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Sample records for pulsed molecular beams

  1. PULSED MOLECULAR BEAM PRODUCTION WITH NOZZLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagena, Otto-Friedrich

    1963-05-15

    Molecular beam experiments that can be carried out in pulsed operation may be performed at considerably reduced expense for apparatus if, for pulse generation, the gas supply to the beam production system is interrupted as opposed to the usual steady molecular beam. This technique is studied by measuring intensity vs time of molecular beam impulses of varying length, how fast and through which intermediate states the initial intensity of the impulse attains equilibrium, and in which way the intensity of the molecular-beam impulse is affected by the pulse length and by increasing pressure in the first pressure stage. For production of pulses, a magnetically actuated, quick shutting, valve is used whose scaling area is the inlet cone of the nozzle used for the beam generation. The shortest pulses produced had a pulse length of 1.6 ms. (auth)

  2. Pulsed molecular beams: A lower limit on pulse duration for fully developed supersonic expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenger, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    We derive an expression for Δt/sub min/, the mimimum pulse duration (''valve open time'') required if a pulsed nozzle is to produce a supersonic beam comparably ''cold'' to that obtained from a continuous source

  3. Electron molecular beam epitaxy: Layer-by-layer growth of complex oxides via pulsed electron-beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comes, Ryan; Liu Hongxue; Lu Jiwei; Gu, Man; Khokhlov, Mikhail; Wolf, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    Complex oxide epitaxial film growth is a rich and exciting field, owing to the wide variety of physical properties present in oxides. These properties include ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, spin-polarization, and a variety of other correlated phenomena. Traditionally, high quality epitaxial oxide films have been grown via oxide molecular beam epitaxy or pulsed laser deposition. Here, we present the growth of high quality epitaxial films using an alternative approach, the pulsed electron-beam deposition technique. We demonstrate all three epitaxial growth modes in different oxide systems: Frank-van der Merwe (layer-by-layer); Stranski-Krastanov (layer-then-island); and Volmer-Weber (island). Analysis of film quality and morphology is presented and techniques to optimize the morphology of films are discussed.

  4. Molecular beam and pulsed laser deposition of ZnS:Cr for intermediate band solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nematollahi, Mohammadreza; Yang, Xiaodong; Aas, Lars Martin Sandvik; Ghadyani, Zahra; Kildemo, Morten; Gibson, Ursula; Reenaas, Turid Worren

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the structural and optical properties of Cr-doped ZnS (ZnS:Cr) thin films (0–7.5 at.% Cr) for use in intermediate band solar cells. The films were grown on Si(100) in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) equipments. Introducing Cr into ZnS resulted in Cr related subbandgap absorption, but also reduced the grain size. The sub-bandgap absorption increased with increasing Cr content, and with increasing growth temperature, but did not depend on the ...

  5. Chirped-pulse manipulated carrier dynamics in low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy grown GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chao-Kuei; Lin, Yuan-Yao; Lin, Sung-Hui; Lin, Gong-Ru; Pan, Ci-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Chirped pulse controlled carrier dynamics in low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy grown GaAs are investigated by degenerate pump-probe technique. Varying the chirped condition of excited pulse from negative to positive increases the carrier relaxation time so as to modify the dispersion and reshape current pulse in time domain. The spectral dependence of carrier dynamics is analytically derived and explained by Shockley-Read Hall model. This observation enables the new feasibility of controlling carrier dynamics in ultrafast optical devices via the chirped pulse excitations

  6. Molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendelbury, J.M.; Smith, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Studies with directed collision-free beams of particles continue to play an important role in the development of modern physics and chemistry. The deflections suffered by such beams as they pass through electric and magnetic fields or laser radiation provide some of the most direct information about the individual constituents of the beam; the scattering observed when two beams intersect yields important data about the intermolecular forces responsible for the scattering. (author)

  7. Pulsed flow modulation two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with supersonic molecular beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliak, Marina; Fialkov, Alexander B; Amirav, Aviv

    2008-11-07

    Pulsed flow modulation (PFM) two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography (GC x GC) was combined with quadrupole-based mass spectrometry (MS) via a supersonic molecular beam (SMB) interface using a triple-quadrupole system as the base platform, which enabled tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS). PFM is a simple GC x GC modulator that does not consume cryogenic gases while providing tunable second GC x GC column injection time for enabling the use of quadrupole-based mass spectrometry regardless its limited scanning speed. The 20-ml/min second column flow rate involved with PFM is handled, splitless, by the SMB interface without affecting the sensitivity. The combinations of PFM GC x GC-MS with SMB and PFM GC x GC-MS-MS with SMB were explored with the analysis of diazinon and permethrin in coriander. PFM GC x GC-MS with SMB is characterized by enhanced molecular ion and tailing-free fast ion source response time. It enables universal pesticide analysis with full scan and data analysis with reconstructed single ion monitoring on the enhanced molecular ion and another prominent high mass fragment ion. The elimination of the third fragment ion used in standard three ions method results in significantly reduced matrix interference. GC x GC-MS with SMB improves the GC separation, and thereby our ability for sample identification using libraries. GC-MS-MS with SMB provides better reduction (elimination) of matrix interference than GC x GC-MS. However, it is a target method, which is not always applicable. GC x GC-MS-MS does not seem to further reduce matrix interferences over GC-MS-MS and unlike GC x GC-MS, it is incompatible with library identification, but it is beneficial to have both GC x GC and MS-MS capabilities in the same system.

  8. Measurements of secondary electron cross sections by the pulsed electron beam time-of-flight method. I. Molecular nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goruganthu, R.R.; Wilson, W.G.; Bonham, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The secondary electron cross sections for gaseous molecular nitrogen are reported at ejection angles of 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135 and 150 0 , for the energy range 1.5 eV to 20 eV and incident electron energy of 1 keV. The pulsed electron beam time-of-flight methd was employed. The results were placed on an absolute scale by normalization to the elastic scattering. They were compared, where possible, with those reported by Opal, Beaty, and Peterson (OBP). The agreement is somewhat better when the OBP data are divided by 0.53 + 0.47 sintheta as suggested by Rudd and DuBois. Fits of our data by Legendre-polynomial expansions are used to estimate the low-energy portion of the cross-section, dsigma/dE. This work suggests that existing experimental cross sections for secondary electron ejection as a function of angle and ejected energy may be no better known than +-40%, especially in the low energy region. 7 references, 14 figures, 2 tables

  9. Versatile piezoelectric pulsed molecular beam source for gaseous compounds and organic molecules with femtomole accuracy for UHV and surface science applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiesser, Alexander; Schaefer, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    This note describes the construction of a piezoelectric pulsed molecular beam source based upon a design presented in an earlier work [D. Proch and T. Trickl, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 713 (1988)]. The design features significant modifications that permit the determination of the number of molecules in a beam pulse with an accuracy of 1x10 11 molecules per pulse. The 21 cm long plunger-nozzle setup allows the molecules to be brought to any point of the UHV chamber with very high intensity. Furthermore, besides typical gaseous compounds, also smaller organic molecules with a vapor pressure higher than 0.1 mbar at room temperature may serve as feed material. This makes the new design suitable for various applications in chemical and surface science studies.

  10. Comparative study of LaNiO$_3$/LaAlO$_3$ heterostructures grown by pulsed laser deposition and oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Wrobel, F.; Mark, A. F.; Christiani, G.; Sigle, W.; Habermeier, H. -U.; van Aken, P. A.; Logvenov, G.; Keimer, B.; Benckiser, E.

    2017-01-01

    Variations in growth conditions associated with different deposition techniques can greatly affect the phase stability and defect structure of complex oxide heterostructures. We synthesized superlattices of the paramagnetic metal LaNiO3 and the large band gap insulator LaAlO3 by atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and compared their crystallinity, microstructure as revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images and resistiv...

  11. A double-stage pulsed discharge fluorine atom beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Zefeng; Qiu Minghui; Che Li; Dai Dongxu; Wang Xiuyan; Yang Xueming

    2006-01-01

    Molecular-beam intensity and speed ratio are two major limiting factors in many molecular-beam experiments. This article reports a high-intensity, high-speed-ratio, pulsed supersonic fluorine atom beam source using a double-stage discharge beam source. Its performance is indicated by the high-resolution time-of-flight spectrum in the crossed beam experiment of F( 2 P)+para-H 2

  12. Partially coherent isodiffracting pulsed beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivurova, Matias; Ding, Chaoliang; Turunen, Jari; Pan, Liuzhan

    2018-02-01

    We investigate a class of isodiffracting pulsed beams, which are superpositions of transverse modes supported by spherical-mirror laser resonators. By employing modal weights that, for stationary light, produce a Gaussian Schell-model beam, we extend this standard model to pulsed beams. We first construct the two-frequency cross-spectral density function that characterizes the spatial coherence in the space-frequency domain. By assuming a power-exponential spectral profile, we then employ the generalized Wiener-Khintchine theorem for nonstationary light to derive the two-time mutual coherence function that describes the space-time coherence of the ensuing beams. The isodiffracting nature of the laser resonator modes permits all (paraxial-domain) calculations at any propagation distance to be performed analytically. Significant spatiotemporal coupling is revealed in subcycle, single-cycle, and few-cycle domains, where the partial spatial coherence also leads to reduced temporal coherence even though full spectral coherence is assumed.

  13. Sound Beams with Shockwave Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enflo, B. O.

    2000-11-01

    The beam equation for a sound beam in a diffusive medium, called the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation, has a class of solutions, which are power series in the transverse variable with the terms given by a solution of a generalized Burgers’ equation. A free parameter in this generalized Burgers’ equation can be chosen so that the equation describes an N-wave which does not decay. If the beam source has the form of a spherical cap, then a beam with a preserved shock can be prepared. This is done by satisfying an inequality containing the spherical radius, the N-wave pulse duration, the N-wave pulse amplitude, and the sound velocity in the fluid.

  14. Crossed molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.T.

    1976-01-01

    Research activities with crossed molecular beams at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during 1976 are described. Topics covered include: scattering of Ar*, Kr*, with Xe; metastable rare gas interactions, He* + H 2 ; an atomic and molecular halogen beam source; a crossed molecular beam study of the Cl + Br 2 → BrCl + Br reaction; O( 3 P) reaction dynamics, development of the high pressure plasma beam source; energy randomization in the Cl + C 2 H 3 Br → Br + C 2 H 3 Cl reaction; high resolution photoionization studies of NO and ICl; photoionization of (H 2 O)/sub n/ and (NH 3 ) 2 ; photoionization mass spectroscopy of NH 3 + and O 3 + ; photo fragmentation of bromine; and construction of chemiluminescence-laser fluorescence crossed molecular beam machine

  15. Pulsed high-power beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reginato, L.L.; Birx, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The marriage of induction linac technology with nonlinear magnetic modulators has produced some unique capabilities. It is now possible to produce short-pulse electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, at gradients approaching 1-MeV/m, and with power efficiencies exceeding 50%. This paper reports on a 70-MeV, 3-kA induction accelerator (ETA II) constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that incorporates the pulse technology concepts that have evolved over the past several years. The ETA II is a linear induction accelerator and provides a test facility for demonstration of the high-average-power components and high-brightness sources used in such accelerators. The pulse drive of the accelerator is based on state-of-the-art magnetic pulse compressors with very high peak-power capability, repetition rates exceeding 1 kHz, and excellent reliability

  16. Bipolar pulse generator for intense pulsed ion beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, H.; Igawa, K.; Kitamura, I.; Masugata, K.

    2007-01-01

    A new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named ''bipolar pulse accelerator'' (BPA) has been proposed in order to improve the purity of intense pulsed ion beams. To confirm the principle of the BPA, we developed a bipolar pulse generator for the bipolar pulse experiment, which consists of a Marx generator and a pulse forming line (PFL) with a rail gap switch on its end. In this article, we report the first experimental result of the bipolar pulse and evaluate the electrical characteristics of the bipolar pulse generator. When the bipolar pulse generator was operated at 70% of the full charge condition of the PFL, the bipolar pulse with the first (-138 kV, 72 ns) and the second pulse (+130 kV, 70 ns) was successfully obtained. The evaluation of the electrical characteristics indicates that the developed generator can produce the bipolar pulse with fast rise time and sharp reversing time

  17. CH2 molecular beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.A.R.; Grosser, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    A molecular beam source of CH 2 is described. Coaxial beams of methylene halide and alkali metal react and the mixture is formed into a molecular beam. Passage through a mechanical velocity selector rotating at a suitably high speed purifies the beam, separating light, fast CH 2 from heavier, slower contaminating species

  18. Pulsed electron beam generation with fast repetitive double pulse system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Surender Kumar; Deb, Pankaj; Shyam, Anurag, E-mail: surender80@gmail.com [Energetics and Electromagnetics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Visakhapatnam (India); Sharma, Archana [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    Longer duration high voltage pulse (∼ 100 kV, 260 ns) is generated and reported using helical pulse forming line in compact geometry. The transmission line characteristics of the helical pulse forming line are also used to develop fast repetition double pulse system with very short inter pulse interval. It overcomes the limitations caused due to circuit parameters, power supplies and load characteristics for fast repetitive high voltage pulse generation. The high voltage double pulse of 100 kV, 100 ns with an inter pulse repetition interval of 30 ns is applied across the vacuum field emission diode for pulsed electron beam generation. The electron beam is generated from cathode material by application of negative high voltage (> 100 kV) across the diode by explosive electron emission process. The vacuum field emission diode is made of 40 mm diameter graphite cathode and SS mesh anode. The anode cathode gap was 6 mm and the drift tube diameter was 10 cm. The initial experimental results of pulsed electron beam generation with fast repetitive double pulse system are reported and discussed. (author)

  19. Molecular-beam scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, M.F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N 2 from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HCl → NaCl + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2 2 P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3 2 P/sub 3/2/) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included

  20. Molecular beam kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R. Jr.

    1975-11-01

    The design of a crossed molecular beam ''supermachine'' for neutral--neutral collisions is discussed. The universal electron bombardment ionizer, mass filter, and ion detection system of the detector, the supersonic nozzle sources, the differential pumping arrangement for the sources and detector, the time-of-flight detection of scattered products, and the overall configuration of the apparatus are described. The elastic scattering of two systems, CH 4 + Ar and NH 3 + Ar, has been measured using the supermachine with two supersonic nozzle sources. The rainbow structure and the interference oscillations are seen in each system. The best fit to the data was found using a Morse--Spline--Van der Waals (MSV) potential. The three potential parameters epsilon, r/sub m/, and β were found to be 2.20(+-0.04) x 10 -14 ergs, 3.82(+-0.04)A, and 7.05 +- 0.20 for CH 4 + Ar, and 2.21(+-0.04) x 10 -14 ergs 3.93 (+-0.05)A, and 8.45 +- 0.30 for NH 3 + Ar. A new phenomenon in crossed molecular beams of condensation of a molecule on a cluster to form a complex was observed. A bromine molecule condensed on clusters of chlorine (Cl 2 )/sub chi/ and ammonia (NH 3 )/sub chi/. The value of chi for measurements in these experiments ranges from 7 to 40 for chlorine clusters and from 10 to 70 ammonia clusters

  1. Photodissociation processes in molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, L.R.

    1979-05-01

    A description is presented of a study of the photodissociation dynamics of molecules in a molecular beam. Photo-fragmentation translational spectroscopy has been utilized to observe the photodissociation dynamics of ozone. Using a supersonic molecular beam and a 10 nanosecond pulsed laser at lambda = 266 nm, the velocities of the fragment products are measured by the method of time of flight. The resolution of the time of flight spectrum of ozone is sufficiently high that the electronic and vibrational states are clearly resolved and identified. Above the threshold (lambda 1 D) has been estimated in the past to be unity for the process O 3 ( 1 A 1 ) + hν)lambda 3 ( 1 B 2 ) → O 2 ( 1 Δ/sub g/) + O( 1 D). However a small production of O 2 ( 3 Σ/sub g/ - ) + O( 3 P) has been observed in this study. The O 2 ( 1 Δ/sub g/) product yields four vibrational states (v = 0, 1, 2, 3) which yields a vibrational temperature of 2700 0 K along with narrow energy distributions of rotational levels. These energy distributions are compared with photodissociation models along with the polarization dependence of the dissociative process which was also measured. 143 references

  2. Photodissociation processes in molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, L.R.

    1979-05-01

    A description is presented of a study of the photodissociation dynamics of molecules in a molecular beam. Photo-fragmentation translational spectroscopy has been utilized to observe the photodissociation dynamics of ozone. Using a supersonic molecular beam and a 10 nanosecond pulsed laser at lambda = 266 nm, the velocities of the fragment products are measured by the method of time of flight. The resolution of the time of flight spectrum of ozone is sufficiently high that the electronic and vibrational states are clearly resolved and identified. Above the threshold (lambda < 310 nm), the quantum yield for the production of O(/sup 1/D) has been estimated in the past to be unity for the process O/sub 3/ (/sup 1/A/sub 1/) + h..nu..)lambda < 300 nm) ..-->.. O/sub 3/(/sup 1/B/sub 2/) ..-->.. O/sub 2/(/sup 1/..delta../sub g/) + O(/sup 1/D). However a small production of O/sub 2/ (/sup 3/..sigma../sub g//sup -/) + O(/sup 3/P) has been observed in this study. The O/sub 2/(/sup 1/..delta../sub g/) product yields four vibrational states (v = 0, 1, 2, 3) which yields a vibrational temperature of 2700/sup 0/K along with narrow energy distributions of rotational levels. These energy distributions are compared with photodissociation models along with the polarization dependence of the dissociative process which was also measured. 143 references.

  3. Design Study for Pulsed Proton Beam Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fast neutrons with a broad energy spectrum, with which it is possible to evaluate nuclear data for various research fields such as medical applications and the development of fusion reactors, can be generated by irradiating proton beams on target materials such as beryllium. To generate short-pulse proton beam, we adopted a deflector and slit system. In a simple deflector with slit system, most of the proton beam is blocked by the slit, especially when the beam pulse width is short. Therefore, the available beam current is very low, which results in low neutron flux. In this study, we proposed beam modulation using a buncher cavity to increase the available beam current. The ideal field pattern for the buncher cavity is sawtooth. To make the field pattern similar to a sawtooth waveform, a multiharmonic buncher was adopted. The design process for the multiharmonic buncher includes a beam dynamics calculation and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation. In addition to the system design for pulsed proton generation, a test bench with a microwave ion source is under preparation to test the performance of the system. The design study results concerning the pulsed proton beam generation and the test bench preparation with some preliminary test results are presented in this paper.

  4. Intense pulsed heavy ion beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masugata, Katsumi; Ito, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    Development of intense pulsed heavy ion beam accelerator technology is described for the application of materials processing. Gas puff plasma gun and vacuum arc discharge plasma gun were developed as an active ion source for magnetically insulated pulsed ion diode. Source plasma of nitrogen and aluminum were successfully produced with the gas puff plasma gun and the vacuum arc plasma gun, respectively. The ion diode was successfully operated with gas puff plasma gun at diode voltage 190 kV, diode current 2.2 kA and nitrogen ion beam of ion current density 27 A/cm 2 was obtained. The ion composition was evaluated by a Thomson parabola spectrometer and the purity of the nitrogen ion beam was estimated to be 86%. The diode also operated with aluminum ion source of vacuum arc plasma gun. The ion diode was operated at 200 kV, 12 kA, and aluminum ion beam of current density 230 A/cm 2 was obtained. The beam consists of aluminum ions (Al (1-3)+ ) of energy 60-400 keV, and protons (90-130 keV), and the purity was estimated to be 89%. The development of the bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA) was reported. A double coaxial type bipolar pulse generator was developed as the power supply of the BPA. The generator was tested with dummy load of 7.5 ohm, bipolar pulses of -138 kV, 72 ns (1st pulse) and +130 kV, 70 ns (2nd pulse) were successively generated. By applying the bipolar pulse to the drift tube of the BPA, nitrogen ion beam of 2 A/cm 2 was observed in the cathode, which suggests the bipolar pulse acceleration. (author)

  5. Intense pulsed ion beams for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.

    1980-04-01

    The subject of this review paper is the field of intense pulsed ion beam generation and the potential application of the beams to fusion research. Considerable progress has been made over the past six years. The ion injectors discussed utilize the introduction of electrons into vacuum acceleration gaps in conjunction with high voltage pulsed power technology to achieve high output current. Power levels from injectors exceeding 1000 MW/cm 2 have been obtained for pulse lengths on the order of 10 -7 sec. The first part of the paper treats the physics and technology of intense ion beams. The second part is devoted to applications of intense ion beams in fusion research. A number of potential uses in magnetic confinement systems have been proposed

  6. Generation of an intense pulsed positron beam and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ryoichi; Mikado, Tomohisa; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Chiwaki, Mitsukuni; Yamazaki, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Yoshinori.

    1994-01-01

    A positron pulsing system for an intense positron beam generated by an electron linac has been developed at the Electrotechnical Laboratory. The pulsing system generates an intense pulsed positron beam of variable energy and variable pulse period. The pulsed positron beam is used as a non destructive probe for various materials researches. In this paper, we report the present status of the pulsed positron beam and its applications. (author)

  7. Pulsed power particle beam fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonas, G.

    1979-01-01

    Although substantial progress has been made in the last few years in developing the technology of intense particle beam drivers, there are still several unanswered questions which will determine their ultimate feasibility as fusion ignition systems. The questions of efficiency, cost, and single pulse scalability appear to have been answered affirmatively but repetitive pulse technology is still in its infancy. The allowable relatively low pellet gains and high available beam energies should greatly ease questions of pellet implosion physics. Insofar as beam-target coupling is concerned, ion deposition is thought to be understood and our measurements of enhanced electron deposition agree with theory. With the development of plasma discharges for intense beam transport and concentration it appears that light ion beams will be the preferred approach for reactors

  8. Pulsed beams as field probes for precision measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J. J.; Ashworth, H. T.; Kara, D. M.; Tarbutt, M. R.; Sauer, B. E.; Hinds, E. A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a technique for mapping the spatial variation of static electric, static magnetic, and rf magnetic fields using a pulsed atomic or molecular beam. The method is demonstrated using a beam designed to measure the electric dipole moment of the electron. We present maps of the interaction region, showing sensitivity to (i) electric field variation of 1.5 V/cm at 3.3 kV/cm with a spatial resolution of 15 mm; (ii) magnetic field variation of 5 nT with 25 mm resolution; (iii) radio-frequency magnetic field amplitude with 15 mm resolution. This diagnostic technique is very powerful in the context of high-precision atomic and molecular physics experiments, where pulsed beams have not hitherto found widespread application

  9. Cooling of molecular ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.; Krohn, S.; Kreckel, H.; Lammich, L.; Lange, M.; Strasser, D.; Grieser, M.; Schwalm, D.; Zajfman, D.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the use of stored ion beams and phase space cooling (electron cooling) is given for the field of molecular physics. Emphasis is given to interactions between molecular ions and electrons studied in the electron cooler: dissociative recombination and, for internally excited molecular ions, electron-induced ro-vibrational cooling. Diagnostic methods for the transverse ion beam properties and for the internal excitation of the molecular ions are discussed, and results for phase space cooling and internal (vibrational) cooling are presented for hydrogen molecular ions

  10. Rock excavation by pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.; Keefe, D.; Brekke, T.L.; Finnie, I.

    1976-03-01

    If an intense short pulse of megavolt electrons is deposited in a brittle solid, dynamic spalling can be made to occur with removal of material. Experiments were made on several types of hard rock; results are reproducible and well-described theoretically. An accelerator with a rapidly-pulsed scanning electron beam was designed that could tunnel in hard rock about ten times faster than conventional drill/blast methods

  11. Rock excavation by pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.; Keefe, D.; Brekke, T.L.; Finnie, I.

    1976-01-01

    If an intense short pulse of megavolt electrons is deposited in a brittle solid, dynamic spalling can be made to occur with removal of material. Experiments have been made on several types of hard rock; results are reproducible and well-described theoretically. An accelerator with a rapid-pulsed scanning electron-beam has been designed that could tunnel in hard rock about ten times faster than conventional drill/blast methods. (author)

  12. Photoelectron photoion molecular beam spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevor, D.J.

    1980-12-01

    The use of supersonic molecular beams in photoionization mass spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy to assist in the understanding of photoexcitation in the vacuum ultraviolet is described. Rotational relaxation and condensation due to supersonic expansion were shown to offer new possibilities for molecular photoionization studies. Molecular beam photoionization mass spectroscopy has been extended above 21 eV photon energy by the use of Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) facilities. Design considerations are discussed that have advanced the state-of-the-art in high resolution vuv photoelectron spectroscopy. To extend gas-phase studies to 160 eV photon energy, a windowless vuv-xuv beam line design is proposed

  13. Construction of ion beam pulse radiolysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitose, Norihisa; Katsumura, Yosuke; Domae, Masafumi; Ishigure, Kenkichi; Murakami, Takeshi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    An ion beam pulse radiolysis system has been constructed at HIMAC facility. Ion beam of 24 MeV He{sup 2+} with the duration longer than 1 {mu}s is available for irradiation. Three kinds of aqueous solutions, (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}CO, NaHCO{sub 3} and KSCN, were irradiated and the absorption signals were observed. (author)

  14. Development of picosecond pulsed electron beam monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Y.; Nakazawa, M.; Ueda, T.; Kobayasi, T.; Yosida, Y.; Ohkuma, J.; Okuda, S.; Suemine, S.

    1993-01-01

    For the picosecond pulsed electron beam of a linear accelerator a simple monitor using an electric connector has been developed which is constructed with SMA, BNC, N type electric connector through pipe (inner diameter = 50 mm or 100 mm). Under the measurement conditions of peak current (26A-900A) and narrow pulse width (Pw = 10 ps(FWHM), Pw = 30 ps(FWHM)), the following characteristics of this monitor were obtained, (A) rise time is less than 25 ps (B) the amplitude of the monitor output pulse is proportional directly to the area of cross section of the electrode. (author)

  15. Pulsed high current ion beam processing equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Perry, A.

    1995-01-01

    A pulsed high voltage ion source is considered for use in ion beam processing for the surface modification of materials, and deposition of conducting films on different substrates. The source consists of an Arkad'ev-Marx high voltage generator, a vacuum ion diode based on explosive ion emission, and a vacuum chamber as substrate holder. The ion diode allows conducting films to be deposited from metal or allow sources, with ion beam mixing, onto substrates held at a pre-selected temperature. The main variables can be set in the ranges: voltage 100-700 kV, pulse length 0.3 μs, beam current 1-200 A depending on the ion chosen. The applications of this technology are discussed in semiconductor, superconductor and metallizing applications as well as the direction of future development and cost of these devices for commercial application. 14 refs., 6 figs

  16. Continuous all-optical deceleration of molecular beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayich, Andrew; Chen, Gary; Long, Xueping; Wang, Anna; Campbell, Wesley

    2014-05-01

    A significant impediment to generating ultracold molecules is slowing a molecular beam to velocities where the molecules can be cooled and trapped. We report on progress toward addressing this issue with a general optical deceleration technique for molecular and atomic beams. We propose addressing the molecular beam with a pump and dump pulse sequence from a mode-locked laser. The pump pulse counter-propagates with respect to the beam and drives the molecules to the excited state. The dump pulse co-propagates and stimulates emission, driving the molecules back to the ground state. This cycle transfers 2 ℏk of momentum and can generate very large optical forces, not limited by the spontaneous emission lifetime of the molecule or atom. Importantly, avoiding spontaneous emission limits the branching to dark states. This technique can later be augmented with cooling and trapping. We are working towards demonstrating this optical force by accelerating a cold atomic sample.

  17. Ion beam pulse radiolysis system at HIMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitose, N; Katsumura, Y; Domae, M; Ishigure, K [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Murakami, T

    1997-03-01

    An ion beam pulse radiolysis system has been constructed at HIMAC facility. Ion beam of 24MeV He{sup 2+} with the duration longer than 1 {mu}s is available for irradiation. Three kinds of aqueous solutions, (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}CO, NaHCO{sub 3}, and KSCN, were irradiated and the absorption signals corresponding to (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}CO{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup -}, and (SCN){sub 2}{sup -} respectively were observed. Ghost signals which interfere with the measurement are also discussed. (author)

  18. A low background pulsed neutron polyenergetic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Abdelkawy, A.; Habib, N.; abuelela, M.; Wahba, M.; kilany, M.; Kalebebin, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    A low background pulsed neutron polyenergetic thermal beam at ET-R R-1 is produced by a rotor and rotating collimator suspended in magnetic fields. Each of them is mounted on its mobile platform and whose centres are 66 cm apart, rotating synchronously at speeds up to 16000 rpm. It was found that the neutron burst produced by the rotor with almost 100% transmission passes through the collimator, when the rotation phase between them is 28.8 degree Moreover the background level achieved at the detector position is low, constant and free from peaks due to gamma rays and fast neutrons accompanying the reactor thermal beam.3 fig

  19. Simulating Transient Effects of Pulsed Beams on Beam Intercepting Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Herta; Noah Messomo, Etam

    2011-01-01

    The development in the physics community towards higher beam power through the possibilities of particle accelerators lead to challenges for the developers of elements which are exposed to effect of particle beams (beam intercepting devices = BIDs). For the design of BIDs, the increasing heat load onto these devices due to energetic and focused beams and - in most cases - their highly pulsed nature has to be taken into account. The physics requirements are sometimes opposed to the current state of the art. As one possibility of many in combining the different aspects for these ambitious demands, two highly developed computer programs, namely FLUKA and ANSYS AUTODYN, were joined for this dissertation. The former is a widely enhanced Monte-Carlo-code which specializes on the interaction of particles with static matter, while the latter is a versatile explicit code for the simulation of highly dynamic processes. Both computer programs were developed intensively over years and are still continuously enhanced in o...

  20. A recycling molecular beam reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prada-Silva, G.; Haller, G.L.; Fenn, J.B.

    1974-01-01

    In a Recycling Molecular Beam Reactor, RMBR, a beam of reactant gas molecules is formed from a supersonic free jet. After collision with a target the molecules pass through the vacuum pumps and are returned to the nozzle source. Continuous recycling permits the integration of very small reaction probabilities into measurable conversions which can be analyzed by gas chromatography. Some preliminary experiments have been carried out on the isomerization of cyclopropane

  1. Molecular-beam studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wexler, S.; Parks, E.K.; Young, C.E.; Dehmer, P.M.; Kuhry, J.G.; Cohen, R.B.; Pobo, L.G.

    1975-01-01

    Highlights of experimental results obtained with chemical accelerators are described under the following headings: development of an aerodynamic source of fast I atoms and I 2 molecules; chemi-ionization processes in collisions of uranium atoms with oxygen molecules; chemi-ionization reactions in other metal--O 2 collisions (La, Ce, Th); kinetic surface ionization; and single-crystal beam source. Relative cross sections for formation of various collision products are shown, as a function of energy in the eV range. (12 figures) (U.S.)

  2. Materials processing with intense pulsed ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rej, D.J.; Davis, H.A.; Olson, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    We review research investigating the application of intense pulsed ion beams (IPIBs) for the surface treatment and coating of materials. The short range (0.1-10 μm) and high-energy density (1-50 J/cm 2 ) of these short-pulsed (≤ 1 μs) beams (with ion currents I = 5 - 50 kA, and energies E = 100 - 1000 keV) make them ideal to flash-heat a target surface, similar to the more familiar pulsed laser processes. IPIB surface treatment induces rapid melt and solidification at up to 10 10 K/s to cause amorphous layer formation and the production of non-equilibrium microstructures. At higher energy density the target surface is vaporized, and the ablated vapor is condensed as coatings onto adjacent substrates or as nanophase powders. Progress towards the development of robust, high-repetition rate IPIB accelerators is presented along with economic estimates for the cost of ownership of this technology

  3. Beams 92: Proceedings. Volume 1: Invited papers, pulsed power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, D.; Cooperstein, G. [eds.] [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Ion beam papers; electron beam, bremsstrahlung, and diagnostics papers; radiating Z- pinch papers; microwave papers; electron laser papers; advanced accelerator papers; beam and pulsed power applications papers; pulsed power papers; and these papers have been indexed separately elsewhere.

  4. Self triggered single pulse beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, J.L.; Blum, E.B.

    1993-01-01

    A self triggered beam position monitor (BPM) has been developed for the NSLS injection system to provide single pulse orbit measurements in the booster synchrotron, linac, and transport lines. The BPM integrates the negative going portion of 3 nS wide bipolar pickup electrode signals. The gated, self triggering feature confines critical timing components to the front end, relaxing external timing specifications. The system features a low noise high speed FET sampler, a fiber optic gate for bunch and turn selection, and an inexpensive interface to a standard PC data acquisition system

  5. Pulsed power accelerators for particle beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.; Barr, G.W.; VanDevender, J.P.; White, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is completing the construction phase of the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator-I (PBFA-I). Testing of the 36 module, 30 TW, 1 MJ output accelerator is in the initial stages. The 4 MJ, PBFA Marx generator has provided 3.6 MA into water-copper sulfate load resistors with a spread from first to last Marx firing between 15 to 25 ns and an output power of 5.7 TW. This accelerator is a modular, lower voltage, pulsed power device that is capable of scaling to power levels exceeding 100 TW. The elements of the PBFA technology and their integration into an accelerator system for particle beam fusion will be discussed

  6. Fast pulse beam generation systems for electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    The fast pulse beam generation system to supply the SLAC storage ring, SPEAR, by the two one nanosecond bunch electron beam pulses is described. Generation of these pulses is accomplished with a combination of a fast pulsed grided gun and a synchronized transverse beam chopper. Fast gun based on spherical cathode-grid assembly has output current up to 2As. Fast pulse amplifier system can handle trains of short pulses with repetition rates up to 40 MHz during the 1.6 μs normal accelerating time. Chopping deflector system consists of a resonant coaxial line with the deflecting plates. The resonator frequency is 39.667 MHz. A schematic diagram of the resonant system is shown. The fast beam pickup system has a one hundred picosecond rise time overrall. Fast beam generation and chopper systems permit to generate almost any short or single bunch beam profile needed for experiments

  7. Characteristics of bipolar-pulse generator for intense pulsed heavy ion beam acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igawa, K.; Tomita, T.; Kitamura, I.; Ito, H.; Masugata, K.

    2006-01-01

    Intense pulsed heavy ion beams are expected to be applied to the implantation technology for semiconductor materials. In the application it is very important to purify the ion beam. In order to improve the purity of an intense pulsed ion beams we have proposed a new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named 'bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA)'. A prototype of the experimental system has been developed to perform proof of principle experiments of the accelerator. A bipolar pulse generator has been designed for the generation of the pulsed ion beam with the high purity via the bipolar pulse acceleration and the electrical characteristics of the generator were evaluated. The production of the bipolar pulse has been confirmed experimentally. (author)

  8. Laser beam diagnostics for kilowatt power pulsed YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yi; Leong, Keng H.

    1992-01-01

    There is a growing need for high power YAG laser beam diagnostics with the recent introduction of such lasers in laser material processing. In this paper, we will describe the use of a commercially available laser beam analyzer (Prometec) to profile the laser beam from a 1600 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser that has a 1 mm fiber optic beam delivery system. The selection of laser pulse frequency and pulse width for the measurement is discussed. Laser beam propagation parameters by various optical components such as fibers and lenses can be determined from measurements using this device. The importance of such measurements will be discussed

  9. Polarizing beam-splitter device at a pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinichi; Takeda, Masayasu.

    1996-01-01

    A polarizing beam-splitter device was designed using Fe/Si supermirrors in order to obtain two polarized neutron beam lines, from one unpolarized neutron beam line, with a practical beam size for investigating the properties of condensed matter. This device was mounted after a guide tube at a pulsed neutron source, and its performance was investigated. (author)

  10. Reducing the beam current in Linac4 in pulse to pulse mode.

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, JB; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    In order to deliver different beam intensities to users, we studied the possibility of varying the Linac4 beam current at PS Booster injection in pulse to pulse mode. This report gives the possible configurations of Linac4 Low and Medium Energy Beam Transport lines (LEBT and MEBT) that lead to a consistent current reduction.

  11. Finite-amplitude, pulsed, ultrasonic beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulouvrat, François; Frøysa, Kjell-Eivind

    An analytical, approximate solution of the inviscid KZK equation for a nonlinear pulsed sound beam radiated by an acoustic source with a Gaussian velocity distribution, is obtained by means of the renormalization method. This method involves two steps. First, the transient, weakly nonlinear field is computed. However, because of cumulative nonlinear effects, that expansion is non-uniform and breaks down at some distance away from the source. So, in order to extend its validity, it is re-written in a new frame of co-ordinates, better suited to following the nonlinear distorsion of the wave profile. Basically, the nonlinear coordinate transform introduces additional terms in the expansion, which are chosen so as to counterbalance the non-uniform ones. Special care is devoted to the treatment of shock waves. Finally, comparisons with the results of a finite-difference scheme turn out favorable, and show the efficiency of the method for a rather large range of parameters.

  12. Photoionization studies with molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.Y.

    1976-09-01

    A molecular beam photoionization apparatus which combines the advantages of both the molecular beam method with photoionization mass spectrometry has been designed and constructed for carrying out some unique photoionization experiments. Rotational cooling during the supersonic expansion has resulted in high resolution photoionization efficiency curves for NO, ICl, C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/I. The analysis of these spectra has yielded ionization potentials for these molecules to an accuracy of +- 3 MeV. Detailed autoionization structures were also resolved. This allows the investigation of the selection rules for autoionization, and the identification of the Rydberg series which converge to the excited states of the molecular ions. The degree of relaxation for thermally populated excited states has been examined using NO and ICl as examples. As a result of adiabatic cooling, a small percentage of dimers is also formed during the expansion. The photoionization efficiency curves for (NO)/sub 2/, ArICl, Ar/sub 2/, Kr/sub 2/ and Xe/sub 2/ have been obtained near the thresholds. Using the known dissociation energies of the (NO)/sub 2/, Ar/sub 2/, Kr/sub 2/ and Xe/sub 2/ van der Waals molecules, the corresponding dissociation energies for NO-NO/sup +/, Ar/sub 2//sup +/, Kr/sub 2//sup +/, and Xe/sub 2//sup +/ have been determined. The ionization mechanisms for this class of molecules are examined and discussed.

  13. Photoionization studies with molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.Y.

    1976-09-01

    A molecular beam photoionization apparatus which combines the advantages of both the molecular beam method with photoionization mass spectrometry has been designed and constructed for carrying out some unique photoionization experiments. Rotational cooling during the supersonic expansion has resulted in high resolution photoionization efficiency curves for NO, ICl, C 2 H 2 and CH 3 I. The analysis of these spectra has yielded ionization potentials for these molecules to an accuracy of +- 3 MeV. Detailed autoionization structures were also resolved. This allows the investigation of the selection rules for autoionization, and the identification of the Rydberg series which converge to the excited states of the molecular ions. The degree of relaxation for thermally populated excited states has been examined using NO and ICl as examples. As a result of adiabatic cooling, a small percentage of dimers is also formed during the expansion. The photoionization efficiency curves for (NO) 2 , ArICl, Ar 2 , Kr 2 and Xe 2 have been obtained near the thresholds. Using the known dissociation energies of the (NO) 2 , Ar 2 , Kr 2 and Xe 2 van der Waals molecules, the corresponding dissociation energies for NO-NO + , Ar 2 + , Kr 2 + , and Xe 2 + have been determined. The ionization mechanisms for this class of molecules are examined and discussed

  14. Mid-infrared beam splitter for ultrashort pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somma, Carmine; Reimann, Klaus; Woerner, Michael; Kiel, Thomas; Busch, Kurt; Braun, Andreas; Matalla, Mathias; Ickert, Karina; Krüger, Olaf

    2017-08-01

    A design is presented for a beam splitter suitable for ultrashort pulses in the mid-infrared and terahertz spectral range consisting of a structured metal layer on a diamond substrate. Both the theory and experiment show that this beam splitter does not distort the temporal pulse shape.

  15. Phase measurement and control of pulsed charged beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    A method and system is described that measures and controls the arrival phase of a pulsed ion beam. The repetitive beam pulse passes through and resonantly excites a high-Q structure, tuned to the beam repetition frequency or to a higher harmonic thereof. A reference signal of the same frequency is phase-flipped from -90 0 to +90 0 at a high audio rate and also coupled to the resonator. The low-level output signal, comprised of the vector sum of the beam-induced signal and the phase-flipped reference, is amplified and processed to obtain phase information. The system is usable for beams with average currents as low as a few picoamperes and can be used in the measurement and control of pulsed beam experiments involving timing, the control of beam phase for rf particle accelerators and the nondestructive measurement of beam energy. (Auth.)

  16. Experimental research on a double pulsed beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Liansheng; Zhang Linwen; Huang Ziping; Gao Feng; Shi Jinshui; Deng Jianjun

    2004-01-01

    A double pulsed beam generator is built based on 2 MeV linear induction accelerator (LIA) injector. The second power source and 8 inductive cells of the injector are divided into two groups and work alternatively. Electron energy of each beam is up to 1 MeV and the beam duration is 120 ns with adjustable pulse interval (from 200 ns to 800 ns). The voltage amplitude difference of the two pulses can be less than 2%. The electron beams are emitted from a velvet cathode in a vacuum diode. The beam currents are up to 3 kA, measured both by a Faraday cup in anode hole and by a shunt resistor at the rail of the LIA injector. This device can be used to study multi-pulse diode physics and emitting physics of different materials under multi-pulse mode. (author)

  17. Enhancement of beam pulse controllability for a single-pulse formation system of a cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurashima, Satoshi; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The single-pulse formation technique using a beam chopping system consisting of two types of high-voltage beam kickers was improved to enhance the quality and intensity of the single-pulse beam with a pulse interval over 1 μs at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency cyclotron facility. A contamination rate of neighboring beam bunches in the single-pulse beam was reduced to less than 0.1%. Long-term purification of the single pulse beam was guaranteed by the well-controlled magnetic field stabilization system for the cyclotron magnet. Reduction of the multi-turn extraction number for suppressing the neighboring beam bunch contamination was achieved by restriction of a beam phase width and precise optimization of a particle acceleration phase. In addition, the single-pulse beam intensity was increased by a factor of two or more by a combination of two types of beam bunchers using sinusoidal and saw-tooth voltage waveforms. Provision of the high quality intense single-pulse beam contributed to improve the accuracy of experiments for investigation of scintillation light time-profile and for neutron energy measurement by a time-of-flight method

  18. Production of pulsed atomic oxygen beams via laser vaporization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinza, D.E.; Coulter, D.R.; Liang, R.H.; Gupta, A.

    1987-01-01

    Energetic pulsed atomic oxygen beams were generated by laser-driven evaporation of cryogenically frozen ozone/oxygen films and thin films of indium-tin oxide (ITO). Mass and energy characterization of beams from the ozone/oxygen films were carried out by mass spectrometry. The peak flux, found to occur at 10 eV, is estimated from this data to be 3 x 10(20) m(-2) s(-1). Analysis of the time-of-flight data indicates a number of processes contribute to the formation of the atomic oxygen beam. The absence of metastable states such as the 2p(3) 3s(1) (5S) level of atomic oxygen blown off from ITO films is supported by the failure to observe emission at 777.3 nm from the 2p(3) 3p(1) (5P/sub J/) levels. Reactive scattering experiments with polymer film targets for atomic oxygen bombardment are planned using a universal crossed molecular beam apparatus

  19. High current precision long pulse electron beam position monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, S D; Fessenden, T J; Holmes, C

    2000-01-01

    Precision high current long pulse electron beam position monitoring has typically experienced problems with high Q sensors, sensors damped to the point of lack of precision, or sensors that interact substantially with any beam halo thus obscuring the desired signal. As part of the effort to develop a multi-axis electron beam transport system using transverse electromagnetic stripline kicker technology, it is necessary to precisely determine the position and extent of long high energy beams for accurate beam position control (6 - 40 MeV, 1 - 4 kA, 2 μs beam pulse, sub millimeter beam position accuracy.) The kicker positioning system utilizes shot-to-shot adjustments for reduction of relatively slow (< 20 MHz) motion of the beam centroid. The electron beams passing through the diagnostic systems have the potential for large halo effects that tend to corrupt position measurements.

  20. Beam formation in molecular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottwald, B.A.

    1974-01-01

    Comparison of experimental angular distribution data with theoretical models has show a considerable disagreement with the Clausing model (free molecular flow with diffuse reflexion). For a real system this idealized model has to be modified by taking into consideration possible perturbations of the Clausing flow chemical reactions, surface diffusion and deviations from diffuse reflexion. By comparison with the diffusion differential equation and Monte Carlo stimulations, it has been shown that the iteration of a system of appropriately modified Clausing integral equations is especially suited for solving this complex problem. Suitable characterized parameters for angular distribution data are the beam half-width upsilon 1/2 and the peaking factor chi defined according to Olander and Jones. The computer program in a first step calculates the real steady state of molecular flow. In a second step the computer program calculates the dependence of upsilon 1/2 and chi upon the parameters L/2R (orifice geometry) and m' (order of the surface reaction preceding the desorption from the inner wall of the cylindrical orifice). For the real steady state of molecular flow

  1. A 70 MHz pulsing beam system for protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Shizhong; Zhang Tianjue; Wu Longcheng; Lv Yinlong; Song Guofang; Guan Fengping; Jia Xianlu

    2008-01-01

    A test beam line for pulsed beam generation for 10 MeV central region model (CRM) of a compact cyclotron is under construction as China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). A 70 MHz continuous H - beam with the energy of dozens of keV or a hundred keV will be pulsed to pulse length of less than 10 ns with the repetition rate of 1-8 MHz. A 70.487 MHz buncher will be used to compress the DC beam into the RF phase acceptance of ±30° of the CRM cyclotron. The 2.2 MHz sine waveform will be used for the chopper. A pulse with the repetition rate to 4.4 MHz and pulse length less than 10 ns is expected after CRM cyclotron. (authors)

  2. 14th international symposium on molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses research being conducted with molecular beams. The general topic areas are as follows: Clusters I; reaction dynamics; atomic and molecular spectroscopy; clusters II; new techniques; photodissociation & dynamics; and surfaces.

  3. 14th international symposium on molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted with molecular beams. The general topic areas are as follows: Clusters I; reaction dynamics; atomic and molecular spectroscopy; clusters II; new techniques; photodissociation dynamics; and surfaces.

  4. 14th international symposium on molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted with molecular beams. The general topic areas are as follows: Clusters I; reaction dynamics; atomic and molecular spectroscopy; clusters II; new techniques; photodissociation ampersand dynamics; and surfaces

  5. Development of bipolar pulse accelerator for intense pulsed ion beam acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, Y.; Mitsui, C.; Kitamura, I.; Takahashi, T.; Masugata, K.; Tanoue, H.; Arai, K.

    2003-01-01

    To improve the purity of an intense pulsed ion beams a new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named 'bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA)' was proposed. In the accelerator purity of the beam is expected. To confirm the principle of the accelerator experimental system was developed. The system utilizes B y type magnetically insulated acceleration gap and operated with single polar negative pulse. A coaxial gas puff plasma gun placed in the grounded anode was used as an ion source, and source plasma (nitrogen) of current density approx. = 25 A/cm 2 , duration approx. = 1.5 μs was injected into the acceleration gap. The ions are successfully accelerated from the grounded anode to the drift tube by applying negative pulse of voltage 180 kV, duration 60 ns to the drift tube. Pulsed ion beam of current density approx. = 40 A/cm 2 , duration approx. 60 ns was obtained at 42 mm downstream from the anode surface. (author)

  6. Evaluation of bipolar pulse generator for high-purity pulsed ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, H.; Kitamura, I.; Masugata, K.

    2008-01-01

    A new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named 'bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA)' has been proposed in order to improve the purity of intense pulsed ion beams. To confirm the principle of the BPA, we developed a bipolar pulse generator, which consists of a Marx generator and a pulse forming line (PFL) with a rail gap switch on its end. In this article, we report the experimental results of the bipolar pulse and evaluate the electrical characteristics of the bipolar pulse generator. When the bipolar pulse generator was operated at 70% of the full charge condition of the PEL, the bipolar pulse with the first (-138 kV, 72 ns) and the second pulse (+130 kV, 70 ns) was successfully obtained. The evaluation of the electrical characteristics indicates that the developed generator can produce the bipolar pulse with fast rise time and sharp reversing time. At present the bipolar pulse generator is installed in the B y type magnetically insulated ion diode and we carry out the experiment on the production of an intense pulsed ion beam by the bipolar pulse accelerator. (author)

  7. Progress toward a microsecond duration, repetitively pulsed, intense- ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.A.; Olson, J.C.; Reass, W.A.; Coates, D.M.; Hunt, J.W.; Schleinitz, H.M.; Greenly, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    A number of intense ion beams applications are emerging requiring repetitive high-average-power beams. These applications include ablative deposition of thin films, rapid melt and resolidification for surface property enhancement, advanced diagnostic neutral beams for the next generation of Tokamaks, and intense pulsed-neutron sources. We are developing a 200-250 keV, 15 kA, 1 μs duration, 1-30 Hz intense ion beam accelerator to address these applications

  8. Atomic and molecular beams production and collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Cyril Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Atomic and molecular beams are employed in physics and chemistry experiments and, to a lesser extent, in the biological sciences. These beams enable atoms to be studied under collision-free conditions and allow the study of their interaction with other atoms, charged particles, radiation, and surfaces. Atomic and Molecular Beams: Production and Collimation explores the latest techniques for producing a beam from any substance as well as from the dissociation of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and the halogens.The book not only provides the basic expressions essential to beam design but also offers

  9. Experimental study of the molecular beam destruction by beam-beam and beam-background scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossel, U.; Dettleff, G.

    1974-01-01

    The extraction of flow properties related to the molecular motion normal to stream lines of an expanding gas jet from observed intensity profiles of supersonic beams is critically assessed. The perturbation of the profile curves by various effects is studied for a helium beam. Exponential laws appear to describe scattering effects to a satisfactory degree

  10. Measurement of the density profile of pure and seeded molecular beams by femtosecond ion imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, C.; Janssen, M.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report on femtosecond ion imaging experiments to measure the density profile of a pulsed supersonic molecular beam. Ion images are measured for both a molecular beam and bulk gas under identical experimental conditions via femtosecond multiphoton ionization of Xe atoms. We report the

  11. Pulse to pulse beam trajectory determination at the IP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koska, W.; Wagner, S.

    1988-01-01

    It has long been known that a precise measurement of the SLC beam trajectory through the IP region is vital both from a machine and a detector point of view. One of the primary techniques used to maximize luminosity is the measurement of the deflection angle of one beam produced by the electromagnetic interaction with the other beam. In order to implement this procedure a pair of precision Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) were installed within the Final Triplet of quadrapoles on each side of the IP. Before the IP BPMs could be used to measure beam-beam deflection, a series of measurements were made of the coefficients which relate the setting of an orbit correction magnet to the position of the beam at a particular BPM (R 12 s). The purpose was to expose any problems such as misconnected cables, etc., by comparing the measured R 12 s with theoretical predictions from the model of the Final Focus region. A technique developed that uses position measurements in the long BPMs to determine a three parameter fit to the beam trajectory at the IP. The three parameters in the fit are the beam position, the incoming angle and the deflection angle. The result was very successful and allows the observation of beam-beam deflection even under marginal conditions. The purpose of this memo is to clear up the technical points and to demonstrate that the simplicity of the fit should allow the implementation of this procedure at the micro level, where it could provide trajectory information in real time which would go a long way toward making it useful as a fast feedback tool and in addition allow easy real time access to beam position data by the Mark II

  12. Final project report for NEET pulsed ion beam project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucheyev, S. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-11

    The major goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a novel experimental approach to access the dynamic regime of radiation damage formation in nuclear materials. In particular, the project exploited a pulsed-ion-beam method in order to gain insight into defect interaction dynamics by measuring effective defect interaction time constants and defect diffusion lengths. This project had the following four major objectives: (i) the demonstration of the pulsed ion beam method for a prototypical nuclear ceramic material, SiC; (ii) the evaluation of the robustness of the pulsed beam method from studies of defect generation rate effects; (iii) the measurement of the temperature dependence of defect dynamics and thermally activated defect-interaction processes by pulsed ion beam techniques; and (iv) the demonstration of alternative characterization techniques to study defect dynamics. As we describe below, all these objectives have been met.

  13. Laser-evaporated pulsed atomic beam and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanping; Hu Qiquan; Su Haizheng; Lin Fucheng

    1986-01-01

    For the purpose of obtaining an atomic beam, laser-evaporated atomic vapor was studied experimentally. The signals of multiphoton ionization of refractory metal atoms obtained with the pulsed atomic beam were observed, and the problem associated with the detection of these signals was discussed

  14. Development of picosecond pulsed electron beam monitor. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Y.; Nakazawa, M.; Ueda, T.

    1994-01-01

    A picosecond pulsed electron beam monitor for a 35 MeV linear accelerator has been developed. The monitor consists of an electric SMA connector and aluminium pipe(inner diameter of 50mm). The following characteristics of this monitor were obtained, (a) the rise time is less than 17.5 ps (b) linearity of the monitor output voltage is proportional to the peak current of beam. It is shown that this monitor can be successfully used for bunch measurements of picosecond pulsed electron beam of 35 MeV linac. (author)

  15. Behavioral changes induced by single and multiple electron beam pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, V.P.; McNulty, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of single, and low-dose, high-dose-rate and multiple electron beam pulses on passive avoidance behavior in mice were studied. Passive avoidance was measured by recording the time that an animal took to enter a chamber from a narrow platform. There were four conditions in the experiment: (1) no shock no radiation-control, (2) radiation only, (3) shock only, and (4) radiation plus shock. Forty animals were run for each data point. Dose rate was held constant at 9 x 10/sup 7/ rads/sec. Average doses for the two single pulses were 7.18 and 8.72 rads. The average total dose for a 25 pulse per second condition was 324.0 rads. The differences between the single versus multiple pulse radiation-only conditions were significant with longer avoidance latencies in the multiple pulse condition. Avoidance latencies were also significantly longer in the shock plus radiation condition for the multiple beam pulse than the single pulse. It is concluded that single and multiple electron beam pulses significantly effect behavior, in this case producing avoidance

  16. Reduction of the beam pulse repetition rate of the Hamburg Isochronous Cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H; Langkau, R; Schirm, N [Hamburg Univ. (F.R. Germany). 1. Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    1976-04-01

    A system for the reduction of the beam pulse repetition rate of the energy-variable Hamburg Isochronous Cyclotron comprising beam pulse supression in the cyclotron center and in the external beam is described.

