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Sample records for pulsed magnetron sputtering

  1. Pulsed dc self-sustained magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiatrowski, A.; Posadowski, W. M.; Radzimski, Z. J.

    2008-01-01

    The magnetron sputtering has become one of the commonly used techniques for industrial deposition of thin films and coatings due to its simplicity and reliability. At standard magnetron sputtering conditions (argon pressure of ∼0.5 Pa) inert gas particles (necessary to sustain discharge) are often entrapped in the deposited films. Inert gas contamination can be eliminated during the self-sustained magnetron sputtering (SSS) process, where the presence of the inert gas is not a necessary requirement. Moreover the SSS process that is possible due to the high degree of ionization of the sputtered material also gives a unique condition during the transport of sputtered particles to the substrate. So far it has been shown that the self-sustained mode of magnetron operation can be obtained using dc powering (dc-SSS) only. The main disadvantage of the dc-SSS process is its instability related to random arc formation. In such case the discharge has to be temporarily extinguished to prevent damaging both the magnetron source and power supply. The authors postulate that pulsed powering could protect the SSS process against arcs, similarly to reactive pulsed magnetron deposition processes of insulating thin films. To put this concept into practice, (i) the high enough plasma density has to be achieved and (ii) the type of pulsed powering has to be chosen taking plasma dynamics into account. In this article results of pulsed dc self-sustained magnetron sputtering (pulsed dc-SSS) are presented. The planar magnetron equipped with a 50 mm diameter and 6 mm thick copper target was used during the experiments. The maximum target power was about 11 kW, which corresponded to the target power density of ∼560 W/cm 2 . The magnetron operation was investigated as a function of pulse frequency (20-100 kHz) and pulse duty factor (50%-90%). The discharge (argon) extinction pressure level was determined for these conditions. The plasma emission spectra (400-410 nm range) and deposition

  2. High power pulsed magnetron sputtering of transparent conducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittinger, V.; Ruske, F.; Werner, W.; Jacobs, C.; Szyszka, B.; Christie, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) has been used in order to study the deposition of transparent conducting oxides. We summarize the studies carried out on different materials (indium tin oxide-ITO and aluminium-doped zinc oxide-AZO) using rather different technological approaches, namely sputtering of ceramic targets and reactive sputtering. For the deposition of AZO reactive HPPMS for metallic targets has been used. A feedback control loop has been implemented in order to stabilize the discharge at any given setpoint on the hysteresis curve. The hysteresis was also found to have a rather untypical form. Reactive HPPMS was found to be a promising tool for obtaining high quality films of low total thickness. In the case of ITO deposition a ceramic target has been used. The process has been characterized in terms of its plasma emission and increasing indium ionization was found for higher peak power densities. The properties of the deposited films were compared to DC sputtered films. While for DC sputtering the choice of oxygen addition and shieldings is crucial for determining surface morphology and resistivity, in HPPMS sputtering peak power density has been found to be a good parameter for influencing the crystal structure. The morphologies obtained differ strongly from those seen in DC sputtering. At high power densities films with low surface roughness and excellent resistivity could be deposited without the use of shieldings

  3. Crystalline silicon films grown by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinig, Peter; Fenske, Frank; Fuhs, Walther; Selle, Burkhardt [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Abt. Silizium-Photovoltaik, Kekulestr. 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2002-04-01

    Pulsed dc magnetron sputtering is used as a novel method for the deposition of crystalline silicon films on glass substrates. Hydrogen-free polycrystalline Si-films are deposited with high deposition rates at temperatures of 400-450 C and pulse frequencies f in the range 0-250 kHz. Strong preferential (100) orientation of the crystallites is observed with increasing f. High frequency and similarly high negative substrate bias cause an increase of the Ar content and an enhancement of structural disorder. Measurements of the transient floating potential suggest that the observed structural effects are related to bombardment of the growing film by Ar{sup +} ions of high energy.

  4. Particle-balance models for pulsed sputtering magnetrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Chunqing; Lundin, D.; Gudmundsson, J. T.; Raadu, M. A.; Bradley, J. W.; Brenning, N.

    2017-09-01

    The time-dependent plasma discharge ionization region model (IRM) has been under continuous development during the past decade and used in several studies of the ionization region of high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges. In the present work, a complete description of the most recent version of the IRM is given, which includes improvements, such as allowing for returning of the working gas atoms from the target, a separate treatment of hot secondary electrons, addition of doubly charged metal ions, etc. To show the general applicability of the IRM, two different HiPIMS discharges are investigated. The first set concerns 400 μs long discharge pulses applied to an Al target in an Ar atmosphere at 1.8 Pa. The second set focuses on 100 μs long discharge pulses applied to a Ti target in an Ar atmosphere at 0.54 Pa, and explores the effects of varying the magnetic field strength. The model results show that Al2+ -ions contribute negligibly to the production of secondary electrons, while Ti2+ -ions effectively contribute to the production of secondary electrons. Similarly, the model results show that for an argon discharge with Al target the contribution of Al+-ions to the discharge current at the target surface is over 90% at 800 V. However, at 400 V the Al+-ions and Ar+-ions contribute roughly equally to the discharge current in the initial peak, while in the plateau region Ar+-ions contribute to roughly \\frac{2}{3} of the current. For high currents the discharge with Al target develops almost pure self-sputter recycling, while the discharge with Ti target exhibits close to a 50/50 combination of self-sputter recycling and working gas-recycling. For a Ti target, a self-sputter yield significantly below unity makes working gas-recycling necessary at high currents. For the discharge with Ti target, a decrease in the B-field strength, resulted in a corresponding stepwise increase in the discharge resistivity.

  5. High frequency pulse anodising of magnetron sputtered Al–Zr and Al–Ti Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Bordo, Kirill; Engberg, Sara

    2016-01-01

    High frequency pulse anodising of Al–Zr and Al–Ti coatings is studied as a surface finishing technique and compared to conventional decorative DC anodising. The Al–Zr and Al–Ti coatings were deposited using DC magnetron sputtering and were heat treated after deposition to generate a multiphase mi...

  6. Heat treatable indium tin oxide films deposited with high power pulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstmann, F.; Sittinger, V.; Szyszka, B.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, indium tin oxide (ITO) films were prepared by high power pulse magnetron sputtering [D. J. Christie, F. Tomasel, W. D. Sproul, D. C. Carter, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 22 (2004) 1415. ] without substrate heating. The ITO films were deposited from a ceramic target at a deposition rate of approx. 5.5 nm*m/min kW. Afterwards, the ITO films were covered with a siliconoxynitride film sputtered from a silicon alloy target in order to prevent oxidation of the ITO film during annealing at 650 deg. C for 10 min in air. The optical and electrical properties as well as the texture and morphology of these films were investigated before and after annealing. Mechanical durability of the annealed films was evaluated at different test conditions. The results were compared with state-of-the art ITO films which were obtained at optimized direct current magnetron sputtering conditions

  7. High rate deposition of thin film cadmium sulphide by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisco, F., E-mail: F.Lisco@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Losurdo, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) is an important n-type semiconductor widely used as a window layer in thin film photovoltaics Copper Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Gallium (di)Selenide, Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). Cadmium Sulphide has been deposited using a number of techniques but these techniques can be slow (chemical bath deposition and Radio Frequency sputtering) or the uniformity and the control of thickness can be relatively difficult (close space sublimation). In this paper we report on the development of a process using pulsed Direct Current magnetron sputtering which allows nanometre control of thin film thickness using time only. The CdS thin films deposited in this process are highly uniform and smooth. They exhibit the preferred hexagonal structure at room temperature deposition and they have excellent optical properties. Importantly, the process is highly stable despite the use of a semi-insulating magnetron target. Moreover, the process is very fast. The deposition rate using 1.5 kW of power to a 6-inch circular magnetron was measured to be greater than 8 nm/s. This makes the process suitable for industrial deployment. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of CdS • High deposition rate deposition • Uniform, pinhole free films.

  8. High rate deposition of thin film cadmium sulphide by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisco, F.; Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G.; Losurdo, M.; Walls, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) is an important n-type semiconductor widely used as a window layer in thin film photovoltaics Copper Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Gallium (di)Selenide, Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). Cadmium Sulphide has been deposited using a number of techniques but these techniques can be slow (chemical bath deposition and Radio Frequency sputtering) or the uniformity and the control of thickness can be relatively difficult (close space sublimation). In this paper we report on the development of a process using pulsed Direct Current magnetron sputtering which allows nanometre control of thin film thickness using time only. The CdS thin films deposited in this process are highly uniform and smooth. They exhibit the preferred hexagonal structure at room temperature deposition and they have excellent optical properties. Importantly, the process is highly stable despite the use of a semi-insulating magnetron target. Moreover, the process is very fast. The deposition rate using 1.5 kW of power to a 6-inch circular magnetron was measured to be greater than 8 nm/s. This makes the process suitable for industrial deployment. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of CdS • High deposition rate deposition • Uniform, pinhole free films

  9. Highly -oriented growth of polycrystalline silicon films on glass by pulsed magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinig, P.; Selle, B.; Fenske, F.; Fuhs, W.; Alex, V.; Birkholz, M.

    2002-01-01

    Nominally undoped polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin films were deposited on glass at 450 deg. C at high deposition rate (>100 nm/min) by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. The pulse frequency was found to have a significant influence on the preferred grain orientation. The x-ray diffraction pattern exhibits a strong enhancement of the (400) reflex with increasing pulse frequency. The quantitative evaluation reveals that over 90% of the grains are oriented. The observed change in preferred grain orientation in poly-Si films at low temperatures is associated with concurrent ion bombardment of the growing film

  10. Microstructural control of TiC/a-C nanocomposite coatings with pulsed magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Y.T.; Chen, C.Q.; Shaha, K.P.; De Hosson, J.Th.M.; Bradley, J.W.; Voronin, S.A.; Cada, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we report some striking results on the microstructural control of TiC/a-C nanocomposite coatings with pulsed direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. The interface morphology and microstructure evolution as a function of pulse frequency and duty cycle were scrutinized using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy techniques. It is shown that, with increasing pulse frequency, the nanocomposite coatings exhibit evolutions in morphology of the growing interface from rough to smooth and in the microstructure from strongly columnar to fully columnar-free. In addition, the smoothly growing interface favors the formation of a tailor-made multilayered nanocomposite structure. The fundamental mechanisms are analyzed with the assistance of plasma diagnostic experiments. Ion mass/energy spectrometry measurements reveal that, depending on the frequency and duty cycle of DC pulses, pulsing of the magnetrons can control the flux and energy distribution of Ar + ions over a very broad range for concurrent impingement on the growing interface of deposited coatings, in comparison with DC sputtering. The significantly enhanced energy flux density is thought to be responsible for the 'adatom transfer' in interface smoothening and thus the restraint of columnar growth

  11. Domino Platform: PVD Coaters for Arc Evaporation and High Current Pulsed Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, J; Müller, J; Erkens, G

    2012-01-01

    AlTiN and CrN coatings were deposited in hybrid DOMINO platforms by magnetron sputtering (DC-MS, DC-MS+HCP-MS, HCP-MS) and vacuum arc evaporation. The ion cleaning was done by the AEGD process. The coating rates and the energy efficiency of both deposition processes were compared. The roughness effects of the different coating types were discussed. Preliminary results of the change of pulse characteristics during simultaneously running of HCP-MS plus vacuum arc evaporation are shown.

  12. High power pulsed magnetron sputtering: A method to increase deposition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, Priya; McLain, Jake; Ruzic, David N; Shchelkanov, Ivan A.

    2015-01-01

    High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) is a state-of-the-art physical vapor deposition technique with several industrial applications. One of the main disadvantages of this process is its low deposition rate. In this work, the authors report a new magnetic field configuration, which produces deposition rates twice that of conventional magnetron's dipole magnetic field configuration. Three different magnet pack configurations are discussed in this paper, and an optimized magnet pack configuration for HPPMS that leads to a higher deposition rate and nearly full-face target erosion is presented. The discussed magnetic field produced by a specially designed magnet assembly is of the same size as the conventional magnet assembly and requires no external fields. Comparison of deposition rates with different power supplies and the electron trapping efficiency in complex magnetic field arrangements are discussed

  13. Aluminum oxide films deposited in low pressure conditions by reactive pulsed dc magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Seino, T

    2002-01-01

    The reactive pulsed dc sputtering technique is widely used for the deposition of oxide films. The operating pressure for sputtering is commonly above 0.13 Pa. In this study, however, aluminum oxide (alumina) films were deposited at operating pressures from 0.06 to 0.4 Pa using a sputtering system equipped with a scanning magnetron cathode and a pulsed dc power supply. The pulsed dc power was found to be useful not only to reduce arcing, but also to sustain the discharge at low pressure. The electrical breakdown field, intrinsic stress, O/Al ratio, refractive index, and surface roughness were investigated. Both a low intrinsic stress and an O/Al ratio around the stoichiometry were required to get the film having a high breakdown field. A low operating pressure of 0.1 Pa was found to provide the necessary stress and O/Al ratio targets. A 50-nm-thick alumina film having a maximum breakdown field of 7.4 MV/cm was obtained.

  14. Low temperature ITO thin film deposition on PES substrate using pulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.C.; Li, J.Y.; Yen, W.T.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted using pulse magnetron sputtering (PMS) to deposit transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film onto flexible polyethersulfone (PES) plastic substrates. The thin film microstructure, optoelectronic and residual stress were analyzed using the modulating PMS power, work pressure, pulse frequency, duty cycle and cycle time process parameters. The residual stress of the thin film was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with the Sony equation. The experimental results show that PMS has a lower process temperature, higher deposition rate and lower resistivity compared with the radio frequency process at the same output power. The duty cycle increase produces the optimum optoelectronic characteristics. When the pressure, power, duty cycle and sputter time are increased, the thin film stress will also increase, causing flexural distortion in the PES plastic substrate. When the deposition thickness reaches 1.5 μm, ITO thin film will appear with a distinct split. Under 5 mtorr work pressure, 60 W power, 33 μs duty time and 2 μs pulse reverse time at duty cycle 95%, thin film with an optimized electrical 3.0 x 10 -4 Ω-cm, RMS surface roughness of 0.85 nm and visible region optical transmittance will be achieved with acquisition of over 85%

  15. Photocatalytic activity of bipolar pulsed magnetron sputter deposited TiO{sub 2}/TiWO{sub x} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Ko-Wei; Hu, Chung-Hsuan; Hua, Li-Yu; Lee, Chin-Tan [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Quemoy University, 1 Daxue Road, Jinning Township, Kinmen 89250, Taiwan, ROC (China); Zhao, Yu-Xiang [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Quemoy University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Julian; Yang, Shu-Yi [Department of Applied English, National Quemoy University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Han, Sheng, E-mail: shenghan@nutc.edu.tw [Center for General Education, National Taichung University of Science and Technology, 129 San-min Road, Section 3, Taichung 40401, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/TiWO{sub x} films were fabricated by a bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering apparatus. • Titanium oxide being sputtered tungsten enhanced the highly oriented of TiO{sub 2} (1 0 1) plane of the specimen assemblies. • The mechanism WO{sub 3}(h{sup +}, e{sup −})/TiO{sub 2}(h{sup +}, e{sup −}) → WO{sub 3}(e{sup −})/TiO{sub 2}(h{sup +}) shows the higher hydrophilicity and lower contact angle. - Abstract: Titanium oxide films were formed by sputtering and then TiWO{sub x} films were deposited by bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering with pure titanium and tungsten metal targets. The sputtering of titanium oxide with tungsten enhanced the orientation of the TiO{sub 2} (1 0 1) plane of the specimen assemblies. The main varying parameter was the tungsten pulse power. Titanium oxide sputtered with tungsten using a pulsing power of 50 W exhibited a superior hydrophilic property, and a contact angle of 13.1°. This fabrication conditions maximized the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue solution. The mechanism by which the titanium oxide was sputtered with tungsten involves the photogeneration of holes and electron traps, inhibiting the hole–electron recombination, enhancing hydrophilicity and reducing the contact angle.

  16. Electrochromic properties of bipolar pulsed magnetron sputter deposited tungsten–molybdenum oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Tai-Nan [Chemical Engineering Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan 325, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Yi Han; Lee, Chin Tan [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Quemoy University, Kinmen 892, Taiwan, ROC (China); Han, Sheng [Center of General Education, National Taichung Institute of Technology, Taichung 404, Taiwan, ROC (China); Weng, Ko-Wei, E-mail: kowei@nqu.edu.tw [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Quemoy University, Kinmen 892, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-06-01

    There are great interests in electrochromic technology for smart windows and displays over past decades. In this study, the WMoO{sub x} thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide glass and silicon substrates by pulsed magnetron sputter system with W and Mo targets. The films were deposited with fixed W target power while the variant parameter of Mo target power in the range 50, 100, 150 and 200 W was investigated. The working pressure was fixed at 1.33 Pa with a gas mixture of Ar (30 sccm) and O{sub 2} (15 sccm). The film thickness increased with the Mo target power. Higher plasma power resulted in a crystalline structure which would reduce the electrochromic property of the film. The influence of plasma powers applied to Mo target on the structural, optical and electrochromic properties of the WMoO{sub x} thin films has been investigated. WMoO{sub x} films grown at Mo target powers less than 100 W were found to be amorphous. The films deposited at 150 W, which is the optimal fabrication condition, exhibit better electrochromic properties with high optical modulation, high coloration efficiency and less color memory effect at wavelength 400, 550 and 800 nm. The improvement resulted from the effect of doping Mo has been tested. The maximum ΔT (%) values are 36.6% at 400 nm, 65.6% at 550 nm, and 66.6% at 800 nm for pure WO{sub 3} film. The addition of Mo content in the WMoO{sub x} films provides better resistance to the short wavelength light source and can be used in the concerned application. - Highlights: • WMoO{sub x} films are deposited by pulsed magnetron sputter with pure W and Mo targets. • Mo addition in WMoO{sub x} provides better resistance to short wavelength light source. • WMoO{sub x} films exhibit electrochemical stability in the cycling test.

  17. Effect of deposition parameters on properties of ITO films prepared by reactive middle frequency pulsed dual magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogozin, A.I.; Vinnichenko, M.V.; Kolitsch, A.; Moeller, W.

    2004-01-01

    ITO layers with low resistivity and high visible transmittance were produced by means of middle frequency reactive dual magnetron sputtering. The influence of base pressure, Ar/O 2 ratio and magnetron pulse duration on the film composition, structure, electrical, and optical properties has been investigated. The deposition rate is proportional to the magnetron operation power at changing pulse duration and constant Ar and O 2 flows. At enhanced O 2 flows an onset of the magnetron target oxidation is discussed as a reason for the decrease of the deposition rate. The presence of water vapor in the residual gas is determined to be a reason for deterioration of resistivity and optical transmittance observed for ITO films produced at a base pressures higher than 5·10 -4 Pa. It is demonstrated that spectroscopic ellipsometry can be used as a noncontact tool to monitor the resistivity of ITO films

  18. The structural properties of CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisco, F., E-mail: F.Lisco@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bass, K.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Losurdo, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films were deposited by two different processes, chemical bath deposition (CBD), and pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) on fluorine doped-tin oxide coated glass to assess the potential advantages of the pulsed DC magnetron sputtering process. The structural, optical and morphological properties of films obtained by CBD and PDCMS were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The as-grown films were studied and comparisons were drawn between their morphology, uniformity, crystallinity, and the deposition rate of the process. The highest crystallinity is observed for sputtered CdS thin films. The absorption in the visible wavelength increased for PDCMS CdS thin films, due to the higher density of the films. The band gap measured for the as-grown CBD-CdS is 2.38 eV compared to 2.34 eV for PDCMS-CdS, confirming the higher density of the sputtered thin film. The higher deposition rate for PDCMS is a significant advantage of this technique which has potential use for high rate and low cost manufacturing. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) of CdS films • Chemical bath deposition of CdS films • Comparison between CdS thin films deposited by chemical bath and PDCMS techniques • High deposition rate deposition for PDCMS deposition • Uniform, pinhole free CdS thin films.

  19. The structural properties of CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisco, F.; Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bass, K.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G.; Losurdo, M.; Walls, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films were deposited by two different processes, chemical bath deposition (CBD), and pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) on fluorine doped-tin oxide coated glass to assess the potential advantages of the pulsed DC magnetron sputtering process. The structural, optical and morphological properties of films obtained by CBD and PDCMS were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The as-grown films were studied and comparisons were drawn between their morphology, uniformity, crystallinity, and the deposition rate of the process. The highest crystallinity is observed for sputtered CdS thin films. The absorption in the visible wavelength increased for PDCMS CdS thin films, due to the higher density of the films. The band gap measured for the as-grown CBD-CdS is 2.38 eV compared to 2.34 eV for PDCMS-CdS, confirming the higher density of the sputtered thin film. The higher deposition rate for PDCMS is a significant advantage of this technique which has potential use for high rate and low cost manufacturing. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) of CdS films • Chemical bath deposition of CdS films • Comparison between CdS thin films deposited by chemical bath and PDCMS techniques • High deposition rate deposition for PDCMS deposition • Uniform, pinhole free CdS thin films

  20. Geometric considerations in magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The recent development of high performance magnetron type discharge sources has greatly enhaced the range of coating applications where sputtering is a viable deposition process. Magnetron sources can provide high current densities and sputtering rates, even at low pressures. They have much reduced substrate heating rates and can be scaled to large sizes. Magnetron sputter coating apparatuses can have a variety of geometric and plasma configurations. The target geometry affects the emission directions of both the sputtered atoms and the energetic ions which are neutralized and reflected at the cathode. This fact, coupled with the long mean free particle paths which are prevalent at low pressures, can make the coating properties very dependent on the apparatus geometry. This paper reviews the physics of magnetron operation and discusses the influences of apparatus geometry on the use of magnetrons for rf sputtering and reactive sputtering, as well as on the microstructure and internal stresses in sputtered metallic coatings. (author) [pt

  1. Ga-doped ZnO films deposited with varying sputtering powers and substrate temperatures by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering and their property improvement potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sanghun; Cheon, Dongkeun; Kim, Won-Jeong; Ham, Moon-Ho; Lee, Woong

    2012-01-01

    Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films were deposited on glass substrates by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering with varying sputtering power and substrate temperature while fixing the Ga concentration in the sputtering target. The application of higher sputtering power by pulsed DC magnetrons sputtering at a moderate temperature of 423 K results in increased carrier concentration and mobility which accompanied improved doping efficiency and crystalline quality. Substrate temperature was found to be the more dominant parameter in controlling the electrical properties and crystallinity, while the sputtering power played synergistic auxiliary roles. Electrical and optical properties of the GZO TCO films fulfilled requirements for transparent electrodes, despite relatively low substrate temperature (423 K) and small thickness (100 nm). In an attempt to improve the electrical properties of the GZO films by hydrogen-treatment, it was observed that the substitutional Ga plays the complex role of carrier generator as donor and carrier suppressor deactivating the oxygen vacancy simultaneously, which would complicate the property improvement by increasing doping efficiency.

  2. CrN/AlN nanolaminate coatings deposited via high power pulsed and middle frequency pulsed magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagcivan, N.; Bobzin, K.; Ludwig, A.; Grochla, D.; Brugnara, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Nanolaminate coatings based on transition metal nitrides such as CrN, AlN and TiN deposited via physical vapor deposition (PVD) have shown great advantage as protective coatings on tools and components subject to high loads in tribological applications. By varying the individual layer materials and their thicknesses it is possible to optimize the coating properties, e.g. hardness, Young's modulus and thermal stability. One way for further improvement of coating properties is the use of advanced PVD technologies. High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) is an advancement of pulsed magnetron sputtering (MS). The use of HPPMS allows a better control of the energetic bombardment of the substrate due to the higher ionization degree of metallic species. It provides an opportunity to influence chemical and mechanical properties by varying the process parameters. The present work deals with the development of CrN/AlN nanolaminate coatings in an industrial scale unit by using two different PVD technologies. Therefore, HPPMS and mfMS (middle frequency magnetron sputtering) technologies were used. The bilayer period Λ, i.e. the thickness of a CrN/AlN double layer, was varied between 6.2 nm and 47.8 nm by varying the rotational speed of the substrate holders. In a second step the highest rotational speed was chosen and further HPPMS CrN/AlN coatings were deposited applying different HPPMS pulse lengths (40, 80, 200 μs) at the same mean cathode power and frequency. Thickness, morphology, roughness and phase composition of the coatings were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser microscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The chemical composition was determined using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). Detailed characterization of the nanolaminate was conducted by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hardness and the Young's modulus were analyzed by nanoindentation measurements. The residual

  3. Nanostructure transition in Cr–C–N coatings deposited by pulsed closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Z.L.; Lin, J.; Moore, J.J.; Lei, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Cr–C–N coatings with different compositions, i.e. (C + N)/Cr atomic ratios (x) of 0.81–2.77, were deposited using pulsed closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering by varying the chromium and graphite target powers, the pulse configuration and the ratio of the nitrogen flow rate to the total gas flow rate. Three kinds of nanostructures were identified in the Cr–C–N coatings dependent on the x values: a nano-columnar structure of hexagonal closed-packed (hcp) Cr 2 (C,N) and face-centered cubic (fcc) Cr(C,N) at x = 0.81 and 1.03 respectively, a nanocomposite structure consisting of nanocrystalline Cr(C,N) embedded in an amorphous C(N) matrix at x = 1.26 and 1.78, and a Cr-containing amorphous C(N) structure at x = 2.77. A maximum hardness of 31.0 GPa and a high H/E ratio of 1.0 have been achieved in the nc-Cr(C,N)/a-C(N) nanocomposite structure at x = 1.26, whereas the coating with a Cr-containing amorphous C(N) structure had a minimum hardness of 10.9 GPa and a low H/E ratio of 0.08 at x = 2.77. The incorporation of carbon into the Cr–N coatings led to a phase transition from hcp-Cr 2 (C,N) to fcc-Cr(C,N) by the dissolution into the nanocrystallites, and promoted the amorphization of Cr–C–N coatings with the precipitation of amorphous C(N). It was found that a high x value over 1.0 in the Cr–C–N coatings is the composition threshold to the nanostructure transition. - Highlights: ► Nanostructure transition of Cr–C–N coatings depended on (C + N)/Cr atomic ratio. ► A nano-columnar structure formed at atomic ratio less than 1.0. ► A nc-Cr(C,N)/a-C(N) nanocomposite structure formed at atomic ratio of 1.0–2.7. ► A Cr-containing amorphous C(N) structure formed at atomic ratio more than 2.7. ► Maximum hardness of 31.0 GPa was for nanocomposite coatings at atomic ratio of 1.26.

  4. A study of the plasma electronegativity in an argon-oxygen pulsed-dc sputter magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, S D; Dodd, R; Edwards, A; Bradley, J W

    2010-01-01

    Using Langmuir probe-assisted laser photodetachment, the temporal evolution of the O - density was determined in the bulk plasma of a unipolar pulsed-dc magnetron. The source was operated in reactive mode, at a fixed nominal on-time power of 100 W, sputtering Ti in argon-oxygen atmospheres at 1.3 Pa pressure, but over a variation of duty cycles from 5% to 50% and oxygen partial pressures of 10% and 50% of the total pressure. In the plasma on-time, for all duty cycles the negative ion density (n - ) rises marginally reaching values typically less than 2 x 10 15 m -3 with negative ion-to-electron density ratios, α - falls by about 20-30% as fast O - species created at the cathode exit the system. This is followed by a rapid rise in n - to values at least 2 or 3 times that in the on-time. The rate of rise of n - and its maximum value both increase with decreasing duty cycle. In the off-time, the electron density falls rapidly (initial decay rates of several tens of μs), and therefore the afterglow plasma becomes highly electronegative, with α reaching 4.6 and 14.4 for 10% and 50% oxygen partial pressure, respectively. The rapid rise in n - in the afterglow (in which the electron temperature falls from about 5 to 0.5 eV) is attributed to the dissociative attachment of highly excited oxygen metastables, which themselves are created in the pulse on-time. At the lowest duty of 5%, the long-term O - decay times are several hundred μs. Langmuir probe characteristics show the clear signature that negative ions dominate over the electrons in the off-time. From the ion and electron saturation current ratios, α has been estimated in some chosen cases and found to agree within a factor between 2 and 10 with those obtained more directly from the photodetachment method.

  5. Hard nanocrystalline Zr-B-C-N films with high electrical conductivity prepared by pulsed magnetron sputtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, J.; Steidl, P.; Kohout, J.; Čerstvý, R.; Zeman, P.; Prokšová, S.; Peřina, Vratislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 215, JAN 25 (2013), s. 186-191 ISSN 0257-8972. [39th International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films (ICMTF). San Diego, California, 23.04.2012-27.04.2012] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Zr-B-C-N films * nanocomposite materials * pulsed magnetron sputtering * hard ness * high electrical conductivity * osidation resistance Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0257897212010584

  6. Structural investigations of homoepitaxial Si films grown at low temperature by pulsed magnetron sputtering on Si(111) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, F. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Abt. Silizium-Photovoltaik, Kekulestr. 5, D-12485 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: fenske@hmi.de; Schulze, S.; Hietschold, M. [Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, Analytik an Festkoerperoberflaechen, Reichenhainer Str. 70, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Schmidbauer, M. [Institut fuer Kristallzuechtung Berlin, Max-Born-Str.2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2008-06-02

    Using pulsed magnetron sputtering at low substrate temperature (T{sub s} = 580 {sup o}C) the homoepitaxial growth on Si(111) was studied. The films were comprehensively characterized by cross-section transmission electron microscopy and various diffraction methods. Up to a film thickness of 1240 nm no breakdown of the epitaxial growth was observed. The surface microstructure, characterized by electron backscatter diffraction, exhibits exclusively crystalline structure with (111) orientation. Careful analysis of selected area electron diffraction patterns and high-resolution X-ray diffraction data clearly proves the existence of twinning/stacking faults in the {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes. Besides these defects - which are typical for low-temperature epitaxy - no additional significant defects related to the energetic particle bombardment by the sputter deposition method are observed.

  7. Structural investigations of homoepitaxial Si films grown at low temperature by pulsed magnetron sputtering on Si(111) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, F.; Schulze, S.; Hietschold, M.; Schmidbauer, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using pulsed magnetron sputtering at low substrate temperature (T s = 580 o C) the homoepitaxial growth on Si(111) was studied. The films were comprehensively characterized by cross-section transmission electron microscopy and various diffraction methods. Up to a film thickness of 1240 nm no breakdown of the epitaxial growth was observed. The surface microstructure, characterized by electron backscatter diffraction, exhibits exclusively crystalline structure with (111) orientation. Careful analysis of selected area electron diffraction patterns and high-resolution X-ray diffraction data clearly proves the existence of twinning/stacking faults in the {111} planes. Besides these defects - which are typical for low-temperature epitaxy - no additional significant defects related to the energetic particle bombardment by the sputter deposition method are observed

  8. Electron beam induced coloration and luminescence in layered structure of WO3 thin films grown by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karuppasamy, A.; Subrahmanyam, A.

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten oxide thin films have been deposited by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering of tungsten in argon and oxygen atmosphere. The as-deposited WO 3 film is amorphous, highly transparent, and shows a layered structure along the edges. In addition, the optical properties of the as-deposited film show a steplike behavior of extinction coefficient. However, the electron beam irradiation (3.0 keV) of the as-deposited films results in crystallization, coloration (deep blue), and luminescence (intense red emission). The above changes in physical properties are attributed to the extraction of oxygen atoms from the sample and the structural modifications induced by electron bombardment. The present method of coloration and luminescence has a potential for fabricating high-density optical data storage device

  9. Bonding structure and morphology of chromium oxide films grown by pulsed-DC reactive magnetron sputter deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gago, R., E-mail: rgago@icmm.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Vinnichenko, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut für Keramische Technologien und Systeme IKTS, D-01277 Dresden (Germany); Hübner, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden – Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Redondo-Cubero, A. [Departamento de Física Aplicada and Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-07-05

    Chromium oxide (CrO{sub x}) thin films were grown by pulsed-DC reactive magnetron sputter deposition in an Ar/O{sub 2} discharge as a function of the O{sub 2} fraction in the gas mixture (ƒ) and for substrate temperatures, T{sub s}, up to 450 °C. The samples were analysed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). On unheated substrates, by increasing ƒ the growth rate is higher and the O/Cr ratio (x) rises from ∼2 up to ∼2.5. Inversely, by increasing T{sub s} the atomic incorporation rate drops and x falls to ∼1.8. XRD shows that samples grown on unheated substrates are amorphous and that nanocrystalline Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = 1.5) is formed by increasing T{sub s}. In amorphous CrO{sub x}, XANES reveals the presence of multiple Cr environments that indicate the growth of mixed-valence oxides, with progressive promotion of hexavalent states with ƒ. XANES data also confirms the formation of single-phase nanocrystalline Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} at elevated T{sub s}. These structural changes also reflect on the optical and morphological properties of the films. - Highlights: • XANES of CrO{sub x} thin films grown by pulsed-DC reactive magnetron sputtering. • Identification of mixed-valence amorphous CrO{sub x} oxides on unheated substrates. • Promotion of amorphous chromic acid (Cr{sup VI}) by increasing O{sub 2} partial pressure. • Production of single-phase Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} films by increasing substrate temperature. • Correlation of bonding structure with morphological and optical properties.

  10. Composition, structure and properties of SiN x films fabricated by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Zh.Q.; Yang, P.; Huang, N.; Sun, H.; Wan, G.J.; Leng, Y.X.; Chen, J.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Silicon nitride (SiN x ) thin films are of special interest in both scientific research and industrial applications due to their remarkable properties such as high thermal stability, chemical inertness, high hardness and good dielectric properties. In this work, SiN x films were fabricated by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering of high purity single crystal silicon targets in an Ar-N 2 mixture. The effect of N 2 partial pressure on the film composition, chemical bonding configurations, surface morphology, surface free energy, optical and mechanical properties were investigated. We showed that with increased N 2 partial pressure, the N to Si ratio (N/Si) in the film increased and N atoms are preferentially incorporated in the NSi 3 stoichiometric configuration. It leads the Si-N network a tendency to chemical order. Films deposited at a high N 2 fraction were consistently N-rich. The film surface transformed from a loose granular structure with microporosity to a homogeneous, continuous, smooth and dense structure. A progressive densification of the film microstructure occurs as the N 2 fraction is increased. The reduced surface roughness and the increased N incorporation in the film give rise to the increased contact angle with double-distilled water from 24 o to 49.6 o . To some extent, the SiN x films deposited by pulsed magnetron sputtering are hydrophilic in nature. The as-deposited SiN x films exhibit good optical transparency in the visible region and the optical band gap E opt can be varied from 1.68 eV for a-Si to 3.62 eV for SiN x films, depending on the synthesis parameters. With the increase of the N/Si atomic ratio, wear resistance of the SiN x films was improved, a consequence of increased hardness and elastic modulus. The SiN x films have lower friction coefficient and better wear resistance than 316L stainless steel under dry sliding friction, where the SiN x films experienced only fatigue wear

  11. Room temperature H2S gas sensing property of indium oxide thin films obtained by pulsed D.C. magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisha, R.; Madhusoodanan, K.N.; Karthikeyan, Sreejith; Hill, Arthur E.; Pilkington, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Indium oxide thin films were prepared by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering technique with no substrate heating. X-ray diffraction was used to investigate the structural properties and AFM was used to study the surface morphology gas sensing performance were conducted using a static gas sensing system. Room temperature gas sensing performance was conducted in range of 17 to 286 ppm. The sensitivity, response and recovery time of the sensor was also determined. (author)

  12. A global plasma model for reactive deposition of compound films by modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, B. C.; Wu, Z. L.; Wu, B.; Li, Y. G.; Lei, M. K.

