cm with a speed of sound of c = 1540 m/s. The high frame rate makes continuous imaging...... data possible, which can significantly enhance flow imaging. A point spread function 2° wide at -6 dB and grating lobes of $m(F) -50 dB is obtained with a 64 elements phased array with a central frequency ƒ¿0? = 3 MHz using a sparse transmit aperture using only 10 elements (N¿xmt? = 10) during pulse...

  9. The responses of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) to ultrasound-emitting predators: stress, behavioural changes or debilitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack, H.B.; Malte, H.; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2008-01-01

    A previous study has reported that Atlantic cod can be conditioned to detect ultrasonic sound pulses of high intensity. This capability has been proposed as a mean for detection and avoidance of echolocating toothed whales that emit intense ultrasonic clicks. In this study, we use acoustic...... exposed to ultrasonic clicks and echosounder pulses with received levels of more than 204 dB re. 1 µPa (pp) did not elicit flight responses as seen in ultrasound detecting Alosinae. Furthermore, we tested the debilitating effects of high intensity ultrasound on swimming cod with no detected changes...... playbacks to test the hypotheses that unconditioned cod can detect and respond to intense ultrasound from toothed whales and from echosounders. Intense ultrasound exposure of 210 dB re. 1µPa (pp) did not cause a short-term stress response in the form of bradycardia in unconditioned cod. Free-swimming cod...

  10. Noninvasive Label-Free Detection of Micrometastases in the Lymphatics with Ultrasound-Guided Photoacoustic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    imaging can be used to guide dissection. We have also successfully integrated a programmable ultrasound machine ( Verasonics Vantage ) and tunable pulsed...Mobile HE) with the programmable ultrasound machine ( Verasonics Vantage ). We have synchronized the signals to enable interleaved acquisition of US...transducer (L11-4v, Verasonics Inc.) and build a housing which effectively couples fiber optic light delivery. o What opportunities for training and

  11. Optimum pulse duration and radiant exposure for vascular laser therapy of dark port-wine skin: a theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunnell, James W.; Anvari, Bahman; Wang, Lihong V.

    2003-01-01

    Laser therapy for cutaneous hypervascular malformations such as port-wine stain birthmarks is currently not feasible for dark-skinned individuals. We study the effects of pulse duration, radiant exposure, and cryogen spray cooling (CSC) on the thermal response of skin, using a Monte Carlo based optical-thermal model. Thermal injury to the epidermis decreases with increasing pulse duration during irradiation at a constant radiant exposure; however, maintaining vascular injury requires that the radiant exposure also increase. At short pulse durations, only a minimal increase in radiant exposure is necessary for a therapeutic effect to be achieved because thermal diffusion from the vessels is minimal. However, at longer pulse durations the radiant exposure must be greatly increased. There exists an optimum pulse duration at which minimal damage to the epidermis and significant injury within the targeted vasculature occur. For example, the model predicts optimum pulse durations of approximately 1.5, 6, and 20 ms for vessel diameters of 40, 80, and 120 μm, respectively. Optimization of laser pulse duration and radiant exposure in combination with CSC may offer a means to treat cutaneous lesions in dark-skinned individuals

  12. Directivity patterns and pulse profiles of ultrasound emitted by laser action on interface between transparent and opaque solids: Analytical theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, Sergey M.; Tournat, Vincent; Chigarev, Nikolay; Castagnede, Bernard; Gusev, Vitalyi; Bulou, Alain; Zerr, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The analytical theory for the directivity patterns of ultrasounds emitted from laser-irradiated interface between two isotropic solids is developed. It is valid for arbitrary combinations of transparent and opaque materials. The directivity patterns are derived both in two-dimensional and in three-dimensional geometries, by accounting for the specific features of the sound generation by the photo-induced mechanical stresses distributed in the volume, essential in the laser ultrasonics. In particular, the theory accounts for the contribution to the emitted propagating acoustic fields from the converted by the interface evanescent photo-generated compression-dilatation waves. The precise analytical solutions for the profiles of longitudinal and shear acoustic pulses emitted in different directions are proposed. The developed theory can be applied for dimensional scaling, optimization, and interpretation of the high-pressure laser ultrasonics experiments in diamond anvil cell

  13. The combination of ultrasound with antibiotics released from bone cement decreases the viability of planktonic and biofilm bacteria: an in vitro study with clinical strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensing, Geert T; Neut, Daniëlle; van Horn, Jim R; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2006-12-01

    Antibiotic-loaded bone cements are used for the permanent fixation of joint prostheses. Antibiotic-loaded cements significantly decrease the incidence of infection. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the viability of bacteria derived from patients with a prosthesis-related infection could be further decreased when antibiotic release from bone cements was combined with application of pulsed ultrasound. Escherichia coli ATCC 10798, Staphylococcus aureus 7323, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS 7368 and CoNS 7391) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5148 were grown planktonically in suspension and as a biofilm on three different bone cements: Palacos R without gentamicin as control, gentamicin-loaded Palacos R-G and gentamicin/clindamycin-loaded Copal. The viability of planktonic and biofilm bacteria was measured in the absence and presence of pulsed ultrasound for 40 h. Ultrasound itself did not affect bacterial viability. However, application of pulsed ultrasound in combination with antibiotic release by antibiotic-loaded bone cements yielded a reduction of both planktonic and biofilm bacterial viability compared with antibiotic release without application of ultrasound. This study shows that antibiotic release in combination with ultrasound increases the antimicrobial efficacy further than antibiotic release alone against a variety of clinical isolates. Application of ultrasound in combination with antibiotic release in clinical practice could therefore lead to better prevention or treatment of prosthesis-related infections.

  14. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy leading to dramatic improvement in a patient with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis and severe pericarditis resistant to steroid pulse therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa-Yashiro, Tomomi; Oki, Eishin; Tsuruga, Kazushi; Nakahata, Tohru; Ito, Etsuro; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2012-05-01

    A 7-year-old Japanese boy with a 4-month history of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (s-JIA) experienced disease flare with spiking fever, exanthema and arthralgia. He then developed progressive dyspnea due to severe pericarditis, and proinflammatory hypercytokinemia was suspected. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy was ineffective and echocardiography showed massive pericardial effusion had persisted. Alternatively, subsequent intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy resulted in dramatic resolution of the pericardial effusion, and his general condition significantly improved within a few days. This case report may lend further support the use of IVIG for selected patients with s-JIA and severe pericarditis.

  15. Potential and problems in ultrasound-responsive drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao YZ

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ying-Zheng Zhao,1,3 Li-Na Du,2 Cui-Tao Lu,1 Yi-Guang Jin,2 Shu-Ping Ge3 1Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou City, Zhejiang Province, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3St Christopher’s Hospital for Children/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Ultrasound is an important local stimulus for triggering drug release at the target tissue. Ultrasound-responsive drug delivery systems (URDDS have become an important research focus in targeted therapy. URDDS include many different formulations, such as microbubbles, nanobubbles, nanodroplets, liposomes, emulsions, and micelles. Drugs that can be loaded into URDDS include small molecules, biomacromolecules, and inorganic substances. Fields of clinical application include anticancer therapy, treatment of ischemic myocardium, induction of an immune response, cartilage tissue engineering, transdermal drug delivery, treatment of Huntington’s disease, thrombolysis, and disruption of the blood–brain barrier. This review focuses on recent advances in URDDS, and discusses their formulations, clinical application, and problems, as well as a perspective on their potential use in the future. Keywords: ultrasound, targeted therapy, clinical application

  16. The impact of vaporized nanoemulsions on ultrasound-mediated ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Kopechek, Jonathan A; Porter, Tyrone M

    2013-01-01

    The clinical feasibility of using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for ablation of solid tumors is limited by the high acoustic pressures and long treatment times required. The presence of microbubbles during sonication can increase the absorption of acoustic energy and accelerate heating. However, formation of microbubbles within the tumor tissue remains a challenge. Phase-shift nanoemulsions (PSNE) have been developed as a means for producing microbubbles within tumors. PSNE are emulsions of submicron-sized, lipid-coated, and liquid perfluorocarbon droplets that can be vaporized into microbubbles using short (5 MPa) acoustic pulses. In this study, the impact of vaporized phase-shift nanoemulsions on the time and acoustic power required for HIFU-mediated thermal lesion formation was investigated in vitro. PSNE containing dodecafluoropentane were produced with narrow size distributions and mean diameters below 200 nm using a combination of sonication and extrusion. PSNE was dispersed in albumin-containing polyacrylamide gel phantoms for experimental tests. Albumin denatures and becomes opaque at temperatures above 58°C, enabling visual detection of lesions formed from denatured albumin. PSNE were vaporized using a 30-cycle, 3.2-MHz, at an acoustic power of 6.4 W (free-field intensity of 4,586 W/cm(2)) pulse from a single-element, focused high-power transducer. The vaporization pulse was immediately followed by a 15-s continuous wave, 3.2-MHz signal to induce ultrasound-mediated heating. Control experiments were conducted using an identical procedure without the vaporization pulse. Lesion formation was detected by acquiring video frames during sonication and post-processing the images for analysis. Broadband emissions from inertial cavitation (IC) were passively detected with a focused, 2-MHz transducer. Temperature measurements were acquired using a needle thermocouple. Bubbles formed at the HIFU focus via PSNE vaporization enhanced HIFU-mediated heating