  17. Molecular beam studies of stratospheric photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Teresa Anne

    1998-12-01

    Photochemistry of chlorine oxide containing species plays a major role in stratospheric ozone depletion. This thesis discusses two photodissociation studies of the key molecules ClONO2 and ClOOCl which were previously thought to only produce Cl-atom (ozone depleting) products at wavelengths relevant to the stratosphere. The development of a molecular beam source of ClOOCl and the photodissociation dynamics of the model system Cl2O are also discussed. In the first chapter, the photochemistry of ClONO2 is examined at 308 nm using the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy. Two primary decomposition pathways, leading to Cl + NO3 and ClO + NO2, were observed, with a lower limit of 0.33 for the relative yield of ClO. The angular distributions for both channels were anisotropic, indicating that the dissociation occurs within a rotational period. Chapter two revisits the photodissociation dynamics of Cl2O at 248 and 308 nm, on which we had previously reported preliminary findings. At 248 nm, three distinct dissociation pathways leading to Cl + ClO products were resolved. At 308 nm, the angular distribution was slightly more isotropic that previously reported, leaving open the possibility that Cl2O excited at 308 nm lives longer than a rotational period. Chapter three describes the development and optimization of a molecular beam source of ClOOCl. We utilized pulsed laser photolysis of ClA2O to generate ClO radicals, and cooled the cell to promote three body recombination to form ClOOCl. The principal components in the beam were Cl2, Cl2O, and ClOOCl. In the fourth chapter, the photodissociation dynamics of ClOOCl are investigated at 248 and 308 nm. We observed multiple dissociation pathways which produced ClO + ClO and 2Cl + O2 products. The relative Cl:ClO product yields are 1.0:0.13 and 1.0:0.20 for ClOOCl photolysis at 248 and 308 nm, respectively. The upper limit for the relative yield of the ClO + ClO channel was 0.19 at 248 nm and 0.31 at 308 nm

  18. A source of translationally cold molecular beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkozy, Laszlo C.

    Currently the fields studying or using molecules with low kinetic energies are experiencing an unprecedented growth. Astronomers and chemists are interested in chemical reactions taking place at temperatures below or around 20 K, spectroscopists could make very precise measurements on slow molecules and molecular physicists could chart the potential energy surfaces more accurately. And the list continues. All of these experiments need slow molecules, with kinetic energies from around 10 cm-1 down to 0. Several designs of cold sources have already been made. The most interesting ones are presented. This work describes the design and the testing of a cold source based on the collisional cooling technique: the molecules of interest are cooled well below their freezing point by a precooled buffer gas. This way condensation is avoided. The source is a copper cell cooled to 4.2 K by an external liquid helium bath. The cell is filled with cold buffer gas (helium). The molecules of choice (ammonia) are injected through a narrow tube in the middle of the cell. The cold molecules leave the cell through a 1 millimeter hole. Two versions of pulsing techniques have been employed: a shutter blade which covers the source hole and opens it only for short moments, and a chopper that modulates the beam further downstream. Both produced pulse lengths around 1 millisecond. The source is tested in an experiment in which the emerging molecules are focused and detected. Time of flight technique is used to measure the kinetic energies. Two detectors have been employed: a microwave cavity to analyze the state of the molecules in the beam, and a mass spectrometer to measure the number density of the particles. The molecules coming out of the source hole are formed into a beam by an electrostatic quadrupole state selector. The quantum mechanical aspects and the elements of electrodynamics involved in the focusing are described. A computer simulation program is presented, which helped

  19. Development of bipolar-pulse accelerator for intense pulsed ion beam acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masugata, Katsumi [Department of Electrical and Electronic System Engineering, Toyama University, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: masugata@eng.toyama-u.ac.jp; Shimizu, Yuichro [Department of Electrical and Electronic System Engineering, Toyama University, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Fujioka, Yuhki [Department of Electrical and Electronic System Engineering, Toyama University, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Kitamura, Iwao [Department of Electrical and Electronic System Engineering, Toyama University, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Tanoue, Hisao [National Institute of Advanced Industry Science and Technology, 1-1-1, Umezono, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Arai, Kazuo [National Institute of Advanced Industry Science and Technology, 1-1-1, Umezono, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2004-12-21

    To improve the purity of intense pulsed ion beams, a new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named 'bipolar pulse accelerator' was proposed. To confirm the principle of the accelerator a prototype of the experimental system was developed. The system utilizes By type magnetically insulated acceleration gap and operated with single polar negative pulse. A coaxial gas puff plasma gun was used as an ion source, which was placed inside the grounded anode. Source plasma (nitrogen) of current density {approx}25A/cm2, duration {approx}1.5{mu}s was injected into the acceleration gap by the plasma gun. The ions were successfully accelerated from the grounded anode to the drift tube by applying negative pulse of voltage 240kV, duration 100ns to the drift tube. Pulsed ion beam of current density {approx}40A/cm2, duration {approx}50ns was obtained at 41mm downstream from the anode surface. To evaluate the irradiation effect of the ion beam to solid material, an amorphous silicon thin film of thickness {approx}500nm was used as the target, which was deposited on the glass substrate. The film was found to be poly-crystallized after 4-shots of the pulsed nitrogen ion beam irradiation.

  20. Molecular beam epitaxy a short history

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W

    2015-01-01

    This volume describes the development of molecular beam epitaxy from its origins in the 1960s through to the present day. It begins with a short historical account of other methods of crystal growth, both bulk and epitaxial, to set the subject in context, emphasising the wide range of semiconductor materials employed. This is followed by an introduction to molecular beams and their use in the Stern-Gerlach experiment and the development of the microwave MASER.

  1. Pulsed system for obtaining microdosimetric data with high intensity beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, M.; Dicello, J.F.; Hiebert, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    The use of heavy particle accelerators for radiation therapy requires high intensity beams in order to produce useful dose rates. The 800-MeV proton beam at LAMPF passes through different production targets to generate secondary pion beams. Conventional microdosimetric techniques are not applicable under these conditions because exceedingly high count rates result in detector damage, gas breakdown, and saturation effects in the electronics. We describe a new microdosimetric system developed at the Pion Biomedical Channel of LAMPF. The accelerator provides a variable low intensity pulse once every ten high intensity macropulses. The voltage on the detector is pulsed in coincidence with the low intensity pulse so that we were able to operate the detector under optimum data-taking conditions. A low noise two-stage preamplifier was built in connection with the pulsed mode operation. A comparison is made between data obtained in pulsed (high intensity beam) and unpulsed (low intensity beam) modes. The spectra obtained by the two methods agree within the experimental uncertainties

  2. Pulsed Cs beam development for the BNL polarized H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    A pulsed Cs + beam has been developed for use on a polarized H - source. Cesium ion production is by surface ionization using a porous tungsten ionizer. While satisfactory current pulses (5 to 10 mA greater than or equal to 0.5 ms) can be obtained, the pulse shapes are a sensitive function of the ionizer temperature and Cs surface coverage. The beam optical requirements are stringent, and the optics have been studied experimentally for both Cs + and Cs 0 beams. Computer calculations are in good agreement with the observed results. The present source has delivered 2.6 mA of Cs + through the interaction region of the polarized ion source, and as much as 2.0 particle mA of Cs 0 . A new source is being built which is designed to give 15 mA through the interaction region

  3. BANSHEE: High-voltage repetitively pulsed electron-beam driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanHaaften, F.

    1992-01-01

    BANSHEE (Beam Accelerator for a New Source of High-Energy Electrons) this is a high-voltage modulator is used to produce a high-current relativistic electron beam for high-power microwave tube development. The goal of the BANSHEE research is first to achieve a voltage pulse of 700--750 kV with a 1-μs pulse width driving a load of ∼100 Ω, the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of a few hertz. The ensuing goal is to increase the pulse amplitude to a level approaching 1 MV. We conducted tests using half the modulator with an output load of 200 Ω, up to a level of ∼650 kV at a PRF of 1 Hz and 525 kV at a PRF of 5 Hz. We then conducted additional testing using the complete system driving a load of ∼100 Ω

  4. High-intensity pulsed beam source with tunable operation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashilevskiy, A. V.; Kanaev, G. G.; Ezhov, V. V.; Shamanin, V. I.

    2017-05-01

    The report presents the design of an electron and an ion pulsed accelerator. The powerful high-voltage pulse generator of the accelerator and the vacuum bushing insulator is able to change the polarity of the output voltage. The low-inductance matching transformer provides an increase in the DFL output impedance by 4 times. The generator based on a high voltage pulse transformer and a pseudo spark switch is applied for DFL charging. The high-impedance magnetically insulated focusing diode with Br magnetic field and the “passive” anode was used to realize the ion beam generation mode. The plasma is formed on the surface of the anode caused by an electrical breakdown at the voltage edge pulse; as a result, the carbon ion and proton beam is generated. This beam has the following parameters: the current density is about 400 A/cm2 (in focus): the applied voltage is up to 450 kV. The accelerator is designed for the research on the interaction of the charged particle pulsed beams with materials and for the development of technological processes of a material modification.

  5. Intense relativistic electron beam generation from KALI-5000 pulse accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.; Mondal, J.; Mitra, S.; Durga Praveen Kumar, D.; Sharma, Archana; Nagesh, K.V.; Chakravarthy, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    Intense Relativistic Electron Beam (IREB) with parameters 420 keV, 22 kA, 100 ns has been generated from indigenously developed pulse power system KALI- 5000. High current electron beam is generated from explosive field emission graphite cathodes. Studies have been conducted by changing the diameter of graphite cathode and also the anode cathode gap. In order to avoid prepulse effect it was concluded that anode cathode (AK) gap should be kept larger than estimated by the Child Langmuir relation. Beam voltage has been measured by a copper sulphate voltage divider, beam current by a self integrating Rogowski coil and B-dot probe. Electron beam diode Impedance and Perveance were obtained from the experimentally measured beam voltage and current. (author)

  6. Construction of a pulsed MeV positron beam line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuno, Shin-ichi; Okada, Sohei; Kawasuso, Atsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    To develop a fast (1 MeV) and short pulsed (100 ps) positron beam which enables defect behavior analysis of bulk states of materials even at high temperatures where a usual positron source would melt, we have been performing design study and construction of the beam line in a three-year program since 1994. This report describes the components, design study results and experimental results of the completed parts until now. (author)

  7. Thermal analysis of EAST neutral beam injectors for long-pulse beam operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chundong, HU; Yongjian, XU; Yuanlai, XIE; Yahong, XIE; Lizhen, LIANG; Caichao, JIANG; Sheng, LIU; Jianglong, WEI; Peng, SHENG; Zhimin, LIU; Ling, TAO; the NBI Team

    2018-04-01

    Two sets of neutral beam injectors (NBI-1 and NBI-2) have been mounted on the EAST tokamak since 2014. NBI-1 and NBI-2 are co-direction and counter-direction, respectively. As with in-depth physics and engineering study of EAST, the ability of long pulse beam injection should be required in the NBI system. For NBIs, the most important and difficult thing that should be overcome is heat removal capacity of heat loaded components for long-pulse beam extraction. In this article, the thermal state of the components of EAST NBI is investigated using water flow calorimetry and thermocouple temperatures. Results show that (1) operation parameters have an obvious influence on the heat deposited on the inner components of the beamline, (2) a suitable operation parameter can decrease the heat loading effectively and obtain longer beam pulse length, and (3) under the cooling water pressure of 0.25 MPa, the predicted maximum beam pulse length will be up to 260 s with 50 keV beam energy by a duty factor of 0.5. The results present that, in this regard, the EAST NBI-1 system has the ability of long-pulse beam injection.

  8. New Acquisition System for the PSR Beam Pulse Charge Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellyey, William C.; Lewis, Paul S.

    2004-01-01

    A Pearson 1010 current monitor toroid has been in use for many years to measure the charge per bunch being delivered from the LANSCE Proton Storage Ring (PSR) to the Lujan Center's spallation neutron source. Improved electronics have been developed to process the toroid's signal. The new system generates a calibrated measurement of charge per pulse and is network-enabled to provide remote access to charge, current and other data via EPICS. It is experimentally demonstrated that accurate charge measurements can be made on calibration pulses that contain frequency components well above what is contained in a typical beam pulse. The new electronics consists of a National Instruments (NI) PXI-1002 chassis that contains a PXI-8176 controller, a PXI-5112 100-MS/s digitizer, and a PXI-6602 scalar and digital I/O module. The 8176 runs under the NI Real Time operating system and was programmed to integrate proton pulse waveforms acquired by the 5112 digitizer. For each beam pulse a 50-kHz pulse stream proportional to the pulse charge is generated by the 6602 and this real time information is distributed to all experimental areas

  9. Hard rock tunneling using pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.; Brekke, T.L.; Finnie, I.

    1974-01-01

    Intense submicrosecond bursts of energetic electrons cause significant pulverization and surface spalling of a variety of rock types, the spall debris generally consisting of sand, dust, and small flakes. If carried out at rapid repetition rate this can lead to a promising technique for increasing the speed and reducing the cost of underground excavation of tunnels, mines, and storage spaces. The conceptual design features of a Pulsed Electron Tunnel Excavator capable of tunneling approximately ten times faster than conventional drill/blast methods were studied. (auth)

  10. Diagnosis for the interaction of supersonic molecular beam with plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Lianghua; Feng Beibing; Feng Zhen; Luo Junlin; Dong Jiafu; Yan Longwen; Hong Wenyu

    2001-01-01

    Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection (SMBI) is a new fuelling method for Tokamaks and has recently been improved to enhance the flux of the beam and to make a survey of the cluster effect within the beam. There are a series of new phenomena, which implicate the interaction of the beam (including clusters) with the toroidal plasma of HL-1M Tokamak. The H α signals from the edge show a regular variation around the torus. Around the injection port, the edge H α signals are positive rectangular wave, which is consistent with that of the injection beam pulses. The edge electron temperature, measured with movable Langmuir probes, decreases by an order of magnitude and the density increases by an order of magnitude. H α emission at the beam injection port, measured with CCD camera at an angle of 13.4 degrees to the SMBI line, shows many separate peaks within the contour plot. These peaks may show the strong emission produced by the interaction of the hydrogen clusters with the plasma. Hydrogen clusters may be produced in the beam according to the empirical scaling (Hagena) law of clustering onset, Γ* = kd 0.85 P 0 /T 0 2.29 , here d is the nozzle diameter in μm, P 0 the stagnation pressure in mbar, T 0 the source temperature in K, and k is a constant related to the gas species. If Γ* > 100, clusters will be formed. In present experiment Γ* is about 127

  11. Beam pulsing of C60 electrostatic injector accelerator for linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Hattori, T.; Kashiwagi, H.; Hata, T.; Noda, K.

    2000-01-01

    The research which measured the energy loss by the interaction between C 60 fullerene beam and solid film using the TOF method was started. The beam pulsing equipment was manufactured in this reason. The method by the copping was adopted for the pulsing, and 10 kHz high frequency was applied between electrodes, and the 20 V maximum voltage between electrodes was obtained. The 600 keV acceleration will be carried out by the 200 kV accelerating column, after pulsing is sent to C 60 fullerene beam drawn from electron impact type ion source at 300 V in pulse intervals 50 μs and 4.6 μs pulse width. The APF-IH type linear accelerator that it settles the fullerene more and more using the APF focusing and accelerates at the high acceleration is designed and is manufactured, and this is made to be a linear accelerator of back step, the high energy acceleration will be carried out. (author)

  12. IKOR - An isochronous pulse compressor ring for proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, G.

    1981-06-01

    This report contains the results of a study carried out for an isochronous compressor ring IKOR which compresses the 500 μs linac macropulses into pulses of 0.68 μs length. Its basic component is a ring magnet with alternating gradient and separated functions. Due to the isochronous operation, an rf system can be avoided which otherwise would be necessary in order to maintain a void in the circulating beam for the purpose of ejection. Injection is performed by charge exchange. The H - beam of the accelerator is first converted into a H 0 beam by stripping off one electron by a high gradient magnet placed in the transfer channel. Subsequently, the beam is converted into a proton beam by removing the remaining electron through a stripping foil in the ring. IKOR will be filled in 658 turns. Immediately after filling, the beam is ejected in a single turn via a kicker and a septum magnet and is transported to the spallation target. Because of the high intensity of 2.7 x 10 14 protons per pulse and, secondly, due to the high repetition rate of 100 Hz, beam dynamics and radiation protection aspects dominate the design and are, for this reason, treated in detail. (orig.)

  13. Nanocomposite oxide thin films grown by pulsed energy beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistor, M.; Petitmangin, A.; Hebert, C.; Seiler, W.

    2011-01-01

    Highly non-stoichiometric indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were grown by pulsed energy beam deposition (pulsed laser deposition-PLD and pulsed electron beam deposition-PED) under low oxygen pressure. The analysis of the structure and electrical transport properties showed that ITO films with a large oxygen deficiency (more than 20%) are nanocomposite films with metallic (In, Sn) clusters embedded in a stoichiometric and crystalline oxide matrix. The presence of the metallic clusters induces specific transport properties, i.e. a metallic conductivity via percolation with a superconducting transition at low temperature (about 6 K) and the melting and freezing of the In-Sn clusters in the room temperature to 450 K range evidenced by large changes in resistivity and a hysteresis cycle. By controlling the oxygen deficiency and temperature during the growth, the transport and optical properties of the nanocomposite oxide films could be tuned from metallic-like to insulating and from transparent to absorbing films.

  14. The powerful pulsed electron beam effect on the metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Yuferov, V.B.; Kosik, N.A.; Druj, O.S.; Skibenko, E.I.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental results of the influence of powerful pulsed electron beams on the surface structure,hardness and corrosion resistance of the Cr18ni10ti steel are presented. The experiments were carried out in the powerful electron accelerators of directional effect VGIK-1 and DIN-2K with an energy up to approx 300 KeV and a power density of 10 9 - 10 11 W/cm 2 for micro- and nanosecond range. The essential influence of the irradiation power density on the material structure was established. Pulsed powerful beam action on metallic surface leads to surface melting,modification of the structure and structure-dependent material properties. The gas emission and mass-spectrometer analysis of the beam-surface interaction were defined

  15. Molecular-beam spectroscopy of interhalogen molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrow, S.A.

    1983-08-01

    A molecular-beam electric-resonance spectrometer employing a supersonic nozzle source has been used to obtain hyperfine spectra of 79 Br 35 Cl. Analyses of these spectra and of microwave spectra published by other authors have yielded new values for the electric dipole moment and for the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants in this molecule. The new constants are significantly different from the currently accepted values. Van der Waals clusters containing chlorine monofluoride have been studied under various expansion conditions by the molecular-beam electric-deflection method. The structural possibilities indicated by the results are discussed, and cluster geometries are proposed

  16. Development of an electron momentum spectrometer for time-resolved experiments employing nanosecond pulsed electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yaguo; Shan, Xu; Liu, Zhaohui; Niu, Shanshan; Wang, Enliang; Chen, Xiangjun

    2018-03-01

    The low count rate of (e, 2e) electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS) has long been a major limitation of its application to the investigation of molecular dynamics. Here we report a new EMS apparatus developed for time-resolved experiments in the nanosecond time scale, in which a double toroidal energy analyzer is utilized to improve the sensitivity of the spectrometer and a nanosecond pulsed electron gun with a repetition rate of 10 kHz is used to obtain an average beam current up to nA. Meanwhile, a picosecond ultraviolet laser with a repetition rate of 5 kHz is introduced to pump the sample target. The time zero is determined by photoionizing the target using a pump laser and monitoring the change of the electron beam current with time delay between the laser pulse and electron pulse, which is influenced by the plasma induced by the photoionization. The performance of the spectrometer is demonstrated by the EMS measurement on argon using a pulsed electron beam, illustrating the potential abilities of the apparatus for investigating the molecular dynamics in excited states when employing the pump-probe scheme.

  17. Compression of pulsed electron beams for material tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metel, Alexander S.

    2018-03-01

    In order to strengthen the surface of machine parts and investigate behavior of their materials exposed to highly dense energy fluxes an electron gun has been developed, which produces the pulsed beams of electrons with the energy up to 300 keV and the current up to 250 A at the pulse width of 100-200 µs. Electrons are extracted into the accelerating gap from the hollow cathode glow discharge plasma through a flat or a spherical grid. The flat grid produces 16-cm-diameter beams with the density of transported per one pulse energy not exceeding 15 J·cm-2, which is not enough even for the surface hardening. The spherical grid enables compression of the beams and regulation of the energy density from 15 J·cm-2 up to 15 kJ·cm-2, thus allowing hardening, pulsed melting of the machine part surface with the further high-speed recrystallization as well as an explosive ablation of the surface layer.

  18. A transparent vacuum window for high-intensity pulsed beams

    CERN Document Server

    Monteil, M; Veness, R

    2011-01-01

    The HiRadMat (High-Radiation to Materials) facility Ill will allow testing of accelerator components, in particular those of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, under the impact of high-intensity pulsed beams. To reach this intensity range, the beam will be focused on a focal point where the target to be tested is located. A 60 mm aperture vacuum window will separate the vacuum of the beam line which is kept under high vacuum 10(-8) mbar, from the test area which is at atmospheric pressure. This window has to resist collapse due to beam passage. The high-intensity of the beam means that typical materials used for standard vacuum windows (such as stainless steel, aluminium and titanium alloy) cannot endure the energy deposition induced by the beam passage. Therefore, a vacuum window has been designed to maintain the differential pressure whilst resisting collapse due to the beam impact on the window. In this paper, we will present calculations of the energy transfer from beam to window, the design of the ...

  19. Beam intensity increases at the intense pulsed neutron source accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, C.; Brumwell, F.; Norem, J.; Rauchas, A.; Stipp, V.; Volk, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) accelerator system has managed a 40% increase in time average beam current over the last two years. Currents of up to 15.6μA (3.25 x 10 12 protons at 30 Hz) have been successfully accelerated and cleanly extracted. Our high current operation demands low loss beam handling to permit hands-on maintenance. Synchrotron beam handling efficiencies of 90% are routine. A new H - ion source which was installed in March of 1983 offered the opportunity to get above 8 μA but an instability caused unacceptable losses when attempting to operate at 10 μA and above. Simple techniques to control the instabilities were introduced and have worked well. These techniques are discussed below. Other improvements in the regulation of various power supplies have provided greatly improved low energy orbit stability and contributed substantially to the increased beam current

  20. Pulsed beam dosimetry using fiber-coupled radioluminescence detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Erik

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to review and discuss the potential application of fiber-coupled radioluminescence detectors for dosimetry in pulsed MV photon beams. Two types of materials were used: carbon-doped aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C) and organic plastic scintillators. Special consideration...... was given to the discrimination between radioluminescence signals from the phosphors and unwanted light induced in the optical fiber cables during irradiation (Cerenkov and fluorescence). New instrumentation for dose-per-pulse measurements with organic plastic scintillators was developed....

  1. Pulsed beam tests at the SANAEM RFQ beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turemen, G.; Akgun, Y.; Alacakir, A.; Kilic, I.; Yasatekin, B.; Ergenlik, E.; Ogur, S.; Sunar, E.; Yildiz, V.; Ahiska, F.; Cicek, E.; Unel, G.

    2017-07-01

    A proton beamline consisting of an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source, two solenoid magnets, two steerer magnets and a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) is developed at the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority’s (TAEA) Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center (SNRTC-SANAEM) in Ankara. In Q4 of 2016, the RFQ was installed in the beamline. The high power tests of the RF power supply and the RF transmission line were done successfully. The high power RF conditioning of the RFQ was performed recently. The 13.56 MHz ICP source was tested in two different conditions, CW and pulsed. The characterization of the proton beam was done with ACCTs, Faraday cups and a pepper-pot emittance meter. Beam transverse emittance was measured in between the two solenoids of the LEBT. The measured beam is then reconstructed at the entrance of the RFQ by using computer simulations to determine the optimum solenoid currents for acceptance matching of the beam. This paper will introduce the pulsed beam test results at the SANAEM RFQ beamline. In addition, the high power RF conditioning of the RFQ will be discussed.

  2. Harp, a short pulse, high current electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestwich, K.R.

    1974-01-01

    A 3 MV, 800 kA, 24 ns electron beam accelerator is described and the results of initial switching experiments are discussed. The generator will provide a source for studying the physics of processes leading to electron beam driven, inertially confined fusion. The major components of the accelerator are two diodes with a common anode, twelve oil-dielectric Blumleins with low jitter (less than 2 ns) multichannel switches, three intermediate storage capacitors, a trigger pulse generator and two Marx generators. (U.S.)

  3. Fragmentation dynamics of molecular hydrogen in strong ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudenko, A; Feuerstein, B; Zrost, K; Jesus, V L B de; Ergler, T; Dimopoulou, C; Schroeter, C D; Moshammer, R; Ullrich, J

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a systematic experimental study of dissociation and Coulomb explosion of molecular hydrogen induced by intense ultrashort (7-25 fs) laser pulses. Using coincident recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy we can distinguish the contributions from dissociation and double ionization even if they result in the same kinetic energies of the fragments. The dynamics of all fragmentation channels drastically depends on the pulse duration, and for 7 fs pulses becomes extremely sensitive to the pulse shape

  4. Digital pulse processor for ion beam microprobe imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogovac, M.; Jaksic, M.; Wegrzynek, D.; Markowicz, A.

    2009-01-01

    Capabilities of spectroscopic ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques that are available in ion microprobe facilities can be greatly improved by the use of digital pulse processing. We report here development of a digital multi parameter data acquisition system suitable for IBA imaging applications. Input signals from charge sensitive preamplifier are conditioned by using a simple circuit and digitized with fast ADCs. The digitally converted signals are processed in real time using FPGA. Implementation of several components of the system is presented.

  5. Tunable pores in mesoporous silica films studied using a pulsed slow positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chunqing; Muramatsu, Makoto; Ohdaira, Toshiyuki; Oshima, Nagayasu; Kinomura, Atsushi; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Kobayashi, Yoshinori

    2007-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) based on a pulsed slow positron beam was applied to study mesoporous silica films, synthesized using amphiphilic PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers as structure-directing agents. The pore size depends on the loading of different templates. Larger pores were formed in silica films templated by copolymers with higher molecular-weights. Using 2-dimensional PALS, open porosity of silica films was also found to be influenced by the molecular-weight as well as the ratio of hydrophobic PPO moiety of the templates

  6. Long pulse neutral beam system for the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, L.R.; Bowen, O.N.; Dahlgren, F.; Edwards, J.W.; Kamperschroer, J.; Newman, R.; O'Connor, T.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Rossi, G.; Stevenson, T.; Halle, A. von; Wright, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is planned as a long-pulse or steady-state machine to serve as a successor to the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The neutral beam component of the heating and current drive systems will be provided by a TFTR beamline modified to allow operation for pulse lengths of 1000s. This paper presents a brief overview of the conceptual design which has been carried out to determine the changes to the beamline and power supply components that will be required to extend the pulse length from its present limitation of 1s at full power. The modified system, like the present one, will be capable of injecting about 8MW of power as neutral deuterium. The initial operation will be with a single beamline oriented co-directional to the plasma current, but the TPX system design is capable of accommodating an additional co-directional beamline and a counter-directional beamline. ((orig.))

  7. Effect of pulsed electron beam on cell killing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, Santhosh; Joseph, Praveen; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Narayana, Y.; Bhat, N.N.

    2009-01-01

    The extent of repairable and irreparable damage in a living cell produced by ionizing radiation depends on the quality of the radiation. In the case of sparsely ionizing radiation, the dose rate and the pattern of energy deposition of the radiation are the important physical factors which can affect the amount of damage in living cells. In the present study, radio-sensitive and radioresistive bacteria cells were exposed to 8 MeV pulsed electron beam and the efficiency of cell-killing was investigated to evaluate the Do, the mean lethal dose. The dose to the cell was delivered in micro-second pulses at an instantaneous dose rate of 2.6 x 10 5 Gy s -1 . Fricke dosimeter was used to measure the absorbed dose of electron beam. The results were compared with those of gamma rays. The survival curve of radio-resistive Deinococcus-radiodurans (DR) is found to be sigmoidal and the survival response for radio-sensitive Escherichia-coli (E-coli) is found to be exponential without any shoulder. Comparison of Do values indicate that irradiation with pulsed electron beam resulted in more cell-killing than was observed for gamma irradiation. (author)

  8. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam drilling: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Girish Dutt; Pandey, Arun Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Laser beam drilling (LBD) is one of non contact type unconventional machining process that are employed in machining of stiff and high-strength materials, high strength temperature resistance materials such as; metal alloys, ceramics, composites and superalloys. Most of these materials are difficult-to-machine by using conventional machining methods. Also, the complex and precise holes may not be obtained by using the conventional machining processes which may be obtained by using unconventional machining processes. The laser beam drilling in one of the most important unconventional machining process that may be used for the machining of these materials with satisfactorily. In this paper, the attention is focused on the experimental and theoretical investigations on the pulsed Nd:YAG laser drilling of different categories of materials such as ferrous materials, non-ferrous materials, superalloys, composites and Ceramics. Moreover, the review has been emphasized by the use of pulsed Nd:YAG laser drilling of different materials in order to enhance productivity of this process without adverse effects on the drilled holes quality characteristics. Finally, the review is concluded with the possible scope in the area of pulsed Nd:YAG laser drilling. This review work may be very useful to the subsequent researchers in order to give an insight in the area of pulsed Nd:YAG laser drilling of different materials and research gaps available in this area.

  9. Experimental investigation of electron beam wave interactions utilising short pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggins, Samuel Mark

    2000-01-01

    Experiments have investigated the production of ultra-short electromagnetic pulses and their interaction with electrons in various resonant structures. Diagnostic systems used in the measurements included large bandwidth detection systems for capturing the short pulses. Deconvolution techniques have been applied to account for bandwidth limitation of the detection systems and to extract the actual pulse amplitudes and durations from the data. A Martin-Puplett interferometer has been constructed for use as a Fourier transform spectrometer. The growth of superradiant electromagnetic spikes from short duration (0.5-1.0 ns), high current (0.6-2.0 kA) electron pulses has been investigated in a Ka-band Cherenkov maser and Ka- and W-band backward wave oscillators (BWO). In the Cherenkov maser, radiation spikes were produced with a peak power ≤ 3 MW, a duration ≥ 70 ps and a bandwidth ≤ 19 %. It is shown that coherent spontaneous emission from the leading edge of the electron pulse drives these interactions, giving rise to self-amplified coherent spontaneous emission (SACSE). BWO spikes were produced with a peak power ≤ 63 MW and a pulse duration ∼ 250 ps in the Ka-band and ≤ 12 MW and ∼ 170 ps in the W-band. Evidence of superradiant evolution has been observed in the measurements of scaling laws such as power scaling with the current squared and duration scaling inversely with the fourth root of the power. An X-band free-electron maser amplifier, in which a short (1.0ns) injected radiation pulse interacts with a long (∼ 140 ns) electron beam, has been investigated. The interaction is shown to evolve in the linear regime. The peak output power was 320 kW, which corresponded to a gain, approximately constant across the band, of 42 dB. Changes to the spectrum, that occur when the input radiation pulse is injected into electrons with an energy gradient, have been analysed. (author)

  10. Pulsed hollow cathode discharge: intense electron beam and filamentary plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modreanu, Gabriel

    1998-01-01

    This work deals with a transient hollow cathode discharge optimised by a preionization one and providing intense electron beams. It exists a preionization current value for which the pulsed discharge becomes a very straight and bright filament, well collimated on the discharge tube axis for some tenths of centimeters. A remarkable feature of this discharge is that, without internal metallic electrodes very pure plasma could be produced. Using self-biasing by the beam of a Faraday cup placed only few millimeters behind the anode, we deduced the beam electron's distribution function and its temporal behavior for two radial positions, on the axis and 1 millimeter off-axis, respectively. The real advantage of this measurement technique is the transient polarization character, which allows analysis very closely from the electron beam extraction hole. On the other side, using the emission spectroscopy, we have studied the plasma produced in electron beam - gas interaction and deduced the temporal evolution of the electron temperature. The temporal behavior of the filamentary plasma diameter shows a constriction at the last moments of the beam existence, followed by diffusion controlled expansion. The ambipolar diffusion coefficient corresponding to the estimated electron temperature describes quite well this expansion and allows a quantitative interpretation of the measured temperature diminution, with taking into account the preferential fast electrons escape. The analysis of both beam and post-beam plasma phases suggests potential applications of this robust, very reproducible and not expensive discharge also susceptible to be external monitored. The beam - target interaction could be used for PVD, elementary analysis and filamentary or point-like X-ray emission. (author) [fr

  11. Nonresonant Multiple-Pulse Control of Molecular Motions in Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikiforov V.G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the implementation of the multiple-pulse excitation for manipulation of the molecular contributions to the optically-heterodyne-detected optical-Kerr-effect. The key parameters controlling the specificity of the multiple-pulse excitation scenarios are the pulses durations, the delays between pulses, the relation between the pump pulses amplitudes and the pulses polarizations. We model the high-order optical responses and consider some principles of the scenarios construction. We show that it is possible to adjust the excitation scenario in such a way that the some responses can be removed from detected signal along with the enhancement of the interested response amplitude. The theoretical analysis and first experimental data reveal that the multiple-pulse excitation technique can be useful for the selective spectroscopy of the molecular vibrations and rotations in liquid.

  12. Instrumentation system for long-pulse MFTF neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risch, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    The instrumentation system for long pulse neutral beams for MFTFS consists of monitoring and protective circuitry. Global synchronization of high speed monitoring data across twenty-four neutral beams is achieved via an experiment wide fiber optic timing system. Fiber optics are also used as a means of isolating signals at elevated voltages. An excess current monitor, interrupt monitor, sparkdown detector, spot detector and gradient grid ratio detector form the primary protection for the neutral beam source. A unique hierarchical interlocking scheme allows other protective devices to be factored into the shutdown circuitry of the power supply so that the initiating cause of a shutdown can be isolated and even allows some non-critical devices to be safely ignored for a period of time

  13. Counting molecular-beam grown graphene layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaut, Annette S. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Wurstbauer, Ulrich [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Pinczuk, Aron [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Garcia, Jorge M. [MBE Lab, IMM-Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Madrid, E-28760 (Spain); Pfeiffer, Loren N. [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2013-06-17

    We have used the ratio of the integrated intensity of graphene's Raman G peak to that of the silicon substrate's first-order optical phonon peak, accurately to determine the number of graphene layers across our molecular-beam (MB) grown graphene films. We find that these results agree well both, with those from our own exfoliated single and few-layer graphene flakes, and with the results of Koh et al.[ACS Nano 5, 269 (2011)]. We hence distinguish regions of single-, bi-, tri-, four-layer, etc., graphene, consecutively, as we scan coarsely across our MB-grown graphene. This is the first, but crucial, step to being able to grow, by such molecular-beam-techniques, a specified number of large-area graphene layers, to order.

  14. Rovibrational optical pumping of a molecular beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournol, A.; Pillet, P.; Lignier, H.; Comparat, D.

    2018-03-01

    The preparation of molecules in well-defined internal states is essential for various studies in fundamental physics and physical chemistry. It is thus of particular interest to find methods that increase the brightness of molecular beams. Here, we report on rotational and vibrational pumpings of a supersonic beam of barium monofluoride molecules. With respect to previous works, the time scale of optical vibrational pumping has been greatly reduced by enhancing the spectral power density in the vicinity of the appropriate molecular transitions. We demonstrate a complete transfer of the rovibrational populations lying in v″=1 -3 into the vibrational ground-state v″=0 . Rotational pumping, which requires efficient vibrational pumping, has been also demonstrated. According to a Maxwell-Boltzmann description, the rotational temperature of our sample has been reduced by a factor of ˜8 . In this fashion, the population of the lowest rotational levels increased by more than one order of magnitude.

  15. Physics with fast molecular-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanter, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    Fast (MeV) molecular-ion beams provide a unique source of energetic projectile nuclei which are correlated in space and time. The recognition of this property has prompted several recent investigations of various aspects of the interactions of these ions with matter. High-resolution measurements on the fragments resulting from these interactions have already yielded a wealth of new information on such diverse topics as plasma oscillations in solids and stereochemical structures of molecular ions as well as a variety of atomic collision phenomena. The general features of several such experiments will be discussed and recent results will be presented

  16. A rotationally symmetric electron beam chopper for picosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldfield, L.C.

    1976-01-01

    The chopper was designed for dynamic electron optical experiments where it is necessary to provide pulses of high quality with respect to both width and energy spread. The chopping action relies on the optical properties of a microwave cavity; these are exploited such that the time dependent space focusing causes a small circular aperture on the axis of rotational symmetry to transmit strongly for a single band of phase angles in each cycle of the excitation. Unless the pulses are to be used near the aperture plane, an 'energy correcting' cavity that operates in phase synchronism with the chopper is added to the system. The theoretical treatment is oriented towards computer display, and is novel in that it follows the progress of individual electron packets throughout the system. In contrast to conventional chopping and bunching theory, it is possible to analyse with ease the pulsing properties of a multicavity device. For a typical two-cavity design the pulse quality may range from 10 0 width and negligible energy spread, to 0.25% energy spread and negligible pulse width, depending on the second cavity excitation; in either situation 7.5% of the original steady beam is transmitted. (author)

  17. Photoelectron spectroscopy of supersonic molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, J.E.; Trevor, D.J.; Lee, Y.T.; Shirley, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    A high-resolution photoelectron spectrometer which uses molecular beam sampling is described. Photons from a rare-gas resonance lamp or UV laser are crossed with the beam from a differentially pumped supersonic nozzle source. The resulting photoelectrons are collected by an electrostatic analyzer of a unique design consisting of a 90 0 spherical sector preanalyzer, a system of lenses, and a 180 0 hemispherical deflector. A multichannel detection system based on dual microchannel plates with a resistive anode position encoder provides an increase in counting efficiency by a factor of 12 over the equivalent single channel detector. The apparatus has demonstrated an instrumental resolution of better than 10 meV FWHM, limited largely by the photon source linewidth. A quadrupole mass spectrometer is used to characterize the composition of the molecular beam. Extensive differential pumping is provided to protect the critical surfaces of the analyzer and mass spectrometer from contamination. Because of the near elimination of Doppler and rotational broadenings, the practical resolution is the highest yet obtained in molecular PES

  18. Molecular dynamics study of lubricant depletion by pulsed laser heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young Woo; Rosenkranz, Andreas; Talke, Frank E.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to numerically investigate the effect of pulsed laser heating on lubricant depletion. The maximum temperature, the lubricant depletion width, the number of evaporated lubricant beads and the number of fragmented lubricant chains were studied as a function of laser peak power, pulse duration and repetition rate. A continuous-wave laser and a square pulse laser were simulated and compared to a Gaussian pulse laser. With increasing repetition rate, pulsed laser heating was found to approach continuous-wave laser heating.

  19. High precision electron beam diagnostic system for high current long pulse beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y J; Fessenden, T; Holmes, C; Nelson, S D; Selchow, N.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the effort to develop a multi-axis electron beam transport system using stripline kicker technology for DARHT II applications, it is necessary to precisely determine the position and extent of long high energy beams (6-40 MeV, 1-4 kA, 2 microseconds) for accurate position control. The kicker positioning system utilizes shot-to-shot adjustments for reduction of relatively slow (<20 MHz) motion of the beam centroid. The electron beams passing through the diagnostic systems have the potential for large halo effects that tend to corrupt measurements performed using capacitive pick-off probes. Likewise, transmission line traveling wave probes have problems with multi-bounce effects due to these longer pulse widths. Finally, the high energy densities experienced in these applications distort typical foil beam position measurements

  20. Continuous all-optical deceleration of molecular beams and demonstration with Rb atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xueping; Jayich, Andrew; Campbell, Wesley

    2017-04-01

    Ultracold samples of molecules are desirable for a variety of applications, such as many-body physics, precision measurement and quantum information science. However, the pursuit of ultracold molecules has achieved limited success: spontaneous emission into many different dark states makes it hard to optically decelerate molecules to trappable speed. We propose to address this problem with a general optical deceleration technique that exploits a pump-dump pulse pair from a mode-locked laser. A molecular beam is first excited by a counter-propagating ``pump'' pulse. The molecular beam is then driven back to the initial ground state by a co-propagating ``dump'' pulse via stimulated emission. The delay between the pump and dump pulse is set to be shorter than the excited state lifetimes in order to limit decays to dark states. We report progress benchmarking this stimulated force by accelerating a cold sample of neutral Rb atoms.

  1. A ns-pulsed high-current electron beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Gexin; Li, Youzhi; Pan, Yuli

    1988-01-01

    The behaviour of a pulse electron beam source which is composed of a gun and pulse system depends on not only the time characteristics of the gun and the pulser, but also their combination. This point become apparent if effects of the electron tansit-time between electrodes are studied. A ferrite transmission line (FTL) pulser is used as a grid driver in this source. It has advantages of providing fast risetime, large peak power output and good loading characteristics. It is these advantages of the pulser that compensates the absence of some technological conditions of manufacturing gun and makes the source better. Our testing showed that the cooperation of both the gun and the pulser produced peak currents in the range of 1 to 9 amps with widths of 2 to 2.5 ns (FWHM) at cathode-to-anode potential of 60 to 82 kv, while the grid drives are about in the range of 1 to 3 kv. In addition, the results of the testing instructed that effects of electron transit-time cannot be ignored when the pulses with widths of several nanoseconds are used as a grid drive. Based on the results, electron transit-time effects on the design of the gun and the beam performances are briefly descussed in this paper. (author)

  2. Molecular spinning by a chiral train of short laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floß, Johannes; Averbukh, Ilya Sh.

    2012-12-01

    We provide a detailed theoretical analysis of molecular rotational excitation by a chiral pulse train, a sequence of linearly polarized pulses with the polarization direction rotating from pulse to pulse by a controllable angle. Molecular rotation with a preferential rotational sense (clockwise or counterclockwise) can be excited by this scheme. We show that the directionality of the rotation is caused by quantum interference of different excitation pathways. The chiral pulse train is capable of selective excitation of molecular isotopologs and nuclear spin isomers in a mixture. We demonstrate this using 14N2 and 15N2 as examples for isotopologs and para- and ortho-nitrogen as examples for nuclear-spin isomers.

  3. Construction of double discharge pulsed electron beam generator and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektas, H.

    2001-12-01

    Generation of fast pulsed electron beam by superposing DC and pulsed hollow cathode discharge is studied. The electrical characteristics and measurements of the electron beam generator are done dc glow discharge and for the pulsed one. The electron beam current, its density and magnetic field effect, pinch effect, have been studied. The dependence of the electron beam parameters with respect to pressure and magnetic field have been studied. The pulsing effect of the beam is reviewed. By using the generator, micron holes drilling and carbon deposition was done at the laboratory. As a target source for carbon deposition methane gas is used and for Hydrogen-free carbon deposition was graphite

  4. Measurement of the density profile of pure and seeded molecular beams by femtosecond ion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Congsen [LaserLaB Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Janssen, Maurice H. M. [LaserLaB Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-02-15

    Here, we report on femtosecond ion imaging experiments to measure the density profile of a pulsed supersonic molecular beam. Ion images are measured for both a molecular beam and bulk gas under identical experimental conditions via femtosecond multiphoton ionization of Xe atoms. We report the density profile of the molecular beam, and the measured absolute density is compared with theoretical calculations of the centre line beam density. Subsequently, we discuss reasons accounting for the differences between measurements and calculations and propose that strong skimmer interference is the most probable cause for the differences. Furthermore, we report on experiments measuring the centre line density of seeded supersonic beams. The femtosecond ion images show that seeding the heavy Xe atom at low relative seed fractions (1%-10%) in a light carrier gas like Ne results in strong relative enhancements of up to two orders of magnitude.

  5. Pumping requirements and options for molecular beam epitaxy and gas source molecular beam epitaxy/chemical beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCollum, M.J.; Plano, M.A.; Haase, M.A.; Robbins, V.M.; Jackson, S.L.; Cheng, K.Y.; Stillman, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of gas sources in growth by MBE as a result of current interest in growth of InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs lattice matched to InP. For gas flows greater than a few sccm, pumping speed requirements dictate the use of turbomolecular or diffusion pumps. GaAs samples with high p-type mobilities have been grown with diffusion pumped molecular beam epitaxial system. According to the authors, this demonstration of the inherent cleanliness of a properly designed diffusion pumping system indicates that a diffusion pump is an excellent inexpensive and reliable choice for growth by molecular beam epitaxy and gas source molecular beam epitaxy/chemical beam epitaxy

  6. Modeling of beam-target interaction during pulsed electron beam ablation of graphite: Case of melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Muddassir, E-mail: mx1_ali@laurentian.ca; Henda, Redhouane

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Modeling of ablation stage induced during pulsed electron beam ablation (PEBA). • Thermal model to describe heating, melting and vaporization of a graphite target. • Model results show good accordance with reported data in the literature. - Abstract: A one-dimensional thermal model based on a two-stage heat conduction equation is employed to investigate the ablation of graphite target during nanosecond pulsed electron beam ablation. This comprehensive model accounts for the complex physical phenomena comprised of target heating, melting and vaporization upon irradiation with a polyenergetic electron beam. Melting and vaporization effects induced during ablation are taken into account by introducing moving phase boundaries. Phase transition induced during ablation is considered through the temperature dependent thermodynamic properties of graphite. The effect of electron beam efficiency, power density, and accelerating voltage on ablation is analyzed. For an electron beam operating at an accelerating voltage of 15 kV and efficiency of 0.6, the model findings show that the target surface temperature can reach up to 7500 K at the end of the pulse. The surface begins to melt within 25 ns from the pulse start. For the same process conditions, the estimated ablation depth and ablated mass per unit area are about 0.60 μm and 1.05 μg/mm{sup 2}, respectively. Model results indicate that ablation takes place primarily in the regime of normal vaporization from the surface. The results obtained at an accelerating voltage of 15 kV and efficiency factor of 0.6 are satisfactorily in good accordance with available experimental data in the literature.

  7. Production and application of pulsed slow-positron beam using an electron LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Ohdaira, Toshiyuki; Mikado, Tomohisa [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kobayashi, Yoshinori

    1997-03-01

    Slow-positron beam is quite useful for non-destructive material research. At the Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL), an intense slow positron beam line by exploiting an electron linac has been constructed in order to carry out various experiments on material analysis. The beam line can generates pulsed positron beams of variable energy and of variable pulse period. Many experiments have been carried out so far with the beam line. In this paper, various capability of the intense pulsed positron beam is presented, based on the experience at the ETL, and the prospect for the future is discussed. (author)

  8. Gas flow parameter determination by molecular beam method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarvin, A.E.; Sharafutdinov, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes a molecular-beam system intended for studying nonequilibrium processes in supersonic rarefied gas flows. The system represented is a small molecular beam source placed inside the low intensity wind tunnel of the Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences. The time-of-flight method is used for measuring molecular velocity distribution functions on molecular beam axis. (Auth.)

  9. Molecular beam epitaxy for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.

    1984-01-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is most commonly used to fabricate super-lattices, high electron mobility transistors, multi-quantum well lasers and other new semiconductor devices by utilizing its excellent controlability. MBE for the future is presumed to include techniques such as metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, photochemical reaction process using gas sources and ion implantation. A report on the crystal growth of GaAs using metalorganics, trimethylgallium and triethylgallium, which are usually used in chemical vapor deposition, as gaseous sources of gallium in an MBE system is made. (Author) [pt

  10. Research and simulation of intense pulsed beam transfer in electrostatic accelerate tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chaolong; Shi Haiquan; Lu Jianqin

    2012-01-01

    To study intense pulsed beam transfer in electrostatic accelerate tube, the matrix method was applied to analyze the transport matrixes in electrostatic accelerate tube of non-intense pulsed beam and intense pulsed beam, and a computer code was written for the intense pulsed beam transporting in electrostatic accelerate tube. Optimization techniques were used to attain the given optical conditions and iteration procedures were adopted to compute intense pulsed beam for obtaining self-consistent solutions in this computer code. The calculations were carried out by using ACCT, TRACE-3D and TRANSPORT for different beam currents, respectively. The simulation results show that improvement of the accelerating voltage ratio can enhance focusing power of electrostatic accelerate tube, reduce beam loss and increase the transferring efficiency. (authors)

  11. Nanostructured surface processing by an intense pulsed ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsuzuka, M.; Masuda, T.; Yamasaki, T.; Uchida, H.; Nobuhara, S.; Hashimoto, Y.; Yoshihara, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Metal surface modification by irradiating an intense pulsed ion beam (IPIB) with short pulse width has been studied experimentally. An IPIB irradiation to a target leads to rapid heating above its melting point. After the beam is turned off, the heated region is immediately cooled by thermal conduction at a cooling rate of typically 10 10 K/s. This rapid cooling and resolidification results in generation of nanostructured phase in the top of surface. The typical hydrogen IPIB parameters are 200 kV of energy, 500 A/cm 2 of current density and 70 ns of pulsewidth. The IPIB was irradiated on a pure titanium to generate nanocrystalline phase. The IPIB-irradiated surface was examined with X-ray diffraction, SEM, and HR-TEM. The randomly oriented lattice fringes as well as a halo diffraction pattern are observed in the HR-TEM micrograph of IPIB-irradiated titanium. The average grain size is found to be 32 nanometers

  12. Molecular photoelectron holography with circularly polarized laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weifeng; Sheng, Zhihao; Feng, Xingpan; Wu, Miaoli; Chen, Zhangjin; Song, Xiaohong

    2014-02-10

    We investigate the photoelectron momentum distribution of molecular-ion H2+driven by ultrashort intense circularly polarized laser pulses. Both numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) and a quasiclassical model indicate that the photoelectron holography (PH) with circularly polarized pulses can occur in molecule. It is demonstrated that the interference between the direct electron wave and rescattered electron wave from one core to its neighboring core induces the PH. Moreover, the results of the TDSE predict that there is a tilt angle between the interference pattern of the PH and the direction perpendicular to the molecular axis. Furthermore, the tilt angle is sensitively dependent on the wavelength of the driven circularly polarized pulse, which is confirmed by the quasiclassical calculations. The PH induced by circularly polarized laser pulses provides a tool to resolve the electron dynamics and explore the spatial information of molecular structures.

  13. Photoemission studies using femtosecond pulses for high brightness electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Tsang, T.; Fischer, J.

    1990-06-01

    We present the results of a series of experiments where various metal photocathodes are irradiated with ultrashort laser pulses, whose characteristics are: λ = 625 nm, τ = 100 fs, PRR = 89.5 MHz, Hν = 2 eV and average power 25 mW in each of the two beams. The quantum efficiency of the metals range from ∼10 -12 to 10 -8 at a power density of 100 MW/cm 2 at normal incidence. Since all the electrons are emitted due to multiphoton processes, these efficiencies are expected to increase substantially at large intensities. The efficiency at 100 MW/cm 2 has been increased by using p-polarized light at oblique incidence by ∼20x and by mediating the electron emission through surface plasmon excitation by ∼10 3 x. For the low intensities used in these experiments, the electron pulse duration is almost the same as the laser pulse duration for both the bulk and the surface plasmon mediated photoemission. 7 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Pulsed glow discharge mass spectrometry for molecular depth profiling of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, L.; Pereiro, R.; Sanz-Medel, A.; Bordel, N.; Pisonero, J.; Licciardello, A.; Tuccitto, N.; Tempez, A.; Chapon, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Nowadays thin films of polymeric materials involve a wide range of industrial applications, so techniques capable of providing in-depth profile information are required. Most of the techniques available for this purpose are based on the use of energetic particle beams which interact with polymers producing undesirable physicochemical modifications. Radiofrequency pulsed glow discharge (rf-pulsed-GD) coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) could afford the possibility of acquiring both elemental and molecular information creating minimal damage to surfaces and thereby obtaining depth profiles. This work will evaluate rf-GDs coupled to an orthogonal TOFMS for direct analysis of polymers. (author)

  15. Molecular beam studies and hot atom chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continetti, R.E.; Lee, Y.T.

    1993-01-01

    The application of the crossed molecular beam technique to the study of hot atom chemistry has provided significant insights into the dynamics of hot atom reaction. To illustrate this, two recent studies are discussed. Those are the study on the influence of translational energy in 0.6 to 1.5 eV range on endoergic reaction, and the experimental study on the detailed dynamics of elementary reaction at translational energy of 0.53 and 1.01 eV. The first example illustrates the contribution that molecular beam experiment can make in the understanding of the dynamics of endoergic substitution reaction. The second example illustrates the role that such studies can play in evaluating exact three-dimensional quantum scattering calculation and ab initio potential energy surfaces for chemical reaction. In the case of endoergic reaction of halogen substitution, it was observed that the reactive collision involved short lived collision complexes. It is suggested that energetic effect alone cannot account for the difference in cross sections, and dynamic effect most play a large role. In atom-diatom reaction, the differential cross section measurement of D+H 2 →DH+H reaction was carried out, and the results are discussed. (K.I.)

  16. Characterization of stochastic spatially and spectrally partially coherent electromagnetic pulsed beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Chaoliang; Lue Baida; Pan Liuzhan

    2009-01-01

    The unified theory of coherence and polarization proposed by Wolf is extended from stochastic stationary electromagnetic beams to stochastic spatially and spectrally partially coherent electromagnetic pulsed beams. Taking the stochastic electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model pulsed (GSMP) beam as a typical example of stochastic spatially and spectrally partially coherent electromagnetic pulsed beams, the expressions for the spectral density, spectral degree of polarization and spectral degree of coherence of stochastic electromagnetic GSMP beams propagating in free space are derived. Some special cases are analyzed. The illustrative examples are given and the results are interpreted physically.

  17. Dynamics of infrared multiphonon dissociation of SF6 by molecular beam method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, E.R.; Coggiola, M.J.; Lee, Y.T.; Schulz, P.A.; Shen, Y.R.

    1977-01-01

    A crossed molecular beam apparatus has been adapted to study the dynamics of excitation and dissociation of polyatomic molecules in intense IR laser fields. Initial experiments have involved the study of the dissociation of SF 6 by CO 2 laser radiation at 10.6 μm. A molecular beam of SF 6 was formed by supersonic expansion using three stages of differential pumping. A grating tuned pulsed CO 2 TEA laser was used as the excitation source. The laser beam was focused by a 25 cm focal length ZnSe lens, and crossed the molecular beam near its focal point. The fragments produced by multiphonon dissociation of SF 6 within the small interaction region were detected as a function of recoil angle and velocity. (Auth.)

  18. Pulse explosion ion beam source with one pulse regime supply for surface modification of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    A variant of explosion ion beam source with one positive pulse supply for surface modification of materials is described. Ion source consists of vacuum diode and pulse generator Arcadiev-Marx type. Residual gas pressure was p∼5x10 -5 torr in the diode. The sort of ions was fixed by materials initiator anode plasma. The produce carbon ions a carbon-fibrous initiator is used for niobium and titanium-niobium-titanium cable with picking copper matrix. The ions density current regulation is realized by by change of diode gap in the correspondence with Child-Langmuir law. For carbon ions the current density is j∼6A/cm 2 for voltage U∼100kV and j∼32A/cm 2 for voltage U∼300 kV. 7 refs.; 1 fig

  19. Photoelectron spectroscopy of supersonic molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, J.E.

    1982-05-01

    A new technique for performing high resolution molecular photoelectron spectroscopy is described, beginning with its conceptual development, through the construction of a prototypal apparatus, to the initial applications on a particularly favorable molecular system. The distinguishing features of this technique are: (1) the introduction of the sample in the form of a collimated supersonic molecular beam; and (2) the use of an electrostatic deflection energy analyzer which is carefully optimized in terms of sensitivity and resolution. This combination makes it possible to obtain photoelectron spectra at a new level of detail for many small molecules. Three experiments are described which rely on the capability to perform rotationally-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy on the hydrogen molecule and its isotopes. The first is a measurement of the ionic vibrational and rotational spectroscopic constants and the vibrationally-selected photoionization cross sections. The second is a determination of the photoelectron asymmetry parameter, β, for selected rotational transitions. The third is an investigation of the rotational relaxation in a free jet expansion, using photoelectron spectroscopy as a probe of the rotational state population distributions. In the closing chapter an assessment is made of the successes and limitations of the technique, and an indication is given of areas for further improvement in future spectrometers

  20. Ion Flux Measurements in Electron Beam Produced Plasmas in Atomic and Molecular Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, S. G.; Leonhardt, D.; Blackwell, D. D.; Murphy, D. P.; Fernsler, R. F.; Meger, R. A.