    2017-05-01

    A spatially averaged, time-dependent global plasma model has been developed to describe the reactive deposition of a TiAlSiN thin film by modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) discharges in Ar/N2 mixture gas, based on the particle balance and the energy balance in the ionization region, and considering the formation and erosion of the compound at the target surface. The modeling results show that, with increasing the N2 partial pressure from 0% to 40% at a constant working pressure of 0.3 Pa, the electron temperature during the strongly ionized period increases from 4 to 7 eV and the effective power transfer coefficient, which represents the power fraction that effectively heats the electrons and maintains the discharge, increases from about 4% to 7%; with increasing the working pressure from 0.1 to 0.7 Pa at a constant N2 partial pressure of 25%, the electron temperature decreases from 10 to 4 eV and the effective power transfer coefficient decreases from 8% to 5%. Using the modeled plasma parameters to evaluate the kinetic energy of arriving ions, the ion-to-neutral flux ratio of deposited species, and the substrate heating, the variations of process parameters that increase these values lead to an enhanced adatom mobility at the target surface and an increased input energy to the substrate, corresponding to the experimental observation of surface roughness reduction, the microstructure transition from the columnar structure to the dense featureless structure, and the enhancement of phase separation. At higher N2 partial pressure or lower working pressure, the modeling results demonstrate an increase in electron temperature, which shifts the discharge balance of Ti species from Ti+ to Ti2+ and results in a higher return fraction of Ti species, corresponding to the higher Al/Ti ratio of deposited films at these conditions. The modeling results are well correlated with the experimental observation of the composition variation and the microstructure

  13. Oxidation and Tribological Behavior of Ti-B-C-N-Si Nanocomposite Films Deposited by Pulsed Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jaeho; Heo, Sungbo; Kim, Wang Ryeol; Kim, Jun-Ho; Nam, Dae-Geun; Kim, Kwang Ho; Park, Ikmin; Park, In-Wook

    2018-03-01

    Quinary Ti-B-C-N-Si nanocomposite films were deposited onto AISI 304 substrates using a pulsed d.c. magnetron sputtering system. The quinary Ti-B-C-N-Si (5 at.%) film showed excellent tribological and wear properties compared with those of the Ti-B-C-N films. The steady friction coefficient of 0.151 and a wear rate of 2 × 10-6 mm3N-1m-1 were measured for the Ti-B-C-N-Si films. The oxidation behavior of Ti-B-C-N-Si nanocomposite films was systematically investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermal analyzer with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It is concluded that the addition of Si into the Ti-B-C-N film improved the tribological properties and oxidation resistance of the Ti-B-C-N-Si films. The improvements are due to the formation of an amorphous SiOx phase, which plays a major role in the self-lubricant tribo-layers and oxidation barrier on the film surface or in the grain boundaries, respectively.

  14. Optical emission and mass spectroscopy of plasma processes in reactive DC pulsed magnetron sputtering of aluminium oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Michal; Bulíř, Jiří; Pokorný, Petr; Bočan, Jiří; Fitl, Přemysl; Lančok, Ján; Musil, Jindřich

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2010), 697-700 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100718; GA AV ČR KAN400100653; GA ČR GP202/09/P324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : reactive magnetron sputtering * alumina * plasma spectroscopy * mass spectroscopy * optical emission spectroscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.412, year: 2010

  15. Hydroxyapatite thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition and magnetron sputtering on PMMA substrates for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socol, G.; Macovei, A.M.; Miroiu, F.; Stefan, N.; Duta, L.; Dorcioman, G.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Petrescu, S.M.; Stan, G.E.; Marcov, D.A.; Chiriac, A.; Poeata, I.

    2010-01-01

    Functionalized implants represent an advanced approaching in implantology, aiming to improve the biointegration and the long-term success of surgical procedures. We report on the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films on polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) substrates - used as cranio-spinal implant-type structures - by two alternative methods: pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and radio-frequency magnetron sputtering (MS). The deposition parameters were optimized in order to avoid the substrate overheating. Stoichiometric HA structures were obtained by PLD with incident laser fluences of 1.4-2.75 J/cm 2 , pressures of 30-46.66 Pa and 10 Hz pulses repetition rate. The MS depositions were performed at constant pressure of 0.3 Pa in inert and reactive atmospheres. SEM-EDS, XRD, FTIR and pull-out measurements were performed assessing the apatitic-type structure of the prepared films along with their satisfactory mechanical adhesion. Cell viability, proliferation and adhesion tests in osteosarcoma SaOs2 cell cultures were performed to validate the bioactive behaviour of the structures and to select the most favourable deposition regimes. For PLD, this requires a low fluence of 1.4 J/cm 2 , reduced pressure of water vapours and a 100 o C/4 h thermal treatment. For MS, the best results were obtained for 80% Ar + 20% O 2 reactive atmosphere at low RF power (∼75 W). Cells grown on these coatings exhibit behaviour similar to those grown on the standard borosilicate glass control: increased viability, good proliferation, and optimal cell adhesion. In vitro tests proved that HA/PMMA neurosurgical structures prepared by PLD and MS are compatible for the interaction with human bone cells.

  16. Reactive dual magnetron sputtering for large area application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struempfel, J.

    2002-01-01

    Production lines for large area coating demand high productivity of reactive magnetron sputtering processes. Increased dynamic deposition rates for oxides and nitrides were already obtained by using of highly powered magnetrons in combination with advanced sputter techniques. However, besides high deposition rates the uniformity of such coatings has to be carefully considered. First the basics of reactive sputtering processes and dual magnetron sputtering are summarized. Different methods for process stabilization and control are commonly used for reactive sputtering. The Plasma Emission Monitor (PE M) offers the prerequisite for fast acting process control derived from the in-situ intensity measurements of a spectral line of the sputtered target material. Combined by multiple Plasma Emission Monitor control loops segmented gas manifolds are able to provide excellent thin film uniformity at high deposition rates. The Dual Magnetron allows a broad range of processing by different power supply modes. Medium frequency, DC and pulsed DC power supplies can be used for high quality layers. Whereas the large area coating of highly isolating layers like TiO 2 or SiO 2 is dominated by MF sputtering best results for coating with transparent conductive oxides are obtained by dual DC powering of the dual magnetron arrangement. (Author)

  17. Very low pressure high power impulse triggered magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Andre; Andersson, Joakim

    2013-10-29

    A method and apparatus are described for very low pressure high powered magnetron sputtering of a coating onto a substrate. By the method of this invention, both substrate and coating target material are placed into an evacuable chamber, and the chamber pumped to vacuum. Thereafter a series of high impulse voltage pulses are applied to the target. Nearly simultaneously with each pulse, in one embodiment, a small cathodic arc source of the same material as the target is pulsed, triggering a plasma plume proximate to the surface of the target to thereby initiate the magnetron sputtering process. In another embodiment the plasma plume is generated using a pulsed laser aimed to strike an ablation target material positioned near the magnetron target surface.

  18. Effect of nitrogen doping on TiO.sub.x./sub.N.sub.y./sub. thin film formation at reactive high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straňák, Vítězslav; Quaas, M.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Steffen, H.; Wulff, H.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Tichý, M.; Hippler, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 28 (2010), s. 1-7 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100100915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : magnetron sputtering * TiO 2 * pulse discharge * XRD * band gap Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.105, year: 2010 http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/43/28/285203/

  19. Properties of Co-deposited indium tin oxide and zinc oxide films using a bipolar pulse power supply and a dual magnetron sputter source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Man-Soo; Seob Jeong, Heui; Kim, Won Mok; Seo, Yong Woon

    2003-01-01

    Multilayer coatings consisting of metal layers sandwiched between transparent conducting oxide layers are widely used for flat panel display electrodes and electromagnetic shield coatings for plasma displays, due to their high electrical conductivity and light transmittance. The electrical and optical properties of these multilayer films depend largely on the surface characteristics of the transparent conducting oxide thin films. A smoother surface on the transparent conducting oxide thin films makes it easier for the metal layer to form a continuous film, thus resulting in a higher conductivity and visible light transmittance. Indium tin oxide (ITO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) films were co-deposited using a dual magnetron sputter and a bipolar pulse power supply to decrease the surface roughness of the transparent conducting oxide films. The symmetric pulse mode of the power supply was used to simultaneously sputter an In 2 O 3 (90 wt %) : SnO 2 (10 wt %) target and a ZnO target. We varied the duty of the pulses to control the ratio of ITO : ZnO in the thin films. The electrical and optical properties of the films were studied, and special attention was paid to the surface roughness and the crystallinity of the films. By co-depositing ITO and ZnO at a pulse duty ratio of ITO:ZnO=45:45 using a dual magnetron sputter and a bipolar pulse power supply, we were able to obtain amorphous transparent conducting oxide films with a very smooth surface which had a Zn-rich buffer layer under a In-rich surface layer. All of the films exhibited typical electrical and optical properties of transparent conducting oxide films deposited at room temperature

  20. The Pulsed Cylindrical Magnetron for Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Sergey

    2012-10-01

    The magnetron sputtering deposition of films and coatings broadly uses in microelectronics, material science, environmental applications and etc. The rate of target evaporation and time for deposition of films and coatings depends on magnetic field. These parameters link with efficiency of gas molecules ionization by electrons. The cylindrical magnetrons use for deposition of films and coatings on inside of pipes for different protective films and coatings in oil, chemical, environmental applications. The classical forming of magnetic field by permanent magnets or coils for big and long cylindrical magnetrons is complicated. The new concept of pulsed cylindrical magnetron for high rate deposition of films and coating for big and long pipes is presented in this paper. The proposed cylindrical magnetron has azimuthally pulsed high magnetic field, which allows forming the high ionized plasma and receiving high rate of evaporation material of target (central electrode). The structure of proposed pulsed cylindrical magnetron sputtering system is given. The main requirements to deposition system are presented. The preliminary data for forming of plasma and deposition of Ta films and coatings on the metal pipers are discussed. The comparison of classical and proposed cylindrical magnetrons is given. The analysis of potential applications is considered.

  1. Control and enhancement of the oxygen storage capacity of ceria films by variation of the deposition gas atmosphere during pulsed DC magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayeb, Asmaa; Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K.; McCoy, Anthony; Venkatanarayanan, Anita; Yaremchenko, Aleksey A.; Surendran, Rajesh; McGlynn, Enda; Daniels, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    In this study, nanostructured ceria (CeO2) films are deposited on Si(100) and ITO coated glass substrates by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering using a CeO2 target. The influence on the films of using various gas ambients, such as a high purity Ar and a gas mixture of high purity Ar and O2, in the sputtering chamber during deposition are studied. The film compositions are studied using XPS and SIMS. These spectra show a phase transition from cubic CeO2 to hexagonal Ce2O3 due to the sputtering process. This is related to the transformation of Ce4+ to Ce3+ and indicates a chemically reduced state of CeO2 due to the formation of oxygen vacancies. TGA and electrochemical cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies show that films deposited in an Ar atmosphere have a higher oxygen storage capacity (OSC) compared to films deposited in the presence of O2. CV results specifically show a linear variation with scan rate of the anodic peak currents for both films and the double layer capacitance values for films deposited in Ar/O2 mixed and Ar atmosphere are (1.6 ± 0.2) × 10-4 F and (4.3 ± 0.5) × 10-4 F, respectively. Also, TGA data shows that Ar sputtered samples have a tendency to greater oxygen losses upon reduction compared to the films sputtered in an Ar/O2 mixed atmosphere.

  2. Growth of Sr1-xNdxCuOy thin films by rf-magnetron sputtering and pulsed-laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugii, N.; Ichikawa, M.; Kuba, K.; Sakurai, T.; Iamamoto, K.; Yamauchi, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on Sr 1- x Nd x CuO y thin films grown on SrTiO 3 substrates by rf-magnetron sputtering and pulsed-laser deposition. The sputter-deposited film with x=0 has an infinite-layer structure whose lattice constants are: a=0.390 nm and c=0.347 nm. When x is larger than 0.1, the films contain a phase of the Sr 14 Cu 24 O 41 structure. The laser-deposited films of Sr 1- x Nd x CuO y with x ≥ 0.075 were single phase of the infinite-layer structure. The lattice parameter c decreased and the lattice parameter a increased, as the Nd content, x, increased. The films with x=0.10 and 0.125 exhibited superconducting onset temperatures around 26 K. Weak Meissner signals were observed for these films at temperatures below 30 K

  3. Influence of Power Pulse Parameters on the Microstructure and Properties of the AlCrN Coatings by a Modulated Pulsed Power Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, AlCrN coatings were deposited using modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering (MPPMS with different power pulse parameters by varying modulated pulsed power (MPP charge voltages (350 to 550 V. The influence of power pulse parameters on the microstructure, mechanical properties and thermal stability of the coatings was investigated. The results indicated that all the AlCrN coatings exhibited a dense columnar microstructure. Higher charge voltage could facilitate a denser coating microstructure. As the charge voltage increased up to 450 V or higher, the microvoids along the column boundaries disappeared and the coatings became fully dense. The main phase in the AlCrN coatings was the c-(Al, CrN solid solution phase with NaCl-type phase structure. A diffraction peak of the h-AlN phase was detected at a 2θ of around 33°, when the charge voltage was higher than 500 V. The hardness of the AlCrN coatings varied as a function of charge voltage. The maximum value of the hardness (30.8 GPa was obtained at 450 V. All the coatings showed good thermal stability and maintained their structure and mechanical properties unchanged up to 800 °C during vacuum annealing. However, further increasing the annealing temperature to 1000 °C resulted in apparent change in the microstructure and decrease in the hardness. The charge voltages also showed a significant influence on the high-temperature tribological behavior of the coatings. The coating deposited at the charge voltage of 550 V exhibited excellent tribological properties with a low friction coefficient.

  4. Study of sterilization-treatment in pure and N- doped carbon thin films synthesized by inductively coupled plasma assisted pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javid, Amjed [Center for Advanced Plasma Surface Technology (CAPST), NU-SKKU Joint Institute for Plasma Nano-Materials (IPNM), Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Textile Processing, National Textile University, Faisalabad 37610 (Pakistan); Kumar, Manish, E-mail: manishk@skku.edu [Center for Advanced Plasma Surface Technology (CAPST), NU-SKKU Joint Institute for Plasma Nano-Materials (IPNM), Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jeon Geon, E-mail: hanjg@skku.edu [Center for Advanced Plasma Surface Technology (CAPST), NU-SKKU Joint Institute for Plasma Nano-Materials (IPNM), Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Pure and N-doped nanocrystallie carbon films are synthesized by ICP assisted pulsed DC plasma process. • ICP power induces the increase in average graphitic crystallite size from 4.86 nm to 6.42 nm. • Beneficial role of ICP source assistance to achieve high sputtering throughput (deposition rate ∼55 nm/min). • Post-sterilization electron-transport study shows N-doped carbon films having promising stability. - Abstract: Electrically-conductive nanocrystalline carbon films, having non-toxic and non-immunogenic characteristics, are promising candidates for reusable medical devices. Here, the pure and N- doped nanocrystalline carbon films are deposited by the assistance of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) in an unbalanced facing target pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering process. Through the optical emission spectroscopy study, the role of ICP assistance and N-doping on the reactive components/radicals during the synthesis is presented. The N-doping enhances the three fold bonding configurations by increasing the ionization and energies of the plasma species. Whereas, the ICP addition increases the plasma density to control the deposition rate and film structure. As a result, sputtering-throughput (deposition rate: 31–55 nm/min), electrical resistivity (4–72 Ωcm) and water contact angle (45.12°–54°) are significantly tailored. Electric transport study across the surface microchannel confirms the superiority of N-doped carbon films for sterilization stability over the undoped carbon films.

  5. Effect of N{sub 2} flow rate on the microstructure and electrochemical behavior of TaN{sub x} films deposited by modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendizabal, L., E-mail: lucia.mendizabal@tekniker.es [IK4-TEKNIKER, Department of Surface Physics and Technology, Iñaki Goenaga 5, 20600 Eibar (Spain); Bayón, R. [IK4-TEKNIKER, Department of Tribology, Iñaki Goenaga 5, 20600 Eibar (Spain); G-Berasategui, E.; Barriga, J. [IK4-TEKNIKER, Department of Surface Physics and Technology, Iñaki Goenaga 5, 20600 Eibar (Spain); Gonzalez, J.J. [ETSIB University of Basque Country, Department of Material Science, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2016-07-01

    Modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) technology offers the possibility to grow high performance coatings compared to the ones developed by conventional dc magnetron sputtering. The high degree of ionization of sputtered particles developed during MPPMS can be usefully utilized to precisely tailor the properties of the growing films. One of the main advantages of such a high metal ion flux is related to the densification of the coatings due to enhance ion bombardment towards the growing film. The development of extremely dense and low-defect microstructure coatings can have a positive effect on the corrosion resistance of tantalum nitride (TaN{sub x}) films. In this study, TaN{sub x} thin films have been deposited by MPPMS in a closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. Structure, surface morphology, hardness and corrosion resistance of the developed coatings have been analyzed as a function of different N{sub 2}-to-Ar ratios (0, 0.25, 0.625, 1). X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis reveal high dependence of the grown crystal phases and the microstructure on N{sub 2}-to-Ar ratio. The hardness of the TaN{sub x} coatings increases when increasing N{sub 2}-to-Ar ratio up to a maximum value of 25 GPa (N{sub 2}-to-Ar ratio of 0.625). The corrosion behavior was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and linear sweep voltammetry. EIS measurements registered at different immersion times show high impedance values (in the order of 10 MΩ cm{sup 2}) and corrosion resistance enhancement with time, indicating the formation of a passive protective oxide layer on the top of their surfaces. TaN{sub x} film grown at 0.25 N{sub 2}-to-Ar ratio exhibits the highest corrosion resistance of 103.53 MΩ cm{sup 2} and low porosity of 1.63 × 10{sup −3} and is characterized by columnar-free microstructure. - Highlights: • TaN{sub X} coatings deposited by MPPMS at different N{sub 2}-to-Ar ratios have been

  6. Effect of N_2 flow rate on the microstructure and electrochemical behavior of TaN_x films deposited by modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendizabal, L.; Bayón, R.; G-Berasategui, E.; Barriga, J.; Gonzalez, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) technology offers the possibility to grow high performance coatings compared to the ones developed by conventional dc magnetron sputtering. The high degree of ionization of sputtered particles developed during MPPMS can be usefully utilized to precisely tailor the properties of the growing films. One of the main advantages of such a high metal ion flux is related to the densification of the coatings due to enhance ion bombardment towards the growing film. The development of extremely dense and low-defect microstructure coatings can have a positive effect on the corrosion resistance of tantalum nitride (TaN_x) films. In this study, TaN_x thin films have been deposited by MPPMS in a closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. Structure, surface morphology, hardness and corrosion resistance of the developed coatings have been analyzed as a function of different N_2-to-Ar ratios (0, 0.25, 0.625, 1). X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis reveal high dependence of the grown crystal phases and the microstructure on N_2-to-Ar ratio. The hardness of the TaN_x coatings increases when increasing N_2-to-Ar ratio up to a maximum value of 25 GPa (N_2-to-Ar ratio of 0.625). The corrosion behavior was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and linear sweep voltammetry. EIS measurements registered at different immersion times show high impedance values (in the order of 10 MΩ cm"2) and corrosion resistance enhancement with time, indicating the formation of a passive protective oxide layer on the top of their surfaces. TaN_x film grown at 0.25 N_2-to-Ar ratio exhibits the highest corrosion resistance of 103.53 MΩ cm"2 and low porosity of 1.63 × 10"−"3 and is characterized by columnar-free microstructure. - Highlights: • TaN_X coatings deposited by MPPMS at different N_2-to-Ar ratios have been evaluated. • Columnar-free microstructure TaN_x films are obtained at 0

  7. Nanomesh of Cu fabricated by combining nanosphere lithography and high power pulsed magnetron sputtering and a preliminary study about its function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wanchuan; Chen, Jiang; Jiang, Lang; Yang, Ping, E-mail: yangping8@263.net; Sun, Hong; Huang, Nan

    2013-10-15

    The Cu nanomesh was obtained by a combination of nanosphere lithography (NSL) and high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HiPPMS). A deposition mask was formed on TiO{sub 2} substrates by the self-assembly of polystyrene latex spheres with a diameter of 1 μm, then Cu nanomesh structure was produced on the substrate using sputtering. The structures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show the increase of temperature of the polystyrene mask caused by the thermal radiation from the target and the bombardment of sputtering particles would affect the quality of the final nanopattern. The tests of photocatalytic degradation, platelet adhesion and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs) culture show Cu deposition could promote the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO{sub 2}, affect platelet adhesion and inhibit smooth muscle cell adhesion and proliferation. It is highlighted that these findings may serve as a guide for the research of multifunctional surface structure.

  8. Measurement of deposition rate and ion energy distribution in a pulsed dc magnetron sputtering system using a retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shailesh; Gahan, David; Scullin, Paul; Doyle, James; Lennon, Jj; Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K; Daniels, Stephen; Hopkins, M B

    2016-04-01

    A compact retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance has been developed to measure deposition rate, ionized flux fraction, and ion energy distribution arriving at the substrate location. The sensor can be placed on grounded, electrically floating, or radio frequency (rf) biased electrodes. A calibration method is presented to compensate for temperature effects in the quartz crystal. The metal deposition rate, metal ionization fraction, and energy distribution of the ions arriving at the substrate location are investigated in an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering reactor under grounded, floating, and rf biased conditions. The diagnostic presented in this research work does not suffer from complications caused by water cooling arrangements to maintain constant temperature and is an attractive technique for characterizing a thin film deposition system.

  9. Preparation of Ga-doped ZnO films by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering with cylindrical rotating target for thin film solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Beom-Ki; Lee, Tae-Il; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Park, Kang-Il; Ahn, Kyung-Jun; Park, Sung-Kee; Lee, Woong; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2011-01-01

    Applicability of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films for thin film solar cells (TFSCs) was investigated by preparing GZO films via pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (PDMS) with rotating target. The GZO films showed improved crystallinity and increasing degree of Ga doping with increasing thickness to a limit of 1000 nm. The films also fulfilled requirements for the transparent electrodes of TFSCs in terms of electrical and optical properties. Moreover, the films exhibited good texturing potential based on etching studies with diluted HCl, which yielded an improved light trapping capability without significant degradation in electrical propreties. It is therefore suggested that the surface-textured GZO films prepared via PDMS and etching are promising candidates for indium-free transparent electrodes for TFSCs.

  10. Preparation of Ga-doped ZnO films by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering with cylindrical rotating target for thin film solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Beom-Ki; Lee, Tae-Il; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Park, Kang-Il; Ahn, Kyung-Jun; Park, Sung-Kee; Lee, Woong; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2011-11-01

    Applicability of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films for thin film solar cells (TFSCs) was investigated by preparing GZO films via pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (PDMS) with rotating target. The GZO films showed improved crystallinity and increasing degree of Ga doping with increasing thickness to a limit of 1000 nm. The films also fulfilled requirements for the transparent electrodes of TFSCs in terms of electrical and optical properties. Moreover, the films exhibited good texturing potential based on etching studies with diluted HCl, which yielded an improved light trapping capability without significant degradation in electrical propreties. It is therefore suggested that the surface-textured GZO films prepared via PDMS and etching are promising candidates for indium-free transparent electrodes for TFSCs.

  11. Studies of the composition, tribology and wetting behavior of silicon nitride films formed by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Zh.Q.; Yang, P.; Huang, N.; Wang, J.; Wen, F.; Leng, Y.X.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon nitride films were formed by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering of high purity Si targets in an Ar-N 2 mixture. The effects of N 2 fraction on the chemical composition, and tribological and wetting behaviors were investigated. The films deposited at a high N 2 fraction were consistently N-rich. The surface microstructure changed from continuous granular surrounded by tiny void regions to a homogeneous and dense microstructure, and densitied as the N 2 fraction is increased. The as-deposited films have a relatively low friction coefficient and better wear resistance than 316L stainless steel under dry sliding friction and experienced only abrasive wear. The decreased surface roughness and increased nitrogen incorporation in the film give rise to increased contact angle with double-stilled water from 24 deg. to 49.6 deg. To some extent, the silicon nitride films deposited are hydrophilic in nature

  12. Measurement of deposition rate and ion energy distribution in a pulsed dc magnetron sputtering system using a retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Shailesh, E-mail: shailesh.sharma6@mail.dcu.ie [Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Impedans Limited, Chase House, City Junction Business Park, Northern Cross, D17 AK63, Dublin 17 (Ireland); Gahan, David, E-mail: david.gahan@impedans.com; Scullin, Paul; Doyle, James; Lennon, Jj; Hopkins, M. B. [Impedans Limited, Chase House, City Junction Business Park, Northern Cross, D17 AK63, Dublin 17 (Ireland); Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K.; Daniels, Stephen [Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2016-04-15

    A compact retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance has been developed to measure deposition rate, ionized flux fraction, and ion energy distribution arriving at the substrate location. The sensor can be placed on grounded, electrically floating, or radio frequency (rf) biased electrodes. A calibration method is presented to compensate for temperature effects in the quartz crystal. The metal deposition rate, metal ionization fraction, and energy distribution of the ions arriving at the substrate location are investigated in an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering reactor under grounded, floating, and rf biased conditions. The diagnostic presented in this research work does not suffer from complications caused by water cooling arrangements to maintain constant temperature and is an attractive technique for characterizing a thin film deposition system.

  13. Syntheses and characterization of TiC/a:C composite coatings using pulsed closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering (P-CFUBMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.; Moore, J.J.; Mishra, B.; Pinkas, M.; Sproul, W.D.

    2008-01-01

    TiC/a:C nanocomposite coatings were prepared by reactively sputtering titanium and graphite targets in pure argon atmosphere using a pulsed closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering (P-CFUBMS) system. The microstructure of TiC/a:C coatings consisting of nanocrystalline TiC dispersed in an amorphous matrix of free carbon was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of coating compositions on the structure and properties of TiC/a:C coatings were investigated. In the present study, TiC/a:C coatings exhibit high hardness (24-29 GPa), low coefficient of friction (0.24-0.25) and low wear rate (less than 2.5 x 10 -7 mm 3 N -1 m -1 ) when the carbon concentration is in the range of 55-66 at.%. Further increase of the carbon content beyond 70 at.% significantly decreased the volume fraction of TiC nanocrystalline and formed a large amount of free amorphous carbon in the coatings. The excessive amorphous carbon phases resulted in a decrease in the coating hardness and the sliding friction coefficient, e.g. a low COF of 0.15 was obtained when the carbon concentration reached 80.5 at.%. However, the decreased hardness will lead to an increase in the wear rate in these high carbon content TiC/a:C coatings

  14. Effect of microstructure on mechanical and tribological properties of TiAlSiN nanocomposite coatings deposited by modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z.L. [Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); College of Engineering, Hunan Agricultural University/Southern Regional Collaborative Innovation Center for Grain and Oil Crops in China, Changsha 410128 (China); Li, Y.G.; Wu, B. [Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Lei, M.K., E-mail: surfeng@dlut.edu.cn [Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-12-31

    TiAlSiN nanocomposite coatings were deposited in a closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system by reactive sputtering from Ti{sub 0.475}Al{sub 0.475}Si{sub 0.05} targets using modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) under a floating substrate bias. The ratio of the nitrogen flow rate to the total gas flow rate (f{sub N{sub 2}}) was varied from 0 to 40%. The application of MPPMS as sputtering sources was aimed at generating a high ionization degree of the sputtered material and a high plasma density by using a pulsed high power approach. When f{sub N{sub 2}} = 0%, an amorphous-like structure Ti{sub 0.479}Al{sub 0.454}Si{sub 0.066} coating was deposited with a hardness of 10 GPa. When nitrogen was added, an optimized nanocomposite structure of nc-TiAlN/a-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} formed in the TiAlSiN coating deposited at f{sub N{sub 2}} = 10%, in which 5–10 nm TiAlN nanocrystallites were embedded in a 2–3 nm thick amorphous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix. As the f{sub N{sub 2}} was increased up to 40%, the elementary composition of the coatings remained almost the same, but the grain size of nanocrystallites approached to 10–20 nm and the AlN phase gradually precipitated. A maximum hardness (H) of 33.2 GPa, a hardness to the elastic modulus (E) ratio of 0.081 and an H{sup 3}/E*{sup 2} ratio of 0.19 GPa were found in the coating deposited at f{sub N{sub 2}} = 10%. The friction coefficient of the TiAlSiN coatings was around 0.8–0.9 as sliding against a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} counterpart under a normal load of 0.5 N. A wear rate of 2.0 × 10{sup −5} mm{sup 3} N{sup −1} m{sup −1} was measured in the TiAlSiN coatings deposited at f{sub N{sub 2}} = 20–40%. As only a low residual stress is found in the TiAlSiN coatings, we consider the complete phase separation is responsible for the enhanced mechanical and tribological properties of the nc-TiAlN/a-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposite coatings. - Highlights: • TiAlSiN nanocomposite coatings were prepared by

  15. Recent progress in thin film processing by magnetron sputtering with plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jeon G

    2009-01-01

    The precise control of the structure and related properties becomes crucial for sophisticated applications of thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering in emerging industries including the flat panel display, digital electronics and nano- and bio-industries. The film structure is closely related to the total energy delivered to the substrate surface for nucleation and growth during all kinds of thin film processes, including magnetron sputtering. Therefore, the energy delivered to the surface for nucleation and growth during magnetron sputtering should be measured and analysed by integrated diagnostics of the plasma parameters which are closely associated with the process parameters and other external process conditions. This paper reviews the background of thin film nucleation and growth, the status of magnetron sputtering technology and the progress of plasma diagnostics for plasma processing. The evolution of the microstructure during magnetron sputtering is then discussed with respect to the change in the process variables in terms of the plasma parameters along with empirical data of the integrated plasma diagnostics for various magnetron sputtering conditions with conventional dc, pulsed dc and high power pulsed dc sputtering modes. Among the major energy terms to be discussed are the temperature change in the top surface region and the energies of ions and neutral species. (topical review)

  16. Influence of O2 Flux on Compositions and Properties of ITO Films Deposited at Room Temperature by Direct-Current Pulse Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hua-Lin; Ding Wan-Yu; Liu Chao-Qian; Chai Wei-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on glass substrates at room temperature by dc pulse magnetron sputtering. Varying O 2 flux, ITO films with different properties are obtained. Both x-ray diffractometer and x-ray photoelectron spectrometer are used to study the change of crystalline structures and bonding structures of ITO films, respectively. Electrical properties are measured by four-point probe measurements. The results indicate that the chemical structures and compositions of ITO films strongly depend on the O 2 flux. With increasing O 2 flux, ITO films display better crystallization, which could decrease the resistivity of films. On the contrary, ITO films contain less O vacancies with increasing O 2 flux, which could worsen the conductive properties of films. Without any heat treatment onto the samples, the resistivity of the ITO film could reach 6.0 × 10 −4 Ω ·cm, with the optimal deposition parameter of 0.2 sccm O 2 flux. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  17. Surface treatment of diamond-like carbon films by reactive Ar/CF{sub 4} high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Takashi, E-mail: t-kimura@nitech.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Nishimura, Ryotaro [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Azuma, Kingo [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Nakao, Setsuo; Sonoda, Tsutomu; Kusumori, Takeshi; Ozaki, Kimihiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) - Chubu, 2266-98 Anagahora, Moriyama, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Surface modification of diamond-like carbon films deposited by a high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) of Ar was carried out by a HPPMS of Ar/CF{sub 4} mixture, changing a CF{sub 4} fraction from 2.5% to 20%. The hardness of the modified films markedly decreased from about 13 to about 3.5 GPa with increasing CF{sub 4} fraction, whereas the water contact angle of the modified films increased from 68° to 109° owing to the increase in the CF{sub x} content on the film surface. C 1s spectra in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that a graphitic structure of modified films was formed at CF{sub 4} fractions less than 5%, above which the modified films possessed a polymer-like structure. Influence of treatment time on the properties of the modified films was also investigated in the range of treatment time from 5 to 30 min. The properties of the modified films did not depend on the treatment time in the range of treatment time longer than 10 min, whereas the water contact angle was not sensitive to the treatment time at any treatment time.

  18. Effect of oxygen incorporation on the structure and elasticity of Ti-Al-O-N coatings synthesized by cathodic arc and high power pulsed magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans, M., E-mail: hans@mch.rwth-aachen.de; Baben, M. to; Music, D.; Ebenhöch, J.; Schneider, J. M. [Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Kopernikusstr. 10, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Primetzhofer, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, S-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Kurapov, D.; Arndt, M.; Rudigier, H. [Oerlikon Balzers Coating AG, Iramali 18, LI-9496 Balzers, Principality of Liechtenstein (Liechtenstein)

    2014-09-07

    Ti-Al-O-N coatings were synthesized by cathodic arc and high power pulsed magnetron sputtering. The chemical composition of the coatings was determined by means of elastic recoil detection analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The effect of oxygen incorporation on the stress-free lattice parameters and Young's moduli of Ti-Al-O-N coatings was investigated by X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation, respectively. As nitrogen is substituted by oxygen, implications for the charge balance may be expected. A reduction in equilibrium volume with increasing O concentration is identified by X-ray diffraction and density functional theory calculations of Ti-Al-O-N supercells reveal the concomitant formation of metal vacancies. Hence, the oxygen incorporation-induced formation of metal vacancies enables charge balancing. Furthermore, nanoindentation experiments reveal a decrease in elastic modulus with increasing O concentration. Based on ab initio data, two causes can be identified for this: First, the metal vacancy-induced reduction in elasticity; and second, the formation of, compared to the corresponding metal nitride bonds, relatively weak Ti-O and Al-O bonds.