  17. Ultrasound based evaluation of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in hepatitis c non-responders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, S.; Aziz, S.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of ultrasound in the diagnosis and grading of steatosis and fibrosis in Hepatitis C (HCV) patients not responding to ribavarin-interferon therapy. Study Design: A cross-sectional, analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Radiology Department, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from March 2008 to August 2010. Methodology: Patients with positive HCV RNA despite 24 weeks ribavarin-interferon therapy (non-responders) were subjected to ultrasound and biopsy prior to institution of pegylated interferon therapy for detection and grading of steatosis and fibrosis. Using histopathology as the gold standard, sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values for ultrasound were determined. Results: The sensitivity of ultrasound for hepatic steatosis was 90.9% for no steatosis (NS), 100% for moderate and gross steatosis and 84.4% for mild steatosis with 100% specificity. The senitivity for fibrosis was 25% for no fibrosis, 100% for mild fibrosis, 89.74% for moderate fibrosis and 100% for gross fibrosis. The overall accuracy for detection of steatosis was 95.39% and that for fibrosis was 98.02%. Hepatic vein showed increased dampening of flow with advancing grades of steatosis and fibrosis. Conclusion: Ultrasound has a high accuracy in the diagnosis and grading of steatosis and fibrosis in HCV nonresponders. Mild fibrosis may confound the diagnosis of mild steatosis. (author)

  18. Shenqi Fuzheng Injection Alleviates the Transient Worsening Caused by Steroids Pulse Therapy in Treating Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guo-Yan; Liu, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the treatment effect and side effect of Shenqi Fuzheng Injection (SFI) on alleviating transient worsening of myasthenia gravis (MG) symptoms caused by high-dose steroids pulse therapy. Methods. Sixty-six consecutive patients with MG were randomly divided into two groups: the treatment group treated with SFI and methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPT) and the control group treated with MPT alone. The severity of MG before, during, and after MPT and the duration of transient worsening (TW) were evaluated and compared with the clinical absolute scoring (AS) and relative scoring (RS) system. Results. Twenty-nine patients experienced TW in each group. At TW, the AS was significantly increased (P < 0.000) in both groups compared with baseline data, with the AS increase in the treatment group (16.8 ± 2) significantly smaller (P < 0.05) than in the control group (24.9 ± 2.5). At the end of the treatment course, the AS for the treatment group was significantly decreased (7.5 ± 0.9) compared with at TW, although no significant difference compared with the control (9.7 ± 1.1). The TW lasted 1–6 days (mean 3.7) for the treatment group, significantly shorter (P < 0.05) than 2–12 days (mean 7.8) for the control. The RS for the treatment group at the end of treatment was 43.8%–100% (mean 76.8% ± 2.6%), significantly better than the control group: 33.3%–100% (mean 67.2 ± 3.6%). Slight side effects (18.75%) included maldigestion and rash in the treatment group. Conclusion. SFI has a better treatment effect and few side effects and can alleviate the severity and shorten the duration of the transient worsening of MG during steroids pulse therapy. PMID:24348721

  19. Intraluminal ultrasound guidance of transverse laser coronary atherectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, H. Thomas; Martinelli, Michael A.; LeDet, Earl G.; Sedlacek, Tomas; Hatch, G. F.; Gregg, Richard E.

    1990-07-01

    A coronary laser atherectomy system combining laser delivery and ultrasonic imaging capability is described. The system is being developed by Intra-Sonix, Inc. to treat severe stenoses. The imaging system provides the clinician with the guidance needed to remove substantial plaque without perforation. The ultrasound transducers and laser optics are mounted in a small (less than 4 F), flexible catheter, that is deliverable over a standard guidewire (0.016 inch). The laser and ultrasound beams are directed at the artery wall to permit debulking of lesions and ultrasonic depth profiling of the tissue structure throughout the thickness of the artery. This allows the physician to determine the level of therapy to be applied and to monitor the plaque removal as the therapy progresses. The precise location of the ultrasound and laser beams in the artery is determined by a navigation system. Navigation data are processed electronically in conjunction with ultrasound data to produce real-time cross-sectional and longitudinal images of the artery wall at selected locations, which are updated as the catheter progresses through the vessel lumen. Results of in vitro tests on human atherosclerotic arteries and early in vivo experiments in a canine-human xenograft model showing image construction and radial laser delivery are discussed.

  20. Ultrasound based monitoring of the injection moulding process - Methods, applications and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praher, B.; Straka, K.; Usanovic, J.; Steinbichler, G.

    2014-01-01

    We developed novel non-invasive ultrasound based systems for the measurement of temperature distributions in the screw-ante chamber, the detection of unmelted granules and for the monitoring of the plasticizing process along the screw channel. The temperature of the polymer melt stored in the screw ante-chamber after the plasticization should be homogeneous. However, in reality the polymer melt in the screw ante-chamber is not homogeneous. Due to the fact the sound velocity in a polymer melt is temperature depending, we developed a tomography system using the measured transit times of ultrasonic pulses along different sound paths for calculating the temperature distribution in radial direction of a polymer melt in the screw ante-chamber of an injection moulding machine. For the detection of unmelted granules in the polymer melt we implemented an ultrasound transmission measurement. By analyzing the attenuation of the received pulses it is possible to detect unwanted inclusions. For the monitoring of the plasticizing process in the channels of the screw an ultrasonic pulse is transmitted into the barrel. By analyzing the reflected pulses it is possible to estimate solid bed and melt regions in the screw channel. The proposed systems were tested for accuracy and validity by simulations and test measurements

  1. Ultrasound based monitoring of the injection moulding process - Methods, applications and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praher, B., E-mail: bernhard.praher@jku.at, E-mail: klaus.straka@jku.at, E-mail: jesenka.usanovic@jku.at, E-mail: georg.steinbichler@jku.at; Straka, K., E-mail: bernhard.praher@jku.at, E-mail: klaus.straka@jku.at, E-mail: jesenka.usanovic@jku.at, E-mail: georg.steinbichler@jku.at; Usanovic, J., E-mail: bernhard.praher@jku.at, E-mail: klaus.straka@jku.at, E-mail: jesenka.usanovic@jku.at, E-mail: georg.steinbichler@jku.at; Steinbichler, G., E-mail: bernhard.praher@jku.at, E-mail: klaus.straka@jku.at, E-mail: jesenka.usanovic@jku.at, E-mail: georg.steinbichler@jku.at [Institute of Polymer Injection Moulding and Process Automation, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria)

    2014-05-15

    We developed novel non-invasive ultrasound based systems for the measurement of temperature distributions in the screw-ante chamber, the detection of unmelted granules and for the monitoring of the plasticizing process along the screw channel. The temperature of the polymer melt stored in the screw ante-chamber after the plasticization should be homogeneous. However, in reality the polymer melt in the screw ante-chamber is not homogeneous. Due to the fact the sound velocity in a polymer melt is temperature depending, we developed a tomography system using the measured transit times of ultrasonic pulses along different sound paths for calculating the temperature distribution in radial direction of a polymer melt in the screw ante-chamber of an injection moulding machine. For the detection of unmelted granules in the polymer melt we implemented an ultrasound transmission measurement. By analyzing the attenuation of the received pulses it is possible to detect unwanted inclusions. For the monitoring of the plasticizing process in the channels of the screw an ultrasonic pulse is transmitted into the barrel. By analyzing the reflected pulses it is possible to estimate solid bed and melt regions in the screw channel. The proposed systems were tested for accuracy and validity by simulations and test measurements.

  2. [Ultrasound physiotherapy treatment of prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talberg, P I; Andryukhin, M I; Mazina, S E; Nikolaev, A L

    2016-12-01

    Develop a method of treatment of prostatitis based on the use of a standard antibiotic, immunomodulatory therapy, and transrectal ultrasound physiotherapy. The dynamics of the accumulation of the antibiotic was investigated in male rats. Sonication was performed immediately before the administration of the antibiotic and its accumulation in the process at 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 min after dosing. The clinical study included 138 patients with chronic prostatitis. Patients of the experimental group, in addition to standard therapy, 10 sessions of transrectal ultrasound physical therapy was performed. The efficacy of treatment was assessed after 14 and 28 days after initiation. and its discussion. Experiments on laboratory animals have shown that the highest concentration and the residence time of antibiotic in the prostate tissue is noted ultrasonic treatment in the period of maximum blood concentration of the test drug. The data obtained allow to determine that the ultrasonic treatment must be performed considering the pharmacokinetics of the antibiotic. In conducting clinical trials on day 14 of treatment and clinical manifestations of prostatitis bacterial microflora in prostatic secretions were no patients in both groups. In 15% of patients of the experimental group the number of leukocytes decreased to the normal range. After 28 days the amount of leukocytes was normal in 51% of patients in the control and 85% in the experimental group. In animal experiments defined the optimal time interval separating the moment of injection of the antibiotic from the beginning of sonication. Clinical studies have shown that the transrectal ultrasound exposure during the period of maximum concentration of the antibiotic in the blood, improves patient outcomes by 33.8%.

  3. Four dimensional hybrid ultrasound and optoacoustic imaging via passive element optical excitation in a hand-held probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehm, Thomas Felix; Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Ultrasonography and optoacoustic imaging share powerful advantages related to the natural aptitude for real-time image rendering with high resolution, the hand-held operation, and lack of ionizing radiation. The two methods also possess very different yet highly complementary advantages of the mechanical and optical contrast in living tissues. Nonetheless, efficient integration of these modalities remains challenging owing to the fundamental differences in the underlying physical contrast, optimal signal acquisition, and image reconstruction approaches. We report on a method for hybrid acquisition and reconstruction of three-dimensional pulse-echo ultrasound and optoacoustic images in real time based on passive ultrasound generation with an optical absorber, thus avoiding the hardware complexity of active ultrasound generation. In this way, complete hybrid datasets are generated with a single laser interrogation pulse, resulting in simultaneous rendering of ultrasound and optoacoustic images at an unprecedented rate of 10 volumetric frames per second. Performance is subsequently showcased in phantom experiments and in-vivo measurements from a healthy human volunteer, confirming general clinical applicability of the method.