    2001-10-01

    In this presentation, mass- and time-resolved measurements of ion fluxes sampled from pulsed, electron beam-generated plasmas will be discussed. Previous works have shown that energetic electron beams are efficient at producing high-density plasmas (10^10-10^12 cm-3) with low electron temperatures (Te < 1.0 eV) over the volume of the beam. Outside the beam, the plasma density and electron temperature vary due, in part, to ion-neutral and electron-ion interactions. In molecular gases, electron-ion recombination plays a significant role while in atomic gases, ion-neutral interactions are important. These interactions also determine the temporal variations in the electron temperature and plasma density when the electron beam is pulsed. Temporally resolved ion flux and energy distributions at a grounded electrode surface located adjacent to pulsed plasmas in pure Ar, N_2, O_2, and their mixtures are discussed. Measurements are presented as a function of operating pressure, mixture ratio, and electron beam-electrode separation. The differences in the results for atomic and molecular gases will also be discussed and related to their respective gas-phase kinetics.

  1. Hyperfine interaction studies with pulsed heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, P.

    1985-01-01

    Heavy-ion reactions using pulsed beams have had a strong impact on the study of hyperfine interactions. Unique advantages offered by this technique have considerably extended the scope, detail and systematic range of its applications beyond that possible with radioactivity or light-ion reaction. This survey will cover a brief description of the methodological aspects of the field and recent applications to selected problems in nuclear and solid state physiscs illustrating its role. These include measurements of nuclear magnetic and electric quadrupole moments of high spin isomers, measurements of hyperfine magnetic fields at impurities in 3d and rare-earths ferromagnetic hosts, studies of paramagnetic systems, especially those exhibiting valence instabilities, and investigations of electric field gradients of impurities in noncubic metals. Future prospects of this technique will be briefly assessed. (orig.)

  2. Development of high current beam ns pulsed system

    CERN Document Server

    Shen Guan Ren; Gao Fu; Guan Xia Ling; LiuNaiYi

    2001-01-01

    The development of high current beam ns pulsed system of CPNG and its characteristic, main technological performance and application are introduced. Firstly, important parameters of the system are calculated using theoretical model, the design requirements of some important parts are understood. Some mistakes in physics conception are corrected. Second, the chopper is designed for parallel plate deflector, chopping aperture and sine wave voltage sweeping device. It is emphasized that the conception of parallel plate load impedance is the capacitance load, but not the 50 ohm load impedance. The dynamic capacitance value has been measured. The output emphasizes the output voltage amplitude, but not the output power for sweeping device. The display system of output sweeping voltage was set up and it is sure that the maximum output voltage(V-V) is >=4000 V. The klystron buncher are re-designed. It is emphasized to overcome difficulty of support high voltage electrode in the klystron and insulator of input sine wa...

  3. Vibration control in smart coupled beams subjected to pulse excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarski, Dominik; Bajer, Czesław I.; Dyniewicz, Bartłomiej; Bajkowski, Jacek M.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a control method to stabilize the vibration of adjacent structures is presented. The control is realized by changes of the stiffness parameters of the structure's couplers. A pulse excitation applied to the coupled adjacent beams is imposed as the kinematic excitation. For such a representation, the designed control law provides the best rate of energy dissipation. By means of a stability analysis, the performance in different structural settings is studied. The efficiency of the proposed strategy is examined via numerical simulations. In terms of the assumed energy metric, the controlled structure outperforms its passively damped equivalent by over 50 percent. The functionality of the proposed control strategy should attract the attention of practising engineers who seek solutions to upgrade existing damping systems.

  4. Changing pulse-shape basis for molecular learning control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoza, David; Langhojer, Florian; Trallero-Herrero, Carlos; Weinacht, Thomas; Monti, Oliver L.A.

    2004-01-01

    We interpret the results of a molecular fragmentation learning control experiment. We show that in the case of a system where control can be related to the structure of the optimal pulse matching the vibrational dynamics of the molecule, a simple change of pulse-shape basis in which the learning algorithm performs the search can reduce the dimensionality of the search space to one or two degrees of freedom

  5. Molecular-beam epitaxial growth and ion-beam analysis systems for functional materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, H.; Aoki, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Naramoto, H.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental systems for molecular beam epitaxial growth and ion beam analysis have been designed and constructed for the research of inorganic functional materials such as thin films and superlattices. (author)

  6. Molecular beam studies of hot atom chemical reactions: Reactive scattering of energetic deuterium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continetti, R.E.; Balko, B.A.; Lee, Y.T.

    1989-02-01

    A brief review of the application of the crossed molecular beams technique to the study of hot atom chemical reactions in the last twenty years is given. Specific emphasis is placed on recent advances in the use of photolytically produced energetic deuterium atoms in the study of the fundamental elementary reactions D + H 2 /minus/> DH + H and the substitution reaction D + C 2 H 2 /minus/> C 2 HD + H. Recent advances in uv laser and pulsed molecular beam techniques have made the detailed study of hydrogen atom reactions under single collision conditions possible. 18 refs., 9 figs

  7. Molecular Beam Studies of Hot Atom Chemical Reactions: Reactive Scattering of Energetic Deuterium Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continetti, R. E.; Balko, B. A.; Lee, Y. T.

    1989-02-01

    A brief review of the application of the crossed molecular beams technique to the study of hot atom chemical reactions in the last twenty years is given. Specific emphasis is placed on recent advances in the use of photolytically produced energetic deuterium atoms in the study of the fundamental elementary reactions D + H{sub 2} -> DH + H and the substitution reaction D + C{sub 2}H{sub 2} -> C{sub 2}HD + H. Recent advances in uv laser and pulsed molecular beam techniques have made the detailed study of hydrogen atom reactions under single collision conditions possible.

  8. Constructing oxide interfaces and heterostructures by atomic layer-by-layer laser molecular beam epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Qingyu; Golalikhani, Maryam; Davidson, Bruce A.; Liu, Guozhen; Schlom, D. G.; Qiao, Qiao; Zhu, Yimei; Chandrasena, Ravini U.; Yang, Weibing; Gray, Alexander X.; Arenholz, Elke; Farrar, Andrew K.; Tenne, Dmitri A.; Hu, Minhui; Guo, Jiandong

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in nanoscale engineering of oxide interfaces and heterostructures have led to discoveries of emergent phenomena and new artificial materials. Combining the strengths of reactive molecular-beam epitaxy and pulsed-laser deposition, we show here, with examples of Sr1+xTi1-xO3+delta, Ruddlesden-Popper phase Lan+1NinO3n+1 (n = 4), and LaAl1+yO3(1+0.5y)/SrTiO3 interfaces, that atomic layer-by-layer laser molecular-beam epitaxy (ALL-Laser MBE) significantly advances the state of the art...

  9. Angular momentum alignment in molecular beam scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treffers, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown how the angular momentum alignment in a molecular beam can be determined using laser-induced fluorescence in combination with precession of the angular momenta in a magnetic field. After a general analysis of the method, some results are presented to illustrate the possibilities of the method. Experimental data are presented on the alignment production for Na 2 molecules that made a collision induced angular momentum transition. Magnitude as well as direction of the alignment have been determined for scattering with several scattering partners and for a large number of scattering angles and transitions. The last chapter deals with the total alignment production in a final J-state, i.e. without state selection of the initial rotational state. (orig.)

  10. Molecular beam epitaxy applications to key materials

    CERN Document Server

    Farrow, Robin F C

    1995-01-01

    In this volume, the editor and contributors describe the use of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) for a range of key materials systems that are of interest for both technological and fundamental reasons. Prior books on MBE have provided an introduction to the basic concepts and techniques of MBE and emphasize growth and characterization of GaAs-based structures. The aim in this book is somewhat different; it is to demonstrate the versatility of the technique by showing how it can be utilized to prepare and explore a range of distinct and diverse materials. For each of these materials systems MBE has played a key role both in their development and application to devices.

  11. Twenty years of molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, A. Y.

    1995-05-01

    The term "molecular beam epitaxy" (MBE) was first used in one of our crystal growth papers in 1970, after having conducted extensive surface physics studies in the late 1960's of the interaction of atomic and molecular beams with solid surfaces. The unique feature of MBE is the ability to prepare single crystal layers with atomic dimensional precision. MBE sets the standard for epitaxial growth and has made possible semiconductor structures that could not be fabricated with either naturally existing materials or by other crystal growth techniques. MBE led the crystal growth technologies when it prepared the first semiconductor quantum well and superlattice structures that gave unexpected and exciting electrical and optical properties. For example, the discovery of the fractional quantized Hall effect. It brought experimental quantum physics to the classroom, and practically all major universities throughout the world are now equipped with MBE systems. The fundamental principles demonstrated by the MBE growth of III-V compound semiconductors have also been applied to the growth of group IV, II-VI, metal, and insulating materials. For manufacturing, the most important criteria are uniformity, precise control of the device structure, and reproducibility. MBE has produced more lasers (3 to 5 million per month for compact disc application) than any other crystal growth technique in the world. New directions for MBE are to incorporate in-situ, real-time monitoring capabilities so that complex structures can be precisely "engineered". In the future, as environmental concerns increase, the use of toxic arsine and phosphine may be limited. Successful use of valved cracker cells for solid arsenic and phosphorus has already produced InP based injection lasers.

  12. Effects of dispersion and longitudinal chromatic aberration on the focusing of isodiffracting pulsed Gaussian light beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Dongmei; Guo Hong; Han Dingan; Liu Mingwei; Li Changfu

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account the dispersion and the longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) of the material of the lens, focusing of isodiffracting pulsed Gaussian light beam through single lens is analyzed. The smaller the cycle number of the isodiffracting pulsed Gaussian light beam is, the higher the order of the material dispersion should be considered

  13. On the response of electronic personal dosimeters in constant potential and pulsed X-ray beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Margarete C.; Silva, Teogenes; Silva, Claudete R.E., E-mail: margaretecristinag@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Paulo Marcio C. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Anatomia e Imagem

    2015-07-01

    Electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) based on solid state detectors have widely been used but some deficiencies in their response in pulsed radiation beams have been reported. Nowadays, there is not an international standard for pulsed X-ray beams for calibration or type testing of dosimeters. Irradiation conditions for testing the response of EPDs in both the constant potential and pulsed X-ray beams were established in CDTN. Three different types of EPDs were tested in different conditions in similar ISO and IEC X-ray qualities. Results stressed the need of performing additional checks before using EPDs in constant potential or pulsed X-rays. (author)

  14. The use of pulsed power ion/electron beams for studying of units of electronuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, S A; Korenev, A S; Puzynin, I V; Samojlov, V N; Sissakyan, A N [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The problems associated with the use of power pulsed ion beams for studying some units of the model electronuclear installation are considered. This makes it possible to analyze the problem of heating loads on the targets, entrance and exit windows for beams of charged particles. The methods of increasing the life-time of these thin foil based windows by surface modification of the materials by high current pulsed ion beams are considered. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs.

  15. The use of pulsed power ion/electron beams for studying of units of electronuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, S.A.; Korenev, A.S.; Puzynin, I.V.; Samoilov, V.N.; Sissakian, A.N. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    The questions of using power pulsed ion beams for studying some units of model`s electronuclear installation are considered in this report. It allows to analyze the question of heating loads on the targets, entering and output windows for beams of charge particles. The methods of increasing a life-time of these windows on the basis of thin foils with help of surface modification of materials by high current pulsed ion beams are considered. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  16. The use of pulsed power ion/electron beams for studying of units of electronuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Korenev, A.S.; Puzynin, I.V.; Samojlov, V.N.; Sissakyan, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    The problems associated with the use of power pulsed ion beams for studying some units of the model electronuclear installation are considered. This makes it possible to analyze the problem of heating loads on the targets, entrance and exit windows for beams of charged particles. The methods of increasing the life-time of these thin foil based windows by surface modification of the materials by high current pulsed ion beams are considered. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs

  17. The use of pulsed power ion/electron beams for studying of units of electronuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Korenev, A.S.; Puzynin, I.V.; Samoilov, V.N.; Sissakian, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    The questions of using power pulsed ion beams for studying some units of model's electronuclear installation are considered in this report. It allows to analyze the question of heating loads on the targets, entering and output windows for beams of charge particles. The methods of increasing a life-time of these windows on the basis of thin foils with help of surface modification of materials by high current pulsed ion beams are considered. 5 refs., 4 figs

  18. Two-step resonance ionization spectroscopy of Na atomic beam using cw and pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuragawa, H.; Minowa, T.; Shimazu, M.

    1988-01-01

    Two-step photoionization of sodium atomic beam has been carried out using a cw and a pulsed dye lasers. Sodium ions have been detected by a time of flight method in order to reduce background noise. With a proper power of the pulsed dye laser the sodium atomic beam has been irradiated by a resonant cw dye laser. The density of the sodium atomic beam is estimated to be 10 3 cm -3 at the ionization area. (author)

  19. Pulse radiolysis based on a femtosecond electron beam and a femtosecond laser light with double-pulse injection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jinfeng; Kondoh, Takafumi; Kozawa, Takahiro; Yoshida, Youichi; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2006-01-01

    A new pulse radiolysis system based on a femtosecond electron beam and a femtosecond laser light with oblique double-pulse injection was developed for studying ultrafast chemical kinetics and primary processes of radiation chemistry. The time resolution of 5.2 ps was obtained by measuring transient absorption kinetics of hydrated electrons in water. The optical density of hydrated electrons was measured as a function of the electron charge. The data indicate that the double-laser-pulse injection technique was a powerful tool for observing the transient absorptions with a good signal to noise ratio in pulse radiolysis

  20. Extraction of a long-pulsed intense electron beam from a pulsed plasma based on hollow cathode discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uramoto, Johshin.

    1977-05-01

    An intense electron beam (up to 1.0 kV, 0.8 kA in 0.8 cm phi) is extracted along a uniform magnetic field with a long decay time (up to 2 msec) from a pulsed high density plasma source which is produced with a fast rise time (< 100 μsec) by a secondary discharge based on a dc hollow cathode discharge. Through a back stream of ionized ions from a beam-extracting anode region where a neutral gas is fed, a space charge limit of the electron beam is so reduced that the beam current is determined by an initially injected electron flux and concentrated in a central aperture of the extracting anode. Moreover, the beam pulse width is much extended by the neutral gas feed into the anode space. (auth.)

  1. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with supersonic molecular beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirav, Aviv; Gordin, Alexander; Poliak, Marina; Fialkov, Alexander B

    2008-02-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with supersonic molecular beams (SMBs) (also named Supersonic GC-MS) is based on GC and MS interface with SMBs and on the electron ionization (EI) of vibrationally cold analytes in the SMBs (cold EI) in a fly-through ion source. This ion source is inherently inert and further characterized by fast response and vacuum background filtration capability. The same ion source offers three modes of ionization including cold EI, classical EI and cluster chemical ionization (CI). Cold EI, as a main mode, provides enhanced molecular ions combined with an effective library sample identification, which is supplemented and complemented by a powerful isotope abundance analysis method and software. The range of low-volatility and thermally labile compounds amenable for analysis is significantly increased owing to the use of the contact-free, fly-through ion source and the ability to lower sample elution temperatures through the use of high column carrier gas flow rates. Effective, fast GC-MS is enabled particularly owing to the possible use of high column flow rates and improved system selectivity in view of the enhancement of the molecular ion. This fast GC-MS with SMB can be further improved via the added selectivity of MS-MS, which by itself benefits from the enhancement of the molecular ion, the most suitable parent ion for MS-MS. Supersonic GC-MS is characterized by low limits of detection (LOD), and its sensitivity is superior to that of standard GC-MS, particularly for samples that are hard for analysis. The GC separation of the Supersonic GC-MS can be improved with pulsed flow modulation (PFM) GC x GC-MS. Electron ionization LC-MS with SMB can also be combined with the Supersonic GC-MS, with fast and easy switching between these two modes of operation. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Subnanosecond pulsing of an 1 MeV ELIT electron accelerator by beam deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasserman, S.B.; Kuzenko, V.; Mehnert, R.; Hermann, R.

    1984-01-01

    Operation principle and performance of a beam deflection system developed for subnanosecond pulsing of an 1 MeV ELIT resonance transformer accelerator are described. Using this system a minimum pulse duration of 0.5 ns (FWHM) and a dose per pulse of about 20 Gy were obtained. As an example the fluorescence of cyclohexane excited by the subnanosecond electron pulse was measured. (author)

  3. Symmetry issues in a class of ion beam targets using short direct drive pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, J.W.K.; Lindl, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    We address a class of modified ion beam targets where the symmetry issues are ameliorated in the regime of short bursts of direct drive pulses. Short pulses are here defined so that the fractional change in target radii of peak beam energy deposition are assumed to be small (during each such direct drive burst with a fixed beam focal radius). This requirement is actually not stringent on the temporal pulse-length. In fact we show an explicit example where this can be satisfied by a ≥ 60 ns direct drive pulse-train. A new beam placement scheme is used which systematically eliminated low order spherical harmonic asymmetries. The residual asymmetries of such pulses are studied with both simple model and numerical simulations

  4. Molecular beam epitaxy of graphene on mica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippert, G.; Dabrowski, J.; Yamamoto, Y.; Mehr, W.; Lupina, G.; Herziger, F.; Maultzsch, J.; Baringhaus, J.; Tegenkamp, C.; Lemme, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Realization of graphene devices is often hindered by the fact that the known layer growth methods do not meet the requirements of the device fabrication in silicon mainstream technology. For example, the relatively straightforward method of decomposition of hexagonal SiC is not CMOS-compatible due to the high-thermal budget it requires [Moon et al., IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 260 (2010)]. Techniques based on layer transfer are restricted because of the uncertainty of residual metal contaminants, particles, and structural defects. Of interest is thus a method that would allow one to grow a graphene film directly in the device area where graphene is needed. Production of large area graphene is not necessarily required in this case, but high quality of the film and metal-free growth on an insulating substrate at temperatures below 1000 C are important requirements. We demonstrate direct growth of defect-free graphene on insulators at moderate temperatures by molecular beam epitaxy. The quality of the graphene was probed by high-resolution Raman spectroscopy, indicating a negligible density of defects. The spectra are compared with those from graphene flakes mechanically exfoliated from native graphite onto mica. These results are combined with insights from density functional theory calculations. A model of graphene growth on mica and similar substrates is proposed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Molecular beam studies of reaction dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yuan T.

    1991-03-01

    The major thrust of this research project is to elucidate detailed dynamics of simple elementary reactions that are theoretically important and to unravel the mechanism of complex chemical reactions or photochemical processes that play important roles in many macroscopic processes. Molecular beams of reactants are used to study individual reactive encounters between molecules or to monitor photodissociation events in a collision-free environment. Most of the information is derived from measurement of the product fragment energy, angular, and state distributions. Recent activities are centered on the mechanisms of elementary chemical reactions involving oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons, the dynamics of endothermic substitution reactions, the dependence of the chemical reactivity of electronically excited atoms on the alignment of excited orbitals, the primary photochemical processes of polyatomic molecules, intramolecular energy transfer of chemically activated and locally excited molecules, the energetics of free radicals that are important to combustion processes, the infrared-absorption spectra of carbonium ions and hydrated hydronium ions, and bond-selective photodissociation through electric excitation

  6. Molecular beam studies of reaction dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The major thrust of this research project is to elucidate detailed dynamics of simple elementary reactions that are theoretically important and to unravel the mechanism of complex chemical reactions or photochemical processes that play important roles in many macroscopic processes. Molecular beams of reactants are used to study individual reactive encounters between molecules or to monitor photodissociation events in a collision-free environment. Most of the information is derived from measurement of the product fragment energy, angular, and state distributions. Recent activities are centered on the mechanisms of elementary chemical reactions involving oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons, the dynamics of endothermic substitution reactions, the dependence of the chemical reactivity of electronically excited atoms on the alignment of excited orbitals, the primary photochemical processes of polyatomic molecules, intramolecular energy transfer of chemically activated and locally excited molecules, the energetics of free radicals that are important to combustion processes, the infrared-absorption spectra of carbonium ions and hydrated hydronium ions, and bond-selective photodissociation through electric excitation.

  7. Smooth silk fibroin nanofilm deposited by 1064-nm pulsed laser beam from an opaque target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, R.; Nakayama, S.; Senna, M.

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to prepare smooth nanostructured thin films of silk fibroin (SF) by near-infrared (NIR) pulsed laser deposition, an opaque target was prepared from an emulsified aqueous solution of SF. Upon irradiation of 1064-nm pulsed laser beam at its fluence 5 J/cm 2 , a thin film of SF was deposited on the Si(100) substrate with its root-mean-square surface roughness, 0.37 nm, smoother than those obtained from a compressed target of SF powders by approximately an order of magnitude. The attainment of an extra-smooth film from the opaque target was discussed in terms of multiple Mie scattering of the incident NIR beam, leading to an increase in the plasma density, intensified optical breakdown, ablation of better dispersed SF molecular units, and a film with more intensive intermolecular cross-linking. - Highlights: • Thin film of silk fibroin with its RMS surface roughness, R rms , 0.37 nm was obtained. • The use of a target from an emulsified solution of SF was the key issue. • Mechanism involved was elucidated in terms of enhanced Mie scattering

  8. Monitoring the beam flux in molecular beam epitaxy using laser multiphoton ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, R.; Sogard, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we will describe a method using laser nonresonant multiphoton ionization to measure beam flux in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) systems. The results were obtained in a test chamber where a focused excimer laser beam was used to photoionize a small fraction of the atomic and molecular beams. The constituents of the beams were identified by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Ion signal strength was found to be directly correlated to the temperature of the atomic beam oven. Good stability and sensitivity on gallium, aluminum, and silicon atomic beams was demonstrated. Arsenic was also detected. We demonstrated very sensitive detection of contaminant atomic and molecular constituents of our system. We have also detected the presence of short-term fluctuations in the gallium flux from an effusion source. These fluctuations, previously suspected, can be in excess of ±10%

  9. Development of high-current pulsed heavy-ion-beam technology for applications to materials processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hiroaki; Ochiai, Yasushi; Masugata, Katsumi [University of Toyama, Toyama (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Development of intense pulsed heavy ion beam technology for applications to materials processing is described. We have developed a magnetically insulated ion diode for the generation of intense pulsed metallic ion beams in which a vacuum arc plasma gun is used as the ion source. When the ion diode was successfully operated at a diode voltage of 220 kV and a diode current of 10 kA, an ion beam with an ion current density of >200 A/cm{sup 2} and a pulse duration of 40 ns was obtained. The ion composition was evaluated by using a Thomson parabola spectrometer, and the ion beam consisted of aluminum ions (Al{sup (1-3)+}) with an energy of 140 - 740 keV and protons with an energy of 160 - 190 keV; the purity was estimated to be 89%, which was much higher than that of the pulsed ion beam produced in a conventional ion diode. The development of a bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA) was reported in order to improve the purity of intense pulsed ion beams. A double coaxial type bipolar pulse generator was developed as the power supply of the BPA. When a bipolar pulse with a voltage of {+-}90 kV and a pulse duration of about 65 ns was applied to the drift tube of the BPA, the ion beam with an ion current density of 2 A/cm{sup 2} and a pulse duration of 30 ns was observed 25 mm downstream from the cathode surface, which suggested bipolar pulse acceleration.

  10. Applications of pulsed intense relativistic electron beam to aquatic conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Kondo, Hironobu; Sasaki, Toru; Harada, Nob.; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Imada, Go

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we propose aquatic conservations by using a pulsed intense relativistic electron beam (PIREB). Treatments of introduced species and toxics azo dyes by irradiating PIREB are investigated in this report. Zooplankton contained in water have been inactivated by irradiation of PIREB. A treatment chamber is filled with a solution of 3-wt% salt in water containing Artemia larvae as zooplankton samples, and is irradiated using the PIREB (2 MeV, 0.4 kA, 140 ns). We found that up to 24% of the Artemia are inactivated by firing 10 shots of PIREB irradiation. It is found that pH changes did not affect to inactivate the Artemia larvae during the time scale of PIREB irradiation. The reaction of congo red, a well-known toxic azo dye, occurred after irradiation by PIREB. An aquation of congo red was irradiated by PIREB (2 MeV, 0.36 kA, 140 ns). After PIREB irradiation, the solution was measured by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. It was found that congo red underwent a reaction (77% conversion after five shots of PIREB irradiation) and the hydroxylated compounds of the dye were observed as reaction products. (author)

  11. Electromagnetic excitation of a generic cavity with a variable e-beam pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, R.; Kerris, K.; Merkel, G.; Roberts, H.; Smith, M.

    1987-01-01

    Relativistic electron-beam nose-erosion techniques have been employed to produce an electron beam with variable pulse shape and bremsstrahlung capability (''dial a pulse''). This capability has been employed to excite a large number of electromagnetic fields inside a canonical cavity. Electron-beam and bremsstrahlung pulse-shape parameters have been varied to produce changes in the electromagnetic cavity response. For example, generic cavity test parameters such as displacement currents or conduction currents can be emphasized or de-emphasized. A theoretical interpretation of these electromagnetic excitations is presented

  12. Note: A well-confined pulsed low-energy ion beam: Test experiments of Ar+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Wu, Chun-Xiao; Tian, Shan Xi

    2018-06-01

    Here we report a pulsed low-energy ion beam source for ion-molecule reaction study, in which the ions produced by the pulsed electron impact are confined well in the spatial size of each bunch. In contrast to the ion focusing method to reduce the transverse section of the beam, the longitudinal section in the translational direction is compressed by introducing a second pulse in the ion time-of-flight system. The test experiments for the low-energy argon ions are performed. The present beam source is ready for applications in the ion-molecule reaction dynamics experiments, in particular, in combination with the ion velocity map imaging technique.

  13. HiRadMat: A high‐energy, pulsed beam, material irradiation facility

    CERN Multimedia

    Charitonidis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    HiRadMat is a facility constructed in 2011, designed to provide high-intensity pulsed beams to an irradiation area where different material samples or accelerator components can be tested. The facility, located at the CERN SPS accelerator complex, uses a 440 GeV proton beam with a pulse length up to 7.2 μs and a maximum intensity up to 1E13 protons / pulse. The facility, a unique place for performing state-of-the art beam-to-material experiments, operates under transnational access and welcomes and financially supports, under certain conditions, experimental teams to perform their experiments.

  14. Comparison of pulsed electron beam-annealed and pulsed ruby laser-annealed ion-implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, S.R.; Appleton, B.R.; White, C.W.; Narayan, J.; Greenwald, A.C.

    1978-11-01

    Recently two new techniques, pulsed electron beam annealing and pulsed laser annealing, have been developed for processing ion-implanted silicon. These two types of anneals have been compared using ion-channeling, ion back-scattering, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Single crystal samples were implanted with 100 keV As + ions to a dose of approx. 1 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 and subsequently annealed by either a pulsed Ruby laser or a pulsed electron beam. Our results show in both cases that the near-surface region has melted and regrown epitaxially with nearly all of the implanted As (97 to 99%) incroporated onto lattice sites. The analysis indicates that the samples are essentially defect free and have complete electrical recovery

  15. Multiple quasi-monoenergetic electron beams from laser-wakefield acceleration with spatially structured laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Y.; Li, M. H.; Li, Y. F.; Wang, J. G.; Tao, M. Z.; Han, Y. J.; Zhao, J. R.; Huang, K.; Yan, W. C.; Ma, J. L.; Li, Y. T. [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100080 (China); Chen, L. M., E-mail: lmchen@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100080 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, D. Z. [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Z. Y. [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China); Sheng, Z. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Physics, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Zhang, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-08-15

    By adjusting the focus geometry of a spatially structured laser pulse, single, double, and treble quasi-monoenergetic electron beams were generated, respectively, in laser-wakefield acceleration. Single electron beam was produced as focusing the laser pulse to a single spot. While focusing the laser pulse to two spots that are approximately equal in energy and size and intense enough to form their own filaments, two electron beams were produced. Moreover, with a proper distance between those two focal spots, three electron beams emerged with a certain probability owing to the superposition of the diffractions of those two spots. The energy spectra of the multiple electron beams are quasi-monoenergetic, which are different from that of the large energy spread beams produced due to the longitudinal multiple-injection in the single bubble.

  16. Molecular beam studies of adsorption dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumainayagam, C.R.; McMaster, M.C.; Madix, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated the trapping dynamics of C 1 -C 3 alkanes and Xe on Pt(111) using supersonic molecular beams and a direct technique to measure trapping probabilities. We have extended a one-dimensional model based on classical mechanics to include trapping and have found semiquantitative agreement with experimental results for the dependence of the initial trapping probability on incident translational energy at normal incidence. Our measurements of the initial trapping probability as a function of incident translational energy at normal incidence are in agreement with previous mean translational energy measurements for Xe and CH 4 desorbing near the surface normal, in accordance with detailed balance. However, the angular dependence of the initial trapping probability shows deviations from normal energy scaling, demonstrating the importance of parallel momentum in the trapping process and the inadequacy of one-dimensional models. The dependence of the initial trapping probability of Xe on incident translational energy and angle is quite well fit by three-dimensional stochastic classical trajectory calculations utilizing a Morse potential. Angular distributions of the scattered molecules indicate that the trapping probability is not a sensitive function of surface temperature. The trapping probability increases with surface coverage in quantitative agreement with a modified Kisliuk model which incorporates enhanced trapping onto the monolayer. We have also used the direct technique to study trapping onto a saturated monolayer state to investigate the dynamics of extrinsic precursor adsorption and find that the initial trapping probability onto the monolayer is higher than on the clean surface. The initial trapping probability onto the monolayer scales with total energy, indicating a highly corrugated interaction potential

  17. Efficient electron beam deposition for repetitively pulsed krypton fluoride lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegeler, F.; Myers, M.C.; Friedman, M.; Sethian, J.D.; Swanekamp, S.B.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    We have demonstrated that we can significantly increase the electron beam transmission efficiency through a pressure foil structure (hibachi) by segmenting the beam into strips to miss the hibachi support ribs. In order to increase the electron beam transmission, the cathode strips are adjusted to compensate for beam rotation and pinching. The beam propagation through the hibachi has been both measured and simulated with 1-D and 3-D codes

  18. Fabrication of Multi-Harmonic Buncher for Pulsed Proton Beam Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. S.; Kwon, H. J.; Cho, Y. S. [Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Fast neutrons with a broad spectrum can be generated by irradiating the proton beams on target materials. To measure the neutron energy by time of flight (TOF) method, the short pulse width of the proton beam is preferred because the neutron energy uncertainty is proportional to the pulse width. In addition, the pulse repetition rate should be low enough to extend the lower limit of the available neutron energy. Pulsed proton beam generation system is designed based on an electrostatic deflector and slit system as shown in Fig. 1. In a simple deflector with slit system, most of the proton beam is blocked by slit, especially when the beam pulse width is short. The ideal field pattern inside the buncher cavity is saw-tooth wave. To make the field pattern similar to the saw-tooth waveform, we adopted a multi-harmonic buncher (MHB). The design for the multi-harmonic buncher including 3D electromagnetic calculation has been performed. Based on the design, a multi-harmonic buncher cavity was fabricated. It consists of two resonators, two drift tubes and a vacuum chamber. The resonator is a quarter-wave coaxial resonator type. The drift tube is connected to the resonator by using a coaxial vacuum feedthrough. Design summary and detailed fabrication method of the multi-harmonic buncher is presented in this paper. A multi-harmonic buncher for a proton beam chopper system to generate a short pulse neutron beam was designed, fabricated and assembled.

  19. Using a short-pulse diffraction-limited laser beam to probe filamentation of a random phase plate smoothed beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, J. L.; Montgomery, D. S.; Flippo, K. A.; Johnson, R. P.; Rose, H. A.; Shimada, T.; Williams, E. A.

    2008-01-01

    A short pulse (few picoseconds) laser probe provides high temporal resolution measurements to elucidate details of fast dynamic phenomena not observable with typical longer laser pulse probes and gated diagnostics. Such a short pulse laser probe (SPLP) has been used to measure filamentation of a random phase plate (RPP) smoothed laser beam in a gas-jet plasma. The plasma index of refraction due to driven density and temperature fluctuations by the RPP beam perturbs the phase front of a SPLP propagating at a 90 deg. angle with respect to the RPP interaction beam. The density and temperature fluctuations are quasistatic on the time scale of the SPLP (∼2 ps). The transmitted near-field intensity distribution from the SPLP provides a measure of the phase front perturbation. At low plasma densities, the transmitted intensity pattern is asymmetric with striations across the entire probe beam in the direction of the RPP smoothed beam. As the plasma density increases, the striations break up into smaller sizes along the direction of the RPP beam propagation. The breakup of the intensity pattern is consistent with self-focusing of the RPP smoothed interaction beam. Simulations of the experiment using the wave propagation code, PF3D, are in qualitative agreement demonstrating that the asymmetric striations can be attributed to the RPP driven density fluctuations. Quantification of the beam breakup measured by the transmitted SPLP could lead to a new method for measuring self-focusing of lasers in underdense plasmas.

  20. Using a short-pulse diffraction-limited laser beam to probe filamentation of a random phase plate smoothed beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, J L; Montgomery, D S; Flippo, K A; Johnson, R P; Rose, H A; Shimada, T; Williams, E A

    2008-10-01

    A short pulse (few picoseconds) laser probe provides high temporal resolution measurements to elucidate details of fast dynamic phenomena not observable with typical longer laser pulse probes and gated diagnostics. Such a short pulse laser probe (SPLP) has been used to measure filamentation of a random phase plate (RPP) smoothed laser beam in a gas-jet plasma. The plasma index of refraction due to driven density and temperature fluctuations by the RPP beam perturbs the phase front of a SPLP propagating at a 90 degree angle with respect to the RPP interaction beam. The density and temperature fluctuations are quasistatic on the time scale of the SPLP (approximately 2 ps). The transmitted near-field intensity distribution from the SPLP provides a measure of the phase front perturbation. At low plasma densities, the transmitted intensity pattern is asymmetric with striations across the entire probe beam in the direction of the RPP smoothed beam. As the plasma density increases, the striations break up into smaller sizes along the direction of the RPP beam propagation. The breakup of the intensity pattern is consistent with self-focusing of the RPP smoothed interaction beam. Simulations of the experiment using the wave propagation code, PF3D, are in qualitative agreement demonstrating that the asymmetric striations can be attributed to the RPP driven density fluctuations. Quantification of the beam breakup measured by the transmitted SPLP could lead to a new method for measuring self-focusing of lasers in underdense plasmas.

  1. The tensile effect on crack formation in single crystal silicon irradiated by intense pulsed ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guoying; Shen, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Zhong, Haowen; Cui, Xiaojun; Yan, Sha; Zhang, Xiaofu; Yu, Xiao; Le, Xiaoyun

    2017-10-01

    Improving antifatigue performance of silicon substrate is very important for the development of semiconductor industry. The cracking behavior of silicon under intense pulsed ion beam irradiation was studied by numerical simulation in order to understand the mechanism of induced surface peeling observed by experimental means. Using molecular dynamics simulation based on Stillinger Weber potential, tensile effect on crack growth and propagation in single crystal silicon was investigated. Simulation results reveal that stress-strain curves of single crystal silicon at a constant strain rate can be divided into three stages, which are not similar to metal stress-strain curves; different tensile load velocities induce difference of single silicon crack formation speed; the layered stress results in crack formation in single crystal silicon. It is concluded that the crack growth and propagation is more sensitive to strain rate, tensile load velocity, stress distribution in single crystal silicon.

  2. Synchronization circuit for shaping electron beam picosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, Yu.S.; Solov'ev, N.G.; Tomnikov, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    A fast response circuit of modulator trigger pulse synchronization of a deflector of the electron linear accelerator at 13 MeV with the given phase of HF-voltage is described. The circuit is constructed using K500 and K100 integrated emitter-coupled logics circuits. Main parameters of a synchropulse are duration of 20-50 ns, pulse rise time of 1-5 ns, pulse amplitude >=10 V, delay instability of a trigger pulse <=+-0.05 ns. A radiopulse with 3 μs duration, 5 V amplitude and 400 Hz frequency enters the circuit input. The circuit can operate at both pulsed operation and continuous modes

  3. Radiobiological response to ultra-short pulsed megavoltage electron beams of ultra-high pulse dose rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyreuther, Elke; Karsch, Leonhard; Laschinsky, Lydia; Leßmann, Elisabeth; Naumburger, Doreen; Oppelt, Melanie; Richter, Christian; Schürer, Michael; Woithe, Julia; Pawelke, Jörg

    2015-08-01

    In line with the long-term aim of establishing the laser-based particle acceleration for future medical application, the radiobiological consequences of the typical ultra-short pulses and ultra-high pulse dose rate can be investigated with electron delivery. The radiation source ELBE (Electron Linac for beams with high Brilliance and low Emittance) was used to mimic the quasi-continuous electron beam of a clinical linear accelerator (LINAC) for comparison with electron pulses at the ultra-high pulse dose rate of 10(10) Gy min(-1) either at the low frequency of a laser accelerator or at 13 MHz avoiding effects of prolonged dose delivery. The impact of pulse structure was analyzed by clonogenic survival assay and by the number of residual DNA double-strand breaks remaining 24 h after irradiation of two human squamous cell carcinoma lines of differing radiosensitivity. The radiation response of both cell lines was found to be independent from electron pulse structure for the two endpoints under investigation. The results reveal, that ultra-high pulse dose rates of 10(10) Gy min(-1) and the low repetition rate of laser accelerated electrons have no statistically significant influence (within the 95% confidence intervals) on the radiobiological effectiveness of megavoltage electrons.

  4. Molecular electron recollision dynamics in intense circularly polarized laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrauk, André D.; Yuan, Kai-Jun

    2018-04-01

    Extreme UV and x-ray table top light sources based on high-order harmonic generation (HHG) are focused now on circular polarization for the generation of circularly polarized attosecond pulses as new tools for controlling electron dynamics, such as charge transfer and migration and the generation of attosecond quantum electron currents for ultrafast magneto-optics. A fundamental electron dynamical process in HHG is laser induced electron recollision with the parent ion, well established theoretically and experimentally for linear polarization. We discuss molecular electron recollision dynamics in circular polarization by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The control of the polarization of HHG with circularly polarized ionizing pulses is examined and it is shown that bichromatic circularly polarized pulses enhance recollision dynamics, rendering HHG more efficient, especially in molecules because of their nonspherical symmetry. The polarization of the harmonics is found to be dependent on the compatibility of the rotational symmetry of the net electric field created by combinations of bichromatic circularly polarized pulses with the dynamical symmetry of molecules. We show how the field and molecule symmetry influences the electron recollision trajectories by a time-frequency analysis of harmonics. The results, in principle, offer new unique controllable tools in the study of attosecond molecular electron dynamics.

  5. High beam quality and high energy short-pulse laser with MOPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Quanwei; Pang, Yu; Jiang, JianFeng; Tan, Liang; Cui, Lingling; Wei, Bin; Sun, Yinhong; Tang, Chun

    2018-03-01

    A high energy, high beam quality short-pulse diode-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) laser with two amplifier stages is demonstrated. The two-rod birefringence compensation was used as beam quality controlling methods, which presents a short-pulse energy of 40 mJ with a beam quality value of M2 = 1.2 at a repetition rate of 400Hz. The MOPA system delivers a short-pulse energy of 712.5 mJ with a pulse width of 12.4 ns.The method of spherical aberration compensation is improved the beam quality, a M2 factor of 2.3 and an optical-to-optical efficiency of 27.7% is obtained at the maximum laser out power.The laser obtained 1.4J out energy with polarization integration.

  6. Analog measurement of delayed antiproton annihilation time spectra in a high intensity pulsed antiproton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niestroj, A.; Hayano, R.S.; Ishikawa, T.; Tamura, H.; Torii, H.A.; Morita, N.; Yamazaki, T.; Sugai, I.; Nakayoshi, K.; Horvath, D.; Eades, J.; Widmann, E.

    1996-01-01

    An analog detection system has been developed to measure delayed antiproton annihilation time spectra for laser resonance spectroscopy of metastable antiprotonic helium atoms using the high-intensity pulsed beam of antiprotons from LEAR at CERN. (orig.)

  7. Probing gas-surface interactions with a molecular beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spruit, M.E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The dynamics of direct scattering, trapping and sticking in molecular beam scattering is probed. The O 2 /Ag interaction was chosen, using the close-packed (111) plane of Ag as target surface. 170 refs.; 22 figs.; 3 tabs

  8. Tracing the plasma interactions for pulsed reactive crossed-beam laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jikun; Stender, Dieter; Pichler, Markus; Pergolesi, Daniele; Schneider, Christof W.; Wokaun, Alexander; Lippert, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.lippert@psi.ch [General Energy Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Döbeli, Max [Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-10-28

    Pulsed reactive crossed-beam laser ablation is an effective technique to govern the chemical activity of plasma species and background molecules during pulsed laser deposition. Instead of using a constant background pressure, a gas pulse with a reactive gas, synchronized with the laser beam, is injected into vacuum or a low background pressure near the ablated area of the target. It intercepts the initially generated plasma plume, thereby enhancing the physicochemical interactions between the gaseous environment and the plasma species. For this study, kinetic energy resolved mass-spectrometry and time-resolved plasma imaging were used to study the physicochemical processes occurring during the reactive crossed beam laser ablation of a partially {sup 18}O substituted La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}MnO{sub 3} target using oxygen as gas pulse. The characteristics of the ablated plasma are compared with those observed during pulsed laser deposition in different oxygen background pressures.

  9. Tracing the plasma interactions for pulsed reactive crossed-beam laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jikun; Stender, Dieter; Pichler, Markus; Döbeli, Max; Pergolesi, Daniele; Schneider, Christof W.; Wokaun, Alexander; Lippert, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Pulsed reactive crossed-beam laser ablation is an effective technique to govern the chemical activity of plasma species and background molecules during pulsed laser deposition. Instead of using a constant background pressure, a gas pulse with a reactive gas, synchronized with the laser beam, is injected into vacuum or a low background pressure near the ablated area of the target. It intercepts the initially generated plasma plume, thereby enhancing the physicochemical interactions between the gaseous environment and the plasma species. For this study, kinetic energy resolved mass-spectrometry and time-resolved plasma imaging were used to study the physicochemical processes occurring during the reactive crossed beam laser ablation of a partially 18O substituted La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 target using oxygen as gas pulse. The characteristics of the ablated plasma are compared with those observed during pulsed laser deposition in different oxygen background pressures.

  10. Pump-beam-instability limits to Raman-gain-doublet ''fast-light'' pulse propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, Michael D.; Gauthier, Daniel J.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of a system for generating ''fast-light'' pulses in which a bichromatic Raman pumping beam is used to generate optical gain at two frequencies and a region of anomalous dispersion between them. It is expected that increasing the gain will increase the pulse advancement. However, as the gain increases, the pumping field becomes increasingly distorted, effectively limiting the pulse advancement. We observe as much as 12% of the input pump power converted to orthogonal polarization, broadening of the initially bichromatic pump field (25 MHz initial frequency separation) to more than 2.5 GHz, and a temporal collapse of the pump beam into an erratic train of sub-500-ps pulses. The instability is attributed to the combined effects of the cross modulation instability and stimulated Raman scattering. Extreme distortion of an injected pulse that should (absent the instability) experience an advancement of 21% of its width is observed. We conclude that the fast-light pulse advancement is limited to just a few percent of the pulse width using this pulse advancement technique. The limitation imposed by the instability is important because careful study of the information velocity in fast-light pulses requires that pulse advancement be large enough to distinguish the velocities of different pulse features. Possible methods for achieving pulse advancement by avoiding the distortion caused by the instability are discussed

  11. Preliminary studies of the quickly pulsed synchrotron involved in the Beta-Beam project; Etudes preliminaires du synchrotron rapidement pulse du projet Beta-Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachaize, A

    2007-07-01

    This study presents a quickly-pulsed synchrotron able to accelerate He{sup 6} and Ne{sup 18} beams from 100 MeV/u till 3.5 GeV (proton equivalent) The accelerator is made up of 48 bending dipoles and 42 focusing quadrupoles. The design of the HF accelerating system, the bunch injection and the correction of errors in beam dynamics are dealt with.

  12. Shaping the electron beams with submicrosecond pulse duration in sources and electron accelerators with plasma emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Gushenets, V I

    2001-01-01

    One studies the techniques in use to shape submicrosecond electron beams and the physical processes associated with extraction of electrons from plasma in plasma emitters. Plasma emitter base sources and accelerators enable to generate pulse beams with currents varying from tens of amperes up to 10 sup 3 A, with current densities up to several amperes per a square centimeter, with pulse duration constituting hundreds of nanoseconds and with high frequencies of repetition

  13. Frontiers of particle beam and high energy density plasma science using pulse power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masugata, Katsumi

    2011-04-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on “Frontiers of Particle Beam and High Energy Density Plasma Science using Pulse Power Technology” held in November 20-21, 2009 at National Institute for Fusion Science are collected. The papers reflect the present status and resent progress in the experiment and theoretical works on high power particle beams and high energy density plasmas produced by pulsed power technology. (author)

  14. Monitoring of energetic characteristics of electron beams during formation of high-power pulsed bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivaschenko, D.M.; Mordasov, N.G.; Chlenov, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A method and a device for monitoring the dynamic and integrated characteristics of high-power electron and bremsstrahlung beams of the pulse accelerators are proposed. The transfer functions for various types of a target in operating conditions of the pulse accelerator UIN-10 are presented. Possibilities if the integrated diagnostics of acceleration rate of the electron beams with simultaneous testing of the bremsstrahlung parameters as a local field point beyond the converting target are shown [ru

  15. Molecular beams research in the chemistry department of the Complutense university: progress over a decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Urena, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on the progress made over nearly a decade (1980-1990) by the Molecular Beam Group in the Complutense University of Madrid. After the author's stay in the United States as Prof. R.B Bernstein's post doc everything here had to be done from scratch. Designing the apparatus; importing all the equipment; overcoming huge bureaucracy: buying screws, welding, plumbing, etc. Essentially the following experimental techniques were set up: crossed-beam techniques to measure total and differential reaction cross-section for ground and/or excited species. Reaction Energy threshold and excitation functions for elementary chemical reactions. Molecular Beam chemiluminescence either in crossed-beam and beam-gas conditions. Laser-induced fluorescence and laser-induced charge transfer processes in beams and crossed-beam conditions, respectively. The chemiionization technique in crossed-beams was also set up. Our group pioneered: (a) the measurement of high resolution threshold energies and total reaction cross-section (also in absolute units) for many reactions; (b) the production of highly intense pulsed beams of electronically excited atoms; (c) the measurement under high resolution of the crossed-beam dynamics of excited species; (d) the measurement of the role of alkyl groups in the dynamics (stereodynamics) of chemical reactions; (e) the measurement of the spin-orbit effects in laser-induced charge transfer processes; (f) the developing of a novel technique, using the time-of-flight method under crossed-beam conditions, that is able to measure existing quantum effects in the total reaction cross-section; (g) the measurement of dissociation energies of radicals with less than 1% of experimental error. (Author) 76 refs. 32 fig

  16. A chopper system for shortening the duration of pulsed supersonic beams seeded with NO or Br2 down to 13 μs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jessica; Rennick, Christopher J; Softley, Timothy P

    2015-05-01

    A chopper wheel construct is used to shorten the duration of a molecular beam to 13 μs. Molecular beams seeded with NO or with Br2 and an initial pulse width of ≥200 μs were passed through a spinning chopper wheel, which was driven by a brushless DC in vacuo motor at a range of speeds, from 3000 rpm to 80,000 rpm. The resulting duration of the molecular-beam pulses measured at the laser detection volume ranged from 80 μs to 13 μs and was the same for both NO and Br2. The duration is consistent with a simple analytical model, and the minimum pulse width measured is limited by the spreading of the beam between the chopper and the detection point as a consequence of the longitudinal velocity distribution of the beam. The setup adopted here effectively eliminates buildup of background gas without the use of a differential pumping stage, and a clean narrow pulse is obtained with low rotational temperature.

  17. The System of Nanosecond 280-KeV He+ Pulsed Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junphong, P.; Ano, V.; Lekprasert, B.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Thongnopparat, N.; Vilaithong, T.; Chiang Mai U.; Wiedemann, H.; SLAC/SLAC, SSRL

    2006-01-01

    At Fast Neutron Research Facility, the 150 kV-pulses neutron generator is being upgraded to a 280-kV-pulsed-He beam for time-of-flight Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. It involves replacing the existing beam line elements by a multicusp ion source, a 400-kV accelerating tube, 45-double focusing dipole magnet and quadrupole lens. The multicusp ion source is a compact filament-driven of 2.6 cm in diameter and 8 cm in length. The current extracted is 20.4 μ A with 13 kV of extraction voltage and 8.8 kV of Einzel lens voltage. The beam emittance has found to vary between 6-12 mm mrad. The beam transport system has to be redesigned based on the new elements. The important part of a good pulsed beam depends on the pulsing system. The two main parts are the chopper and buncher. An optimized geometry for the 280 keV pulsed helium ion beam will be presented and discussed. The PARMELA code has been used to optimize the space charge effect, resulting in pulse width of less than 2 ns at a target. The calculated distance from a buncher to the target is 4.6 m. Effects of energy spread and phase angle between chopper and buncher have been included in the optimization of the bunch length

  18. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

    1981-11-01

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized.

  19. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

    1981-11-01

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized

  20. Polymerization of polyethers initiated by irradiation with high power pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, V.D.; Tolkachev, V.S.; Chmukh, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    Air oxygen effect on thin-layer polymerization of polyethers, initiated by irradiation with powerful pulse electron beams is studied using the method of IR-spectrophotometry. The analysis of experimental data has shown that in polyether surface layer polymerization is suppressed by oxygen, concentration of which in the layer remains stable at the expense of diffusion from air during two consequent irradiation pulses

  1. The EMP excitation of radiation by the pulsed relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakirev, V.A.; Sidelnikov, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanisms of excitation of ultra-wideband electromagnetic pulses (EMP) by short pulses of high-current relativistic electron beams were proposed and investigated. It is shown that the transformation efficiency of the bunch kinetic energy to the excited energy of the EMP can be very significant. (author). 2 figs., 4 refs

  2. High-power pulsed light ion beams for applications in fusion- and matter research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluhm, H.; Karow, H.U.; Rusch, D.; Zieher, K.W.

    1982-01-01

    The foundations of ultrahigh-power pulse techniques are described together with the two pulse generators KALIF (Karlsruhe Light lion Facility) and Pollux of the INR. The physical principles and diagnostics of ion beam production are discussed as well as possible applications in the field of fusion research. (orig./HT) [de

  3. The EMP excitation of radiation by the pulsed relativistic electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakirev, V A; Sidelnikov, G L [Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The mechanisms of excitation of ultra-wideband electromagnetic pulses (EMP) by short pulses of high-current relativistic electron beams were proposed and investigated. It is shown that the transformation efficiency of the bunch kinetic energy to the excited energy of the EMP can be very significant. (author). 2 figs., 4 refs.

  4. Ionization of molecular hydrogen in ultrashort intense laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanne, Yulian V.

    2010-03-18

    A novel ab initio numerical approach is developed and applied that solves the time-dependent Schroedinger equation describing two-electron diatomic molecules (e.g. molecular hydrogen) exposed to an intense ultrashort laser pulse. The method is based on the fixed-nuclei and the non-relativistic dipole approximations and aims to accurately describe both correlated electrons in full dimensionality. The method is applicable for a wide range of the laser pulse parameters and is able to describe both few-photon and many-photon single ionization processes, also in a non-perturbative regime. A key advantage of the method is its ability to treat the strong-field response of the molecules with arbitrary orientation of the molecular axis with respect to the linear-polarized laser field. Thus, this work reports on the first successful orientation-dependent analysis of the multiphoton ionization of H{sub 2} performed by means of a full-dimensional numerical treatment. Besides the investigation of few-photon regime, an extensive numerical study of the ionization by ultrashort frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire laser pulses (400 nm) is presented. Performing a series of calculations for different internuclear separations, the total ionization yields of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} in their ground vibrational states are obtained for both parallel and perpendicular orientations. A series of calculations for 800 nm laser pulses are used to test a popular simple interference model. Besides the discussion of the ab initio numerical method, this work considers different aspects related to the application of the strong-field approximation (SFA) for investigation of a strong-field response of an atomic and molecular system. Thus, a deep analysis of the gauge problem of SFA is performed and the quasistatic limit of the velocity-gauge SFA ionization rates is derived. The applications of the length-gauge SFA are examined and a recently proposed generalized Keldysh theory is criticized. (orig.)

  5. Ionization of molecular hydrogen in ultrashort intense laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanne, Yulian V.

    2010-01-01

    A novel ab initio numerical approach is developed and applied that solves the time-dependent Schroedinger equation describing two-electron diatomic molecules (e.g. molecular hydrogen) exposed to an intense ultrashort laser pulse. The method is based on the fixed-nuclei and the non-relativistic dipole approximations and aims to accurately describe both correlated electrons in full dimensionality. The method is applicable for a wide range of the laser pulse parameters and is able to describe both few-photon and many-photon single ionization processes, also in a non-perturbative regime. A key advantage of the method is its ability to treat the strong-field response of the molecules with arbitrary orientation of the molecular axis with respect to the linear-polarized laser field. Thus, this work reports on the first successful orientation-dependent analysis of the multiphoton ionization of H 2 performed by means of a full-dimensional numerical treatment. Besides the investigation of few-photon regime, an extensive numerical study of the ionization by ultrashort frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire laser pulses (400 nm) is presented. Performing a series of calculations for different internuclear separations, the total ionization yields of H 2 and D 2 in their ground vibrational states are obtained for both parallel and perpendicular orientations. A series of calculations for 800 nm laser pulses are used to test a popular simple interference model. Besides the discussion of the ab initio numerical method, this work considers different aspects related to the application of the strong-field approximation (SFA) for investigation of a strong-field response of an atomic and molecular system. Thus, a deep analysis of the gauge problem of SFA is performed and the quasistatic limit of the velocity-gauge SFA ionization rates is derived. The applications of the length-gauge SFA are examined and a recently proposed generalized Keldysh theory is criticized. (orig.)

  6. Pulse-periodic generation of supershort avalanche electron beams and X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Erofeev, M. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2014-05-01

    Pulse-periodic generation of supershort avalanche electron beams (SAEBs) and X-ray emission in nitrogen, as well as the transition from a single-pulse mode to a pulse-periodic mode with a high repetition frequency, was studied experimentally. It is shown that, in the pulse-periodic mode, the full width at halfmaximum of the SAEB is larger and the decrease rate of the gap voltage is lower than those in the single-pulse mode. It is found that, when the front duration of the voltage pulse at a nitrogen pressure of 90 Torr decreases from 2.5 to 0.3 ns, the X-ray exposure dose in the pulse-periodic mode increases by more than one order of magnitude and the number of SAEB electrons also increases. It is shown that, in the pulse-periodic mode of a diffuse discharge, gas heating in the discharge gap results in a severalfold increase in the SAEB amplitude (the number of electrons in the beam). At a generator voltage of 25 kV, nitrogen pressure of 90 Torr, and pulse repetition frequency of 3.5 kHz, a runaway electron beam was detected behind the anode foil.