  19. Evaluation of the optoelectronic properties and corrosion behavior of Al2O3-doped ZnO films prepared by dc pulsed magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubizarreta, C; Berasategui, E G; Bayón, R; Barriga, J; Escobar Galindo, R; Barros, R; Gaspar, D; Nunes, D; Calmeiro, T; Martins, R; Fortunato, E

    2014-01-01

    The main requirements for transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films acting as electrodes are a high transmission rate in the visible spectral region and low resistivity. However, in many cases, tolerance to temperature and humidity exposure is also an important requirement to be fulfilled by the TCOs to assure proper operation and durability. Besides improving current encapsulation methods, the corrosion resistance of the developed TCOs must also be enhanced to warrant the performance of optoelectronic devices. In this paper the performance of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films deposited by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering has been studied. Structure, optical transmittance/reflectance, electrical properties (resistivity, carrier concentration and mobility) and corrosion resistance of the developed coatings have been analyzed as a function of the doping of the target and the coating thickness. Films grown from a 2.0 wt% Al 2 O 3 target with a thickness of approximately 1 µm showed a very low resistivity of 6.54  ×  10 –4  Ωcm and a high optical transmittance in the visible range of 84%. Corrosion studies of the developed samples have shown very low corrosion currents (nanoamperes), very high corrosion resistances (in the order of 10 7  Ω) and very high electrochemical stability, indicating no tendency for electrochemical corrosion degradation. (paper)

  20. Evaluation of the optoelectronic properties and corrosion behavior of Al2O3-doped ZnO films prepared by dc pulsed magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubizarreta, C.; Berasategui, E. G.; Bayón, R.; Escobar Galindo, R.; Barros, R.; Gaspar, D.; Nunes, D.; Calmeiro, T.; Martins, R.; Fortunato, E.; Barriga, J.

    2014-12-01

    The main requirements for transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films acting as electrodes are a high transmission rate in the visible spectral region and low resistivity. However, in many cases, tolerance to temperature and humidity exposure is also an important requirement to be fulfilled by the TCOs to assure proper operation and durability. Besides improving current encapsulation methods, the corrosion resistance of the developed TCOs must also be enhanced to warrant the performance of optoelectronic devices. In this paper the performance of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films deposited by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering has been studied. Structure, optical transmittance/reflectance, electrical properties (resistivity, carrier concentration and mobility) and corrosion resistance of the developed coatings have been analyzed as a function of the doping of the target and the coating thickness. Films grown from a 2.0 wt% Al2O3 target with a thickness of approximately 1 µm showed a very low resistivity of 6.54  ×  10-4 Ωcm and a high optical transmittance in the visible range of 84%. Corrosion studies of the developed samples have shown very low corrosion currents (nanoamperes), very high corrosion resistances (in the order of 107 Ω) and very high electrochemical stability, indicating no tendency for electrochemical corrosion degradation.

  1. Effect of oxygen incorporation on the structure and elasticity of Ti-Al-O-N coatings synthesized by cathodic arc and high power pulsed magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans, M.; Baben, M. to; Music, D.; Ebenhöch, J.; Schneider, J. M.; Primetzhofer, D.; Kurapov, D.; Arndt, M.; Rudigier, H.

    2014-01-01

    Ti-Al-O-N coatings were synthesized by cathodic arc and high power pulsed magnetron sputtering. The chemical composition of the coatings was determined by means of elastic recoil detection analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The effect of oxygen incorporation on the stress-free lattice parameters and Young's moduli of Ti-Al-O-N coatings was investigated by X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation, respectively. As nitrogen is substituted by oxygen, implications for the charge balance may be expected. A reduction in equilibrium volume with increasing O concentration is identified by X-ray diffraction and density functional theory calculations of Ti-Al-O-N supercells reveal the concomitant formation of metal vacancies. Hence, the oxygen incorporation-induced formation of metal vacancies enables charge balancing. Furthermore, nanoindentation experiments reveal a decrease in elastic modulus with increasing O concentration. Based on ab initio data, two causes can be identified for this: First, the metal vacancy-induced reduction in elasticity; and second, the formation of, compared to the corresponding metal nitride bonds, relatively weak Ti-O and Al-O bonds

  2. Fuzzy tungsten in a magnetron sputtering device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, T.J., E-mail: tjpetty@liv.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Khan, A. [Pariser Building-G11, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Heil, T. [NiCaL, Block C Waterhouse Building, 1-3 Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L69 3GL (United Kingdom); Bradley, J.W., E-mail: j.w.bradley@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 3GJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Helium ion induced tungsten nanostructure (tungsten fuzz) has been studied in a magnetron sputtering device. Three parameters were varied, the fluence from 3.4 × 10{sup 23}–3.0 × 10{sup 24} m{sup −2}, the He ion energy from 25 to 70 eV, and the surface temperature from 900 to 1200 K. For each sample, SEM images were captured, and measurements of the fuzz layer thickness, surface roughness, reflectivity, and average structure widths are provided. A cross-over point from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is found at 2.4 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 24} m{sup −2}, and a temperature of 1080 ± 60 K. No significant change was observed in the energy sweep. The fuzz is compared to low fluence fuzz created in the PISCES-A linear plasma device. Magnetron fuzz is less uniform than fuzz created by PISCES-A and with generally larger structure widths. The thicknesses of the magnetron samples follow the original Φ{sup 1/2} relation as opposed to the incubation fluence fit. - Highlights: • Fuzz has been created in a magnetron sputtering device. • Three parameters for fuzz formation have been swept. • A cross-over from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is seen. • Evidence for annealing out at lower temperatures than has been seen before. • Evidence to suggest that fuzz grown in discrete exposures is not consistent with fuzz grown in one long exposure.

  3. Fuzzy tungsten in a magnetron sputtering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, T.J.; Khan, A.; Heil, T.; Bradley, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Helium ion induced tungsten nanostructure (tungsten fuzz) has been studied in a magnetron sputtering device. Three parameters were varied, the fluence from 3.4 × 10 23 –3.0 × 10 24  m −2 , the He ion energy from 25 to 70 eV, and the surface temperature from 900 to 1200 K. For each sample, SEM images were captured, and measurements of the fuzz layer thickness, surface roughness, reflectivity, and average structure widths are provided. A cross-over point from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is found at 2.4 ± 0.4 × 10 24  m −2 , and a temperature of 1080 ± 60 K. No significant change was observed in the energy sweep. The fuzz is compared to low fluence fuzz created in the PISCES-A linear plasma device. Magnetron fuzz is less uniform than fuzz created by PISCES-A and with generally larger structure widths. The thicknesses of the magnetron samples follow the original Φ 1/2 relation as opposed to the incubation fluence fit. - Highlights: • Fuzz has been created in a magnetron sputtering device. • Three parameters for fuzz formation have been swept. • A cross-over from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is seen. • Evidence for annealing out at lower temperatures than has been seen before. • Evidence to suggest that fuzz grown in discrete exposures is not consistent with fuzz grown in one long exposure.

  4. Impact of pulse duration in high power impulse magnetron sputtering on the low-temperature growth of wurtzite phase (Ti,Al)N films with high hardness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Tetsuhide, E-mail: simizu-tetuhide@tmu.ac.jp [Division of Human Mechatronics Systems, Graduate School of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 6-6, Asahigaoka, Hino-shi, 191-0065 Tokyo (Japan); Teranishi, Yoshikazu; Morikawa, Kazuo; Komiya, Hidetoshi; Watanabe, Tomotaro; Nagasaka, Hiroshi [Surface Finishing Technology Group, Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute, 2-4-10, Aomi, Kohtoh-ku, 135-0064 Tokyo (Japan); Yang, Ming [Division of Human Mechatronics Systems, Graduate School of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 6-6, Asahigaoka, Hino-shi, 191-0065 Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-04-30

    (Ti,Al)N films were deposited from a Ti{sub 0.33}Al{sub 0.67} alloy target with a high Al content at a substrate temperature of less than 150 °C using high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) plasma. The pulse duration was varied from 60 to 300 μs with a low frequency of 333 Hz to investigate the effects on the dynamic variation of the substrate temperature, microstructural grain growth and the resulting mechanical properties. The chemical composition, surface morphology and phase composition of the films were analyzed by energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Mechanical properties were additionally measured by using a nanoindentation tester. A shorter pulse duration resulted in a lower rate of increase in the substrate temperature with an exponentially higher peak target current. The obtained films had a high Al content of 70–73 at.% with a mixed highly (0002) textured wurtzite phase and a secondary phase of cubic (220) grains. Even with the wurtzite phase and the relatively high Al contents of more than 70 at.%, the films exhibited a high hardness of more than 30 GPa with a relatively smooth surface of less than 2 nm root-mean-square roughness. The hardest and smoothest surfaces were obtained for pulses with an intermediate duration of 150 μs. The differences between the obtained film properties under different pulse durations are discussed on the basis of the grain growth process observed by transmission electron microscopy. The feasibility of the low-temperature synthesis of AlN rich wurtzite phase (Ti,Al)N films with superior hardness by HIPIMS plasma duration was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Low temperature synthesis of AlN rich wurtzite phase (Ti,Al)N film was demonstrated. • 1 μm-thick TiAlN film was deposited under the temperature less than 150 °C by HIPIMS. • High Al content with highly (0002) textured wurtzite phase structure was obtained. • High hardness of 35 GPa were

  5. CrN/AlN superlattice coatings synthesized by pulsed closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering with different CrN layer thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jianliang; Moore, John J.; Mishra, Brajendra; Pinkas, Malki; Zhang Xuhai; Sproul, William D.

    2009-01-01

    CrN/AlN superlattice coatings with different CrN layer thicknesses were prepared using a pulsed closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. A decrease in the bilayer period from 12.4 to 3.0 nm and simultaneously an increase in the Al/(Cr + Al) ratio from 19.1 to 68.7 at.% were obtained in the CrN/AlN coatings when the Cr target power was decreased from 1200 to 200 W. The bilayer period and the structure of the coatings were characterized by means of low angle and high angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanical and tribological properties of the coatings were studied using the nanoindentation and ball-on-disc wear tests. It was found that CrN/AlN superlattice coatings synthesized in the current study exhibited a single phase face-centered cubic structure with well defined interfaces between CrN and AlN nanolayers. Decreases in the residual stress and the lattice parameter were identified with a decrease in the CrN layer thickness. The hardness of the coatings increased with a decrease in the bilayer period and the CrN layer thickness, and reached the highest value of 42 GPa at a bilayer period of 4.1 nm (CrN layer thickness of 1.5 nm, AlN layer thickness of 2.5 nm) and an Al/(Cr + Al) ratio of 59.3 at.% in the coatings. A low coefficient of friction of 0.35 and correspondingly low wear rate of 7 x 10 -7 mm 3 N -1 m -1 were also identified in this optimized CrN/AlN coating when sliding against a WC-6%Co ball.

  6. Effect of deposition angle on the structure and properties of pulsed-DC magnetron sputtered TiAlN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, A.R.; Karimi, A.; Cantoni, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the comparison of structure and properties of titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN) films deposited onto Si(100) substrates under normal and oblique angle depositions using pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering. The substrate temperature was set at room temperature, 400 o C and 650 o C, and the bias was kept at 0, - 25, - 50, and - 80 V for both deposition angles. The surface and cross-section of the films were observed by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that as the deposition temperature increases, films deposited under normal incidence exhibit distinct faceted crystallites, whereas oblique angle deposited (OAD) films develop a kind of 'tiles of a roof' or 'stepwise structure', with no facetted crystallites. The OAD films showed an inclined columnar structure, with columns tilting in the direction of the incident flux. As the substrate temperature was increased, the tilting of columns nearly approached the substrate normal. Both hardness and Young's modulus decreases when the flux angle was changed from α = 0 o to 45 o as measured by nanoindentation. This was attributed to the voids formed due to the shadowing effect. The crystallographic properties of these coatings were studied by θ-2θ scan and pole figure X-ray diffraction. Films deposited at α = 0 o showed a mixed (111) and (200) out-of-plane orientation with random in-plane alignment. On the other hand, films deposited at α = 45 o revealed an inclined texture with (111) orientation moving towards the incident flux direction and the (200) orientation approaching the substrate normal, showing substantial in-plane alignment.

  7. Evolution of film temperature during magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaginyan, L.R.; Han, J.G.; Shaginyan, V.R.; Musil, J.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the results of measurements of the temperature T F surf which developed on the surface of films deposited by magnetron sputtering of chromium and copper targets on cooling and non-cooling silicon substrates. The T F surf and substrate temperature (T s ) were simultaneously measured using high-resolution IR camera and thermocouple, respectively. We revealed that the T F surf steeply grows, keeps constant when it achieves saturation level, and rapidly drops to the value of the T s after stopping the deposition. At the same time, the T s either does not change for the case of cooling substrate or increases to a certain level for noncooling substrate. However, in both cases the T s remains several times lower than the T F surf . The T F surf is proportional to the flux of energy delivered to the growth surface by sputtered atoms and other fast particles, weakly depends on the depositing metal and can achieve several hundreds of deg. C. This phenomenon is explained by a model assuming formation of a hot thin surface layer (HTSL) on the top of the growing film, which exists only during film deposition and exhibits extremely low thermal conductivity. Due to this unique property the temperature T F surf of HTSL is several times higher than the T s . Variations in the T F surf fairly correlate with structure changes of Cr films along thickness investigated in detail previously

  8. Comparative study of total power density at a substrate in pulsed DC magnetron and hollow-cathode plasma jet sputtering systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čada, Martin; Virostko, Petr; Kment, Štěpán; Hubička, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 6, S1 (2009), S247-S252 ISSN 1612-8850. [International Conference on Plasma Surface Engineering /11./. Garmisch Partenkirchen, 15.09.2008-19.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA AV ČR KJB100100707; GA AV ČR KJB100100805; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : calorimeter probe * floating substrate * magnetron * plasma jet * pulsed discharge Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.037, year: 2009

  9. Studies on the reactive pulsed-magnetron sputtering of ITO from metallic targets; Untersuchungen zum reaktiven Pulsmagnetronsputtern von ITO von metallischen Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnehr, W.M.

    2006-06-15

    The thesis deals with a reactive sputter process for the deposition of ITO- films. In contrast to the usual technique, the sputter targets consists of indium-tin-alloy instead of ceramic ITO. All experiments were conducted on an inline coater with 600 mm target-width. The process is stabilized by a control loop based on optical emission detection. The experiments prove, that this control loop guarantees a long term stability of the outcomes of the coating process.Process parameters, that are crucial for the optical and electrical properties of the deposited thin films are identified and studied. Among them are the flow of oxygen and the substrate temperature but also less obvious parameters such as the distance between target and substrate.Througout the work the focus is on the film deposition with pulsed plasmas. Novel bipolar DC pulse- and pulse package generators are employed for the deposition.In order to shed some light onto the influence of certain pulse parameters on the outcome of a particular coating process, a Monte-Carlo-Simulation of the particle flow in pulsed plasmas is developed. This simulation yields the distribution of particles and their respective energies on deliberately placed planes in the process chamber. Particles under investigation are both sputtered species and neutral sputter gas atoms reflected at the target. The results of this simulation provide an explanation for the influence of certain pulse parameters on the outcome of the coating process. The further investigations deal with the influence of the construction of the process chamber on the coating process. For this purpose, locally resolved optical spectra are recorded. In order to analyse these spectra, a novel connected fit algorithm is developed.This algorithm yields the distribution of certain fitparameters on the substrate. Provided the most complex of the discussed parametrizations of the dielectric function are used, these can be crucial properties such as the carrier

  10. Nanoporous zinc oxide films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghimpu, L.; Lupan, O.; Popescu, L.; Tiginyanu, I.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate an inexpensive approach for the fabrication of nanoporous zinc oxide films by using magnetron sputtering. Study of the structural properties proves the crystallographic perfection of porous nanostructures and the possibility of its controlling by adjusting the technological parameters in the growth process. The XRD pattern of nanoporous ZnO films exhibits high intensity of the peaks relative to the background signal which is indicative of the ZnO hexagonal phase and a good crystallinity of the samples grown by magnetron sputtering.

  11. Plasma diagnostics during magnetron sputtering of aluminum doped zinc oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Crovetto, Andrea; Sanna, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Plasma parameters during magnetron sputtering of aluminum-doped zinc oxide are investigated with optical emission spectroscopy, electrostatic probes and mass spectrometry with the aim of understanding the role of negative ions of oxygen during the film growth and improving the uniformity of the f......Plasma parameters during magnetron sputtering of aluminum-doped zinc oxide are investigated with optical emission spectroscopy, electrostatic probes and mass spectrometry with the aim of understanding the role of negative ions of oxygen during the film growth and improving the uniformity...

  12. Blue Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy of Pulsed Magnetron Discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olejníček, Jiří; Do, H.T.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Hippler, R.; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 45, 10B (2006), s. 8090-8094 ISSN 0021-4922 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS100100563; GA ČR GA202/05/2242 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : laser absorption spectroscopy * pulsed magnetron * sputtering parameters Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.222, year: 2006

  13. Plasma ``anti-assistance'' and ``self-assistance'' to high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, André; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.

    2009-04-01

    A plasma assistance system was investigated with the goal to operate high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) at lower pressure than usual, thereby to enhance the utilization of the ballistic atoms and ions with high kinetic energy in the film growth process. Gas plasma flow from a constricted plasma source was aimed at the magnetron target. Contrary to initial expectations, such plasma assistance turned out to be contraproductive because it led to the extinction of the magnetron discharge. The effect can be explained by gas rarefaction. A better method of reducing the necessary gas pressure is operation at relatively high pulse repetition rates where the afterglow plasma of one pulse assists in the development of the next pulse. Here we show that this method, known from medium-frequency (MF) pulsed sputtering, is also very important at the much lower pulse repetition rates of HiPIMS. A minimum in the possible operational pressure is found in the frequency region between HiPIMS and MF pulsed sputtering.

  14. Plasma 'anti-assistance' and 'self-assistance' to high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.

    2009-01-01

    A plasma assistance system was investigated with the goal to operate high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) at lower pressure than usual, thereby to enhance the utilization of the ballistic atoms and ions with high kinetic energy in the film growth process. Gas plasma flow from a constricted plasma source was aimed at the magnetron target. Contrary to initial expectations, such plasma assistance turned out to be contraproductive because it led to the extinction of the magnetron discharge. The effect can be explained by gas rarefaction. A better method of reducing the necessary gas pressure is operation at relatively high pulse repetition rates where the afterglow plasma of one pulse assists in the development of the next pulse. Here we show that this method, known from medium-frequency (MF) pulsed sputtering, is also very important at the much lower pulse repetition rates of HiPIMS. A minimum in the possible operational pressure is found in the frequency region between HiPIMS and MF pulsed sputtering

  15. Computer simulation of sputtering of graphite target in magnetron sputtering device with two zones of erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanov R.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A computer simulation program for discharge in a magnetron sputtering device with two erosion zones was developed. Basic laws of the graphite target sputtering process and transport of sputtered material to the substrate were taken into account in the Monte Carlo code. The results of computer simulation for radial distributions of density and energy flux of carbon atoms on the substrate (at different values of discharge current and pressure of the working gas confirmed the possibility of obtaining qualitative homogeneous films using this magnetron sputtering device. Also the discharge modes were determined for this magnetron sputtering device, in which it was possible to obtain such energy and density of carbon atoms fluxes, which were suitable for deposition of carbon films containing carbon nanotubes and other nanoparticles.

  16. A Plasma Lens for Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre; Brown, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    A plasma lens, consisting of a solenoid and potential-defining ring electrodes, has been placed between a magnetron and substrates to be coated. Photography reveals qualitative information on excitation, ionization, and the transport of plasma to the substrate.

  17. RF Reactive Magnetron Sputter Deposition of Silicon Sub-Oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hattum, E.D. van

    2007-01-01

    RF reactive magnetron plasma sputter deposition of silicon sub oxide E.D. van Hattum Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Utrecht University The work described in the thesis has been inspired and stimulated by the use of SiOx layers in the direct inductive printing technology,

  18. Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Adámek, Jiří; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 10 (2014), s. 102309-102309 ISSN 1070-664X Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Drift waves * Magnetron sputtering plasma * Spatiotemporal synchronization Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.142, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4898693

  19. Deposition of thin titanium-copper films with antimicrobial effect by advanced magnetron sputtering methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straňák, V.; Wulff, H.; Rebl, H.; Zietz, C.; Arndt, K.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Nebe, B.; Bader, R.; Podbielski, A.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Hippler, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 7 (2011), s. 1512-1519 ISSN 0928-4931 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/0386; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : implant coating * titanium-copper film * pulsed magnetron sputtering Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.686, year: 2011

  20. Effect of sputtering power on structure and properties of Bi film deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Guo; He Zhibing; Xu Hua; Li Jun; Chen Taihua; Chen Jiajun

    2012-01-01

    Bi film was fabricated at different sputtering powers by DC magnetron sputtering. The deposition rate of Bi film as the function of sputtering power was studied. The surface topography of Bi film was observed by SEM, and the growth mode of Bi film was investigated. The crystal structure was analyzed by XRD. The grain size and stress of Bi film were calculated. The SEM images show that all the films are columnar growth. The average grain size firstly increases as the sputtering power increases, then decreases at 60 W. The film becomes loose with the increase of sputtering power, while, the film gets compact when the sputtering power becomes from 45 to 60 W. The XRD results show that films are polycrystalline of hexagonal. And the stress transforms from the tensile stress to compressive stress as the sputtering power increases. (authors)

  1. High power impulse magnetron sputtering and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, YUAN; Lizhen, YANG; Zhongwei, LIU; Qiang, CHEN

    2018-04-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has attracted a great deal of attention because the sputtered material is highly ionized during the coating process, which has been demonstrated to be advantageous for better quality coating. Therefore, the mechanism of the HiPIMS technique has recently been investigated. In this paper, the current knowledge of HiPIMS is described. We focus on the mechanical properties of the deposited thin film in the latest applications, including hard coatings, adhesion enhancement, tribological performance, and corrosion protection layers. A description of the electrical, optical, photocatalytic, and functional coating applications are presented. The prospects for HiPIMS are also discussed in this work.

  2. Heteroepitaxial Ge-on-Si by DC magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Steglich

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Ge on Si(100 by DC Magnetron Sputtering at various temperatures is studied by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Smooth heteroepitaxial Ge films are prepared at relatively low temperatures of 380°C. Typical Stransky-Krastanov growth is observed at 410°C. At lower temperatures (320°C, films are essentially amorphous with isolated nanocrystallites at the Si-Ge interface. A minor oxygen contamination at the interface, developing after ex-situ oxide removal, is not seen to hinder epitaxy. Compensation of dislocation-induced acceptors in Ge by sputtering from n-doped targets is proposed.

  3. Corrosion of thin, magnetron sputtered Nb_2O_5 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillis, Marina Fuser; Geribola, Guilherme Altomari; Scheidt, Guilherme; Gonçalves de Araújo, Edval; Lopes de Oliveira, Mara Cristina; Antunes, Renato Altobelli

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Niobium oxide based films were obtained by DC magnetron sputtering. • Different deposition times were tested. • The best corrosion resistance was obtained for the Nb_2O_5 film produced at 15′. • Film porosity determines the corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Niobium oxide based thin films were deposited on AISI 316 stainless steel substrates using reactive DC magnetron sputtering. Structure, composition and corrosion resistance of the niobium oxide films were studied. The corrosion behavior of the specimens was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The concentration of niobium and oxygen in the films was obtained by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). The film structure was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry. The corrosion resistance of the substrate was improved by the Nb_2O_5 layers. The best protective performance was achieved for the deposition time of 15 min.

  4. Substrate heating and cooling during magnetron sputtering of copper target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapovalov, Viktor I.; Komlev, Andrey E.; Bondarenko, Anastasia S., E-mail: stopnastia@gmail.com; Baykov, Pavel B.; Karzin, Vitaliy V.

    2016-02-22

    Heating and cooling processes of the substrate during the DC magnetron sputtering of the copper target were investigated. The sensitive element of a thermocouple was used as a substrate. It was found, that the heat outflow rate from the substrate is lower when the magnetron is turned off rather than when it is turned on. Furthermore, the heating rate, the ultimate temperature, and the heat outflow rate related to the deposition of copper atoms are directly proportional to the discharge current density. - Highlights: • New effect of heat outflow from substrate when magnetron is on was discovered. • This new effect is linear in terms of heat outflow rate to target current ratio. • Kinetic equation for heating process additively considers this effect.

  5. Magnetron co-sputtering system for coating ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, E.J.; Meyer, S.F.; Halsey, W.G.; Jameson, G.T.; Wittmayer, F.J.

    1981-01-01

    Fabrication of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets requires deposition of various types of coatings on microspheres. The mechanical strength, and surface finish of the coatings are of concern in ICF experiments. The tensile strength of coatings can be controlled through grain refinement, selective doping and alloy formation. We have constructed a magnetron co-sputtering system to produce variable density profile coatings with high tensile strength on microspheres

  6. Plasma properties of RF magnetron sputtering system using Zn target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafarizal, N.; Andreas Albert, A. R.; Sharifah Amirah, A. S.; Salwa, O.; Riyaz Ahmad, M. A. [Microelectronic and Nanotechnology - Shamsuddin Research Centre (MiNT-SRC), Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2012-06-29

    In the present work, we investigate the fundamental properties of magnetron sputtering plasma using Zn target and its deposited Zn thin film. The magnetron sputtering plasma was produced using radio frequency (RF) power supply and Argon (Ar) as ambient gas. A Langmuir probe was used to collect the current from the plasma and from the current intensity, we calculate the electron density and electron temperature. The properties of Zn sputtering plasma at various discharge conditions were studied. At the RF power ranging from 20 to 100 W and gas pressure 5 mTorr, we found that the electron temperature was almost unchanged between 2-2.5 eV. On the other hand, the electron temperature increased drastically from 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} to 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm{sup -3} when the discharge gas pressure increased from 5 to 10 mTorr. The electron microscope images show that the grain size of Zn thin film increase when the discharge power is increased. This may be due to the enhancement of plasma density and sputtered Zn density.

  7. Effect of deposition temperature on the properties of Al-doped ZnO films prepared by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering for transparent electrodes in thin-film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doo-Soo; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Shin, Beom-Ki; Moon, Kyeong-Ju; Son, Myoungwoo; Ham, Moon-Ho; Lee, Woong; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2012-10-01

    A simple but scalable approach to the production of surface-textured Al-doped ZnO(AZO) films for low-cost transparent electrode applications in thin-film solar cells is introduced in this study by combining pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (PDMS) with wet etching in sequence. First, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the AZO films prepared by a PDMS were investigated as functions of deposition temperature to obtain transparent electrode films that can be used as indium-free alternative to ITO electrodes. Increase in the deposition temperature to 230 °C accompanied the improvement in crystalline quality and doping efficiency, which enabled the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.16 × 10-4 Ω cm with the carrier concentration of 1.65 × 1021 cm-3 and Hall mobility of 11.3 cm2/V s. The wet etching of the films in a diluted HCl solution resulted in surface roughening via the formation of crater-like structures without significant degradation in the electrical properties, which is responsible for the enhanced light scattering capability required for anti-reflective electrodes in thin film solar cells.

  8. Effect of a Ga-doped ZnO thin film with a ZTO buffer layer fabricated by using pulsed DC magnetron sputter for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sang-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Roh, Ji-Hyung; Park, On-Jeon; Kim, Hwan-Sun; Moon, Byung-Moo [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Min-Woo [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The electrical property of a Ga-doped ZnO(GZO) thin film is well known to be similar that of commercialized fluorine-doped tin oxide(FTO). However GZO is limited for use at high process temperatures for solar cells because of its unstable resistivity at temperatures above 300 .deg. C. A GZO thin film compared to zinc tin oxide(ZTO)-GZO multilayer can be used at high process temperatures. A GZO thin film was deposited on glass by using pulsed DC magnetron sputter. Then, a ZTO buffer layer was deposited on the GZO surface. During the deposition, the working pressure was 5 mTorr (Z-1 glass) and 1 mTorr (Z-2 glass). Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using Z-1, Z-2 and commercialized FTO glasses. Z-2 showed a conversion efficiency of 4.265%, which was enhanced by 0.399% compared to that of the DSSCs using FTO(3.784%). The conversion efficiency for Z-1 (3.889%) was a little higher than that of FTO. Thus, the ZTO-GZO electrode showed better characteristics than those obtained using the FTO electrode, which can be attributed to the reduced charge recombination and series resistance.

  9. High temperature superconducting films by rf magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadin, A.M.; Ballentine, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have produced sputtered films of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O by rf magnetron sputtering from an oxide target consisting of loose reacted powder. The use of a large 8-inch stoichiometric target in the magnetron mode permits films located above the central region to be free of negative-ion resputtering effects, and hence yields reproducible, uniform stoichiometric compositions for a wide range of substrate temperatures. Superconducting YBCO films have been obtained either by sputtering at low temperatures followed by an 850 0 C oxygen anneal, or alternatively by depositing onto substrates heated to ∼600 - 650 0 C and cooling in oxygen. Films prepared by the former method on cubic zirconia substrate consist of randomly oriented crystallites with zero resistance above 83 K. Those deposited on zirconia at medium temperatures without the high-temperature anneal contain smooth partially oriented crystallites, with a slightly depressed T/sub c/ ∼75K. Finally, superconducting films have been deposited on MgO using a BiSrCaCu/sub 2/O/sub x/ powder target

  10. Pd-catalysts for DFAFC prepared by magnetron sputtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bieloshapka, Igor; Jiříček, Petr; Vorokhta, M.; Tomšík, Elena; Rednyk, A.; Perekrestov, R.; Jurek, Karel; Ukraintsev, Egor; Hruška, Karel; Romanyuk, Olexandr; Lesiak, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 419, Oct (2017), s. 838-846 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015088 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Pd catalyst * formic acid fuel cell * magnetron sputtering * DFAFC * surface morphology Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (UMCH-V) OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.); Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  11. Reactive magnetron sputtering model at making Ti-TiOx coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchkin, A G; Kashapov, N F

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical model of reactive magnetron sputtering for plant VU 700-D is described. Approximating curves for experimental current-voltage characteristic for two gas input schemas are shown. Choice of gas input schema influences on model parameters (mainly on pumping speed). Reactive magnetron sputtering model allows develop technology of Ti - TiO x coatings deposition without changing atmosphere and pressure in vacuum chamber

  12. Dependence of plasma characteristics on dc magnetron sputter parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.Z.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma discharge characteristics of a dc magnetron system were measured by a single Langmuir probe at the center axis of the dual-side process chamber. Plasma potential, floating potential, electron and ion densities, and electron temperature were extracted with varying dc power and gas pressure during sputter deposition of a metal target; strong correlations were shown between these plasma parameters and the sputter parameters. The electron density was controlled mostly by secondary electron generation in constant power mode, while plasma potential reflects the confinement space variation due to change of discharge voltage. When discharge pressure was varied, plasma density increases with the increased amount of free stock molecules, while electron temperature inversely decreased, due to energy-loss collision events. In low-pressure discharges, the electron energy distribution function measurements show more distinctive bi-Maxwellian distribution, with the fast electron temperature gradually decreases with increased gas pressure

  13. Comparative study about Al-doped zinc oxide thin films deposited by Pulsed Electron Deposition and Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering as Transparent Conductive Oxide for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattini, F., E-mail: pattini@imem.cnr.it [IMEM-CNR, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Annoni, F.; Bissoli, F.; Bronzoni, M. [IMEM-CNR, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); Garcia, J.P. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft Product and Process Design Institute, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands); Gilioli, E.; Rampino, S. [IMEM-CNR, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    In this study, a comparison between Al-doped ZnO (AZO) as Transparent Conductive Oxide for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based solar cells grown by Pulsed Electron Deposition (PED) and Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering (RFMS) was performed. PED yielded polycrystalline [002] mono-oriented thin films with low electrical resistivity and high optical transparency with heater temperatures ranging from room temperature (RT) to 250 °C. The electrical resistivity of these films can be tuned by varying the heater temperature, reaching a minimum value of 3.5 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm at 150 °C and an average transmittance over 90% in the visible range. An AZO film grown at RT was deposited by PED on an actual Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based solar cell, resulting to an efficiency value of 15.2% on the best device. This result clearly shows that PED is a suitable technique for growing ZnO-based thin films for devices/applications where low deposition temperature is required. On the other hand, an optimized AZO thin film front contact for thin film solar cells was studied and fabricated via RFMS. The parameters of this technique were tweaked to obtain highly conductive and transparent AZO thin films. The lowest resistivity value of 3.7 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm and an average transmittance of 86% in the 400-1100 nm wavelength range was obtained with a heater temperature of 250 °C. A thick sputtered AZO film was deposited at RT onto an identical cell used for PED-grown AZO, reaching the highest conversion efficiency value of 14.7%. In both cases, neither antireflection coatings nor pure ZnO layer was used. - Highlights: • Pulsed Electron Deposition (PED) lets high quality films grow at low temperature. • Al:ZnO (AZO) thin films grown by PED present high optical and electrical quality. • AZO electrical resistivity can be tuned from 10{sup −4} to 10{sup −2} Ωcm in proper condition. • Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based simplified solar cells achieved efficiency of 15.2% for PED-grown AZO.

  14. Understanding deposition rate loss in high power impulse magnetron sputtering: I. Ionization-driven electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenning, N; Huo, C; Raadu, M A; Lundin, D; Helmersson, U; Vitelaru, C; Stancu, G D; Minea, T

    2012-01-01

    The lower deposition rate for high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) compared with direct current magnetron sputtering for the same average power is often reported as a drawback. The often invoked reason is back-attraction of ionized sputtered material to the target due to a substantial negative potential profile, sometimes called an extended presheath, from the location of ionization toward the cathode. Recent studies in HiPIMS devices, using floating-emitting and swept-Langmuir probes, show that such extended potential profiles do exist, and that the electric fields E z directed toward the target can be strong enough to seriously reduce ion transport to the substrate. However, they also show that the potential drops involved can vary by up to an order of magnitude from case to case. There is a clear need to understand the underlying mechanisms and identify the key discharge variables that can be used for minimizing the back-attraction. We here present a combined theoretical and experimental analysis of the problem of electric fields E z in the ionization region part of HiPIMS discharges, and their effect on the transport of ionized sputtered material. In particular, we have investigated the possibility of a ‘sweet spot’ in parameter space in which the back-attraction of ionized sputtered material is low. It is concluded that a sweet spot might possibly exist for some carefully optimized discharges, but probably in a rather narrow window of parameters. As a measure of how far a discharge is from such a window, a Townsend product Π Townsend is proposed. A parametric analysis of Π Townsend shows that the search for a sweet spot is complicated by the fact that contradictory demands appear for several of the externally controllable parameters such as high/low working gas pressure, short/long pulse length, high/low pulse power and high/low magnetic field strength. (paper)

  15. Effect of Ta buffer and NiFe seed layers on pulsed-DC magnetron sputtered Ir{sub 20}Mn{sub 80}/Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10} exchange bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oksuezoglu, Ramis Mustafa, E-mail: rmoksuzoglu@anadolu.edu.t [University of Anadolu, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Iki Eyluel Campus, 26555 Eskisehir (Turkey); Yildirim, Mustafa; Cinar, Hakan [University of Anadolu, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Iki Eyluel Campus, 26555 Eskisehir (Turkey); Hildebrandt, Erwin; Alff, Lambert [Department of Materials Sciences, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstrasse 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    A systematic investigation has been done on the correlation between texture, grain size evolution and magnetic properties in Ta/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19}/Ir{sub 20}Mn{sub 80}/Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}/Ta exchange bias in dependence of Ta buffer and NiFe seed layer thickness in the range of 2-10 nm, deposited by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering technique. A strong dependence of <1 1 1> texture on the Ta/NiFe thicknesses was found, where the reducing and increasing texture was correlated with exchange bias field and unidirectional anisotropy energy constant at both NiFe/IrMn and IrMn/CoFe interfaces. However, a direct correlation between average grain size in IrMn and H{sub ex} and H{sub c} was not observed. L1{sub 2} phase IrMn{sub 3} could be formed by thickness optimization of Ta/NiFe layers by deposition at room temperature, for which the maximum exchange coupling parameters were achieved. We conclude finally that the coercivity is mainly influenced by texture induced interfacial effects at NiFe/IrMn/CoFe interfaces developing with Ta/NiFe thicknesses. - Research highlights: We discussed the influence of Ta/NiFe thicknesses on structure and grain size in AF layer and texture. A direct correlation between the <1 1 1> texture and exchange coupling was found. A direct relation between average grain size and H{sub ex} and H{sub c} was not observed. L1{sub 2} phase IrMn{sub 3} was formed by deposition at room temperature for Ta (5-6 nm)/NiFe (6-8 nm). We conclude that the coercivity is influenced by order/disorder at NiFe/IrMn/CoFe interfaces.