  4. Four dimensional hybrid ultrasound and optoacoustic imaging via passive element optical excitation in a hand-held probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehm, Thomas Felix; Razansky, Daniel; Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonography and optoacoustic imaging share powerful advantages related to the natural aptitude for real-time image rendering with high resolution, the hand-held operation, and lack of ionizing radiation. The two methods also possess very different yet highly complementary advantages of the mechanical and optical contrast in living tissues. Nonetheless, efficient integration of these modalities remains challenging owing to the fundamental differences in the underlying physical contrast, optimal signal acquisition, and image reconstruction approaches. We report on a method for hybrid acquisition and reconstruction of three-dimensional pulse-echo ultrasound and optoacoustic images in real time based on passive ultrasound generation with an optical absorber, thus avoiding the hardware complexity of active ultrasound generation. In this way, complete hybrid datasets are generated with a single laser interrogation pulse, resulting in simultaneous rendering of ultrasound and optoacoustic images at an unprecedented rate of 10 volumetric frames per second. Performance is subsequently showcased in phantom experiments and in-vivo measurements from a healthy human volunteer, confirming general clinical applicability of the method.

  5. Four dimensional hybrid ultrasound and optoacoustic imaging via passive element optical excitation in a hand-held probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehm, Thomas Felix; Razansky, Daniel, E-mail: dr@tum.de [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany); Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2014-10-27

    Ultrasonography and optoacoustic imaging share powerful advantages related to the natural aptitude for real-time image rendering with high resolution, the hand-held operation, and lack of ionizing radiation. The two methods also possess very different yet highly complementary advantages of the mechanical and optical contrast in living tissues. Nonetheless, efficient integration of these modalities remains challenging owing to the fundamental differences in the underlying physical contrast, optimal signal acquisition, and image reconstruction approaches. We report on a method for hybrid acquisition and reconstruction of three-dimensional pulse-echo ultrasound and optoacoustic images in real time based on passive ultrasound generation with an optical absorber, thus avoiding the hardware complexity of active ultrasound generation. In this way, complete hybrid datasets are generated with a single laser interrogation pulse, resulting in simultaneous rendering of ultrasound and optoacoustic images at an unprecedented rate of 10 volumetric frames per second. Performance is subsequently showcased in phantom experiments and in-vivo measurements from a healthy human volunteer, confirming general clinical applicability of the method.

  6. EVALUATION OF ULTRASOUND REMISSION CRITERIA IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS DURING TOCILIZUMAB THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Aleksandrovna Osipyants

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the association of ultrasound (US remission criteria with the clinical and laboratory indicators of inflammatory activity, functional status, and X-ray changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA during tocilizumab (TCZ therapy.Subjects and methods. The trial included 36 patients with RA (meeting the 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR criteria who had received TCZ for 6 months. The authors made a clinical and laboratory assessment of RA activity (DAS28-CRP, and SDAI, functional impairments (HAQ index and US verification of wrist joint synovitis (a Voluson-i device, GE, 4-13-MHz linear transducer at baseline and 6 months after therapy. No signs of grey-scale (B-mode and power Doppler (PD synovitis (B = 0; PD = 0 or minimal B-mode synovitis, and not more one PD hypervascular signal (В ≤1; PD ≤1 were arbitrarily taken as US remission criteria. Destruction changes were evaluated by hand and foot X-ray using the Sharp method modified by van der Heijde (SHS.Results. After 6 months of therapy, about 80% of the patients in clinical remission retained moderate or significant synovitis, as evidenced by US studies. There were no clinical differences in clinical activity indices and functional impairments between the patients who were and were not in US remission (p > 0.05. The 12-month follow-up SHS score was significantly higher with the preservation of 6-month therapy signs of B-mode synovitis and PD hypervascularization (of not more than one signal than that in US remission (p < 0.05. There was no relationship of X-ray progression to the clinical and functional statuses (p > 0.05.Conclusion. Subclinical synovitis is observed even in clinical remission of RA. Destruction progression is significantlyrelated to synovitis persistence, as shown by ultrasonography.

  7. Aptamer-conjugated and drug-loaded acoustic droplets for ultrasound theranosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung-Hsin; Kang, Shih-Tsung; Lee, Ya-Hsuan; Luo, Yun-Ling; Huang, Yu-Fen; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2012-02-01

    Tumor therapy requires multi-functional treatment strategies with specific targeting of therapeutics to reduce general toxicity and increase efficacy. In this study we fabricated and functionally tested aptamer-conjugated and doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded acoustic droplets comprising cores of liquid perfluoropentane compound and lipid-based shell materials. Conjugation of sgc8c aptamers provided the ability to specifically target CCRF-CEM cells for both imaging and therapy. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) was introduced to trigger targeted acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) which resulted in both mechanical cancer cell destruction by inertial cavitation and chemical treatment through localized drug release. HIFU insonation showed a 56.8% decrease in cell viability with aptamer-conjugated droplets, representing a 4.5-fold increase in comparison to non-conjugated droplets. In addition, the fully-vaporized droplets resulted in the highest DOX uptake by cancer cells, compared to non-vaporized or partially vaporized droplets. Optical studies clearly illustrated the transient changes that occurred upon ADV of droplet-targeted CEM cells, and B-mode ultrasound imaging revealed contrast enhancement by ADV in ultrasound images. In conclusion, our fabricated droplets functioned as a hybrid chemical and mechanical strategy for the specific destruction of cancer cells upon ultrasound-mediated ADV, while simultaneously providing ultrasound imaging capability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of Flexible Capacitive Ultrasound Transducers and the Use of Ultrasound for Bone Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzell, Scott A.

    Ultrasound is a widely applicable technique for therapy in the biomedical arena. However, conventional ultrasound transducers are not conducive for non-planar surfaces. Therefore, we developed flexible transducers capable of performing ultrasound and evaluated their use in biomedical applications. Flexible capacitive ultrasound transducers based on micrometer-thick dielectric tapes were developed and fabricated. These transducers were able to be made by hand at low-cost while still demonstrating good tolerances in center operating frequency. Intensities of up to 120 mW/cm2 were recorded and operation was dependent upon the applied AC and DC voltages along with the thickness of the dielectric insulation. These capacitive ultrasound transducers were used to stimulate MC3T3-E1 murine osteoblast cells to investigate the effects of low-frequency ultrasound on osteogenic gene expression and anabolic signaling pathways. After stimulation by 94.5 kHz continuous wave ultrasound for 20 minutes, significant increases in the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway and concentration of intracellular calcium were observed. Daily stimulation by ultrasound showed a trend of increased osteogenic gene expression across the phases of matrix deposition, maturation and calcification by osteoblasts. Finally, the heating of osteoblasts for stimulating osteoclastogenic responses was investigated. The application of increased temperatures of 42 and 47 degrees Celsius for 5 minutes showed significant increases in the RANKL/OPG ratio in media conditioned by osteoblasts. However, the altered RANKL/OPG ratio was not able to generate increases in osteoclastogenesis for RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells culture in the condition media. This was possibly due to high overall osteoprotegerin expression, or unwanted inducement of M1 and M2 macrophage activation in the cell population. The overall work of this thesis demonstrates the development of novel capacitive transducers. These conformable

  9. MRI-guided gas bubble enhanced ultrasound heating in in vivo rabbit thigh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokka, S D; King, R; Hynynen, K

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we propose a focused ultrasound surgery protocol that induces and then uses gas bubbles at the focus to enhance the ultrasound absorption and ultimately create larger lesions in vivo. MRI and ultrasound visualization and monitoring methods for this heating method are also investigated. Larger lesions created with a carefully monitored single ultrasound exposure could greatly improve the speed of tumour coagulation with focused ultrasound. All experiments were performed under MRI (clinical, 1.5 T) guidance with one of two eight-sector, spherically curved piezoelectric transducers. The transducer, either a 1.1 or 1.7 MHz array, was driven by a multi-channel RF driving system. The transducer was mounted in an MRI-compatible manual positioning system and the rabbit was situated on top of the system. An ultrasound detector ring was fixed with the therapy transducer to monitor gas bubble activity during treatment. Focused ultrasound surgery exposures were delivered to the thighs of seven New Zealand white rabbits. The experimental, gas-bubble-enhanced heating exposures consisted of a high amplitude 300 acoustic watt, half second pulse followed by a 7 W, 14 W or 21 W continuous wave exposure for 19.5 s. The respective control sonications were 20 s exposures of 14 W, 21 W and 28 W. During the exposures, MR thermometry was obtained from the temperature dependency of the proton resonance frequency shift. MR T2-enhanced imaging was used to evaluate the resulting lesions. Specific metrics were used to evaluate the differences between the gas-bubble-enhanced exposures and their respective control sonications: temperatures with respect to time and space, lesion size and shape, and their agreement with thermal dose predictions. The bubble-enhanced exposures showed a faster temperature rise within the first 4 s and higher overall temperatures than the sonications without bubble formation. The spatial temperature maps and the thermal dose maps derived from the MRI

  10. Effects of ultrasound on the proliferation and differentiation of cementoblast lineage cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inubushi, T.; Tanaka, E.; Rego, E.B.; Kitagawa, M.; Kawazoe, A.; Ohta, A.; Okada, H.; Koolstra, J.H.; Miyauchi, M.; Takata, T.; Tanne, K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) stimulation on the proliferation and differentiation of cementoblast lineage cells. Methods: An immortalized human periodontal ligament cell line (HPL) showing immature cementoblastic

  11. An electro-optic spatial light modulator for thermoelastic generation of programmably focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    The concept proposed is an electro-optic technique that would make it possible to spatially modulate a high power pulsed laser beam to thermoelastically induce focused ultrasound in a test material. Being a purely electro-optic device, the modulator, and therefore the depth at which the acoustic focus occurs, can be programmed electronically at electronic speeds. If successful, it would become possible to scan ultrasound continuously in three dimensions within the component or structure under test.