  7. Designing Neutralized Drift Compression for Focusing of Intense Ion Beam Pulses in a Background Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, I.D.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.; Startsev, E.A.; Barnard, J.J.; Friedman, A.; Lee, E.P.; Lidia, S.M.; Logan, B.G.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Welch, D.R.; Sefkow, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Neutralized drift compression offers an effective method for particle beam focusing and current amplification. In neutralized drift compression, a linear radial and longitudinal velocity drift is applied to a beam pulse, so that the beam pulse compresses as it drifts in the drift-compression section. The beam intensity can increase more than a factor of 100 in both the radial and longitudinal directions, resulting in more than 10,000 times increase in the beam number density during this process. The self-electric and self-magnetic fields can prevent tight ballistic focusing and have to be neutralized by supplying neutralizing electrons. This paper presents a survey of the present theoretical understanding of the drift compression process and plasma neutralization of intense particle beams. The optimal configuration of focusing and neutralizing elements is discussed in this paper.

  8. Study of graphitic microstructure formation in diamond bulk by pulsed Bessel beam laser writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Sotillo, B.; Chiappini, A.; Ramponi, R.; Di Trapani, P.; Eaton, S. M.; Jedrkiewicz, O.

    2017-11-01

    The advantages of using Bessel beams for the generation of graphitic structures in diamond bulk are presented. We show that by irradiating the sample with a pulsed Bessel beam whose non-diffracting zone is of the same order of the sample thickness, it is possible to produce without any sample translation straight graphitic through-microstructures, whose size depends on the input pulse energy. The microstructure growth is investigated as a function of the number of irradiating pulses, and the femtosecond and picosecond regimes are contrasted.

  9. Development of an ion source for long-pulse (30-s) neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Barber, G.C.; Blue, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a long-pulse positive ion source that has been designed to provide high brightness deuterium beams (divergence approx. = 0.25 0 rms, current density approx. = 0.15 A cm -2 ) of 40 to 45 A, at a beam energy of 80 keV, for pulse lengths up to 30 s. The design and construction of the ion source components are described with particular emphasis placed on the long-pulse cathode assembly and ion accelerator

  10. Long-pulse beam acceleration of MeV-class H(-) ion beams for ITER NB accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, N; Kashiwagi, M; Taniguchi, M; Tobari, H; Watanabe, K; Dairaku, M; Yamanaka, H; Inoue, T; Kojima, A; Hanada, M

    2014-02-01

    In order to realize neutral beam systems in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor whose target is to produce a 1 MeV, 200 A/m(2) during 3600 s D(-) ion beam, the electrostatic five-stages negative ion accelerator so-called "MeV accelerator" has been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. To extend pulse length, heat load of the acceleration grids was reduced by controlling the ion beam trajectory. Namely, the beam deflection due to the residual magnetic field of filter magnet was suppressed with the newly developed extractor with a 0.5 mm off-set aperture displacement. The new extractor improved the deflection angle from 6 mrad to 1 mrad, resulting in the reduction of direct interception of negative ions from 23% to 15% of the total acceleration power, respectively. As a result, the pulse length of 130 A/m(2), 881 keV H(-) ion beam has been successfully extended from a previous value of 0.4 s to 8.7 s. This is the first long pulse negative ion beam acceleration over 100 MW/m(2).

  11. Ultrashort laser-pulse diagnostics for detection of ordering within an ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, R.; Guidi, V.; Lenisa, P.; Mariotti, E.

    1996-01-01

    A novel diagnostic method to detect ordering within one-dimensional ion beams in a storage ring is presented. The ions are simultaneously excited by a ultrashort pulsed laser (≅1 ps) at two different locations along the beam and fluorescence is detected by a group of four photomultipliers. Correlation in fluorescence signals is a firm indication that the ion beam has an ordered structure. (orig.)

  12. Electron Beam Energy Compensation by Controlling RF Pulse Shape

    CERN Document Server

    Kii, T; Kusukame, K; Masuda, K; Nakai, Y; Ohgaki, H; Yamazaki, T; Yoshikawa, K; Zen, H

    2005-01-01

    We have studied on improvement of electron beam macropulse properties from a thermionic RF gun. Though a thermionic RF gun has many salient features, there is a serious problem that back-bombardment effect worsens quality of the beam. To reduce beam energy degradation by this effect, we tried to feed non-flat RF power into the gun. As a result, we successfully obtained about 1.5 times longer macropulse and two times larger total charge per macropulse. On the other hand, we calculated transient evolution of RF power considering non-constant beam loading. The beam loading is evaluated from time evolution of cathode temperature, by use of one dimensional heat conduction model and electron trajectories' calculations by a particle simulation code. Then we found good agreement between the experimental and calculation results. Furthermore, with the same way, we studied the electron beam output dependence on the cathode radius.

  13. Characterizing a pulse-resolved dosimetry system for complex radiotherapy beams using organic scintillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg; Ottosson, Rickard; Lindvold, Lars René

    2011-01-01

    A fast-readout dosimetry system based on fibre-coupled organic scintillators has been developed for the purpose of conducting point measurements of absorbed dose in radiotherapy beams involving high spatial and temporal dose gradients. The system measures the dose for each linac radiation pulse w...... and quality assurance of complex radiotherapy treatments.......A fast-readout dosimetry system based on fibre-coupled organic scintillators has been developed for the purpose of conducting point measurements of absorbed dose in radiotherapy beams involving high spatial and temporal dose gradients. The system measures the dose for each linac radiation pulse....... No significant differences between measurements and simulations were observed. The temporal resolution of the system was demonstrated by measuring dose per pulse, beam start-up transients and the quality factor for 6 MV. The precision of dose per pulse measurements was within 2.7% (1 SD) for a 10 cm × 10 cm...

  14. Influence of Turbulent Atmosphere on Polarization Properties of Stochastic Electromagnetic Pulsed Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Chao-Liang; Zhao Zhi-Guo; Li Xiao-Feng; Pan Liu-Zhan; Yuan Xiao

    2011-01-01

    Using the coherence theory of non-stationary fields and the characterization of stochastic electromagnetic pulsed beams, the analytical expression for the spectral degree of polarization of stochastic electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model pulsed (GSMP) beams in turbulent atmosphere is derived and is used to study the polarization properties of stochastic electromagnetic GSMP beams propagating through turbulent atmosphere. The results of numerical calculation are given to illustrate the dependence of spectral degree of polarization on the pulse frequency, refraction index structure constant and spatial correlation length. It is shown that, compared with free-space case, in turbulent atmosphere propagation there are two positions at which the on-axis spectral degree of polarization P is equal to zero. The position change depends on the pulse frequency, refraction index structure constant and spatial correlation length. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  15. Multi - pulse tea CO2 laser beam interaction with the TiN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gakovic, B.; Trtica, M.; Nenadovic, T.; Pavlicevic, B.

    1998-01-01

    The interaction of various types of energetic beams including a laser beam with the high-hardness coatings is of great fundamental and technological interest. The Nd:YAG, excimer and CO 2 are frequently used laser beams for this purpose. The interaction of a laser beam with low thickness coatings, deposited on austenitic stainless steel, is insufficiently known in the literature. Titanium nitride (TiN) possess the excellent physico-chemical characteristics. For this reason TiN films/coatings are widely used. The purpose of this article is a consideration of the effect of TEA C0 2 laser radiation on the TiN film deposited on austenitic stainless steel substrate (AISI 316). Investigation of TiN morphological changes, after multipulse laser irradiation, shown dependence on laser fluence, number of laser pulses and the laser pulse shape. Subsequently fast heating and cooling during multi-pulse laser bombardment cause the grain growth of TiN layer. Both laser pulses (pulses with tail and tail-free pulses) produced periodical wave like structure on polished substrate material. Periodicity is observed also on AISI 316 protected with TiN layer, but only with laser pulse with tail. (author)

  16. 1 ms pulse beam generation and acceleration by photo-cathode RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ken; Hayano, Hitoshi; Urakawa, Jyunji

    2012-01-01

    We report successful generation of 1 ms long pulse and multi-bunch electron beam by a normal conducting photo-cathode RF gun at KEK-STF (Superconducting accelerator Test Facility). The 1 ms long Pulse beam generated by the RF gun is delivered to the injection line to examine stable acceleration and precise RF control. The 1 ms pulse beam is also used to demonstrate high brightness X-ray generation by inverse laser Compton scattering which will be also carried out at STF, supported by MEXT Quantum Beam project. The RF gun cavity has been fabricated by DESY-FNAL-KEK collaboration. Performing high power RF process and ethanol rinse to the cavity, a stable operation of the cavity up to 4.0 MW RF input power with ∼1 ms pulse length was achieved by keeping even low dark current. The beam generation test has been started since February 2012, 1 ms pulse was generated in March 2012. We explain about the STF injector and report the basic property of this 1 ms beam generation. (author)

  17. 150 keV intense electron beam accelerator system with high repeated pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Zhang; Tixing, Li; Hongfang, Tang; Nenggiao, Xia; Zhigin, Wang; Baohong, Zheng

    1993-01-01

    A 150 keV electron beam accelerator system has been developed for wide application of high power particle beams. The new wire-ion-plasma electron gun has been adopted. The parameters are as follows: Output energy - 130-150 keV; Electron beam density - 250 mA/cm 2 ; Pulse duration - 1 μs; Pulse rate 100 pps; Section of electron beam - 5 x 50 cm 2 . This equipment can be used to study repeated pulse CO 2 laser, to be a preionizer of high power discharge excimer laser and to perform radiation curing process, and so on. The first part contains principle and design consideration. Next is a description of experimental arrangement. The remainder is devoted to describing experimental results and its application

  18. Allowable propagation of short pulse laser beam in a plasma channel and electromagnetic solitary waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shan; Hong, Xue-Ren; Wang, Hong-Yu; Xie, Bai-Song

    2011-01-01

    Nonparaxial and nonlinear propagation of a short intense laser beam in a parabolic plasma channel is analyzed by means of the variational method and nonlinear dynamics. The beam propagation properties are classified by five kinds of behaviors. In particularly, the electromagnetic solitary wave for finite pulse laser is found beside the other four propagation cases including beam periodically oscillating with defocussing and focusing amplitude, constant spot size, beam catastrophic focusing. It is also found that the laser pulse can be allowed to propagate in the plasma channel only when a certain relation for laser parameters and plasma channel parameters is satisfied. For the solitary wave, it may provide an effective way to obtain ultra-short laser pulse.

  19. Effect of pulsed hollow electron-lens operation on the proton beam core in LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitterer, Miriam [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Stancari, Giulio [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Valishev, Alexander [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-11-08

    Collimation with hollow electron beams is currently one of the most promising concepts for active halo control in the HL-LHC. In order to further increase the diffusion rates for a fast halo removal as e.g. desired before the squeeze, the electron lens (e-lens) can be operated in pulsed mode. In case of profile imperfections in the electron beam the pulsing of the e-lens induces noise on the proton beam which can, depending on the frequency content and strength, lead to emittance growth. In order to study the sensitivity to the pulsing pattern and the amplitude, a beam study (machine development MD) at the LHC has been proposed for August 2016 and we present in this note the preparatory simulations and estimates.

  20. Extraction of high-intensity ion beams from a laser plasma by a pulsed spherical diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Oguri

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available High-current Cu^{+} ion beams were extracted from a laser-produced plasma using a pulsed high-voltage multiaperture diode driven by an induction cavity. The amplitude and the duration of the extraction voltage were 130 kV and 450 ns, respectively. During the extraction, explosive beam divergence due to the strong space-charge force was suppressed by the focusing action of the gap between concentric hemispheres. Modulation of the extracted beam flux due to the plasma prefill in the gap has been eliminated by using a biased control grid put on the anode holes. By means of this extraction scheme we obtained a rectangular beam pulse with a rise time as short as ≈100  ns. The beam current behind the cathode was limited to ≈0.1   A, owing to space-charge effects, as well as to poor geometrical transmission through the cathode sphere. From the measurement of the extracted beam current density distribution along the beam axis and the beam profile measurement, we found a beam waist slightly downstream of the spherical center of the diode structure. The measured beam behavior was consistent with numerical results obtained via a 3D particle code. No serious degradation of the beam emittance was observed for the grid-controlled extraction scheme.

  1. Technique for measuring charged particle distribution in a pulsed beam. Sposob izmereniya raspredeleniya zaryazhennykh chastits v impul'snom puchke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakutin, V V; Shenderovich, A M

    1988-11-07

    Technique for measuring charged particle distribution in a pulsed beam by producing beam imprint on a target is described. In order to measure beam particle distribution in longitudinal direction, all beam particles are deflected simultaneously to the target, located in parallel with initial direction of beam motion, by transverse pulse magnetic field, homogeneous in the field of trajectories of beam particle motion in the field. The invention enables to conduct measurements of longitudinal distribution of particle density in beams of 10{sup -9}-10{sup -11}s duration, this corresponds to longitudinal beam dimensions from 30 cm down to 3 mm. 1 fig.

  2. A sub-picosecond pulsed 5 MeV electron beam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, J. Paul; Batchelor, K.; Meshkovsky, I.; Pavlishin, I.; Lekomtsev, V.; Dyublov, A.; Inochkin, M.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.

    2001-01-01

    Laser excited pulsed, electron beam systems that operate at energies from 1 MeV up to 5 MeV and pulse width from 0.1 to 100 ps are described. The systems consist of a high voltage pulser and a coaxial laser triggered gas or liquid spark gap. The spark gap discharges into a pulse forming line designed to produce and maintain a flat voltage pulse for 1 ns duration on the cathode of a photodiode. A synchronized laser is used to illuminate the photocathode with a laser pulse to produce an electron beam with very high brightness, short duration, and current at or near the space charge limit. Operation of the system is described and preliminary test measurements of voltages, synchronization, and jitter are presented for a 5 MeV system. Applications in chemistry, and accelerator research are briefly discussed

  3. An overview of the DIII-D long pulse neutral beam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callis, R.W.; Colleraine, A.P.; Hong, R.M.; Langhorn, A.R.; Lee, R.L.; Kim, J.; Phillips, J.C.; Wight, J.J.

    1988-09-01

    The four beamlines on the DIII-D tokamak have been upgraded to long pulse operation with the addition of eight 80 kV, 80 A, 5 sec long pulse sources. The eight sources have proven to be very reliable and have performed well. Up to 12 MW of H 0 has been injected into a plasma. Inertially cooled beam absorbers have proven capable of handling multi-second pulses. General performance characteristics and some recent long-pulse physics results are presented. 12 refs., 7 figs

  4. An overview of the DIII-D long pulse neutral beam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callis, R.W.; Colleraine, A.P.; Hong, R.-M.; Langhorn, A.R.; Lee, R.L.; Kim, J.; Phillips, J.C.; Wight, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    The four beamlines on the DIII-D tokamak have been upgraded to long pulse operation with the addition of eight 80 kV, 80 A, 5 sec long pulse sources. The eight sources have proven to be very reliable and have performed well. Up to 12 MW of H 0 has been injected into a plasma. Inertially cooled beam absorbers have proven capable of handling multi-second pulses. General performance characteristics and some recent long-pulse physics results are presented. (author). 12 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 tab

  5. Optimized simultaneous transverse and longitudinal focusing of intense ion beam pulses for warm dense matter applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefkow, Adam B.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Roy, Prabir K.; Seidl, Peter A.; Yu, Simon S.; Welch, Dale R.; Rose, David V.; Barnard, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Intense, space-charge-dominated ion beam pulses for warm dense matter and heavy ion fusion applications must undergo simultaneous transverse and longitudinal bunch compression in order to meet the requisite beam intensities desired at the target. The longitudinal compression of an ion bunch is achieved by imposing an initial axial velocity tilt on the drifting beam and subsequently neutralizing its space-charge and current in a drift region filled with high-density plasma. The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has measured a sixty-fold longitudinal current compression of an intense ion beam with pulse duration of a few nanoseconds, in agreement with simulations and theory. A strong solenoid is modeled near the end of the drift region in order to transversely focus the beam to a sub-millimeter spot size coincident with the longitudinal focal plane. The charge and current neutralization provided by the background plasma is critical in determining the total achievable transverse and longitudinal compression of the beam pulse. Numerical simulations show that the current density of an NDCX ion beam can be compressed over a few meters by factors greater than 10 5 with peak beam density in excess of 10 14 cm -3 . The peak beam density sets a lower bound on the local plasma density required near the focal plane for optimal beam compression, since the simulations show stagnation of the compression when n beam >n plasma . Beam-plasma interactions can also have a deleterious effect on the compression physics and lead to the formation of nonlinear wave excitations in the plasma. Simulations that optimize designs for the simultaneous transverse and longitudinal focusing of an NDCX ion beam for future warm dense matter experiments are discussed

  6. Supersonic molecular beam experiments on surface chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Michio

    2014-10-01

    The interaction of a molecule and a surface is important in various fields, and in particular in complex systems like biomaterials and their related chemistry. However, the detailed understanding of the elementary steps in the surface chemistry, for example, stereodynamics, is still insufficient even for simple model systems. In this Personal Account, I review our recent studies of chemical reactions on single-crystalline Cu and Si surfaces induced by hyperthermal oxygen molecular beams and by oriented molecular beams, respectively. Studies of oxide formation on Cu induced by hyperthermal molecular beams demonstrate a significant role of the translational energy of the incident molecules. The use of hyperthermal molecular beams enables us to open up new chemical reaction paths specific for the hyperthermal energy region, and to develop new methods for the fabrication of thin films. On the other hand, oriented molecular beams also demonstrate the possibility of understanding surface chemical reactions in detail by varying the orientation of the incident molecules. The steric effects found on Si surfaces hint at new ways of material fabrication on Si surfaces. Controlling the initial conditions of incoming molecules is a powerful tool for finely monitoring the elementary step of the surface chemical reactions and creating new materials on surfaces. Copyright © 2014 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Study on the E-beam pulse width scaling for a 25-kilojoule KrF amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.J.

    1983-02-01

    The KrF laser is being considered as an ICF driver candidate. Since this laser is not an energy storing system, the output energy of an amplifier is delivered over the entire pulse width of the excitation source. E-beam pumping is preferred for large energy systems. The e-beam pulse width is constrained to a few hundred nanoseconds by laser operation and pulsed power considerations. The target requires pulses of a few nanoseconds. Angular multiplexing of probe beams through the amplifier is a preferred scheme for bridging this difference in timing requirements. Progressively shorter target irradiation times may be obtained by using shorter pulse probe beams and by either increasing the number of angular multiplexed beams or by decreasing the e-beam pulse width. This report documents results of a study on the consequences of following the latter approach

  8. Neutron Spectroscopy for pulsed beams with frame overlap using a double time-of-flight technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrig, K. P.; Goldblum, B. L.; Brown, J. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bevins, J.; Harasty, M.; Laplace, T. A.; Matthews, E. F.

    2018-01-01

    A new double time-of-flight (dTOF) neutron spectroscopy technique has been developed for pulsed broad spectrum sources with a duty cycle that results in frame overlap, where fast neutrons from a given pulse overtake slower neutrons from previous pulses. Using a tunable beam at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, neutrons were produced via thick-target breakup of 16 MeV deuterons on a beryllium target in the cyclotron vault. The breakup spectral shape was deduced from a dTOF measurement using an array of EJ-309 organic liquid scintillators. Simulation of the neutron detection efficiency of the scintillator array was performed using both GEANT4 and MCNP6. The efficiency-corrected spectral shape was normalized using a foil activation technique to obtain the energy-dependent flux of the neutron beam at zero degrees with respect to the incoming deuteron beam. The dTOF neutron spectrum was compared to spectra obtained using HEPROW and GRAVEL pulse height spectrum unfolding techniques. While the unfolding and dTOF results exhibit some discrepancies in shape, the integrated flux values agree within two standard deviations. This method obviates neutron time-of-flight spectroscopy challenges posed by pulsed beams with frame overlap and opens new opportunities for pulsed white neutron source facilities.

  9. Measurements of absorbed energy distributions in water from pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devanney, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the use of a holographic interferometer to measure the energy deposition as a function of depth in water from pulsed electron beams, together with a brief description of the interferometer and the technique of generating a hologram are presented. The holographic interferometer is used to measure the energy deposition as a function of depth in water from various pulsed beams of monoenergetic electrons in the energy range from 1.0 to 2.5 MeV. These results are compared to those computed by using a Monte Carlo radiation transport code, ETRAN-15, for the same electron energies. After the discrepancies between the measured and computed results are evaluated, reasonable agreement is found between the measured and computed absorbed energy distributions as a function of depth in water. An evalutation of the response of the interferometer as a function of electron intensities is performed. A comparison among four energy deposition curves that result from the irradiation of water with pulsed electron beams from a Febetron accelerator, model 705, is presented. These pulsed beams were produced by the same vacuum diode with the same charging voltage. The results indicate that the energy distribution of the electrons in the pulsed beam is not always constant. A comparison of the energy deposition curves that result from the irradiation of water with electron pulses from different vacuum diodes but the same charging voltage is presented. These results indicate again that the energy distribution of the electrons in the pulsed beam may vary between vacuum diodes. These differences would not be realized by using a totally absorbing metal calorimeter and Faraday Cup

  10. Molecular-beam studies of primary photochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.T.

    1982-12-01

    Application of the method of molecular-beam photofragmentation translational spectroscopy to the investigation of primary photochemical processes of polyatomic molecules is described. Examples will be given to illustrate how information concerning the energetics, dynamics, and mechanism of dissociation processes can be obtained from the precise measurements of angular and velocity distributions of products in an experiment in which a well-defined beam of molecules is crossed with a laser

  11. Ionic molecular films. Applications. 3. Electron beam stimulated enhanced adherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldacchini, G; Montereali, R M; Scavarda do Carmo, L C

    1989-11-01

    This paper reports on the advantages of the use of the technique of electron beam lithography to imprint enhanced sensitive patterns on ionic molecular substrates (bulk crystals or films). With this technique, localized superficial defects are produced which change the chemical properties of surfaces. Sensitized surfaces react with absorbates providing enhanced adherence of such substances. The use of spacially controlled electron beams allows the construction of small (sub-micron) feature chemical and very localized enhanced adherence of absorbates.

  12. Molecular-beam studies of primary photochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.T.

    1982-12-01

    Application of the method of molecular-beam photofragmentation translational spectroscopy to the investigation of primary photochemical processes of polyatomic molecules is described. Examples will be given to illustrate how information concerning the energetics, dynamics, and mechanism of dissociation processes can be obtained from the precise measurements of angular and velocity distributions of products in an experiment in which a well-defined beam of molecules is crossed with a laser.

  13. Use of molecular ion beams from a tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faibis, A.; Goldring, G.; Hass, M.; Kaim, R.; Plesser, I.; Vager, Z.

    1981-01-01

    A large variety of positive molecular ion beams can be produced by gaseous charge exchange in the terminal of a tandem accelerator. After acceleration the molecules are usually dissociated by passage through a thin foil. Measurements of the break-up products provide a way to study both the structure of incident ions and the effects of electronic potentials on the internuclear interaction inside the foil. Beam intensities of a few picoamperes are quite adequate for these measurements, and the relatively high energy obtained by use of a tandem accelerator has the advantage of minimizing multiple scattering effects in the foil. The main difficulty in using the molecular beams lies in the large magnetic rigidity of singly-charged heavy molecular ions

  14. Combinatorial screening of halide perovskite thin films and solar cells by mask-defined IR laser molecular beam epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yuji; Annayev, Orazmuhammet; Toyokura, Nobuo; Takahashi, Ryota; Lippmaa, Mikk; Itaka, Kenji; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Matsuki, Nobuyuki; Koinuma, Hideomi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract As an extension of combinatorial molecular layer epitaxy via ablation of perovskite oxides by a pulsed excimer laser, we have developed a laser molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system for parallel integration of nano-scaled thin films of organic?inorganic hybrid materials. A pulsed infrared (IR) semiconductor laser was adopted for thermal evaporation of organic halide (A-site: CH3NH3I) and inorganic halide (B-site: PbI2) powder targets to deposit repeated A/B bilayer films where the thic...

  15. Physics of neutralization of intense high-energy ion beam pulses by electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, I. D.; Davidson, R. C.; Dorf, M. A.; Startsev, E. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Lee, E. P.; Friedman, A.

    2010-01-01

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons form the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self-magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100 G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating through the

  16. Physics of Neutralization of Intense Charged Particle Beam Pulses by a Background Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, I.D.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Sefkow, A.B; Friedman, A.F.; Lee, E.P.

    2009-01-01

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by a background plasma forms the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self-magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating

  17. Physics of Neutralization of Intense High-Energy Ion Beam Pulses by Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, I.D.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Sefkow, A.B.; Lee, E.P.; Friedman, A.

    2010-01-01

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons forms the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self- magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating through the

  18. Wavefront Tilt And Beam Walk Correction For A Pulsed Laser System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosewcz, Mike; Tyburski, Joe

    1986-05-01

    The Lockheed Beam Alignment Assembly (BAA) is designed to be a space qualifiable, long life, low bandwidth beam stabilization system. The BAA will stabilize a wandering pulsed laser beam with an input beam tilt of ±750 microradians and translation of ±2.5 mm by two orders of magnitude at the bandwidth of interest. A bandwidth of three hertz was selected to remove laser and optical train thermal drifts and launch induced strain effects. The lambda over twenty RMS wavefront will be maintained in the optics at full power under vacuum test, to demonstrate space qualifiability and optical performance.

  19. Progress toward a microsecond duration, repetitively pulsed, intense-ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, H A; Olson, J C; Reass, W A [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Coates, D M; Hunt, J W; Schleinitz, H M [DuPont Central Research and Development, Wilmington, DE (United States); Lovberg, R H [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Greenly, J B [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. of Plasma Studies

    1997-12-31

    A number of intense ion beams applications are emerging requiring repetitive high-average-power beams. These applications include ablative deposition of thin films, rapid melt and resolidification for surface property enhancement, advanced diagnostic neutral beams for the next generation of Tokamaks, and intense pulsed-neutron sources. A 200-250 keV, 15 kA, 1 {mu}s duration, 1-30 Hz intense ion beam accelerator is being developed to address these applications. (author). 4 figs., 7 refs.

  20. Atomic and Molecular Systems in Intense Ultrashort Laser Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, A.

    2008-07-01

    The full quantum mechanical treatment of atomic and molecular systems exposed to intense laser pulses is a so far unsolved challenge, even for systems as small as molecular hydrogen. Therefore, a number of simplified qualitative and quantitative models have been introduced in order to provide at least some interpretational tools for experimental data. The assessment of these models describing the molecular response is complicated, since a comparison to experiment requires often a number of averages to be performed. This includes in many cases averaging of different orientations of the molecule with respect to the laser field, focal volume effects, etc. Furthermore, the pulse shape and even the peak intensity is experimentally not known with very high precision; considering, e.g., the exponential intensity dependence of the ionization signal. Finally, experiments usually provide only relative yields. As a consequence of all these averagings and uncertainties, it is possible that different models may successfully explain some experimental results or features, although these models disagree substantially, if their predictions are compared before averaging. Therefore, fully quantum-mechanical approaches at least for small atomic and molecular systems are highly desirable and have been developed in our group. This includes efficient codes for solving the time-dependent Schrodinger equation of atomic hydrogen, helium or other effective one- or two-electron atoms as well as for the electronic motion in linear (effective) one-and two-electron diatomic molecules like H_2.Very recently, a code for larger molecular systems that adopts the so-called single-active electron approximation was also successfully implemented and applied. In the first part of this talk popular models describing intense laser-field ionization of atoms and their extensions to molecules are described. Then their validity is discussed on the basis of quantum-mechanical calculations. Finally, some

  1. Molecular beam sampling of a hollow cathode arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theuws, P.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis deals with the description of the process of molecular beam sampling of a Hollow Cathode Arc. The aim of the study is twofold, i.e. investigation of the applicability of molecular beam sampling as a plasma diagnostic and the use of a Hollow Cathode Arc as a high intensity beam source for ground state atoms and metastable state atoms in the superthermal energy range. Suitable models are introduced, describing the process of molecular beam sampling of both ground state atoms and metastable state atoms. Fast ground state atoms produced by ion-atom collisions. The experimental facilities, i.e. the Hollow Cathode Arc, the time-of-flight machine and the dye laser system are described. And an alternative detection scheme for ground state atoms is presented and experimental results on the molecular beam sampling of a low density plasma (densities 10 19 -10 20 m -3 ) in the long arc configuration are reported. The results on the short arc configuration (densities 10 21 -10 22 m -3 ) are discussed. (Auth.)

  2. Coupling analysis of the target temperature and thermal stress due to pulsed ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jie; Liu Meng; Lin Jufang; An Li; Long Xinggui

    2013-01-01

    Background: Target temperature has an important effect on the target life for the sealed neutron generator without cooling system. Purpose: To carry out the thermal-mechanical coupling analysis of the film-substrate target bombarded by the pulsed ion beam. Methods: The indirect coupling Finite Element Method (FEM) with a 2-dimensional time-space Gaussian axisymmetric power density as heat source was used to simulate the target temperature and thermal stress fields. Results: The effects of the target temperature and thermal stress fields under difference pulse widths and beam sizes were analyzed in terms of the FEM results. Conclusions: Combining with the temperature requirement and the thermal stress inducing film thermal mechanical destruction effect of the sealed neutron generator film-substrate targets, an optimized pulsed ion beam work status was proposed. (authors)

  3. A Pulse Power Modulator System for Commercial High Power Ion Beam Surface Treatment Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, D.M.; Cockreham, B.D.; Dragt, A.J.; Ives, H.C.; Neau, E.L.; Reed, K.W.; White, F.E.

    1999-01-01

    The Ion Beam Surface Treatment (lBESTrM) process utilizes high energy pulsed ion beams to deposit energy onto the surface of a material allowing near instantaneous melting of the surface layer. The melted layer typically re-solidifies at a very rapid rate which forms a homogeneous, fine- grained structure on the surface of the material resulting in significantly improved surface characteristics. In order to commercialize the IBESTTM process, a reliable and easy-to-operate modulator system has been developed. The QM-I modulator is a thyratron-switched five-stage magnetic pulse compression network which drives a two-stage linear induction adder. The adder provides 400 kV, 150 ns FWHM pulses at a maximum repetition rate of 10 pps for the acceleration of the ion beam. Special emphasis has been placed upon developing the modulator system to be consistent with long-life commercial service

  4. Transient field behavior in an electromagnetic pulse from neutral-beam reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    A neutral beam of electrons and positrons catches up to an electromagnetic pulse moving in a medium with refractive index n. The neutral beam is reflected and deposits some of its energy in a current region in the tail of the pulse. The location, size, and shape of the transient-induced electric fields in the current region are modeled using current densities from uniform averaged fields. The electric field in the current region is predicted to rise linearly with time, with a doubling time determined by the beam parameters and the initial local electromagnetic field. A coordinate frame comoving with the pulse is used to determine the extent of and conditions within the current region. In this comoving frame the Lorentz-transformed electric field is zero, but there is an enhanced Lorentz-transformed magnetic field. The extent of the current region is found from the radius of the semicircular charged-particle orbits in the comoving frame

  5. Influence of pulsed electron beam treatment on microstructure and properties of TA15 titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yukui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The hardness changes were determined by nanoindention method. ► The surface modification by pulsed electron beam treatment was investigated. ► The mechanism was analyzed based on XRD and TEM investigations. ► The modification effects were focused at the surface layer hardness. - Abstract: The surface of TA15 titanium alloy was modified by pulsed electron beam and the hardness distribution along the treated surface layer was investigated by nanoindent technology. The grade characteristics were therefore analyzed by studying the distribution of hardness along surface layer of specimens. Moreover, the microstructure was investigated by OM, XRD and TEM techniques. Furthermore, the correlation of hardness to microstructure was analyzed. The results show that the grade fine grain microstructure is formed in the upper surface layer and the temperature grade or heat effect caused by pulsed electron beam treatment is the main reason to form grade fine grain microstructure in the surface layer.

  6. Long pulse characteristics of 5 MW ion source for SST-1 neutral beam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, M.R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)], E-mail: mukti@ipr.res.in; Mattoo, S.K.; Chakraborty, A.K.; Baruah, U.K.; Patel, G.B.; Jayakumar, P.K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2008-10-15

    We present characteristics of a 5 MW ion source for SST-1 neutral beam injector. Before the source could be tested for its performance, it was conditioned by 480 arc discharges of 1 s and beam extraction of hydrogen species at various beam voltages ranging between 19 kV and 56 kV. Breakdown free beam extraction could be secured only after about 3000 beam second extraction. The ion source is capable of delivering 1.7 MW of neutral beam power at 55 kV with horizontal and vertical focal length of 5.4 m and 7 m respectively. Beam divergence is {approx}0.97 deg. Steady-state beam energy of 31 MJ at 41 kV was achieved during 14 s long beam extraction. We have not noticed any deterioration of beam parameters, including beam divergence during long pulse operation. These results indicate that 0.5 MW of neutral beam power at 30 kV required for heating of plasma in SST-1 can be delivered.

  7. Long pulse characteristics of 5 MW ion source for SST-1 neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, M.R.; Mattoo, S.K.; Chakraborty, A.K.; Baruah, U.K.; Patel, G.B.; Jayakumar, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    We present characteristics of a 5 MW ion source for SST-1 neutral beam injector. Before the source could be tested for its performance, it was conditioned by 480 arc discharges of 1 s and beam extraction of hydrogen species at various beam voltages ranging between 19 kV and 56 kV. Breakdown free beam extraction could be secured only after about 3000 beam second extraction. The ion source is capable of delivering 1.7 MW of neutral beam power at 55 kV with horizontal and vertical focal length of 5.4 m and 7 m respectively. Beam divergence is ∼0.97 deg. Steady-state beam energy of 31 MJ at 41 kV was achieved during 14 s long beam extraction. We have not noticed any deterioration of beam parameters, including beam divergence during long pulse operation. These results indicate that 0.5 MW of neutral beam power at 30 kV required for heating of plasma in SST-1 can be delivered.

  8. Suppressing beam-centroid motion in a long-pulse linear induction accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Ekdahl

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The second axis of the dual-axis radiography of hydrodynamic testing (DARHT facility produces up to four radiographs within an interval of 1.6  μs. It does this by slicing four micropulses out of a 2-μs long electron beam pulse and focusing them onto a bremsstrahlung converter target. The 1.8-kA beam pulse is created by a dispenser cathode diode and accelerated to more than 16 MeV by the unique DARHT Axis-II linear induction accelerator (LIA. Beam motion in the accelerator would be a problem for multipulse flash radiography. High-frequency motion, such as from beam-breakup (BBU instability, would blur the individual spots. Low-frequency motion, such as produced by pulsed-power variation, would produce spot-to-spot differences. In this article, we describe these sources of beam motion, and the measures we have taken to minimize it. Using the methods discussed, we have reduced beam motion at the accelerator exit to less than 2% of the beam envelope radius for the high-frequency BBU, and less than 1/3 of the envelope radius for the low-frequency sweep.

  9. Electron beam irradiation effect on nanostructured molecular sieve catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhongyong; Zhou Wuzong; Parvulescu, Viorica; Su Baolian

    2003-01-01

    Electron impact can induce chemical changes on particle surfaces of zeolites and molecular sieve catalysts. Some experimental observations of electron irradiation effect on molecular sieve catalysts are presented, e.g., electron-beam-induced growth of bare silver nanowires from zeolite crystallites, formation of vesicles in calcium phosphate, migration of microdomains in iron-oxide doped mesoporous silicas, structural transformation from mesostructured MCM-41 to microporous ZSM-5, etc. The formation mechanisms of the surface structures are discussed

  10. Design of an efficient pulsing system for a slow-positron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, Nagayasu; Suzuki, Takenori [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kanazawa, Ikuzo; Ito, Yasuo

    1996-07-01

    In this paper, a new design of a pulsed slow positron system for PALS measurement is reported. By using this new system, it will be possible to obtain a short-pulsed slow-positron beam with high efficiency ({>=}50%) and a relatively low minimum energy ({approx}200 eV). This system is also easy to construct on the laboratory scale. (J.P.N.)

  11. Charge collection efficiency in ionization chambers exposed to electron beams with high dose per pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitano, R F [Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, c.p. 2400 Rome (Italy); Guerra, A S [Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, c.p. 2400 Rome (Italy); Pimpinella, M [Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, c.p. 2400 Rome (Italy); Caporali, C [Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, c.p. 2400 Rome (Italy); Petrucci, A [A.C.O. S. Filippo Neri, U.O. Fisica Sanitaria, Rome (Italy)

    2006-12-21

    The correction for charge recombination was determined for different plane-parallel ionization chambers exposed to clinical electron beams with low and high dose per pulse, respectively. The electron energy was nearly the same (about 7 and 9 MeV) for any of the beams used. Boag's two-voltage analysis (TVA) was used to determine the correction for ion losses, k{sub s}, relevant to each chamber considered. The presence of free electrons in the air of the chamber cavity was accounted for in determining k{sub s} by TVA. The determination of k{sub s} was made on the basis of the models for ion recombination proposed in past years by Boag, Hochhaeuser and Balk to account for the presence of free electrons. The absorbed dose measurements in both low-dose-per-pulse (less than 0.3 mGy per pulse) and high-dose-per-pulse (20-120 mGy per pulse range) electron beams were compared with ferrous sulphate chemical dosimetry, a method independent of the dose per pulse. The results of the comparison support the conclusion that one of the models is more adequate to correct for ion recombination, even in high-dose-per-pulse conditions, provided that the fraction of free electrons is properly assessed. In this respect the drift velocity and the time constant for attachment of electrons in the air of the chamber cavity are rather critical parameters because of their dependence on chamber dimensions and operational conditions. Finally, a determination of the factor k{sub s} was also made by zero extrapolation of the 1/Q versus 1/V saturation curves, leading to the conclusion that this method does not provide consistent results in high-dose-per-pulse beams.

  12. Measuring radiation damage dynamics by pulsed ion beam irradiation: 2016 project annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucheyev, Sergei O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-04

    The major goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate a novel experimental approach to access the dynamic regime of radiation damage formation in nuclear materials. In particular, the project exploits a pulsed-ion-beam method in order to gain insight into defect interaction dynamics by measuring effective defect interaction time constants and defect diffusion lengths. For Year 3, this project had the following two major milestones: (i) the demonstration of the measurement of thermally activated defect-interaction processes by pulsed ion beam techniques and (ii) the demonstration of alternative characterization techniques to study defect dynamics. As we describe below, both of these milestones have been met.

  13. Preliminary research results for parameter diagnostics of intense pulsed ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hailiang; Qiu Aici; Sun Jianfeng; He Xiaoping; Tang Junping; Wang Haiyang; Li Jingya; Ren Shuqing; Huang Jianjun; Zhang Jiasheng; Peng Jianchang; Ouyang Xiaoping; Zhang Guoguang; Li Hongyu

    2004-01-01

    The preliminary experimental results for parameter diagnostics of intense pulsed ion beams from the FLASH II accelerator were reported. The ion number of an intense pulsed ion beam were experimentally determined by monitoring delayed radioactivity from protons induced nuclear reactions in a 12 C target. The prompt γ-rays and diode Bremsstrahlung X-rays were measured with PIN semi-conductor detector and a ST401 plastic scintillator detector. The Bremsstrahlung distribution outside of the drift tube was detected with a thermoluminescent detector and the shielding design was also determined. The current densities of beam were measured with biased ion collector array. The ion beams were also recorded with a CR-39 detector. (author)

  14. Surface modification of steels and magnesium alloy by high current pulsed electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shengzhi; Gao, Bo; Wu, Aimin; Zou, Jianxin; Qin, Ying; Dong, Chuang; An, Jian; Guan, Qingfeng

    2005-11-01

    High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) is now developing as a useful tool for surface modification of materials. When concentrated electron flux transferring its energy into a very thin surface layer within a short pulse time, superfast processes such as heating, melting, evaporation and consequent solidification, as well as dynamic stress induced may impart the surface layer with improved physico-chemical and mechanical properties. This paper presents our research work on surface modification of steels and magnesium alloy with HCPEB of working parameters as electron energy 27 keV, pulse duration ∼1 μs and energy density ∼2.2 J/cm2 per pulse. Investigations performed on carbon steel T8, mold steel D2 and magnesium alloy AZ91HP have shown that the most pronounced changes of phase-structure state and properties occurring in the near-surface layers, while the thickness of the modified layer with improved microhardness (several hundreds of micrometers) is significantly greater than that of the heat-affected zone. The formation mechanisms of surface cratering and non-stationary hardening effect in depth are discussed based on the elucidation of non-equilibrium temperature filed and different kinds of stresses formed during pulsed electron beam melting treatment. After the pulsed electron beam treatments, samples show significant improvements in measurements of wear and corrosion resistance.

  15. Surface modification of steels and magnesium alloy by high current pulsed electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Shengzhi; Gao, Bo; Wu, Aimin; Zou, Jianxin; Qin, Ying; Dong, Chuang; An, Jian; Guan, Qingfeng

    2005-01-01

    High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) is now developing as a useful tool for surface modification of materials. When concentrated electron flux transferring its energy into a very thin surface layer within a short pulse time, superfast processes such as heating, melting, evaporation and consequent solidification, as well as dynamic stress induced may impart the surface layer with improved physico-chemical and mechanical properties. This paper presents our research work on surface modification of steels and magnesium alloy with HCPEB of working parameters as electron energy 27 keV, pulse duration ∼1 μs and energy density ∼2.2 J/cm 2 per pulse. Investigations performed on carbon steel T8, mold steel D2 and magnesium alloy AZ91HP have shown that the most pronounced changes of phase-structure state and properties occurring in the near-surface layers, while the thickness of the modified layer with improved microhardness (several hundreds of micrometers) is significantly greater than that of the heat-affected zone. The formation mechanisms of surface cratering and non-stationary hardening effect in depth are discussed based on the elucidation of non-equilibrium temperature filed and different kinds of stresses formed during pulsed electron beam melting treatment. After the pulsed electron beam treatments, samples show significant improvements in measurements of wear and corrosion resistance

  16. Study on quantum beam science by using ultra short electron pulse, FEL, and slow positron beam at ISIR (Institute of Science and Industrial Research), Osaka University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Tagawa, S.; Okuda, S.; Honda, Y.; Kimura, N.; Yamamoto, T.; Isoyama, G.

    1995-01-01

    Three projects for quantum beam science, an ultra fast electron pulse, a free electron laser, and a slow positron beam, has been started by using 38 MeV L-band and 150 MeV S-band linacs at ISIR in Osaka University. Both study on the production of three beams and study on quantum material science by using three beams will play an important role in the beam science. (author)

  17. Study of performance of electronic dosemeters in continuous and pulsed X-radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Margarete Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Personal radiation monitoring is a basic procedure to verify the compliance to regulatory requirements for radiological protection. Electronic personal dosimeters (EPD) based on solid state detectors have largely been used for personnel monitoring; including for pulsed radiation beams where their responses are not well known and deficiencies have been reported. In this work, irradiation conditions for testing the response of EPDs in both continuous and pulsed X-ray beams were studied to be established in a constant potential Seifert-Pantak and in a medical Pulsar 800 Plus VMI X-ray machines. Characterization of X-ray beams was done in terms of tube voltage, half-value layer, mean energy and air kerma rate. A Xi R/F Unfors solid state dosimeter used as reference for air kerma measurements was verified against a RC-6 and 10X6-6 Radical ionization chambers as far its metrological coherence. Rad-60 RADOS, PDM- 11 Aloka and EPD MK2 Thermo electron EPDs were selected to be tested in terms of relative intrinsic error and energy response in similar to IEC RQR, IEC RQA and ISO N reference radiations. Results demonstrated the reliability of the solid state Xi R/F Unfors dosimeter to be as reference dosimeter although its response was affected by heavily filtered beams. Results also showed that relative intrinsic errors in the response of the EPDs in terms of personal dose equivalent, Hp(10), were higher than the requirement established for continuous beams. In pulsed beams, some EPDs showed inadequate response and high relative intrinsic errors. This work stressed the need of performing additional checks for EPDs, besides the limited 137 Cs beam calibration, before using them in pulsed X-ray beams. (author)

  18. Generation of dense, pulsed beams of refractory metal atoms using two-stage laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadar-Kallen, M.A.; Bonin, K.D.

    1994-01-01

    We report a technique for generating a dense, pulsed beam of refractory metal atoms using two-stage laser ablation. An atomic beam of uranium was produced with a peak, ground-state number density of 1x10 12 cm -3 at a distance of z=27 cm from the source. This density can be scaled as 1/z 3 to estimate the density at other distances which are also far from the source

  19. Molecular beam studies of ion-molecule reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentry, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    A review is presented in which an attempt is made to highlight some of the areas in which molecular beam techniques contribute to the understanding of ion--molecule reaction dynamics. Included are reactant kinetic energy range and resolution, internal state selection and analysis, and new chemical systems and phenomena. 35 references

  20. Atmospheric processes on ice nanoparticles in molecular beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fárník, Michal; Poterya, Viktoriya

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2014 (2014), s. 4 ISSN 2296-2646 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0422; GA ČR GAP208/11/0161 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : molecular beams * photodissociation * water clusters Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  1. Generation and focusing of pulsed intense ion beams. Progress report, April 1, 1979-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudan, R.N.; Hammer, D.A.

    1981-04-01

    Theoretical calculations suggest that an intense pulsed approx. 1 MeV proton beam can be used to simulate the characteristics of approx. 1 GeV heavy ion beam propagation in an inertial confinement fusion reactor chamber. Given the present availability of the former beams and the high projected cost for obtaining the latter ones, such experimental simulations appear appropriate. Work was undertaken under the cited contract to apply the technology of intense proton beams to this end. The first task was the development of a high brightness pulsed proton source which could produce a weakly convergent approx. 10 kA proton beam in a field free drift region. This was accomplished at approx. 250 keV, and preliminary beam propagation experiments were performed. It was concluded that a proper simulation experiment would require a higher voltage beam. An upgraded version of the existing generator, which would have produced a 30 kA beam at about 500 keV, and further propagation experiments were proposed as part of our unsuccessful renewal proposal dated October 15, 1979

  2. Amplification of UV ultrashort pulse laser in e-beam pumped KrF amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Tang Xiu Zhang; Gong Kun; Ma Wei Yi; Shan Yu Sheng; Wang Nai Yan

    2002-01-01

    Experimental investigations were performed for amplification of ultrashort pulse laser with Heaven-I e-beam pumped KrF amplifier in CIAE. A 50 mJ, 420 fs UV ultrashort pulse was amplified to 2-3 J energy, 1.2 ps pulse duration, and 2TW laser power. Experimental technique such as synchronization were describe, some parameters such as nonlinear absorb coefficient were measured in experiment. As a result, it is possible to achieve ultra-strong UV laser with intensity higher than 10 sup 1 sup 9 W/cm sup 2 in recently years

  3. Amplification of UV ultrashort pulse laser in e-beam pumped KrF amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiuzhang; Zhang Haifeng; Gong Kun; Ma Weiyi; Shan Yusheng; Wang Naiyan

    2002-01-01

    Experimental investigations were performed for amplification of ultrashort pulse laser with Heaven-I e-beam pumped KrF amplifier in CIAE. A 50 mJ, 420 fs UV ultrashort pulse was amplified to 2-3 J energy, 1.2 ps pulse duration, and 2TW laser power. Experimental technique such as synchronization were describe, some parameters such as nonlinear absorb coefficient were measured in experiment. As a result, it is possible to achieve ultra-strong UV laser with intensity higher than 10 19 W/cm 2 in recently years

  4. Very Fast Current Diagnostic for Linear Pulsed Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassisi, Vincenzo; Delle Side, Domenico; Turco, Vito

    2018-01-01

    Fast current pulses manage lasers and particle accelerators and require sophisticate systems to be detected. At today Rogowski coils are well known. They are designed and built with a toroidal structure. In recently application, flat transmission lines are imploded and for this reason we develop a linear Rogowski coil to detect current pulses inside flat conductors. To get deep information from the system, it was approached by means of the theory of the transmission lines. The coil we build presents a resistance but it doesn't influence the rise time of the response, instead the integrating time. We also studied the influence of the magnetic properties of coil support. The new device was able to record pulses of more hundred nanoseconds depending on the inductance, load impedance and resistance of the coil. Furthermore, its response was characterized by a sub-nanosecond rise time ( 100 ps), The attenuation coefficient depends mainly on the turn number of the coil, while the quality of the response depends both on the manufacture quality of the coil and on the magnetic core characteristics. In biophysical applications often, a double line is employed in order to have a sample as control and a sample stressed by a light source. So, in this case we build two equal plane lines by 100 Ω characteristic resistance connected in parallel. We diagnosed the current present in a line. The attenuation factor resulted to be 11,5 A/V.

  5. Very Fast Current Diagnostic for Linear Pulsed Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassisi Vincenzo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast current pulses manage lasers and particle accelerators and require sophisticate systems to be detected. At today Rogowski coils are well known. They are designed and built with a toroidal structure. In recently application, flat transmission lines are imploded and for this reason we develop a linear Rogowski coil to detect current pulses inside flat conductors. To get deep information from the system, it was approached by means of the theory of the transmission lines. The coil we build presents a resistance but it doesn’t influence the rise time of the response, instead the integrating time. We also studied the influence of the magnetic properties of coil support. The new device was able to record pulses of more hundred nanoseconds depending on the inductance, load impedance and resistance of the coil. Furthermore, its response was characterized by a sub-nanosecond rise time (~100 ps, The attenuation coefficient depends mainly on the turn number of the coil, while the quality of the response depends both on the manufacture quality of the coil and on the magnetic core characteristics. In biophysical applications often, a double line is employed in order to have a sample as control and a sample stressed by a light source. So, in this case we build two equal plane lines by 100 Ω characteristic resistance connected in parallel. We diagnosed the current present in a line. The attenuation factor resulted to be 11,5 A/V.

  6. Tailoring the laser pulse shape to improve the quality of the self-injected electron beam in laser wakefield acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Ajay K.; Samant, Sushil A.; Krishnagopal, S.

    2013-01-01

    In laser wakefield acceleration, tailoring the shape of the laser pulse is one way of influencing the laser-plasma interaction and, therefore, of improving the quality of the self-injected electron beam in the bubble regime. Using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution dynamics of the laser pulse and the quality of the self-injected beam, for a Gaussian pulse, a positive skew pulse (i.e., one with sharp rise and slow fall), and a negative skew pulse (i.e., one with a slow rise and sharp fall) are studied. It is observed that with a negative skew laser pulse there is a substantial improvement in the emittance (by around a factor of two), and a modest improvement in the energy-spread, compared to Gaussian as well as positive skew pulses. However, the injected charge is less in the negative skew pulse compared to the other two. It is also found that there is an optimal propagation distance that gives the best beam quality; beyond this distance, though the energy increases, the beam quality deteriorates, but this deterioration is least for the negative skew pulse. Thus, the negative skew pulse gives an improvement in terms of beam quality (emittance and energy spread) over what one can get with a Gaussian or positive skew pulse. In part, this is because of the lesser injected charge, and the strong suppression of continuous injection for the negative skew pulse.

  7. Generation of a high-brightness pulsed positron beam for the Munich scanning positron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piochacz, Christian

    2009-11-20

    Within the present work the prerequisites for the operation of the Munich scanning positron microscope (SPM) at the high intense neutron induced positron source Munich (NEPOMUC) were established. This was accomplished in two steps: Firstly, a re-moderation device was installed at the positron beam facility NEPOMUC, which enhances the brightness of the positron beam for all connected experiments. The second step was the design, set up and initial operation of the SPM interface for the high efficient conversion of the continuous beam into a bunched beam. The in-pile positron source NEPOMUC creates a positron beam with a diameter of typically 7 mm, a kinetic energy of 1 keV and an energy spread of 50 eV. The NEPOMUC re-moderator generates from this beam a low energy positron beam (20 - 200 eV) with a diameter of less than 2 mm and an energy spread well below 2.5 eV. This was achieved with an excellent total efficiency of 6.55{+-}0.25 %. The re-moderator was not only the rst step to implement the SPM at NEPOMUc, it enables also the operation of the pulsed low energy positron beam system (PLEPS). Within the present work, at this spectrometer rst positron lifetime measurements were performed, which revealed the defect types of an ion irradiated uranium molybdenum alloy. Moreover, the instruments which were already connected to the positron beam facility bene ts considerably of the high brightness enhancement. In the new SPM interface an additional re-moderation stage enhances the brightness of the beam even more and will enable positron lifetime measurements at the SPM with a lateral resolution below 1 {mu}m. The efficiency of the re-moderation process in this second stage was 24.5{+-}4.5 %. In order to convert high efficiently the continuous positron beam into a pulsed beam with a repetition rate of 50 MHz and a pulse duration of less than 50 ps, a sub-harmonic pre-bucher was combined with two sine wave bunchers. Furthermore, the additional re-moderation stage of the

  8. Generation of a high-brightness pulsed positron beam for the Munich scanning positron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piochacz, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Within the present work the prerequisites for the operation of the Munich scanning positron microscope (SPM) at the high intense neutron induced positron source Munich (NEPOMUC) were established. This was accomplished in two steps: Firstly, a re-moderation device was installed at the positron beam facility NEPOMUC, which enhances the brightness of the positron beam for all connected experiments. The second step was the design, set up and initial operation of the SPM interface for the high efficient conversion of the continuous beam into a bunched beam. The in-pile positron source NEPOMUC creates a positron beam with a diameter of typically 7 mm, a kinetic energy of 1 keV and an energy spread of 50 eV. The NEPOMUC re-moderator generates from this beam a low energy positron beam (20 - 200 eV) with a diameter of less than 2 mm and an energy spread well below 2.5 eV. This was achieved with an excellent total efficiency of 6.55±0.25 %. The re-moderator was not only the rst step to implement the SPM at NEPOMUc, it enables also the operation of the pulsed low energy positron beam system (PLEPS). Within the present work, at this spectrometer rst positron lifetime measurements were performed, which revealed the defect types of an ion irradiated uranium molybdenum alloy. Moreover, the instruments which were already connected to the positron beam facility bene ts considerably of the high brightness enhancement. In the new SPM interface an additional re-moderation stage enhances the brightness of the beam even more and will enable positron lifetime measurements at the SPM with a lateral resolution below 1 μm. The efficiency of the re-moderation process in this second stage was 24.5±4.5 %. In order to convert high efficiently the continuous positron beam into a pulsed beam with a repetition rate of 50 MHz and a pulse duration of less than 50 ps, a sub-harmonic pre-bucher was combined with two sine wave bunchers. Furthermore, the additional re-moderation stage of the SPM

  9. Double-beam optical method and apparatus for measuring thermal diffusivity and other molecular dynamic processes in utilizing the transient thermal lens effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Hong, S.; Moacanin, J.