  16. Effect of deposition temperature on the properties of Al-doped ZnO films prepared by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering for transparent electrodes in thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Doo-Soo; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Shin, Beom-Ki; Moon, Kyeong-Ju [Information and Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Myoungwoo [Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Moon-Ho [Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woong [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Engineering, Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-Dong, Changwon, Gyeongnam 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Myoung, Jae-Min, E-mail: jmmyoung@yonsei.ac.kr [Information and Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface-textured AZO films were achieved by combining PDMS method with wet etching. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AZO film deposited at 230 Degree-Sign C by PDMS exhibited the best performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is due to the higher plasma density supplied from PDMS system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wet etching of the films produces a crater-like rough surface morphology. - Abstract: A simple but scalable approach to the production of surface-textured Al-doped ZnO(AZO) films for low-cost transparent electrode applications in thin-film solar cells is introduced in this study by combining pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (PDMS) with wet etching in sequence. First, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the AZO films prepared by a PDMS were investigated as functions of deposition temperature to obtain transparent electrode films that can be used as indium-free alternative to ITO electrodes. Increase in the deposition temperature to 230 Degree-Sign C accompanied the improvement in crystalline quality and doping efficiency, which enabled the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.16 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm with the carrier concentration of 1.65 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3} and Hall mobility of 11.3 cm{sup 2}/V s. The wet etching of the films in a diluted HCl solution resulted in surface roughening via the formation of crater-like structures without significant degradation in the electrical properties, which is responsible for the enhanced light scattering capability required for anti-reflective electrodes in thin film solar cells.

  17. Effect of deposition temperature on the properties of Al-doped ZnO films prepared by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering for transparent electrodes in thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Doo-Soo; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Shin, Beom-Ki; Moon, Kyeong-Ju; Son, Myoungwoo; Ham, Moon-Ho; Lee, Woong; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Surface-textured AZO films were achieved by combining PDMS method with wet etching. ► The AZO film deposited at 230 °C by PDMS exhibited the best performance. ► It is due to the higher plasma density supplied from PDMS system. ► Wet etching of the films produces a crater-like rough surface morphology. - Abstract: A simple but scalable approach to the production of surface-textured Al-doped ZnO(AZO) films for low-cost transparent electrode applications in thin-film solar cells is introduced in this study by combining pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (PDMS) with wet etching in sequence. First, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the AZO films prepared by a PDMS were investigated as functions of deposition temperature to obtain transparent electrode films that can be used as indium-free alternative to ITO electrodes. Increase in the deposition temperature to 230 °C accompanied the improvement in crystalline quality and doping efficiency, which enabled the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.16 × 10 −4 Ω cm with the carrier concentration of 1.65 × 10 21 cm −3 and Hall mobility of 11.3 cm 2 /V s. The wet etching of the films in a diluted HCl solution resulted in surface roughening via the formation of crater-like structures without significant degradation in the electrical properties, which is responsible for the enhanced light scattering capability required for anti-reflective electrodes in thin film solar cells.

  18. Room temperature deposition of high figure of merit Al-doped zinc oxide by pulsed-direct current magnetron sputtering: Influence of energetic negative ion bombardment on film's optoelectronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumagalli, F., E-mail: francesco.fumagalli@iit.it; Martí-Rujas, J., E-mail: javier.rujas@iit.it; Di Fonzo, F., E-mail: fabio.difonzo@iit.it

    2014-10-31

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide is regarded as a promising indium-free transparent conductive oxide for photovoltaic and transparent electronics. In this study high transmittance (up to 90,6%) and low resistivity (down to 8,4°1{sup −4} Ω cm) AZO films were fabricated at room temperature on thermoplastic and soda-lime glass substrates by means of pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering in argon gas. Morphological, optical and electrical film properties were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, UV–vis–nIR photo-spectrometer, X-ray spectroscopy and four probes method. Optimal deposition conditions were found to be strongly related to substrate position. The dependence of functional properties on substrate off-axis position was investigated and correlated to the angular distributions of negative ions fluxes emerging from the plasma discharge. Figure of merit as high as 2,15 ± 0,14 Ω{sup −1} were obtained outside the negative oxygen ions confinement region. Combination of high quality AZO films deposited on flexible polymers substrates by means of a solid and scalable fabrication technique is of interest for application in cost-effective optoelectrical devices, organic photovoltaics and polymer based electronics. - Highlights: • High figure of merit transparent conductive oxide's deposited at room temperature. • High transmittance and low resistivity obtained on thermoplastic substrates. • Competitive optoelectrical properties compared to high temperature deposition. • Negative ion fluxes confinement influence structural and optoelectrical properties. • Easily adaptable for scaled-up low temperature AZO film deposition installations.

  19. TOPICAL REVIEW: Physics and phenomena in pulsed magnetrons: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J. W.; Welzel, T.

    2009-05-01

    This paper reviews the contribution made to the observation and understanding of the basic physical processes occurring in an important type of magnetized low-pressure plasma discharge, the pulsed magnetron. In industry, these plasma sources are operated typically in reactive mode where a cathode is sputtered in the presence of both chemically reactive and noble gases typically with the power modulated in the mid-frequency (5-350 kHz) range. In this review, we concentrate mostly, however, on physics-based studies carried out on magnetron systems operated in argon. This simplifies the physical-chemical processes occurring and makes interpretation of the observations somewhat easier. Since their first recorded use in 1993 there have been more than 300 peer-reviewed paper publications concerned with pulsed magnetrons, dealing wholly or in part with fundamental observations and basic studies. The fundamentals of these plasmas and the relationship between the plasma parameters and thin film quality regularly have whole sessions at international conferences devoted to them; however, since many different types of magnetron geometries have been used worldwide with different operating parameters the important results are often difficult to tease out. For example, we find the detailed observations of the plasma parameter (particle density and temperature) evolution from experiment to experiment are at best difficult to compare and at worst contradictory. We review in turn five major areas of studies which are addressed in the literature and try to draw out the major results. These areas are: fast electron generation, bulk plasma heating, short and long-term plasma parameter rise and decay rates, plasma potential modulation and transient phenomena. The influence of these phenomena on the ion energy and ion energy flux at the substrate is discussed. This review, although not exhaustive, will serve as a useful guide for more in-depth investigations using the referenced

  20. Physics and phenomena in pulsed magnetrons: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J W; Welzel, T

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the contribution made to the observation and understanding of the basic physical processes occurring in an important type of magnetized low-pressure plasma discharge, the pulsed magnetron. In industry, these plasma sources are operated typically in reactive mode where a cathode is sputtered in the presence of both chemically reactive and noble gases typically with the power modulated in the mid-frequency (5-350 kHz) range. In this review, we concentrate mostly, however, on physics-based studies carried out on magnetron systems operated in argon. This simplifies the physical-chemical processes occurring and makes interpretation of the observations somewhat easier. Since their first recorded use in 1993 there have been more than 300 peer-reviewed paper publications concerned with pulsed magnetrons, dealing wholly or in part with fundamental observations and basic studies. The fundamentals of these plasmas and the relationship between the plasma parameters and thin film quality regularly have whole sessions at international conferences devoted to them; however, since many different types of magnetron geometries have been used worldwide with different operating parameters the important results are often difficult to tease out. For example, we find the detailed observations of the plasma parameter (particle density and temperature) evolution from experiment to experiment are at best difficult to compare and at worst contradictory. We review in turn five major areas of studies which are addressed in the literature and try to draw out the major results. These areas are: fast electron generation, bulk plasma heating, short and long-term plasma parameter rise and decay rates, plasma potential modulation and transient phenomena. The influence of these phenomena on the ion energy and ion energy flux at the substrate is discussed. This review, although not exhaustive, will serve as a useful guide for more in-depth investigations using the referenced

  1. Discharge Characteristic of VHF-DC Superimposed Magnetron Sputtering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Hirotaka; Fukuoka, Yushi; Fukui, Takashi; Takada, Noriharu; Sasai, Kensuke

    2014-10-01

    Magnetron plasmas are one of the most important tools for sputter deposition of thin films. However, energetic particles from the sputtered target such as backscattered rare gas atoms or oxygen negative ions from oxide targets sometimes induce physical and chemical damages as well as surface roughening to the deposited film surface during the sputtering processes. To suppress kinetic energy of such particles, superposition of RF or VHF power to the DC power has been investigated. In this study, influence of the VHF power superposition on the DC target voltage, which is important factor to determine kinetic energy of high energy particles, is investigated. In the study, 40 MHz VHF power was superimposed to an ITO target and decrease in the target DC voltage was measured as well as deposited film deposition properties such as deposition rate or electrical conductivity. From systematic measurement of the target voltage, it was revealed that the target voltage can be determined by a very simple parameter, i.e., a ratio of VHF power to the total input power (DC and VHF powers) in spite of the DC discharge current. Part of this work was supported by ASTEP, JST.

  2. Functional nanostructured titanium nitride films obtained by sputtering magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, O.; Hernandez-Velez, M.; Navas, D.; Auger, M.A.; Baldonedo, J.L.; Sanz, R.; Pirota, K.R.; Vazquez, M.

    2006-01-01

    Development of new methods in the formation of hollow structures, in particular, nanotubes and nanocages are currently generating a great interest as a consequence of the growing relevance of these nanostructures on many technological fields, ranging from optoelectronics to biotechnology. In this work, we report the formation of titanium nitride (TiN) nanotubes and nanohills via reactive sputtering magnetron processes. Anodic Alumina Membranes (AAM) were used as template substrates to grow the TiN nanostructures. The AAM were obtained through electrochemical anodization processes by using oxalic acid solutions as electrolytes. The nanotubes were produced at temperatures below 100 deg. C, and using a pure titanium (99.995%) sputtering target and nitrogen as reactive gas. The obtained TiN thin films showed surface morphologies adjusted to pore diameter and interpore distance of the substrates, as well as ordered arrays of nanotubes or nanohills depending on the sputtering and template conditions. High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM) was used to elucidate both the surface order and morphology of the different grown nanostructures. The crystalline structure of the samples was examined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns and their qualitative chemical composition by using X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (XEDS) in a scanning electron microscopy

  3. Properties of tungsten films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, K.Y.; Ting, C.Y.; Brodsky, S.B.; Fryer, P.M.; Davari, B.; Angillelo, J.; Herd, S.R.; Licata, T.

    1986-01-01

    High-rate magnetron sputtering is a relatively simple process to produce tungsten films with good electrical and mechanical properties, and it offers good uniformity, reproducibility, process flexibility, and high throughput. The purity of the sputtered films is affected by the target purity (cold-pressed 99.95%, chemical vapor deposited 99.99% and cast 99.999%), base pressure, deposition rate, and substrate bias. Typical resistivity in films of 2000 to 3000A thickness deposited on Si, poly-Si, and SiO/sub 2/ ranges from 10 to 12 μΩ-cm, and this may be compared with 6 and 11 μΩ-cm by high-temperature evaporation and chemical vapor deposition, respectively. The presence of biaxial stress caused by substrate scanning was determined by x-ray technique. The sputtered films exhibit high compressive stress when deposited at low Ar pressure. It decreases with increasing pressure, and eventually changes sign to become tensile, and increases further with increasing pressure. Effects of processing parameters on films properties, and a comparison of film properties prepared by evaporation and chemical vapor deposition are discussed

  4. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Rafieian Boroujeni, Damon; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Savenije, Tom; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to anatase or rutile, depending on the initial sputtering conditions. Substoichiometric films (TiOx

  5. Silicon oxynitride films deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering using nitrous oxide as a single-source precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hänninen, Tuomas, E-mail: tuoha@ifm.liu.se; Schmidt, Susann; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Högberg, Hans [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping SE-581 83 (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    Silicon oxynitride thin films were synthesized by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of silicon in argon/nitrous oxide plasmas. Nitrous oxide was employed as a single-source precursor supplying oxygen and nitrogen for the film growth. The films were characterized by elastic recoil detection analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, scanning electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Results show that the films are silicon rich, amorphous, and exhibit a random chemical bonding structure. The optical properties with the refractive index and the extinction coefficient correlate with the film elemental composition, showing decreasing values with increasing film oxygen and nitrogen content. The total percentage of oxygen and nitrogen in the films is controlled by adjusting the gas flow ratio in the deposition processes. Furthermore, it is shown that the film oxygen-to-nitrogen ratio can be tailored by the high power impulse magnetron sputtering-specific parameters pulse frequency and energy per pulse.

  6. Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Adámek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-10-15

    A feedforward scheme is applied for drift waves control in a magnetized magnetron sputtering plasma. A system of driven electrodes collecting electron current in a limited region of the explored plasma is used to interact with unstable drift waves. Drift waves actually appear as electrostatic modes characterized by discrete wavelengths of the order of few centimeters and frequencies of about 100 kHz. The effect of external quasi-periodic, both in time and space, travelling perturbations is studied. Particular emphasis is given to the role played by the phase relation between the natural and the imposed fluctuations. It is observed that it is possible by means of localized electrodes, collecting currents which are negligible with respect to those flowing in the plasma, to transfer energy to one single mode and to reduce that associated to the others. Due to the weakness of the external action, only partial control has been achieved.

  7. Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.; Adámek, J.

    2014-01-01

    A feedforward scheme is applied for drift waves control in a magnetized magnetron sputtering plasma. A system of driven electrodes collecting electron current in a limited region of the explored plasma is used to interact with unstable drift waves. Drift waves actually appear as electrostatic modes characterized by discrete wavelengths of the order of few centimeters and frequencies of about 100 kHz. The effect of external quasi-periodic, both in time and space, travelling perturbations is studied. Particular emphasis is given to the role played by the phase relation between the natural and the imposed fluctuations. It is observed that it is possible by means of localized electrodes, collecting currents which are negligible with respect to those flowing in the plasma, to transfer energy to one single mode and to reduce that associated to the others. Due to the weakness of the external action, only partial control has been achieved

  8. Characterisation of magnetron sputtered SmCo5 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Sood, D.K.; Kothari

    1999-01-01

    SmCo 5 thin films were deposited using DC magnetron sputtering on single crystal silicon substrate with chromium and SiO 2 top layers. Deposition was carried out at three different substrate temperatures: room temperature, 400 deg C and 600 deg C. Films were characterised by using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and SQUID magnetometer. RBS analysis indicated that the films have excellent stoichiometry with the Sm to Co ratio of 1:5. This analysis also showed that the films deposited or annealed at high temperatures (≥600 deg C) indicated significant inter-diffusion at the interface between the barrier layer and the film. Oxygen was found to be the major impurity in the films. XRD data indicated that the films formed 1:5 and 2:17 phases under different deposition conditions. The preliminary studies of these films using magnetic force microscopy revealed the presence of magnetic domains

  9. Rhodium coated mirrors deposited by magnetron sputtering for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marot, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Oelhafen, P.; Covarel, G.; Litnovsky, A.

    2007-01-01

    Metallic mirrors will be essential components of all optical spectroscopy and imaging systems for ITER plasma diagnostics. Any change in the mirror performance, in particular, its reflectivity, due to erosion of the surface by charge exchange neutrals or deposition of impurities will influence the quality and reliability of the detected signals. Due to its high reflectivity in the visible wavelength range and its low sputtering yield, rhodium appears as an attractive material for first mirrors in ITER. However, the very high price of the raw material calls for using it in the form of a film deposited onto metallic substrates. The development of a reliable technique for the preparation of high reflectivity rhodium films is therefore of the highest importance. Rhodium layers with thicknesses of up to 2 μm were produced on different substrates of interest (Mo, stainless steel, Cu) by magnetron sputtering. Produced films exhibit a low roughness and crystallite size of about 10 nm with a dense columnar structure. No impurities were detected on the surface after deposition. Scratch tests demonstrate that adhesion properties increase with substrate hardness. Detailed optical characterizations of Rh-coated mirrors as well as results of erosion tests performed both under laboratory conditions and in the TEXTOR tokamak are presented in this paper

  10. Mechanical properties of nanocrystalline palladium prepared by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrup, Anna; Hahn, Horst [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Technical University of Darmstadt (Germany); Scherer, Torsten; Ivanisenko, Yulia; Choi, In-Suk; Kraft, Oliver [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Nanocrystalline metals and alloys with grain sizes well below 100 nm often demonstrate unique deformation behaviour and therefore attract a great interest in material science. The understanding of deformation mechanisms operating in nanocrystalline materials is important to predict their mechanical properties. In the present study Pd films of 1{mu}m thickness were prepared using UHV rf magnetron sputtering on dog bone shaped Kapton substrates and on Si/SiO2 wafers. The films were sputtered using multilayer technology with an individual layer thickness of 10 nm. This resulted in grain sizes of about 20 nm. Initial microstructure and texture were characterized using conventional XRD measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in both cross section- and plane view. The mechanical properties were investigated using tensile testing and nanoindentation at several strain rates. An increased hardness and strength as compared to coarse grained Pd was observed, as well as high strain rate sensitivity. The microstructure in the gauge section after tensile testing was again analyzed using TEM in order to reveal signatures of deformation mechanisms like dislocation motion or twinning.

  11. Multilayer DLC coatings via alternating bias during magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Fengji [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Zhang, Sam, E-mail: msyzhang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Kong Junhua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Zhang Yujuan [Key Laboratory of Special Functional Material, Henan University (China); Zhang Wali [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

    2011-05-31

    To combat the high residual stress problem in monolayer diamond-like carbon coatings, this paper fabricated multilayer diamond-like carbon coatings with alternate soft and hard layers via alternating bias during magnetron sputtering. The surface, cross sectional morphology, bonding structures and mechanical properties are investigated. The atomic force microscopy images indicate low bias results in rougher surface with large graphite clusters and voids suggesting low coating density. The multilayered coatings demonstrate relatively smooth surface stemming from higher bias. The cross sectional images from field emission scanning electron microscopy indicate coating thickness decreases as substrate bias increases and confirm that higher bias results in denser coating. Delamination is observed in monolayer coatings due to high residual stress. The trend of sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} fraction estimated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is consistent with that of I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratios from Raman spectra, indicating the change of bonding structure with change of substrate bias. Hardness of multilayer diamond-like carbon coating is comparable to the coatings deposited at low constant bias but the adhesion strength and toughness are significantly improved. Alternately biased sputtering deposition provides an alternative when combination of hardness, toughness and adhesion strength is needed in an all diamond-like carbon coating.

  12. Contribution to crystallographical and mechanical analysis of molybdenum coatings prepared by magnetron cathode sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosland, P.

    1989-07-01

    Molybdenum coatings with different compression stresses are obtained by magnetron cathode sputtering by varying negative voltage applied to the substrate during deposition. Stress evolution, crystal texture and argon content are studied [fr

  13. CrN thin films prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering for symmetric supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Binbin; Liang, Hanfeng; Zhang, Dongfang; Wu, Zhengtao; Qi, Zhengbing; Wang, Zhoucheng

    2016-01-01

    stability are promising candidates as supercapacitor electrode materials. In this work, we report the fabrication of CrN thin films using reactive DC magnetron sputtering and further their applications for symmetric supercapacitors for the first time. The Cr

  14. Chromium-nanodiamond coatings obtained by magnetron sputtering and their tribological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamanov, M. V.; Khrushchov, M. M.; Marchenko, E. A.; Shevchenko, N. V.; Levin, I. S.; Petrzhik, M. I.; Miroshnichenko, V. I.; Relianu, M. D.

    2017-07-01

    Peculiarities of structure, chemical and phase composition, micromechanical and tribological properties of chromium-based coatings obtained by magnetron-sputtering of composite and/or compacted chromium-nanodiamond targets have been investigated.

  15. Additive manufactured Ti6Al4V scaffolds with the RF- magnetron sputter deposited hydroxyapatite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudinova, E; Surmeneva, M; Surmenev, R; Koptioug, A; Scoglund, P

    2016-01-01

    Present paper reports on the results of surface modification of the additively manufactured porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds. Radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was used to modify the surface of the alloy via deposition of the biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. The surface morphology, chemical and phase composition of the HA-coated alloy were studied. It was revealed that RF magnetron sputtering allows preparing a homogeneous HA coating onto the entire surface of scaffolds. (paper)

  16. Electrical and Optical Properties of Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Y. Banyamin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO coatings have been prepared using the mid-frequency pulsed DC closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering technique in an Ar/O2 atmosphere using blends of tin oxide and tin fluoride powder formed into targets. FTO coatings were deposited with a thickness of 400 nm on glass substrates. No post-deposition annealing treatments were carried out. The effects of the chemical composition on the structural (phase, grain size, optical (transmission, optical band-gap and electrical (resistivity, charge carrier, mobility properties of the thin films were investigated. Depositing FTO by magnetron sputtering is an environmentally friendly technique and the use of loosely packed blended powder targets gives an efficient means of screening candidate compositions, which also provides a low cost operation. The best film characteristics were achieved using a mass ratio of 12% SnF2 to 88% SnO2 in the target. The thin film produced was polycrystalline with a tetragonal crystal structure. The optimized conditions resulted in a thin film with average visible transmittance of 83% and optical band-gap of 3.80 eV, resistivity of 6.71 × 10−3 Ω·cm, a carrier concentration (Nd of 1.46 × 1020 cm−3 and a mobility of 15 cm2/Vs.

  17. Deposition and characterization of pulsed direct current magnetron sputtered Al{sub 95.5}Cr{sub 2.5}Si{sub 2} (N{sub 1-x}O{sub x}) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, H., E-mail: hossein.najafi@epfl.c [Institut de Physique de la Matiere Condensee (IPMC), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Shetty, A.; Karimi, A. [Institut de Physique de la Matiere Condensee (IPMC), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Morstein, M. [Platit AG, Advanced Coating Systems, CH-2545 Selzach (Switzerland)

    2010-10-29

    Aluminum rich oxynitride thin films were prepared using pulsed direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering from an Al{sub 95.5}Cr{sub 2.5}Si{sub 2} (at.%) target. Two series of films were deposited at 400 {sup o}C and 650 {sup o}C by changing the O{sub 2}/(O{sub 2} + N{sub 2}) ratio in the reactive gas from 0% (pure nitrides) to 100% (pure oxides). The films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nanoindentation. The results showed the existence of three different regions of microstructure and properties with respect to the oxygen concentration. For the samples deposited at 650 {sup o}C in the nitrogen rich region (O{sub 2}/(O{sub 2} + N{sub 2}) {<=} 0.08), the formation of the h-AlN (002) and Al-N bond were confirmed by XRD and XPS measurements. The hardness of the films was around 30 GPa. In the intermediate region (0.08 {<=} O{sub 2}/(O{sub 2} + N{sub 2}) {<=} 0.24), the presence of an amorphous structure and the shifting of the binding energies to lower values corresponding to non-stoichiometric compounds were observed and the hardness decreased to 12 GPa. The lowering of mechanical properties was attributed to the transition of the clean target to the reacted target under non-steady state deposition conditions. In the oxygen rich region (0.24 {<=} (O{sub 2}/(O{sub 2} + N{sub 2}) {<=} 1), the existence of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-(113), {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-(116) and Al-O bonds confirmed the domination of this phase in this region of deposition and the hardness increased again to 30-35 GPa. Films deposited at 400 {sup o}C showed the same behavior except in the oxygen rich region, where hardness remains low at about 12-14 GPa.

  18. Photoluminescence of Mg_2Si films fabricated by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Yang-Fang; Xie, Quan; Xiao, Qing-Quan; Chen, Qian; Fan, Meng-Hui; Xie, Jing; Huang, Jin; Zhang, Jin-Min; Ma, Rui; Wang, Shan-Lan; Wu, Hong-Xian; Fang, Di

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • High quality Mg_2Si films were grown on Si (111) and glass substrates with magnetron sputtering, respectively. • The first observation of Photoluminescence (PL) of Mg_2Si films was reported. • The Mg_2Si PL emission wavelengths are almost independence on temperature in the range of 77–300 K. • The strongest PL emissions may be attributed to interstitial Mg donor level to valence band transitions. • The activation energy of Mg_2Si is determined from the quenching of major luminescence peaks. - Abstract: To understand the photoluminescence mechanisms and optimize the design of Mg_2Si-based light-emitting devices, Mg_2Si films were fabricated on silicon (111) and glass substrates by magnetron sputtering technique, and the influences of different substrates on the photoelectric properties of Mg_2Si films were investigated systematically. The crystal structure, cross-sectional morphology, composition ratios and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) of the Mg_2Si films were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and PL measurement system, respectively. XRD results indicate that the Mg_2Si film on Si (111) displays polycrystalline structure, whereas Mg_2Si film on glass substrate is of like-monocrystalline structure.SEM results show that Mg_2Si film on glass substrate is very compact with a typical dense columnar structure, and the film on Si substrate represents slight delamination phenomenon. EDS results suggest that the stoichiometry of Mg and Si is approximately 2:1. Photoluminescence (PL) of Mg_2Si films was observed for the first time. The PL emission wavelengths of Mg_2Si are almost independence on temperature in the range of 77–300 K. The PL intensity decreases gradually with increasing temperature. The PL intensity of Mg_2Si films on glass substrate is much larger than that of Mg_2Si film on Si (111) substrate. The activation energy of 18 meV is

  19. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafieian Boroujeni, Damon; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Savenije, Tom; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to

  20. Giant Negative Piezoresistive Effect in Diamond-like Carbon and Diamond-like Carbon-Based Nickel Nanocomposite Films Deposited by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering of Ni Target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meškinis, Šaru Nas; Gudaitis, Rimantas; Šlapikas, Kęstutis

    2018-01-01

    deposited by either reactive HIPIMS or dc magnetron sputtering of Ni target was explained by possible clustering of the sp2-bonded carbon and/or formation of areas with the decreased hydrogen content. It was suggested that the tensile stress-induced rearrangements of these conglomerations have resulted......Piezoresistive properties of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) and DLC-based nickel nanocomposite (DLC:Ni) films were studied in the range of low concentration of nickel nanoparticles. The films were deposited by reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of Ni target, and some...... samples were deposited by direct current (dc) reactive magnetron sputtering for comparison purposes. Raman scattering spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to study the structure and chemical composition of the films. A four...

  1. DC Magnetron Sputtered IZTO Thin Films for Organic Photovoltaic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Ji; Noviyana, Imas; Putri, Maryane; Koo, Chang Young; Lee, Jung-A; Kim, Jeong-Joo; Jeong, Youngjun; Lee, Youngu; Lee, Hee Young

    2018-02-01

    IZTO20 (In0.6Zn0.2Sn0.2O1.5) ceramic target was prepared from oxide mixture of In2O3, ZnO, and SnO2 powders. IZTO20 thin films were then deposited onto glass substrate at 400 °C by DC magnetron sputtering. The average optical transmittance determined by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy was higher than 85% for all films. The minimum resistivity of the annealed IZTO20 thin film was approximately 6.1×10-4 Ω·cm, which tended to increase with decreasing indium content. Substrate heating and annealing were found to be important parameters affecting the electrical and optical properties. An organic photovoltaic (OPV) cell was fabricated using the IZTO20 film deposited under the optimized condition as an anode electrode and the efficiency of up to 80% compared to that of a similar OPV cell using ITO film was observed. Reduction of surface roughness and electrical resistivity through annealing treatment was found to contribute to the improved efficiency of the OPV cell.

  2. Textured ZnO thin films by RF magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Ginting, M; Kang, K H; Kim, S K; Yoon, K H; Park, I J; Song, J S

    1999-01-01

    Textured thin films ZnO has been successfully grown by rf magnetron sputtering method using a special technique of introducing a small amount of water and methanol on the deposition chamber. The grain size of the textured surface is highly dependent on the argon pressure during the deposition. The pressure in this experiment was varied from 50 mTorr down to 5 mTorr and the highest grain size of the film is obtained at 5 mTorr. The total transmittance of the films are more than 85% in the wavelength of 400 to 800 nm, and haze ratio of about 14% is obtained at 400 nm wavelength. Beside the textured surface, these films also have very low resistivity, which is lower than 1.4x10 sup - sup 3 OMEGA centre dot cm. X-ray analysis shows that the films with textured surface have four diffraction peaks on the direction of (110), (002), (101) and (112), while the non-textured films have only (110) and (002) peaks. Due to the excellent characteristics of this film, it will make the film very good TCO alternatives for the ...

  3. Algan/Gan Hemt By Magnetron Sputtering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Perez, Roman

    In this thesis, the growth of the semiconductor materials AlGaN and GaN is achieved by magnetron sputtering for the fabrication of High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). The study of the deposited nitrides is conducted by spectroscopy, diffraction, and submicron scale microscope methods. The preparation of the materials is performed using different parameters in terms of power, pressure, temperature, gas, and time. Silicon (Si) and Sapphire (Al2O3) wafers are used as substrates. The chemical composition and surface topography of the samples are analyzed to calculate the materials atomic percentages and to observe the devices surface. The instruments used for the semiconductors characterization are X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The project focused its attention on the reduction of impurities during the deposition, the controlled thicknesses of the thin-films, the atomic configuration of the alloy AlxGa1-xN, and the uniformity of the surfaces.

  4. Superconducting niobium nitride films deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olaya, J.J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Mecatronica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, Carrera 30 Numero 45-03, Bogota (Colombia); Huerta, L. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito exterior s/n, CU Coyoacan, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Rodil, S.E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito exterior s/n, CU Coyoacan, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico)], E-mail: ser42@iim.unam.mx; Escamilla, R. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito exterior s/n, CU Coyoacan, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2008-10-01

    Niobium nitride (NbN) thin films were deposited under different configurations of the magnetic field using a magnetron sputtering system. The magnetic field configuration varied from balanced to unbalanced leading to different growth conditions and film properties. The aim of the paper was to identify correlations between deposition conditions, film properties and the electrical properties, specially the superconductive critical temperature (T{sub C}). The results suggested that there is a critical deposition condition, having an optimum ion-atom arrival ratio that promotes a well ordered and textured nanocrystalline structure (cubic phase) with the minimum residual stress and only under this condition a high critical temperature (16K) was obtained. Lower T{sub C} values around 12K were obtained for the NbN samples having a lower degree of structural perfection and texture, and a larger fraction of intergranular voids. On the other hand, analysis of valence-band spectra showed that the contribution of the Nb 4d states remained essentially constant while the higher T{sub C} was correlated to a higher contribution of the N 2p states.

  5. Superconducting niobium nitride films deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaya, J.J.; Huerta, L.; Rodil, S.E.; Escamilla, R.

    2008-01-01

    Niobium nitride (NbN) thin films were deposited under different configurations of the magnetic field using a magnetron sputtering system. The magnetic field configuration varied from balanced to unbalanced leading to different growth conditions and film properties. The aim of the paper was to identify correlations between deposition conditions, film properties and the electrical properties, specially the superconductive critical temperature (T C ). The results suggested that there is a critical deposition condition, having an optimum ion-atom arrival ratio that promotes a well ordered and textured nanocrystalline structure (cubic phase) with the minimum residual stress and only under this condition a high critical temperature (16K) was obtained. Lower T C values around 12K were obtained for the NbN samples having a lower degree of structural perfection and texture, and a larger fraction of intergranular voids. On the other hand, analysis of valence-band spectra showed that the contribution of the Nb 4d states remained essentially constant while the higher T C was correlated to a higher contribution of the N 2p states

  6. RHEED oscillations in spinel ferrite epitaxial films grown by conventional planar magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, T.; Tainosho, T.; Sharmin, S.; Yanagihara, H.

    2018-04-01

    Real-time in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) observations of Fe3O4, γ-Fe2O3, and (Co,Fe)3O4 films on MgO(001) substrates grown by a conventional planar magnetron sputtering was studied. The change in periodical intensity of the specular reflection spot in the RHEED images of three different spinel ferrite compounds grown by two different sputtering systems was examined. The oscillation period was found to correspond to the 1/4 unit cell of each spinel ferrite, similar to that observed in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) experiments. This suggests that the layer-by-layer growth of spinel ferrite (001) films is general in most physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes. The surfaces of the films were as flat as the surface of the substrate, consistent with the observed layer-by-layer growth process. The observed RHEED oscillation indicates that even a conventional sputtering method can be used to control film thickness during atomic layer depositions.

  7. RHEED oscillations in spinel ferrite epitaxial films grown by conventional planar magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ojima

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Real-time in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED observations of Fe3O4, γ-Fe2O3, and (Co,Fe3O4 films on MgO(001 substrates grown by a conventional planar magnetron sputtering was studied. The change in periodical intensity of the specular reflection spot in the RHEED images of three different spinel ferrite compounds grown by two different sputtering systems was examined. The oscillation period was found to correspond to the 1/4 unit cell of each spinel ferrite, similar to that observed in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE and pulsed laser deposition (PLD experiments. This suggests that the layer-by-layer growth of spinel ferrite (001 films is general in most physical vapor deposition (PVD processes. The surfaces of the films were as flat as the surface of the substrate, consistent with the observed layer-by-layer growth process. The observed RHEED oscillation indicates that even a conventional sputtering method can be used to control film thickness during atomic layer depositions.

  8. Setup for in situ X-ray diffraction studies of thin film growth by magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Ellmer, K; Weiss, V; Rossner, H

    2001-01-01

    A novel method is described for the in situ-investigation of nucleation and growth of thin films during magnetron sputtering. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction with synchrotron light is used for the structural analysis during film growth. An in situ-magnetron sputtering chamber was constructed and installed at a synchrotron radiation beam line with a bending magnet. The white synchrotron light (1-70 keV) passes the sputtering chamber through Kapton windows and hits one of the substrates on a four-fold sample holder. The diffracted beam, observed under a fixed diffraction angle between 3 deg. and 10 deg., is energy analyzed by a high purity Ge-detector. The in situ-EDXRD setup is demonstrated for the growth of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering from a metallic target.

  9. Ionic conductivity and thermal stability of magnetron-sputtered nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillassen, M.; Eklund, P.; Sridharan, M.