  12. Usefulness of emergency ultrasound in nontraumatic cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpicelli, Giovanni

    2011-02-01

    Treatment of nontraumatic cardiac arrest in the hospital setting depends on the recognition of heart rhythm and differential diagnosis of the underlying condition while maintaining a constant oxygenated blood flow by ventilation and chest compression. Diagnostic process relies only on patient's history, physical findings, and active electrocardiography. Ultrasound is not currently scheduled in the resuscitation guidelines. Nevertheless, the use of real-time ultrasonography during resuscitation has the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy and allows the physician a greater confidence in deciding aggressive life-saving therapeutic procedures. This article reviews the current opinions and literature about the use of emergency ultrasound during resuscitation of nontraumatic cardiac arrest. Cardiac and lung ultrasound have a great potential in identifying the reversible mechanical causes of pulseless electrical activity or asystole. Brief examination of the heart can even detect a real cardiac standstill regardless of electrical activity displayed on the monitor, which is a crucial prognostic indicator. Moreover, ultrasound can be useful to verify and monitor the tracheal tube placement. Limitation to the use of ultrasound is the need to minimize the no-flow intervals during mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation. However, real-time ultrasound can be successfully applied during brief pausing of chest compression and first pulse-check. Finally, lung sonographic examination targeted to the detection of signs of pulmonary congestion has the potential to allow hemodynamic noninvasive monitoring before and after mechanical cardiopulmonary maneuvers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of Music in Reducing Patient Anxiety During Pediatric Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselman, Andrew; Bergen, Michael; Stefanov, Dimitre; Goldfisher, Rachelle; Amodio, John

    2016-03-31

    The use of noninvasive ultrasound examinations can potentially result in significant anxiety in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of music during pediatric ultrasound examinations to reduce anxiety measured by heart rate. A total of 44 patients were recruited; 21 controls and 23 experimental. Each participant was randomized to either music or no music (control) after parental consent was obtained. Pulse oximeters were used to monitor heart rate at 15 second intervals for a total of 1 minute, with mean values calculated prior to entering the procedure room, during the middle of the procedure, and after the procedure was completed. The total scan time was determined from the initial image acquisition until the last image recorded by the ultrasound technologist. At the completion of each procedure, the ultrasound technologist scored the ease of performance for the scan on a subjective scale of 1-10 based on prior experience. When utilizing music during pediatric ultrasounds examinations, our study demonstrated significantly decreased heart rate variability from pre-procedural to post-procedural periods. There was no statistical significant difference in total scan time or ultrasound technologist scoring between the two groups. This study demonstrates that music is an inexpensive and effective means of reducing anxiety during pediatric ultrasound as indicated by heart rate.

  14. Impact of music in reducing patient anxiety during pediatric ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kesselman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of noninvasive ultrasound examinations can potentially result in significant anxiety in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of music during pediatric ultrasound examinations to reduce anxiety measured by heart rate. A total of 44 patients were recruited; 21 controls and 23 experimental. Each participant was randomized to either music or no music (control after parental consent was obtained. Pulse oximeters were used to monitor heart rate at 15 second intervals for a total of 1 minute, with mean values calculated prior to entering the procedure room, during the middle of the procedure, and after the procedure was completed. The total scan time was determined from the initial image acquisition until the last image recorded by the ultrasound technologist. At the completion of each procedure, the ultrasound technologist scored the ease of performance for the scan on a subjective scale of 1-10 based on prior experience. When utilizing music during pediatric ultrasounds examinations, our study demonstrated significantly decreased heart rate variability from pre-procedural to post-procedural periods. There was no statistical significant difference in total scan time or ultrasound technologist scoring between the two groups. This study demonstrates that music is an inexpensive and effective means of reducing anxiety during pediatric ultrasound as indicated by heart rate.

  15. Technical characterization of an ultrasound source for noninvasive thermoablation by high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhrmann, K U; Michel, M S; Steidler, A; Marlinghaus, E; Kraut, O; Alken, P

    2002-08-01

    To develop a generator for high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, a method of delivering ultrasonic energy with resultant heat and tissue destruction to a tight focus at a selected depth within the body), designed for extracorporeal coupling to allow various parenchymal organs to be treated. The ultrasound generated by a cylindrical piezo-ceramic element is focused at a depth of 10 cm using a parabolic reflector with a diameter of 10 cm. A diagnostic B-mode ultrasonographic transducer is integrated into the source to allow the focus to be located in the target area. The field distribution of the sound pressure was measured in degassed water using a needle hydrophone. An ultrasound-force balance was used to determine the acoustic power. These measurements allowed the spatially averaged sound intensity to be calculated. The morphology and extent of tissue necrosis induced by HIFU was examined on an ex-vivo kidney model. The two-dimensional field distribution resulted in an approximately ellipsoidal focus of 32 x 4 mm (- 6 dB). The spatially maximum averaged sound intensity was 8591 W/cm2 at an electrical power of 400 W. The lesion caused to the ex-vivo kidney at this maximum generator power with a pulse duration of 2 s was a clearly delineated ellipsoidal coagulation necrosis up to 8.8 x 2.3 mm (length x width) and with central liquefied necrosis of 7.9 x 1.9 mm. This newly developed ultrasound generator with a focal length of 10 cm can induce clear necrosis in parenchymal tissue. Because of its specific configuration and the available power range of the ultrasound generator, there is potential for therapeutic noninvasive ablation of tissue deep within a patient's body.

  16. Intensive treatment with ultrasound visual feedback for speech sound errors in childhood apraxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L Preston

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound imaging is an adjunct to traditional speech therapy that has shown to be beneficial in the remediation of speech sound errors. Ultrasound biofeedback can be utilized during therapy to provide clients additional knowledge about their tongue shapes when attempting to produce sounds that are in error. The additional feedback may assist children with childhood apraxia of speech in stabilizing motor patterns, thereby facilitating more consistent and accurate productions of sounds and syllables. However, due to its specialized nature, ultrasound visual feedback is a technology that is not widely available to clients. Short-term intensive treatment programs are one option that can be utilized to expand access to ultrasound biofeedback. Schema-based motor learning theory suggests that short-term intensive treatment programs (massed practice may assist children in acquiring more accurate motor patterns. In this case series, three participants ages 10-14 diagnosed with childhood apraxia of speech attended 16 hours of speech therapy over a two-week period to address residual speech sound errors. Two participants had distortions on rhotic sounds, while the third participant demonstrated lateralization of sibilant sounds. During therapy, cues were provided to assist participants in obtaining a tongue shape that facilitated a correct production of the erred sound. Additional practice without ultrasound was also included. Results suggested that all participants showed signs of acquisition of sounds in error. Generalization and retention results were mixed. One participant showed generalization and retention of sounds that were treated; one showed generalization but limited retention; and the third showed no evidence of generalization or retention. Individual characteristics that may facilitate generalization are discussed. Short-term intensive treatment programs using ultrasound biofeedback may result in the acquisition of more accurate motor

  17. Experimental study on ablating goat liver tissue with ultrasound imaging guided percutaneous irreversible electroporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying LIU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the proper method of percutaneous irreversible electroporation(IRE to ablate goat liver tissue under ultrasonic guidance,and observe the features of ultrasound imaging and histological changes.Methods The pulse electric fields(PEFs with permanent duration(100 μs,frequency(1Hz,voltage(2000V and pulses(120 pieces were applied to the electrodes,and the electrodes were placed into goats’ liver under ultrasound guidance through the animal skin to the target area.The treated area was observed by real-time ultrasound scanning,and the histopathological changes were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin(HE staining under light microscope at the time of 0h and 24h after IRE ablation.The circumscribed ablated area was compared with that of finite element modeling(FEM calculation method.Results Ultrasound imaging guidance was accurate in focusing on the target area.Imaging captured by the ultrasound after IRE procedure was quite different from that of the normal liver imaging.Complete hepatic cell death with a sharp demarcation between the ablated zone and the non-ablated zone was well visualized 24 hours after the procedure.Necrospy-based measurement demonstrated a high consistence with FEM-anticipated ablation zones.Conclusion With real-time monitoring by ultrasonography and well-controlled ablation of the target tissue,percutaneous IRE can provide a novel and unique ablative method for cancer treatment.The present paper provides a fundamental experimental work for future studies on clinical application of IRE.

  18. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Rasmussen, Joachim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) and tissue har- monic imaging (THI) are combined to improve the image quality of medical ultrasound imaging. The technique is evaluated in a compar- ative study against dynamic receive focusing (DRF). The objective is to investigate if SASB combined...... with THI improves the image qual- ity compared to DRF-THI. The major benet of SASB is a reduced bandwidth between the probe and processing unit. A BK Medical 2202 Ultraview ultrasound scanner was used to acquire beamformed RF data for oine evaluation. The acquisition was made interleaved between methods......, and data were recorded with and without pulse inversion for tissue harmonic imaging. Data were acquired using a Sound Technol- ogy 192 element convex array transducer from both a wire phantom and a tissue mimicking phantom to investigate spatial resolution and pen- etration. In-vivo scans were also...