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring thermal diffusivity and molecular relaxation processes in a sample material utilizing two light beams, one being a pulsed laser light beam for forming a thermal lens in the sample material, and the other being a relatively low power probe light beam for measuring changes in the refractive index of the sample material during formation and dissipation of the thermal lens. More specifically, a sample material is irradiated by relatively high power, short pulses from a dye laser. Energy from the pulses is absorbed by the sample material, thereby forming a thermal lens in the area of absorption. The pulse repetition rate is chosen so that the thermal lens is substantially dissipated by the time the next pulse reaches the sample material. A probe light beam, which in a specific embodiment is a relatively low power, continuous wave (Cw) laser beam, irradiates the thermal lens formed in the sample material. The intensity characteristics of the probe light beam subsequent to irradiation of the thermal lens is related to changes in the refractive index of the sample material as the thermal lens is formed and dissipated. A plot of the changes in refractive index as a function of time during formation of the thermal lens as reflected by changes in intensity of the probe beam, provides a curve related to molecular relaxation characteristics of the material, and a plot during dissipation of the thermal lens provides a curve related to the thermal diffusivity of the sample material

  10. Advanced numerical studies of the neutralized drift compression of intense ion beam pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B. Sefkow

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal bunch compression of intense ion beams for warm dense matter and heavy ion fusion applications occurs by imposing an axial velocity tilt onto an ion beam across the acceleration gap of a linear induction accelerator, and subsequently allowing the beam to drift through plasma in order to neutralize its space-charge and current as the pulse compresses. The detailed physics and implications of acceleration gap effects and focusing aberration on optimum longitudinal compression are quantitatively reviewed using particle-in-cell simulations, showing their dependence on many system parameters. Finite-size gap effects are shown to result in compression reduction, due to an increase in the effective longitudinal temperature imparted to the beam, and a decrease in intended fractional tilt. Sensitivity of the focal plane quality to initial longitudinal beam temperature is explored, where slower particles are shown to experience increased levels of focusing aberration compared to faster particles. A plateau effect in axial compression is shown to occur for larger initial pulse lengths, where the increases in focusing aberration over the longer drift lengths involved dominate the increases in relative compression, indicating a trade-off between current compression and pulse duration. The dependence on intended fractional tilt is also discussed and agrees well with theory. A balance between longer initial pulse lengths and larger tilts is suggested, since both increase the current compression, but have opposite effects on the final pulse length, drift length, and amount of longitudinal focusing aberration. Quantitative examples are outlined that explore the sensitive dependence of compression on the initial kinetic energy and thermal distribution of the beam particles. Simultaneous transverse and longitudinal current density compression can be achieved in the laboratory using a strong final-focus solenoid, and simulations addressing the effects

  11. A new small-footprint external-beam PIXE facility for cultural heritage applications using pulsed proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadrucci, M.; Bazzano, G.; Borgognoni, F.; Chiari, M.; Mazzinghi, A.; Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Ruberto, C.; Taccetti, F.

    2017-09-01

    In the framework of the COBRA project, elemental analyses of cultural heritage objects based on the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) are planned in a collaboration between the APAM laboratory of ENEA-Frascati and the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence. With this aim a 3-7 MeV pulsed proton beam, driven by the injector of the protontherapy accelerator under construction for the TOP-IMPLART project, will be used to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique with a small-footprint pulsed accelerator to Italian small and medium enterprises interested in the composition analysis of ancient artifacts. The experimental set-up for PIXE analysis on the TOP-IMPLART machine consists of a modified assembly of the vertical beam line usually dedicated to radiobiology experiments: the beam produced by the injector (RFQ + DTL, a PL7 ACCSYSHITACHI model) is bent to 90° by a magnet, is collimated by a 300 μm aperture inserted in the end nozzle and extracted into ambient pressure by an exit window consisting of a Upilex foil 7.5 μm thick. The beam is pulsed with a variable pulse duration of 20-100 μs and a repetition rate variable from 10 to 100 Hz. The X-ray detection system is based on a Ketek Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) with 7 mm2 active area and 450 μm thickness, with a thin Beryllium entrance window (8 μm). The results of the calibration of this new PIXE set-up using thick target standards and of the analysis of the preliminary measurements on pigments are presented.

  12. Material studies for pulsed high-intensity proton beam targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simos, N.; Kirk, H.; Ludewig, H.; Thieberger, P.; Weng, W-T.; McDonald, K.; Yoshimura, K.

    2004-01-01

    Intense beams for muon colliders and neutrino facilities require high-performance target stations of 1-4 MW proton beams. The physics requirements for such a system push the envelope of our current knowledge as to how materials behave under high-power beams for both short and long exposure. The success of an adopted scheme that generates, captures and guides secondary particles depends on the useful life expectancy of this critical system. This paper presents an overview of what has been achieved during the various phases of the experimental effort including a tentative plan to continue the effort by expanding the material matrix. The first phase of the project was to study the changes after irradiation in mechanical properties and specially in thermal expansion coefficient of various materials. During phase-I the study attention was primarily focused on Super-invar and in a lesser degree on Inconel-718. Invar is a metal alloy which predominantly consists of 62% Fe, 32% Ni and 5% Co. It is showed that this metal, whose non-irradiated properties held such promise, can only be considered a serious target candidate for an intense proton beam only if one can anneal the atomic displacements followed by the appropriate heat treatment to restore its favorable expansion coefficient. New materials that have been developed for various industrial needs by optimizing key properties, might be of value for the accelerator community. These materials like carbon-carbon composites, titanium alloys, the Toyota 'gum metal', the Vascomax material and the AlBeMet alloy will be explored and tested in the second phase of the project. (A.C.)

  13. Plasma opening switch for long-pulse intense ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.A.; Mason, R.J.; Bartsch, R.R.; Greenly, J.B.; Rej, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    A Plasma Opening Switch (POS) is being developed at Los Alamos, as part of an intense ion beam experiment with special application to materials processing. The switch must conduct up to 100 kA for 600 ns, and open quickly to avoid premature gap closure in the ion beam diode load. Power multiplication is not a necessity, but prepulse suppression is. A positive central polarity is desirable, since with it an ion beam can be conveniently launched beyond the switch from the central anode toward a negatively charged target. Thus, otherwise by virtue of traditional scaling rules, a POS was designed with a 1.25 cm radius inner anode, and a 4.75 cm radius outer cathode. This has been constructed, and subjected to circuit, and simulational analysis. The computations are being performed with the 2D ANTHEM implicit code. Preliminary results show a marked difference in switching dynamics, when the central positive polarity is used in place of the more conventional opposite choice. Opening goes by the fast development of a central anode magnetic layer, rather than by the more conventional slow evolution of a cathode gap. With the central anode, higher fill densities are needed to achieve desired conduction times. This has suggested switch design improvements, which are discussed

  14. Plasma opening switch for long-pulse intense ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.A.; Mason, R.J.; Bartsch, R.R.; Greenly, J.B.; Rej, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    A Plasma Opening Switch (POS) is being developed at Los Alamos, as part of an intense ion beam experiment with special application to materials processing. The switch must conduct up to 100 kA for 400 ns, and open quicky to avoid premature gap closure in the ion beam diode load. Power multiplication is not a necessity, but prepulse suppression is. A positive central polarity is desirable, since with it an ion beam can be conveniently launched beyond the switch from the central anode toward a negatively charged target. Using traditional scaling rules, a POS was designed with a 1.25 cm radius inner anode, and a 5.0 cm radius outer cathode. This has been constructed, and subjected to circuit, and simulational analysis. The computations are being performed with the 2D ANTHEM implicit code. Preliminary results show a marked difference in switching dynamics, when the central positive polarity is used in place of the more conventional opposite choice. Opening is achieved by the fast development of a central anode magnetic layer, rather than by the more conventional slow evolution of a cathode gap. With the central anode, higher fill densities are needed to achieve desired conduction times. This has suggested switch design improvements, which are discussed

  15. Nonlinear Charge and Current Neutralization of an Ion Beam Pulse in a Pre-formed Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Shvets, Gennady; Startsev, Edward; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2001-01-01

    The propagation of a high-current finite-length ion beam in a cold pre-formed plasma is investigated. The outcome of the calculation is the quantitative prediction of the degree of charge and current neutralization of the ion beam pulse by the background plasma. The electric magnetic fields generated by the ion beam are studied analytically for the nonlinear case where the plasma density is comparable in size with the beam density. Particle-in-cell simulations and fluid calculations of current and charge neutralization have been performed for parameters relevant to heavy ion fusion assuming long, dense beams with el >> V(subscript b)/omega(subscript b), where V(subscript b) is the beam velocity and omega subscript b is the electron plasma frequency evaluated with the ion beam density. An important conclusion is that for long, nonrelativistic ion beams, charge neutralization is, for all practical purposes, complete even for very tenuous background plasmas. As a result, the self-magnetic force dominates the electric force and the beam ions are always pinched during beam propagation in a background plasma

  16. Light ion beam experiments with pinch reflex diodes on KfK's pulse generator KALIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluhm, H.; Buth, L.; Bohnel, K.; Harke, W.; Hoppe, P.; Karow, H.U.; Rusch, D.; Schulken, H.; Singer, J.

    1985-01-01

    The authors report on intense LI beam experiments currently performed with pinch reflex ion diodes on 2 ohms/1.4 TW-pulse generator KALIF (Karlsruhe Light Ion Facility). The goals of this work are the generation of highly focussed LI beams of well-defined ion composition, and the undertaking of beam-target experiments. The experimental studies with axial 6 cm phi-pinch reflex proton diodes have been aiming at the focussing characteristics of the diode, and at the ion species composition of the beam. Experiments have been performed using different diode geometries (anode/cathode/beam window foil shapes), and different anode return current paths, respectively. A variety of diagnostique techniques have been used in these studies: Electron pinch phenomena in the diode are observed by static and by gated X-ray cameras. Beam diagnostiques is based on measuring in the vacuum feed the electric parameters of the diode (electron and ion currents, diode voltage) on probing the ion composition and ion energy in the beam (by use of a Thomson Parabola spectrometer), and on the investigation of the beam focus (by use of different techniques: shadow box analysis, α-pin hole imaging, nuclear activation methods). Measurements of beam stopping power of ion beam-heated thin targets are underway using a streaked ion energy-spectrometer. The results obtained so far in these experimental efforts are presented

  17. Nonlinear Charge and Current Neutralization of an Ion Beam Pulse in a Pre-formed Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Gennady Shvets; Edward Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2001-01-30

    The propagation of a high-current finite-length ion beam in a cold pre-formed plasma is investigated. The outcome of the calculation is the quantitative prediction of the degree of charge and current neutralization of the ion beam pulse by the background plasma. The electric magnetic fields generated by the ion beam are studied analytically for the nonlinear case where the plasma density is comparable in size with the beam density. Particle-in-cell simulations and fluid calculations of current and charge neutralization have been performed for parameters relevant to heavy ion fusion assuming long, dense beams with el >> V(subscript b)/omega(subscript b), where V(subscript b) is the beam velocity and omega subscript b is the electron plasma frequency evaluated with the ion beam density. An important conclusion is that for long, nonrelativistic ion beams, charge neutralization is, for all practical purposes, complete even for very tenuous background plasmas. As a result, the self-magnetic force dominates the electric force and the beam ions are always pinched during beam propagation in a background plasma.

  18. Development of ion source with a washer gun for pulsed neutral beam injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, T; Yamaguchi, N; Kajiya, H; Takahashi, T; Imanaka, H; Takase, Y; Ono, Y; Sato, K N

    2008-06-01

    A new type of economical neutral beam source has been developed by using a single washer gun, pulsed operation, and a simple electrode system. We replaced the conventional hot filaments for arc-discharge-type plasma formation with a single stainless-steel washer gun, eliminating the entire dc power supply for the filaments and the cooling system for the electrodes. Our initial experiments revealed successful beam extraction up to 10 kV and 8.6 A, based on spatial profile measurements of density and temperature in the plasma source. The system also shows the potential to control the beam profile by controlling the plasma parameters in the ion accumulation chamber.

  19. Experiments on ion space-charge neutralization with pulsed electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herleb, U; Riege, H [CERN LHC-Division, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    The method of space-charge neutralization of heavy ion beams with electron beam pulses generated with electron guns incorporating ferroelectric cathodes was investigated experimentally. Several experiments are described, the results of which prove that the intensity of selected ion beam parts with defined charge states generated in a laser ion source can be increased by an order of magnitude. For elevated charge states the intensity amplification is more significant and may reach a factor of 4 for highly charged ions from an Al target. (author). 7 figs., 3 -refs.

  20. Hard-rock tunneling using pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.; Keefe, D.; Brekke, T.L.; Finnie, I.

    1975-01-01

    Intense sub-microsecond bursts of energetic electrons cause significant pulverization and surface spalling of a variety of rock types. The spall debris generally consists of sand, dust, and small flakes. If carried out at rapid repetition rate, this technique appears promising for increasing the speed and reducing the cost of underground excavation of tunnels, mines, and storage spaces. The conceptual design features of a pulsed electron tunnel excavator, capable of tunneling approximately ten times faster than conventional drill/blast methods, is presented. (auth)

  1. Using the pulse electron beam for air purification from methylmethacrylate vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drachev, A.N.; Novoselov, Yu.N.; Filatov, I.E.

    2003-01-01

    The results of studying the methylmethacrylate (MMA) vapors destruction in the mixture of nitrogen with oxygen under the pulse electron beam effect are presented. The competing mechanisms for the MMA removal are identified: the first one proceeds without the oxygen participation and the second one with the oxygen active forms participation [ru

  2. Pulse splitting of self-focusing-beams in normally dispersive media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergé, L.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of the normal group-velocity dispersion on anisotropic self-focusing beams in nonlinear Kerr media is studied analytically. It is shown that a light pulse self-focusing in the presence of normal dispersion is split up into several small-scale cells preventing a catastrophic collapse....... The theoretical explanation of this splitting process is revealed....

  3. Start-Up of a Pulsed Beam Free Electron Laser (FEL) Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    By slightly increasing the frequency of the R.F. accelerating field, Wacc during the start-up period, i.e., decreasing the beam pulse separation, the...levels. The required fractional increase in Wacc is 16L 1- 6L2 1/Lbow 10 - 6 for the parameters of ref. (3,4). The same 6 effect may also be realized

  4. ZnO sublimation using a polyenergetic pulsed electron beam source: numerical simulation and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tricot, S; Semmar, N; Lebbah, L; Boulmer-Leborgne, C, E-mail: sylvain.tricot@univ-orleans.f [GREMI, UMR 6606-CNRS/Universite d' Orleans, 14 rue d' Issoudun, BP 6744, 45067 Orleans cedex 2 (France)

    2010-02-17

    This paper details the electro-thermal study of the sublimation phase on a zinc oxide surface. This thermodynamic process occurs when a ZnO target is bombarded by a pulsed electron beam source composed of polyenergetic electrons. The source delivers short pulses of 180 ns of electrons with energies up to 16 keV. The beam total current reaches 800 A and is focused onto a spot area 2 mm in diameter. The Monte Carlo CASINO program is used to study the first stage of the interaction and to define the heat source space distribution inside the ZnO target. Simulation of the second stage of interaction is developed in a COMSOL multiphysics project. The simulated thermal field induced by space and time heat conduction is presented. Typically for a pulsed electron beam 2 mm in diameter of electrons having energies up to 16 keV, the surface temperature reaches a maximum of 7000 K. The calculations are supported by SEM pictures of the target irradiated by various beam energies and numbers of pulses.

  5. ZnO sublimation using a polyenergetic pulsed electron beam source: numerical simulation and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricot, S; Semmar, N; Lebbah, L; Boulmer-Leborgne, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper details the electro-thermal study of the sublimation phase on a zinc oxide surface. This thermodynamic process occurs when a ZnO target is bombarded by a pulsed electron beam source composed of polyenergetic electrons. The source delivers short pulses of 180 ns of electrons with energies up to 16 keV. The beam total current reaches 800 A and is focused onto a spot area 2 mm in diameter. The Monte Carlo CASINO program is used to study the first stage of the interaction and to define the heat source space distribution inside the ZnO target. Simulation of the second stage of interaction is developed in a COMSOL multiphysics project. The simulated thermal field induced by space and time heat conduction is presented. Typically for a pulsed electron beam 2 mm in diameter of electrons having energies up to 16 keV, the surface temperature reaches a maximum of 7000 K. The calculations are supported by SEM pictures of the target irradiated by various beam energies and numbers of pulses.

  6. Investigation of plasma stream collision produced by thin films irradiated by powerful pulsed electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, V P; Demidov, B A; Ivkin, M V; Mescheryakov, A N; Petrov, V A; Potapenko, A I

    2006-01-01

    Collision of fast plasma streams in vacuum is investigated. Plasma streams were produced by irradiation of thin foils with a powerful pulsed electron beam. Interaction of the plasma flows was studied by using frame and streak cameras. One-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out. Application of this method for porous ICF targets and high-energy physics is discussed

  7. Time resolved optical emission spectroscopy of cross-beam pulsed laser ablation on graphite targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangines, R.; Sanchez Ake, C.; Sobral, H.; Villagran-Muniz, M.

    2007-01-01

    Cross-beam pulsed laser ablation with two delayed lasers is performed on two perpendicular graphite targets. The time delay between lasers is varied by up to 5 μs, and physical changes on the second plasma, due to the interaction with the first generated one, are determined by time resolved optical emission spectroscopy

  8. Modeling of intense pulsed ion beam heated masked targets for extreme materials characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, John J.; Schenkel, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Intense, pulsed ion beams locally heat materials and deliver dense electronic excitations that can induce material modifications and phase transitions. Material properties can potentially be stabilized by rapid quenching. Pulsed ion beams with pulse lengths of order ns have recently become available for materials processing. Here, we optimize mask geometries for local modification of materials by intense ion pulses. The goal is to rapidly excite targets volumetrically to the point where a phase transition or local lattice reconstruction is induced followed by rapid cooling that stabilizes desired material's properties fast enough before the target is altered or damaged by, e.g., hydrodynamic expansion. By using a mask, the longitudinal dimension can be large compared to the transverse dimension, allowing the possibility of rapid transverse cooling. We performed HYDRA simulations that calculate peak temperatures for a series of excitation conditions and cooling rates of silicon targets with micro-structured masks and compare these to a simple analytical model. The model gives scaling laws that can guide the design of targets over a wide range of pulsed ion beam parameters.

  9. Chemical intermediate detection following corona discharge on volatile organic compounds: general method using molecular beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Luning; Sulkes, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Nonthermal plasma (NTP)-based treatments of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have potential for effective environmental remediation. Theory and experiment that consider the basic science pertaining to discharge events have helped improve NTP remediation outcomes. If direct information on early post-discharge chemical intermediates were also available, it would likely lead to additional improvement in NTP remediation outcomes. To this point, however, experiments yielding direct information on post-NTP VOC intermediates have been limited. An approach using supersonic expansion molecular beam methods offers general promise for detection of post-discharge VOC intermediates. To illustrate the potential utility of these methods, we present mass spectra showing the growth of early products formed when pulsed corona discharges were carried out on toluene in He and then in He with added O 2 . Good general detection of neutral post-discharge species was obtained using 800 nm 150 fs photoionization pulses.

  10. Pulsed high field magnets. An efficient way of shaping laser accelerated proton beams for application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Florian; Schramm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Bagnoud, Vincent; Blazevic, Abel; Busold, Simon [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Jena, 07734 Jena (Germany); Brabetz, Christian; Schumacher, Dennis [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Deppert, Oliver; Jahn, Diana; Roth, Markus [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Karsch, Leonhard; Masood, Umar [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Kraft, Stephan [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Compact laser-driven proton accelerators are a potential alternative to complex, expensive conventional accelerators, enabling unique beam properties, like ultra-high pulse dose. Nevertheless, they still require substantial development in reliable beam generation and transport. We present experimental studies on capture, shape and transport of laser and conventionally accelerated protons via pulsed high-field magnets. These magnets, common research tools in the fields of solid state physics, have been adapted to meet the demands of laser acceleration experiments.Our work distinctively shows that pulsed magnet technology makes laser acceleration more suitable for application and can facilitate compact and efficient accelerators, e.g. for material research as well as medical and biological purposes.

  11. Numerical Solution of the Kzk Equation for Pulsed Finite Amplitude Sound Beams in Thermoviscous Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang-Sub

    A time-domain numerical algorithm for solving the KZK (Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov) nonlinear parabolic wave equation is developed for pulsed, axisymmetric, finite amplitude sound beams in thermoviscous fluids. The KZK equation accounts for the combined effects of diffraction, absorption, and nonlinearity at the same order of approximation. The accuracy of the algorithm is established via comparison with analytical solutions for several limiting cases, and with numerical results obtained from a widely used algorithm for solving the KZK equation in the frequency domain. The time domain algorithm is used to investigate waveform distortion and shock formation in directive sound beams radiated by pulsed circular piston sources. New results include predictions for the entire process of self-demodulation, and for the effect of frequency modulation on pulse envelope distortion. Numerical results are compared with measurements, and focused sources are investigated briefly.

  12. Collective Focusing of Intense Ion Beam Pulses for High-energy Density Physics Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorf, Mikhail A.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    The collective focusing concept in which a weak magnetic lens provides strong focusing of an intense ion beam pulse carrying a neutralizing electron background is investigated by making use of advanced particle-in-cell simulations and reduced analytical models. The original analysis by Robertson Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 149 (1982) is extended to the parameter regimes of particular importance for several high-energy density physics applications. The present paper investigates (1) the effects of non-neutral collective focusing in a moderately strong magnetic field; (2) the diamagnetic effects leading to suppression of the applied magnetic field due to the presence of the beam pulse; and (3) the influence of a finite-radius conducting wall surrounding the beam cross-section on beam neutralization. In addition, it is demonstrated that the use of the collective focusing lens can significantly simplify the technical realization of the final focusing of ion beam pulses in the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-I (NDCX-I), and the conceptual designs of possible experiments on NDCX-I are investigated by making use of advanced numerical simulations.

  13. Remedial pulse programme for the production of monoenergetic ion beams of low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olubuyide, O.A.

    1975-01-01

    The technique involves an extension of sequential pulse techniques. An ion swarm is produced in a conventional mass-spectrometer ion source by a short electron beam pulse. Immediately, this swarm is accelerated impulsively by a short high voltage pulse on the repeller. The principal disadvantage of impulsive acceleration is that the final energy distribution of the ion swarm is broad especially at the lowest energies. At some instant during the passage of the ion swarm across the chamber second pulse is applied to the repeller--a ''remedial'' pulse which will accelerate the ions throughout the remainder of their passage and whose amplitude will be time-dependent. Slower ions must travel a greater distance in this ''remedial'' field than faster ions and will experience a proportionately greater increase in velocity from it. In this way, the remedial pulse can cause all the ions to acquire the same velocity at the exit slit. A limited experimental investigation has been made to examine the application of the proposed remedial pulse technique to existing ion sources. Application of the remedial pulse to impulsively-accelerated ion swarms reduced the energy distribution in the manner predicted by the theory but the quantitative reduction measured experimentally--a factor of approximately 2--was substantially less than the theoretical prediction of a factor of approximately 4. The limitations were characterized and a means of overcoming them was suggested in a new ion source of improved design. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  14. Stability of aerosol droplets in Bessel beam optical traps under constant and pulsed external forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Grégory; Esat, Kıvanç; Hartweg, Sebastian; Cremer, Johannes; Chasovskikh, Egor; Signorell, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    We report on the dynamics of aerosol droplets in optical traps under the influence of additional constant and pulsed external forces. Experimental results are compared with simulations of the three-dimensional droplet dynamics for two types of optical traps, the counter-propagating Bessel beam (CPBB) trap and the quadruple Bessel beam (QBB) trap. Under the influence of a constant gas flow (constant external force), the QBB trap is found to be more stable compared with the CPBB trap. By contrast, under pulsed laser excitation with laser pulse durations of nanoseconds (pulsed external force), the type of trap is of minor importance for the droplet stability. It typically needs pulsed laser forces that are several orders of magnitude higher than the optical forces to induce escape of the droplet from the trap. If the droplet strongly absorbs the pulsed laser light, these escape forces can be strongly reduced. The lower stability of absorbing droplets is a result of secondary thermal processes that cause droplet escape

  15. Stability of aerosol droplets in Bessel beam optical traps under constant and pulsed external forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Grégory; Esat, Kıvanç; Hartweg, Sebastian; Cremer, Johannes; Chasovskikh, Egor; Signorell, Ruth, E-mail: rsignorell@ethz.ch [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-04-21

    We report on the dynamics of aerosol droplets in optical traps under the influence of additional constant and pulsed external forces. Experimental results are compared with simulations of the three-dimensional droplet dynamics for two types of optical traps, the counter-propagating Bessel beam (CPBB) trap and the quadruple Bessel beam (QBB) trap. Under the influence of a constant gas flow (constant external force), the QBB trap is found to be more stable compared with the CPBB trap. By contrast, under pulsed laser excitation with laser pulse durations of nanoseconds (pulsed external force), the type of trap is of minor importance for the droplet stability. It typically needs pulsed laser forces that are several orders of magnitude higher than the optical forces to induce escape of the droplet from the trap. If the droplet strongly absorbs the pulsed laser light, these escape forces can be strongly reduced. The lower stability of absorbing droplets is a result of secondary thermal processes that cause droplet escape.

  16. Stability of aerosol droplets in Bessel beam optical traps under constant and pulsed external forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Grégory; Esat, Kıvanç; Hartweg, Sebastian; Cremer, Johannes; Chasovskikh, Egor; Signorell, Ruth

    2015-04-21

    We report on the dynamics of aerosol droplets in optical traps under the influence of additional constant and pulsed external forces. Experimental results are compared with simulations of the three-dimensional droplet dynamics for two types of optical traps, the counter-propagating Bessel beam (CPBB) trap and the quadruple Bessel beam (QBB) trap. Under the influence of a constant gas flow (constant external force), the QBB trap is found to be more stable compared with the CPBB trap. By contrast, under pulsed laser excitation with laser pulse durations of nanoseconds (pulsed external force), the type of trap is of minor importance for the droplet stability. It typically needs pulsed laser forces that are several orders of magnitude higher than the optical forces to induce escape of the droplet from the trap. If the droplet strongly absorbs the pulsed laser light, these escape forces can be strongly reduced. The lower stability of absorbing droplets is a result of secondary thermal processes that cause droplet escape.

  17. Stability of aerosol droplets in Bessel beam optical traps under constant and pulsed external forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Grégory; Esat, Kıvanç; Hartweg, Sebastian; Cremer, Johannes; Chasovskikh, Egor; Signorell, Ruth

    2015-04-01

    We report on the dynamics of aerosol droplets in optical traps under the influence of additional constant and pulsed external forces. Experimental results are compared with simulations of the three-dimensional droplet dynamics for two types of optical traps, the counter-propagating Bessel beam (CPBB) trap and the quadruple Bessel beam (QBB) trap. Under the influence of a constant gas flow (constant external force), the QBB trap is found to be more stable compared with the CPBB trap. By contrast, under pulsed laser excitation with laser pulse durations of nanoseconds (pulsed external force), the type of trap is of minor importance for the droplet stability. It typically needs pulsed laser forces that are several orders of magnitude higher than the optical forces to induce escape of the droplet from the trap. If the droplet strongly absorbs the pulsed laser light, these escape forces can be strongly reduced. The lower stability of absorbing droplets is a result of secondary thermal processes that cause droplet escape.

  18. Multi-pulsed intense electron beam emission from velvet, carbon fibers, carbon nano-tubes and dispenser cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Liansheng; Yang Anmin; Chen Yi; Zhang Huang; Liu Xingguang; Li Jin; Jiang Xiaoguo; Zhang Kaizhi; Shi Jinshui; Deng Jianjun; Zhang Linwen

    2010-01-01

    The experimental results of studies of four kinds of cathode emitting intense electron beams are demonstrated under multi-pulsed mode based on an experimental setup including two multi-pulse high voltage sources. The tested cathodes include velvet, carbon fibers, carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) and dispenser cathodes. The results indicate that all four are able to emit multi-pulsed beams. For velvet, carbon fiber and CNTs, the electron induced cathode plasma emission may be the main process and this means that there are differences in beam parameters from pulse to pulse. For dispenser cathodes tested in the experiment, although there is a little difference from pulse to pulse for some reason, thermal-electric field emission may be the main process. (authors)

  19. VME computer monitoring system of KEK-PS fast pulsed magnet currents and beam intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakubo, T.; Akiyama, A.; Kadokura, E.; Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    For beam transfer from the KEK-PS Linac to the Booster synchrotron ring and from the Booster to the Main ring, many pulse magnets have been installed. It is very important for the machine operation to monitor the firing time, rising time and peak value of the pulsed magnet currents. It is also very important for magnet tuning to obtain good injection efficiency of the Booster and the Main ring, and to observe the last circulating bunched beam in the Booster as well as the first circulating in the Main. These magnet currents and beam intensity signals are digitized by a digital oscilloscope with signal multiplexers, and then shown on a graphic display screen of the console via a VME computer. (author)

  20. Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaofang; Saleh, Ned; Krishnan, Mohan; Wang Haiwen; Backus, Sterling; Murnane, Margaret; Kapteyn, Henry; Umstadter, Donald; Wang Quandong; Shen Baifei

    2003-01-01

    Mega-electron-volt (MeV) electron emission from the interaction of an ultrafast (τ∼29 fs), intense (>10 18 W/cm 2 ) laser pulse with underdense plasmas has been studied. A beam of MeV electrons with a divergence angle as small as 1 deg. is observed in the forward direction, which is correlated with relativistic filamentation of the laser pulse in plasmas. A novel net-energy-gain mechanism is proposed for electron acceleration resulting from the relativistic filamentation and beam breakup. These results suggest an approach for generating a beam of femtosecond, MeV electrons at a kilohertz repetition rate with a compact ultrafast intense laser system

  1. Reactions of carbon atoms in pulsed molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisler, H. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research program consists of a broad scope of experiments designed to unravel the chemistry of atomic carbon in its two spin states, P and D, by using well-controlled initial conditions and state-resolved detection of products. Prerequisite to the proposed studies (and the reason why so little is known about carbon atom reactions), is the development of clean sources of carbon atoms. Therefore, in parallel with the studies of its chemistry and reaction dynamics, the authors continuously explore new, state-specific and efficient ways of producing atomic carbon. In the current program, C({sup 3}P) is produced via laser ablation of graphite, and three areas of study are being pursued: (i) exothermic reactions with small inorganic molecules (e.g., O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}) that can proceed via multiple pathways; (ii) the influence of vibrational and translational energy on endothermic reactions involving H-containing reactants that yield CH products (e.g., H{sub 2}O H{sub 2}CO); (iii) reactions of C({sup 3}P) with free radicals (e.g., HCO, CH{sub 3}O). In addition, the authors plan to develop a source of C({sup 1}D) atoms by exploiting the pyrolysis of diazotetrazole and its salts in the ablation source. Another important goal involves collaboration with theoreticians in order to obtain relevant potential energy surfaces, rationalize the experimental results and predict the roles of translational and vibrational energies.

  2. Surface modification of TC4 titanium alloy by high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) with different pulsed energy densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yu-kui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The hardness changes were determined by nanoindention method. •The surface integrity changes were investigated by different techniques. •The mechanism was analyzed based on AFM and TEM investigations. -- Abstract: Surface changes including surface topography and nanohardness distribution along surface layer were investigated for TC4 titanium alloy by different energy densities of high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB). The surface topography was characterized by SEM and AFM, and cross-sectional TEM observation was performed to reveal the surface modification mechanism of TC4 titanium alloy by HCPEB. The surface roughness was modified by HCPEB and the polishing mechanism was analyzed by studying the cross section microstructure of electron beam treated specimens by SEM. The fine grain structure inherited from the rapid solidification of the melted layer as well as the strain hardening of the sub-surface are two of the factors responsible the increase in nanohardness

  3. Analytical and Numerical Studies of the Complex Interaction of a Fast Ion Beam Pulse with a Background Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma neutralization of an intense ion beam pulse is of interest for many applications, including plasma lenses, heavy ion fusion, high energy physics, etc. Comprehensive analytical, numerical, and experimental studies are underway to investigate the complex interaction of a fast ion beam with a background plasma. The positively charged ion beam attracts plasma electrons, and as a result the plasma electrons have a tendency to neutralize the beam charge and current. A suite of particle-in-cell codes has been developed to study the propagation of an ion beam pulse through the background plasma. For quasi-steady-state propagation of the ion beam pulse, an analytical theory has been developed using the assumption of long charge bunches and conservation of generalized vorticity. The analytical results agree well with the results of the numerical simulations. The visualization of the data obtained in the numerical simulations shows complex collective phenomena during beam entry into and ex it from the plasma

  4. Ultra Stable, Industrial Green Tailored Pulse Fiber Laser with Diffraction-limited Beam Quality for Advanced Micromachining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deladurantaye, P; Roy, V; Desbiens, L; Drolet, M; Taillon, Y; Galarneau, P

    2011-01-01

    We report on a novel pulsed fiber laser platform providing pulse shaping agility at high repetition rates and at a wavelength of 532 nm. The oscillator is based on the direct modulation of a seed laser diode followed by a chain of fiber amplifiers. Advanced Large Mode Area (LMA) fiber designs as well as proprietary techniques to mitigate non-linear effects enable output energy per pulse up to 100 μJ at 1064 nm with diffraction-limited beam quality and narrow line widths suitable for efficient frequency conversion. Ultra stable pulses with tailored pulse shapes were demonstrated in the green region of the spectrum at repetition rates higher than 200 kHz. Pulse durations between 2.5 ns and 640 ns are available, as well as pulse to pulse dynamic shape selection at repetition rates up to 1 MHz. The pulse energy stability at 532 nm is better than ± 1.5%, 3σ, over 10 000 pulses. Excellent beam characteristics were obtained. The M 2 parameter is lower than 1.05, the beam waist astigmatism and beam waist asymmetry are below 10% and below 8% respectively, with high stability over time. We foresee that the small spot size, high repetition rate and pulse tailoring capability of this platform will provide advantages to practitioners who are developing novel, advanced processes in many industrially important applications.

  5. PROJECTED MOLECULAR BEAM RESEARCH AT THE APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fristrom, R. M.

    1963-05-15

    An apparatus is described that is used in the study of elementary chemical reactions using the crossed molecular beam technique. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer is used as a detector and the velocity and angular distributions of the scattered species are measured directly. Schematic representation of the scope detector and the results of H + O/sub 2/ yields OH + O are given. (R.E.U.)

  6. Modification of solid surface by intense pulsed light-ion and metal-ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Y.; Ariyoshi, T.; Hanjo, H.; Tsutsumi, S.; Fujii, Y.; Itami, M.; Okamoto, A.; Ogawa, S.; Hamada, T.; Fukumaru, F.

    1989-03-01

    Metal surfaces of Al, stainless-steel and Ti were bombarded with focused intense pulsed proton and carbon ion beams (energy ˜ 80 keV, current density ≲ 1000 A/cm 2, pulse width ˜ 300 ns). Thin titanium carbide layers were produced by carbon-ion irradiation on the titanium surface. The observed molten surface structures and recrystallized layer (20 μm depth) indicated that the surfaces reached high temperatures as a result of the irradiation. The implantation of intense pulsed metal ion beams (Al +, ˜ 20 A/cm 2) with simultaneous deposition of anode metal vapor on Ti and Fe made a mixed layer of AlTi and AlFe of about 0.5 μm depth. Ti and B multilayered films evaporated on glass substrates were irradiated by intense pulsed proton beams of relatively lower current density (10-200 A/cm 2). Ti films containing B atoms above 10 at.% were obtained. When the current density was about 200 A/cm 2 diffraction peaks of TiB 2 appeared.

  7. Multipurpose beam pulsing system for the 12UD Pelletron tandem accelerator at the University of Tsukuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuno, Kohei; Fukuchi, Yasuhiko; Kimura, Takashige; Maeoka, Hidenobu; Ishii, Satoshi; Aoki, Takayoshi

    1983-10-01

    A beam pulsing system has been developed for a 12 MV tandem accelerator. The system consists of a pre-acceleration chopper, a klystron buncher and a post-acceleration chopper. The pre-acceleration chopper comprises a slow chopper and a fast travelling-wave chopper. Pulsed beams with widths in the range from 10 ..mu..s to --2 s are obtained with the slow chopper, and the repetition periods can be varied from 70 ..mu..s to 4s. The fast chopper produces ion bursts having widths between 0.05 and 0.8 ..mu..s with a duty factor of --10%. The buncher is operated with the two choppers to obtain beam pulses as narrow as a few nanoseconds. Time-of-flight measurements yielded pulse widths 2-4 ns (FWHM) wide for ions in the mass range 1 <= A <= 28. The ratio of the dark to peak ion current was usually of the order of 10/sup 4/.

  8. Experimental investigation of molecular beam injection in HL-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Lianghua; Diao Guangyao; Wang Zhanhe; Deng Huichen; Luo Junlin; Duan Xuru; Cui Zhengying

    1993-07-01

    A new method of gas puffing is presented. The molecular beam, formed by high pressure deuterium gas through Larval nozzle and skimmer slit, is injected into the HL-1 vacuum vessel. The deuterium molecular current from the nozzle passing through the skimmer is about 3 x 10 20 /s. At the line average electron density of 5.2 x 10 19 m -3 , the beam velocity is about 100 m/s. As the plasma density and temperature increasing, the influxes of deuterium particles attenuate quickly. When the molecular beam injection (MBI) just returned to normal gas puffing, the D α emission rapidly decreases, meanwhile, the particles move toward plasma center, the electron density is continuously peaking. The line average electron density rising lasts 45 ms. The thermal energy of plasma and confinement time for particles and energy are also increasing. the MBI is a direct and efficient gas fuelling mode, and the injected particles can reach to inside about 8 cm of plasma and q ≅ 2 confinement region. Its efficiency of injection is about 50%. After the MBI, the particle recycling coefficient R on the wall is 0.6 which is 10% lower than that of normal gas puffing

  9. Small-sized monitor of beam current and profile for the proton pulse electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getmanov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    Design and principle of operation of current monitor and beam profile of range-coordinate type are described. Monitor operation peculiarities are discussed using diagnostics of a beam of 330-420 keV electrostatic pulse proton accelerator with a beam current of up to 20 mA, at a current density of up to 23 mA x cm -2 and wth pulse duraton of about 20 μs. The monitor consists of a vacuum-dense foil of 3.0+-0.1 μm in thickness (or 0.81+-0.0x- mg x cm -2 ) two grid electrodes, each containing 12 wires, and as solid copper bottom. Foil serves for chopping off background particles with a path lesser 3.0 μm and stands thermal pulse load up to 0.5 J/cm -2 . Grid electrode wires are oriented perpendicularly to lach other and form a two-coordinate secondary-emisson roughness indicator. The bothhom is used for measuring an absolute value of beam current

  10. Modelling of pulsed electron beam induced graphite ablation: Sublimation versus melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muddassir; Henda, Redhouane

    2017-12-01

    Pulsed electron beam ablation (PEBA) has recently emerged as a very promising technique for the deposition of thin films with superior properties. Interaction of the pulsed electron beam with the target material is a complex process, which consists of heating, phase transition, and erosion of a small portion from the target surface. Ablation can be significantly affected by the nature of thermal phenomena taking place at the target surface, with subsequent bearing on the properties, stoichiometry and structure of deposited thin films. A two stage, one-dimensional heat conduction model is presented to describe two different thermal phenomena accounting for interaction of a graphite target with a polyenergetic electron beam. In the first instance, the thermal phenomena are comprised of heating, melting and vaporization of the target surface, while in the second instance the thermal phenomena are described in terms of heating and sublimation of the graphite surface. In this work, the electron beam delivers intense electron pulses of ∼100 ns with energies up to 16 keV and an electric current of ∼400 A to a graphite target. The temperature distribution, surface recession velocity, ablated mass per unit area, and ablation depth for the graphite target are numerically simulated by the finite element method for each case. Based on calculation findings and available experimental data, ablation appears to occur mainly in the regime of melting and vaporization from the surface.

  11. MOLECULAR BEAM STUDIES OF IR LASER INDUCED MULTIPHOTON DISSOCIATION AND VIBRATIONAL PREDISSOCIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yuan T.; Shen, Y. Ron

    1980-06-01

    The advancement of crossed molecular beam methods, modern spectroscopy and laser technology allows us to observe chemical reactions on atomic and molecular levels in great detail. After a brief history of crossed molecular beams studies, the author describes and discusses the universal molecular beam apparatus and gives examples of crossed molecular beam studies. The crossed beam technique is compared to other techniques used to provide microscopic information on reaction dynamics. Application of crossed laser and molecular beam studies to the problem of IR multiphoton dissociation of polyatomic molecules is discussed. Study of vibrational predissociation of hydrogen-bonded and van der Waals molecular clusters are discussed. Future cases that the author considers worth pursuing that could benefit from the collisionless environment of molecular beams are enumerated.

  12. Review of supershort avalanche electron beam during nanosecond-pulse discharges in some gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor F. Tarasenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB plays an important role in nanosecond-pulse discharges. This paper aims at reviewing experiments results on characteritics of SAEB and its spectra in different gases in nanosecond-pulse discharges. All the joint experiments were carried in the Institute of High Current Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Electrical Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. In these experiments, the generation of a SAEB in SF6 in an inhomogeneous electric field was studied on three generators with pulse rise times of 0.3, 0.5 and ∼2 ns. Firstly, the comparison of SAEB parameters in SF6 with those obtained in other gases (air, nitrogen, argon, and krypton is introduced. Secondly, the SAEB spectra in SF6 and air at pressures of 10 kPa (75 torr, and 0.1 MPa (750 torr are reviewed and discussed. Finally, 1.5-D theoretical simulation of the supershort pulse of the fast electron beam in a coaxial diode filled with SF6 at atmospheric pressure is described. The simulation was carried out in the framework of hybrid model for discharge and runaway electron kinetics. The above research progress can provide better understanding of the investigation into the mechanism of nanosecond-pulse discharges.

  13. Dynamic control of laser driven proton beams by exploiting self-generated, ultrashort electromagnetic pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kar, S., E-mail: s.kar@qub.ac.uk; Ahmed, H.; Nersisyan, G.; Hanton, F.; Naughton, K.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Borghesi, M. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Brauckmann, S.; Giesecke, A. L.; Willi, O. [Institut für Laser-und Plasmaphysik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    As part of the ultrafast charge dynamics initiated by high intensity laser irradiations of solid targets, high amplitude EM pulses propagate away from the interaction point and are transported along any stalks and wires attached to the target. The propagation of these high amplitude pulses along a thin wire connected to a laser irradiated target was diagnosed via the proton radiography technique, measuring a pulse duration of ∼20 ps and a pulse velocity close to the speed of light. The strong electric field associated with the EM pulse can be exploited for controlling dynamically the proton beams produced from a laser-driven source. Chromatic divergence control of broadband laser driven protons (upto 75% reduction in divergence of >5 MeV protons) was obtained by winding the supporting wire around the proton beam axis to create a helical coil structure. In addition to providing focussing and energy selection, the technique has the potential to post-accelerate the transiting protons by the longitudinal component of the curved electric field lines produced by the helical coil lens.

  14. Processes in a dense long-pulse electron beam focused on a solid target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkhipov, A V; Sominskij, G G [St. Petersburg Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The results obtained in beam-target experiments with dense medium-energy electron beam in the regime of long single pulses are presented. The measured power density of the focused beam at the target reached 20 MW/cm{sup 2} in these experiments. The processes caused by dense flows of secondary particles and by a dense target ablation plasma were studied in detail. Substantial target shielding occurs when the energy density at the target exceeds the value of about 1 kJ/cm{sup 2}. The target plasma and the sputtered matter that is responsible for shielding affects also the beam structure, as well as the target etching rates. (J.U.). 3 figs., 5 refs.

  15. Processes in a dense long-pulse electron beam focused on a solid target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, A.V.; Sominskij, G.G.

    1996-01-01

    The results obtained in beam-target experiments with dense medium-energy electron beam in the regime of long single pulses are presented. The measured power density of the focused beam at the target reached 20 MW/cm 2 in these experiments. The processes caused by dense flows of secondary particles and by a dense target ablation plasma were studied in detail. Substantial target shielding occurs when the energy density at the target exceeds the value of about 1 kJ/cm 2 . The target plasma and the sputtered matter that is responsible for shielding affects also the beam structure, as well as the target etching rates. (J.U.). 3 figs., 5 refs

  16. Characterization of electron beams generated in a high-voltage pulse-line-driven pseudospark discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaswamy, K.; Destler, W.W.; Segalov, Z.; Rodgers, J.

    1994-01-01

    Emittance and energy measurements have been performed on a high-brightness electron beam (>10 10 A/m 2 rad 2 ) with diameter in the range 1--3 mm and energy in the range 150--170 keV. This electron beam is generated by the mating of a hollow-cathode discharge device operating in the pseudospark regime to the output of a high-power pulse line accelerator. The measured effective emittance lies in the range between 30 and 90 mm mrad and increases with axial distance. Electron energy measurements indicate that the high-energy electrons are generated during the first 20--30 ns of the discharge. Both the emittance and energy experiments were performed at two different ambient argon gas pressures (92 and 152 mtorr). Beam expansion as a function of axial position has also been studied and a lower bound on the beam brightness has been obtained

  17. Laser sources for polarized electron beams in cw and pulsed accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hatziefremidis, A; Fraser, D; Avramopoulos, H

    1999-01-01

    We report the characterization of a high power, high repetition rate, mode-locked laser system to be used in continuous wave and pulsed electron accelerators for the generation of polarized electron beams. The system comprises of an external cavity diode laser and a harmonically mode-locked Ti:Sapphire oscillator and it can provide up to 3.4 W average power, with a corresponding pulse energy exceeding 1 nJ at 2856 MHz repetition rate. The system is tunable between 770-785 and 815-835 nm with two sets of diodes for the external cavity diode laser. (author)

  18. Effect of pulse electron beam characteristics on internal friction and structural alterations in epoxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikin, Yu.A.; Ismailova, G.A.; Al-Sheikhly, M.

    2007-01-01

    Temperature dependence of internal friction is experimentally studied in epoxy irradiated by 2.5 MeV pulse electron beam to different doses. Time dependence of internal friction characteristics associated with radiation-induced processes of polymer scission and cross-linking is analyzed and discussed. Experimental data on kinetics of structural transformations in epoxy are interpreted on the base of analytical solutions of differential equations for free radical accumulation during and after irradiation subject to the pulse irradiation mode and an arbitrary effective order of radical recombination

  19. Molecular beam studies with a time-of-flight machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijerinck, H.C.W.

    1975-01-01

    The study concerns the development of the time-of-flight method for the velocity analysis of molecular beams and its application to the measurement of the velocity dependence of the total cross-section of the noble gases. It reviews the elastic scattering theory, both in the framework of classical mechanics and in the quantum mechanical description. Attention is paid to the semiclassical correspondence of classical particle trajectories with the partial waves of the quantum mechanical solution. The total cross-section and the small angle differential cross-section are discussed with special emphasis on their relation. The results of this chapter are used later to derive the correction on the measured total cross-section due to the finite angular resolution of the apparatus. Reviewed also is the available information on the intermolecular potential of the Ar-Ar system. Then a discussion of the measurement of total cross-sections with the molecular beam method and the time-of-flight method is compared to other methods used. It is shown that the single burst time-of-flight method can be developed into a reliable and well-calibrated method for the analysis of the velocity distribution of molecular beams. A comparison of the single burst time-of-flight method with the cross-correlation time-of-flight method shows that the two methods are complementary and that the specific experimental circumstances determine which method is to be preferred. Molecular beam sources are discussed. The peaking factor formalism is introduced and helps to compare the performance of different types of sources. The effusive and the supersonic source are treated and recent experimental results are given. The multichannel source is treated in more detail. For the opaque mode, an experimental investigation of the velocity distribution and the angular distribution of the flow pattern is presented. Comparison of these results with Monte Carlo calculations for free molecular flow in a cylindrical

  20. Development of intense pulsed heavy ion beam diode using gas puff plasma gun as ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, H.; Higashiyama, M.; Takata, S.; Kitamura, I.; Masugata, K.

    2006-01-01

    A magnetically insulated ion diode with an active ion source of a gas puff plasma gun has been developed in order to generate a high-intensity pulsed heavy ion beam for the implantation process of semiconductors and the surface modification of materials. The nitrogen plasma produced by the plasma gun is injected into the acceleration gap of the diode with the external magnetic field system. The ion diode is operated at diode voltage approx. =200 kV, diode current approx. =2 kA and pulse duration approx. =150 ns. A new acceleration gap configuration for focusing ion beam has been designed in order to enhance the ion current density. The experimental results show that the ion current density is enhanced by a factor of 2 and the ion beam has the ion current density of 27 A/cm 2 . In addition, the coaxial type Marx generator with voltage 200 kV and current 15 kA has been developed and installed in the focus type ion diode. The ion beam of ion current density approx. =54 A/cm 2 is obtained. To produce metallic ion beams, an ion source by aluminum wire discharge has been developed and the aluminum plasma of ion current density ∼70 A/cm 2 is measured. (author)

  1. Extraction of pulsed ion beams from an anode covered with liquid material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akira; Yano, Syukuro

    1982-01-01

    In order to extend the life of anodes of pulsed ion diodes, a trial was made to extract ions from a plasma created by surface flashover on the oil-covered anode. The diode with this anode worked well as a so-called pinched electron beam diode. Production of proton beams of 10 kA with energies of about 400 keV was confirmed by measurements with biased ion collectors and those of prompt γ-rays from the reaction 19 F(p,γα) 16 O. Substantial reduction of damage and substantial extension of the life of the anode disc were realized. (author)

  2. An atomic coilgun: using pulsed magnetic fields to slow a supersonic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narevicius, E; Parthey, C G; Libson, A; Narevicius, J; Chavez, I; Even, U; Raizen, M G

    2007-01-01

    We report the experimental demonstration of a novel method to slow atoms and molecules with permanent magnetic moments using pulsed magnetic fields. In our experiments, we observe the slowing of a supersonic beam of metastable neon from 461.0 ± 7.7 to 403 ± 16 m s -1 in 18 stages, where the slowed peak is clearly separated from the initial distribution. This method has broad applications as it may easily be generalized, using seeding and entrainment into supersonic beams, to all paramagnetic atoms and molecules

  3. A low background pulsed neutron polyenergetic beam at the ET-RR-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Habib, N.; Abu-El-Ela, M.; Wahba, M.; Kilany, M.

    1991-12-01

    A low background pulsed neutron polyenergetic thermal beam at ET-RR-1 is produced by a rotor and rotating collimator suspended in magnetic fields. Each of them is mounted on its mobile platform and whose centres are 66 cm apart, rotating synchronously at speeds up to 16000 rpm. It was found that the neutron burst produced by the rotor with almost 100% transmission passes through the collimator, when the rotation phase between them is 28.8 deg. Moreover the background level achieved at the detector position is low, constant and free from peaks due to gamma rays and fast neutrons accompanying the reactor thermal beam. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs

  4. Pulsed electron-beam annealing of selenium-implanted gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, T.; Tokunaga, K.; Taka, S.

    1979-01-01

    Electrical properties of selenium-implanted gallium arsenide annealed by a single shot of high-power pulsed electron beams have been investigated by differential Hall-effect and sheet-resistivity measurements. It has been shown that higher electrical activation of implanted selenium can be obtained after electron-beam annealing at an incident energy density of 1.2 J/cm 2 , independent of heating of GaAs substrate during implantation. Measured carrier concentrations exhibit uniformly distributed profiles having carrier concentrations of 2--3 x 10 19 /cm 3 , which is difficult to realize by conventional thermal annealing

  5. Characteristics of a long-pulse (30-s), high-power (4-MW) ion source for neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Barber, G.C.; Combs, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    A quasi-steady-state ion source has been developed for neutral beam injection applications. It is of the duoPIGatron type designed for delivering 50 A of hydrogen ions at 80 keV for 30-s-long pulses. Ion beams of 40 A at 75 keV were extracted for pulse lengths up to 30 s, maintaining excellent optical quality in the beam for the entire pulse duration. The design features and operational characteristics of the ion source are elaborated

  6. Frequency Invariant Beam Steering for Short-Pulse Systems with a Rotman Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lambrecht

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A promising approach for beam steering of high-voltage transient signals for HPEM-systems (High Power Electro Magnetic is presented. The inherent capability of the Rotman lens to provide true time delays is used to develop a prototype beam steering device for an antielectronics HPEM system in the frequency range from 350 MHz to 5 GHz. Results of analytical calculations, simulations, and measurements from a hardware prototype are presented. The detailed mechanical setup of the Rotman lens is presented. Additionally the output pulses are investigated when inputting a Gaussian-like transient signal. Then time domain measures of quality (full width at half maximum, ringing, delay spread, maximum of transfer function are investigated for these output transients, and the simulation and measurement results are compared. A concluding analysis of the realizable time domain array pattern shows the radiated pulse form.

  7. Dynamic energy spectrum and energy deposition in solid target by intense pulsed ion beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yu; Xiao-Yun Le; Zheng Liu; Jie Shen; Yu I.Isakova; Hao-Wen Zhong; Jie Zhang; Sha Yan; Gao-Long Zhang; Xiao-Fu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    A method for analyzing the dynamic energy spectrum of intense pulsed ion beam (IPIB) was proposed.Its influence on beam energy deposition in metal target was studied with IPIB produced by two types of magnetically insulated diodes (MID).The emission of IPIB was described with space charge limitation model,and the dynamic energy spectrum was further analyzed with time-of-flight method.IPIBs generated by pulsed accelerators of BIPPAB-450 (active MID) and TEMP-4M (passive MID) were studied.The dynamic energy spectrum was used to deduce the power density distribution of IPIB in the target with Monte Carlo simulation and infrared imaging diagnostics.The effect on the distribution and evolution of thermal field induced by the characteristics of IPIB dynamic energy spectrum was discussed.

  8. Monitoring system of energy characteristics of electron beam during shaping process of power bremsstrahlung pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordasov, N.G.; Ulimov, V.N.; Bryksin, V.A.; Shiyan, V.D.

    2005-01-01

    One proposes a procedure and a device to monitor dynamic and integral characteristics of electron power beams of high-current pulsed accelerators (HCPA) operating under Bremsstrahlung radiation mode. One obtained static and dynamic transfer characteristics for various types of heterogenous targets-converters under operation of UIN-10 HCPA with up to 4 MeV energy electrons, up to 60 kA current and 6 x 10 -8 -2 x 10 -6 s pulse efficient duration. One demonstrated the capabilities of the complex diagnostics of acceleration of electron beams by HCPA with simultaneous determination of parameters of the Bremsstrahlung radiation at the local point of the field behind the target-converter [ru

  9. The development of long pulse high voltage power supply for MNI-1U neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detai Wang

    1989-01-01

    A high power long pulse high voltage power supply (HVPS) for MNI- 1 U neutral beam injector (NBI) is described. This HVPS is used as a switching regulator with a duty cycle of 1/100, the specifications of circuit are as follows, output pulse voltage 50kv, pulse current 30A, pulse width 50ms, rise-time and fall-time of the voltage are less than 25 μs, stability of the pulse flat is better than 0.5%, regulation response time of the pulse voltage less than 30 μs can be attained. It is also used as a stable DC HVPS, output voltage is 1 to 100kv, current is 1 to 5A. If regulation tube is shunted with high power resistor in parallel, the current can be extended to 10 A, stability of the output voltage or current is better than 0.1%. Now, the HVPS has been put into operation for MNI- 1 U NBI and PIG ion source made in French. 3 refs., 5 figs

  10. Styrene vapor decomposition in air under the action a pulse electron beam

    CERN Document Server

    Mesyats, G A; Filatov, I E

    2001-01-01

    The results of experiments on the styrene vapor removal from the air through the pulse electron beam of the nanosecond duration and also through the nonindependent voluminous discharge are presented. The macrokinetic equations of the process obtained on the basis of these results, make it possible to systematize the data and also extrapolate them beyond the boundaries of the studied area of concentrations and energy, contained in the gas

  11. Time and space domain separation of pulsed X-ray beams diffracted from vibrating crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosik, V. L., E-mail: v-nosik@yandex.ru, E-mail: nosik@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics,” (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    It is known that a set of additional reflections (satellites) may arise on rocking curves in the case of X-ray diffraction in the Bragg geometry from crystals where high-frequency ultrasonic vibrations are excited. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the pulse wave fields of the satellites and main reflection may be intersected in space (playing the role of pump and probe beams) and in time (forming interference superlattices).