    2009-01-01

    Thermally stable, stoichiometric, cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin-film electrolytes have been synthesized by reactive pulsed dc magnetron sputtering from a Zr–Y (80/20 at. %) alloy target. Films deposited at floating potential had a texture. Single-line profile analysis of the 111 x.......5% at bias voltages of −175 and −200 V with additional incorporation of argon. The films were thermally stable; very limited grain coarsening was observed up to an annealing temperature of 800 °C. Temperature-dependent impedance spectroscopy analysis of the YSZ films with Ag electrodes showed that the in......-plane ionic conductivity was within one order of magnitude higher in films deposited with substrate bias corresponding to a decrease in grain size compared to films deposited at floating potential. This suggests that there is a significant contribution to the ionic conductivity from grain boundaries...

  10. Polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Xiaohong, E-mail: yxhong1981_2004@126.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Faculty of Clothing and Design, Minjiang University, Fuzhou 350121, Fujian (China); Xu, Wenzheng, E-mail: xwz8199@126.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Huang, Fenglin, E-mail: windhuang325@163.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Chen, Dongsheng, E-mail: mjuchen@126.com [Faculty of Clothing and Design, Minjiang University, Fuzhou 350121, Fujian (China); Wei, Qufu, E-mail: qfwei@jiangnan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Ag/ZnO composite film was successfully deposited on polyester fabric by magnetron sputtering technique. • Ag film was easily oxidized into Ag{sub 2}O film in high vacuum oxygen environment. • The zinc film coated on the surface of Ag film before RF reactive sputtering could protect the silver film from oxidation. • Polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film can obtained structural color. • The anti-ultraviolet and antistatic properties of polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film all were good. - Abstract: Ag/ZnO composite film was successfully deposited on polyester fabric by using direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering and radio frequency (RF) magnetron reaction sputtering techniques with pure silver (Ag) and zinc (Zn) targets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to examine the deposited film on the fabric. It was found that the zinc film coated on Ag film before RF reactive sputtering could protect the silver film from oxidation. Anti-ultraviolet property and antistatic property of the coated samples using different magnetron sputtering methods were also investigated. The experimental results showed that Ag film was oxidized into in Ag{sub 2}O film in high vacuum oxygen environment. The deposition of Zn film on the surface of the fabric coated with Ag film before RF reactive sputtering, could successfully obtained Ag/ZnO composite film, and also generated structural color on the polyester fabric.

  11. DEVICE FOR INVESTIGATION OF MAGNETRON AND PULSED-LASER PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Burmakov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Various modifications of complex pulsed laser and magnetron deposition thin-film structures unit are presented. They include joint and separate variants of layer deposition. Unit realizes the plasma parameters control and enhances the possibility of laser-plasma and magnetron methods of coatings deposition.

  12. Self-sputtering runaway in high power impulse magnetron sputtering: The role of secondary electrons and multiply charged metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre

    2008-01-01

    Self-sputtering runaway in high power impulse magnetron sputtering is closely related to the appearance of multiply charged ions. This conclusion is based on the properties of potential emission of secondary electrons and energy balance considerations. The effect is especially strong for materials whose sputtering yield is marginally greater than unity. The absolute deposition rate increases ∼Q 1/2 , whereas the rate normalized to the average power decreases ∼Q -1/2 , with Q being the mean ion charge state number

  13. Deposition of indium tin oxide films on acrylic substrates by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, B.S.; Hsieh, S.T.; Wu, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited onto acrylic substrates by rf magnetron sputtering. Low substrate temperature (< 80 C) and low rf power (< 28 W) were maintained during sputtering to prevent acrylic substrate deformation. The influence of sputtering parameters, such as rf power, target-to-substrate distance, and chamber pressure, on the film deposition rate, the electrical properties, as well as the optical properties of the deposited films was investigated. Both the refractive index and the extinction coefficient were derived. The high reflection at wavelengths greater than 3 μm made these sputtered ITO films applicable to infrared mirrors

  14. Arc-discharge and magnetron sputtering combined equipment for nanocomposite coating deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, N.N.; Borisov, D.P.; Savostikov, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that characteristics of nanocomposite coatings produced by reactive magnetron sputtering undergo an essential influence on the following parameters such as original component composition of targets being sputtered, as well as abundance ratio of such components in the coatings deposited, relative content of inert and reactionary gases in a gas mixture used and a value of operating pressure in a chamber, substrate temperature, and a value of substrate bias potential, determining energy of ionized atoms, ionized atoms flow density, i.e. ion current density on a substrate. The multifactor character of production process of nanocomposite coatings with certain physical and mechanical properties demands a purposeful and complex control on all above-mentioned parameters. To solve such a problem, an arc-discharge and magnetron sputtering combined equipment including a vacuum chamber of approximately ∼ 0.5 m 3 with a built-in low-pressure plasma generator made on the basis of non-self-sustained discharge with a thermal cathode and a planar magnetron combined with two sputtered targets has been created. Construction of such a complex set-up provides both an autonomous mode of operation and simultaneous operation of an arc plasma generator and magnetron sputtering system. Magnetron sputtering of either one or two targets simultaneously is provided as well. An arc plasma generator enables ions current density control on a substrate in a wide range due to discharge current varying from 1 to 100 A. Energy of ions is also being controlled in a wide range by a negative bias potential from 0 to 1000 V applied to a substrate. The wide control range of gas plasma density of a arc discharge of approximately 10 9 -10 11 cm -3 and high uniformity of its distribution over the total volume of an operating chamber (about 15% error with regard to the mean value) provides a purposeful and simultaneous control either of magnetron discharge characteristics (operating pressure of

  15. SERS spectra of pyridine adsorbed on nickel film prepared by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daoyong; Ouyang, Yu; Chen, Li; Cao, Weiran; Shi, Shaohua

    2011-02-01

    As a repeating well and cheaper enhancement substrate, the nickel film was fabricated with magnetron sputtering coating instrument. Surface enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of pyridine adsorbed on this nickel film are compared with the experimental values of gaseous pyridine, the theoretical value of pyridine solution listed in other literatures and our method is better than electro-chemical etching electrode method for large scale preparation. The enhancement factor of the nickel film is calculated and the result indicates that magnetron sputtering coating technology is feasible for obtaining good SERS active surface.

  16. Magnetron sputtering system with an annual discharge zone and two cathode modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savich, V. A.; Yasyunas, A. A.; Kovrigo, V. M.; Kotov, D. A.; Shiripov, V. Ya.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, general discharge characteristics of a cylindrical magnetron sputtering system with an annual sputtering zone and a high target usage coefficient designed for transparent conducting coatings are shown. Two coupled DC-cathodes are used to improve coating uniformity. Radial sputtered material fluxes are being created. The engineered magnetic system is extremely balanced (G-factor is much higher than 2) and thus provides maximal effective operating power higher than 6 kW. The effectiveness of a magnetic trap results in a fast work cycle (less than 1.5 min) and a high target material usage coefficient (higher than 40%). A multipole magnetic field with null magnetic flux density zones lower target’s surface is being created. There is an influence between cathode modules despite mutual magnetic isolation, so magnetic conductors-shunts are used to weaken it. The magnetron can be used to sputter both metals and conducting ceramics (including ITO). (authors)

  17. Reactive magnetron sputtering deposition of bismuth tungstate onto titania nanoparticles for enhancing visible light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratova, Marina, E-mail: marina_ratova@hotmail.com [Surface Engineering Group, School of Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Kelly, Peter J.; West, Glen T. [Surface Engineering Group, School of Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Tosheva, Lubomira; Edge, Michele [School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Bismuth tungstate coatings were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. • Oscillating bowl was introduced to the system to enable coating of nanopartulates. • Deposition of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} enhanced visible light activity of titania nanoparticles. • The best results were obtained for coating with Bi:W ratio of approximately 2:1. • Deposition of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} onto TiO{sub 2} resulted in more efficient electron-hole separation. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide − bismuth tungstate composite materials were prepared by pulsed DC reactive magnetron sputtering of bismuth and tungsten metallic targets in argon/oxygen atmosphere onto anatase and rutile titania nanoparticles. The use of an oscillating bowl placed beneath the two magnetrons arranged in a co-planar closed field configuration enabled the deposition of bismuth tungstate onto loose powders, rather than a solid substrate. The atomic ratio of the bismuth/tungsten coatings was controlled by varying the power applied to each target. The effect of the bismuth tungstate coatings on the phase, optical and photocatalytic properties of titania was investigated by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and an acetone degradation test. The latter involved measurements of the rate of CO{sub 2} evolution under visible light irradiation of the photocatalysts, which indicated that the deposition of bismuth tungstate resulted in a significant enhancement of visible light activity, for both anatase and rutile titania particles. The best results were achieved for coatings with a bismuth to tungsten atomic ratio of 2:1. In addition, the mechanism by which the photocatalytic activity of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was enhanced by compounding it with bismuth tungstate was studied by microwave cavity perturbation. The results of these

  18. Deposition Rates of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: Physics and Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2009-11-22

    Deposition by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is considered by some as the new paradigm of advanced sputtering technology, yet this is met with skepticism by others for the reported lower deposition rates, if compared to rates of more conventional sputtering of equal average power. In this contribution, the underlying physical reasons for the rate changes are discussed, including (i) ion return to the target and self-sputtering, (ii) the less-than-linear increase of the sputtering yield with increasing ion energy, (iii) yield changes due to the shift of species responsible for sputtering, (iv) changes to due to greater film density, limited sticking, and self-sputtering on the substrate, (v) noticeable power losses in the switch module, (vi) changes of the magnetic balance and particle confinement of the magnetron due to self-fields at high current, and (vii) superposition of sputtering and sublimation/evaporation for selected materials. The situation is even more complicated for reactive systems where the target surface chemistry is a function of the reactive gas partial pressure and discharge conditions. While most of these factors imply a reduction of the normalized deposition rate, increased rates have been reported for certain conditions using hot targets and less poisoned targets. Finally, some points of economics and HIPIMS benefits considered.

  19. Deposition rates of high power impulse magnetron sputtering: Physics and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Deposition by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is considered by some as the new paradigm of advanced sputtering technology, yet this is met with skepticism by others for the reported lower deposition rates, if compared to rates of more conventional sputtering of equal average power. In this contribution, the underlying physical reasons for the rate changes are discussed, including (i) ion return to the target and self-sputtering, (ii) the less-than-linear increase in the sputtering yield with increasing ion energy, (iii) yield changes due to the shift of species responsible for sputtering, (iv) changes due to greater film density, limited sticking, and self-sputtering on the substrate, (v) noticeable power losses in the switch module, (vi) changes in the magnetic balance and particle confinement of the magnetron due to self-fields at high current, and (vii) superposition of sputtering and sublimation/evaporation for selected materials. The situation is even more complicated for reactive systems where the target surface chemistry is a function of the reactive gas partial pressure and discharge conditions. While most of these factors imply a reduction in the normalized deposition rate, increased rates have been reported for certain conditions using hot targets and less poisoned targets. Finally, some points of economics and HIPIMS benefits are considered.

  20. Life test on indigenous s-band pulsed magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanmode, Y.D.; Shrivastava, P.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    1999-01-01

    A 2 MW S-band pulsed magnetron has been developed under joint collaboration between CAT and CEERI. In this development effort several lab prototypes were evaluated on 2 MW microwave test facility developed at CAT. One magnetron is subjected to life test. The present paper describes the setup and procedures used for life test. Various observations and corrections made during the life tests are also described. Results of the tests are discussed. (author)

  1. Hydroxyapatite formation on biomedical Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Ju [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Division of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, and Research Center for Oral Disease Regulation of the Aged, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Brantley, William A. [Division of Prosthodontics and Restorative Science, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate hydroxyapatite formation on Ti-25Ta-xZr titanium alloys resulting from radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition. Electrochemical deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) was first carried out using a cyclic voltammetry (CV) method at 80 °C in 5 mM Ca (NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + 3 mM NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. Then a physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating was obtained by a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. The microstructures, phase transformations, and morphologies of the hydroxyapatite films deposited on the titanium alloys were analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The morphologies of electrochemically deposited HA showed plate-like shapes on the titanium alloys, and the morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating had the appearance droplet particles on the plate-like precipitates that had formed by electrochemical deposition. For the RF-sputtered HA coatings, the Ca/P ratio was increased, compared to that for the electrochemically deposited HA surface. Moreover, the RF-sputtered HA coating, consisting of agglomerated droplet particles on the electrochemically deposited HA surface, had better wettability compared to the bulk titanium alloy surface. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and a cyclic voltammetry. • The morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating on electrochemical deposits presented plate-like shapes with a droplet particle. • The Ca/P ratio for RF-sputtered HA coatings was greater than that for electrochemical deposited HA coatings. • The RF-sputtered and electrochemical HA coatings had superior wettability compared to the electrochemically deposited coatings.

  2. Hydroxyapatite formation on biomedical Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Choe, Han-Cheol; Brantley, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate hydroxyapatite formation on Ti-25Ta-xZr titanium alloys resulting from radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition. Electrochemical deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) was first carried out using a cyclic voltammetry (CV) method at 80 °C in 5 mM Ca (NO 3 ) 2 + 3 mM NH 4 H 2 PO 4 . Then a physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating was obtained by a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. The microstructures, phase transformations, and morphologies of the hydroxyapatite films deposited on the titanium alloys were analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The morphologies of electrochemically deposited HA showed plate-like shapes on the titanium alloys, and the morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating had the appearance droplet particles on the plate-like precipitates that had formed by electrochemical deposition. For the RF-sputtered HA coatings, the Ca/P ratio was increased, compared to that for the electrochemically deposited HA surface. Moreover, the RF-sputtered HA coating, consisting of agglomerated droplet particles on the electrochemically deposited HA surface, had better wettability compared to the bulk titanium alloy surface. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on Ti–Ta–Zr alloys by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and a cyclic voltammetry. • The morphologies of the RF-sputtered HA coating on electrochemical deposits presented plate-like shapes with a droplet particle. • The Ca/P ratio for RF-sputtered HA coatings was greater than that for electrochemical deposited HA coatings. • The RF-sputtered and electrochemical HA coatings had superior wettability compared to the electrochemically deposited coatings

  3. Properties of RF magnetron sputtered gallium nitride semiconductors doped with erbium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peřina, Vratislav; Macková, Anna; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Prajzler, V.; Machovič, V.; Matějka, P.; Schröfel, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 8 (2004), s. 952-954 ISSN 0142-2421 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/03/0387 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : Er-doped GaN * luminescence * magnetron sputtering Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.209, year: 2004

  4. Magnetron sputtered gadolinia-doped ceria diffusion barriers for metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Steffen; Klemensø, Trine; Christensen, Bjarke H.

    2014-01-01

    Gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) thin films are deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in an industrial-scale setup and implemented as barrier layers between the cathode and electrolyte in metal-based solid oxide fuel cells consisting of a metal support, an electrolyte of ZrO2 co-doped with Sc2O3...

  5. Interfacial Structure and Photocatalytic Activity of Magnetron Sputtered TiO2 on Conducting Metal Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Petit, Jean-Pierre; Mermoux, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The photocatalytic behavior of magnetron sputtered anatase TiO2 coatings on copper, nickel, and gold was investigated with the aim of understanding the effect of the metallic substrate and coating-substrate interface structure. Stoichiometry and nanoscale structure of the coating were investigated...

  6. Advanced TiC/a-C : H nanocomposite coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Galvan, D.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Strondl, C.

    2006-01-01

    TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite coatings have been deposited by magnetron Sputtering. They consist of 2-5 nm TiC nanocrystallites embedded in the amorphous hydrocarbon (a-C:H) matrix. A transition from a Columnar to a glassy microstructure has been observed in the nanocomposite coatings with increasing

  7. A novel DC Magnetron sputtering facility for space research and synchrotron radiation optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, A.M.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Pareschi, G.

    1998-01-01

    A new DC magnetron sputtering facility has been build up at the Danish Space Research Institute (DSRI), specially designed to enable uniform coatings of large area curved optics, such as Wolter-I mirror optics used in space telescopes and curved optics used in synchrotron radiation facilities...

  8. Growth behavior of rat bone marrow cells on RF magnetron sputtered hydroxyapatite and dicalcium pyrophosphate coatings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Y.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Ruijter, A. De; Yubao, L.; Jansen, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic properties of magnetron sputtered dicalcium pyrophaosphate (DCPP) and hydroxylapatite (HA) coatings. Therefore, DCPP and HA coatings were deposited on grit-blasted titanium discs. The substrates were used as-prepared or received an additional heat

  9. Investigation and optimization of the magnetic field configuration in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, He; Meng, Liang; Szott, Matthew M; Meister, Jack T; Cho, Tae S; Ruzic, David N

    2013-01-01

    An effort to optimize the magnetic field configuration specifically for high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) was made. Magnetic field configurations with different field strengths, race track widths and race track patterns were designed using COMSOL. Their influence on HiPIMS plasma properties was investigated using a 36 cm diameter copper target. The I–V discharge characteristics were measured. The temporal evolution of electron temperature (T e ) and density (n e ) was studied employing a triple Langmuir probe, which was also scanned in the whole discharge region to characterize the plasma distribution and transport. Based on the studies, a closed path for electrons to drift along was still essential in HiPIMS in order to efficiently confine electrons and achieve a high pulse current. Very dense plasmas (10 19 –10 20 m −3 ) were generated in front of the race tracks during the pulse, and expanded downstream afterwards. As the magnetic field strength increased from 200 to 800 G, the expansion became faster and less isotropic, i.e. more directional toward the substrate. The electric potential distribution accounted for these effects. Varied race track widths and patterns altered the plasma distribution from the target to the substrate. A spiral-shaped magnetic field design was able to produce superior plasma uniformity on the substrate in addition to improved target utilization. (paper)

  10. Microstructural variation in titanium oxide thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Natarajan, Gomathi; Kamruddin, M.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the microstructural evolution of titanium oxide thin films deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering using titanium metal target. By varying the ratio of sputter-gas mixture containing argon, oxygen and nitrogen various phases of titanium oxide, almost pure rutile, rutile-rich and anatase-rich nano-crystalline, were deposited on Si substrates at room temperature. Using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman techniques the microstructure of the films were revealed. The relationship between the microstructure of the films and the oxygen partial pressure during sputtering is discussed

  11. Preparation and Characterization of FC Films Coated on PET Substrates by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mei-lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorocarbon (FC films were prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET plates and PET fabrics respectively by a radiofrequency (RF magnetron sputtering technique using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE as a target. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to investigate the morphology, structure and composition of the obtained FC films. The hydrophobicity and uvioresistant properties of the FC film coated fabric were studied. The results show that the FC films were successfully deposited on the PET substrates by a RF magnetron sputtering. The deposited films are made up of four components -CF3, -CF2-, CF- and -C-. The proportions of the four components and surface morphologies of the deposited films vary with the sputtering conditions. Compared with the original fabric samples, the hydrophobicity of the FC film coated fabrics is quite good and improved significantly.

  12. An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapor supply for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichsel, T., E-mail: tim.weichsel@fep.fraunhofer.de; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T. [Fraunhofer Institute for Electron Beam and Plasma Technology, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Zschornack, G. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany); Kreller, M.; Silze, A. [DREEBIT GmbH, 01900 Grossroehrsdorf (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron device has been developed. The magnetron is acting as a metal vapor supply for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. FEM simulation of magnetic flux density was used to ensure that there is no critical interaction between both magnetic fields of magnetron and ECR ion source. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy measurements show an increase in electron density by one order of magnitude from 1 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} to 1 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3}, when the magnetron plasma is exposed to the magnetic mirror field of the ECR ion source. Electron density enhancement is also indicated by magnetron plasma emission photography with a CCD camera. Furthermore, photographs visualize the formation of a localized loss-cone - area, when the magnetron is operated at magnetic mirror field conditions. The inverted cylindrical magnetron supplies a metal atom load rate of R > 1 × 10{sup 18} atoms/s for aluminum, which meets the demand for the production of a milliampere Al{sup +} ion beam.

  13. Magnetron sputtered Hf-B-Si-C-N films with controlled electrical conductivity and optical transparency, and with ultrahigh oxidation resistance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šímová, V.; Vlček, J.; Zuzjaková, Š.; Houška, J.; Shen, Y.; Jiang, J. C.; Meletis, E. I.; Peřina, Vratislav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 653, č. 5 (2018), s. 333-340 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Hf-B-Si-C-N films * pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering * electrical conductivitiy * optical transparency * high-temperature oxidation resistance Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.879, year: 2016

  14. Room temperature growth of nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 thin films by dc magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Preetam; Kaur, Davinder

    2010-01-01

    We report, the structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2 thin films grown on glass substrate by dc magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The influence of sputtering power and pressure over crystallinity and surface morphology of the films were investigated. It was observed that increase in sputtering power activates the TiO 2 film growth from relative lower surface free energy to higher surface free energy. XRD pattern revealed the change in preferred orientation from (1 0 1) to (0 0 4) with increase in sputtering power, which is accounted for different surface energy associated with different planes. Microstructure of the films also changes from cauliflower type to columnar type structures with increase in sputtering power. FESEM images of films grown at low pressure and low sputtering power showed typical cauliflower like structure. The optical measurement revealed the systematic variation of the optical constants with deposition parameters. The films are highly transparent with transmission higher than 90% with sharp ultraviolet cut off. The transmittance of these films was found to be influenced by the surface roughness and film thickness. The optical band gap was found to decrease with increase in the sputtering power and pressure. The refractive index of the films was found to vary in the range of 2.50-2.24 with increase in sputtering pressure or sputtering power, resulting in the possibility of producing TiO 2 films for device applications with different refractive index, by changing the deposition parameters.

  15. Structure of AlN films deposited by magnetron sputtering method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowakowska-Langier K.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AlN films on a Si substrate were synthesized by magnetron sputtering method. A dual magnetron system operating in AC mode was used in the experiment. Processes of synthesis were carried out in the atmosphere of a mixture of Ar/N2. Morphology and phase structure of the AlN films were investigated at different pressures. Structural characterizations were performed by means of SEM and X-ray diffraction methods. Our results show that the use of magnetron sputtering method in a dual magnetron sputtering system is an effective way to produce AlN layers which are characterized by a good adhesion to the silicon substrate. The morphology of the films is strongly dependent on the Ar/N2 gas mixture pressure. An increase of the mixture pressure is accompanied by a columnar growth of the layers. The films obtained at the pressure below 1 Pa are characterized by finer and compacter structure. The AlN films are characterized by a polycrystalline hexagonal (wurtzite structure in which the crystallographic orientation depends on the gas mixture pressure.

  16. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Rafieian, Damon; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Savenije, T.J.; Lammertink, Rob G H

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to anatase or rutile, depending on the initial sputtering conditions. Substoichiometric films (TiOx), obtained by sputtering at relatively low oxygen concentration, formed rutile upon annealing in air, ...

  17. Variable Power, Short Microwave Pulses Generation using a CW Magnetron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIUPA, R.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Fine control of microwave power radiation in medical and scientific applications is a challenging task. Since a commercial Continuous Wave (CW magnetron is the most inexpensive microwave device available today on the market, it becomes the best candidate for a microwave power generator used in medical diathermy and hyperthermia treatments or high efficiency chemical reactions using microwave reactors as well. This article presents a new method for driving a CW magnetron with short pulses, using a modified commercial Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS inverter, software driven by a custom embedded system. The microwave power generator designed with this method can be programmed for output microwave pulses down to 1% of the magnetron's power and allows microwave low frequency pulse modulation in the range of human brain electrical activity, intended for medical applications. Microwave output power continuous control is also possible with the magnetron running in the oscillating area, using a dual frequency Pulse Width Modulation (PWM, where the low frequency PWM pulse is modulating a higher resonant frequency required by the ZVS inverter's transformer. The method presented allows a continuous control of both power and energy (duty-cycle at the inverter's output.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of flaky core-shell particles by magnetron sputtering silver onto diatomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Deyuan; Cai, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Diatomite has delicate porous structures and various shapes, making them ideal templates for microscopic core-shell particles fabrication. In this study, a new process of magnetron sputtering assisted with photoresist positioning was proposed to fabricate lightweight silver coated porous diatomite with superior coating quality and performance. The diatomite has been treated with different sputtering time to investigate the silver film growing process on the surface. The morphologies, constituents, phase structures and surface roughness of the silver coated diatomite were analyzed with SEM, EDS, XRD and AFM respectively. The results showed that the optimized magnetron sputtering time was 8-16 min, under which the diatomite templates were successfully coated with uniform silver film, which exhibits face centered cubic (fcc) structure, and the initial porous structures were kept. Moreover, this silver coating has lower surface roughness (RMS 4.513 ± 0.2 nm) than that obtained by electroless plating (RMS 15.692 ± 0.5 nm). And the infrared emissivity of coatings made with magnetron sputtering and electroless plating silver coated diatomite can reach to the lowest value of 0.528 and 0.716 respectively.

  19. Effect of residual gas on structural, electrical and mechanical properties of niobium films deposited by magnetron sputtering deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanruo; Zhong, Yuan; Li, Jinjin; Cao, Wenhui; Zhong, Qing; Wang, Xueshen; Li, Xu

    2018-04-01

    Magnetron sputtering is an important method in the superconducting thin films deposition. The residual gas inside the vacuum chamber will directly affect the quality of the superconducting films. In this paper, niobium films are deposited by magnetron sputtering under different chamber residual gas conditions. The influence of baking and sputtering process on residual gas are studied as well. Surface morphology, electrical and mechanical properties of the films are analysed. The residual gas analysis result before the sputtering process could be regarded as a reference condition to achieve high quality superconducting thin films.

  20. Deposition of thin films by magnetron sputtering molybdenum in samples of pure copper; Deposicao de filmes finos de molibdenio por magnetron sputtering em amostra de cobre puro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, N.M.; Almeida, E.O. de; Alves Junior, C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario Lagoa Nova, PPGCEM - Natal, RN (Brazil); Lourenco, J.M. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencias e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The deposition surface is a process of thermochemical treatment, which involves the deposition of a thin film usually about one to two microns on a metallic substrate, which constitutes one of the most important surface engineering techniques. The plasma deposition process with the configuration of magnetron sputtering it is removing material from a solid surface (target) through the impact of energetic particles from plasma. The aim of this study is to characterize the microstructure of the material under study using the techniques of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  1. Observation of a periodic runaway in the reactive Ar/O2 high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedmohammad Shayestehaminzadeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the observation of a periodic runaway of plasma to a higher density for the reactive discharge of the target material (Ti with moderate sputter yield. Variable emission of secondary electrons, for the alternating transition of the target from metal mode to oxide mode, is understood to be the main reason for the runaway occurring periodically. Increasing the pulsing frequency can bring the target back to a metal (or suboxide mode, and eliminate the periodic transition of the target. Therefore, a pulsing frequency interval is defined for the reactive Ar/O2 discharge in order to sustain the plasma in a runaway-free mode without exceeding the maximum power that the magnetron can tolerate.

  2. Coating multilayer material with improved tribological properties obtained by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateescu, A. O.; Mateescu, G.; Balasoiu, M.; Pompilian, G. O.; Lungu, M.

    2017-02-01

    This work is based on the Patent no. RO 128094 B1, granted by the Romanian State Office for Inventions and Trademarks. The goal of the work is to obtain for investigations tribological coatings with multilayer structure with improved tribological properties, deposited by magnetron sputtering process from three materials (sputtering targets). Starting from compound chemical materials (TiC, TiB2 and WC), as sputtering targets, by deposition in argon atmosphere on polished stainless steel, we have obtained, based on the claims of the above patent, thin films of multilayer design with promising results regarding their hardness, elastic modulus, adherence, coefficient of friction and wear resistance. The sputtering process took place in a special sequence in order to ensure better tribological properties to the coating, comparing to those of the individual component materials. The tribological properties, such as the coefficient of friction, are evaluated using the tribometer test.

  3. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon Rafieian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to anatase or rutile, depending on the initial sputtering conditions. Substoichiometric films (TiOx<2, obtained by sputtering at relatively low oxygen concentration, formed rutile upon annealing in air, whereas stoichiometric films formed anatase. This route therefore presents a formation route for rutile films via lower (<500 °C temperature pathways. The dynamics of the annealing process were followed by in situ ellipsometry, showing the optical properties transformation. The final crystal structures were identified by XRD. The anatase film obtained by this deposition method displayed high carriers mobility as measured by time-resolved microwave conductance. This also confirms the high photocatalytic activity of the anatase films.

  4. Superhydrophobic photocatalytic PTFE – Titania coatings deposited by reactive pDC magnetron sputtering from a blended powder target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratova, Marina, E-mail: marina_ratova@hotmail.com; Kelly, Peter J.; West, Glen T.

    2017-04-01

    The production of photocatalytic coatings with superhydrophobic properties, as opposed to the conventional hydrophilic properties, is desirable for the prevention of adhesion of contaminants to photocatalytic surfaces with subsequent deterioration of photocatalytic properties. In this work polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) – TiO{sub 2} composite thin films were deposited using a novel method of reactive pulsed direct current (pDC) magnetron sputtering of a blended PTFE – titanium oxide powder target. The surface characteristics and photocatalytic properties of the deposited composite coatings were studied. The as-deposited coatings were annealed at 523 K in air and analysed with Raman spectroscopy, optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy. Hydrophobicity was assessed though measurements of water contact angles, and photocatalytic properties were studied via methylene blue dye degradation under UV irradiation. It was found that variations of gas flow and, hence, process pressures allowed deposition of samples combining superhydrophobicity with stable photocatalytic efficiency under UV light irradiation. Reversible wettability behaviour was observed with the alternation of light-dark cycles. - Highlights: • PTFE-TiO{sub 2} coatings were deposited by pDC reactive magnetron sputtering. • Blended powder target was used for coatings deposition. • Deposited coatings combined superhydrophobic and photocatalytic properties. • Under UV irradiation coatings exhibited reversible wettability.

  5. DC Magnetron sputtering of Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Gunnar.

    1990-01-01

    I have been studying dc magnetron sputtering of thin film YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x , one of the recently discovered high- temperatures superconductors. In the introduction a brief review of the subjects sputtering and superconductivity is given. Since partial pressure measurements, especially for oxygen, have been important in the work I include a short description of the operating principles of mass spectroscopy. Experimental results in addition to what is given in the papers concerning plasma are presented in an appendix at the end of the introduction. (au)

  6. Applying RF Magnetron sputtering to prepare ZnO thin films and their characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.; Kassis, A.

    2009-05-01

    ZnO thin films were prepared using Rf magnetron sputtering under several preparation conditions (different values of deposition pressure, Rf power, substrate temperature). The optical properties of these films were investigated by measuring their transmission in the spectral range (300-1000 nm), and the electrical properties were investigated by measuring their electrical resistance. Results have been discussed in terms of the modified Thornton model for sputtered thin metal oxide films. Preparation conditions for depositing the highly resistive transparent i-ZnO buffer layer and the highly conducting transparent n-ZnO window layer for solar cells were proposed. (author)

  7. Recent advances in Pt coating of microspheres by a batch magnetron sputtering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, E.J.; Meyer, S.F.

    1980-01-01

    Some proposed inertial confinement fusion targets require high-Z, high density metal coatings on glass microspheres. Platinum, which satisfies the high-Z and density requirements, can be coated onto microspheres with a batch magnetron sputtering process incorporating oxygen as a dopant gas to prevent the microspheres from sticking. This paper outlines recent progress in three areas: First, the coating process has been improved; second, the oxygen content and resistivity of the oxygen doped platinum films are analyzed; and third, the roles oxygen may play in reducing microsphere sticking during sputtering are discussed in regard to cold welding, Van der Waals bonding, electrostatic sticking, and sintering

  8. Microstructural evaluation of NiTi-based films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crăciunescu, Corneliu M., E-mail: corneliu.craciunescu@upt.ro; Mitelea, Ion, E-mail: corneliu.craciunescu@upt.ro; Budău, Victor, E-mail: corneliu.craciunescu@upt.ro [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Politehnica University of Timisoara (Romania); Ercuţa, Aurel [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Politehnica University of Timisoara and Department of Physics, West University Timisoara (Romania)

    2014-11-24

    Shape memory alloy films belonging to the NiTi-based systems were deposited on heated and unheated substrates, by magnetron sputtering in a custom made system, and their structure and composition was analyzed using electron microscopy. Several substrates were used for the depositions: glass, Cu-Zn-Al, Cu-Al-Ni and Ti-NiCu shape memory alloy ribbons and kapton. The composition of the Ti-Ni-Cu films showed limited differences, compared to the one of the target and the microstructure for the DC magnetron sputtering revealed crystallized structure with features determined on peel off samples from a Si wafer. Both inter and transcrystalline fractures were observed and related to the interfacial stress developed on cooling from deposition temperature.

  9. Investigation of photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide deposited on metallic substrates by DC magnetron sputtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Canulescu, Stela; Dirscherl, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) coating in the anatase crystalline structure deposited on aluminium AA1050 alloy and stainless steel S316L substrates were investigated. The coating was prepared by DC magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and surface morphology of the c......The photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) coating in the anatase crystalline structure deposited on aluminium AA1050 alloy and stainless steel S316L substrates were investigated. The coating was prepared by DC magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and surface morphology...... sweep voltammetry, impedance measurements. The microstructure and surface morphology of the coating were similar irrespective of the nature of the substrate, while the photocatalytic behaviour was found to vary depending on the substrate type. In general the TiO2 coating on stainless steel was shown...

  10. Catalytic growth of ZnO nanostructures by r.f. magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo-Hernández María

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The catalytic effect of gold seed particles deposited on a substrate prior to zinc oxide (ZnO thin film growth by magnetron sputtering was investigated. For this purpose, selected ultra thin gold layers, with thicknesses close to the percolation threshold, are deposited by thermal evaporation in ultra high vacuum (UHV conditions and subsequently annealed to form gold nanodroplets. The ZnO structures are subsequently deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering in a UHV chamber, and possible morphological differences between the ZnO grown on top of the substrate and on the gold are investigated. The results indicate a moderate catalytic effect for a deposited gold underlayer of 4 nm, quite close to the gold thin film percolation thickness.