  19. Novel ultrasound-responsive chitosan/perfluorohexane nanodroplets for image-guided smart delivery of an anticancer agent: Curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghbani, Fatemeh; Chegeni, Mahdieh; Moztarzadeh, Fathollah; Hadian-Ghazvini, Samaneh; Raz, Majid

    2017-05-01

    Ultrasound-responsive nanodroplets are a class of new emerging smart drug delivery systems which provide image-guided nano-therapy of various diseases, especially cancers. Here, we developed multifunctional smart curcumin-loaded chitosan/perfluorohexane nanodroplets for contrast-ultrasound imaging and on-demand drug delivery. The nanodroplets were synthesized via nanoemulsion process. The optimal formulation with the size of 101.2nm and 77.8% curcumin entrapment was chosen for release study and cytotoxicity evaluation. Sonication at the frequency of 1MHz, 2W/cm 2 for 4min triggered the release of 63.5% of curcumin from optimal formulation (Cur-NDs-2). Ultrasound aided release study indicated that the concentration of perfluorohexane and the degree of acoustic droplet vaporization play important role in ultrasound-active drug release. B-mode ultrasound imaging confirmed strong ultrasound contrast of chitosan nanodroplets even at low concentrations via droplet to bubble transition. Finally, cytotoxicity of the ultrasound-responsive nanodroplets in the presence of ultrasound was evaluated in-vitro on 4T1 human breast cancer cells. Cell growth inhibitory effects of curcumin-loaded nanodroplets significantly increased by ultrasound exposure. According to the obtained results, these ultrasound responsive curcumin-loaded chitosan/perfluorohexane nanodroplets have a great potential for imaged-guided cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A multi-frequency sparse hemispherical ultrasound phased array for microbubble-mediated transcranial therapy and simultaneous cavitation mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lulu; O'Reilly, Meaghan A; Jones, Ryan M; An, Ran; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2016-12-21

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) phased arrays show promise for non-invasive brain therapy. However, the majority of them are limited to a single transmit/receive frequency and therefore lack the versatility to expose and monitor the treatment volume. Multi-frequency arrays could offer variable transmit focal sizes under a fixed aperture, and detect different spectral content on receive for imaging purposes. Here, a three-frequency (306, 612, and 1224 kHz) sparse hemispherical ultrasound phased array (31.8 cm aperture; 128 transducer modules) was constructed and evaluated for microbubble-mediated transcranial therapy and simultaneous cavitation mapping. The array is able to perform effective electronic beam steering over a volume spanning (-40, 40) and (-30, 50) mm in the lateral and axial directions, respectively. The focal size at the geometric center is approximately 0.9 (2.1) mm, 1.7 (3.9) mm, and 3.1 (6.5) mm in lateral (axial) pressure full width at half maximum (FWHM) at 1224, 612, and 306 kHz, respectively. The array was also found capable of dual-frequency excitation and simultaneous multi-foci sonication, which enables the future exploration of more complex exposure strategies. Passive acoustic mapping of dilute microbubble clouds demonstrated that the point spread function of the receive array has a lateral (axial) intensity FWHM between 0.8-3.5 mm (1.7-11.7 mm) over a volume spanning (-25, 25) mm in both the lateral and axial directions, depending on the transmit/receive frequency combination and the imaging location. The device enabled both half and second harmonic imaging through the intact skull, which may be useful for improving the contrast-to-tissue ratio or imaging resolution, respectively. Preliminary in vivo experiments demonstrated the system's ability to induce blood-brain barrier opening and simultaneously spatially map microbubble cavitation activity in a rat model. This work presents a tool to investigate optimal strategies for non

  1. Intracavitary ultrasound phased arrays for prostate thermal therapies: MRI compatibility and in vivo testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, E B; Hynynen, K

    1998-12-01

    A 62 element MRI-compatible linear phased array was designed and constructed to investigate the feasibility of using transrectal ultrasound for the thermal therapeutic treatment of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. An aperiodic design technique developed in a previous study was used in the design of this array, which resulted in reduced grating lobe levels by using an optimized random distribution of unequally sized elements. The element sizes used in this array were selected to be favorable for both grating lobe levels as determined by array aperiodicity and array efficiency as determined by width to thickness ratios. The heating capabilities and MRI compatibility of the array were tested with in vivo rabbit thigh muscle heating experiments using MRI temperature monitoring. The array produced therapeutic temperature elevations in vivo at depths of 3-6 cm and axial locations up to 3 cm off the central axis and increased the size of the heated volume with electronic scanning of a single focus. The ability of this array to be used for ultrasound surgery was demonstrated by creating necrosed tissue lesions in vivo using short high-power sonications. The ability of the array to be used for hyperthermia was demonstrated by inducing therapeutic temperature elevations for longer exposures. Based on the acoustic and heating performance of this array, it has the potential to be clinically useful for delivering thermal therapies to the prostate and other target volumes close to body cavities.

  2. Control of broadband optically generated ultrasound pulses using binary amplitude holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael D; Jaros, Jiri; Cox, Ben T; Treeby, Bradley E

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the use of binary amplitude holography is investigated as a mechanism to focus broadband acoustic pulses generated by high peak-power pulsed lasers. Two algorithms are described for the calculation of the binary holograms; one using ray-tracing, and one using an optimization based on direct binary search. It is shown using numerical simulations that when a binary amplitude hologram is excited by a train of laser pulses at its design frequency, the acoustic field can be focused at a pre-determined distribution of points, including single and multiple focal points, and line and square foci. The numerical results are validated by acoustic field measurements from binary amplitude holograms, excited by a high peak-power laser.

  3. Ultrasound-detected bone erosion is a relapse risk factor after discontinuation of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis whose ultrasound power Doppler synovitis activity and clinical disease activity are well controlled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashiri, Shin-Ya; Fujikawa, Keita; Nishino, Ayako; Okada, Akitomo; Aramaki, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Toshimasa; Umeda, Masataka; Fukui, Shoichi; Suzuki, Takahisa; Koga, Tomohiro; Iwamoto, Naoki; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Tamai, Mami; Mizokami, Akinari; Nakamura, Hideki; Origuchi, Tomoki; Ueki, Yukitaka; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Takahiro; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2017-05-25

    In the present study, we explored the risk factors for relapse after discontinuation of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (bDMARD) therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) whose ultrasound power Doppler (PD) synovitis activity and clinical disease activity were well controlled. In this observational study in clinical practice, the inclusion criteria were based on ultrasound disease activity and clinical disease activity, set as low or remission (Disease Activity Score in 28 joints based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate Ultrasound was performed in 22 joints of bilateral hands at discontinuation for evaluating synovitis severity and presence of bone erosion. Patients with a maximum PD score ≤1 in each joint were enrolled. Forty patients with RA were consecutively recruited (November 2010-March 2015) and discontinued bDMARD therapy. Variables at the initiation and discontinuation of bDMARD therapy that were predictive of relapse during the 12 months after discontinuation were assessed. The median patient age was 54.5 years, and the median disease duration was 3.5 years. Nineteen (47.5%) patients relapsed during the 12 months after the discontinuation of bDMARD therapy. Logistic regression analysis revealed that only the presence of bone erosion detected by ultrasound at discontinuation was predictive of relapse (OR 8.35, 95% CI 1.78-53.2, p = 0.006). No clinical characteristics or serologic biomarkers were significantly different between the relapse and nonrelapse patients. The ultrasound synovitis scores did not differ significantly between the groups. Our findings are the first evidence that ultrasound bone erosion may be a relapse risk factor after the discontinuation of bDMARD therapy in patients with RA whose PD synovitis activity and clinical disease activity are well controlled.

  4. Optoacoustic theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Micci, Maria-Adelaide; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Yuriy; Guptarak, Jutatip; Grant, Auston C.; Parsley, Margaret A.; Bolding, Ian J.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2018-03-01

    Optoacoustic diagnostics is based on detection and analysis of optoacoustic waves induced in tissues. It may find a number of important clinical applications in large populations of patients such as diagnostics of cerebral hypoxia, circulatory shock, etc. Recently, we proposed Nano-Pulse Laser Therapy (NPLT) which utilizes short optical pulses (typically, shorter than hundreds of nanoseconds) to generate optoacoustic waves in tissues upon stress-confined irradiation. It is well known that continuous wave low-level near-infrared light can be used for therapy/photobiomodulation to stimulate, repair, regenerate, and protect injured tissue. In the past few years, new works emerged on therapeutic effects of low-intensity ultrasound waves. The NPLT consists of irradiating tissue by both lowlevel light and optoacoustic waves/ultrasound that combines merits of low-level light and ultrasound therapies. In this work we propose optoacoustic theranostics that can be used for diagnostics, optoacoustic therapy/NPLT, and monitoring of therapeutic response during and after therapy. We developed and built pulsed, tunable, near infrared (680-1064 nm), fiber-coupled systems for optoacoustic theranostics and tested them in rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Low energy pulses were used for optoacoustic monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation, while higher energy pulses were used for the NPLT. Our studies show that TBI results in cerebral hypoxia, while a 5-minute transcranial application of NPLT significantly reduces negative effects of TBI as assessed by vestibulomotor, cognitive, and immunofluorescence tests. The obtained results suggest that the optoacoustic theranostics may be used for diagnostics and management of TBI and other disorders.

  5. Deconvolution of ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1992-01-01

    Based on physical models, it is indicated that the received pressure field in ultrasound B-mode images can be described by a convolution between a tissue reflection signal and the emitted pressure field. This result is used in a description of current image formation and in formulating a new...... processing scheme. The suggested estimator can take into account the dispersive attenuation, the temporal and spatial variation of the pulse, and the change in reflection strength and signal-to-noise ratio. Details of the algorithm and the estimation of parameters to be used are given. The performance...

  6. Manipulating neuronal activity with low frequency transcranial ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michele Elizabeth

    neurons impose temporal constraints on their response to stimulation. If ultrasound-mediated responses are, in fact, ion channel mediated responses, ultrasound-induced responses should exhibit time-dependence characteristics similar to those of optogenetically-triggered responses. Minimal stimulus duration thresholds and the temporal limits of paired pulse facilitation for ultrasound stimulation were identical to those of optogenetic stimulation. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate an electrophysiological basis for low-frequency transcranial ultrasound stimulation of cerebral cortical neuronal activity.