  12. Thermal shock testing of TiC-coated molybdenum with pulsed hydrogen beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    1985-07-01

    Thermal shock testing of molybdenum samples, on which TiC is coated by TP-CVD and CVD methods, has been made by using a pulsed hydrogen beam. The power density applied was 2 kw/cm 2 . The test results showed that TiC coatings did not exfoliate until the melting of the substrate and showed good adhesion under the thermal shock condition. (author)

  13. A Technique for Temperature and Ultimate Load Calculations of Thin Targets in a Pulsed Electron Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen-Walther; Lundsager, Per

    1979-01-01

    A technique is presented for the calculation of transient temperature distributions and ultimate load of rotationally symmetric thin membranes with uniform lateral load and exposed to a pulsed electron beam from a linear accelerator. Heat transfer by conduction is considered the only transfer...... mechanism. The ultimate load is calculated on the basis of large plastic strain analysis. Analysis of one aluminum and one titanium membrane is shown....

  14. Investigation of industrial-scale carbon dioxide reduction using pulsed electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, G. M.; Apruzese, J. P.; Petrova, Tz. B.; Wolford, M. F. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20375-5346 (United States)

    2016-03-14

    Carbon dioxide is the most important greenhouse gas contributing to global warming. To help mitigate increasing CO{sub 2} concentrations, we investigate a method of carbon dioxide reduction using high-power electron beams, which can be used on an industrial scale. A series of experiments are conducted in which the reduction of CO{sub 2} is measured for different gas compositions and power deposition rates. An electron beam deposition model is applied to compute reduction rates of CO{sub 2} and energy cost for breaking a CO{sub 2} molecule in flue gas and pure carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure. For flue gas consisting of 82% N{sub 2}, 6% O{sub 2}, and 12% CO{sub 2}, the calculated energy cost is 85 eV per molecule. In order to dissociate 50% of the CO{sub 2} molecules, beam energy density deposition on the order of 20 J/cm{sup 3} is required. Electron beam irradiation of 12.6 liter gas volume containing 90% CO{sub 2} and 10% CH{sub 4} at beam energy density deposition of 4.2 J/cm{sup 3}, accumulated over 43 shots in a 20 min interval, reduced the CO{sub 2} concentration to 78%. Analogous experiments with a gas mixture containing 11.5% CO{sub 2}, 11.5% CH{sub 4}, and balance of Ar, reduced the CO{sub 2} concentration to below 11% with energy deposition 0.71 J/cm{sup 3}, accumulated over 10 shots in a 5 min interval. The experimental data and the theoretical predictions of CO{sub 2} reduction using pulsed electron beams are in agreement within the experimental error. Other techniques to enhance the removal of CO{sub 2} with pulsed electron beams are also explored, yielding new possible avenues of research.

  15. HiRadMat at CERN/SPS - A dedicated facility providing high intensity beam pulses to material samples

    CERN Multimedia

    Charitonidis, N; Efthymiopoulos, I

    2014-01-01

    HiRadMat (High Radiation to Materials), constructed in 2011, is a facility at CERN designed to provide high‐intensity pulsed beams to an irradiation area where material samples as well as accelerator component assemblies (e.g. vacuum windows, high power beam targets, collimators…) can be tested. The facility uses a 440 GeV proton beam extracted from the CERN SPS with a pulse length of up to 7.2 us, and with a maximum pulse energy of 3.4 MJ (3xE13 proton/pulse). In addition to protons, ion beams with energy of 440 GeV/charge and total pulse energy of 21 kJ can be provided. The beam parameters can be tuned to match the needs of each experiment. HiRadMat is not an irradiation facility where large doses on equipment can be accumulated. It is rather a test area designed to perform single pulse experiments to evaluate the effect of high‐intensity pulsed beams on materials or accelerator component assemblies in a controlled environment. The fa‐ cility is designed for a maximum of 1E16 protons per year, dist...

  16. 200 keV electron beam pulse source for the complex VEPP-5 preinjector

    CERN Document Server

    Akimov, V E; Korepanov, A A

    2001-01-01

    The electron beam source based on GS-34 valve cathode-grid unit with oxide cathode of 12 mm in diameter is described. Originally the high voltage DC source was used to supply the gun. The cathode emission characteristic was reduced by the vacuum breakdowns during gun operation. So the necessity of decreasing a high voltage from 200 kV to 140 kV has appeared. The use of the pulse transformer based gun supply with a pulse duration of approx 1 mcs provided the gun operation without breakdowns at a voltage of 200 kV and pulse repetition rate up to 50 Hz. At present time the electron source is operated at the complex VEPP-5 preinjector.

  17. A trap-based pulsed positron beam optimised for positronium laser spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, B. S., E-mail: ben.cooper.13@ucl.ac.uk; Alonso, A. M.; Deller, A.; Wall, T. E.; Cassidy, D. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    We describe a pulsed positron beam that is optimised for positronium (Ps) laser-spectroscopy experiments. The system is based on a two-stage Surko-type buffer gas trap that produces 4 ns wide pulses containing up to 5 × 10{sup 5} positrons at a rate of 0.5-10 Hz. By implanting positrons from the trap into a suitable target material, a dilute positronium gas with an initial density of the order of 10{sup 7} cm{sup −3} is created in vacuum. This is then probed with pulsed (ns) laser systems, where various Ps-laser interactions have been observed via changes in Ps annihilation rates using a fast gamma ray detector. We demonstrate the capabilities of the apparatus and detection methodology via the observation of Rydberg positronium atoms with principal quantum numbers ranging from 11 to 22 and the Stark broadening of the n = 2 → 11 transition in electric fields.

  18. PBFA [Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator] II: The pulsed power characterization phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.; Turman, B.N.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II, PBFA II, is now the largest pulsed power device in operation. This paper summarizes its first year and a half of operation for the Department of Energy (DOE) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. Thirty-six separate modules provide 72 output pulses that combine to form a 100 TW output pulse at the accelerator center. PBFA II was successfully test fired for the first time on December 11, 1985. This test completed the construction phase (Phase 1) within the expected schedule and budget. The accelerator checkout phase then started (Phase 2). The first priority during checkout was to bring the Phase 1 subsystems into full operation. The accelerator was first tested to determine overall system performance. Next, subsystems that were not performing adequately were modified. The accelerator is now being used for ion diode studies. 32 refs

  19. Pulse forming networks for fast pumping of high power electron-beam-controlled CO2 lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riepe, K.B.

    1975-01-01

    The transverse electric discharge is a widely used technique for pumping CO 2 lasers at high pressures for the generation, simply and efficiently, of very high power laser pulses. The development of the electron-beam-controlled discharge has allowed the application of the transverse discharge to large aperture, very high energy systems. LASL is now in the process of assembly and checkout of a CO 2 laser which is designed to generate a one nanosecond pulse containing 10 kilojoules, for use in laser fusion experiments. The front end of this laser consists of a set of preamplifiers and a mode locked oscillator with electro-optic single pulse switchout. The final amplifier stage consists of four parallel modules, each one consisting of a two-sided electron gun, and two 35 x 35 x 200 cm gas pumping regions operating at a pressure of 1800 torr with a 3/ 1 / 4 /1 (He/N 2 /CO 2 ) laser mix. (auth)

  20. Control of ion beam generation in intense short pulse laser target interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, T.; Izumiyama, T.; Barada, D.; Kawata, S.; Gu, Y.J.; Wang, W.M.; Ma, Y.Y.; Kong, Q.

    2013-01-01

    In intense laser plasma interaction, several issues still remain to be solved for future laser particle acceleration. In this paper we focus on a control of generation of high-energy ions. In this study, near-critical density plasmas are employed and are illuminated by high intensity short laser pulses; we have successfully generated high-energy ions, and also controlled ion energy and the ion energy spectrum by multiple-stages acceleration. We performed particle-in-cell simulations in this paper. The first near-critical plasma target is illuminated by a laser pulse, and the ions accelerated are transferred to the next target. The next identical target is also illuminated by another identical large pulse, and the ion beam introduced is further accelerated and controlled. In this study four stages are employed, and finally a few hundreds of MeV of protons are realized. A quasi-monoenergetic energy spectrum is also obtained. (author)

  1. Removing roughness on metal surface by irradiation of intense short-pulsed ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Surface modification of metals with an intense pulsed ion beam (IPIB) was studied experimentally. When the temperature rise of metal surfaces by IPIB irradiation exceeds their boiling point, it is found that machining roughness on surfaces is removed. The experiments were performed with the pulsed power generator HARIMA-II at Himeji Institute of Technology. The main components of the ion beam were carbon and fluorine ions. The IPIB was irradiated to metal plates (Al, Cu and Ti) which were placed at the focal point. Machining roughness on Ti surface was removed after IPIB irradiation, while roughness on Al and Cu plates was not removed. Using the present experimental parameters (beam power density: 32 W/cm 2 , pulse width: 25 ns), the temperature rise of the Ti surface was estimated to be 8,100 K which exceed its boiling point (3,000 K). However, the estimated temperatures of Al and Cu surfaces was 2,500 and 1,500 K, respectively, that are less than their boiling points. These studies above suggests that temperature rise over the boiling point of metals is necessary for removing machining roughness on metal surfaces

  2. Pulsed ion-beam assisted deposition of Ge nanocrystals on SiO2 for non-volatile memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepina, N.P.; Dvurechenskii, A.V.; Armbrister, V.A.; Kirienko, V.V.; Novikov, P.L.; Kesler, V.G.; Gutakovskii, A.K.; Smagina, Z.V.; Spesivtzev, E.V.

    2008-01-01

    A floating gate memory structure, utilizing Ge nanocrystals (NCs) deposited on tunnel SiO 2 , have been fabricated using pulsed low energy ion-beam induced molecular-beam deposition (MBD) in ultra-high vacuum. The ion-beam action is shown to stimulate the nucleation of Ge NCs when being applied after thin Ge layer deposition. Growth conditions for independent change of NCs size and array density were established allowing to optimize the structure parameters required for memory device. Activation energy E = 0.25 eV was determined from the temperature dependence of NCs array density. Monte Carlo simulation has shown that the process, determining NCs array density, is the surface diffusion. Embedding of the crystalline Ge dots into silicon oxide was carried out by selective oxidation of Si(100)/SiO 2 /Ge(NCs)/poly-Si structure. MOS-capacitor obtained after oxidation showed a hysteresis in its C-V curves attributed to charge retention in the Ge dots

  3. Transient pulse analysis of ionized electronics exposed to γ-radiation generated from a relativistic electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sun-Hong; Kwon, Ohjoon; Sattorov, Matlabjon; Baek, In-Keun; Kim, Seontae; Hong, Dongpyo; Jeong, Jin-Young; Jang, Jungmin; Bera, Anirban; Barik, Ranjan Kumar; Bhattacharya, Ranajoy; Cho, Ilsung; Kim, Byungsu; Park, Chawon; Jung, Wongyun; Park, Seunghyuk; Park, Gun-Sik

    2018-02-01

    When a semiconductor element is irradiated with radiation in the form of a transient pulse emitted from a nuclear explosion, a large amount of charge is generated in a short time in the device. A photocurrent amplified in a certain direction by these types of charges cause the device to break down and malfunction or in extreme cases causes them to burn out. In this study, a pulse-type γ-ray generator based on a relativistic electron beam accelerator (γ=2.2, β=0.89) which functions by means of tungsten impingement was constructed and tested in an effort to investigate the process and effects of the photocurrent formed by electron hole pairs (EHP) generated in a pMOSFET device when a transient radiation pulse is incident in the device. The pulse-type γ-ray irradiating device used here to generate the electron beam current in a short time was devised to allow an increase in the irradiation dose. A precise signal processing circuit was constructed to measure the photocurrent of the small signal generated by the pMOSFET due to the electron beam accelerator pulse signal from the large noise stemming from the electromagnetic field around the relativistic electron beam accelerator. The pulse-type γ-ray generator was installed to meet the requirements of relativistic electron beam accelerators, and beam irradiation was conducted after a beam commissioning step.

  4. Pulsed dye laser treatment of rosacea using a novel 15 mm diameter treatment beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Eric F; Schomacker, Kevin; Paranjape, Amit; Jones, Christopher J

    2018-04-10

    The pulsed-dye laser has been used to treat facial redness and rosacea for decades. Recent advances in dye laser technology enable 50% higher output energies supporting 50% larger treatment areas, and beam-diameters up to 15 mm with clinically-relevant fluences. In this study, we investigate this novel pulsed-dye laser using a 15 mm diameter beam for treatment of rosacea. Twenty subjects with erythemato-telangiectatic rosacea were enrolled in the study. A total of 4 monthly treatments were administered, first treating linear vessels with a 3 × 10 mm elliptical beam, then diffuse redness with a 15-mm diameter circular beam. Blinded assessment of digital, cross-polarized photographs taken 2 months following the last treatment was performed using an 11-point clearance scale. Nineteen subjects completed the study. Blinded reviewers correctly identified baseline photos in 55 out of the total of 57 images (96.5%). The blinded reviewers scored 17 of the 19 subjects with an improvement greater than 40%, and 11 of the 19 subjects greater than 50%. The average improvement was 53.9%. Side effects were limited to mild edema, mild to moderate erythema, and mild to moderate bruising. This study demonstrates that a newly designed pulsed-dye laser having a novel 15-mm diameter treatment beam improves the appearance of rosacea with a favorable safety profile. Lasers Surg. Med. 9999:1-5, 2018. © 2018 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Crossed molecular beam studies of unimolecular reaction dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buss, R.J.

    1979-04-01

    The study of seven radical-molecule reactions using the crossed molecular beam technique with supersonic nozzle beams is reported. Product angular and velocity distributions were obtained and compared with statistical calculations in order to identify dynamical features of the reactions. In the reaction of chlorine and fluorine atoms with vinyl bromide, the product energy distributions are found to deviate from predictions of the statistical model. A similar effect is observed in the reaction of chlorine atoms with 1, 2 and 3-bromopropene. The reaction of oxygen atoms with ICl and CF 3 I has been used to obtain an improved value of the IO bond energy, 55.0 +- 2.0 kcal mol -1 . In all reactions studied, the product energy and angular distributions are found to be coupled, and this is attributed to a kinematic effect of the conservation of angular momentum

  6. Generation of a pulsed low-energy electron beam using the channel spark device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgarhy, M. A. I., E-mail: elgarhy@azhar.edu.eg; Hassaballa, S. E.; Rashed, U. M.; ElSabbagh, M. M.; Saudy, A. H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); Soliman, H. M. [Plasma and Nuclear Fusion Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Enshas (Egypt)

    2015-12-15

    For the generation of low-energy electron beam, the design and characteristics of channel spark discharge (CSD) operating at a low voltage are presented in this paper. The discharge voltage, discharge current, X-ray emissions, and electron beam current were experimentally determined. The effects of the applied voltage, working gas pressure, and external capacitance on the CSD and beam parameters were measured. At an applied voltage of 11 kV, an oxygen gas pressure of 25 mTorr, and an external capacitance of 16.45 nF, the maximum measured current was 900 A. The discharge current increased with the increase in the pressure and capacitance, while its periodic time decreased with the increase in the pressure. Two types of the discharge were identified and recorded: the hollow cathode discharge and the conduction discharge. A Faraday cup was used to measure the beam current. The maximum measured beam current was 120 A, and the beam signal exhibited two peaks. The increase in both the external capacitance and the applied discharge voltage increased the maximum electron beam current. The electron-beam pulse time decreased with the increase in the gas pressure at a constant voltage and increased with the decrease in the applied discharge voltage. At an applied voltage of 11 kV and an oxygen gas pressure of 15 mTorr, the maximum beam energy was 2.8 keV. The X-ray signal intensity decreased with the increase in the gas pressure and increased with the increase in the capacitance.

  7. Lifetime of anode polymer in magnetically insulated ion diodes for high-intensity pulsed ion beam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, X. P.; Dong, Z. H.; Han, X. G.; Xin, J. P.; Lei, M. K.

    2007-01-01

    Generation of high-intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) has been studied experimentally using polyethylene as the anode polymer in magnetically insulated ion diodes (MIDs) with an external magnetic field. The HIPIB is extracted from the anode plasma produced during the surface discharging process on polyethylene under the electrical and magnetic fields in MIDs, i.e., high-voltage surface breakdown (flashover) with bombardments by electrons. The surface morphology and the microstructure of the anode polymer are characterized using scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The surface roughening of the anode polymer results from the explosive release of trapped gases or newly formed gases under the high-voltage discharging, leaving fractured surfaces with bubble formation. The polyethylene in the surface layer degrades into low-molecular-weight polymers such as polyethylene wax and paraffin under the discharging process. Both the surface roughness and the fraction of low molecular polymers apparently increase as the discharging times are prolonged for multipulse HIPIB generation. The changes in the surface morphology and the composition of anode polymer lead to a noticeable decrease in the output of ion beam intensity, i.e., ion current density and diode voltage, accompanied with an increase in instability of the parameters with the prolonged discharge times. The diode voltage (or surface breakdown voltage of polymer) mainly depends on the surface morphology (or roughness) of anode polymers, and the ion current density on the composition of anode polymers, which account for the two stages of anode polymer degradation observed experimentally, i.e., stage I which has a steady decrease of the two parameters and stage II which shows a slow decrease, but with an enhanced fluctuation of the two parameters with increasing pulses of HIPIB generation

  8. Launch and capture of a single particle in a pulse-laser-assisted dual-beam fiber-optic trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhenhai; She, Xuan; Li, Nan; Hu, Huizhu

    2018-06-01

    The rapid loading and manipulation of microspheres in optical trap is important for its applications in optomechanics and precision force sensing. We investigate the microsphere behavior under coaction of a dual-beam fiber-optic trap and a pulse laser beam, which reveals a launched microsphere can be effectively captured in a spatial region. A suitable order of pulse duration for launch is derived according to the calculated detachment energy threshold of pulse laser. Furthermore, we illustrate the effect of structural parameters on the launching process, including the spot size of pulse laser, the vertical displacement of beam waist and the initial position of microsphere. Our result will be instructive in the optimal design of the pulse-laser-assisted optical tweezers for controllable loading mechanism of optical trap.

  9. Simulation calculation for the energy deposition profile and the transmission fraction of intense pulsed electron beam at various incident angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hailiang; Qiu Aici; Zhang Jiasheng; Huang Jianjun; Sun Jianfeng

    2002-01-01

    The incident angles have a heavy effect on the intense pulsed electron beam energy deposition profile, energy deposition fraction and beam current transmission fraction in material. The author presents electron beam energy deposition profile and energy deposition fraction versus electron energy (0.5-2.0 MeV), at various incident angles for three aluminum targets of various thickness via theoretical calculation. The intense pulsed electron beam current transmission fractions versus electron energy (0.4-1.4 MeV) at various incident angles for three thickness of carbon targets were also theoretically calculated. The calculation results indicate that the deposition energy in unit mass of material surface layer increase with the rise of electron beam incident angle, and electron beam with low incident angle (closer to normal incident angle) penetrates deeper into the target material. The electron beams deposit more energy in unit mass of material surface layer at 60 degree-70 degree incident angle

  10. High power, high brightness electron beam generation in a pulse-line driven pseudospark discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destler, W.W.; Segalov, Z.; Rodgers, J.; Ramaswamy, K.; Reiser, M.

    1993-01-01

    High brightness (∼10 10 A/m 2 rad 2 ), high power density (∼10 10 W/cm 2 ) electron beams have been generated by the mating of a hollow-cathode discharge device operating in the pseudospark regime to the output of a high power pulse line accelerator. Very small diameter (∼1 mm) electron beams with currents in the range 500--1000 A and energies in the range 150--300 keV have been generated with effective emittances estimated to be at or below 170 mm mrad. Such emittances are comparable to those achieved in conventional electron beam sources at current densities several orders of magnitude lower than those observed in these experiments

  11. Transmembrane molecular transport during versus after extremely large, nanosecond electric pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle C; Weaver, James C

    2011-08-19

    Recently there has been intense and growing interest in the non-thermal biological effects of nanosecond electric pulses, particularly apoptosis induction. These effects have been hypothesized to result from the widespread creation of small, lipidic pores in the plasma and organelle membranes of cells (supra-electroporation) and, more specifically, ionic and molecular transport through these pores. Here we show that transport occurs overwhelmingly after pulsing. First, we show that the electrical drift distance for typical charged solutes during nanosecond pulses (up to 100 ns), even those with very large magnitudes (up to 10 MV/m), ranges from only a fraction of the membrane thickness (5 nm) to several membrane thicknesses. This is much smaller than the diameter of a typical cell (∼16 μm), which implies that molecular drift transport during nanosecond pulses is necessarily minimal. This implication is not dependent on assumptions about pore density or the molecular flux through pores. Second, we show that molecular transport resulting from post-pulse diffusion through minimum-size pores is orders of magnitude larger than electrical drift-driven transport during nanosecond pulses. While field-assisted charge entry and the magnitude of flux favor transport during nanosecond pulses, these effects are too small to overcome the orders of magnitude more time available for post-pulse transport. Therefore, the basic conclusion that essentially all transmembrane molecular transport occurs post-pulse holds across the plausible range of relevant parameters. Our analysis shows that a primary direct consequence of nanosecond electric pulses is the creation (or maintenance) of large populations of small pores in cell membranes that govern post-pulse transmembrane transport of small ions and molecules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison between gas puffing and supersonic molecular beam injection in plasma density feedback experiments in EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xingwei; Li, Jiangang; Hu, Jiansheng; Li, Jiahong; Ding, Rui; Cao, Bin; Wu, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    To achieve desirable plasma density control, a supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) feedback control system has been developed recently for the EAST tokamak. The performance of the SMBI and gas puffing (GP) feedback systems were used and compared. The performance of pulse width mode is better than that of pulse amplitude mode when GP was used for density feedback control. During one-day experiments, the variation of gas input and wall retention can be clarified into two stages. In the first stage the retention ratio is as high as 80–90%, and the gas input is about an order of 10 22 D 2 . However, in the second stage, the retention ratio is at a range of 50–70%. The gas input of a single discharge is small and the net wall retention grows slowly. The results of the SMBI feedback control experiment was analyzed. The shorter delay time of SMBI makes it faster at feeding back control the plasma density. The result showed that, compared with GP, the gas input of SMBI was decreased ∼30% and the wall retention was reduced ∼40%. This shows SMBI's advantage for the long pulse high density discharges in EAST. (paper)

  13. Pulse radiolysis studies of fast reactions in molecular systems. Progress report, November 1976--October 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorfman, L.M.

    1977-01-01

    Results from research in the following two areas are given: formation, properties, and reactivity of molecular ionic species in irradiated liquid systems; and pulse radiolysis of elementary reactions in protein function

  14. Using a Solid State Switch for a 60kV Bouncer to Control Energy Spread during the Beam Pulse*

    CERN Document Server

    Donley, L; McMichael, G E; Stipp, V F

    2004-01-01

    The beam injected into the IPNS Linac is from a column utilizing a Cockcroft-Walton voltage source. The accelerating column consists of a single high gradient gap. To lessen the likelihood of gap voltage breakdown, we pulse (“bounce”) the column voltage up during the beam pulse allowing the column DC voltage to be lower. The accelerating voltage is supplied through a 5 MΩ resistor and has only small capacitance to hold the voltage constant during the beam pulse. A capacitor is connected between the high voltage end of the column and the bouncer pulse generator. The bouncer pulse increases the column voltage to the proper level just microseconds before the beam pulse. A slope on the top of the bouncer pulse allows for correction to be added, compensating for the voltage droop that results from beam loading. The bouncer that has served this purpose in the past utilized a tube amplifier. In searching for a suitable replacement system it was decided that the system should be able to ...

  15. The System of Nanosecond 280-keV-He+ Pulsed Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Junphong, Pimporn; Lekprasert, Banyat; Suwannakachorn, Dusadee; Thongnopparat, N; Vilaithong, Thiraphat; Wiedemann, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    At Fast Neutron Research Facility,the 150 kV-pulseds neutron generator is being upgraded to produce a 280-keV-pulsed-He beam for time-of-flight Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. It involves replacing the existing beam line elements by a multicusp ion source, a 400-kV accelerating tube, 45o-double focusing dipole magnet and quadrupole lens. The Multicusp ion source is a compact filament-driven of 2.6 cm in diameter and 8 cm in length. The current extracted is 20.4 μA with 13 kV of extraction voltage and 8.8 kV of Einzel lens voltage. The beam emittance has been found to vary between 6-12 mm mrad. The beam transport system has to be redesigned based on the new elements. The important part of a good pulsed beam depends on the pulsing system. The two main parts are the chopper and buncher. An optimized geometry for the 280 keV pulsed helium ion beam will be presented and discussed. The PARMELA code has been used to optimize the space charge effect, resulting in pulse width of less than 2 ns at a t...

  16. A time-pulsed positronium beam and a study of oxides on silicon using positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatri, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The studies on rare gas solid moderators were carried out with a 350 μCi 22 Na radioactive source. The corrected efficiency for neon moderator in conical geometrical configuration was as high as (1.4 ± 0.2)%. The conical configuration moderator performed better by a factor of (2.2 ± 0.2) than the cylindrical configuration. A time pulsed positron beam was built to carry out investigations on the positronium formation processes and positronium beam. This beam has the capability to store low energy e + in a magnetic bottle, with a magnetic bottle at one end and an electrostatic mirror at the other. These stored e + are then bunched to form a pulse with a buncher. The bunched beam had a FWHM of 17 nsec and contained 1 to 2 e + /pulse. A thin carbon foil of 50 angstrom thickness was used for positronium formation by process of charge exchange. Positronium Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) was utilized to carry out studies on the activation energy of hydrogen at the interface of oxide and silicon substrate and the effect of irradiation on the oxides in SiO 2 /Si(100) sample. The activation energy of hydrogen at the interface of SiO 2 /Si(100) samples with n- and p-type substrate was measured to be 2.60(6) eV and 2.47(6) eV respectively. The investigations of the samples irradiated with x-ray and γ-ray led to the first time identification of creation of E' centers with PAS

  17. Continuous single pulse resolved measurement of beam diameters at 200 kHz using optical transmission filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruechtenicht, Johannes; Letsch, Andreas; Voss, Andreas; Abdou Ahmed, Marwan; Graf, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    We present a novel laser beam measurement setup which allows the determination of the beam diameter for each single pulse of a pulsed laser beam at repetition rates of up to 200 kHz. This is useful for online process-parameter control e.g. in micromachining or for laser source characterization. Basically, the developed instrument combines spatial transmission filters specially designed for instantaneous optical determination of the second order moments of the lateral intensity distribution of the light beam and photodiodes coupled to customized electronics. The acquisition is computer-based, enabling real-time operation for online monitoring or control. It also allows data storage for a later analysis and visualization of the measurement results. The single-pulse resolved beam diameter can be measured and recorded without any interruption for an unlimited number of pulses. It is only limited by the capacity of the data storage means. In our setup a standard PC and hard-disk provided 2 hours uninterrupted operation and recording of varying beam diameters at 200 kHz. This is about three orders of magnitude faster than other systems. To calibrate our device we performed experiments in cw and pulsed regimes and the obtained results were compared to those obtained with a commercial camera based system. Only minor deviations of the beam diameter values between the two instruments were observed, proving the reliability of our approach.

  18. Effects of substrate material on carbon films grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, M.; Xu, X.Y.; Man, B.Y.; Kong, D.M.; Xu, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We prepared tri-layers by laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) on sapphire substrate. ► We found that the formation of the graphene film has a strong relation to the structure and properties of the substrate. ► The different carbon film formation mechanism of the buffer layers can affect the morphology of the film. - Abstract: The carbon thin films were grown on different substrates with different buffer layers by laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) with a high purity graphite carbon target. A UV pulsed KrF excimer laser with a wavelength of 248 nm was used as laser source. The structure, surface morphology and other properties of the carbon thin films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the properties of the carbon thin films and the formation of the graphene film have a strong relation to the structure and properties of the substrate. The substrate with a hexagonal wurtzite structure which is similar to the hexagonal honeycomb structure of the carbon atoms arranged in the graphene is more beneficial for the formation of the graphene thin film. In our experiment conditions, the carbon films grown on sapphire substrates with different buffer layers have an ordered structure and a smooth surface, and form high quality tri-layer graphene films.

  19. Reactive molecular beam epitaxial growth and in situ photoemission spectroscopy study of iridate superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Fan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available High-quality (001-oriented perovskite [(SrIrO3m/(SrTiO3] superlattices (m=1/2, 1, 2, 3 and ∞ films have been grown on SrTiO3(001 epitaxially using reactive molecular beam epitaxy. Compared to previously reported superlattices synthesized by pulsed laser deposition, our superlattices exhibit superior crystalline, interface and surface structure, which have been confirmed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The transport measurements confirm a novel insulator-metal transition with the change of dimensionality in these superlattices, and our first systematic in situ photoemission spectroscopy study indicates that the increasing strength of effective correlations induced by reducing dimensionality would be the dominating origin of this transition.

  20. Various categories of defects after surface alloying induced by high current pulsed electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Dian [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Tang, Guangze, E-mail: oaktang@hit.edu.cn [School of Material Science & Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Ma, Xinxin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Gu, Le [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Sun, Mingren [School of Material Science & Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Liqin [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Four kinds of defects are found during surface alloying by high current electron beam. • Exploring the mechanism how these defects appear after irradiation. • Increasing pulsing cycles will help to get good surface quality. • Choosing proper energy density will increase surface quality. - Abstract: High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) is an attractive advanced materials processing method which could highly increase the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, how to eliminate different kinds of defects during irradiation by HCPEB especially in condition of adding new elements is a challenging task. In the present research, the titanium and TaNb-TiW composite films was deposited on the carburizing steel (SAE9310 steel) by DC magnetron sputtering before irradiation. The process of surface alloying was induced by HCPEB with pulse duration of 2.5 μs and energy density ranging from 3 to 9 J/cm{sup 2}. Investigation of the microstructure indicated that there were several forms of defects after irradiation, such as surface unwetting, surface eruption, micro-cracks and layering. How the defects formed was explained by the results of electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results also revealed that proper energy density (∼6 J/cm{sup 2}) and multi-number of irradiation (≥50 times) contributed to high quality of alloyed layers after irradiation.

  1. Effect on structure and mechanical property of tungsten irradiated by high intensity pulsed ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xianxiu; Zhang, Xiaonan; Liu, Xiaofei; Wang, Younian

    2017-09-01

    The anti-thermal radiation performance of tungsten was investigated by high intensity pulsed ion beam technology. The ion beam was mainly composed of Cn+ (70%) and H+ (30%) at an acceleration voltage of 250 kV under different energy densities for different number of pulses. GIXRD analysis showed that no obvious phase structural changes occurred on the tungsten, and microstress generated. SEM analysis exhibited that there was no apparent irradiation damage on the surface of tungsten at the low irradiation frequency (3 times and 10 times) and at the low energy density (0.25 J/cm2 and 0.7 J/cm2). Cracks appeared on the surface of tungsten after 100-time and 300-time irradiation. Shedding phenomenon even appeared on the surface of tungsten at the energy densities of 1.4 J/cm2 and 2.0 J/cm2. The surface nano-hardness of tungsten decreased with the increase of the pulse times and the energy density. The tungsten has good anti-thermal radiation properties under certain heat load environment.

  2. Experimental installation for excitation of semiconductors and dielectrics by picosecond pulsed electron beam and electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasibov, A.S.; Berezhnoj, K.V.; Shapkin, P.V.; Reutova, A.G.; Shunajlov, S.A.; Yalandin, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    The experimental facility for shaping high-voltage pulses with amplitudes of 30-250 kV and durations of 100-500 ps and electron beams with a current density of up to 1000 A/cm -2 is described. The facility was built using the principle of energy compression of a pulse from a nanosecond high-voltage generator accompanied by the subsequent pulse sharpening and cutting. The setup is equipped with two test coaxial chambers for radiation excitation in semiconductor crystals by an electron beam or an electric field in air at atmospheric pressure and T = 300 K. Generation of laser radiation in the visible range under field and electron pumping was attained in ZnSSe, ZnSe, ZnCdS, and CdS (462, 480, 515, and 525 nm, respectively). Under the exposure to an electric field (up to 10 6 V x cm -1 ), the laser generation region is as large as 300-500 μm. The radiation divergence was within 5 Deg C. The maximum integral radiation power (6 kW at λ = 480 nm) was obtained under field pumping of a zinc selenide sample with a single dielectric mirror [ru

  3. Effects of high repetition rate and beam size on hard tissue damage due to subpicosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Beop-Min; Feit, Michael D.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Joslin, Elizabeth J.; Eichler, Juergen; Stoller, Patrick C.; Da Silva, Luiz B.

    2000-01-01

    We report the effects of the repetition rate and the beam size on the threshold for ultrashort laser pulse induced damage in dentin. The observed results are explained as cumulative thermal effects. Our model is consistent with the experimental results and explains the dependence of the threshold on repetition rate, beam size, and exposure time. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  4. A novel design for electric field deflectometry on extended molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanov, André; Berninger, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the optimal shape of a beam deflector with applications in electric susceptibility measurements on wide molecular beams. In contrast to the well-established 'two-wire' concept, which is optimized for beams with a small lateral extension, our design realizes a compact element that provides a high and homogeneous force field at moderate voltage for molecular beams with a large extension in the direction of deflection

  5. Installation And Test Of Electron Beam Generation System To Produce Far-Infrared Radiation And X-Ray Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichaisirimongkol, Pathom; Jinamoon, Witoon; Khangrang, Nopadon; Kusoljariyakul, Keerati; Rhodes, Michael W.; Rimjaem, Sakhorn; Saisut, Jatuporn; Chitrlada, Thongbai; Vilaithong, Thiraphat; Wiedemann, Helmut

    2005-10-01

    SURIYA project at the Fast Neutron Research Facility, Chiang Mai University, aims to establish a facility to generate femtosecond electron beams. This electron beam can be used to generate high intensity far-infrared radiation and ultra-short X-ray pulses. The main components of the system are a 3 MeV RF electron gun with a thermionic cathode, an a-magnet as a bunch compressor, and post acceleration 15-20 MeV by a linear accelerator (linac). Between the main components, there are focusing quadrupole magnets and steering magnets to maintain the electron beam within a high vacuum tube. At the end of the beam transport line, a dipole magnet has been installed to function as a beam dump and an energy spectrometer. After the installation and testing of individual major components were completed, we have been investigating the generation of the electron beam, intense far- infrared radiation and ultra short X-ray pulses

  6. Generation of a cold pulsed beam of Rb atoms by transfer from a 3D magneto-optic trap

    OpenAIRE

    Chanu, Sapam Ranjita; Rathod, Ketan D.; Natarajan, Vasant

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a technique for producing a cold pulsed beam of atoms by transferring a cloud of atoms trapped in a three dimensional magneto-optic trap (MOT). The MOT is loaded by heating a getter source of Rb atoms. We show that it is advantageous to transfer with two beams (with a small angle between them) compared to a single beam, because the atoms stop interacting with the beams in the two-beam technique, which results in a Gaussian velocity distribution. The atoms are further cooled in ...

  7. Dual branch high voltage pulse generator for the beam extraction of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bonthond, J; Ducimetière, L; Jansson, U; Vossenberg, Eugène B

    2002-01-01

    The LHC beam extraction kicker system, MKD, is composed of 15 fast kicker magnets per beam to extract the particles in one turn from the collider and to dispose them, after dilution, on an external absorber. Each magnet is powered by a separate pulse generator. The original single branch generator consisted of a discharge capacitor in series with a solid state closing switch left bracket 1 right bracket operating at 30 kV. In combination with a parallel freewheel diode stack this generator produced a current pulse of 2.7 mus rise time, 18.5 kA amplitude and about 1.8 ms fall time, of which only about 90 mus are needed to dump the beam. The freewheel diode circuit is equipped with a flat top current droop compensation network, consisting of a low voltage, low stray inductance, high current discharge capacitor. Extensive reliability studies have meanwhile suggested to further increase the operational safety of this crucial system by equipping each generator with two parallel branches. This paper presents the re...

  8. A Single Pulse Beam Emittance Measurement for the CERN Heavy Ion Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Crescenti, M

    1995-01-01

    A new device for transverse emittance measurement has been installed in the 4.2 MeV/u filter region of the CERN Heavy Ion Linac (Linac 3). It allows to obtain pulse-to-pulse (every 1.2 sec) visualisation of the Linac 3 beam parameters in order to tune the machine and to match the beam for injection into the first circular accelerator, the PS Booster. The system is based on the "multi-slit" technique similar to the well-known "pepper pot" method. A plate with a series of horizontal or vertical slits is placed in the beam, defining positions in the phase plane. Particles pass through the slits and drift to a scintillator screen where they produce light. The screen is looked at by an externally triggered high resolution CCD camera. For each slit position the light intensity distribution, in the limit of infinitesimal slit aperture, is proportional to the angle distribution of the particles and therefore, provides the angular distribution in the phase plane. The video signal from the camera is digitised and the r...

  9. Visualization and analysis of pulsed ion beam energy density profile with infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakova, Y. I.; Pushkarev, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    Infrared imaging technique was used as a surface temperature-mapping tool to characterize the energy density distribution of intense pulsed ion beams on a thin metal target. The technique enables the measuring of the total ion beam energy and the energy density distribution along the cross section and allows one to optimize the operation of an ion diode and control target irradiation mode. The diagnostics was tested on the TEMP-4M accelerator at TPU, Tomsk, Russia and on the TEMP-6 accelerator at DUT, Dalian, China. The diagnostics was applied in studies of the dynamics of the target cooling in vacuum after irradiation and in the experiments with target ablation. Errors caused by the target ablation and target cooling during measurements have been analyzed. For Fluke Ti10 and Fluke Ti400 infrared cameras, the technique can achieve surface energy density sensitivity of 0.05 J/cm2 and spatial resolution of 1-2 mm. The thermal imaging diagnostics does not require expensive consumed materials. The measurement time does not exceed 0.1 s; therefore, this diagnostics can be used for the prompt evaluation of the energy density distribution of a pulsed ion beam and during automation of the irradiation process.

  10. Short-wavelength soft-x-ray laser pumped in double-pulse single-beam non-normal incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, D.; Ros, D.; Guilbaud, O.; Habib, J.; Kazamias, S.; Zielbauer, B.; Bagnoud, V.; Ecker, B.; Aurand, B.; Kuehl, T.; Hochhaus, D. C.; Neumayer, P.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrated a 7.36 nm Ni-like samarium soft-x-ray laser, pumped by 36 J of a neodymium:glass chirped-pulse amplification laser. Double-pulse single-beam non-normal-incidence pumping was applied for efficient soft-x-ray laser generation. In this case, the applied technique included a single-optic focusing geometry for large beam diameters, a single-pass grating compressor, traveling-wave tuning capability, and an optimized high-energy laser double pulse. This scheme has the potential for even shorter-wavelength soft-x-ray laser pumping.

  11. Self-focusing of a pulsed electron beam in gases and their ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Hiroshi; Arai, Hidehiko; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Sunaga, Hiromi.

    1982-06-01

    A relativistic high-intensity pulsed electron beam generated from a Febetron 706 was strongly self-focused in two pressure regions, i.e., below and above 5 Torr. The dependence of the electron energy spectrum on pressure and path length in He was at first studied by measuring depth-dose distributions in an aluminum-blue cellophane stack. Then, maximum doses of the depth-dose curves in the dosimeter placed on the beam axis at 10.4 cm from the cell window were measured as functions of pressure in He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, H 2 , D 2 , N 2 , O 2 , N 2 O, CO 2 , SF 6 , CH 4 , C 2 H 2 , C 2 H 4 , C 2 H 6 , C 3 H 8 , CH 3 F, CHClF 2 , CCl 2 F 2 , He + X, Ar + X, and O 2 + X (X: additive gas). The strong self-focusing at pressure lower than 5 Torr is attributed to space-charge neutralization by positive ions due to escaping of secondary electrons. Therefore, relative total ionization cross sections for beam electrons could be obtained in this region. When the spa ce-charge neutralization time becomes shorter than a rise time of the pulsed beam, secondary electrons are accelerated by a backward electric field E sub(z) induced by the pulsed beam so that the self-focusing declines abruptly due to electron avalanching. The beam is self-focused again gradually with further increasing pressure because of suppression of this avalanching. The avalanching was analyzed self-consistently for He, Ar, H 2 , N 2 , and CH 4 by a computer simulation in the pressure region between 5 and 300 Torr. The present computational results indicate that the larger cose is given by the longer mean ionization time t sub(i) which depends on E sub(z)/p. The value of t sub(i) increases with increasing pressure in the pressure region of gradually-increasing self-focusing. (J.P.N.)

  12. A molecular beam/quadrupole mass spectrometer system with synchronized beam modulation and digital waveform analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellett, G. L.; Adams, B. R.

    1983-01-01

    A performance evaluation is conducted for a molecular beam/mass spectrometer (MB/MS) system, as applied to a 1-30 torr microwave-discharge flow reactor (MWFR) used in the formation of the methylperoxy radical and a study of its subsequent destruction in the presence or absence of NO(x). The modulated MB/MS system is four-staged and differentially pumped. The results obtained by the MWFR study is illustrative of overall system performance, including digital waveform analysis; significant improvements over previous designs are noted in attainable S/N ratio, detection limit, and accuracy.

  13. Study of the interaction between heavy ions and integrated circuits using a pulsed laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.; Fouillat, P.; Pouget, V.; Lapuyade, H.

    2002-01-01

    A new pulsed laser beam equipment dedicated to the characterization of integrated circuit is presented. Using ultra-short laser pulses is a convenient way to simulate experimentally the spatial environment of integrated circuits when interactions with heavy ions occur. This experimental set-up can be considered as a complementary tool for particle accelerators to evaluate the hardness assurance of integrated circuits for space applications. These particles generate temporally electrical disturbance called Single Event Effect (SEE). The theoretical approach of an equivalence between heavy ions and a laser pulses is discussed. The experimental set-up and some relevant operational methodologies are presented. Experimental results demonstrate that the induced electrical responses due to an heavy ion or a laser pulse are quite similar. Some sensitivity mappings of integrated circuits provided by this test bench illustrate the capabilities and the limitations of this laser-based technique. Contrary to the particle accelerators, it provides useful information concerning the spatial and temporal dependences of SEE mechanisms. (authors)

  14. Surface composite nanostructures of AZ91 magnesium alloy induced by high current pulsed electron beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.C.; Hao, S.Z.; Wen, H.; Huang, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) treatment was conducted on an AZ91 cast magnesium alloy with accelerating voltage 27 kV, energy density 3 J/cm 2 and pulse duration 2.5 μs. The surface microstructure was characterized by optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The surface corrosion property was tested with electrochemical method in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. It is found that after 1 pulse of HCPEB treatment, the initial eutectic α phase and Mg 17 Al 12 particles started to dissolve in the surface modified layer of depth ∼15 μm. When using 15 HCPEB pulses, the Al content in surface layer increased noticeably, and the phase structure was modified as composite nanostructures consisted of nano-grained Mg 3.1 Al 0.9 domains surrounded by network of Mg 17 Al 12 phase. The HCPEB treated samples showed an improved corrosion resistance with cathodic current density decreased by two orders of magnitude as compared to the initial AZ91 alloy.

  15. Generation of a cold pulsed beam of Rb atoms by transfer from a 3D magneto-optic trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanu, Sapam Ranjita; Rathod, Ketan D.; Natarajan, Vasant, E-mail: vasant@physics.iisc.ernet.in

    2016-08-26

    We demonstrate a technique for producing a cold pulsed beam of atoms by transferring a cloud of atoms trapped in a three dimensional magneto-optic trap (MOT). The MOT is loaded by heating a getter source of Rb atoms. We show that it is advantageous to transfer with two beams (with a small angle between them) compared to a single beam, because the atoms stop interacting with the beams in the two-beam technique, which results in a Gaussian velocity distribution. The atoms are further cooled in optical molasses by turning off the MOT magnetic field before the transfer beams are turned on. - Highlights: • Getter-source loaded magneto-optic trap (MOT). • Cold atomic beam generated by deflection from the MOT. • Use of two inclined beams for deflection.

  16. Electron beam dynamics in the long-pulse, high-current DARHT-II linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekdahl, Carl A.; Abeyta, Epifanio O.; Aragon, Paul; Archuleta, Rita; Cook, Gerald; Dalmas, Dale; Esquibel, Kevin; Gallegos, Robert A.; Garnett, Robert; Harrison, James F.; Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Jacquez, Edward B.; Mccuistian, Brian T.; Montoya, Nicholas A.; Nath, Subrato; Nielsen, Kurt; Oro, David; Prichard, Benjamin; Rowton, Lawrence; Sanchez, Manolito; Scarpetti, Raymond; Schauer, Martin M.; Seitz, Gerald; Schulze, Martin; Bender, Howard A.; Broste, William B.; Carlson, Carl A.; Frayer, Daniel K.; Johnson, Douglas E.; Tom, C.Y.; Williams, John; Hughes, Thomas; Anaya, Richard; Caporaso, George; Chambers, Frank; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Falabella, Steve; Guethlein, Gary; Raymond, Brett; Richardson, Roger; Trainham, C.; Watson, Jim; Weir, John; Genoni, Thomas; Toma, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    The DARHT-II linear induction accelerator (LIA) now accelerates 2-kA electron beams to more than 17 MeV. This LIA is unique in that the accelerated current pulse width is greater than 2 microseconds. This pulse has a flat-top region where the final electron kinetic energy varies by less than 1% for more than 1.5 microseconds. The long risetime of the 6-cell injector current pulse is 0.5 (micro)s, which can be scraped off in a beam-head cleanup zone before entering the 68-cell main accelerator. We discuss our experience with tuning this novel accelerator; and present data for the resulting beam transport and dynamics. We also present beam stability data, and relate these to previous stability experiments at lower current and energy.

  17. Fragments and debris generation using a high power pulsed electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassany, Bruno; Courchinoux, Roger; Bertron, Isabelle; Malaise, Frederic; Hebert, David

    2002-01-01

    The high power Laser Megajoule (LMJ) will be constructed at CEA/DAM/CESTA near Bordeaux, in the south west part of France. Among the problems encountered in the LMJ experimental chamber, there is the impact of the debris produced after a laser shot on the silica optical windows. The production of debris as well as the behavior of optical materials under their influence can be simulated and studied with a pulsed electron beam. We present in this paper the first experimental results obtained by this original technique

  18. Anisotropy effect of crater formation on single crystal silicon surface under intense pulsed ion beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Yu, Xiao; Zhang, Jie; Zhong, Haowen; Cui, Xiaojun; Liang, Guoying; Yu, Xiang; Huang, Wanying; Shahid, Ijaz; Zhang, Xiaofu; Yan, Sha; Le, Xiaoyun

    2018-04-01

    Due to the induced extremely fast thermal and dynamic process, Intense Pulsed Ion Beam (IPIB) is widely applied in material processing, which can bring enhanced material performance and surface craters as well. To investigate the craters' formation mechanism, a specific model was built with Finite Element Methods (FEM) to simulate the thermal field on irradiated single crystal silicon. The direct evidence for the existence of the simulated 6-fold rotational symmetric thermal distribution was provided by electron microscope images obtained on single crystal silicon. The correlation of the experiment and simulation is of great importance to understand the interaction between IPIB and materials.

  19. Properties of Silicon Dioxide Amorphous Nanopowder Produced by Pulsed Electron Beam Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav G. Il’ves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SiO2 amorphous nanopowder (NP is produced with the specific surface area of 154 m2/g by means of evaporation by a pulsed electron beam aimed at Aerosil 90 pyrogenic amorphous NP (90 m2/g as a target. SiO2 NP nanoparticles showed improved magnetic, thermal, and optical properties in comparison to Aerosil 90 NP. Possible reasons of emergence of d0 ferromagnetism at the room temperature in SiO2 amorphous NP are discussed. Photoluminescent and cathode luminescent properties of the SiO2 NP were investigated.

  20. Reaction of congo red in water after irradiation by pulsed intense relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Kondo, Hironobu; Sasaki, Toru; Harada, Nob.; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Hiromitsu; Imada, Go

    2011-01-01

    The reaction of congo red, a well-known toxic azo dye, occurred after irradiation by a pulsed intense relativistic electron beam (PIREB). An aquation of congo red was irradiated by PIREB (2 MeV, 0.36 kA, 140 ns). After PIREB irradiation, the solution was measured by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. It was found that congo red underwent a reaction (77% conversion after five shots of PIREB irradiation) and the hydroxylated compounds of the dye were observed as reaction products. (author)

  1. Thermal shock testing of low-Z coatings with pulsed hydrogen beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    1982-03-01

    Thermal shock testing of candidate low-Z surface coatings for JT-60 application has been made by using a pulsed hydrogen beam apparatus which is operated at a power density of 2KW/cm 2 . The materials tested are PVD (Physical Vapor Deposited) TiC and PVD and CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposited) TiN on molybdenum and Inconel 625. The result shows that CVD TiC on Mo and CVD TiN on Inconel are the most interesting choices for the coating-substrate combinations. (author)

  2. Development of time projection chamber for precise neutron lifetime measurement using pulsed cold neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimoto, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki (Japan); Higashi, N. [Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Igarashi, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki (Japan); Iwashita, Y. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Ino, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki (Japan); Katayama, R. [Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Kitaguchi, M. [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute, Nagoya University, Aichi (Japan); Kitahara, R. [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Matsumura, H.; Mishima, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki (Japan); Nagakura, N.; Oide, H. [Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Otono, H., E-mail: otono@phys.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Research Centre for Advanced Particle Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Sakakibara, R. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Aichi (Japan); Shima, T. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Shimizu, H.M.; Sugino, T. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Aichi (Japan); Sumi, N. [Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Sumino, H. [Department of Basic Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Taketani, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Ibaraki (Japan); and others

    2015-11-01

    A new time projection chamber (TPC) was developed for neutron lifetime measurement using a pulsed cold neutron spallation source at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). Managing considerable background events from natural sources and the beam radioactivity is a challenging aspect of this measurement. To overcome this problem, the developed TPC has unprecedented features such as the use of polyether-ether-ketone plates in the support structure and internal surfaces covered with {sup 6}Li-enriched tiles to absorb outlier neutrons. In this paper, the design and performance of the new TPC are reported in detail.

  3. Positron and positronium annihilation in silica-based thin films studied by a pulsed positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, R.; Ohdaira, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Ito, K.; Shioya, Y.; Ishimaru, T.

    2003-01-01

    Positron and positronium annihilation in silica-based thin films has been investigated by means of measurement techniques with a monoenergetic pulsed positron beam. The age-momentum correlation study revealed that positron annihilation in thermally grown SiO 2 is basically the same as that in bulk amorphous SiO 2 while o-Ps in the PECVD grown SiCOH film predominantly annihilate with electrons of C and H at the microvoid surfaces. We also discuss time-dependent three-gamma annihilation in porous low-k films by two-dimensional positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

  4. Intense, pulsed, charged particle beams and associated applications to materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatsui, K; Grigoriu, C; Masugata, K; Jiang, W; Sonegawa, T; Nakagawa, Y; Eka Prijono, A C [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Niigata (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    We have demonstrated successful preparation of thin films and nanosize powders by using the technique of intense pulsed ion beam evaporation. In this paper, we review the experimental results of thin film deposition of ZnS, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x}, BaTiO{sub 3}, cBN, ZrO{sub 2}, ITO, and apatite, as well as the experimental results of the synthesis of nanosize powders of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. (author)

  5. An apparatus for sequential pulsed plasma beam treatment in combination with Arc PVD deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislawski, J.; Werner, Z.; Piekoszewski, J.; Richter, E.

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid type of apparatus is described which enables one to form a thin multi-layer film on the surface of any kind of solid substrate. In one process, the surface is treated with a high intensity pulse plasma beam which introduces the chosen kind of atoms into the near-surface layer of the substrate. In the second process, following the first without breaking the vacuum, the coating is formed by arc PVD (physics vapour deposition) process. Two examples of coatings formed on metallic and ceramic substrates are presented. (author)

  6. Pulsed ion-beam induced nucleation and growth of Ge nanocrystals on SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepina, N. P.; Dvurechenskii, A. V.; Armbrister, V. A.; Kesler, V. G.; Novikov, P. L.; Gutakovskii, A. K.; Kirienko, V. V.; Smagina, Zh. V.; Groetzschel, R.

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed low-energy (200 eV) ion-beam induced nucleation during Ge deposition on thin SiO 2 film was used to form dense homogeneous arrays of Ge nanocrystals. The ion-beam action is shown to stimulate the nucleation of Ge nanocrystals when being applied after thin Ge layer deposition. Temperature and flux variation was used to optimize the nanocrystal size and array density required for memory device. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation shows that ion impacts open an additional channel of atom displacement from a nanocrystal onto SiO 2 surface. This results both in a decrease in the average nanocrystal size and in an increase in nanocrystal density

  7. Virtual-anode formation by an intense pulsed ion beam incident upon a magnetic barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, S.; Wessel, F.

    1980-01-01

    An intense, pulsed, initially space-charge-neutral ion beam (100 kV, 1 kA, 600 nsec) has been propagated into a transversely oriented magnetic barrier. When the magnetic field is adjusted so that (rho/sub i/rho/sub e/)/sup 1/2/ very-much-less-than a < rho/sub i/, a virtual anode is formed whose potential oscillates at approx.ω/sub p/i about a value near the ion accelerating potential, where a is the transverse beam dimension, ω/sub tsp/i is the ion plasma frequency, and rho/sub e/ and rho/sub i/ are the electron and ion gyroradii. This behavior is similar to that predicted by Poukey and Rostoker for virtual cathodes

  8. Thermal interaction of short-pulsed laser focused beams with skin tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Jian; Guo Zhixiong

    2009-01-01

    Time-dependent thermal interaction is developed in a skin tissue cylinder subjected to the irradiation of a train of short laser pulses. The skin embedded with a small tumor is stratified as three layers: epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous fat with different optical, thermal and physiological properties. The laser beam is focused to the tumor site by an objective lens for thermal therapy. The ultrafast radiation heat transfer of the focused beam is simulated by the transient discrete ordinates method. The transient Pennes bio-heat equation is solved numerically by the finite volume method with alternating direction implicit scheme. Emphasis is placed on the characterization of the focused beam propagation and absorption and the temperature rise in the focal spot. The effects of the focal spot size and location, the laser power, and the bio-heat equation are investigated. Comparisons with collimated irradiation are conducted. The focused beam can penetrate a greater depth and produce higher temperature rise at the target area, and thus reduce the possibility of thermal damage to the surrounding healthy tissue. It is ideal for killing cancerous cells and small tumors.