  11. The microstructure and properties of titanium dioxide films synthesized by unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, Y.X.; Chen, J.Y.; Yang, P.; Sun, H.; Huang, N.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, titanium oxide films were deposited on Ti6Al4V and Si (1 0 0) by DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering method at different oxygen pressure. X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness tests, pin-on-disk wear experiments, surface contact angle tests and platelet adhesion investigation were conducted to evaluate the properties of the films. The corrosion behavior of titanium dioxide films was characterized by potentiodynamic polarization. The results showed that titanium oxide films deposited by unbalance magnetron sputtering were compact and could obviously enhance microhardness, wear resistance of titanium alloy substrate. Potentiodynamic polarization curves showed that Ti-6Al-4V deposited with titanium dioxide films had lower dissolution currents than that of the uncoated one. The results of in vitro hemocompatibility analyses indicated that the blood compatibility of the titanium dioxide films with bandgap 3.2 eV have better blood compatibility

  12. Thermochromic VO2 thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering for smart window applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Jean-Philippe

    "Smart" windows are a perfect innovative example of technology that reduces our energy dependence and our impact on the environment while saving on the economical point of view. With the use of vanadium dioxide (VO2), a thermochromic compound, and this, as a thin coating, it would in fact be possible to control the sun's transmission of infrared light (heat) as a function of the surrounding environment temperature. In other words, its optical behavior would allow a more effective management of heat exchanges between a living venue and the outdoor environment. However, this type of window is still in a developmental stage. First, the oxide's deposition is not simple in nature. Based on a conventional deposition technique called magnetron sputtering mainly used in the fenestration industry, several factors such as the oxygen concentration and the substrate temperature during deposition can affect the coating's thermochromic behavior, and this, by changing its composition and crystallinity. Other control parameters such as the deposition rate, the pressure in the sputtering chamber and the choice of substrate may also modify the film microstructure, thereby varying its optical and electrical properties. In addition, several issues still persist as to its commercial application. For starters, the material's structural transition, related to the change of its optical properties, only occurs around 68°C. In addition, its low transparency and natural greenish colour are not visually appealing. Then, to this day, the deposition temperature required to crystallize and form the thermochromic oxide remains an obstacle for a possible large-scale application. Ultimately, although the material's change in temperature has been shown to be advantageous in situations of varying climate, the existing corrective solutions to these issues generate a deterioration of the thermochromic behavior. With no practical expertise on the material, this project was undertaken with certain

  13. Reactive magnetron sputtering of Si-C-N films with controlled mechanical and optical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, J.; Kormunda, M.; Čížek, J.; Soukup, Z.; Peřina, Vratislav; Zemek, Josef

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 8 (2003), s. 1287-1294 ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 203; GA MŠk OC 527.90 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 235200002 Keywords : silicon-carbon-nitride films * magnetron co-sputtering Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.867, year: 2003

  14. Nucleation of ultrathin silver layer by magnetron sputtering in Ar/N2 plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bulíř, Jiří; Novotný, Michal; Lančok, Ján; Fekete, Ladislav; Drahokoupil, Jan; Musil, Jindřich

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 228, č. 1 (2013), S86-S90 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1298; GA ČR GP202/09/P324 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ultrathin silver * magnetron sputtering * spectral ellipsometry * in-situ monitoring Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2013

  15. RF magnetron sputtering and evaporation of polyisobutylene and low density polyethylene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kousal, J.; Hanuš, J.; Choukourov, A.; Hlídek, P.; Biederman, H.; Slavinská, D.; Zemek, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 200, 1-4 (2005), s. 472-475 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 527.10; GA MŠk(CZ) ME 553 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : magnetron * radio frequency * sputtering * polyethylene * polyisobutylene Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2005

  16. Epitaxial growth of "infinite layer” thin films and multilayers by rf magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Fàbrega, L.; Koller, E.; Triscone, J. M.; Fischer, Ø.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the preparation and characterization of epitaxial ACuO2 (A = Sr, Ca, Ba) thin films and multilayers with the so- called infinite layer (IL) structure, by rf magnetron sputtering. Films and multilayers without Ba have a remarkable crystal quality, whereas those containing this large ion are often multiphased and unstable. In spite of the excellent crystalline quality of these samples, obtaining thin films having both IL structure and displaying superconducting properties has not s...

  17. Rutile TiO2 thin films grown by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnarsson, B.; Magnus, F.; Tryggvason, T.K.; Ingason, A.S.; Leosson, K.; Olafsson, S.; Gudmundsson, J.T.

    2013-01-01

    Thin TiO 2 films were grown on Si(001) substrates by reactive dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) at temperatures ranging from 300 to 700 °C. Optical and structural properties of films were compared both before and after post-annealing using scanning electron microscopy, low angle X-ray reflection (XRR), grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Both dcMS- and HiPIMS-grown films reveal polycrystalline rutile TiO 2 , even prior to post-annealing. The HiPIMS-grown films exhibit significantly larger grains compared to that of dcMC-grown films, approaching 100% of the film thickness for films grown at 700 °C. In addition, the XRR surface roughness of HiPIMS-grown films was significantly lower than that of dcMS-grown films over the whole temperature range 300–700 °C. Dispersion curves could only be obtained for the HiPIMS-grown films, which were shown to have a refractive index in the range of 2.7–2.85 at 500 nm. The results show that thin, rutile TiO 2 films, with high refractive index, can be obtained by HiPIMS at relatively low growth temperatures, without post-annealing. Furthermore, these films are smoother and show better optical characteristics than their dcMS-grown counterparts. - Highlights: • We demonstrate growth of rutile TiO 2 on Si (111) by high power impulse magnetron sputtering. • The films exhibit significantly larger grains than dc magnetron sputtered films • TiO 2 films with high refractive index are obtained without post-growth annealing

  18. Advanced TiC/a-C: H nanocomposite coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Y.T.; Galvan, D.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Strondl, C.

    2006-01-01

    TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite coatings have been deposited by magnetron Sputtering. They consist of 2-5 nm TiC nanocrystallites embedded in the amorphous hydrocarbon (a-C:H) matrix. A transition from a Columnar to a glassy microstructure has been observed in the nanocomposite coatings with increasing substrate bias or carbon content. Micro-cracks induced by nanoindentation or wear tests readily propagate through the column boundaries whereas the coatings without a columnar inicrostructure exhibit s...

  19. Contribution to mechanical and crystallographic analysis of molyledenum layers prepared by magnetron cathode sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosland, P.

    1988-01-01

    Molybdenum coatings presenting different compression stresses are elaborated by magnetron cathode sputtering by varying the negative voltage of the substrate during deposition. Stress evolution is accompanied by crystal texture evolution and argon content incorporated in the layers. Crystallite orientation is explained by a phenomenon similar to canalisation observed in ion implantation. In a same deposit each component presents its own deformations different from neighbouring components [fr

  20. Process stabilization by peak current regulation in reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of hafnium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, T; Villamayor, M; Helmersson, U; Lundin, D

    2016-01-01

    A simple and cost effective approach to stabilize the sputtering process in the transition zone during reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) is proposed. The method is based on real-time monitoring and control of the discharge current waveforms. To stabilize the process conditions at a given set point, a feedback control system was implemented that automatically regulates the pulse frequency, and thereby the average sputtering power, to maintain a constant maximum discharge current. In the present study, the variation of the pulse current waveforms over a wide range of reactive gas flows and pulse frequencies during a reactive HiPIMS process of Hf-N in an Ar–N 2 atmosphere illustrates that the discharge current waveform is a an excellent indicator of the process conditions. Activating the reactive HiPIMS peak current regulation, stable process conditions were maintained when varying the N 2 flow from 2.1 to 3.5 sccm by an automatic adjustment of the pulse frequency from 600 Hz to 1150 Hz and consequently an increase of the average power from 110 to 270 W. Hf–N films deposited using peak current regulation exhibited a stable stoichiometry, a nearly constant power-normalized deposition rate, and a polycrystalline cubic phase Hf-N with (1 1 1)-preferred orientation over the entire reactive gas flow range investigated. The physical reasons for the change in the current pulse waveform for different process conditions are discussed in some detail. (paper)

  1. Magnetic field effects on coating deposition rate and surface morphology coatings using magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yu-Sen; Huang, Wesley

    2010-01-01

    Chromium nitride coatings exhibit superior hardness, excellent wear and oxidation resistance, and are widely applied in the die and mold industries. The aim of this study was to investigate magnetic field effects on the deposition rate and surface morphology of chromium nitride coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering. Four types of magnetic field configurations, including the magnetron sputtering system, SNSN, SNNN, and intermediate magnetron modification, are discussed in this paper. SKD11 cold work die steel and a silicon (100) chip were used as substrates in the chromium nitride depositions. The process parameters, such as target current, substrate bias, and the distance between the substrate and target, are at fixed conditions, except for the magnetic arrangement type. The experimental results showed that the deposition rates of the four types of magnetic field configurations were 1.06, 1.38, 1.67 and 1.26 µm h −1 , respectively. In these cases, the SNNN type performs more than 58% faster than the unbalanced magnetron configuration does for the deposition rate. The surface morphology of chromium nitride films was also examined by SEM and is discussed in this paper

  2. [Effects of magnetron sputtered ZrN on the bonding strength of titanium porcelain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shu; Zhang, Wen-yan; Guang, Han-bing; Xia, Yang; Zhang, Fei-min

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the effect of magnetron sputtered ZrN on the bonding strength between a low-fusing porcelain (Ti/Vita titankeramik system) and commercially pure cast titanium. Sixteen specimens were randomly assigned to test group and control group (n=8). The control group received no surface treated. Magnetron sputtered ZrN film was deposited on the surface of specimens in the test group. Then the sixteen titanium-porcelain specimens were prepared in a rectangular shape and went through three-point bending test on a universal test machine. The bond strength of Ti/porcelain was recorded. The phase composition of the specimens was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The interface at titanium and porcelain and the titanium surface after debonding were observed with a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analyzed using energy depressive spectrum (EDS). New phase of ZrN was found with XRD in the test group. Statistical analysis showed higher bond strength following ZrN surface treatment in the test group [(45.991+/-0.648) MPa] than that in the control group [(29.483+/-1.007) MPa] (P=0.000). Bonded ceramic could be observed in test group, the amount of bonded ceramic was more than that in the control group. No obvious bonded ceramic in control group was found. Magnetron sputtered ZrN can improve bond strength of Ti/Vita titankeramik system significantly.

  3. Simulation of the electric potential and plasma generation coupling in magnetron sputtering discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieschmann, Jan; Krueger, Dennis; Schmidt, Frederik; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Mussenbrock, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Magnetron sputtering typically operated at low pressures below 1 Pa is a widely applied deposition technique. For both, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) as well as direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS) the phenomenon of rotating ionization zones (also referred to as spokes) has been observed. A distinct spatial profile of the electric potential has been associated with the latter, giving rise to low, mid, and high energy groups of ions observed at the substrate. The adherent question of which mechanism drives this process is still not fully understood. This query is approached using Monte Carlo simulations of the heavy particle (i.e., ions and neutrals) transport consistently coupled to a pre-specified electron density profile via the intrinsic electric field. The coupling between the plasma generation and the electric potential, which establishes correspondingly, is investigated. While the system is observed to strive towards quasi-neutrality, distinct mechanisms governing the shape of the electric potential profile are identified. This work is supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) in the frame of the transregional collaborative research centre TRR 87.

  4. Experimental investigation on photoelectric properties of ZAO thin film deposited on flexible substrate by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ming; Liu, Kun; Liu, Xinghua; Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai

    2016-12-01

    Transparent conductive ZAO (Zinc Aluminum Oxide) films on flexible substrates have a great potential for low-cost mass-production solar cells. ZAO thin films were achieved on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology and element content, the transmittance and the sheet resistance of the films were measured to determine the optical process parameters. The results show that the ZAO thin film shows the best parameters in terms of photoelectric performance including sputtering power, working pressure, sputtering time, substrate temperature (100 W, 1.5 Pa, 60 min, 125 °C). The sheet resistance of 510 Ω and transmittance in visible region of 92% were obtained after characterization. Surface morphology was uniform and compact with a good crystal grain.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of boron carbon nitride films by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z.F.; Bello, I.; Lei, M.K.; Lee, C.S.; Lee, S.T. [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Dept. of Physics and Materials Science; Li, K.Y. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2000-06-01

    Boron carbon nitride (BCN) films were deposited on silicon substrates by radio frequency (r.f.) (13.56 MHz) magnetron sputtering from hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphite targets in an Ar-N{sub 2} gas mixture of a constant pressure of 1.0 Pa. During deposition, the substrates were maintained at a temperature of 400 C and negatively biased using a pulsed voltage with a frequency of 330 kHz. Different analysis techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning Auger electron microscopy (SAM) were used for characterization. In addition, the mechanical and tribological properties of the films were investigated by nano-indentation and micro-scratching. The carbon concentration in the films could be adjusted by the coverage area of a graphite sheet on the h-BN target, and decreased with increasing bias voltage. It was found that the ternary compound films within the B-C-N composition triangle possessed a less ordered structure. B--N, B--C and C--N chemical bonds were established in the films, and no phase separation of graphite and h-BN occurred. At zero bias voltage, amorphous BC{sub 2}N films with atomically smooth surface could be obtained, and the microfriction coefficient was 0.11 under a normal load of 1000 {mu}N. Hardness as determined by nano-indentation was usually in the range of 10-30 GPa, whereas the Young's modulus was within 100-200 GPa. (orig.)

  6. Characterization of sp3 bond content of carbon films deposited by high power gas injection magnetron sputtering method by UV and VIS Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdunek, Krzysztof; Chodun, Rafał; Wicher, Bartosz; Nowakowska-Langier, Katarzyna; Okrasa, Sebastian

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations of carbon films deposited by a modified version of the magnetron sputtering method - HiPGIMS (High Power Gas Injection Magnetron Sputtering). In this experiment, the magnetron system with inversely polarized electrodes (sputtered cathode at ground potential and positively biased, spatially separated anode) was used. This arrangement allowed us to conduct the experiment using voltages ranging from 1 to 2 kV and a power supply system equipped with 25/50 μF capacitor battery. Carbon films were investigated by VIS/UV Raman spectroscopy. Sp3/sp2 bonding ratio was evaluated basing the elementary components of registered spectra. Our investigation showed that sp3 bond content increases with discharge power but up to specific value only. In extreme conditions of generating plasma impulses, we detected a reversed relation of the sp3/sp2 ratio. In our opinion, a energy of plasma pulse favors nucleation of a sp3 phase because of a relatively higher ionization state but in extreme cases the influence of energy is reversed.

  7. Characterization of sp3 bond content of carbon films deposited by high power gas injection magnetron sputtering method by UV and VIS Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdunek, Krzysztof; Chodun, Rafał; Wicher, Bartosz; Nowakowska-Langier, Katarzyna; Okrasa, Sebastian

    2018-04-05

    This paper presents the results of investigations of carbon films deposited by a modified version of the magnetron sputtering method - HiPGIMS (High Power Gas Injection Magnetron Sputtering). In this experiment, the magnetron system with inversely polarized electrodes (sputtered cathode at ground potential and positively biased, spatially separated anode) was used. This arrangement allowed us to conduct the experiment using voltages ranging from 1 to 2kV and a power supply system equipped with 25/50μF capacitor battery. Carbon films were investigated by VIS/UV Raman spectroscopy. Sp 3 /sp 2 bonding ratio was evaluated basing the elementary components of registered spectra. Our investigation showed that sp 3 bond content increases with discharge power but up to specific value only. In extreme conditions of generating plasma impulses, we detected a reversed relation of the sp 3 /sp 2 ratio. In our opinion, a energy of plasma pulse favors nucleation of a sp 3 phase because of a relatively higher ionization state but in extreme cases the influence of energy is reversed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Deposition and characterization of TaAIN thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering; Deposicao e caracterizacao de filmes finos de TaAIN depositados por magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.B.; Fernandez, D.R.; Fontes Junior, A.S.; Felix, L.C.; Tentardini, E.K. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Hubler, R. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), RS (Brazil); Silva Junior, A.H. da, E-mail: brito-g@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Phase stability, oxidation resistance and great mechanical properties are the main objectives when synthesizing protective coatings. The tantalum nitride (TaN) has aroused interest because of its high temperature stability, chemical inertness and thermal conductivity. However, it has a low hardness value when compared to other coatings. Researches has shown that one way to improvements in the properties of a thin film is by adding other elements in the deposition process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to deposit thin films of TaAlN by magnetron sputtering, changing the aluminum concentration of 2, 5, 7, to 14%. Then the coatings were characterized by EDS, RBS, GIXRD and nanohardness. In this study was found that the aluminum deposited did not change the oxidation resistance of the coating, and the highest value of hardness was 28 GPa for the sample with 14 at.%. (author)

  9. Comparison of lanthanum substituted bismuth titanate (BLT) thin films deposited by sputtering and pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besland, M.P.; Djani-ait Aissa, H.; Barroy, P.R.J.; Lafane, S.; Tessier, P.Y.; Angleraud, B.; Richard-Plouet, M.; Brohan, L.; Djouadi, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Bi 4-x La x Ti 3 O 12 (BLT x ) (x = 0 to 1) thin films were grown on silicon (100) and platinized substrates Pt/TiO 2 /SiO 2 /Si using RF diode sputtering, magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Stoichiometric home-synthesized targets were used. Reactive sputtering was investigated in argon/oxygen gas mixture, with a pressure ranging from 0.33 to 10 Pa without heating the substrate. PLD was investigated in pure oxygen, at a chamber pressure of 20 Pa for a substrate temperature of 400-440 deg. C. Comparative structural, chemical, optical and morphological characterizations of BLT thin films have been performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Spectro-ellipsometric measurements (SE) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Both sputtering techniques allow to obtain uniform films with thickness ranging from 200 to 1000 nm and chemical composition varying from (Bi,La) 2 Ti 3 O 12 to (Bi,La) 4.5 Ti 3 O 12 , depending on deposition pressure and RF power. In addition, BLT films deposited by magnetron sputtering, at a pressure deposition ranging from 1.1 to 5 Pa, were well-crystallized after a post-deposition annealing at 650 deg. C in oxygen. They exhibit a refractive index and optical band gap of 2.7 and 3.15 eV, respectively. Regarding PLD, single phase and well-crystallized, 100-200 nm thick BLT films with a stoichiometric (Bi,La) 4 Ti 3 O 12 chemical composition were obtained, exhibiting in addition a preferential orientation along (200). It is worth noting that BLT films deposited by magnetron sputtering are as well-crystallized than PLD ones

  10. Dielectric properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered Al2O3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanna, S.; Mohan Rao, G.; Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D.; Ganesan, V.

    2012-01-01

    Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) thin films were sputter deposited over well-cleaned glass and Si substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering under various oxygen gas pressures and sputtering powers. The composition of the films was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and an optimal O/Al atomic ratio of 1.59 was obtained at a reactive gas pressure of 0.03 Pa and sputtering power of 70 W. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the films were amorphous until 550 °C. The surface morphology of the films was studied using scanning electron microscopy and the as-deposited films were found to be smooth. The topography of the as-deposited and annealed films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and a progressive increase in the rms roughness of the films from 3.2 nm to 4.53 nm was also observed with increase in the annealing temperature. Al-Al 2 O 3 -Al thin film capacitors were then fabricated on glass substrates to study the effect of temperature and frequency on the dielectric property of the films. Temperature coefficient of capacitance, AC conductivity and activation energy were determined and the results are discussed. - Highlights: ► Al 2 O 3 thin films were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. ► The films were found to be amorphous up to annealing temperature of 550 C. ► An increase in rms roughness of the films was observed with annealing. ► Al-Al 2 O 3 -Al thin film capacitors were fabricated and dielectric constant was 7.5. ► The activation energy decreased with increase in frequency.

  11. Urea impedimetric biosensor based on reactive RF magnetron sputtered zinc oxide nanoporous transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad; Rahmanian, Reza; Abedi, Mohammad; Amoli, Hossein Salar

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Application and optimization of reactive RF magnetron sputtering for homogeneous nanoporous ZnO thin film formation. • Exploiting nanoporous ZnO thin film as a good porous framework with large surface area/volume for having stable immobilized enzyme with minimum loss of activity. • Application of impedimetric assessment for urea biosensing due to its rapidity, sensitivity, and repeatability. - Abstract: Uniform sputtered nanoporous zinc oxide (Nano-ZnO) thin film on the conductive fluorinated-tin oxide (FTO) layer was applied to immobilize urease enzyme (Urs) for urea detection. Highly uniform nanoporous ZnO thin film were obtained by reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system at the optimized instrumental deposition conditions. Characterization of the surface morphology and roughness of ZnO thin film by field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) exhibits cavities of nanoporous film as an effective biosensing area for enzyme immobilization. Step by step monitoring of FTO/Nano-ZnO/Urs biosensor fabrication were performed using electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Fabricated FTO/Nano-ZnO/Urs biosensor was used for urea determination using EIS experiments. The impedimetric results show high sensitivity for urea detection within 0.83–23.24 mM and limit of detection as 0.40 mM

  12. Low temperature magnetron sputter deposition of polycrystalline silicon thin films using high flux ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbi, Jennifer E.; Abelson, John R.

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate that the microstructure of polycrystalline silicon thin films depends strongly on the flux of low energy ions that bombard the growth surface during magnetron sputter deposition. The deposition system is equipped with external electromagnetic coils which, through the unbalanced magnetron effect, provide direct control of the ion flux independent of the ion energy. We report the influence of low energy ( + on the low temperature ( + ions to silicon neutrals (J + /J 0 ) during growth by an order of magnitude (from 3 to 30) enables the direct nucleation of polycrystalline Si on glass and SiO 2 coated Si at temperatures below 400 degree sign C. We discuss possible mechanisms for this enhancement of crystalline microstructure, including the roles of enhanced adatom mobility and the formation of shallow, mobile defects

  13. Tribological properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of magnetron sputtered titanium-amorphous carbon coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhandapani, Vishnu Shankar; Subbiah, Ramesh; Thangavel, Elangovan; Arumugam, Madhankumar; Park, Kwideok; Gasem, Zuhair M.; Veeraragavan, Veeravazhuthi; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • a-C:Ti nanocomposite coatings were prepared on 316L stainless steel by using R.F. magnetron sputtering method. • Properties of the nanocomposite coatings were analyzed with respect to titanium content. • Corrosion resistance, biocompatibility and hydrophobicity of nanocomposite coating were enhanced with increasing titanium content. • Coating with 2.33 at.% titanium showed superior tribological properties compared to other coatings. - Abstract: Amorphous carbon incorporated with titanium (a-C:Ti) was coated on 316L stainless steel (SS) by magnetron sputtering technique to attain superior tribological properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. The morphology, topography and functional groups of the nanostructured a-C:Ti coatings in various concentrations were analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman, X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman and XPS analyses confirmed the increase in sp"2 bonds with increasing titanium content in the a-C matrix. TEM analysis confirmed the composite nature of the coating and the presence of nanostructured TiC for Ti content of 2.33 at.%. This coating showed superior tribological properties compared to the other a-C:Ti coatings. Furthermore, electrochemical corrosion studies were performed against stimulated body fluid medium in which all the a-C:Ti coatings showed improved corrosion resistance than the pure a-C coating. Preosteoblasts proliferation and viability on the specimens were tested and the results showed that a-C:Ti coatings with relatively high Ti (3.77 at.%) content had better biocompatibility. Based on the results of this work, highly durable coatings with good biocompatibility could be achieved by incorporation of optimum amount of Ti in a-C coatings deposited on SS by magnetron sputtering technique.

  14. Influence of substrate temperature on the optical and electrical properties magnetron sputtering ITO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khripunov, G.S.; Yurchenko, G.V.

    1999-01-01

    Electrical and optical properties of ITO films obtained at substrate temperature from 200 degree C to 500 degree C by magnetron sputtering of target 95% In 2 O 3 - 5% SnO 2 were studied. It was shown that the ITO film obtained at the substrate temperature 300 i N have optimum combination of the optical and electrical characteristics: resistivity 2.1 centre dot 10 -4 Ω cm, transmittance in visible spectral range about 88% at the thickness film 0.61 μ, factor of quality reaches 8.2 centre dot 10 -2 Ω 1

  15. Contamination of magnetron sputtered metallic films by oxygen from residual atmosphere in deposition chamber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Petr; Musil, Jindřich; Fitl, Přemysl; Novotný, Michal; Lančok, Ján; Bulíř, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 5 (2015), s. 416-421 ISSN 1612-8850 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1298; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1312; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0958; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10279S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : contamination * low-pressure discharges * magnetron * metallic films * sputtering Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.713, year: 2015

  16. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Deposition of amino-rich thin films by RF magnetron sputtering of nylon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylián, O.; Hanuš, J.; Choukourov, A.; Kousal, J.; Slavínská, D.; Biederman, H.

    2009-07-01

    RF magnetron sputtering of a nylon target in different gas mixtures was studied in order to evaluate the capability of this process to deposit amino-rich coatings needed in a wide range of biomedical applications. It has been demonstrated that both the deposition rate of the coatings and the surface density of primary amino groups are strongly linked with working gas mixture composition. From this point of view, a sufficiently high deposition rate as well as the highest amine efficiency reaching a NH2/C value of 18% was observed in the N2/H2 discharge, which leads to the surface exhibiting a high rate of protein adsorption.

  17. Spectroscopic imaging of self-organization in high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Joakim; Ni, Pavel; Anders, André

    2013-01-01

    Excitation and ionization conditions in traveling ionization zones of high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasmas were investigated using fast camera imaging through interference filters. The images, taken in end-on and side-on views using light of selected gas and target atom and ion spectral lines, suggest that ionization zones are regions of enhanced densities of electrons, and excited atoms and ions. Excited atoms and ions of the target material (Al) are strongly concentrated near the target surface. Images from the highest excitation energies exhibit the most localized regions, suggesting localized Ohmic heating consistent with double layer formation

  18. Post-deposition annealing effects in RF reactive magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M A; Herrero, J; Gutierrez, M T [Inst. de Energias Renovables (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)

    1992-05-01

    Indium tin oxide films have been grown by RF reactive magnetron sputtering. The influence of the deposition parameters on the properties of the films has been investigated and optimized, obtaining a value for the figure of merit of 6700 ({Omega} cm){sup -1}. As-grown indium tin oxide films were annealed in vacuum and O{sub 2} atmosphere. After these heat treatments the electro-optical properties were improved, with values for the resistivity of 1.9x10{sup -4} {Omega} cm and the figure of merit of 26700 ({Omega} cm){sup -1}. (orig.).

  19. Development of low temperature RF magnetron sputtered ITO films on flexible substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muneshwar, T.P.; Varma, V.; Meshram, N; Soni, S.; Dusane, R.O. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is one of the important materials used as transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer in thin film solar cells, digital displays and other similar applications. For applications involving flexible polymeric substrates, it is important that deposition of ITO is carried out at near room temperature. This requirement puts constraint on stoichiometry leading to undesired electrical and optical properties. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on ITO films deposited on flexible Kapton {sup registered} by the RF magnetron sputtering is reported in this paper. (author)

  20. Improving the Tribological Properties of Spark-Anodized Titanium by Magnetron Sputtered Diamond-Like Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoxiang Chen; Xipeng Ren; Limei Ren; Tengchao Wang; Xiaowen Qi; Yulin Yang

    2018-01-01

    Spark-anodization of titanium can produce adherent and wear-resistant TiO2 film on the surface, but the spark-anodized titanium has lots of surface micro-pores, resulting in an unstable and high friction coefficient against many counterparts. In this study, the diamond-like carbon (DLC) was introduced into the micro-pores of spark-anodized titanium by the magnetron sputtering technique and a TiO2/DLC composite coating was fabricated. The microstructure and tribological properties of TiO2/DLC ...

  1. Study of deposition rae coating of Ag thin films by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanati, M.; Zendehnam, A.

    2003-01-01

    Exact knowledge about deposition rate and its distribution and variation of them with respect to coating parameters (Gas pressure, Distance, discharge current,..) is very vital. In this experimental research coating of Ag thin films by magnetron sputtering have been carried out over Ar pressure range of 10 -2 -10 -1 mbar, and discharge current up to 1000 m.A, and distance between glass substrates to silver target (Cathode) was changed from 5 to 15 cm. The obtained results have been investigated by help of computer curve fitting, and these studies show a very good agreement for the conditions used in this work

  2. Nitrogen Atom Energy Distributions in a Hollow-cathode Planar Sputtering Magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzic, D.N.; Goeckner, M.J.; Cohen, S.A.; Wang, Zhehui

    1999-01-01

    Energy distributions of N atoms in a hollow-cathode planar sputtering magnetron were obtained by use of optical emission spectroscopy. A characteristic line, N I 8216.3 , well-separated from molecular nitrogen emission bands, was identified. Jansson's nonlinear spectral deconvolution method, refined by minimization of χ w ampersand sup2; , was used to obtain the optimal deconvolved spectra. These showed nitrogen atom energies from 1 eV to beyond 500 eV. Based on comparisons with VFTRIM results, we propose that the energetic N atoms are generated from N 2 + ions after these ions are accelerated through the sheath and dissociatively reflect from the cathode

  3. Venting temperature determines surface chemistry of magnetron sputtered TiN films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greczynski, G. [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Kopernikusstr. 10, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Mráz, S.; Schneider, J. M. [Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Kopernikusstr. 10, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Hultman, L. [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2016-01-25

    Surface properties of refractory ceramic transition metal nitride thin films grown by magnetron sputtering are essential for resistance towards oxidation necessary in all modern applications. Here, typically neglected factors, including exposure to residual process gases following the growth and the venting temperature T{sub v}, each affecting the surface chemistry, are addressed. It is demonstrated for the TiN model materials system that T{sub v} has a substantial effect on the composition and thickness-evolution of the reacted surface layer and should therefore be reported. The phenomena are also shown to have impact on the reliable surface characterization by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  4. [Effect of niobium nitride on the bonding strength of titanium porcelain by magnetron sputtering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-shu; Zhang, La-bao; Guang, Han-bing; Zhou, Shu; Zhang, Fei-min

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the effect of magnetron sputtered niobium nitride (NbN) on the bonding strength of commercially pure cast titanium (Ti) and low-fusing porcelain (Ti/Vita titankeramik system). Sixty Ti specimens were randomly divided into four groups, group T1, T2, T3 and T4. All specimens of group T1 and T2 were first treated with 120 microm blasted Al2O3 particles, and then only specimens of group T2 were treated with magnetron sputtered NbN film. All specimens of group T3 and T4 were first treated with magnetron sputtered NbN film and then only specimens of group T4 were treated with 120 microm blasted Al2O3 particles. The composition of the deposits were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). A universal testing machine was used to perform the three-point bending test to evaluate the bonding strength of Ti and porcelain. The microstructure of NbN, the interface of Ti-porcelain and the fractured Ti surface were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy depressive spectrum (EDS), and the results were compared. The XRD results showed that the NbN deposits were cubic crystalline phases. The bonding strength of Ti and porcelain in T1 to T4 group were (27.2+/-0.8), (43.1+/-0.6), (31.4+/-1.0) and (44.9+/-0.6) MPa. These results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and differences between groups were compared using least significant difference test. Significant inter-group differences were found among all groups (Pporcelain, while samples treated with both Al2O3 and NbN had better bond. EDS of Ti-porcelain interface showed oxidation occurred in T1, T2 and T3, but was well controlled in T4. Magnetron sputtered NbN can prevent Ti from being oxidized, and can improve the bonding strength of Ti/Vita titankeramik system. Al2O3 blast can also improve the bonding strength of Ti/Vita titankeramik system.

  5. High-rate deposition of Ta-doped SnO2 films by reactive magnetron sputtering using a Sn–Ta metal-sintered target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Y.; Nakatomi, S.; Oka, N.; Iwabuchi, Y.; Kotsubo, H.; Shigesato, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Ta-doped SnO 2 films were deposited on glass substrate (either unheated or heated at 200 °C) by reactive magnetron sputtering with a Sn–Ta metal-sintered target using a plasma control unit (PCU) and mid-frequency (mf, 50 kHz) unipolar pulsing. The PCU feedback system precisely controlled the flow of the reactive and sputtering gases (O 2 and Ar, respectively) by monitoring either discharge impedance or the plasma emission of the atomic O* line at 777 nm. The planar target was connected to the switching unit, which was operated in unipolar pulse mode. Power density on the target was maintained at 4.4 W cm −2 during deposition. The lowest obtained resistivity for the films deposited on heated substrate was 6.4 × 10 −3 Ωcm, where the deposition rate was 250 nm min −1 .

  6. Corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC/Al bilayer thin films by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yiqin; Li, Heqin; Zuo, Min; Tao, Lei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Tang, Qiong; Bai, Peiwen

    2016-01-01

    The poor corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB imposes a great challenge in industrial applications. In this work, the SiC/Al bilayer thin films with the thickness of 510 nm were deposited on sintered NdFeB by magnetron sputtering to improve the corrosion resistance. A 100 nm Al buffer film was used to reduce the internal stress between SiC and NdFeB and improve the surface roughness of the SiC thin film. The morphologies and structures of SiC/Al bilayer thin films and SiC monolayer film were investigated with FESEM, AFM and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion behaviors of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC monolayer film and SiC/Al bilayer thin films were analyzed by polarization curves. The magnetic properties were measured with an ultra-high coercivity permanent magnet pulse tester. The results show that the surface of SiC/Al bilayer thin films is more compact and uniform than that of SiC monolayer film. The corrosion current densities of SiC/Al bilayer films coated on NdFeB in acid, alkali and salt solutions are much lower than that of SiC monolayer film. The SiC/Al bilayer thin films have little influence to the magnetic properties of NdFeB. - Highlights: • The same thick Al, SiC and SiC/Al films are deposited on NdFeB by magnetron sputtering. • 510 nm SiC/Al bilayer films can improve the corrosion resistance of the NdFeB evidently. • Al buffer layer improves effectively the surface roughness of the SiC thin film. • SiC/Al bilayer films do not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB.

  7. Corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC/Al bilayer thin films by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yiqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Li, Heqin, E-mail: lhqjs@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Zuo, Min; Tao, Lei; Wang, Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Zhang, Jing; Tang, Qiong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); School of Electronic Science and Applied Physics, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Bai, Peiwen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2016-07-01

    The poor corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB imposes a great challenge in industrial applications. In this work, the SiC/Al bilayer thin films with the thickness of 510 nm were deposited on sintered NdFeB by magnetron sputtering to improve the corrosion resistance. A 100 nm Al buffer film was used to reduce the internal stress between SiC and NdFeB and improve the surface roughness of the SiC thin film. The morphologies and structures of SiC/Al bilayer thin films and SiC monolayer film were investigated with FESEM, AFM and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion behaviors of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC monolayer film and SiC/Al bilayer thin films were analyzed by polarization curves. The magnetic properties were measured with an ultra-high coercivity permanent magnet pulse tester. The results show that the surface of SiC/Al bilayer thin films is more compact and uniform than that of SiC monolayer film. The corrosion current densities of SiC/Al bilayer films coated on NdFeB in acid, alkali and salt solutions are much lower than that of SiC monolayer film. The SiC/Al bilayer thin films have little influence to the magnetic properties of NdFeB. - Highlights: • The same thick Al, SiC and SiC/Al films are deposited on NdFeB by magnetron sputtering. • 510 nm SiC/Al bilayer films can improve the corrosion resistance of the NdFeB evidently. • Al buffer layer improves effectively the surface roughness of the SiC thin film. • SiC/Al bilayer films do not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB.

  8. Electrical properties of indium-tin oxide films deposited on nonheated substrates using a planar-magnetron sputtering system and a facing-targets sputtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwase, Hideo; Hoshi, Youichi; Kameyama, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    Distribution of the electrical properties of indium-tin oxide (ITO) film prepared by both a planar-magnetron sputtering system (PMSS) and a facing-targets sputtering system (FTSS) at room temperature were investigated. It was found that the outstanding non-uniformities of the electrical properties in noncrystalline ITO films are mainly due to the variation of the oxygen stoichiometry dependent on film positions on substrate surfaces. Furthermore, ITO film with uniform distribution of electrical properties was obtainable using FTSS

  9. Photoelectron-spectroscopic and reactivity investigation of thin Pd-Sn films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skala, T.; Veltruska, K.; Sedlacek, L.; Masek, K.; Matolinova, I.; Matolin, V.