  7. Treatment of esophageal tumors using high intensity intraluminal ultrasound: first clinical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prat Frederic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophageal tumors generally bear a poor prognosis. Radical surgery is generally the only curative method available but is not feasible in the majority of patients; palliative therapy with stent placement is generally performed. It has been demonstrated that High Intensity Ultrasound can induce rapid, complete and well-defined coagulation necrosis. Thus, for the treatment of esophageal tumors, we have designed an ultrasound applicator that uses an intraluminal approach to fill up this therapeutic gap. Methods Thermal ablation is performed with water-cooled ultrasound transducers operating at a frequency of 10 MHz. Single lesions extend from the transducer surface up to 10 mm in depth when applying an intensity of 14 W/cm2 for 10s. A lumen inside the therapy applicator provides path for an endoscopic ultrasound imaging probe operating at a frequency of 12 MHz. The mechanical rotation of the applicator around its axis enables treatment of sectorial or cylindrical volumes. This method is thus particularly suitable for esophageal tumors that may develop only on a portion of the esophageal circumference. Previous experiments were conducted from bench to in vivo studies on pig esophagi. Results Here we report clinical results obtained on four patients included in a pilot study. The treatment of esophageal tumors was performed under fluoroscopic guidance and ultrasound imaging. Objective tumor response was obtained in all cases and a complete necrosis of a tumor was obtained in one case. All patients recovered uneventfully and dysphagia improved significantly within 15 days, allowing for resuming a solid diet in three cases. Conclusion This clinical work demonstrated the efficacy of intraluminal high intensity ultrasound therapy for local tumor destruction in the esophagus.

  8. Mechanism for the generation of cavitation maxima by pulsed ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, H.G.; Church, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    A train of 1-MHz pulses can generate maxima of cavitation activity at pulse lengths of 6 and 60 ms and at pressure amplitudes, P/sub A/, between 5.4 and 9.4 bars (or intensities between 10 and 30 W/cm 2 ). Generation of maxima at P/sub A/ between these limits on pressure amplitude implies that the increase in cavitation activity originates from gas nuclei with radii lying in a critical size range centered at about 0.08 μm. The mechanism proposed for this phenomenon suggests that nuclei in this critical range are unstabilized nuclei generated in one pulse and surviving to the next with an appreciable fraction of the survivors lying in the critical range. Transient cavities that grow from such small nuclei are shown to behave as isolated mechanical systems that on reaching maximum size collapse as imploding spheres. The maximum pressures reached in such imploding cavities would then approximate those calculated for the spherical collapse of cavities. The occurrence of the observed maxima is ascribed to the spherical collapse of transient cavities. 17 references, 5 figures

  9. Imaging of vaporised sub-micron phase change contrast agents with high frame rate ultrasound and optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengtao; Zhang, Ge; Jamburidze, Akaki; Chee, Melisse; Hau Leow, Chee; Garbin, Valeria; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2018-03-01

    Phase-change ultrasound contrast agent (PCCA), or nanodroplet, shows promise as an alternative to the conventional microbubble agent over a wide range of diagnostic applications. Meanwhile, high-frame-rate (HFR) ultrasound imaging with microbubbles enables unprecedented temporal resolution compared to traditional contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging. The combination of HFR ultrasound imaging and PCCAs can offer the opportunity to observe and better understand PCCA behaviour after vaporisation captures the fast phenomenon at a high temporal resolution. In this study, we utilised HFR ultrasound at frame rates in the kilohertz range (5-20 kHz) to image native and size-selected PCCA populations immediately after vaporisation in vitro within clinical acoustic parameters. The size-selected PCCAs through filtration are shown to preserve a sub-micron-sized (mean diameter  1 µm) that originate from native PCCA emulsion. The results demonstrate imaging signals with different amplitudes and temporal features compared to that of microbubbles. Compared with the microbubbles, both the B-mode and pulse-inversion (PI) signals from the vaporised PCCA populations were reduced significantly in the first tens of milliseconds, while only the B-mode signals from the PCCAs were recovered during the next 400 ms, suggesting significant changes to the size distribution of the PCCAs after vaporisation. It is also shown that such recovery in signal over time is not evident when using size-selective PCCAs. Furthermore, it was found that signals from the vaporised PCCA populations are affected by the amplitude and frame rate of the HFR ultrasound imaging. Using high-speed optical camera observation (30 kHz), we observed a change in particle size in the vaporised PCCA populations exposed to the HFR ultrasound imaging pulses. These findings can further the understanding of PCCA behaviour under HFR ultrasound imaging.

  10. Ultrasound mediated nanoparticle drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Lee B.

    Ultrasound is not only a powerful diagnostic tool, but also a promising therapeutic technology that can be used to improve localized drug delivery. Microbubble contrast agents are micron sized encapsulated gas filled bubbles that are administered intravenously. Originally developed to enhance ultrasound images, microbubbles are highly echogenic due to the gas core that provides a detectable impedance difference from the surrounding medium. The core also allows for controlled response of the microbubbles to ultrasound pulses. Microbubbles can be pushed using acoustic radiation force and ruptured using high pressures. Destruction of microbubbles can increase permeability at the cellular and vascular level, which can be advantageous for drug delivery. Advances in drug delivery methods have been seen with the introduction of nanoparticles, nanometer sized objects often carrying a drug payload. In chemotherapy, nanoparticles can deliver drugs to tumors while limiting systemic exposure due to abnormalities in tumor vasculature such large gaps between endothelial cells that allow nanoparticles to enter into the interstitial space; this is referred to as the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. However, this effect may be overestimated in many tumors. Additionally, only a small percentage of the injected dose accumulates in the tumor, which most the nanoparticles accumulating in the liver and spleen. It is hypothesized that combining the acoustic activity of an ultrasound contrast agent with the high payload and extravasation ability of a nanoparticle, localized delivery to the tumor with reduced systemic toxicity can be achieved. This method can be accomplished by either loading nanoparticles onto the shell of the microbubble or through a coadministration method of both nanoparticles and microbubbles. The work presented in this dissertation utilizes novel and commercial nanoparticle formulations, combined with microbubbles and a variety of ultrasound systems

  11. Combined passive detection and ultrafast active imaging of cavitation events induced by short pulses of high-intensity ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateau, Jérôme; Aubry, Jean-François; Pernot, Mathieu; Fink, Mathias; Tanter, Mickaël

    2011-03-01

    The activation of natural gas nuclei to induce larger bubbles is possible using short ultrasonic excitations of high amplitude, and is required for ultrasound cavitation therapies. However, little is known about the distribution of nuclei in tissues. Therefore, the acoustic pressure level necessary to generate bubbles in a targeted zone and their exact location are currently difficult to predict. To monitor the initiation of cavitation activity, a novel all-ultrasound technique sensitive to single nucleation events is presented here. It is based on combined passive detection and ultrafast active imaging over a large volume using the same multi-element probe. Bubble nucleation was induced using a focused transducer (660 kHz, f-number = 1) driven by a high-power electric burst (up to 300 W) of one to two cycles. Detection was performed with a linear array (4 to 7 MHz) aligned with the single-element focal point. In vitro experiments in gelatin gel and muscular tissue are presented. The synchronized passive detection enabled radio-frequency data to be recorded, comprising high-frequency coherent wave fronts as signatures of the acoustic emissions linked to the activation of the nuclei. Active change detection images were obtained by subtracting echoes collected in the unnucleated medium. These indicated the appearance of stable cavitating regions. Because of the ultrafast frame rate, active detection occurred as quickly as 330 μs after the high-amplitude excitation and the dynamics of the induced regions were studied individually.

  12. Comparison the treatment effects between simultaneous dual frequency and single frequency irradiation of ultrasound in a murine model of breast adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Alamolhoda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transient cavitations induced by low frequency irradiation of ultrasound can be used to treat tumors. Previous studies in in-vitro experiments have shown that induced cavitation by dual or multiple frequencies of ultrasound is greater than induced cavitation by single frequency irradiation. In this study, we compared and evaluated the treatment effects of dual frequency irradiation of ultrasound (1 MHz and 150 kHz and single frequency irradiation in in-vivo experiments on breast adenocarcinoma tumors. Material and Method: In this study, the tumor-bearing mice were divided into 5 groups: control, sham, treated group for 30 min with 150 kHz frequency in continuous mode, another group with 1 MHz frequency in pulse mode, and treated group with combined dual frequency ultrasound (150 kHz in continuous mode and 1 MHz in 80% pulse mode. To evaluate the effects of ultrasound irradiation on tumor growth delay, the volumes of the tumors were investigated for 30 days. Tumor growth delay parameters including relative volume, inhibition ratio percentage and the required times for the tumor volume to reach to two (T2 and five (T5 times its initial volume were calculated. Results: The results showed that the treated groups with single frequency irradiation of 150 kHz continuous mode and 1 MHz pulse mode and combined dual frequency had statistically significant differences in tumor relative volume percentage during the period of 3 to 24 days after treatment (p

  13. Successful Treatment of Plasma Cell-Rich Acute Rejection Using Pulse Steroid Therapy Alone: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo Komatsuzaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recent development of immunosuppressive agents, plasma cell-rich acute rejection (PCAR has remained refractory to treatment. Herein, we report an unusual case of PCAR that responded well to pulse steroid therapy alone. A 47-year-old man was admitted for a protocol biopsy three months after kidney transplantation, with a stable serum creatinine level of 1.6 mg/dL. Histological examination showed focal aggressive tubulointerstitial inflammatory cell infiltration of predominantly polyclonal mature plasma cells, leading to our diagnosis of PCAR. Three months following three consecutive days of high-dose methylprednisolone (mPSL therapy, an allograft biopsy performed for therapy evaluation showed persistent PCAR. We readministered mPSL therapy and successfully resolved the PCAR. Although PCAR generally develops more than six months after transplantation, we diagnosed this case early, at three months after transplantation, with focally infiltrated PCAR. This case demonstrates the importance of early diagnosis and prompt treatment of PCAR to manage the development and severity of allograft rejection.