  9. Thermal interaction of short-pulsed laser focused beams with skin tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao Jian; Guo Zhixiong [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)], E-mail: guo@jove.rutgers.edu

    2009-07-07

    Time-dependent thermal interaction is developed in a skin tissue cylinder subjected to the irradiation of a train of short laser pulses. The skin embedded with a small tumor is stratified as three layers: epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous fat with different optical, thermal and physiological properties. The laser beam is focused to the tumor site by an objective lens for thermal therapy. The ultrafast radiation heat transfer of the focused beam is simulated by the transient discrete ordinates method. The transient Pennes bio-heat equation is solved numerically by the finite volume method with alternating direction implicit scheme. Emphasis is placed on the characterization of the focused beam propagation and absorption and the temperature rise in the focal spot. The effects of the focal spot size and location, the laser power, and the bio-heat equation are investigated. Comparisons with collimated irradiation are conducted. The focused beam can penetrate a greater depth and produce higher temperature rise at the target area, and thus reduce the possibility of thermal damage to the surrounding healthy tissue. It is ideal for killing cancerous cells and small tumors.

  10. A study of molecular effects in beam-foil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, B.; Veje, E.

    1979-01-01

    Relative populations of ns + nd levels in hydrogen as functions of the principal quantum number n have been measured with beams of H + , H 2 + , and H 3 + impinging on thin carbon foils at 25 keV/amu and 100 keV/amu. Enhancements of 20% and 45% for dimer and trimer clusters are observed uniformly for all levels. A possible explanation in terms of screening of the Coulomb repulsion between the protons inside the foil, thus reducing the effective thickness of the foil, is given. All relative populations closely follow an nsup(P) power law with p = -4.0 and -3.7 at 25 keV/amu and 100 keV/amu, respectively, in perfect analogy with atomic collision experiments. O + /O 2 + -foil excitations at 100 keV and 155 keV show a simular molecular effect, but in reverse with a larger mean charge produced by the dimer. (Auth.)

  11. Molecular beam epitaxy of LiMnAs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Vít; Cukr, Miroslav; Šobáň, Zbyněk; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Martí, X.; Holý, V.; Horodyská, P.; Němec, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 323, č. 1 (2011), s. 348-350 ISSN 0022-0248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08087 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 215368 - SemiSpinNet; European Commission(XE) 214499 - NAMASTE Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : crystal structure * molecular beam epitaxy * lithium compounds * magnetic semiconductors Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.726, year: 2011

  12. Atmospheric processes on ice nanoparticles in molecular beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eFárník

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes some recent experiments with ice nanoparticles (large water clusters in molecular beams and outlines their atmospheric relevance: (1 Investigation of mixed water–nitric acid particles by means of the electron ionization and sodium doping combined with photoionization revealed the prominent role of HNO3 molecule as the condensation nuclei. (2 The uptake of atmospheric molecules by water ice nanoparticles has been studied, and the pickup cross sections for some molecules exceed significantly the geometrical sizes of the ice nanoparticles. (3 Photodissociation of hydrogen halides on water ice particles has been shown to proceed via excitation of acidically dissociated ion pair and subsequent biradical generation and H3O dissociation. The photodissociation of CF2Cl2 molecule in clusters is also mentioned. Possible atmospheric consequences of all these results are briefly discussed.

  13. Supersonic Molecular Beam Optical Stark Spectroscopy of MnH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengler, Jamie; Ma, Tongmei; Harrison, Jeremy; Steimle, Timothy

    2006-03-01

    The large moment of inertia, large magnetic moment, and possible large permanent electric dipole moment of manganese monohydride, MnH, makes it a prime candidate for ultra-cold molecule production via Stark deceleration and magnetic trapping. Here we report the first molecular beam production of MnH and the analysis of the Stark effect in the (0,0) A^7 π -- X^ 7σ^+ band. The sample was prepared by laser ablation of solid Mn in an H2 supersonic expansion. The low rotational temperature (MnH and the analysis of T.D. Varberg, J.A. Gray, R.W. Field, and A.J. Merer, J. Mol. Spec. 156, 296-318 (1992). I.E. Gordon, D.R.T. Appadoo, A. Shayesteh, K.A. Walker, and P.F. Bernath, J. Mol. Spec., 229, 145-149 (2005).

  14. Self-consistent expansion for the molecular beam epitaxy equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzav, Eytan

    2002-03-01

    Motivated by a controversy over the correct results derived from the dynamic renormalization group (DRG) analysis of the nonlinear molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) equation, a self-consistent expansion for the nonlinear MBE theory is considered. The scaling exponents are obtained for spatially correlated noise of the general form D(r-r('),t-t('))=2D(0)[r-->-r(')](2rho-d)delta(t-t(')). I find a lower critical dimension d(c)(rho)=4+2rho, above which the linear MBE solution appears. Below the lower critical dimension a rho-dependent strong-coupling solution is found. These results help to resolve the controversy over the correct exponents that describe nonlinear MBE, using a reliable method that proved itself in the past by giving reasonable results for the strong-coupling regime of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang system (for d>1), where DRG failed to do so.

  15. Crossed-molecular-beams reactive scattering of oxygen atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseman, R.J.

    1982-11-01

    The reactions of O( 3 P) with six prototypical unsaturated hydrocarbons, and the reaction of O( 1 D) with HD, have been studied in high-resolution crossed-molecular-beams scattering experiments with mass-spectrometric detection. The observed laboratory-product angular and velocity distributions unambiguously identify parent-daughter ion pairs, distinguish different neutral sources of the same ion, and have been used to identify the primary products of the reactions. The derived center-of-mass product angular and translational energy distributions have been used to elucidate the detailed reaction dynamics. These results demonstrate that O( 3 P)-unsaturated hydrocarbon chemistry is dominated by single bond cleavages, leading to radical products exclusively

  16. Crossed-molecular-beams reactive scattering of oxygen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baseman, R.J.

    1982-11-01

    The reactions of O(/sup 3/P) with six prototypical unsaturated hydrocarbons, and the reaction of O(/sup 1/D) with HD, have been studied in high-resolution crossed-molecular-beams scattering experiments with mass-spectrometric detection. The observed laboratory-product angular and velocity distributions unambiguously identify parent-daughter ion pairs, distinguish different neutral sources of the same ion, and have been used to identify the primary products of the reactions. The derived center-of-mass product angular and translational energy distributions have been used to elucidate the detailed reaction dynamics. These results demonstrate that O(/sup 3/P)-unsaturated hydrocarbon chemistry is dominated by single bond cleavages, leading to radical products exclusively.

  17. Molecular beam epitaxy of single crystal colossal magnetoresistive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckstein, J.N.; Bozovic, I.; Rzchowski, M.; O'Donnell, J.; Hinaus, B.; Onellion, M.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have grown films of (LaSr)MnO 3 (LSMO) and (LaCa)MnO 3 (LCMO) using atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE). Depending on growth conditions, substrate lattice constant and the exact cation stoichiometry, the films are either pseudomorphic or strain relaxed. The pseudomorphic films show atomically flat surfaces, with a unit cell terrace structure that is a replica of that observed on the slightly vicinal substrates, while the strain relaxed films show bumpy surfaces correlated with a dislocation network. All films show tetragonal structure and exhibit anisotropic magnetoresistance, with a low field response, (1/R)(dR/dH) as large as 5 T -1

  18. Molecular beam photoionization and gas-surface scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceyer, S.T.

    1979-09-01

    The energetics of the ethylene ion-molecule reactions was investigated in more detail than previously possible in two body collision experiments by photoionization of the neutral van der Waals ethylene dimer. The stability of the (C 2 H 4 ) + C 2 H 4 ion-molecule collision complex has been determined to be 18.2 +- 0.5 kcal. The highest potential barriers along the reaction coordinate for decomposition of this collision complex into C 4 H 7 + + H and C 3 H 5 + + CH 3 have been determined to be 0 +- 1.5 and 8.7 +- 1.5 kcal. In a similar manner, the energetics of the solvated ethylene dimer ion was investigated by the photoionization of the ethylene trimer. The absolute proton affinity of NH 3 (203.6 +- 1.3 kcal/mole) and the proton solvation energies by more than one NH 3 have been determined by molecular beam photoionization. In addition, the NH 3 + -NH 3 interaction energy (0.79 +- 0.05 eV) was measured by photoionization of the neutral van der Waals dimer. These experiments have shown that photoionization of van der Waals clusters is a very powerful method of determining the energetics of gas phase proton solvation. The scattering of helium atomic beams from a high Miller index platinum surface that exhibits ordered, periodic steps on the atomic scale to probe the effect of atomic steps on the scattering distribution is explored. Rainbow scattering is observed when the step edges are perpendicular to the incident helium atoms. The design, construction and operation of a beam-surface scattering apparatus are described. The first data obtained in this apparatus are presented and the interesting dynamical aspects of the oxidation of D, D 2 and CO are discussed. 75 references

  19. Molecular beam scattering from clean surfaces of alkali halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Molecular beam scattering of light gases from in situ cleaved alkali halide surfaces has been studied as a means of developing molecular beam scattering as a surface characterization tool and as a means of obtaining information about the gas atom-solid surface potential interaction. For 4 He scattering from LiF carried out under improved resolution the main results are: (1) there are four bound states in the surface potential well, as energies of -5.8, -2.2, -0.6 and -0.1 MeV. (2) Most of the structure designated as ''fine structure'' is due either to transitions to these four levels via various small reciprocal lattice vectors or to the opening of diffraction channels. (3) The transitions involving the (01) and (0 anti 1) reciprocal lattice vectors (i.e., the ones nearly perpendicular to the incident wavevector) are strong; as much as 85 percent of the specular intensity may be removed. Transitions via the other small reciprocal lattice vectors are much weaker. (4) The widths of the lines are consistent with the velocity distribution, which has a half-width of about 2 percent. (5) The observed energies agree fairly well with those calculated for a zeta-function potential, but are not consistent with a Morse potential. The preliminary results for 4 He/NaF scattering are that there are three bound-states in the surface potential well and are quite similar to the LiF results. These energies are -5.0, -1.9, and -0.5 MeV. 4 He/NaF selective adsorption also shows ''fine structure'' and a more detailed analysis is called for here

  20. Application of positron annihilation to polymer and development of a radioisotopes-based pulsed slow positron beam apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takenori

    2004-01-01

    Positrons injected into polymer behave as nanometer probes, which can detect the size and amount of intermolecular spaces among polymer structures. Although positrons can probe the characteristics of polymer, they induce a radiation effect on polymer samples. At low temperature, the radiation effect induces free electrons, which can be trapped in a shallow potential created among intermolecular structures after freezing molecular motions. These trapped electrons can be released after the disappearance of the shallow potential due to the reappearance of molecular motion above the relaxation temperature. Thus, positrons can be used as a probe for relaxation studies. Coincidence of Doppler broadening spectroscopy (CDBS) can improve the S/N ratio to 10 7 , which makes it possible to detect trace elements, since CDBS can separate the high-momentum component of core electrons. A pulsed slow positron beam apparatus is necessary for measuring holes in the polymer film and allows the measurement of the characteristics of thin film coated on semiconductors used widely in electronics industries. (author)

  1. Transmission of laser pulses with high output beam quality using step-index fibers having large cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer P; Joshi, Sachin

    2014-06-03

    An apparatus and method for transmission of laser pulses with high output beam quality using large core step-index silica optical fibers having thick cladding, are described. The thick cladding suppresses diffusion of modal power to higher order modes at the core-cladding interface, thereby enabling higher beam quality, M.sup.2, than are observed for large core, thin cladding optical fibers. For a given NA and core size, the thicker the cladding, the better the output beam quality. Mode coupling coefficients, D, has been found to scale approximately as the inverse square of the cladding dimension and the inverse square root of the wavelength. Output from a 2 m long silica optical fiber having a 100 .mu.m core and a 660 .mu.m cladding was found to be close to single mode, with an M.sup.2=1.6. Another thick cladding fiber (400 .mu.m core and 720 .mu.m clad) was used to transmit 1064 nm pulses of nanosecond duration with high beam quality to form gas sparks at the focused output (focused intensity of >100 GW/cm.sup.2), wherein the energy in the core was laser pulses was about 6 ns. Extending the pulse duration provided the ability to increase the delivered pulse energy (>20 mJ delivered for 50 ns pulses) without damaging the silica fiber.

  2. Growth of group III nitride films by pulsed electron beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, J.; Sakurada, K.; Shih, F.-Y.; Kobayashi, A.; Fujioka, H.

    2009-01-01

    We have grown group III nitride films on Al 2 O 3 (0 0 0 1), 6H-SiC (0 0 0 1), and ZnO (0001-bar) substrates by pulsed electron beam deposition (PED) for the first time and investigated their characteristics. We found that c-plane AlN and GaN grow epitaxially on these substrates. It has been revealed that the growth of GaN on atomically flat 6H-SiC substrates starts with the three-dimensional mode and eventually changes into the two-dimensional mode. The GaN films exhibited strong near-band-edge emission in their room temperature photoluminescence spectra. We also found that the use of PED allows us to reduce the epitaxial growth temperature for GaN down to 200 deg. C. - Graphical abstract: We have grown group III nitride films by pulsed electron beam deposition (PED) and found that the films of group III nitrides grow epitaxially on 6H-SiC and Al 2 O 3 substrates. We also found that the use of PED allows us to reduce the epitaxial growth temperature for GaN down to 200 deg. C.

  3. Beam pulsing in the 2.5 MV - VdG accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, Robert; Tromeur, William; Champelovier, Yves; Miguet, Michel

    2003-01-01

    This is a technical report describing the work of beam pulsing of the 2.5 MV Van de Graaff. The objective is to supply the 2.5 MV VdG with gold clusters (Au n ) events by events (ion by ion), with a time synchronization signal with a precision of a coupled of nano seconds. The technical specifications are as follows: deflection plates in the present installation: l - length of plates = 245 mm; d - plates' separation = 16 mm; Lp - plate separation / D2 = 1812 mm (center of horizontal deflection) and 1547 mm center of vertical deflection; Lc - distance between collimator = 2020 mm; D1, D2 φ of collimators = 50 to 100 μm; Acceptance with 50 and 100 μm = ± 2.5 x 10 -2 mrad (= 3/1000 angle). The time of presence inside collimator equals the time necessary for passing from + Vc to - Vc, where Vc is the voltage necessary to deflect the beam from + 2.5 x 10 -2 to - 2.5 x 10 -2 mrad. The contents of the report is the following: I. Geometry of pulsing system. 1. Method; 2. Obtaining short times of beam presence; 3. Amplitude of ion deflection; 4. Au n cluster velocities; II. Control electronics and high voltages; 5. Defining the guiding module of the low voltage section; 6. Further details in Annex II under the definition of high voltage supply; 7. Definition of high voltage supply. For details see Annex III under III PVX - 4130 modulator for high voltage pulsed commutation. III. PVX - 4130 modulator for high voltage pulsed switching; 8. Limitations; 9. Dynamical characteristics; 10. Connection circuitry and operation; 11. Measurements; 12. Power for high voltage supplies; 13. Power requirement for pulsation; IV. Electromagnetic spurious effects; 14. Evidencing; 15. Suppression; Annex I - PVX-4130 modulator; 16. Measurements; 17. PVX-4130 documentation; Annex II - IPNL control and switching module; 18.I. Technical specifications; 19. II. Conception; 20. III. Adjustments; 21. IV. Layout; 22. V. Results; Annex III - High voltage supply; 23. Technical specifications for

  4. Simulating tokamak PFC performance using simultaneous dual beam particle loading with pulsed heat loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Gregory; Gonderman, Sean; Tripathi, Jitendra; Ray, Tyler; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    The performance of plasma facing components (PFCs) in a fusion device are expected to change due to high flux particle loading during operation. Tungsten (W) is a promising PFC candidate material, due to its high melting point, high thermal conductivity, and low tritium retention. However, ion irradiation of D and He have each shown to diminish the thermal strength of W. This work investigates the synergistic effect between ion species, using dual beam irradiation, on the thermal response of W during ELM-like pulsed heat loading. Experiments studied three different loading conditions: laser, laser + He+, and laser + He+ + D+. 100 eV He+ and D+ exposures used a flux of 3.0-3.5 x 1020 m-2 s-1. ELM-like loading was applied using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at an energy density of 0.38-1.51 MJ m-2 (3600 1 ms pulses at 1 Hz). SEM imaging revealed that laser + He+ loading at 0.76 MJ m-2 caused surface melting, inhibiting fuzz formation. Increasing the laser fluence decreased grain size and increased surface pore density. Thermally-enhanced migration of trapped gases appear to reflect resultant molten morphology. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation PIRE project.

  5. High dose-rate irradiation of materials with pulsed ion beams at NDCX-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Peter; Treffert, F.; Ji, Q.; Ludewigt, B.; Persaud, A.; Kong, X.; de Leon, S. J.; Dowling, E.; Waldron, W. L.; Schenkel, T.; Barnard, J. J.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Stepanov, A.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.

    2017-10-01

    Charged particle radiation effects in materials is important for the design of fusion plasma facing components. Also, radiation effects in semiconductor devices are of interest for many applications such as detectors and space electronics. We present results from radiation effects studies with intense pulses of helium ions that impinged on thin samples at the induction linac at Berkeley Lab (Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II). Intense bunches of 1.2 MeV He+ ions with peak currents of 2 A, 1-mm beam spot radius and 2-30 ns FWHM duration create controlled high instantaneous dose rates enabling the exploration of collective damage effects. We use in-situ diagnostics to monitor transient effects due to rapid heating and the ionization and damage cascade dynamics. For tin, single pulses deposit sufficient energy in the foil to drive phase transitions. A new Thomson parabola to measures ion energy loss and charge state distributions following transmission of a few micron thick samples. In silicon, ion pulses induce free electron densities of order 1021 cm-3. Supported by the Office of Science of the US DOE under contracts DE-AC0205CH11231, DE-AC52-07NA27344 and DE-AC02-09CH11466 and by the China Scholarship Council.

  6. Generation of attosecond electron beams in relativistic ionization by short laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajiao Vélez, F.; Kamiński, J. Z.; Krajewska, K.

    2018-03-01

    Ionization by relativistically intense short laser pulses is studied in the framework of strong-field quantum electrodynamics. Distinctive patterns are found in the energy probability distributions of photoelectrons, which are sensitive to the properties of a driving laser field. It is demonstrated that these electrons are generated in the form of solitary attosecond wave packets. This is particularly important in light of various applications of attosecond electron beams such as in ultrafast electron diffraction and crystallography, or in time-resolved electron microscopy of physical, chemical, and biological processes. We also show that, for intense laser pulses, high-energy ionization takes place in narrow regions surrounding the momentum spiral, the exact form of which is determined by the shape of a driving pulse. The self-intersections of the spiral define the momenta for which the interference patterns in the energy distributions of photoelectrons are observed. Furthermore, these interference regions lead to the synthesis of single-electron wave packets characterized by coherent double-hump structures.

  7. Photoionization mass spectrometric studies of selected compounds in a molecular beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, W.M.

    1979-03-01

    Photoionization efficiency curves have been measured at moderate to high resolution for several species produced in supersonic molecular beams of acetone, acetone-d/sub 6/ and CS/sub 2/. The molecular beam photoionization mass spectrometer which has been assembled for this work is described. The performance of this instrument has been characterized by a number of experiments and calculations.

  8. Photoionization mass spectrometric studies of selected compounds in a molecular beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, W.M.

    1979-03-01

    Photoionization efficiency curves have been measured at moderate to high resolution for several species produced in supersonic molecular beams of acetone, acetone-d 6 and CS 2 . The molecular beam photoionization mass spectrometer which has been assembled for this work is described. The performance of this instrument has been characterized by a number of experiments and calculations

  9. High performance experiments on high pressure supersonic molecular beam injection in the HL-1M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Lianghua; Dong Jiafu; Zhou Yan; Feng Beibing; Cao Jianyong; Li Wei; Feng Zhen; Zhang Jiquan; Hong Wenyu; Cui Zhengying; Wang Enyao; Liu Yong

    2004-01-01

    Supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) was first proposed and demonstrated on the HL-1 tokamak and was successfully developed and used on HL-1M. Recently, new results of SMBI experiments were obtained by increasing the gas pressure from 0.5 to over 1.0 MPa. A stair-shaped density increment was obtained with high-pressure multi-pulse SMBI that was similar to the density evolution behaviour during multi-pellet injection. This demonstrated the effectiveness of SMBI as a promising fuelling tool for steady-state operation. The penetration depth and injection speed of the high-pressure SMBI were roughly measured from the contour plot of the Hα emission intensity. It was shown that injected particles could penetrate into the core region of the plasma. The penetration speed of high-pressure SMBI particles in the plasma was estimated to be about 1200 m s -1 . In addition, clusters within the beam may play an important role in the deeper injection. (author)

  10. A Kinematically Beamed, Low Energy Pulsed Neutron Source for Active Interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, D.; Hagmann, C.; Kerr, P.; Nakae, L.; Rowland, M.; Snyderman, N.; Stoeffl, W.; Hamm, R.

    2004-01-01

    We are developing a new active interrogation system based on a kinematically focused low energy neutron beam. The key idea is that one of the defining characteristics of SNM (Special Nuclear Materials) is the ability for low energy or thermal neutrons to induce fission. Thus by using low energy neutrons for the interrogation source we can accomplish three goals, (1) Energy discrimination allows us to measure the prompt fast fission neutrons produced while the interrogation beam is on; (2) Neutrons with an energy of approximately 60 to 100 keV do not fission 238U and Thorium, but penetrate bulk material nearly as far as high energy neutrons do and (3) below about 100keV neutrons lose their energy by kinematical collisions rather than via the nuclear (n,2n) or (n,n') processes thus further simplifying the prompt neutron induced background. 60 keV neutrons create a low radiation dose and readily thermal capture in normal materials, thus providing a clean spectroscopic signature of the intervening materials. The kinematically beamed source also eliminates the need for heavy backward and sideway neutron shielding. We have designed and built a very compact pulsed neutron source, based on an RFQ proton accelerator and a lithium target. We are developing fast neutron detectors that are nearly insensitive to the ever-present thermal neutron and neutron capture induced gamma ray background. The detection of only a few high energy fission neutrons in time correlation with the linac pulse will be a clear indication of the presence of SNM

  11. 6 MeV pulsed electron beam induced surface and structural changes in polyimide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathakari, Narendra L.; Bhoraskar, Vasant N. [Microtron Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, Maharashtra (India); Dhole, Sanjay D., E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.i [Microtron Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, Maharashtra (India)

    2010-04-15

    Thin films of polyimide (PMDA-ODA, Kapton) having 50 mum thickness were irradiated with 6 MeV pulsed electron beam. The bulk and surface properties of pristine and irradiated samples were characterized by several techniques such as stress-strain measurements, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), UV-vis spectroscopy, contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and profilometry. The tensile strength, percentage elongation and strain energy show an enhancement from pristine value of 73-89 MPa, 10-22% and 4.75-14.2 MJ/m{sup 3} respectively at the maximum fluence of 4 x 10{sup 15} electrons/cm{sup 2}. This signifies that polyimide being an excessively aromatic polymer is crosslinked due to high-energy electron irradiation. In surface properties, the contact angle shows a significant decrease from 59 deg. to 32 deg. indicating enhancement in hydrophilicity. This mainly attributes to surface roughening, which is due to the electron beam induced sputtering. The surface roughening is confirmed in AFM and profilometry measurements. The AFM images clearly show that surface roughness increases after electron irradiation. Moreover, the roughness average (R{sub a}) as measured from surface profilograms is found to increase from 0.06 to 0.1. The FTIR and UV-vis spectra do not show noticeable changes as regards to scissioning of bonds and the oxidation. This work leads to a definite conclusion that 6 MeV pulsed electron beam can be used to bring about desired changes in surface as well as bulk properties of polyimide, which is considered to be a high performance space quality polymer.

  12. Investigations of DNA damage induction and repair resulting from cellular exposure to high dose-rate pulsed proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renis, M.; Malfa, G.; Tomasello, B.; Borghesi, M.; Schettino, G.; Favetta, M.; Romano, F.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Manti, L.

    2013-01-01

    Studies regarding the radiobiological effects of low dose radiation, microbeam irradiation services have been developed in the world and today laser acceleration of protons and heavy ions may be used in radiation therapy. The application of different facilities is essential for studying bystander effects and relating signalling phenomena in different cells or tissues. In particular the use of ion beams results advantageous in cancer radiotherapy compared to more commonly used X-rays, since the ability of ions in delivering lethal amount of doses into the target tumour avoiding or limiting damage to the contiguous healthy tissues. At the INFN-LNS in Catania, a multidisciplinary radiobiology group is strategically structured aimed to develop radiobiological research, finalised to therapeutic applications, compatible with the use of high dose laser-driven ion beams. The characteristic non-continuous dose rates with several orders of magnitude of laser-driven ion beams makes this facility very interesting in the cellular systems' response to ultra-high dose rates with non-conventional pulse time intervals cellular studies. Our group have projected to examine the effect of high dose laser-driven ion beams on two cellular types: foetal fibroblasts (normal control cells) and DU145 (prostate cancer cells), studying the modulation of some different bio-molecular parameters, in particular cell proliferation and viability, DNA damage, redox cellular status, morphological alterations of both the cytoskeleton components and some cell organelles and the possible presence of apoptotic or necrotic cell death. Our group performed preliminary experiments with high energy (60 MeV), dose rate of 10 Gy/min, doses of 1, 2, 3 Gy and LET 1 keV/μm on human foetal fibroblasts (control cells). We observed that cell viability was not influenced by the characteristics of the beam, the irradiation conditions or the analysis time. Conversely, DNA damage was present at time 0, immediately

  13. Investigations of DNA damage induction and repair resulting from cellular exposure to high dose-rate pulsed proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renis, M.; Malfa, G.; Tomasello, B. [Drug Sciences Department, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Borghesi, M.; Schettino, G. [Queen' s University Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Favetta, M.; Romano, F.; Cirrone, G. A. P. [National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN-LNS), Catania (Italy); Manti, L. [Physics Science Department, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, and National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Naples (Italy)

    2013-07-26

    Studies regarding the radiobiological effects of low dose radiation, microbeam irradiation services have been developed in the world and today laser acceleration of protons and heavy ions may be used in radiation therapy. The application of different facilities is essential for studying bystander effects and relating signalling phenomena in different cells or tissues. In particular the use of ion beams results advantageous in cancer radiotherapy compared to more commonly used X-rays, since the ability of ions in delivering lethal amount of doses into the target tumour avoiding or limiting damage to the contiguous healthy tissues. At the INFN-LNS in Catania, a multidisciplinary radiobiology group is strategically structured aimed to develop radiobiological research, finalised to therapeutic applications, compatible with the use of high dose laser-driven ion beams. The characteristic non-continuous dose rates with several orders of magnitude of laser-driven ion beams makes this facility very interesting in the cellular systems' response to ultra-high dose rates with non-conventional pulse time intervals cellular studies. Our group have projected to examine the effect of high dose laser-driven ion beams on two cellular types: foetal fibroblasts (normal control cells) and DU145 (prostate cancer cells), studying the modulation of some different bio-molecular parameters, in particular cell proliferation and viability, DNA damage, redox cellular status, morphological alterations of both the cytoskeleton components and some cell organelles and the possible presence of apoptotic or necrotic cell death. Our group performed preliminary experiments with high energy (60 MeV), dose rate of 10 Gy/min, doses of 1, 2, 3 Gy and LET 1 keV/μm on human foetal fibroblasts (control cells). We observed that cell viability was not influenced by the characteristics of the beam, the irradiation conditions or the analysis time. Conversely, DNA damage was present at time 0, immediately

  14. Suppression secondary electrons from target surface under pulsed ion beams bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhen; Peng Yufei; Long Jidong; Lan Chaohui; Dong Pan; Shi Jinshui

    2012-01-01

    The producing mechanism of secondary electrons from target surface under ion beams bombardment is discussed. Several methods to suppress the secondary electrons in special vacuum devices and their advantages and disadvantages are introduced. The ways of using self-bias and curved surface target are proposed and verified in the experiment. The results show that the secondary electrons can be effectively suppressed when the self-bias is larger than 80 V. The secondary electron yield decreases by using curved surface target instead of flat target. The secondary electron yield calculated from the experimental data is about 0.67, which is slightly larger than the value (0.58) from the literature due to the impurities of the ion beam and target surface. The effect of suppressing the electron countercurrent by the self-bias method is analyzed. The result shows that the self-bias method can not only suppress the secondary electrons from target surface under ion beams bombardment, but also suppress the electron countercurrent resulting from the instability of the pulsed power source. (authors)

  15. Electric conductivity of polyethylene during pulsed electron-beam irradiation at ETA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorito, R.B.; Miller, P.J.; Stern, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    The motivation for this work is two-fold: first, the authors want to understand the basic physics of the interaction of an intense electron beam with condensed matter. Intensity is the key word in the sense that many projectiles might act coherently or incoherently to alter significantly the medium through which they pass. During the pulse of an intense electron beam through a material which is ordinarily dielectric, the conductivity increases by 10 to 15 orders of magnitude. This effect is related to the promotion of charge carriers to the conduction band and to the mobility and lifetime of those carriers in that band. Therefore, there is a physically interesting system which is measurable in real time. It is a system which interrelates beam energy-deposition, charge-carrier concentration, material temperature, and carrier mobility. The second motivation for these experiments is methodological. If the authors can understand the relationship between conductivity and energy deposition, they might be able to develop this technique into a diagnostic of the dose-depth relationship in material subject to very-high dose and high dose-rate irradiation (≥ 1 Grad in ≤ 25 nsec). This relationship is inaccessible to measurement by means of conventional dosimetry. 14 references

  16. Surface modification of TA2 pure titanium by low energy high current pulsed electron beam treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yukui

    2011-01-01

    Surface integrity changes of TA2 pure titanium including surface topography, microstructure and nanohardness distribution along surface layer were investigated by different techniques of low energy high current pulsed electron beam treatments (LEHCPEBTs). The surface topography was characterized by SEM. Moreover, the TEM observation and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed to reveal the surface modification mechanism of TA2 pure titanium by LEHCPEBTs. The surface roughness was modified by electron beam treatment and the polishing mechanism was analyzed by studying the cross section microstructure of electron beam treated specimens by SEM and TEM. The results show that the surface finish obtains good polishing quality and there is no phase transformation but the dislocations by LEHCPEBT. Furthermore, the nanohardness in the surface modified layer is improved. The remelt and fine-grain microstructure of surface layer caused by LEHCPEBTs are the main polishing mechanism and the reason of modification of surface topography and the increment in nanohardness is mainly due to the dislocations and fine grains in the modified layer induced by LEHCPEBT.

  17. Space charge beam dynamics studies for a pulsed spallation source accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Y.; Lessner, E.

    1995-12-31

    Feasibility studies for 2-GeV, 1-MW and 10-GeV, 5-MW rapid cycling synchrotrons (RCS) for spallation neutron sources have been completed. Both synchrotrons operate at a repetition rate of 30 Hz, and accelerate 1.04 {times} 10{sup 14} protons per pulse. The injection energy of the 2-GeV ring is 400 MeV, and the 10-GeV RCS accepts the beam from the 2-GeV machine. Work performed to-date includes calculation of the longitudinal space charge effects in the 400-MeV beam transfer line, and of both longitudinal and transverse space charge effects during the injection, capture and acceleration processes in the two rings. Results of space charge calculations in the rings led to proper choices of the working points and of rf voltage programs that prevents beam loss. Space charge effects in the 2-GeV synchrotron, in both transverse and longitudinal phase space, have major impact on the design due to the fact that the injection energy is 400 MeV. The design achieves the required performance while alleviating harmful effects due to space charge.

  18. Time-dependent plasma behavior triggered by a pulsed electron gun under conditions of beam-plasma-discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuszczewicz, E.P.; Lin, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reports on experiments whose purpose was to simulate spaceborne applications of energetic electron guns while exploring the ''in situ'' diagnostics of time-dependent beam-plasma behavior under pulsed electron gun conditions. Beam-plasma-discharge (BPD), the BPD afterglow that exists after gun-pulse termination, and the plasma decay process are considered. It is concluded that there is a rapid enhancement in plasma density as the gas turns on; that during the pulse-ON time a quasi-steady-state BPD can be maintained with characteristics identical with its dc counterpart; that in the period immediately following gun-pulse termination the plasma loss process is dominated by cross-field radial diffusion; and that the afterglow plasma is within + or -10% of being an isodensity contour

  19. Problems in nonlinear acoustics: Scattering of sound by sound, parametric receiving arrays, nonlinear effects in asymmetric sound beams and pulsed finite amplitude sound beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Mark F.

    1989-08-01

    Four projects are discussed in this annual summary report, all of which involve basic research in nonlinear acoustics: Scattering of Sound by Sound, a theoretical study of two nonconlinear Gaussian beams which interact to produce sum and difference frequency sound; Parametric Receiving Arrays, a theoretical study of parametric reception in a reverberant environment; Nonlinear Effects in Asymmetric Sound Beams, a numerical study of two dimensional finite amplitude sound fields; and Pulsed Finite Amplitude Sound Beams, a numerical time domain solution of the KZK equation.

  20. Measuring radiation damage dynamics by pulsed ion beam irradiation. 2015 Annual Progress Report for DOE/NE/NEET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucheyev, S. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-07

    The major goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate a novel experimental approach to access the dynamic regime of radiation damage formation processes in nuclear materials. In particular, the project exploits a pulsed-ion-beam method in order to gain insight into defect interaction dynamics by measuring effective defect interaction time constants and defect diffusion lengths. For Year 2, this project had the following two major milestones: (i) measurement of the temperature dependence of defect dynamics in SiC and (ii) the evaluation of the robustness of the pulsed beam method from studies of the defect generation rate. As we describe below, both of these milestones have been met.

  1. Wideband converter of a charge of particle beam incident on a Faraday cylinder into a number of pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchagin, A.V.; Lysenko, V.F.

    1985-01-01

    An electric circuit of a beam positive charge-pulse converter during beam incidence on a Faraday cylinder (conversion of Faraday cylinder current into F frequency, where F=10 10 J, where J - is the Faraday cylinder current) is described. Conversion ratio is 10 10 pulses/KP (10 10 Hz/A). Input current change limits are 10 -10 -10 -4 A. Conversion error is |ΔF| -3 F +0.1 Hz). ''Dead'' time is absent. Input resistance of the converter is close to zero

  2. Design of optimal laser pulses to control molecular rovibrational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optimal control theory in combination with time-dependent quantum dynamics is employed to design laser ... area of quantum computing,22 use of molecular states of various systems ..... frequency) and ωv=0, j=1→v=1, j=0, along with small con- tributions from ... discussed here for three rovibrational excitation pro- cesses.

  3. Filming Femtosecond Molecular Movies with X-ray Pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kasper Skov

    of molecular species in solution, describing the interplay between electronic and structural dynamics, as well as the role of the solvent. This will be followed by an introduction of the three X-ray techniques used in this work, and it will be shown how the application of these techniques in a laser pump / X...

  4. Laser-plasma acceleration with multi-color pulse stacks: Designer electron beams for advanced radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmykov, Serge; Shadwick, Bradley; Ghebregziabher, Isaac; Davoine, Xavier

    2015-11-01

    Photon engineering offers new avenues to coherently control electron beam phase space on a femtosecond time scale. It enables generation of high-quality beams at a kHz-scale repetition rate. Reducing the peak pulse power (and thus the average laser power) is the key to effectively exercise such control. A stepwise negative chirp, synthesized by incoherently stacking collinear sub-Joule pulses from conventional CPA, affords a micron-scale bandwidth. It is sufficient to prevent rapid compression of the pulse into an optical shock, while delaying electron dephasing. This extends electron energy far beyond the limits suggested by accepted scalings (beyond 1 GeV in a 3 mm plasma), without compromising beam quality. In addition, acceleration with a stacked pulse in a channel favorably modifies electron beam on a femtosecond time scale, controllably producing synchronized sequences of 100 kA-scale, quasi-monoenergetic bunches. These comb-like, designer GeV electron beams are ideal drivers of polychromatic, tunable inverse Thomson γ-ray sources. The work of SYK and BAS is supported by the US DOE Grant DE-SC0008382 and NSF Grant PHY-1104683. Inverse Thomson scattering simulations were completed utilizing the Holland Computing Center of the University of Nebraska.

  5. Molecular beam sampling from a rocket-motor combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseman, John; Young, W.S.

    1974-01-01

    A molecular-beam mass-spectrometer sampling apparatus has been developed to study the reactive species concentrations as a function of position in a rocket-motor combustion chamber. Unique design features of the sampling system include (a) the use of a multiple-nozzle end plate for preserving the nonuniform properties of the flow field inside the combustion chamber, (b) the use of a water-injection heat shield, and (c) the use of a 300 CFM mechanical pump for the first vacuum stage (eliminating the use of a huge conventional oil booster pump). Preliminary rocket-motor tests have been performed using the highly reactive propellants nitrogen tetroxide/hydrazine (N 2 O 4 /N 2 H 4 ) at an oxidizer/fuel ratio of 1.2 by weight. The combustion-chamber pressure is approximately 60psig. Qualitative results on unreacted oxidizer/fuel ratio, relative abundance of oxidizer and fuel fragments, and HN 3 distribution across the chamber are presented

  6. Creating Ruddlesden-Popper phases by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haislmaier, Ryan C.; Stone, Greg; Alem, Nasim; Engel-Herbert, Roman

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of a 50 unit cell thick n = 4 Sr_n_+_1Ti_nO_3_n_+_1 (Sr_5Ti_4O_1_3) Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phase film is demonstrated by sequentially depositing SrO and TiO_2 layers in an alternating fashion using hybrid molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), where Ti was supplied using titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). A detailed calibration procedure is outlined for determining the shuttering times to deposit SrO and TiO_2 layers with precise monolayer doses using in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) as feedback. Using optimized Sr and TTIP shuttering times, a fully automated growth of the n = 4 RP phase was carried out over a period of >4.5 h. Very stable RHEED intensity oscillations were observed over the entire growth period. The structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that a constant periodicity of four SrTiO_3 perovskite unit cell blocks separating the double SrO rocksalt layer was maintained throughout the entire film thickness with a very little amount of planar faults oriented perpendicular to the growth front direction. These results illustrate that hybrid MBE is capable of layer-by-layer growth with atomic level precision and excellent flux stability.

  7. Creating Ruddlesden-Popper phases by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haislmaier, Ryan C.; Stone, Greg; Alem, Nasim; Engel-Herbert, Roman, E-mail: rue2@psu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2016-07-25

    The synthesis of a 50 unit cell thick n = 4 Sr{sub n+1}Ti{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} (Sr{sub 5}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 13}) Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phase film is demonstrated by sequentially depositing SrO and TiO{sub 2} layers in an alternating fashion using hybrid molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), where Ti was supplied using titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). A detailed calibration procedure is outlined for determining the shuttering times to deposit SrO and TiO{sub 2} layers with precise monolayer doses using in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) as feedback. Using optimized Sr and TTIP shuttering times, a fully automated growth of the n = 4 RP phase was carried out over a period of >4.5 h. Very stable RHEED intensity oscillations were observed over the entire growth period. The structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that a constant periodicity of four SrTiO{sub 3} perovskite unit cell blocks separating the double SrO rocksalt layer was maintained throughout the entire film thickness with a very little amount of planar faults oriented perpendicular to the growth front direction. These results illustrate that hybrid MBE is capable of layer-by-layer growth with atomic level precision and excellent flux stability.

  8. Molecular beam epitaxy of InN nanowires on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golam Sarwar, A. T. M.; Carnevale, Santino D.; Kent, Thomas F.; Laskar, Masihhur R.; May, Brelon J.; Myers, Roberto C.

    2015-10-01

    We report on a systematic growth study of the nucleation process of InN nanowires on Si(1 1 1) substrates using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). Samples are grown with various substrate temperatures and III/V ratios. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and photoluminescence are carried out to map out the variation in structural and optical properties versus growth conditions. Statistical averages of areal density, height, and radius are mapped as a function of substrate temperature and III/V ratio. Three different morphological phases are identified on the growth surface: InN, α-In and β-In. Based on SEM image analysis of samples grown at different conditions, the formation mechanism of these phases is proposed. Finally, the growth phase diagram of PAMBE grown InN on Si under N-rich condition is presented, and tapered versus non-tapered growth conditions are identified. It is found that high growth temperature and low III/V ratio plays a critical role in the growth of non-tapered InN nanowires.

  9. Effects of fuelling by using high-pressure supersonic molecular beam in the HL-1M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Lianghua; Feng Beibin; Feng Zhen; Dong Jiafu; Li Wenzhong; Xu Deming; Hong Wenyu

    2002-01-01

    Supersonic molecular beam (SMB), as a new fuelling method, has been successfully developed and used in HL-1M tokamak and HT-7 superconducting tokamak. The hydrogen clusters have been found in the beam produced by high working-gas pressure in recent experiments. With a penetration depth of hydrogen particles greater than 17 cm, the rate of increase of electron density for SMB injection, dn e -bar/dt, approaches that of the small ice pellet injection. The plasma density increases step by step after multi-pulse SMB injection, just as multi-pellet fuelling. Comparison of fuelling effects was made between SMB and ice pellet injection on the same shot of ohmic discharge in HL-1M

  10. Positron annihilation in a metal-oxide semiconductor studied by using a pulsed monoenergetic positron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uedono, A.; Wei, L.; Tanigawa, S.; Suzuki, R.; Ohgaki, H.; Mikado, T.; Ohji, Y.

    1993-12-01

    The positron annihilation in a metal-oxide semiconductor was studied by using a pulsed monoenergetic positron beam. Lifetime spectra of positrons were measured as a function of incident positron energy for a polycrystalline Si(100 nm)/SiO2(400 nm)/Si specimen. Applying a gate voltage between the polycrystalline Si film and the Si substrate, positrons implanted into the specimen were accumulated at the SiO2/Si interface. From the measurements, it was found that the annihilation probability of ortho-positronium (ortho-Ps) drastically decreased at the SiO2/Si interface. The observed inhibition of the Ps formation was attributed to an interaction between positrons and defects at the SiO2/Si interface.

  11. Output optics for Aurora: Beam separation, pulse stacking, and target focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, J.

    1987-01-01

    An end-to-end technology demonstration prototype for large-scale ultraviolet laser systems of interest for short wavelength, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) investigations. The system is designed to employ optical angular multiplexing and serial amplification by electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers to deliver to ICF targets a stack of pulses with a duration of 5 ns containing several kilojoules at a wavelength of 248 nm. The optical system has been designed in two phases. The first phase carries only through the amplifier train and does not include a target chamber or any demultiplexing. During first-phase design, the system was conceived of as only an amplifier demonstration and not as an end-to-end system demonstration. The design concept for second-phase optics that provides demultiplexing and carries the laser light to target is presented

  12. Neutron polarization measurements using the pulsed-polarized proton and deuteron beams at TUNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Nanosecond wide pulses of polarized protons or deuterons at a repetition rate of 4 MHz are now routinely available for studying interactions involving outgoing neutrons. Up to 90 nA of protons and 200 nA of deuterons have been observed on target. The authors' first experiments involved the determination of the analyzing power A /SUB y/ (UJ) for a few (→p,n) and (→d,n) reactions using conventional neutron time-of-flight detection. A major program for observing polarization effects in neutron elastic scattering has been initiated. The source of polarized neutrons for this program is the 2 H(→d,n→) 3 He reaction which yields a neutron beam having 90% of the polarization of the incident deuterons

  13. Transverse emittance measurement of high-current single pulse beams using pepper-pot method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Jianlin; Zhou Changgeng; Qiu Rui

    2013-01-01

    A pepper pot-imaging plate system has been developed and used to measure the 4-D transverse emittance of a vacuum arc ion source. Single beam pulses of tens to hundreds milliamperes were extracted from the plasma with 64 kV high voltage. An imaging plate was laid after the pepper pot to visualize the ion beamlets passing though the holes on the pepper pot. An application program was developed to show the phase-space distribution and calculate the ellipse and RMS emittances. The normalized RMS emittances are about 6.41 π·mm·mrad in x-direction and 4.61 π·mm·mrad in y-direction. It is shown that the emittance of the vacuum arc ion source is much larger than that of other types of ion sources, which is mainly attributed to the high current and the convex meniscus of this source. (authors)

  14. Dynamics of intense pulsed proton beam in the Nagaoka ETIGO-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hajime; Konno, Kohji; Masugata, Katsumi; Yatsui, Kiyoshi; Matsui, Masao

    1982-01-01

    Dynamics of an intense pulsed proton beam have been studied by measuring nuclear reactions as well as by a biased ion-collector (BIC). When the ion-current density (Jsub(i)) is small such that Jsub(i) lt 30 A/cm 2 , the proton numer measured by BIC is in good agreement with that by nuclear activation. Good linearity exists between time integrated gamma -ray signal and proton number measured by the activation. Hence, it would be possible to obtain the proton number quantitatively even when a target ''blow-off'' takes place at Jsub(i) gt 1 kA/cm 2 . Prompt gamma -ray is also measured by the time-of-flight method to yield reasonable agreement with the applied peak potential. (author)

  15. Continuous and pulsed laser high power beam combiner for additive manufacturing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassignana, Marta; Califano, Alessio; Pescarmona, Francesco; Braglia, Andrea; Perrone, Guido

    2018-02-01

    Laser-based additive manufacturing (AM) from metal powders is emerging as the new industrial revolution, although current fabrication approaches still require long mechanical post-processing to improve the final surface quality and meet the design tolerances. To overcome this limitation, the next generation machines are expected to complement laser AM with laser ablation (LA) to implement surface finishing and micro texturing already during the device growth process. With this aim, a new beam combiner to allow the real-time interchange of additive and subtractive processes using the same scanner head has been designed. Extensive tests have been carried out using a 6 kW continuous-wave laser similar to that used for the metal powder fusion and a nanosecond 100W pulsed source similar to that used for laser ablation.

  16. UCN up-scattering as a source of highly intense monochromatic pulsed beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, H.; Geltenborg, P.; Zimmer, O.

    2011-01-01

    The present proposal opens new possibilities to increase the usable neutron flux by advanced neutron cooling and phase space transformation methods. Thus a new instrument should be installed where the available neutron flux is used more efficiently. The essential point is an increase of phase space density and brilliance due to a more effective production of ultra-cold neutrons and a following transformation of these neutrons to higher energies. Recently reported progresses in the production of UCN's and in the up-scattering of such neutrons make the time mature to step towards a new method to produce high intense pulsed neutron beams. The up-scattering is made by fast moving Bragg crystals

  17. Techniques for fabricating an infrared optical pyrometry system for pulsed electron beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellette, A.L.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of an infrared optical pyrometry system which was designed to make fast time resolved temperature measurements. The purpose of this equipment is to determine the amount of energy from an electron beam or some other type of pulsed energy deposition that is absorbed in a target. The system is capable of measuring energy deposition levels up to 4000 J/g in carbon, which corresponds to a graphite target temperature of 2200 0 C. Methods of fabrication, alignment, and calibration are presented. The measurement of absorbed energy in a target as a function of position and depth is discussed as a possible application, and several measurements are described which permit a comparison of results from this system with those taken by other methods

  18. Amplification of picosecond pulse by electron-beam pumped KrF laser amplifiers. Denshi beam reiki KrF laser zofukuki ni yoru piko byo pulse no zofuku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, I.; Tomie, T.; Owadano, Y.; Yano, M. (Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1991-08-20

    Experiments on the amplification of a picosecond pulse by electron-beam pumped KrF laser amplifiers were carried out for the purpose of its application to the field such as excitation light source for soft X-ray laser which requires large energy besides peak power. The picosecond pulse was amplified by a discharge pumped KrF amplifier and two electron-beam pumped KrF amplifiers(at the middle stage and the final stage). The energy of 4J, which was the largest energy for short pulse excimer laser so far, was obtained by these devices. About 90% of the window area of the final amplifier with 29cm diameter was filled by the input beam, and energy density of the picosecond beam reached 3.9 times saturation energy density. Measured energy of amplified spontaneous emission(ASE) showed good agreement with the theoretically estimated value. Most of ASE was derived from the discharge pumped laser as the first amplifier. As for the focused power density, the power density ratio of the picosecond pulse to ASE was estimated to be as large as 10{sup 5}. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Pulsed recording of anisotropy and holographic polarization gratings in azo-polymethacrylates with different molecular architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forcén, Patricia; Oriol, Luis; Alcala, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Recording of anisotropy and holographic polarization gratings using 532 nm, 4 ns light pulses has been carried out in thin films of polymers with the same azobenzene content (20 wt %) and different molecular architectures. Random and block copolymers comprising azobenzene and methylmethacrylate (...

  20. Positron and positronium annihilation in low-dielectric-constant films studied by a pulsed positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, R.; Ohdaira, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Ito, K.; Yu, R.S.; Shioya, Y.; Ichikawa, H.; Hosomi, H.; Ishikiriyama, K.; Shirataki, H.; Matsuno, S.; Xu, J.

    2004-01-01

    Positron and positronium annihilation in porous low-dielectric-constant (low-k) films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and spin-on dielectric (SOD) have been investigated by means of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and age-momentum correlation (AMOC) spectroscopy with a pulsed slow positron beam. The ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime strongly depends on the deposition condition. In general, PECVD low-k films have shorter o-Ps lifetimes than SOD low-k films, indicating PECVD low-k films have smaller pores. Since o-Ps diffusion and escaping from the surface occurs in most of porous SOD films, three-gamma annihilation measurement is important. To investigate o-Ps behavior in SOD films, we have carried out two-dimensional (2D) PALS measurement, which measures annihilation time and pulse-height of the scintillation detector simultaneously. Monte-Carlo simulation of the o-Ps diffusion and escaping in porous films has been carried out to simulate the 2D-PALS results. (orig.)

  1. Positron annihilation in SiO 2-Si studied by a pulsed slow positron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, R.; Ohdaira, T.; Uedono, A.; Kobayashi, Y.

    2002-06-01

    Positron and positronium (Ps) behavior in SiO 2-Si have been studied by means of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and age-momentum correlation (AMOC) spectroscopy with a pulsed slow positron beam. The PALS study of SiO 2-Si samples, which were prepared by a dry-oxygen thermal process, revealed that the positrons implanted in the Si substrate and diffused back to the interface do not contribute to the ortho-Ps long-lived component, and the lifetime spectrum of the interface has at least two components. From the AMOC study, the momentum distribution of the ortho-Ps pick-off annihilation in SiO 2, which shows broader momentum distribution than that of crystalline Si, was found to be almost the same as that of free positron annihilation in SiO 2. A varied interface model was proposed to interpret the results of the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) experiments. The narrow momentum distribution found in the n-type MOS with a negative gate bias voltage could be attributed to Ps formation and rapid spin exchange in the SiO 2-Si interface. We have developed a two-dimensional positron lifetime technique, which measures annihilation time and pulse height of the scintillation gamma-ray detector for each event. Using this technique, the positronium behavior in a porous SiO 2 film, grown by a sputtering method, has been studied.

  2. Study on Nanostructures Induced by High-Current Pulsed Electron Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four techniques using high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB were proposed to obtain surface nanostructure of metal and alloys. The first method involves the distribution of several fine Mg nanoparticles on the top surface of treated samples by evaporation of pure Mg with low boiling point. The second technique uses superfast heating, melting, and cooling induced by HCPEB irradiation to refine the primary phase or the second phase in alloys to nanosized uniform distributed phases in the matrix, such as the quasicrystal phase Mg30Zn60Y10 in the quasicrystal alloy Mg67Zn30Y3. The third technique involves the refinement of eutectic silicon phase in hypereutectic Al-15Si alloys to fine particles with the size of several nanometers through solid solution and precipitation refinement. Finally, in the deformation zone induced by HCPEB irradiation, the grain size can be refined to several hundred nanometers, such as the grain size of the hypereutectic Al-15Si alloys in the deformation zone, which can reach ~400 nm after HCPEB treatment for 25 pulses. Therefore, HCPEB technology is an efficient way to obtain surface nanostructure.

  3. Understanding the molecular mechanism of pulse current charging for stable lithium-metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tan, Shen; Li, Linlin; Lu, Yingying; He, Yi

    2017-01-01

    High energy and safe electrochemical storage are critical components in multiple emerging fields of technologies. Rechargeable lithium-metal batteries are considered to be promising alternatives for current lithium-ion batteries, leading to as much as a 10-fold improvement in anode storage capacity (from 372 to 3860 mAh g−1). One of the major challenges for commercializing lithium-metal batteries is the reliability and safety issue, which is often associated with uneven lithium electrodeposition (lithium dendrites) during the charging stage of the battery cycling process. We report that stable lithium-metal batteries can be achieved by simply charging cells with square-wave pulse current. We investigated the effects of charging period and frequency as well as the mechanisms that govern this process at the molecular level. Molecular simulations were performed to study the diffusion and the solvation structure of lithium cations (Li+) in bulk electrolyte. The model predicts that loose association between cations and anions can enhance the transport of Li+ and eventually stabilize the lithium electrodeposition. We also performed galvanostatic measurements to evaluate the cycling behavior and cell lifetime under pulsed electric field and found that the cell lifetime can be more than doubled using certain pulse current waveforms. Both experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the effectiveness of pulse current charging on dendrite suppression can be optimized by choosing proper time- and frequency-dependent pulses. This work provides a molecular basis for understanding the mechanisms of pulse current charging to mitigating lithium dendrites and designing pulse current waveforms for stable lithium-metal batteries. PMID:28776039

  4. Design of a New Acceleration System for High-Current Pulsed Proton Beams from an ECR Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew L.; Pogrebnyak, Ivan; Surbrook, Jason T.; Kelly, Keegan J.; Carlin, Bret P.; Champagne, Arthur E.; Clegg, Thomas B.

    2014-03-01

    A primary objective for accelerators at TUNL's Laboratory for Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics (LENA) is to maximize target beam intensity to ensure a high rate of nuclear events during each experiment. Average proton target currents of several mA are needed from LENA's electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source because nuclear cross sections decrease substantially at energies of interest tube structures; and provide better heat dissipation by using deionized water to provide the current drain needed to establish the accelerating tube's voltage gradient. Details of beam optical modeling calculations, proposed accelerating tube design, and initial beam pulsing tests will be described. Work supported in part by USDOE Office of HE and Nuclear Physics.

  5. Analysis of ionic mobilities in liquid isooctane with low dose radiotherapy pulsed photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo-Montero, J; Gago-Arias, A; González-Castaño, D M; Gómez, F; Tegami, S; Holzscheiter, M H

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present a model of signal temporal development in ionization chambers and we use it to determine ionic mobilities and relative densities of charge carriers in non-ultrapure liquid isooctane using a liquid-filled ionization chamber dosimeter. The detector has been irradiated with a low dose rate, short pulsed photon beam generated with a medical LINAC. Ionic mobilities have been obtained by studying the temporal development of the readout signal and fitting it to a model for low dose rate beams where recombination is negligible. The best fit has been obtained for 3 ionic species with mobilities k 1 = (2.22±0.22) × 10 −8 , k 2 = (3.37±0.43) × 10 −8 , k 3 = (19.69±2.59) × 10 −8 m 2 V −1 s −1 and relative densities n 1 = 0.5 (n 1 is not a fitting parameter), n 2 = 0.23±0.03 and n 3 = 0.27±0.03.

  6. Long-pulse neutral beam power supply system for LBL 20 kV, 10 A sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honey, V.J.; Baker, W.R.; Fitzgerald, M.L.