    2007-01-01

    We have studied Pd-Sn layers with different composition prepared by magnetron sputtering. Layers were sputtered onto Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 substrates and studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Spectra confirmed that after vacuum annealing residual oxygen and carbon have been removed and bimetallic bonds have been created. The shift of Pd 3d 5/2 core level to higher binding energy followed by the peak narrowing in dependence on the composition was observed, accompanied by the shift of the Pd 4d in the valence band region, induced by hybridization of Pd-d and Sn-s,p states. Experiments carried out on a gas-flow reactor indicate increasing temperature of the CO oxidation with tin ratio in the alloy

  10. Substantial difference in target surface chemistry between reactive dc and high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greczynski, G.; Mráz, S.; Schneider, J. M.; Hultman, L.

    2018-02-01

    The nitride layer formed in the target race track during the deposition of stoichiometric TiN thin films is a factor 2.5 thicker for high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), compared to conventional dc processing (DCMS). The phenomenon is explained using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the as-operated Ti target surface chemistry supported by sputter depth profiles, dynamic Monte Carlo simulations employing the TRIDYN code, and plasma chemical investigations by ion mass spectrometry. The target chemistry and the thickness of the nitride layer are found to be determined by the implantation of nitrogen ions, predominantly N+ and N2+ for HIPIMS and DCMS, respectively. Knowledge of this method-inherent difference enables robust processing of high quality functional coatings.

  11. Tribological characterization of TiN coatings prepared by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, Nishant S.; Chauhan, Kamlesh V.; Sonera, Akshay L.; Chauhan, Dharmesh B.; Dave, Divyeshkumar P.; Rawal, Sushant K.

    2018-05-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) coating deposited on aluminium and brass pin substrates using RF reactive magnetron sputtering. The structural properties and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). There was formation of (101) Ti2N, (110) TiN2 and (102) TiN0.30 peaks at 3.5Pa, 2Pa and 1.25Pa sputtering pressure respectively. The tribological properties of coating were inspected using pin on disc tribometer equipment. It was observed that TiN coated aluminium and brass pins demonstrated improved wear resistance than uncoated aluminium and brass pins.

  12. Influence of the microstructure on the corrosion behavior of magnetron sputter-quenched amorphous metallic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Khanna, S. K.; Williams, R. M.; Landel, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    The microstructure and corrosion behavior of magnetron sputter deposited amorphous metallic films of (Mo6ORu40)82B18 under varying sputtering atmospheres have been investigated. The microstructural details and topology of the films have been studied by scanning electron microscopy and correlated with the deposition conditions. By reducing the pressure of pure argon gas, the characteristic features of rough surface and columnar growth full of vertical voids can be converted into a mirror-smooth finish with very dense deposits. Films deposited in the presence of O2 or N2 exhibit columnar structure with vertical voids. Film deposited in pure argon at low pressure show remarkably high corrosion resistance due to the formation of a uniform passive surface layer. The influence of the microstructure and surface texture on the corrosion behavior is discussed.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of DC magnetron sputtered ZnO thin films under high working pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezam, M.; Tabet, N.; Mekki, A.

    2010-01-01

    ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrates using direct current (dc) magnetron sputtering under high working pressures. A pure zinc target was used, and sputtering was carried out in an oxygen atmosphere. The working pressure was varied between 50 and 800 mTorr. XRD characterization showed that for a window of working pressures between 300 and 500 mTorr, the deposited films were polycrystalline, with strong preferential orientation of grains along the c-axis. The film deposited at 400 mTorr had the highest (002) peak with the largest estimated grain size. Outside this window, the crystallinity and c-orientation of grains are lost. The microstructure of the films was investigated by Atomic Force microscopy (AFM). Optical transparency of the films was about 85%. The films produced were highly resistive, which might provide new alternatives for the synthesis of ZnO thin films aimed for SAW devices.

  14. Control of the optical properties of silicon and chromium mixed oxides deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara, L.; Galindo, R. Escobar; Martinez, R.; Sanchez, O.; Palacio, C.; Albella, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The development of mixed-oxide thin films allows obtaining materials with better properties than those of the different binary oxides, which makes them suitable for a great number of applications in different fields, such as tribology, optics or microelectronics. In this paper we investigate the deposition of mixed chromium and silicon oxides deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering with a view to use them as optical coatings with an adjustable refractive index. These films have been characterized by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry so as to determine how the deposition conditions influence the characteristics of the material. We have found that the deposition parameter whose influence determines the properties of the films to a greater extent is the amount of oxygen in the reactive sputtering gas.

  15. Fabricating Pinhole-Free YSZ Sub-Microthin Films by Magnetron Sputtering for Micro-SOFCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hill

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Submicron thin yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ films were prepared on a variety of substrates with different surface morphologies by magnetron sputtering followed by thermal oxidation. Pinholes were observed in the films deposited on nanoporous alumina substrates. Initial dense Y/Zr films developed nanocracks after thermal oxidation on smooth Si wafer substrates. At optimal sputtering and oxidation conditions, smooth and crack/pore-free films were achieved on Si wafer substrates. The thin YSZ films exhibited fully ionic conduction with ionic conductivities, and activation energy corroborated well with the values from commercial YSZ plates. The thin YSZ films can be utilized in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs for intermediate temperature operations.

  16. Combined optical emission and resonant absorption diagnostics of an Ar-O{sub 2}-Ce-reactive magnetron sputtering discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Mel, A.A. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel, Université de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière B.P. 32229, Nantes Cedex 3 44322 (France); Ershov, S. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Britun, N., E-mail: nikolay.britun@umons.ac.be [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Ricard, A. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, Toulouse Cedex 9 F-31062 (France); Konstantinidis, S. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Snyders, R. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Université de Mons, Place du Parc 23, Mons B-7000 (Belgium); Materia Nova Research Center, Parc Initialis, Avenue Copernic 1, Mons B-7000 (Belgium)

    2015-01-01

    We report the results on combined optical characterization of Ar-O{sub 2}-Ce magnetron sputtering discharges by optical emission and resonant absorption spectroscopy. In this study, a DC magnetron sputtering system equipped with a movable planar magnetron source with a Ce target is used. The intensities of Ar, O, and Ce emission lines, as well as the absolute densities of Ar metastable and Ce ground state atoms are analyzed as a function of the distance from the magnetron target, applied DC power, O{sub 2} content, etc. The absolute number density of the Ar{sup m} is found to decrease exponentially as a function of the target-to-substrate distance. The rate of this decrease is dependent on the sputtering regime, which should be due to the different collisional quenching rates of Ar{sup m} by O{sub 2} molecules at different oxygen contents. Quantitatively, the absolute number density of Ar{sup m} is found to be equal to ≈ 3 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup −3} in the metallic, and ≈ 5 × 10{sup 7} cm{sup −3} in the oxidized regime of sputtering, whereas Ce ground state densities at the similar conditions are found to be few times lower. The absolute densities of species are consistent with the corresponding deposition rates, which decrease sharply during the transition from metallic to poisoned sputtering regime. - Highlights: • Optical emission and resonant absorption spectroscopy are employed to study Ar-O{sub 2}-Ce magnetron sputtering discharges. • The density of argon metastables is found to decrease exponentially when increasing the target-to-substrate distance. • The collision-quenching rates of Ar{sup m} by O{sub 2} molecules at different oxygen contents is demonstrated. • The deposition rates of cerium and cerium oxide thin films decrease sharply during the transition from the metallic to the poisoned sputtering regime.

  17. Thickness characteristics of YBaCuO system thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Hideo; Jinno, Makoto; Takashima, Osamu; Uchida, Yoshiyuki; Maeda, Akinori; Kojima, Kenzo; Ochiai, Shizuyasu; Ohashi, Asao

    1994-01-01

    The practical use of oxide high temperature superconductors for electronics field has been advanced. The oxide high temperature superconductor thin films is very sensitive to the production conditions, and their making with good reproducibility is difficult. In this study, the method of producing the thin films having good quality with good reproducibility by RF magnetron sputtering, and the relation of the film thickness with the superconductivity characteristics of YBaCuO system thin films in the different methods of substrate washing were examined. The sputtering conditions are shown. For the purpose of preventing the worsening of the film quality due to the reverse sputtering of oxygen negative ions to the thin film surface, sputtering gas pressure was set up high at 30 Pa. The film thickness and the temperature-resistance characteristics were measured. The experimental method and the experimental results are reported. By keeping the temperature on substrate surfaces constant, the reproducibility in the production of the thin films was improved remarkably. The effect of substrate washing was large. (K.I.)

  18. Initial growth and texture formation during reactive magnetron sputtering of TiN on Si(111)

    CERN Document Server

    Li, T Q; Tsuji, Y; Ohsawa, T; Komiyama, H

    2002-01-01

    The initial growth and texture formation mechanism of titanium nitride (TiN) films were investigated by depositing TiN films on (111) silicon substrates by using reactive magnetron sputtering of a Ti metallic target under a N sub 2 /Ar atmosphere, and then analyzing the films in detail by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Two power sources for the sputtering, dc and rf, were compared. At the initial growth stage, a continuous amorphous film containing randomly oriented nuclei was observed when the film thickness was about 3 nm. The nuclei grew and formed a polycrystalline layer when the film thickness was about 6 nm. As the film grew further, its orientation changed depending on the deposition conditions. For dc sputtering, the appearance of (111) or (200)-preferred orientations depended on the N sub 2 partial pressure, and the intensity of the preferred orientation increased with increasing film thickness. For rf sputtering, however, when the film thickness was small (...

  19. Application of high rate magnetron sputtering to the fabrication of A-15 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampwirth, R.T.; Hafstrom, J.W.; Wu, C.T.

    1976-01-01

    High quality Nb 3 Sn films have been fabricated using a recently developed magnetron sputtering process capable of deposition rates approaching 1 μm/min. at sputtering voltages less than 500 V and power levels of about 5 KW. Low sputtering voltages allow more complete thermalization at lower pressures of the material condensing on the substrate which can improve long range order. Transition temperatures of up to 18.3 0 K, J/sub c/(O)'s of 15 x 10 6 A/cm 2 and Hc 2 as high as 240 kOe have been achieved in 1-3 μm films deposited from a Nb 3 Sn reacted powder target with substrate temperatures between 600 and 800 0 C. The films exhibit smooth surfaces and, generally, a [200] preferred orientation. The growth of the film is columnar in nature. The sputtering parameters, substrate material and temperature will be related to film structure T/sub c/ and J/sub c/(H,T) and the Nb/Sn ratio as determined by Rutherford backscattering

  20. Structural and electrical properties of CuAlMo thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkett, Martin, E-mail: martin.birkett@northumbria.ac.uk; Penlington, Roger; Wan, Chaoying; Zoppi, Guillaume

    2013-07-01

    The structural and electrical properties of a low resistivity CuAlMo thin film resistor material were investigated. The thin films were grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and glass substrates by direct current (dc) magnetron sputtering. The key electrical properties of sheet resistance, temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and resistance stability were investigated as a function of sputtering pressure and post-deposition heat treatment time and temperature. A low sputtering pressure range of 0.13 to 0.40 Pa produced CuAlMo films with sheet resistance in the range 0.1 to 0.2 Ω/□ and resistance stability of 0.45 to 0.65% with a TCR of − 90 ppm/°C which could be shifted to zero following annealing in air at 425 °C. Films grown at higher sputtering pressures of 0.53 to 0.80 Pa had increased sheet resistance in the range 0.4 to 0.6 Ω/□ and inferior stability of 0.8 to 1.7% with a more negative TCR of − 110 to − 180 ppm/°C which could not be shifted to zero following annealing. The stability of the films grown at 0.13 and 0.40 Pa could be further improved to < 0.25% with heat treatment, due to the formation of a protective aluminium oxide layer. A minimum dwell time of 3 h at 425 °C was required to stabilise the films and set the electrical properties. - Highlights: • Thin films of copper–aluminium–molybdenum were sputtered on alumina substrates. • Film properties were investigated with variation in process conditions. • Low sputtering pressure gave improved electrical performance. • Post deposition annealing in air further improved electrical performance.

  1. Structural and electrical properties of CuAlMo thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkett, Martin; Penlington, Roger; Wan, Chaoying; Zoppi, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The structural and electrical properties of a low resistivity CuAlMo thin film resistor material were investigated. The thin films were grown on Al 2 O 3 and glass substrates by direct current (dc) magnetron sputtering. The key electrical properties of sheet resistance, temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and resistance stability were investigated as a function of sputtering pressure and post-deposition heat treatment time and temperature. A low sputtering pressure range of 0.13 to 0.40 Pa produced CuAlMo films with sheet resistance in the range 0.1 to 0.2 Ω/□ and resistance stability of 0.45 to 0.65% with a TCR of − 90 ppm/°C which could be shifted to zero following annealing in air at 425 °C. Films grown at higher sputtering pressures of 0.53 to 0.80 Pa had increased sheet resistance in the range 0.4 to 0.6 Ω/□ and inferior stability of 0.8 to 1.7% with a more negative TCR of − 110 to − 180 ppm/°C which could not be shifted to zero following annealing. The stability of the films grown at 0.13 and 0.40 Pa could be further improved to < 0.25% with heat treatment, due to the formation of a protective aluminium oxide layer. A minimum dwell time of 3 h at 425 °C was required to stabilise the films and set the electrical properties. - Highlights: • Thin films of copper–aluminium–molybdenum were sputtered on alumina substrates. • Film properties were investigated with variation in process conditions. • Low sputtering pressure gave improved electrical performance. • Post deposition annealing in air further improved electrical performance

  2. Deposition of Al/Cu Multilayer By Double Targets Cylindrical DC Magnetron Sputtering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Balashabadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A cylindrical direct current magnetron sputtering coater with two targets for deposition of multilayer thin films and cermet solar selective surfaces has been constructed. The substrate holder was able to rotate around the target for obtaining the uniform layer and separated multilayer phases. The Al/ Cu multilayer film was deposited on the glass substrate at the following conditions: Working gas = Pure argon, Working pressure = 1 Pa, Cathode current = 8 A and cathode voltage = -600 V .Microstructure of the film was investigated by X-Ray Diffraction and the scanning electron microscopy analyses. The elements profile was determined by glow discharge–optical emission spectroscopy analysis. During deposition, both targets with magnetron configuration were sputtered simultaneously by argon ions. A Plasma column on the targets surface was generated by a 290 G permanent magnet unit. Two DC power supply units with three phases input and maximum output of 12 A/1000V were used to deposit the multilayer thin films. A control phase system was used to adjust output voltage.

  3. Properties of nickel films growth by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at elevated substrate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muslim, Noormariah, E-mail: 14h8702@ubd.edu.bn [Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410 (Brunei Darussalam); Soon, Ying Woan [Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410 (Brunei Darussalam); Physical and Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410 (Brunei Darussalam); Lim, Chee Ming; Voo, Nyuk Yoong [Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE1410 (Brunei Darussalam)

    2016-08-01

    Pure nickel (Ni) thin films of thicknesses of 100 nm were deposited on glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at a power of 100 W and at various substrate temperatures i.e., room temperature, 100, 200, and 300 °C. The crystalline structure, surface topography, surface morphology, electrical resistivity, and optical properties of the deposited films were studied. The properties of the Ni films could be controlled by altering the substrate temperature. Specifically, the films featured a face-centered cubic crystalline structure with predominant (111) crystallite orientation at all the substrate temperatures employed, as observed from the X-ray diffraction analysis. Films deposited at substrate temperatures greater than 200 °C additionally displayed crystalline (200) and (220) diffraction peaks. The surface morphology analysis revealed that the grain size of the Ni thin films increased with increasing substrate temperatures employed. This increase was accompanied with a decrease in the resistivity of the Ni films. The surface roughness of the films increased with increasing substrate temperatures employed, as observed from the atomic force microscopy analysis. - Highlights: • RF magnetron sputtering is a good alternative method to deposit Ni films. • Properties of Ni films could be controlled simply by tuning substrate temperatures. • Crystallite size and surface roughness increased with substrate temperatures. • Electrical resistivity reduced with increasing substrate temperatures. • Optical properties also changed with substrate temperatures.

  4. Surface functionalization of nanostructured LaB{sub 6}-coated Poly Trilobal fabric by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yan, E-mail: wuyanchn@hotmail.com [Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Branch, Jiaxing Nanyang Polytechnic Institute, Jiaxing 314003 (China); Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhang, Lin, E-mail: zhanglin2007@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Min, Guanghui, E-mail: ghmin@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Yu, Huashun; Gao, Binghuan; Liu, Huihui; Xing, Shilong; Pang, Tao [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Nanostructured LaB{sub 6} films were deposited on flexible textile substrates by dc magnetron sputtering. • The pronounced influence of the working pressure on the morphologies and optical properties of LaB{sub 6} films has been revealed. • The concept of Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) was employed and LaB{sub 6}-coated PET textiles with ultraviolet protection ability were obtained. - Abstract: Nanostructured LaB{sub 6} films were deposited on flexible Poly Trilobal substrates (PET textiles) through direct current magnetron sputtering in order to broaden its applications and realize surface functionalization of polyester fabrics. Characterizations and performances were investigated by employing a scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) spectrophotometer. Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) conducted by the integral conversion was employed to measure the ultraviolet protection ability. As expected, the growth of LaB{sub 6} film depending on the pressure variation enhanced UV-blocking ability (UPF rating at 30.17) and absorption intensity of the textiles.

  5. Study on the preparation of boron-rich film by magnetron sputtering in oxygen atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Zhangmin; Yang, Yiming; Huang, Jian; Ren, Bing; Yu, Hongze; Xu, Run; Ji, Huanhuan; Wang, Lin; Wang, Linjun, E-mail: ljwang@shu.edu.cn

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Boron ({sup 10}B) oxide films were successfully grown using RF magnetron sputtering. • Effects of oxygen partial pressure on the property of the films were studied. • Substrates were covered with B-rich film and film surface was covered with B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • The growth mechanism of films in oxygen atmosphere was analyzed using XPS. - Abstract: In this paper, the growth of boron ({sup 10}B) oxide films on (1 0 0) silicon substrate were achieved by radio frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering under the different oxygen partial pressure with a target of boron and boron oxide. The structure and properties of deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The results showed that the substrate was covered with boron-rich films tightly and the surface of films was covered with B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. And the growth mechanism of boron-rich film in oxygen atmosphere was also analyzed.

  6. ZrN coatings deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purandare, Yashodhan, E-mail: Y.Purandare@shu.ac.uk; Ehiasarian, Arutiun; Hovsepian, Papken [Nanotechnology Centre for PVD Research, Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Santana, Antonio [Ionbond AG Olten, Industriestrasse 211, CH-4600 Olten (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) coatings were deposited on 1 μm finish high speed steel and 316L stainless steel test coupons. Cathodic Arc (CA) and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) + Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering (UBM) techniques were utilized to deposit coatings. CA plasmas are known to be rich in metal and gas ions of the depositing species as well as macroparticles (droplets) emitted from the arc sports. Combining HIPIMS technique with UBM in the same deposition process facilitated increased ion bombardment on the depositing species during coating growth maintaining high deposition rate. Prior to coating deposition, substrates were pretreated with Zr{sup +} rich plasma, for both arc deposited and HIPIMS deposited coatings, which led to a very high scratch adhesion value (L{sub C2}) of 100 N. Characterization results revealed the overall thickness of the coatings in the range of 2.5 μm with hardness in the range of 30–40 GPa depending on the deposition technique. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and tribological experiments such as dry sliding wear tests and corrosion studies have been utilized to study the effects of ion bombardment on the structure and properties of these coatings. In all the cases, HIPIMS assisted UBM deposited coating fared equal or better than the arc deposited coatings, the reasons being discussed in this paper. Thus H+U coatings provide a good alternative to arc deposited where smooth, dense coatings are required and macrodroplets cannot be tolerated.

  7. RF Magnetron Sputtering Coating Of Hydroxyapatite On Alkali Solution Treated Titanate Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HA is a material with outstanding biocompatibility. It is chemically similar to natural bone tissue, and has therefore been favored for use as a coating material for dental and orthopedic implants. In this study, RF magnetron sputtering was applied for HA coating. And Alkali treatment was performed in a 5 M NaOH solution at 60°C. The coated HA thin film was heat-treated at a range of temperatures from 300 to 600°C. The morphological characterization and crystal structures of the coated specimens were then obtained via FE-SEM, XRD, and FT-IR. The amorphous thin film obtained on hydrothermally treated nanorods transformed into a crystalline thin film after the heat treatment. The change in the phase transformation, with an enhanced crystallinity, showed a reduced wettability. The hydrothermally treated nanorods with an amorphous thin film, on the other hand, showed an outstanding wettability. The HA thin film perpendicularly coated the nanorods in the upper and inner parts via RF magnetron sputtering, and the FT-IR results confirmed that the molecular bonding of the coated film had an HA structure.

  8. Indium zinc oxide films deposited on PET by LF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Lyoung; Jung, Sang Kooun; Sohn, Sang Ho; Park, Duck Kyu

    2007-01-01

    Indium zinc oxide (IZO) has attracted much attention recently for use in transparent oxide films compared with the ITO film. We carried out the deposition of IZO on a polyethylene terapthalate (PET) substrate at room temperature by a low-frequency (LF) magnetron sputtering system. These films have amorphous structures with excellent electrical stability, surface uniformity and high optical transmittance. The effects of LF applied voltage and O 2 flow rate were investigated. The electrical and optical properties were studied. At optimal deposition conditions, thin films of IZO with a sheet resistance of 32 Ω/sq and an optical transmittance of over 80% in the visible spectrum range were achieved. The IZO thin films fabricated by this method do not require substrate heating during the film preparation of any additional post-deposition annealing treatment. The experimental results show that films with good qualities of surface morphology, transmittance and electrical conduction can be grown by the LF magnetron sputtering method on PET which is recommendable

  9. Tribological properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of magnetron sputtered titanium-amorphous carbon coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandapani, Vishnu Shankar; Subbiah, Ramesh; Thangavel, Elangovan; Arumugam, Madhankumar; Park, Kwideok; Gasem, Zuhair M.; Veeraragavan, Veeravazhuthi; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2016-05-01

    Amorphous carbon incorporated with titanium (a-C:Ti) was coated on 316L stainless steel (SS) by magnetron sputtering technique to attain superior tribological properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. The morphology, topography and functional groups of the nanostructured a-C:Ti coatings in various concentrations were analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman, X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman and XPS analyses confirmed the increase in sp2 bonds with increasing titanium content in the a-C matrix. TEM analysis confirmed the composite nature of the coating and the presence of nanostructured TiC for Ti content of 2.33 at.%. This coating showed superior tribological properties compared to the other a-C:Ti coatings. Furthermore, electrochemical corrosion studies were performed against stimulated body fluid medium in which all the a-C:Ti coatings showed improved corrosion resistance than the pure a-C coating. Preosteoblasts proliferation and viability on the specimens were tested and the results showed that a-C:Ti coatings with relatively high Ti (3.77 at.%) content had better biocompatibility. Based on the results of this work, highly durable coatings with good biocompatibility could be achieved by incorporation of optimum amount of Ti in a-C coatings deposited on SS by magnetron sputtering technique.

  10. Structure and morphology of magnetron sputter deposited ultrathin ZnO films on confined polymeric template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajaib; Schipmann, Susanne; Mathur, Aakash; Pal, Dipayan; Sengupta, Amartya; Klemradt, Uwe; Chattopadhyay, Sudeshna

    2017-08-01

    The structure and morphology of ultra-thin zinc oxide (ZnO) films with different film thicknesses on confined polymer template were studied through X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). Using magnetron sputter deposition technique ZnO thin films with different film thicknesses (weight of polystyrene). The detailed internal structure, along the surface/interfaces and the growth direction of the system were explored in this study, which provides insight into the growth procedure of ZnO on confined polymer and reveals that a thin layer of ZnO, with very low surface and interface roughness, can be grown by DC magnetron sputtering technique, with approximately full coverage (with bulk like electron density) even in nm order of thickness, in 2-7 nm range on confined polymer template, without disturbing the structure of the underneath template. The resulting ZnO-polystyrene hybrid systems show strong ZnO near band edge (NBE) and deep-level (DLE) emissions in their room temperature photoluminescence spectra, where the contribution of DLE gets relatively stronger with decreasing ZnO film thickness, indicating a significant enhancement of surface defects because of the greater surface to volume ratio in thinner films.

  11. Type II textured molybdenum disulphide films produced by direct vapour transport and rf-magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlken, S.F.; Lemon, K.D.; Jakovidis, G.; Taheri, E.H.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Molybdenum disulphide (MoS 2 ) is one of the few naturally occurring Layered Transition Metal Dichalcogenides and is the primary source for elemental molybdenum. It displays exceptional lubrication performance in both vacuum and atmospheric conditions over a wide temperature range. An important emerging application of MoS 2 and related materials is photovoltaics. Films of MoS 2 exhibit several morphologies described by the orientation of platelets with respect to the substrate. Films with platelets perpendicular or parallel to the substrate are referred to by their morphology, which is type-I or type-II respectively. Production of exclusive type-II films is highly desirable in applications involving lubrication and photovoltaics. For example, type-II morphology reduces friction and minority carrier recombination centres, thus improving tribological and photovoltaic performance. We have successfully produced type-II films using both direct vapour transport and rf-magnetron sputtering Continuous polycrystalline films (∼ 10 μm thick) grown in our laboratory using vapour transport have typical areas 1000 mm 2 . A novel ejecta filtration technique was applied to rf-magnetron sputtering. Films produced using this approach retain exclusive type-II morphology at thicknesses where type-I would normally be observed (∼ 200nm)

  12. Estimation of Sputtering Damages on a Magnetron H- Ion Source Induced by Cs+ and H+ Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, H; Alessi, J; Kalvas, t

    2013-01-01

    An H− ion source is being developed for CERN’s Linac4 accelerator. A beam current requirement of 80 mA and a reliability above 99% during 1 year with 3 month uninterrupted operation periods are mandatory. To design a low-maintenance long life-time source, it is important to investigate and understand the wear mechanisms. A cesiated plasma discharge ion source, such as the BNL magnetron source, is a good candidate for the Linac4 ion source. However, in the magnetron source operated at BNL, the removal of material from the molybdenum cathode and the stainless steel anode cover plate surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. The observed sputtering traces are shown to result from cesium vapors and hydrogen gas ionized in the extraction region and subsequently accelerated by the extraction field. This paper presents a quantitative estimate of the ionization of cesium and hydrogen by the electron and H− beams in the extraction region of BNL’s magnetron ion source. The respective contributions o...

  13. Comparative study of niobium nitride coatings deposited by unbalanced and balanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaya, J.J.; Rodil, S.E.; Muhl, S.

    2008-01-01

    Niobium nitride (NbN) coatings have many interesting properties such as chemical inertness, excellent mechanical properties, high electrical conductivity, high melting point, and a superconducting transition temperature between 16 and 17 K. For this reason, these compounds have many potential thin film applications. In this work we compare the properties of NbN x films deposited using well-characterized balanced and unbalanced magnetron sputtering systems. Samples of NbN were deposited in the two systems under almost identical deposition conditions, that is, the same substrate temperature, plasma power, gas pressure, substrate to target distance and Ar/N 2 ratio. Prior to the film preparation both the magnetic field geometry and the characteristics of the plasma were determined. The microstructure and composition of the deposits were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The corrosion resistance and the micro-abrasion wear resistance were measured by anodic polarization potentiodynamic studies and by ball cratering, respectively. The NbN films grown using the highly unbalanced magnetron configuration had a preferential (111) crystal orientation and a composite hardness of up to 2400 HV 0.025 . While the films deposited using the balanced magnetron had a mixed crystalline orientation and a hardness of 2000 HV 0.025 . The results demonstrate the strong effect of magnetic field configuration on the ion bombardment, and the resultant coating characteristics

  14. Comparative study of niobium nitride coatings deposited by unbalanced and balanced magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olaya, J.J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Mecatronica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota Colombia (Colombia); Rodil, S.E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D. F. 04510 (Mexico)], E-mail: muhl@servidor.unam.mx

    2008-10-01

    Niobium nitride (NbN) coatings have many interesting properties such as chemical inertness, excellent mechanical properties, high electrical conductivity, high melting point, and a superconducting transition temperature between 16 and 17 K. For this reason, these compounds have many potential thin film applications. In this work we compare the properties of NbN{sub x} films deposited using well-characterized balanced and unbalanced magnetron sputtering systems. Samples of NbN were deposited in the two systems under almost identical deposition conditions, that is, the same substrate temperature, plasma power, gas pressure, substrate to target distance and Ar/N{sub 2} ratio. Prior to the film preparation both the magnetic field geometry and the characteristics of the plasma were determined. The microstructure and composition of the deposits were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The corrosion resistance and the micro-abrasion wear resistance were measured by anodic polarization potentiodynamic studies and by ball cratering, respectively. The NbN films grown using the highly unbalanced magnetron configuration had a preferential (111) crystal orientation and a composite hardness of up to 2400 HV{sub 0.025}. While the films deposited using the balanced magnetron had a mixed crystalline orientation and a hardness of 2000 HV{sub 0.025}. The results demonstrate the strong effect of magnetic field configuration on the ion bombardment, and the resultant coating characteristics.

  15. Generation of positive and negative oxygen ions in magnetron discharge during reactive sputtering of alumina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Petr; Bulíř, Jiří; Lančok, Ján; Musil, Jindřich; Novotný, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2010), s. 910-914 ISSN 1612-8850 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100718; GA AV ČR KAN400100653; GA ČR GP202/09/P324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : aluminium oxide * ion-energy distribution function * magnetron * mass spectrometry * pulsed discharges Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2010

  16. Magnetic properties of in-plane oriented barium hexaferrite thin films prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaozhi; Yue, Zhenxing, E-mail: yuezhx@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Meng, Siqin; Yuan, Lixin [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-12-28

    In-plane c-axis oriented Ba-hexaferrite (BaM) thin films were prepared on a-plane (112{sup ¯}0) sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates by DC magnetron sputtering followed by ex-situ annealing. The DC magnetron sputtering was demonstrated to have obvious advantages over the traditionally used RF magnetron sputtering in sputtering rate and operation simplicity. The sputtering power had a remarkable influence on the Ba/Fe ratio, the hematite secondary phase, and the grain morphology of the as-prepared BaM films. Under 80 W of sputtering power, in-plane c-axis highly oriented BaM films were obtained. These films had strong magnetic anisotropy with high hysteresis loop squareness (M{sub r}/M{sub s} of 0.96) along the in-plane easy axis and low M{sub r}/M{sub s} of 0.03 along the in-plane hard axis. X-ray diffraction patterns and pole figures revealed that the oriented BaM films grew via an epitaxy-like growth process with the crystallographic relationship BaM (101{sup ¯}0)//α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(112{sup ¯}0)//Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(112{sup ¯}0)

  17. High rate reactive sputtering in an opposed cathode closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproul, William D.; Rudnik, Paul J.; Graham, Michael E.; Rohde, Suzanne L.

    1990-01-01

    Attention is given to an opposed cathode sputtering system constructed with the ability to coat parts with a size up to 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in length. Initial trials with this system revealed very low substrate bias currents. When the AlNiCo magnets in the two opposed cathodes were arranged in a mirrored configuration, the plasma density at the substrate was low, and the substrate bias current density was less than 1 mA/sq cm. If the magnets were arranged in a closed-field configuration where the field lines from one set of magnets were coupled with the other set, the substrate bias current density was as high as 5.7 mA/sq cm when NdFeB magnets were used. In the closed-field configuration, the substrate bias current density was related to the magnetic field strength between the two cathodes and to the sputtering pressure. Hard well-adhered TiN coatings were reactively sputtered in the opposed cathode system in the closed-field configuration, but the mirrored configuration produced films with poor adhesion because of etching problems and low plasma density at the substrate.

  18. Magnetron Sputtering as a Fabrication Method for a Biodegradable Fe32Mn Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Jurgeleit

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable metals are a topic of great interest and Fe-based materials are prominent examples. The research task is to find a suitable compromise between mechanical, corrosion, and magnetic properties. For this purpose, investigations regarding alternative fabrication processes are important. In the present study, magnetron sputtering technology in combination with UV-lithography was used in order to fabricate freestanding, microstructured Fe32Mn films. To adjust the microstructure and crystalline phase composition with respect to the requirements, the foils were post-deposition annealed under a reducing atmosphere. The microstructure and crystalline phase composition were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, for mechanical characterization, uniaxial tensile tests were performed. The in vitro corrosion rates were determined by electrochemical polarization measurements in pseudo-physiological solution. Additionally, the magnetic properties were measured via vibrating sample magnetometry. The foils showed a fine-grained structure and a tensile strength of 712 MPa, which is approximately a factor of two higher compared to the sputtered pure Fe reference material. The yield strength was observed to be even higher than values reported in literature for alloys with similar composition. Against expectations, the corrosion rates were found to be lower in comparison to pure Fe. Since the annealed foils exist in the austenitic, and antiferromagnetic γ-phase, an additional advantage of the FeMn foils is the low magnetic saturation polarization of 0.003 T, compared to Fe with 1.978 T. This value is even lower compared to the SS 316L steel acting as a gold standard for implants, and thus enhances the MRI compatibility of the material. The study demonstrates that magnetron sputtering in combination with UV-lithography is a new concept for the fabrication of already in situ

  19. Investigation of optical and microstructural properties of RF magnetron sputtered PTFE films for hydrophobic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, S.; Haque, S. Maidul; Rao, K. Divakar; De, Rajnarayan; Shripathi, T.; Deshpande, U.; Ganesan, V.; Sahoo, N.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Polytetrafluoroethylene films were made by RF sputtering by varying deposition time. • With increasing deposition time, thickness shows unusual trend due to backsputtering. • Major contribution of CF 2 and CF 3 bonds in the samples is seen by ATR-FTIR. • Deposition time influences film thickness but all samples remain hydrophobic. • XPS spectra show strong CF x bonds at the surface. - Abstract: The deposition time dependence of optical, structural and morphological properties of thin as well as ultrathin Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sputtered films have been explored in the present communication. The films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering under high vacuum condition, as a function of deposition time. The ellipsometry as well as X-ray reflectivity data show a drastic reduction in film thickness as the deposition time increases from 5 s to 10 s, possibly as a consequence of back sputtering. With subsequent deposition, back sputtering component decreases and hence, thickness increases with increase in deposition time. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show a slight change in growth morphology although roughness is independent of deposition time. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) measurements showed the presence of C−C and CF x (x = 1–3) bonds in all the PTFE films. Supporting this, corresponding X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) curves fitted for C-1s and F-1s peaks revealed a major contribution from CF 2 bonds along with significant contribution from CF 3 bonds leading to an F/C ratio of ∼1.5 giving hydrophobic nature of all the films.