  14. Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasound imaging in ablation therapy for primary hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Yasunori; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2009-12-31

    The success rate of percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) depends on correct targeting via an imaging technique. However, RF electrode insertion is not completely accurate for residual HCC nodules because B-mode ultrasound (US), color Doppler, and power Doppler US findings cannot adequately differentiate between treated and viable residual tumor tissue. Electrode insertion is also difficult when we must identify the true HCC nodule among many large regenerated nodules in cirrhotic liver. Two breakthroughs in the field of US technology, harmonic imaging and the development of second-generation contrast agents, have recently been described and have demonstrated the potential to dramatically broaden the scope of US diagnosis of hepatic lesions. Contrast-enhanced harmonic US imaging with an intravenous contrast agent can evaluate small hypervascular HCC even when B-mode US cannot adequately characterize tumor. Therefore, contrast-enhanced harmonic US can facilitate RF ablation electrode placement in hypervascular HCC, which is poorly depicted by B-mode US. The use of contrast-enhanced harmonic US in ablation therapy for liver cancer is an efficient approach.

  15. Microvascular blood flow dynamics associated with photodynamic therapy, pulsed dye laser irradiation and combined regimens

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, TK; Choi, B; Ramirez-San-Juan, JC; Nelson, JS; Osann, K; Kelly, KM

    2006-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Previous in vitro studies demonstrated the potential utility of benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD) photodynamic therapy (PDT) for vascular destruction. Moreover, the effects of PDT were enhanced when this intervention was followed immediately by pulsed dye laser (PDL) irradiation (PDT/ PDL). We further evaluate vascular effects of PDT alone, PDL alone and PDT/PDL in an in vivo rodent dorsal skinfold model. Study Design/Materials and Methods: A dorsal sk...

  16. Guiding tissue regeneration with ultrasound in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalecki, Diane; Comeau, Eric S.; Raeman, Carol H.; Child, Sally Z.; Hobbs, Laura; Hocking, Denise C.

    2015-05-01

    Developing new technologies that enable the repair or replacement of injured or diseased tissues is a major focus of regenerative medicine. This paper will discuss three ultrasound technologies under development in our laboratories to guide tissue regeneration both in vitro and in vivo. A critical obstacle in tissue engineering is the need for rapid and effective tissue vascularization strategies. To address this challenge, we are developing acoustic patterning techniques for microvascular tissue engineering. Acoustic radiation forces associated with ultrasound standing wave fields provide a rapid, non-invasive approach to spatially pattern cells in three dimensions without affecting cell viability. Acoustic patterning of endothelial cells leads to the rapid formation of microvascular networks throughout the volumes of three-dimensional hydrogels, and the morphology of the resultant microvessel networks can be controlled by design of the ultrasound field. A second technology under development uses ultrasound to noninvasively control the microstructure of collagen fibers within engineered tissues. The microstructure of extracellular matrix proteins provides signals that direct cell functions critical to tissue regeneration. Thus, controlling collagen microfiber structure with ultrasound provides a noninvasive approach to regulate the mechanical properties of biomaterials and control cellular responses. The third technology employs therapeutic ultrasound to enhance the healing of chronic wounds. Recent studies demonstrate increased granulation tissue thickness and collagen deposition in murine dermal wounds exposed to pulsed ultrasound. In summary, ultrasound technologies offer noninvasive approaches to control cell behaviors and extracellular matrix organization and thus hold great promise to advance tissue regeneration in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Candle soot nanoparticles-polydimethylsiloxane composites for laser ultrasound transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Wenbin; Kim, Jinwook; Li, Sibo; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2015-10-01

    Generation of high power laser ultrasound strongly demands the advanced materials with efficient laser energy absorption, fast thermal diffusion, and large thermoelastic expansion capabilities. In this study, candle soot nanoparticles-polydimethylsiloxane (CSNPs-PDMS) composite was investigated as the functional layer for an optoacoustic transducer with high-energy conversion efficiency. The mean diameter of the collected candle soot carbon nanoparticles is about 45 nm, and the light absorption ratio at 532 nm wavelength is up to 96.24%. The prototyped CSNPs-PDMS nano-composite laser ultrasound transducer was characterized and compared with transducers using Cr-PDMS, carbon black (CB)-PDMS, and carbon nano-fiber (CNFs)-PDMS composites, respectively. Energy conversion coefficient and -6 dB frequency bandwidth of the CSNPs-PDMS composite laser ultrasound transducer were measured to be 4.41 × 10-3 and 21 MHz, respectively. The unprecedented laser ultrasound transduction performance using CSNPs-PDMS nano-composites is promising for a broad range of ultrasound therapy applications.

  18. Research and design of pulsed switching power supply for deep tumor therapy facility with heavy ions accelerator in Lanzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Chunfeng; Zhao Jiang; Yan Hongbin; Wu Fengjun; Gao Daqing

    2012-01-01

    The pulsed switching power supply was developed for deep tumor therapy facility with heavy ions in cooler-storage-ring of the heavy ions research facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL-CSR). The control principle of the dual closed-loop scheme was described and the open-loop Bode diagrams were given. The results of simulation and prototype experiment show that the current error gets much smaller than that of the single closed-loop pulsed switching power supply. Moreover, the simulation and test results were analyzed, and the circuit configuration and dual closed-loop strategy selected are practicable. (authors)

  19. Intraluminal laser atherectomy with ultrasound and electromagnetic guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Kenton W.; Aretz, H. Thomas; Martinelli, Michael A.; LeDet, Earl G.; Hatch, G. F.; Gregg, Richard E.; Sedlacek, Tomas; Haase, Wayne C.

    1991-05-01

    The MagellanTM coronary laser atherectomy system is described. It uses high- resolution ultrasound imaging and electromagnetic sensing to provide real-time guidance and control of laser therapy in the coronary arteries. The system consists of a flexible catheter, an electromagnetic navigation antenna, a sensor signal processor and a computer for image processing and display. The small, flexible catheter combines an ultrasound transducer and laser delivery optics, aimed at the artery wall, and an electromagnetic receiving sensor. An extra-corporeal electromagnetic transmit antenna, in combination with catheter sensors, locates the position of the ultrasound and laser beams in the artery. Navigation and ultrasound data are processed electronically to produce real-time, transverse, and axial cross-section images of the artery wall at selected locations. By exploiting the ability of ultrasound to image beneath the surface of artery walls, it is possible to identify candidate treatment sites and perform safe radial laser debulking of atherosclerotic plaque with reduced danger of perforation. The utility of the system in plaque identification and ablation is demonstrated with imaging and experimental results.

  20. Effects of ultrasound frequency and tissue stiffness on the histotripsy intrinsic threshold for cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Lin, Kuang-Wei; Maxwell, Adam; Warnez, Matthew T; Mancia, Lauren; Singh, Rahul; Putnam, Andrew J; Fowlkes, Brian; Johnsen, Eric; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

    2015-06-01

    Histotripsy is an ultrasound ablation method that depends on the initiation of a cavitation bubble cloud to fractionate soft tissue. Previous work has indicated that a cavitation cloud can be formed by a single pulse with one high-amplitude negative cycle, when the negative pressure amplitude directly exceeds a pressure threshold intrinsic to the medium. We hypothesize that the intrinsic threshold in water-based tissues is determined by the properties of the water inside the tissue, and changes in tissue stiffness or ultrasound frequency will have a minimal impact on the histotripsy intrinsic threshold. To test this hypothesis, the histotripsy intrinsic threshold was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The probability of cavitation was measured by subjecting tissue phantoms with adjustable mechanical properties and ex vivo tissues to a histotripsy pulse of 1-2 cycles produced by 345-kHz, 500-kHz, 1.5-MHz and 3-MHz histotripsy transducers. Cavitation was detected and characterized by passive cavitation detection and high-speed photography, from which the probability of cavitation was measured versus pressure amplitude. The results revealed that the intrinsic threshold (the negative pressure at which probability = 0.5) is independent of stiffness for Young's moduli (E) ultrasound frequency in the hundreds of kilohertz to megahertz range. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparative analysis of analgesic efficacy of ultrasound and shock wave therapy in the treatment of patients with inflammation of the attachment of the plantar fascia in the course of calcaneal spurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukowska, Jolanta; Wrona, Jacek; Sienkiewicz, Monika; Czernicki, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Troublesome heel spur is a nuisance condition that affects people of all ages. Treatment of patients with heel spur is a difficult and lengthy process requiring patience from both the patient and the therapist. Sometimes, the only and ultimate method of treatment is surgery, although spurs tend to recur. The aim of the study is a comparative analysis of the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound and shock wave therapy in patients with heel spur. The cause of pain in the course of calcaneal spur is inflammation of the attachment of the plantar fascia, which plays an important role in the process of walking and is seriously strained during different types of movement. Treatment of patients is a difficult and lengthy process. The study was conducted on a group of 47 patients of both sexes, aged 38-60 years (mean 51.3) with a plantar calcaneal spur confirmed by X-ray images. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups using a simple randomization: Group 1-ultrasound therapy group (a series of ten treatments) and Group 2-the radial shock wave group (series of four treatments). In all patients, pain intensity was assessed three times: before therapy, after the first and second weeks of treatment. A version of Laitinen's pain assessment questionnaire and the Huskisson visual analogue scale (VAS) were used. Of the group of studied respondents, 47 patients of both sexes and aged 38-60 years (mean age 51.3) with a heel spur (confirmed on X-rays), who had pain for at least a month, were randomly included in the study. The patients were classified into: Group 1-US therapeutic group (a series of ten treatments) and Group 2-with RSWT (a series of five treatments). Pain intensity was assessed three times: before the treatment, after the first and second week of the treatment with the application of the VAS and the Leitinen Pain Questionnaire. However, a decrease in pain sensation was reported in all test intervals, and its largest decrease occurred in both groups within 1

  2. Ultrasound-induced martensitic transition in ferromagnetic Ni2.15Mn0.81Fe0.04Ga shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchelnikov, V.; Dikshtein, I.; Grechishkin, R.; Khudoverdyan, T.; Koledov, V.; Kuzavko, Y.; Nazarkin, I.; Shavrov, V.; Takagi, T.