    1976-05-01

    A description is given of the power supplies and control system for the LBL 20 kV, 10 A, 10 sec long-pulse neutral beam source test facility, now in operation. Such sources are used in a number of existing and planned fusion power experiments

  7. Substrate bias effect on crystallinity of polycrystalline silicon thin films prepared by pulsed ion-beam evaporation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Fazlat; Gunji, Michiharu; Yang, Sung-Chae; Suzuki, Tsuneo; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Jiang, Weihua; Yatsui, Kiyoshi [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Extreme Energy-Density Research Inst., Nagaoka, Niigata (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    The deposition of polycrystalline silicon thin films has been tried by a pulsed ion-beam evaporation method, where high crystallinity and deposition rate have been achieved without heating the substrate. The crystallinity and the deposition rate were improved by applying bias voltage to the substrate, where instantaneous substrate heating might have occurred by ion-bombardment. (author)

  8. Substrate bias effect on crystallinity of polycrystalline silicon thin films prepared by pulsed ion-beam evaporation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Fazlat; Gunji, Michiharu; Yang, Sung-Chae; Suzuki, Tsuneo; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Jiang, Weihua; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    The deposition of polycrystalline silicon thin films has been tried by a pulsed ion-beam evaporation method, where high crystallinity and deposition rate have been achieved without heating the substrate. The crystallinity and the deposition rate were improved by applying bias voltage to the substrate, where instantaneous substrate heating might have occurred by ion-bombardment. (author)

  9. Silicon dioxide etching process for fabrication of micro-optics employing pulse-modulated electron-beam-excited plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Keigo; Ohta, Takayuki; Ito, Masafumi; Hori, Masaru

    2006-01-01

    Silicon dioxide etching process employing a pulse-modulated electron-beam-excited plasma (EBEP) has been developed for a fabrication process of optical micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMSs). Nonplanar dielectric materials were etched by using self-bias induced by the electron beam generating the plasma. In order to investigate the effect of pulse modulation on electron beam, plasma diagnostics were carried out in the EBEP employing C 4 F 8 gas diluted with Ar gas by using a Langmuir single probe and time resolved optical emission spectroscopy. It was found that the pulse-modulated EBEP has an excellent potential to reduce the plasma-induced thermal damage on a photoresist film on a substrate to get the uniform etching and the anisotropic SiO 2 etching in comparison with the conventional EBEP. The pulse-modulated EBEP enabled us to get the high etch rate of SiO 2 of 375 nm/min without any additional bias power supply. Furthermore, the microfabrication on the core area of optical fiber was realized. These results indicate that the pulse-modulated EBEP will be a powerful tool for the application to optical MEMS process

  10. Proton beam transport experiments with pulsed high-field magnets at the Dresden laser acceleration source Draco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Florian; Schramm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Kraft, Stephan; Metzkes, Josefine; Schlenvoigt, Hans-Peter; Zeil, Karl [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Compact laser-driven ion accelerators are a potential alternative to large and expensive conventional accelerators. High-power short-pulse lasers, impinging on e.g. thin metal foils, enable multi-MeV ion acceleration on μm length and fs to ps time scale. The generated ion bunches (typically protons) show unique beam properties, like ultra-high pulse dose. Nevertheless, laser accelerators still require substantial development in reliable beam generation and transport. Recently developed pulsed magnets meet the demands of laser acceleration and open up new research opportunities: We present a pulsed solenoid for effective collection and focusing of laser-accelerated protons that acts as link between fundamental research and application. The solenoid is powered by a capacitor-based pulse generator and can reach a maximum magnetic field of 20 T. It was installed in the target chamber of the Draco laser at HZDR. The transported beam was detected by means of radiochromic film, scintillator and Thomson parabola spectrometer. We present the characterization of the solenoid with regard to future application in radiobiological irradiation studies. Furthermore, a detailed comparison to previous experiments with a similar magnet at the PHELIX laser at GSI, Darmstadt is provided.

  11. Progress on channel spark development and application of pulsed electron beam deposition (PED) in the field of medical coating work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, Christoph; Buth, Lothar-H.-O.; Frey, Wolfgang; Bluhm, Hansjoachim; Mayer, Hanns-G.

    2002-01-01

    A promising source for Pulsed Electron Beam Deposition (PED) is the channel spark. Recent improvements helped to reduce beam instabilities which up to now have limited the life time of the system. The beam power could be increased and because of better beam quality the transport length of the beam is increased from 1 to several centimeters (up to 10 cm). Together with other improvements on the triggering system and beam transport in dielectric tubes, the channel spark approaches industrial standards. An overview of actual applications in research and industry will be presented. An attractive feature of the pulsed electron beam thin film deposition is the conservation of stoichiometry even during deposition of multi-component earth-alkali and alkali glasses. Specially developed glasses like BIOGLAS registered have the ability to anchor soft living tissue at the surface. In form of a bulk material bio active glasses are brittle limiting its applications. Contrary to brittle bulk material a thin layers on medical implants exhibits reliable bio-functionality. Coating of implants with this category of materials is subject of the European INCOMED project (Innovative Coating of Medical Implants with Soft Tissue Anchoring Ability) which just has started

  12. Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ruoyu

    The exponential growth of Si-based technology has finally reached its limit, and a new generation of devices must be developed to continue scaling. A unique class of materials, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD), have attracted great attention due to their remarkable optical and electronic properties at the atomic thickness scale. Over the past decade, enormous efforts have been put into TMD research for application in low-power devices. Among these studies, a high-quality TMD synthesis method is essential. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) can enable high-quality TMD growth by combining high purity elemental sources and an ultra-high vacuum growth environment, together with the back-end-of-line compatible growth temperatures. Although many TMD candidates have been grown by MBE with promising microstructure, the limited grain size (improvement in grain size was achieved through this study. Results from both experiment and simulation showed that reducing the growth rate, enabled by high growth temperature and low metal flux, is vital to nucleation density control. Meanwhile, providing a chalcogen-rich growth environment will promote larger grain lateral growth by suppressing vertical growth. Applying the knowledge learned from the nucleation study, we sucessfully integrated the MBE-grown WSe2 into Si complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible field-effect transistors (FETs). Excellent transport properties, such as field effect hole mobilities (40 cm 2/V·s) with orders of magnitude improvement over the reported values of MBE-grown TMDs, are shown. These studies provide a comprehensive understanding of the MBE synthesis of TMDs and devices, indicating the great potential of integrating TMDs into CMOS process flows for the future electronics.

  13. Mg doping of GaN by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieten, R R; Buchowicz, G; Dubon, O; Motsnyi, V; Zhang, L; Cheng, K; Leys, M; Degroote, S; Borghs, G

    2011-01-01

    We present a systematic study on the influence of growth conditions on the incorporation and activation of Mg in GaN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. We show that high quality p-type GaN layers can be obtained on GaN-on-silicon templates. The Mg incorporation and the electrical properties have been investigated as a function of growth temperature, Ga : N flux ratio and Mg : Ga flux ratio. It was found that the incorporation of Mg and the electrical properties are highly sensitive to the Ga : N flux ratio. The highest hole mobility and lowest resistivity were achieved for slightly Ga-rich conditions. In addition to an optimal Ga : N ratio, an optimum Mg : Ga flux ratio was also observed at around 1%. We observed a clear Mg flux window for p-type doping of GaN : 0.31% 17 cm -3 and a mobility of 15 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . Temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements indicate an acceptor depth in these samples of 100 meV for a hole concentration of 5.5 x 10 17 cm -3 . The corresponding Mg concentration is 5 x 10 19 cm -3 , indicating approximately 1% activation at room temperature. In addition to continuous growth of Mg-doped GaN layers we also investigated different modulated growth procedures. We show that a modulated growth procedure has only limited influence on Mg doping at a growth temperature of 800 deg. or higher. This result is thus in contrast to previously reported GaN : Mg doping at much lower growth temperatures of 500 deg. C.

  14. Beam dynamics of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II),a novel pulse-compressing ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Grote, D.P.; Lund, S.M.; Sharp, W.M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J.-Y.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Logan, B.G.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.; Gilson, E.P.; Kaganovich, I.D.

    2009-01-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are well suited for heating matter to regimes of emerging interest. A new facility, NDCX-II, will enable studies of warm dense matter at ∼1 eV and near-solid density, and of heavy-ion inertial fusion target physics relevant to electric power production. For these applications the beam must deposit its energy rapidly, before the target can expand significantly. To form such pulses, ion beams are temporally compressed in neutralizing plasma; current amplification factors of ∼50-100 are routinely obtained on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at LBNL. In the NDCX-II physics design, an initial non-neutralized compression renders the pulse short enough that existing high-voltage pulsed power can be employed. This compression is first halted and then reversed by the beam's longitudinal space-charge field. Downstream induction cells provide acceleration and impose the head-to-tail velocity gradient that leads to the final neutralized compression onto the target. This paper describes the discrete-particle simulation models (1-D, 2-D, and 3-D) employed and the space-charge-dominated beam dynamics being realized.

  15. Ultra-short pulse, ultra-high intensity laser improvement techniques for laser-driven quantum beam science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Kando, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Recent development activities of the Quantum Beam Research Team in JAEA are reported. The downsized, petawatt and femtosecond pulse laser is described at first. The process of the system development and utilization effort of so-called J-KAREN is explained with its time and space control system. For high contrast, OPCPA (Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification) preamplifier is adopted by using the titanium-sapphire laser system in which only the seed light pulses can be amplified. In addition, high contrast is obtained by adopting the high energy seed light to the amplifier. The system configuration of J-KAREN laser is illustrated. Typical spectra with and without OPCPA, as well as the spectra with OPCPA adjustment and without one are shown. The result of the recompressed pulses is shown in which the pulse width of 29.5 femtoseconds is close to the theoretical limit. Considering the throughput of the pulse compressor is 64 percent it is possible to generate high power laser beam of about 600 terawatts. In the supplementary budget of 2012, it has been approved to cope with the aging or obsoleteness of the system and at the same time to further sophisticate the laser using system. The upgraded laser system is named as J-KAREN-P in which the repetition rate is improved and another booster amplifier is added to increase the power. The system configuration of J-KAREN-P after the upgrading is illustrated. (S. Funahashi)

  16. Improving the output voltage waveform of an intense electron-beam accelerator based on helical type Blumlein pulse forming line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Bing Cheng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Blumlein pulse forming line (BPFL consisting of an inner coaxial pulse forming line (PFL and an outer coaxial PFL is widely used in the field of pulsed power, especially for intense electron-beam accelerators (IEBA. The output voltage waveform determines the quality and characteristics of the output beam current of the IEBA. Comparing with the conventional BPFL, an IEBA based on a helical type BPFL can increase the duration of the output voltage in the same geometrical volume. However, for the helical type BPFL, the voltage waveform on a matched load may be distorted which influences the electron-beam quality. In this paper, an IEBA based on helical type BPFL is studied theoretically. Based on telegrapher equations of the BPFL, a formula for the output voltage of IEBA is obtained when the transition section is taken into account, where the transition section is between the middle cylinder of BPFL and the load. From the theoretical analysis, it is found that the wave impedance and transit time of the transition section influence considerably the main pulse voltage waveform at the load, a step is formed in front of the main pulse, and a sharp spike is also formed at the end of the main pulse. In order to get a well-shaped square waveform at the load and to improve the electron-beam quality of such an accelerator, the wave impedance of the transition section should be equal to that of the inner PFL of helical type BPFL and the transit time of the transition section should be designed as short as possible. Experiments performed on an IEBA with the helical type BPFL show reasonable agreement with theoretical analysis.

  17. A new crossed molecular beam apparatus using time-sliced ion velocity imaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guorong; Zhang Weiqing; Pan Huilin; Shuai Quan; Jiang Bo; Dai Dongxu; Yang Xueming

    2008-01-01

    A new crossed molecular beam apparatus has been constructed for investigating polyatomic chemical reactions using the time-sliced ion velocity map imaging technique. A unique design is adopted for one of the two beam sources and allows us to set up the molecular beam source either horizontally or vertically. This can be conveniently used to produce versatile atomic or radical beams from photodissociation and as well as electric discharge. Intensive H-atom beam source with high speed ratio was produced by photodissociation of the HI molecule and was reacted with the CD 4 molecule. Vibrational-state resolved HD product distribution was measured by detecting the CD 3 product. Preliminary results were also reported on the F+SiH 4 reaction using the discharged F atom beam. These results demonstrate that this new instrument is a powerful tool for investigating chemical dynamics of polyatomic reactions.

  18. Nanosecond and femtosecond mass spectroscopic analysis of a molecular beam produced by the spray-jet technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Toshiki; Shinohara, Hidenori; Kamikado, Toshiya; Okuno, Yoshishige; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Mashiko, Shinro; Yokoyama, Shiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    The spray-jet molecular beam apparatus enabled us to produce a molecular beam of non-volatile molecules under high vacuum from a sprayed mist of sample solutions. The apparatus has been used in spectroscopic studies and as a means of molecular beam deposition. We analyzed the molecular beam, consisting of non-volatile, solvent, and carrier-gas molecules, by using femtosecond- and nanosecond- laser mass spectroscopy. The information thus obtained provided insight into the molecular beam produced by the spray-jet technique

  19. Molecular Beam Epitaxy on Gas Cluster Ion Beam Prepared GaSb Substrates: Towards Improved Surfaces and Interfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishnaswami, Kannan; Vangala, Shivashankar R; Dauplaise, Helen M; Allen, Lisa P; Dallas, Gordon; Bakken, Daniel; Bliss, David F; Goodhue, WIlliam D

    2007-01-01

    ... at temperatures ranging 530 degrees C to 560 degrees C. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of molecular beam epitaxy grown GaSb/AlGaSb layers showed that the HBr-GCIB surface produced a smooth dislocation-free substrate-to-epi transition...

  20. Picosecond Transient Photoconductivity in Functionalized Pentacene Molecular Crystals Probed by Terahertz Pulse Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegmann, F. A.; Tykwinski, R. R.; Lui, K. P.; Bullock, J. E.; Anthony, J. E.

    2002-11-01

    We have measured transient photoconductivity in functionalized pentacene molecular crystals using ultrafast optical pump-terahertz probe techniques. The single crystal samples were excited using 800nm, 100fs pulses, and the change in transmission of time-delayed, subpicosecond terahertz pulses was used to probe the photoconducting state over a temperature range from 10 to 300K. A subpicosecond rise in photoconductivity is observed, suggesting that mobile carriers are a primary photoexcitation. At times longer than 4ps, a power-law decay is observed consistent with dispersive transport.

  1. Theoretical analysis of fluorescence signals in filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arevalo, E.; Becker, A.

    2005-01-01

    We study numerically and analytically the role of the combined effect of self-focusing, geometrical focusing, and the plasma defocusing in the formation of the fluorescence signal during the filamentation of a Ti:sapphire laser pulse in nitrogen molecular gas. Results of numerical simulations are used to estimate the number of excited ions in the focal volume, which is proportional to the fluorescence signal. We find good agreement between the theoretical results and the experimental data, showing that such data can be used to get further insight into the effective focal volume during filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in transparent media

  2. Manipulation and analysis of atomic and molecular beams using transmission gratings and Fresnel zone plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisenti, R.E.

    2000-06-01

    In this thesis experimental results on the diffraction of rare gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar, Kr) and molecular (D{sub 2}) beams by a 100 nm period transmission grating and on the focusing of a helium atom beam through a Fresnel zone plate have been reported. (orig.)

  3. Acceleration of on-axis and ring-shaped electron beams in wakefields driven by Laguerre-Gaussian pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guo-Bo [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MOE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chen, Min, E-mail: minchen@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: yanyunma@126.com; Luo, Ji; Zeng, Ming; Yuan, Tao; Yu, Ji-Ye; Yu, Lu-Le; Weng, Su-Ming [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MOE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ma, Yan-Yun, E-mail: minchen@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: yanyunma@126.com [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yu, Tong-Pu [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Sheng, Zheng-Ming [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MOE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-14

    The acceleration of electron beams with multiple transverse structures in wakefields driven by Laguerre-Gaussian pulses has been studied through three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell simulations. Under different laser-plasma conditions, the wakefield shows different transverse structures. In general cases, the wakefield shows a donut-like structure and it accelerates the ring-shaped hollow electron beam. When a lower plasma density or a smaller laser spot size is used, besides the donut-like wakefield, a central bell-like wakefield can also be excited. The wake sets in the center of the donut-like wake. In this case, both a central on-axis electron beam and a ring-shaped electron beam are simultaneously accelerated. Further, reducing the plasma density or laser spot size leads to an on-axis electron beam acceleration only. The research is beneficial for some potential applications requiring special pulse beam structures, such as positron acceleration and collimation.

  4. Experimental observation of acoustic emissions generated by a pulsed proton beam from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Kevin C.; Solberg, Timothy D.; Avery, Stephen; Vander Stappen, François; Janssens, Guillaume; Prieels, Damien; Bawiec, Christopher R.; Lewin, Peter A.; Sehgal, Chandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the acoustic signal generated by a pulsed proton spill from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron. Methods: An electronic function generator modulated the IBA C230 isochronous cyclotron to create a pulsed proton beam. The acoustic emissions generated by the proton beam were measured in water using a hydrophone. The acoustic measurements were repeated with increasing proton current and increasing distance between detector and beam. Results: The cyclotron generated proton spills with rise times of 18 μs and a maximum measured instantaneous proton current of 790 nA. Acoustic emissions generated by the proton energy deposition were measured to be on the order of mPa. The origin of the acoustic wave was identified as the proton beam based on the correlation between acoustic emission arrival time and distance between the hydrophone and proton beam. The acoustic frequency spectrum peaked at 10 kHz, and the acoustic pressure amplitude increased monotonically with increasing proton current. Conclusions: The authors report the first observation of acoustic emissions generated by a proton beam from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron. When modulated by an electronic function generator, the cyclotron is capable of creating proton spills with fast rise times (18 μs) and high instantaneous currents (790 nA). Measurements of the proton-generated acoustic emissions in a clinical setting may provide a method for in vivo proton range verification and patient monitoring

  5. Multisample matrix-assisted laser desorption source for molecular beams of neutral peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupulescu, C.; Abd El Rahim, M.; Antoine, R.; Barbaire, M.; Broyer, M.; Dagany, X.; Maurelli, J.; Rayane, D.; Dugourd, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    We developed and tested a multisample laser desorption source for producing stable molecular beams of neutral peptides. Our apparatus is based on matrix-assisted laser desorption technique. The source consists of 96 different targets which may be scanned by a software control procedure. Examples of molecular beams of neutral peptides are presented, as well as the influence of the different source parameters on the jet

  6. Formation and fragmentation of quadruply charged molecular ions by intense femtosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuhashi, Tomoyuki; Nakashima, Nobuaki

    2010-07-22

    We investigated the formation and fragmentation of multiply charged molecular ions of several aromatic molecules by intense nonresonant femtosecond laser pulses of 1.4 mum with a 130 fs pulse duration (up to 2 x 10(14) W cm(-2)). Quadruply charged states were produced for 2,3-benzofluorene and triphenylene molecular ion in large abundance, whereas naphthalene and 1,1'-binaphthyl resulted only in up to triply charged molecular ions. The laser wavelength was nonresonant with regard to the electronic transitions of the neutral molecules, and the degree of fragmentation was strongly correlated with the absorption of the singly charged cation radical. Little fragmentation was observed for naphthalene (off-resonant with cation), whereas heavy fragmentation was observed in the case of 1,1'-binaphthyl (resonant with cation). The degree of H(2) (2H) and 2H(2) (4H) elimination from molecular ions increased as the charge states increased in all the molecules examined. A striking difference was found between triply and quadruply charged 2,3-benzofluorene: significant suppression of molecular ions with loss of odd number of hydrogen was observed in the quadruply charged ions. The Coulomb explosion of protons in the quadruply charged state and succeeding fragmentation resulted in the formation of triply charged molecular ions with an odd number of hydrogens. The hydrogen elimination mechanism in the highly charged state is discussed.

  7. Cellular and molecular radiobiology of heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, C.A.; Blakely, E.A.; Ngo, F.Q.H.; Roots, R.J.; Yang, T.C.H.; Chang, P.Y.; Lommel, L.; Craise, L.M.; Yezzi, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Accelerated heavy particles are candidates for use in cancer radiotherapy, and the major goal of our program has been to characterize the biological potential of Bevalac beams for this purpose. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values and oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) properties of monoenergetic carbon, neon, and argon beams with initial energies of several hundred MeV/u have been measured as a function of residual range. Bevalac beams with Bragg peaks modified to encompass tumors of various sizes have also been studied using cultured cells in vitro

  8. AEgIS at ELENA: outlook for physics with a pulsed cold antihydrogen beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doser, M.; Aghion, S.; Amsler, C.; Bonomi, G.; Brusa, R. S.; Caccia, M.; Caravita, R.; Castelli, F.; Cerchiari, G.; Comparat, D.; Consolati, G.; Demetrio, A.; Di Noto, L.; Evans, C.; Fanì, M.; Ferragut, R.; Fesel, J.; Fontana, A.; Gerber, S.; Giammarchi, M.; Gligorova, A.; Guatieri, F.; Haider, S.; Hinterberger, A.; Holmestad, H.; Kellerbauer, A.; Khalidova, O.; Krasnický, D.; Lagomarsino, V.; Lansonneur, P.; Lebrun, P.; Malbrunot, C.; Mariazzi, S.; Marton, J.; Matveev, V.; Mazzotta, Z.; Müller, S. R.; Nebbia, G.; Nedelec, P.; Oberthaler, M.; Pacifico, N.; Pagano, D.; Penasa, L.; Petracek, V.; Prelz, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Rienaecker, B.; Robert, J.; Røhne, O. M.; Rotondi, A.; Sandaker, H.; Santoro, R.; Smestad, L.; Sorrentino, F.; Testera, G.; Tietje, I. C.; Widmann, E.; Yzombard, P.; Zimmer, C.; Zmeskal, J.; Zurlo, N.

    2018-03-01

    The efficient production of cold antihydrogen atoms in particle traps at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator has opened up the possibility of performing direct measurements of the Earth's gravitational acceleration on purely antimatter bodies. The goal of the AEgIS collaboration is to measure the value of g for antimatter using a pulsed source of cold antihydrogen and a Moiré deflectometer/Talbot-Lau interferometer. The same antihydrogen beam is also very well suited to measuring precisely the ground-state hyperfine splitting of the anti-atom. The antihydrogen formation mechanism chosen by AEgIS is resonant charge exchange between cold antiprotons and Rydberg positronium. A series of technical developments regarding positrons and positronium (Ps formation in a dedicated room-temperature target, spectroscopy of the n=1-3 and n=3-15 transitions in Ps, Ps formation in a target at 10 K inside the 1 T magnetic field of the experiment) as well as antiprotons (high-efficiency trapping of ?, radial compression to sub-millimetre radii of mixed ? plasmas in 1 T field, high-efficiency transfer of ? to the antihydrogen production trap using an in-flight launch and recapture procedure) were successfully implemented. Two further critical steps that are germane mainly to charge exchange formation of antihydrogen-cooling of antiprotons and formation of a beam of antihydrogen-are being addressed in parallel. The coming of ELENA will allow, in the very near future, the number of trappable antiprotons to be increased by more than a factor of 50. For the antihydrogen production scheme chosen by AEgIS, this will be reflected in a corresponding increase of produced antihydrogen atoms, leading to a significant reduction of measurement times and providing a path towards high-precision measurements. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Antiproton physics in the ELENA era'.

  9. Study on laser welding of austenitic stainless steel by varying incident angle of pulsed laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nikhil; Mukherjee, Manidipto; Bandyopadhyay, Asish

    2017-09-01

    In the present work, AISI 304 stainless steel sheets are laser welded in butt joint configuration using a robotic control 600 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser system. The objective of the work is of twofold. Firstly, the study aims to find out the effect of incident angle on the weld pool geometry, microstructure and tensile property of the welded joints. Secondly, a set of experiments are conducted, according to response surface design, to investigate the effects of process parameters, namely, incident angle of laser beam, laser power and welding speed, on ultimate tensile strength by developing a second order polynomial equation. Study with three different incident angle of laser beam 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg has been presented in this work. It is observed that the weld pool geometry has been significantly altered with the deviation in incident angle. The weld pool shape at the top surface has been altered from semispherical or nearly spherical shape to tear drop shape with decrease in incident angle. Simultaneously, planer, fine columnar dendritic and coarse columnar dendritic structures have been observed at 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg incident angle respectively. Weld metals with 85.5 deg incident angle has higher fraction of carbide and δ-ferrite precipitation in the austenitic matrix compared to other weld conditions. Hence, weld metal of 85.5 deg incident angle achieved higher micro-hardness of ∼280 HV and tensile strength of 579.26 MPa followed by 89.7 deg and 83 deg incident angle welds. Furthermore, the predicted maximum value of ultimate tensile strength of 580.50 MPa has been achieved for 85.95 deg incident angle using the developed equation where other two optimum parameter settings have been obtained as laser power of 455.52 W and welding speed of 4.95 mm/s. This observation has been satisfactorily validated by three confirmatory tests.

  10. Effect of gas heating on the generation of an ultrashort avalanche electron beam in the pulse-periodic regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.; Sorokin, D. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2015-07-01

    The generation of an ultrashort avalanche electron beam (UAEB) in nitrogen in the pulse-periodic regime is investigated. The gas temperature in the discharge gap of the atmospheric-pressure nitrogen is measured from the intensity distribution of unresolved rotational transitions ( C 3Π u , v' = 0) → ( B 3Π g , v″ = 0) in the nitrogen molecule for an excitation pulse repetition rate of 2 kHz. It is shown that an increase in the UAEB current amplitude in the pulse-periodic regime is due to gas heating by a series of previous pulses, which leads to an increase in the reduced electric field strength as a result of a decrease in the gas density in the zone of the discharge formation. It is found that in the pulse-periodic regime and the formation of the diffuse discharge, the number of electrons in the beam increases by several times for a nitrogen pressure of 9 × 103 Pa. The dependences of the number of electrons in the UAEB on the time of operation of the generator are considered.

  11. Design of a Highly Stable, High-Conversion-Efficiency, Optical Parametric Chirped-Pulse Amplification System with Good Beam Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardalben, M.J.; Keegan, J.; Waxer, L.J.; Bagnoud, V.; Begishev, I.A.; Puth, J.; Zuegel, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    OAK B204 An optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) design that provides 40% pump-to-signal conversion efficiency and over-500-mJ signal energy at 1054 nm for front-end injection into a Nd:glass amplifier chain is presented. This OPCPA system is currently being built as the prototype front end for the OMEGA EP (extended performance) laser system at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Using a three-dimensional spatial and temporal numerical model, several design considerations necessary to achieve high conversion efficiency, good output stability, and good beam quality are discussed. The dependence of OPCPA output on the pump beam's spatiotemporal shape and the relative size of seed and pump beams is described. This includes the effects of pump intensity modulation and pump-signal walk-off. The trade-off among efficiency, stability, and low output beam intensity modulation is discussed

  12. Recent advances in biological effect and molecular mechanism of arabidopsis thaliana irradiated by ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dali; Hou Suiwen; Li Wenjian

    2008-01-01

    Newly research progresses were summarized in effect of ion beams on seed surface, biological effect, growth, development, gravitropism and so on. Furthermore, mutation molecular mechanism of Arabidopsis thaliana was discussed, for example, alteration of DNA bases, DNA damage, chromosomal recombination, characteristics of mutant transmissibility, etc. Meanwhile, the achievements of transfer- ring extraneous gene to Arabidopsis thaliana by ion beams were reviewed in the paper. At last, the future prospective are also discussed here in mutation molecular mechanism and the potential application of biological effect of heavy ion beams. (authors)

  13. Absolute and relative dose measurements with Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film for high energy electron beams with different doses per pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiandra, Christian; Ragona, Riccardo; Ricardi, Umberto; Anglesio, Silvia; Giglioli, Francesca Romana

    2008-01-01

    The authors have evaluated the accuracy, in absolute and relative dose measurements, of the Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film in pulsed high-energy electron beams. Typically, the electron beams used in radiotherapy have a dose-per-pulse value of less than 0.1 mGy/pulse. However, very high dose-per-pulse electron beams are employed in certain linear accelerators dedicated to intraoperatory radiation therapy (IORT). In this study, the absorbed dose measurements with Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT in both low (less than 0.3 mGy per pulse) and high (30 and 70 mGy per pulse) dose-per-pulse electron beams were compared with ferrous sulfate chemical Fricke dosimetry (operated by the Italian Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory), a method independent of the dose per pulse. A summary of Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT in relative and absolute beam output determination is reported. This study demonstrates the independence of Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT absorption as a function of dose per pulse at different dose levels. A good agreement (within 3%) was found with Fricke dosimeters for plane-base IORT applicators. Comparison with a diode detector is presented for relative dose measurements, showing acceptable agreement both in the steep dose falloff zone and in the homogeneous dose region. This work also provides experimental values for recombination correction factor (K sat ) of a Roos (plane parallel) ionization chamber calculated on the basis of theoretical models for charge recombination.

  14. The deposition of thin metal films at the high-intensity pulsed-ion-beam influence on the metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remnev, G.E.; Zakoutaev, A.N.; Grushin, I.I.; Matvenko, V.M.; Potemkin, A.V.; Ryzhkov, V.A.; Chernikov, E.V.

    1996-01-01

    A high-intensity pulsed ion beam with parameters: ion energy 350-500 keV, ion current density at a target > 200 A/cm 2 , pulse duration 60 ns, was used for metal deposition. The film deposition rate was 0.6-4.0 mm/s. Transmission electron microscopy/transmission electron diffraction investigations of the copper target-film system were performed. The impurity content in the film was determined by x-ray fluorescence analysis and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The angular distributions of the ablated plasma were measured. (author). 2 figs., 7 refs

  15. The deposition of thin metal films at the high-intensity pulsed-ion-beam influence on the metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remnev, G E; Zakoutaev, A N; Grushin, I I; Matvenko, V M; Potemkin, A V; Ryzhkov, V A [Tomsk Polytechnic Univ. (Russian Federation). Nuclear Physics Inst.; Ivanov, Yu F [Construction Academy, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Chernikov, E V [Siberian Physical Technical Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    A high-intensity pulsed ion beam with parameters: ion energy 350-500 keV, ion current density at a target > 200 A/cm{sup 2}, pulse duration 60 ns, was used for metal deposition. The film deposition rate was 0.6-4.0 mm/s. Transmission electron microscopy/transmission electron diffraction investigations of the copper target-film system were performed. The impurity content in the film was determined by x-ray fluorescence analysis and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The angular distributions of the ablated plasma were measured. (author). 2 figs., 7 refs.

  16. The SPARC_LAB femtosecond synchronization for electron and photon pulsed beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaveglia, M.; Gallo, A.; Piersanti, L.; Pompili, R.; Gatti, G.; Anania, M. P.; Petrarca, M.; Villa, F.; Chiadroni, E.; Biagioni, A.; Mostacci, A.

    2015-05-01

    The SPARC LAB complex hosts a 150 MeV electron photo-injector equipped with an undulator for FEL production (SPARC) together with a high power TW laser (FLAME). Recently the synchronization system reached the performance of < 100 fsRMS relative jitter between lasers, electron beam and RF accelerating fields. This matches the requirements for next future experiments: (i) the production of X-rays by means of Thomson scattering (first collisions achieved in 2014) and (ii) the particle driven PWFA experiment by means of multiple electron bunches. We report about the measurements taken during the machine operation using BAMs (Bunch Arrival Monitors) and EOS (Electro-Optical Sampling) system. A new R and D activity concerning the LWFA using the external injection of electron bunches in a plasma generated by the FLAME laser pulse is under design. The upgrade of the synchronization system is under way to guarantee the < 30 fs RMS jitter required specification. It foresees the transition from electrical to optical architecture that mainly affects the reference signal distribution and the time of arrival detection performances. The new system architecture is presented together with the related experimental data.

  17. Development of exploding wire ion source for intense pulsed heavy ion beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Y.; Murata, T.; Ito, H.; Masugata, K.

    2012-01-01

    A Novel exploding wire type ion source device is proposed as a metallic ion source of intense pulsed heavy ion beam (PHIB) accelerator. In the device multiple shot operations is realized without breaking the vacuum. The basic characteristics of the device are evaluated experimentally with an aluminum wire of diameter 0.2 mm, length 25 mm. Capacitor bank of capacitance 3 μF, charging voltage 30 kV was used and the wire was successfully exploded by a discharge current of 15 kA, rise time 5.3 μs. Plasma flux of ion current density around 70 A/cm 2 was obtained at 150 mm downstream from the device. The drift velocity of ions evaluated by a time-of-flight method was 2.7x10 4 m/sec, which corresponds to the kinetic energy of 100 eV for aluminum ions. From the measurement of ion current density distribution ion flow is found to be concentrated to the direction where ion acceleration gap is placed. From the experiment the device is found to be acceptable for applying PHIB accelerator. (author)

  18. A pulsed neutron monochromatic beam at the ET-RR-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Eid, Y.; Maayouf, R.M.A.

    1985-01-01

    A pulsed neutron monochromatic beam, at the ET-RR-1 reactor, is produced by two 32 cm diameter rotors suspended in magnetic fields, whose centres are 126 cm apart rotating at speeds up to 16,000 rev/min. Each of the rotors has two slots, which are of constant cross-section in area - 7x10mm 2 , and are curved so that they have a maximum transmission for neutrons whose speed is 8.2 times that of the rotor tip. The jitter of the phase between the rotors at different rotation rates is found not to exceed +-1 μs. It has been found that both the observed time distribution and the TOF distribution of the neutrons at different rotation rates are in good agreement with the calculated ones. The observed intensity of the monochromatic neutrons of wavelength 2.74+-0.09 A, obtained by the rotors rotating at a speed of 10,500 rev/min with 864+-1 μs difference in phase between them, is 66.8 n/s. This value is found to be less than the predicted one by a factor of 5.5. (author)

  19. Growth of thin films of low molecular weight proteins by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matei, Andreea; Schou, Jørgen; Constantinescu, C.

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of lysozyme and myoglobin grown by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) from a water ice matrix have been investigated. The deposition rate of these two low molecular weight proteins (lysozyme: 14307 amu and myoglobin: 17083 amu) exhibits a maximum of about 1–2 ng/cm2 per....... The results for lysozyme demonstrate that the fragmentation rate of the proteins during the MAPLE process is not influenced by the pH of the water solution prior to freezing....

  20. Spectrally selective molecular doped solids: spectroscopy, photophysics and their application to ultrafast optical pulse processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaup, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The persistent spectral hole-burning (PSHB) phenomenon observed in molecular doped polymers cooled down to liquid helium temperatures allows the engraving of spectral structures in the inhomogeneous absorption profile of the material. This phenomenon known since 1974 has became a fruitful field for the study of the intimacy of complex molecular systems in the solid state, revealing high-resolution spectroscopy, photophysics, photochemistry and dynamics of molecular doped amorphous media, organic as well as inorganic. A PSHB molecular doped solid can be programmed in spectral domain and therefore, it can be converted in an optical processor capable to achieve user-defined optical functions. Some aspects of this field are illustrated in the present paper. An application is presented where a naphthalocyanine doped polymer film is used in a demonstrative experiment to prove that temporal aberration free re-compression of ultra-short light pulses is feasible. Perspectives for the coherent control of light fields or photochemical processes are also evoked

  1. High-efficiency resonant rf spin rotator with broad phase space acceptance for pulsed polarized cold neutron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-N. Seo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available High precision fundamental neutron physics experiments have been proposed for the intense pulsed spallation neutron beams at JSNS, LANSCE, and SNS to test the standard model and search for new physics. Certain systematic effects in some of these experiments have to be controlled at the few ppb level. The NPDGamma experiment, a search for the small parity-violating γ-ray asymmetry A_{γ} in polarized cold neutron capture on parahydrogen, is one example. For the NPDGamma experiment we developed a radio-frequency resonant spin rotator to reverse the neutron polarization in a 9.5  cm×9.5  cm pulsed cold neutron beam with high efficiency over a broad cold neutron energy range. The effect of the spin reversal by the rotator on the neutron beam phase space is compared qualitatively to rf neutron spin flippers based on adiabatic fast passage. We discuss the design of the spin rotator and describe two types of transmission-based neutron spin-flip efficiency measurements where the neutron beam was both polarized and analyzed by optically polarized ^{3}He neutron spin filters. The efficiency of the spin rotator was measured at LANSCE to be 98.8±0.5% for neutron energies from 3 to 20 meV over the full phase space of the beam. Systematic effects that the rf spin rotator introduces to the NPDGamma experiment are considered.

  2. Analysis of the Alkali Metal Diatomic Spectra; Using molecular beams and ultracold molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Tae

    2014-12-01

    This ebook illustrates the complementarity of molecular beam (MB) spectra and ultracold molecule (UM) spectra in unraveling the complex electronic spectra of diatomic alkali metal molecules, using KRb as a prime example. Researchers interested in molecular spectroscopy, whether physicist, chemist, or engineer, may find this ebook helpful and may be able to apply similar ideas to their molecules of interest.

  3. Effects of errors in velocity tilt on maximum longitudinal compression during neutralized drift compression of intense beam pulses: I. general description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Massidda, Scottt; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Friedman, Alex

    2012-06-21

    Neutralized drift compression offers an effective means for particle beam pulse compression and current amplification. In neutralized drift compression, a linear longitudinal velocity tilt (head-to-tail gradient) is applied to the non-relativistic beam pulse, so that the beam pulse compresses as it drifts in the focusing section. The beam current can increase by more than a factor of 100 in the longitudinal direction. We have performed an analytical study of how errors in the velocity tilt acquired by the beam in the induction bunching module limit the maximum longitudinal compression. It is found that the compression ratio is determined by the relative errors in the velocity tilt. That is, one-percent errors may limit the compression to a factor of one hundred. However, a part of the beam pulse where the errors are small may compress to much higher values, which are determined by the initial thermal spread of the beam pulse. It is also shown that sharp jumps in the compressed current density profile can be produced due to overlaying of different parts of the pulse near the focal plane. Examples of slowly varying and rapidly varying errors compared to the beam pulse duration are studied. For beam velocity errors given by a cubic function, the compression ratio can be described analytically. In this limit, a significant portion of the beam pulse is located in the broad wings of the pulse and is poorly compressed. The central part of the compressed pulse is determined by the thermal spread. The scaling law for maximum compression ratio is derived. In addition to a smooth variation in the velocity tilt, fast-changing errors during the pulse may appear in the induction bunching module if the voltage pulse is formed by several pulsed elements. Different parts of the pulse compress nearly simultaneously at the target and the compressed profile may have many peaks. The maximum compression is a function of both thermal spread and the velocity errors. The effects of the

  4. Phase and amplitude stability of a pulsed RF system on the example of the CLIC drive beam LINAC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2132320; Prof. BANTEL, Michael

    The CLIC drive beam accelerator consists of the Drive Beam Injector (DBI) and two Drive Beam Linacs (DBLs). The drive beam injector is composed of a thermionic electron source, 3 Sub Harmonic Bunchers (SHBs), a pre-buncher, and several acceleration structures. In the electron source the DC electron beam is produced from a thermionic cathode. The following buncher cavities group ("bunch") the electrons to be accelerated by RF later on. Each electron bunch has an energy of 140 keV, a length of 3 mm, and a charge qb = 8.4 nC. Afterwards the electrons are accelerated in the 1 GHz accelerating structures up to 50MeV. The pulsed Radio Frequency (RF) power for this acceleration is provided by 1 GHz, 20MW modulator-klystron units, one per acceleration structure. A klystron is an RF amplifier based on a linear-beam vacuum tube. The high voltage modulator supplies the acceleration voltage to this tube. A DC electron beam gets modulated with an input signal, the modulation enhances in a drift space, and finally the powe...

  5. Investigating the performances of a 1 MV high pulsed power linear transformer driver: from beam dynamics to x radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonny, R.; Ribière, M.; Toury, M.; Plewa, J. M.; Caron, M.; Auriel, G.; d'Almeida, T.

    2016-12-01

    The performance of a 1 MV pulsed high-power linear transformer driver accelerator were extensively investigated based on a numerical approach which utilizes both electromagnetic and Monte Carlo simulations. Particle-in-cell calculations were employed to examine the beam dynamics throughout the magnetically insulated transmission line which governs the coupling between the generator and the electron diode. Based on the information provided by the study of the beam dynamics, and using Monte Carlo methods, the main properties of the resulting x radiation were predicted. Good agreement was found between these simulations and experimental results. This work provides a detailed understanding of mechanisms affecting the performances of this type of high current, high-voltage pulsed accelerator, which are very promising for a growing number of applications.

  6. Numerical investigations of non-collinear optical parametric chirped pulse amplification for Laguerre-Gaussian vortex beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lu; Yu, Lianghong; Liang, Xiaoyan

    2016-04-01

    We present for the first time a scheme to amplify a Laguerre-Gaussian vortex beam based on non-collinear optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA). In addition, a three-dimensional numerical model of non-collinear optical parametric amplification was deduced in the frequency domain, in which the effects of non-collinear configuration, temporal and spatial walk-off, group-velocity dispersion and diffraction were also taken into account, to trace the dynamics of the Laguerre-Gaussian vortex beam and investigate its critical parameters in the non-collinear OPCPA process. Based on the numerical simulation results, the scheme shows promise for implementation in a relativistic twisted laser pulse system, which will diversify the light-matter interaction field.

  7. Production of radioactive molecular beams for CERN-ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiffert, Christoph

    2015-06-15

    ISOLDE, the Isotope Separation On-Line facility, at CERN is a leading facility for the production of beams of exotic radioactive isotopes. Currently over 1000 different isotopes with half lives down to milliseconds can be extracted with beam intensities of up to 10{sup 11} ions per second. However, due to the reactive target environment not all isotopes are extractable in sufficient amounts. In this work the extraction of short lived carbon and boron isotopes is investigated. Therefore a variety of experimental and computational techniques have been used.

  8. Production of radioactive molecular beams for CERN-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)703149; Kröll, Thorsten

    SOLDE, the Isotope Separation On-Line facility, at CERN is a leading facility for the production of beams of exotic radioactive isotopes. Currently over 1000 different isotopes with half lives down to milliseconds can be extracted with beam intensities of up to 10^11 ions per second. However, due to the reactive target environment not all isotopes are extractable in sufficient amounts. In this work the extraction of short lived carbon and boron isotopes is investigated. Therefore a variety of experimental and computanional techniques have been used.

  9. The erosion and erosion products of tungsten and carbon based materials bombarded by high energy pulse electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiang; Zhang Fu; Xu Zengyu; Liu Yong; Yoshida, N.; Noda, N.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the erosion behaviors and erosion products of tungsten and some carbon based materials, such as graphite, C/C composite and B 4 C/Cu functionally graded material, were investigated by using a pulse electron beam to simulate the vertical displacement events (VDE) process. The authors will focus on the forms and differences of erosion products among these testing materials, and make clear to their erosion mechanisms

  10. Characterization of a microDiamond detector in high-dose-per-pulse electron beams for intra operative radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Venanzio, C; Marinelli, Marco; Tonnetti, A; Verona-Rinati, G; Falco, M D; Pimpinella, M; Ciccotelli, A; De Stefano, S; Felici, G; Marangoni, F

    2015-12-01

    To characterize a synthetic diamond dosimeter (PTW Freiburg microDiamond 60019) in high dose-per-pulse electron beams produced by an Intra Operative Radiation Therapy (IORT) dedicated accelerator. The dosimetric properties of the microDiamond were assessed under 6, 8 and 9 MeV electron beams by a NOVAC11 mobile accelerator (Sordina IORT Technologies S.p.A.). The characterization was carried out with dose-per-pulse ranging from 26 to 105 mGy per pulse. The microDiamond performance was compared with an Advanced Markus ionization chamber and a PTW silicon diode E in terms of dose linearity, percentage depth dose (PDD) curves, beam profiles and output factors. A good linearity of the microDiamond response was verified in the dose range from 0.2 Gy to 28 Gy. A sensitivity of 1.29 nC/Gy was measured under IORT electron beams, resulting within 1% with respect to the one obtained in reference condition under (60)Co gamma irradiation. PDD measurements were found in agreement with the ones by the reference dosimeters, with differences in R50 values below 0.3 mm. Profile measurements evidenced a high spatial resolution of the microDiamond, slightly worse than the one of the silicon diode. The penumbra widths measured by the microDiamond resulted approximately 0.5 mm larger than the ones by the Silicon diode. Output factors measured by the microDiamond were found within 2% with those obtained by the Advanced Markus down to 3 cm diameter field sizes. The microDiamond dosimeter was demonstrated to be suitable for precise dosimetry in IORT applications under high dose-per-pulse conditions. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Laser beam welding of titanium nitride coated titanium using pulse-shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Sergio Fernandes de Lima

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A new welding method which allows the assembly of two titanium nitride coated titanium parts is proposed. The welding procedure utilizes the possibility for pulse-shaping in order to change the energy distribution profile during the laser pulse. The pulse-shaping is composed of three elements: a a short high power pulse for partial ablation at the surface; b a long pulse for thermal penetration; and c a quenching slope for enhanced weldability. The combination of these three elements produces crack-free welds. The weld microstructure is changed in comparison to normal welding, i.e. with a rectangular pulse, as the nitrogen and the microhardness are more homogenously distributed in the weld under pulse-shaping conditions. This laser pulse dissolves the TiN layer and allows nitrogen to diffuse into the melt pool, also contributing to an enhanced weldability by providing suitable thermal conditions.

  12. Mini biased collimated faraday cups for measurement of intense pulsed ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaoping; Shi Lei; Zhang Jiasheng; Qiu Aici

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of principle of a biased Faraday cup for measuring ion beams density and the main reasons related to the measuring accuracy were presented. An array of mini biased collimated Faraday cups was manufactured for the measurement of ion beam density of a compact 200 keV high power ion beam source. In the experiments the maximum density of ion beam was in the center of the beam, and it was about 170 A/cm 2

  13. Thin film beam splitter multiple short pulse generation for enhanced Ni-like Ag x-ray laser emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Gabriel V; Ungureanu, Razvan G; Banici, Romeo A; Ursescu, Daniel; Delmas, Olivier; Pittman, Moana; Guilbaud, Olivier; Kazamias, Sophie; Cassou, Kevin; Demailly, Julien; Neveu, Olivier; Baynard, Elsa; Ros, David

    2014-04-15

    An alternative, novel multiple pulse generation scheme was implemented directly after the optical compressor output of an x-ray pump laser. The new method uses a polarization sensitive thin film beam splitter and a half-wavelength wave plate for tuning the energy ratio in the multiple short pulses. Based on this method, an extensive study was made of the running parameters for a grazing incidence pumped silver x-ray laser (XRL) pumped with a long pulse of 145 mJ in 6 ns at 532 nm and up to 1.45 J in few picoseconds at 810 nm. Fivefold enhancement in the emission of the silver XRL was demonstrated using the new pump method.

  14. Histological and ultrastructural effect of an Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam on dental hard tissue and pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignato, Costantino; Vignato, Giuseppe; Nardelli, Antonella; Baldan, Arianna; Mason, Pier N.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine histological and ultrastructural modifications produced by an Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam after an in vivo exposure of human molars. Using a Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam delivered by a 600 micrometers optical fiber and concurrent air and water cooling spray, 14 human third molars with artificial first class cavities were exposed at different power levels (6, 7, and 8 W). All the teeth were extracted at different time periods between 10 and 25 days and prepared for histological examination. The results of the histological examination showed no evidence of degeneration or necrosis of the pulpar tissue. Analysis of the dentinal surfaces after exposure demonstrated that the dentinal tubules are completely closed due to the melted dentin. In conclusion a Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam with an air and water cooling spray is safe for treatments of class I decay and no necrosis or degeneration of the pulp was found for laser powers of 6, 7, and 8 W.

  15. Pulsed ion-beam assisted deposition of Ge nanocrystals on SiO{sub 2} for non-volatile memory device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepina, N.P. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Lavrenteva 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)], E-mail: nstepina@mail.ru; Dvurechenskii, A.V.; Armbrister, V.A.; Kirienko, V.V.; Novikov, P.L.; Kesler, V.G.; Gutakovskii, A.K.; Smagina, Z.V.; Spesivtzev, E.V. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Lavrenteva 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2008-11-03

    A floating gate memory structure, utilizing Ge nanocrystals (NCs) deposited on tunnel SiO{sub 2}, have been fabricated using pulsed low energy ion-beam induced molecular-beam deposition (MBD) in ultra-high vacuum. The ion-beam action is shown to stimulate the nucleation of Ge NCs when being applied after thin Ge layer deposition. Growth conditions for independent change of NCs size and array density were established allowing to optimize the structure parameters required for memory device. Activation energy E = 0.25 eV was determined from the temperature dependence of NCs array density. Monte Carlo simulation has shown that the process, determining NCs array density, is the surface diffusion. Embedding of the crystalline Ge dots into silicon oxide was carried out by selective oxidation of Si(100)/SiO{sub 2} /Ge(NCs)/poly-Si structure. MOS-capacitor obtained after oxidation showed a hysteresis in its C-V curves attributed to charge retention in the Ge dots.

  16. Optimization of a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for molecular typing of Proteus mirabilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Karagöz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: For the detection of outbreaks caused byProteus mirabilis, strains clonal relations are determinedmethods as “pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE”.The aim of this study was optimization of a pulsed-fieldgel electrophoresis for molecular typing of P. mirabilis.Methods: In this study, PFGE’ protocol is optimized foruse in molecular typing of P. mirabilis. Phylogenetic analyzesof strains were evaluated with Bionumerics softwaresystem (version 6.01; Applied Maths, Sint-Martens-Latem, Belgium.Results: This protocol compared with Gram-negativebacteria PFGE protocols, NotI enzyme is suitable for thisbacterium. Electrophoresis conditions should be revealedas; - block 1: initial pulse duration 1 sec, ending pulseduration 30 sec, striking angle 120°, the current 6 V/cm2,temperature 14°C, time 8 hours; - block 2: initial pulseduration 30 sec, ending pulse duration 70 sec, strikingangle 120°, the current 6 V/cm2, temperature 14°C, time16 hours; - TBE, pH=8.4.Conclusion: P. mirabilis strains were typed by PFGE andBionumerics analysis program were determined clonal relationships.The procedure was simple, reproducible andsuitable for these bacteria. Also it was evaluated, becauseof reducing time, the solution volumes and enzymes canbe economically. Outbreaks of nosocomial infections dueto bacteria studied assessment and the potential to provideuseful information about the degree of prevalence.This optimized protocol is allowed different centers’ PFGEresults to compare with other laboratories results. J ClinExp Invest 2013; 4 (3: 306-312Key words: Proteus mirabilis, molecular typing, pulsedfieldgel electrophoresis.

  17. Use of molecular beams to support microspheres during plasma coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, J.K.; Smith, R.D.; Johnson, W.L.; Jordan, C.W.; Letts, S.A.; Korbel, G.R.; Krenik, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Spherical targets can be levitated on beams of Ar or other gas atoms. This is an especially useful technique for supporting microspheres during plasma coating and processing. Measurements of gas flow and pressure indicate that the levitation device operates in the regime of Knudsen's flow. This device is currently being used in the development of future generation laser targets

  18. Atmospheric pressure plasma analysis by modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aranda Gonzalvo, Y.; Whitmore, T.D.; Rees, J.A.; Seymour, D.L.; Stoffels - Adamowicz, E.

    2006-01-01

    Fractional no. d. measurements for a radiofrequency plasma needle operating at atm. pressure were obtained using a mol. beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) system designed for diagnostics of atm. plasmas. The MBMS system comprises three differentially pumped stages and a mass/energy analyzer and includes

  19. Three-dimensional light distribution near the focus of a tightly focused beam of few-cycle optical pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romallosa, Kristine Marie; Bantang, Johnrob; Saloma, Caesar

    2003-01-01

    Via the Richards-Wolf vector diffraction theory, we analyze the three-dimensional intensity distribution of the focal volume that is produced by a strongly focused 750-nm beam of ultrafast, Gaussian-shaped optical pulses (10 -9 s≥ pulse width τ≥1 fs=10 -15 s). Knowledge of the three-dimensional distribution near focus is essential in determining the diffraction-limited resolution of an optical microscope. The optical spectrum of a short pulse is characterized by side frequencies about the carrier frequency. The effect of spectral broadening on the focused intensity distribution is evaluated via the Linfoot's criteria of fidelity, structural content, and correlation quality and with reference to a 750-nm cw focused beam. Different values are considered for τ and numerical aperture of the focusing lens (0.1≤X NA ≤1.2). At X NA =0.8, rapid deterioration of the focused intensity distribution is observed at τ=1.2 fs. This happens because a 750-nm optical pulse with τ=1.2 fs has an associated coherence length of 359.7 nm which is less than the Nyquist sampling interval of 375 nm that is required to sample 750 nm sinusoid without loss of information. The ill-effects of spectral broadening is weaker in two-photon excitation microscope than in its single-photon counterpart for the same focusing lens and light source

  20. AEgIS at ELENA: outlook for physics with a pulsed cold antihydrogen beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doser, M; Aghion, S; Amsler, C; Bonomi, G; Brusa, R S; Caccia, M; Caravita, R; Castelli, F; Cerchiari, G; Comparat, D; Consolati, G; Demetrio, A; Di Noto, L; Evans, C; Fanì, M; Ferragut, R; Fesel, J; Fontana, A; Gerber, S; Giammarchi, M; Gligorova, A; Guatieri, F; Haider, S; Hinterberger, A; Holmestad, H; Kellerbauer, A; Khalidova, O; Krasnický, D; Lagomarsino, V; Lansonneur, P; Lebrun, P; Malbrunot, C; Mariazzi, S; Marton, J; Matveev, V; Mazzotta, Z; Müller, S R; Nebbia, G; Nedelec, P; Oberthaler, M; Pacifico, N; Pagano, D; Penasa, L; Petracek, V; Prelz, F; Prevedelli, M; Rienaecker, B; Robert, J; Røhne, O M; Rotondi, A; Sandaker, H; Santoro, R; Smestad, L; Sorrentino, F; Testera, G; Tietje, I C; Widmann, E; Yzombard, P; Zimmer, C; Zmeskal, J; Zurlo, N

    2018-03-28

    The efficient production of cold antihydrogen atoms in particle traps at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator has opened up the possibility of performing direct measurements of the Earth's gravitational acceleration on purely antimatter bodies. The goal of the AEgIS collaboration is to measure the value of g for antimatter using a pulsed source of cold antihydrogen and a Moiré deflectometer/Talbot-Lau interferometer. The same antihydrogen beam is also very well suited to measuring precisely the ground-state hyperfine splitting of the anti-atom. The antihydrogen formation mechanism chosen by AEgIS is resonant charge exchange between cold antiprotons and Rydberg positronium. A series of technical developments regarding positrons and positronium (Ps formation in a dedicated room-temperature target, spectroscopy of the n =1-3 and n =3-15 transitions in Ps, Ps formation in a target at 10 K inside the 1 T magnetic field of the experiment) as well as antiprotons (high-efficiency trapping of [Formula: see text], radial compression to sub-millimetre radii of mixed [Formula: see text] plasmas in 1 T field, high-efficiency transfer of [Formula: see text] to the antihydrogen production trap using an in-flight launch and recapture procedure) were successfully implemented. Two further critical steps that are germane mainly to charge exchange formation of antihydrogen-cooling of antiprotons and formation of a beam of antihydrogen-are being addressed in parallel. The coming of ELENA will allow, in the very near future, the number of trappable antiprotons to be increased by more than a factor of 50. For the antihydrogen production scheme chosen by AEgIS, this will be reflected in a corresponding increase of produced antihydrogen atoms, leading to a significant reduction of measurement times and providing a path towards high-precision measurements.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Antiproton physics in the ELENA era'. © 2018 The Author(s).