    2004-01-01

    The experimental observation of direct and reverse martensitic transformation due to ultrasound processing of Ni-Mn-Ga alloy is discussed. It was found that martensite-austenite as well as austenite-martensite structural transitions can be induced by the intense ultrasound at constant temperature. During the experiments low magnetic field susceptibility measurements and optical detection of twin domains arising due to martensitic transformation were performed in situ. The non-thermal nature of the effect is confirmed making use of the pulsed ultrasound technique

  3. Thermoacoustic Imaging and Therapy Guidance based on Ultra-short Pulsed Microwave Pumped Thermoelastic Effect Induced with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Liewei; Yang, Sihua; Zhong, Junping; Zhou, Quan; Xing, Da

    2017-01-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticle-mediated imaging and therapeutic techniques are promising modalities for accurate localization and targeted treatment of cancer in clinical settings. Thermoacoustic (TA) imaging is highly sensitive to detect the distribution of water, ions or specific nanoprobes and provides excellent resolution, good contrast and superior tissue penetrability. TA therapy is a potential non-invasive approach for the treatment of deep-seated tumors. In this study, human serum albumin (HSA)-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (HSA-SPIO) is used as a multifunctional nanoprobe with clinical application potential for MRI, TA imaging and treatment of tumor. In addition to be a MRI contrast agent for tumor localization, HSA-SPIO can absorb pulsed microwave energy and transform it into shockwave via the thermoelastic effect. Thereby, the reconstructed TA image by detecting TA signal is expected to be a sensitive and accurate representation of the HSA-SPIO accumulation in tumor. More importantly, owing to the selective retention of HSA-SPIO in tumor tissues and strong TA shockwave at the cellular level, HSA-SPIO induced TA effect under microwave-pulse radiation can be used to highly-efficiently kill cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth. Furthermore, ultra-short pulsed microwave with high excitation efficiency and deep penetrability in biological tissues makes TA therapy a highly-efficient anti-tumor modality on the versatile platform. Overall, HSA-SPIO mediated MRI and TA imaging would offer more comprehensive diagnostic information and enable dynamic visualization of nanoagents in the tumorous tissue thereby tumor-targeted therapy.

  4. Effect of body mass index on shifts in ultrasound-based image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy for abdominal malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Mehee; Fuller, Clifton D.; Wang, Samuel J.; Siddiqi, Ather; Wong, Adrian; Thomas, Charles R.; Fuss, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: We investigated whether corrective shifts determined by daily ultrasound-based image-guidance correlate with body mass index (BMI) of patients treated with image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) for abdominal malignancies. The utility of daily image-guidance, particularly for patients with BMI > 25.0, is examined. Materials and methods: Total 3162 ultrasound-directed shifts were performed in 86 patients. Direction and magnitude of shifts were correlated with pretreatment BMI. Bivariate statistical analysis and analysis of set-up correction data were performed using systematic and random error calculations. Results: Total 2040 daily alignments were performed. Average 3D vector of set-up correction for all patients was 12.1 mm/fraction. Directional and absolute shifts and 3D vector length were significantly different between BMI cohorts. 3D displacement averaged 4.9 mm/fraction and 6.8mm/fraction for BMI ≤ 25.0 and BMI > 25.0, respectively. Systematic error in all axes and 3D vector was significantly greater for BMI > 25.0. Differences in random error were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Set-up corrections derived from daily ultrasound-based IG-IMRT of abdominal tumors correlated with BMI. Daily image-guidance may improve precision of IMRT delivery with benefits assessed for the entire population, particularly patients with increased habitus. Requisite PTV margins suggested in the absence of daily image-guidance are significantly greater in patients with BMI > 25.0.

  5. Intracavitary ultrasound phased arrays for thermal therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Erin

    Currently, the success of hyperthermia and thermal surgery treatments is limited by the technology used in the design and fabrication of clinical heating devices and the completeness of the thermometry systems used for guidance. For both hyperthermia and thermal surgery, electrically focused ultrasound generated by phased arrays provides a means of controlling localized energy deposition in body tissues. Intracavitary applicators can be used to bring the energy source close to a target volume, such as the prostate, thereby minimizing normal tissue damage. The work performed in this study was aimed at improving noninvasive prostate thermal therapies and utilized three research approaches: (1) Acoustic, thermal and optimization simulations, (2) Design and fabrication of multiple phased arrays, (3) Ex vivo and in vivo experimental testing of the heating capabilities of the phased arrays. As part of this study, a novel aperiodic phased array design was developed which resulted in a 30- 45% reduction in grating lobe levels when compared to conventional phased arrays. Measured acoustic fields generated by the constructed aperiodic arrays agreed closely with the fields predicted by the theoretical simulations and covered anatomically appropriate ranges. The power capabilities of these arrays were demonstrated to be sufficient for the purposes of hyperthermia and thermal surgery. The advantage of using phased arrays in place of fixed focus transducers was shown by demonstrating the ability of electronic scanning to increase the size of the necrosed tissue volume while providing a more uniform thermal dose, which can ultimately reduce patient treatment times. A theoretical study on the feasibility of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) thermometry for noninvasive temperature feedback control was investigated as a means to improve transient and steady state temperature distributions achieved in hyperthermia treatments. MRI guided ex vivo and in vivo experiments demonstrated

  6. Laser-enhanced high-intensity focused ultrasound heating in an in vivo small animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2016-11-01

    The enhanced heating effect during the combination of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and low-optical-fluence laser illumination was investigated by using an in vivo murine animal model. The thighs of murine animals were synergistically irradiated by HIFU and pulsed nano-second laser light. The temperature increases in the target region were measured by a thermocouple under different HIFU pressures, which were 6.2, 7.9, and 9.8 MPa, in combination with 20 mJ/cm2 laser exposures at 532 nm wavelength. In comparison with conventional laser therapies, the laser fluence used here is at least one order of magnitude lower. The results showed that laser illumination could enhance temperature during HIFU applications. Additionally, cavitation activity was enhanced when laser and HIFU irradiation were concurrently used. Further, a theoretical simulation showed that the inertial cavitation threshold was indeed decreased when laser and HIFU irradiation were utilized concurrently.

  7. A new approach for estimation of the axial velocity using ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2000-01-01

    for the data segment. The benefit of this method is an estimate of the mean axial velocity which is independent of the center frequency of the propagating ultrasound pulse. The estimate will only depend on fs and fprf. Results of the estimation method is presented based on both simple generated RF harmonic...

  8. Synthesis of Laboratory Ultrasound Contrast Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaemin Oh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound Contrast Agents (UCAs were developed to maximize reflection contrast so that organs can be seen clearly in ultrasound imaging. UCAs increase the signal to noise ratio (SNR by linear and non-linear mechanisms and thus help more accurately visualize the internal organs and blood vessels. However, the UCAs on the market are not only expensive, but are also not optimized for use in various therapeutic research applications such as ultrasound-aided drug delivery. The UCAs fabricated in this study utilize conventional lipid and albumin for shell formation and perfluorobutane as the internal gas. The shape and density of the UCA bubbles were verified by optical microscopy and Cryo SEM, and compared to those of the commercially available UCAs, Definity® and Sonovue®. The size distribution and characteristics of the reflected signal were also analyzed using a particle size analyzer and ultrasound imaging equipment. Our experiments indicate that UCAs composed of spherical microbubbles, the majority of which were smaller than 1 um, were successfully synthesized. Microbubbles 10 um or larger were also identified when different shell characteristics and filters were used. These laboratory UCAs can be used for research in both diagnoses and therapies.

  9. Hyperglycemia and ultrasound in radiotherapy of experimental tumors (a preliminary paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratkhodzhaev, N.K.; Prus, E.S.; Zakirkhodzhaev, U.D.; Kutlimuratov, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that all the types of effects, as compared with the control, result in inhibition of the tumor growth; X-ray therapy decelerates the tumor growth, but its combination with hyperglycemia produced a more vivid effect. Inhibition of the tumor growth, as compared with that in the control group, was observed under a combined effect of hyperglycemia with ultrasound, though it was noticeably weaker than under other effects. Application of a complex effect including hyperglycemia, ultrasound, X-ray therapy turned to be most effective, the succession of their application playing an important role for the antitumoral effect of the used factors

  10. Finite element simulation of the mechanism of laser ultrasound induced pain weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Zhan, Ren Jun; Shan, Ning

    2018-03-01

    The Laser-Ultrasonic technique uses laser energy to generate ultrasound waves in various solids. In normal conditions, this technique is used to inspect large structures without destruction, but in military use, we hope get this destruction. Nociceptors in Human skin can feel cold, heat, mechanical and other stimuli, when the stimulus exceeds a certain threshold will produce pain. Based on this principle, a laser induced pain weapon may be made. The generated ultrasound wave form is affected by features of laser pulse. The results obtained from the finite element model of laser generated ultrasound are presented in terms of temperature and displacement. At first step, the transient temperature field can be precisely calculated by using the finite element method. Then, laser generated surface acoustic wave forms are calculated by coupling the temperature distribution. Displacement is used to represent the mechanical action of skin caused by laser ultrasound. Results from numerical simulation are compared with other references; the accuracy of the method is proved accordingly. The results of simulation in the given conditions demonstrate that the stresses generated by pulse laser in human skin model were about -8 and +4 MPa. According to the results of simulation, the max and min stress are both emerged in the range of 0 600 um, that is exactly the location of myelinated Aδ and unmyelinated C nociceptor. The value of stress is can be adjusted by chose suitable parameters of laser. The study provides a possibility for developing a new non-lethal weapon to control riots or crowd.

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