  20. Composite SiOx/hydrocarbon plasma polymer films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering of SiO2 and polyimide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drabik, M.; Kousal, J.; Pinosh, Y.; Choukourov, A.; Biederman, H.; Slavínská, D.; Macková, Anna; Boldyryeva, Hanna; Pešička, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 7 (2007), s. 920-927 ISSN 0042-207X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : composite films * magnetron * sputtering * polyimide * SiO2 Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.881, year: 2007

  1. Comparative analysis of electrophysical properties of ceramic tantalum pentoxide coatings, deposited by electron beam evaporation and magnetron sputtering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkov, N.; Mateev, E.; Safonov, V.; Zykova, A.; Yakovin, S.; Kolesnikov, D.; Sudzhanskaya, I.; Goncharov, I.; Georgieva, V.

    2014-12-01

    Ta2O5 ceramic coatings have been deposited on glass substrates by e-beam evaporation and magnetron sputtering methods. For the magnetron sputtering process Ta target was used. X-ray diffraction measurements show that these coatings are amorphous. XPS survey spectra of the ceramic Ta2O5 coatings were obtained. All spectra consist of well-defined XPS lines of Ta 4f, 4d, 4p and 4s; O 1s; C 1s. Ta 4f doublets are typical for Ta2O5 coatings with two main peaks. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images of the e-beam evaporated and magnetron sputtered Ta2O5 ceramic coatings have revealed a relatively flat surface with no cracks. The dielectric properties of the tantalum pentoxide coatings have been investigated in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 1 MHz. The electrical behaviour of e-beam evaporated and magnetron sputtered Ta2O5 ceramic coatings have also been compared. The deposition process conditions principally effect the structure parameters and electrical properties of Ta2O5 ceramic coatings. The coatings deposited by different methods demonstrate the range of dielectric parameters due to the structural and stoichiometric composition changes

  2. Chemical mechanical polishing characteristics of ITO thin film prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang-Yeon; Choi, Gwon-Woo; Kim, Yong-Jae; Choi, Youn-Ok; Kim, Nam-Oh

    2012-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films have attracted intensive interest because of their unique properties of good conductivity, high optical transmittance over the visible region and easy patterning ability. ITO thin films have found many applications in anti-static coatings, thermal heaters, solar cells, flat panel displays (FPDs), liquid crystal displays (LCDs), electroluminescent devices, sensors and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). ITO thin films are generally fabricated by using various methods, such as spraying, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), evaporation, electron gun deposition, direct current electroplating, high frequency sputtering, and reactive sputtering. In this research, ITO films were grown on glass substrates by using a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. In order to achieve a high transmittance and a low resistivity, we examined the various film deposition conditions, such as substrate temperature, working pressure, annealing temperature, and deposition time. Next, in order to improve the surface quality of the ITO thin films, we performed a chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) with different process parameters and compared the electrical and the optical properties of the polished ITO thin films. The best CMP conditions with a high removal rate, low nonuniformity, low resistivity and high transmittance were as follows: platen speed, head speed, polishing time, and slurry flow rate of 30 rpm, 30 rpm, 60 sec, and 60 ml/min, respectively.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of CdTe nanostructures grown by RF magnetron sputtering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarnejad, Elaheh; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Hantehzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we synthesize Cadmium Telluride nanostructures by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system on soda lime glass at various thicknesses. The effect of CdTe nanostructures thickness on crystalline, optical and morphological properties has been studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometry, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The XRD parameters of CdTe nanostructures such as microstrain, dislocation density, and crystal size have been examined. From XRD analysis, it could be assumed that increasing deposition time caused the formation of the wurtzite hexagonal structure of the sputtered films. Optical properties of the grown nanostructures as a function of film thickness have been observed. All the films indicate more than 60% transmission over a wide range of wavelengths. The optical band gap values of the films have obtained in the range of 1.62-1.45 eV. The results indicate that an RF sputtering method succeeded in depositing of CdTe nanostructures with high purity and controllable physical properties, which is appropriate for photovoltaic and nuclear detector applications.

  4. Deposition of nanostructured fluorocarbon plasma polymer films by RF magnetron sputtering of polytetrafluoroethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylian, Ondrej, E-mail: ondrej.kylian@gmail.com; Drabik, Martin; Polonskyi, Oleksandr; Cechvala, Juraj; Artemenko, Anna; Gordeev, Ivan; Choukourov, Andrei; Matolinova, Iva; Slavinska, Danka; Biederman, Hynek, E-mail: bieder@kmf.troja.mff.cuni.cz

    2011-07-29

    The RF magnetron sputtering of polytetrafluoroethylene target is studied with the aim to find out conditions leading to the deposition of super-hydrophobic thin films. It is shown that such coatings can be prepared at elevated pressures and a longer distance between the sputtered target and the substrate. This is explained by an increase in the density of longer C{sub x}F{sub y} molecules that reach the substrate and a lower flux of ions and CF{sub 2} radicals on the surface of growing film under such deposition conditions, as observed by optical emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Such changes in plasma composition result in a deposition of rough films having F/C ratio close to 2 as observed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. These findings clearly distinguish our results from the previous investigations of polytetrafluoroethylene sputtering performed at shorter distances from the target, where either low F/C ratio or low roughness of the deposited films did not allow reaching super-hydrophobic character of the coatings.

  5. Characteristics of ZnO/diamond thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Y W; Lee, J G; Baik, Y J; Kim, H J; Jung, H J; Choi, W K; Cho, B H; Park, C Y

    1999-01-01

    Due to its high Young's modulus, diamond has the highest acoustic wave velocity among all materials and is expected to be a candidate substrate for high-frequency surface acoustic wave(SAW) devices. In this study, the deposition of ZnO, as a piezoelectric layer, on a diamond substrate is investigated. ZnO has been fabricated by using RF magnetron sputtering with a ZnO target and various Ar/O sub 2 gas ratios, RF powers, and substrate temperatures at a vacuum of 10 sup - sup 5 Torr. The sputtered ZnO films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and I-V characteristics. All the films show only a (002) orientation. The atomic concentration of the sputtered ZnO films is changed by the oxygen gas ratio, and the ZnO films are grown with a homogeneous composition over their entire thickness. The electrical resistivity of the films varied from 4x10 sup 3 to 7x10 sup 8 OMEGA cm, depending on the Ar/O sub 2 gas ratio. The phase...

  6. Experimental investigation on photoelectric properties of ZAO thin film deposited on flexible substrate by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Ming [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China); Liu, Kun, E-mail: kliu@mail.neu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China); Liu, Xinghua [Hubei Aerospace Industry Technology Academe Special Vehicle Technology Center, Wuhan (China); Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • ZAO thin films were deposited on PET substrate. • A set of experimental parameters were systematically investigated. • Change rule of film photoelectric properties was obtained. • ZAO films with optimal properties were obtained at our working conditions. - Abstract: Transparent conductive ZAO (Zinc Aluminum Oxide) films on flexible substrates have a great potential for low-cost mass-production solar cells. ZAO thin films were achieved on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology and element content, the transmittance and the sheet resistance of the films were measured to determine the optical process parameters. The results show that the ZAO thin film shows the best parameters in terms of photoelectric performance including sputtering power, working pressure, sputtering time, substrate temperature (100 W, 1.5 Pa, 60 min, 125 °C). The sheet resistance of 510 Ω and transmittance in visible region of 92% were obtained after characterization. Surface morphology was uniform and compact with a good crystal grain.

  7. Experimental investigation on photoelectric properties of ZAO thin film deposited on flexible substrate by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Ming; Liu, Kun; Liu, Xinghua; Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ZAO thin films were deposited on PET substrate. • A set of experimental parameters were systematically investigated. • Change rule of film photoelectric properties was obtained. • ZAO films with optimal properties were obtained at our working conditions. - Abstract: Transparent conductive ZAO (Zinc Aluminum Oxide) films on flexible substrates have a great potential for low-cost mass-production solar cells. ZAO thin films were achieved on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology and element content, the transmittance and the sheet resistance of the films were measured to determine the optical process parameters. The results show that the ZAO thin film shows the best parameters in terms of photoelectric performance including sputtering power, working pressure, sputtering time, substrate temperature (100 W, 1.5 Pa, 60 min, 125 °C). The sheet resistance of 510 Ω and transmittance in visible region of 92% were obtained after characterization. Surface morphology was uniform and compact with a good crystal grain.

  8. CH₃NH₃PbI₃-based planar solar cells with magnetron-sputtered nickel oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jin; Meng, Fanping; Zhang, Hua; Cao, Kun; Yuan, Huailiang; Cheng, Yibing; Huang, Feng; Wang, Mingkui

    2014-12-24

    Herein we report an investigation of a CH3NH3PbI3 planar solar cell, showing significant power conversion efficiency (PCE) improvement from 4.88% to 6.13% by introducing a homogeneous and uniform NiO blocking interlayer fabricated with the reactive magnetron sputtering method. The sputtered NiO layer exhibits enhanced crystallization, high transmittance, and uniform surface morphology as well as a preferred in-plane orientation of the (200) plane. The PCE of the sputtered-NiO-based perovskite p-i-n planar solar cell can be further promoted to 9.83% when a homogeneous and dense perovskite layer is formed with solvent-engineering technology, showing an impressive open circuit voltage of 1.10 V. This is about 33% higher than that of devices using the conventional spray pyrolysis of NiO onto a transparent conducting glass. These results highlight the importance of a morphology- and crystallization-compatible interlayer toward a high-performance inverted perovskite planar solar cell.

  9. Antibacterial properties of nano-silver coated PEEK prepared through magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuju; Gan, Kang; Liu, Hong; Song, Xiaoqing; Chen, Tianjie; Liu, Chenchen

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity and antibacterial properties of nano-silver-coated polyetheretherketone (PEEK) produced through magnetron sputtering and provide a theoretical basis for its use in clinical applications. The surfaces of PEEKs were coated with nano-silver at varying thicknesses (3, 6, 9, and 12nm) through magnetron sputtering technology. The resulting coated PEEK samples were classified into the following groups according to the thickness of the nano-silver coating: PEEK-3 (3nm), PEEK-6 (6nm), PEEK-9 (9nm), PEEK-12 (12nm), and PEEK control group. The surface microstructure and composition of each sample were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) analysis. The water contact angle of each sample was then measured by contact angle meters. A cell counting kit (CCK-8) was used to analyze the cytotoxicity of the mouse fibroblast cells (L929) in the coated groups (n=5) and group test samples (n=6), negative control (polyethylene, PE) (n=6), and positive control group (phenol) (n=6). The antibacterial properties of the samples were tested by co-culturing Streptococcus mutans and Straphylococcus aureus. The bacteria that adhered to the surface of samples were observed by SEM. The antibacterial adhesion ability of each sample was then evaluated. SEM and AFM analysis results showed that the surfaces of control group samples were smooth but compact. Homogeneous silver nano-particles (AgNPs) and nano-silver coating were uniformly distributed on the surface of the coated group samples. Compared with the control samples, the nano-silver coated samples had a significant increase in surface roughness (Pnano-silver coating increased. EDS analysis showed that not only C and O but also Ag were present on the surface of the coated samples. Moreover, the water contact angle of modified samples significantly increased after nano-silver coating modification (Pnano-silver coating can

  10. Structure and morphology of magnetron sputter deposited ultrathin ZnO films on confined polymeric template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ajaib [Discipline of Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552 (India); Schipmann, Susanne [II. Insatitute of Physics and JARA-FIT, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Mathur, Aakash; Pal, Dipayan [Discipline of Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552 (India); Sengupta, Amartya [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi 110016 (India); Klemradt, Uwe [II. Insatitute of Physics and JARA-FIT, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Chattopadhyay, Sudeshna, E-mail: sudeshna@iiti.ac.in [Discipline of Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552 (India); Discipline of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552 (India); Centre for Biosciences and Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552 (India)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Ultra-thin ZnO films grown on confined polymeric (polystyrene, PS) template. • XRR and GISAXS explore the surface/interfaces structure and morphology of ZnO/PS. • Insights into the growth mechanism of magnetron sputtered ZnO thin film on PS template. • Nucleated disk-like cylindrical particles are the basis of the formation of ZnO layers. • Effect of ZnO film thickness on room temperature PL spectra in ZnO/PS systems. - Abstract: The structure and morphology of ultra-thin zinc oxide (ZnO) films with different film thicknesses on confined polymer template were studied through X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). Using magnetron sputter deposition technique ZnO thin films with different film thicknesses (<10 nm) were grown on confined polystyrene with ∼2R{sub g} film thickness, where R{sub g} ∼ 20 nm (R{sub g} is the unperturbed radius of gyration of polystyrene, defined by R{sub g} = 0.272 √M{sub 0}, and M{sub 0} is the molecular weight of polystyrene). The detailed internal structure, along the surface/interfaces and the growth direction of the system were explored in this study, which provides insight into the growth procedure of ZnO on confined polymer and reveals that a thin layer of ZnO, with very low surface and interface roughness, can be grown by DC magnetron sputtering technique, with approximately full coverage (with bulk like electron density) even in nm order of thickness, in 2–7 nm range on confined polymer template, without disturbing the structure of the underneath template. The resulting ZnO-polystyrene hybrid systems show strong ZnO near band edge (NBE) and deep-level (DLE) emissions in their room temperature photoluminescence spectra, where the contribution of DLE gets relatively stronger with decreasing ZnO film thickness, indicating a significant enhancement of surface defects because of the greater surface to volume ratio in thinner films.

  11. ZnO film deposition by DC magnetron sputtering: Effect of target configuration on the film properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakelova, E.; Khachatryan, A.; Kteyan, A.; Avjyan, K.; Grigoryan, S.

    2016-08-01

    Ballistic transport model for target-to-substrate atom transfer during magnetron sputter deposition was used to develop zinc target (cathode) configuration that enabled growth of uniform zinc oxide films on extensive surfaces and provided reproducibility of films characteristics irrespective of the cathode wear-out. The advantage of the developed target configuration for high-quality ZnO film deposition was observed in the sputtering pressure range of 5− 50 mTorr, and in the range of cathode-to-substrate distances 7–20 cm. Characteristics of the deposited films were demonstrated by using X-ray diffraction analysis, as well as optical and electrical measurements. - Highlights: • Change of target configuration for optimization of magnetron sputtering deposition is proposed. • Improvement of ZnO film properties due to use of this target is demonstrated. • This configuration provided reproducibility of the deposited films properties.

  12. Initial Growth Process of Magnetron Sputtering 321 Stainless Steel Films Observed by Afm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yongzhong; Wu, Wei; Liu, Dongliang; Chen, Jian; Sun, Yali

    To investigate the initial morphological evolution of 321 stainless steel (SS) films, we examined the effect of sputtering time on the morphology of 321 SS film. In this study, a group of samples were prepared at nine different sputtering times within 20 s using radio-frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering and characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Only globular-like grains were formed on mica substrates within 6 s, whose average grain size is ~ 21-44 nm. Meanwhile, few grains with larger size are subject to settle at the defect sites of mica substrates. At 8 s, we found large columnar crystallites with the average grain size of 61 nm. From 10 to 14 s, islands grew continuously and coalesced in order to form an interconnected structure containing irregular channels or grooves, with a depth of ~ 3.5-5 nm. Up to 16 s, a nearly continuous film was formed and some new globular-like grains were again present on the film. Study of the AFM image at 20 s suggests that the watercolor masking method designed by us is an effective method, by which we can prepare thin films with steps for the measurement of the thickness of continuous thin films. It is also found that the coverage rate of films increases with the increase in sputtering time (from 2 to 16 s). On the other hand, the increase in root mean square (RMS) roughness is much more significant from 6 to 10 s, and there is a maximum value, 2.81 nm at 10 s due to more islands during deposition. However, RMS roughness decreases with the decrease in length and width of channels or grooves from 10 to 16 s. Especially, a lower RMS roughness of 0.73 nm occurs at 16 s, because of the continuous film produced with a large coverage rate of 98.43%.

  13. Magnetron sputtering of Fe-oxides on the top of HTS YBCO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurgaliev, T.; Blagoev, B.; Buchkov, K.; Mateev, E.; Gajda, G.; Nedkov, I.; Kovacheva, D.; Slavov, L.; Starbova, I.; Starbov, N.; Nankovski, M.

    2017-01-01

    The possibilities for preparation of bilayers containing magnetic Fe-oxide (Fe-O) and high temperature superconducting (HTS) YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−x (YBCO) thin films were investigated. For this purpose, Fe-O films were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering at comparatively low temperatures T≤250 °C onto dielectric (for example, LaAlO 3 (LAO)) substrates, covered with a HTS YBCO film. The sputtering of the Fe-O layer at such conditions did not lead to a crucial damage of the critical temperature T C of the YBCO film, but could affect the width of the superconducting transition. A decrease of the critical temperature of the (Fe-O)/YBCO/LAO bilayer kept at ambient conditions was observed, possibly due to the negative effects of the water vapour on the sample characteristics. The double peak structure of the imaginary component of the response signal to the AC harmonic magnetic field, observed in such a (Fe-O)/YBCO/LAO sample, was ascribed from two possible views: as a consequence of morphology determined inter- and intra-granular contributions and/or as transitions from dominant irreversible processes as Bean-Livingston barrier to vortex state chains formation. - Highlights: • Iron-oxide (Fe-O) film sputtered on the top of superconducting HTS YBCO film at not very high temperatures. • No crucially damaged superconducting properties of YBCO film during Fe-O sputtering process. • A negative effect of the ambient conditions on the critical temperature of the obtained samples. • A double peak structure of the response signal to the AC harmonic magnetic field in a (Fe-O)/YBCO/LAO is observed.

  14. Magnetron sputtering of Fe-oxides on the top of HTS YBCO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurgaliev, T. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chausse, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Blagoev, B. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chausse, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, 95 Gajowicka Str., 53-421 Wroclaw (Poland); Buchkov, K. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chausse, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Mateev, E. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chausse, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Gajda, G. [Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, 95 Gajowicka Str., 53-421 Wroclaw (Poland); Nedkov, I. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chausse, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Kovacheva, D. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Street, bl. 10, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Slavov, L. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chausse, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, 95 Gajowicka Str., 53-421 Wroclaw (Poland); Starbova, I.; Starbov, N. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chausse, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Nankovski, M. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chausse, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Sofia university “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Faculty of Physics, 5 James Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2017-05-01

    The possibilities for preparation of bilayers containing magnetic Fe-oxide (Fe-O) and high temperature superconducting (HTS) YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−x} (YBCO) thin films were investigated. For this purpose, Fe-O films were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering at comparatively low temperatures T≤250 °C onto dielectric (for example, LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO)) substrates, covered with a HTS YBCO film. The sputtering of the Fe-O layer at such conditions did not lead to a crucial damage of the critical temperature T{sub C} of the YBCO film, but could affect the width of the superconducting transition. A decrease of the critical temperature of the (Fe-O)/YBCO/LAO bilayer kept at ambient conditions was observed, possibly due to the negative effects of the water vapour on the sample characteristics. The double peak structure of the imaginary component of the response signal to the AC harmonic magnetic field, observed in such a (Fe-O)/YBCO/LAO sample, was ascribed from two possible views: as a consequence of morphology determined inter- and intra-granular contributions and/or as transitions from dominant irreversible processes as Bean-Livingston barrier to vortex state chains formation. - Highlights: • Iron-oxide (Fe-O) film sputtered on the top of superconducting HTS YBCO film at not very high temperatures. • No crucially damaged superconducting properties of YBCO film during Fe-O sputtering process. • A negative effect of the ambient conditions on the critical temperature of the obtained samples. • A double peak structure of the response signal to the AC harmonic magnetic field in a (Fe-O)/YBCO/LAO is observed.

  15. Piezoelectric Response Evaluation of ZnO Thin Film Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Da-Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important parameter of piezoelectric materials is piezoelectric coefficient (d33. In this study, the piezoelectric ZnO thin films were deposited on the SiNx/Si substrate. The 4 inches substrate is diced into 8 cm× 8 cm piece. During the deposition process, a zinc target (99.999 wt% of 2 inches diameter was used. The vertical distance between the target and the substrate holder was fixed at 5 cm. The piezoelectric response of zinc oxide (ZnO thin films were obtained by using a direct measurement system. The system adopts a mini impact tip to generate an impulsive force and read out the piezoelectric signals immediately. Experimentally, a servo motor is used to produce a fixed quantity of force, for giving an impact against to the piezoelectric film. The ZnO thin films were deposited using the reactive radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering method. The electric charges should be generated because of the material’s extrusion. This phenomenon was investigated through the oscilloscope by one shot trigger. It was apparent that all ZnO films exhibit piezoelectric responses evaluated by our measurement system, however, its exhibit a significant discrepancy. The piezoelectric responses of ZnO thin film at various deposition positions were measured and the crystal structures of the sputtering pressure were also discussed. The crystalline characteristics of ZnO thin films are investigated through the XRD and SEM. The results show the ZnO thin film exhibits good crystalline pattern and surface morphology with controlled sputtering condition. The ZnO thin films sputtered using 2 inches target present various piezoelectric responses. With the exactly related position, a best piezoelectric response of ZnO thin film can be achieved.

  16. Morphological analysis of TiB2 thin film prepared by rf magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Wei; Zhang Tongjun; Yang Junyou; Sun Rongxing; Xu Juliang

    2008-01-01

    Superhard TiB 2 thin films were deposited on steel substrates using the radio-frequency magnetron-sputtering technique with a low normalized substrate temperature (0.1 s /T m 2 thin films were overstoichiometric and that the diffusion of Ti and B atoms on the substrate surface was greatly improved at a temperature of 350 deg. C. Moreover, a new dense structure, named the ''equiaxed'' grain structure, was observed by FESEM at this substrate temperature. GIXRD was carried out at different directions with same the grazing-incidence method and the variation of diffraction intensity of the nonrandom textured grains was confirmed. Combined with FESEM and AES analysis, it is suggested that the equiaxed grain structure was located in zone 2 at the normalized substrate temperature as low as 0.18

  17. Development of nanocrystalline Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin films using RF-magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamilselvan, N.; Thilakan, Periyasamy

    2013-01-01

    ITO thin films have been deposited on glass substrate using RF Magnetron puttering Technique from the pre-synthesized ITO target. The sputtering parameters such as the deposition temperature, gas composition and the RF power densities were varied. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the crystallization of the films is mostly depending on the RF power density and substrate temperature. Crystallized films exhibited a change in the preferred orientation from (111) plane to (100) plane at specific conditions such as high RF power density and high oxygen mixing to the plasma. Change in the film microstructure and a shift in the optical bandgap were recorded from the SEM and UV-Visible measurements respectively. (author)

  18. Effects of Annealing on TiN Thin Film Growth by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Jafari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have reviewed the deposition of titanium nitride (TiN thin films on stainless steel substrates by a DC magnetron sputtering method and annealing at different annealing temperatures of 500, 600, and 700°C for 120 min in nitrogen/argon atmospheres. Effects of annealing temperatures on the structural and the optical properties of TiN films were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscope (AFM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, and UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Our experimental studies reveal that the annealing temperature appreciably affected the structures, crystallite sizes, and reflection of the films. By increasing the annealing temperature to 700°C crystallinity and reflection of the film increase. These results suggest that annealed TiN films can be good candidate for tokamak first wall due to their structural and optical properties.

  19. Deposition of a conductive near-infrared cutoff filter by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Hyu; Yoo, Kwang-Lim; Kim, Nam-Young; Hwangbo, Chang Kwon

    2002-01-01

    We have designed a conductive near-infrared (NIR) cutoff filter for display application, i.e., a modified low-emissivity filter based on the three periods of the basic design of [TiO2|Ti|Ag| TiO2] upon a glass substrate and investigated the optical, structural, chemical, and electrical properties of the conductive NIR cutoff filter prepared by a radio frequency magnetron sputtering system. The results show that the average transmittance is 61.1% in the visible, that the transmittance in the NIR is less than 6.6%, and that the sheet resistance and emissivity are 0.9 Ω/□ (where □ stands for a square film) and 0.012, respectively, suggesting that the conductive NIR cutoff filter can be employed as a shield against the hazard of electromagnetic waves as well as to cut off the NIR

  20. Arsenic doped p-type zinc oxide films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, J. C.; Zhu, C. Y.; Fung, S.; To, C. K.; Yang, B.; Beling, C. D.; Ling, C. C.; Zhong, Y. C.; Wong, K. S.; Xie, Z.; Brauer, G.; Skorupa, W.; Anwand, W.

    2009-01-01

    As-doped ZnO films were grown by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering method. As the substrate temperature during growth was raised above ∼400 deg. C, the films changed from n type to p type. Hole concentration and mobility of ∼6x10 17 cm -3 and ∼6 cm 2 V -1 s -1 were achieved. The ZnO films were studied by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low temperature photoluminescence (PL), and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The results were consistent with the As Zn -2V Zn shallow acceptor model proposed by Limpijumnong et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 155504 (2004)]. The results of the XPS, PL, PAS, and thermal studies lead us to suggest a comprehensive picture of the As-related shallow acceptor formation.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of DC magnetron sputtered nano structured molybdenum thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondiya, S. R.; Rokade, A. V.; Jadhavar, A. A.; Pandharkar, S. M.; Kulkarni, R. R.; Karpe, S. D.; Diwate, K. D. [School of Energy Studies, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India); Jadkar, S. R., E-mail: sandesh@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India)

    2016-04-13

    Molybdenum (Mo) thin films were deposited on corning glass (#7059) substrates using DC magnetron sputtering system. The effect of substrate temperature on the structural, morphology and topological properties have been investigated. Films were characterized by variety of techniques such as low angle x-ray diffraction (low angle XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM). The low angle XRD analysis revealed that the synthesized Mo films are nanocrystalline having cubic crystal structure with (110) preferential orientation. The microstructure of the deposited Mo thin films observed with FE-SEM images indicated that films are homogeneous and uniform with randomly oriented leaf shape morphology. The AFM analysis shows that with increase in substrate temperature the rms roughness of Mo films increases. The obtained results suggest that the synthesized nanostructured Mo thin films have potential application as a back contact material for high efficiency solar cells like CdTe, CIGS, CZTS etc.

  2. Deposition of amino-rich thin films by RF magnetron sputtering of nylon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylian, O; Hanus, J; Choukourov, A; Kousal, J; SlavInska, D; Biederman, H, E-mail: ondrej.kylian@gmail.co [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, Prague 8, 180 00 (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-21

    RF magnetron sputtering of a nylon target in different gas mixtures was studied in order to evaluate the capability of this process to deposit amino-rich coatings needed in a wide range of biomedical applications. It has been demonstrated that both the deposition rate of the coatings and the surface density of primary amino groups are strongly linked with working gas mixture composition. From this point of view, a sufficiently high deposition rate as well as the highest amine efficiency reaching a NH{sub 2}/C value of 18% was observed in the N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} discharge, which leads to the surface exhibiting a high rate of protein adsorption. (fast track communication)

  3. Annealing induced morphological modifications in PTFE films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, S.; De, Rajnarayan; Rao, K. Divakar; Haque, S. Maidul; Misal, J. S.; Prathap, C.; Das, S. C.; Ganesan, V.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2017-05-01

    As grown RF magnetron sputtered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) thin films were subjected to vacuum annealing at optimized elevated temperature of 200° C for varying time duration and corresponding surface morphological changes were recorded. The columnar structures appearing after an annealing duration of 2 hours are interesting for fabrication of rough PTFE surfaces towards possible applications in hydrophobicity along with high transmission. Supported by transmission data, the AFM images show a transformation of smooth PTFE surface with less than 2 nm rms roughness to a very rough surface. The results are interpreted in terms of thermal energy induced modifications only at the surface without any change in the original bonding structure on the surface and inside the sample. Preliminary studies indicate that the optimization of roughness and transmission together on such surfaces may lead to high water contact angles.

  4. Reversible superhydrophilicity and hydrophobicity switching of V2O5 thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunzi; Peng, Zhiguang; Cui, Xiaoyu; Neil, Eric; Li, Yuanshi; Kasap, Safa; Yang, Qiaoqin

    2018-03-01

    V2O5 thin films are well-known "smart" materials due to their reversible wettability under UV irradiation and dark storage. Their surfaces are usually hydrophobic and turn into hydrophilic under UV irradiation. However, the V2O5 thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering in present work are superhydrophilic and turned into hydrophobic after days' of storage in air. This change can be recovered by heating. The effects of many factors including surface roughness, irradiation from visible light, UV, & X-ray, and storage in air & vacuum on the reversible switching of wettability were investigated. The results show that air absorption is the main factor causing the film surface change from superhydrophilicity to hydrophobicity.

  5. UV-Enhanced Ethanol Sensing Properties of RF Magnetron-Sputtered ZnO Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinyu; Du, Yu; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Hao; Geng, Youfu; Li, Xuejin; Tian, Xiaoqing

    2017-12-26

    ZnO film was deposited by the magnetron sputtering method. The thickness of ZnO film is approximately 2 μm. The influence of UV light illumination on C₂H₅OH sensing properties of ZnO film was investigated. Gas sensing results revealed that the UV-illuminated ZnO film displays excellent C₂H₅OH characteristics in terms of high sensitivity, excellent selectivity, rapid response/recovery, and low detection limit down to 0.1 ppm. The excellent sensing performance of the sensor with UV activation could be attributed to the photocatalytic oxidation of ethanol on the surface of the ZnO film, the planar film structure with high utilizing efficiency of UV light, high electron mobility, and a good surface/volume ratio of of ZnO film with a relatively rough and porous surface.

  6. Fabrication of hydroxyapatite thin films for biomedical applications using RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Tetsuro; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Ide-Ektessabi, Ari

    2006-01-01

    The calcium phosphate thin films for medical applications require similar chemical properties as those of natural bone as well as a uniform surface without any defect, such as cracks and pinholes. In this study, the calcium phosphate thin films were fabricated using RF magnetron sputtering deposition technique at discharge power of 200W, 300W and 400W. The target used for the deposition was sintered HAp. RBS analysis showed that the Ca/P ratio increased with the discharge power becoming close to that of Ca/P=1.67 in ideal HAp. XPS analysis revealed the presence of PO 4 3- and OH - bonds in the calcium phosphate films fabricated. The chemical properties of the calcium phosphate thin films were similar to those of ideal HAp. The AFM results revealed that the thin films prepared had a uniform surface

  7. Synthesis of ReN3 Thin Films by Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Soto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work ReNx films were prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature and deposited on a silicon wafer. It was found that the diffractograms of the nitrogen-rich rhenium film are consistent with those produced by high-pressure high-temperature methods, under the assumption that the film is oriented on the substrate. Using density functional calculations it was found that the composition of this compound could be ReN3, instead of ReN2, as stated on previous works. The ReN3 compound fits in the Ama2 (40 orthorhombic space group, and due to the existence of N3 anions between Re layers it should be categorized as an azide. The material is exceptionally brittle and inherently unstable under indentation testing.

  8. Optical properties of ITO films obtained by high-frequency magnetron sputtering with accompanying ion treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylov, P. N., E-mail: ftt@uni.udm.ru; Zakirova, R. M.; Fedotova, I. V. [Udmurt State University (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15

    A variation in the properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films obtained by the method of reactive magnetron sputtering with simultaneous ion treatment is reported. The ITO films feature the following parameters in the optical range of 450-1100 nm: a transmission coefficient of 80%, band gap of 3.50-3.60 eV, and a refractive index of 1.97-2.06. All characteristics of the films depend on the ion-treatment current. The latter, during the course of deposition, reduces the resistivity of the ITO films with the smallest value of the resistivity being equal to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm. The degradation of films with a high resistivity when kept in air is observed.

  9. Mechanical and tribological properties of crystalline aluminum nitride coatings deposited on stainless steel by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, R. K.; Mishra, S. C.; Mishra, P.; Limaye, P. K.; Singh, K.

    2015-11-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) coating is a potential candidate for addressing the problems of MHD pressure drop, tritium permeation and liquid metal corrosion of the test blanket module of fusion reactor. In this work, AlN coatings were grown on stainless steel by magnetron sputtering. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurement revealed that formation of mixed phase (wurtzite and rock salt) AlN was favored at low discharge power and substrate negative biasing. However, at sufficiently high discharge power and substrate bias, (100) oriented wurtzite AlN was obtained. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy showed presence of oxygen in the coatings. The highest value of hardness and Young's modulus were 14.1 GPa and 215 GPa, respectively. Scratch test showed adhesive failure at a load of about 20 N. Wear test showed improved wear resistance of the coatings obtained at higher substrate bias.

  10. Deposition and characterization of ZrMoN thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes Junir, A.S.; Felix, L.C.; Oliveira, G.B. de; Fernandez, D.R.; Carvalho, R.G.; Tentardini, E.K.; Silva Junior, A.H. da

    2016-01-01

    Thin films of ZrMoN were deposited by magnetron reactive sputtering technique in order to study the molybdenum influence on the mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of these coatings. Three thin films with molybdenum concentrations from 25 to 40 at.% were selected. The displacement of characteristic peaks of ZrN where identified by GIXRD results of films with larger Mo content. This result is indicative of the Mo accommodation in the lattice structure. Hardness tests revealed favorable results with values up to 33 GPa. Oxidation tests showed that ZrN oxidized at 500 °C with a monoclinic ZrO 2 and tetragonal formation; whereas the thin films with Mo addition impeded the formation of the monoclinic ZrO 2 phase at partial oxidation. (author)

  11. Vanadium oxide thin films deposited on silicon dioxide buffer layers by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sihai; Ma Hong; Wang Shuangbao; Shen Nan; Xiao Jing; Zhou Hao; Zhao Xiaomei; Li Yi; Yi Xinjian

    2006-01-01

    Thin films made by vanadium oxide have been obtained by direct current magnetron sputtering method on SiO 2 buffer layers. A detailed electrical and structural characterization has been performed on the deposited films by four-point probe method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At room temperature, the four-point probe measurement result presents the resistance of the film to be 25 kU/sheet. The temperature coefficient of resistance is - 2.0%/K. SEM image indicates that the vanadium oxide exhibits a submicrostructure with lamella size ranging from 60 nm to 300 nm. A 32 x 32-element test microbolometer was fabricated based on the deposited thin film. The infrared response testing showed that the response was 200 mV. The obtained results allow us to conclude that the vanadium oxide thin films on SiO 2 buffer layers is suitable for uncooled focal plane arrays applications

  12. AlN/Al dual protective coatings on NdFeB by DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jinlong; Mao Shoudong; Sun Kefei [Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Li Xiaomin [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Song Zhenlun [Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)], E-mail: songzhenlun@nimte.ac.cn

    2009-11-15

    AlN/Al dual protective coatings were prepared on NdFeB by DC magnetron sputtering in a home-made industrial apparatus. Comparing with Al coating, AlN/Al coatings have a denser structure of an outmost AlN amorphous layer following an inner Al columnar crystal layer. The coatings and NdFeB substrate combine well, and moreover, there is occurrence of metallurgy bonding in the interface layer. Both Al and AlN/Al coatings have a good protective ability to NdFeB. Especially, the corrosion resistance of AlN/Al coated NdFeB is improved largely. AlN/Al and Al protective coatings not only do not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB, but contribute to their slight increase.

  13. AlN/Al dual protective coatings on NdFeB by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinlong; Mao Shoudong; Sun Kefei; Li Xiaomin; Song Zhenlun

    2009-01-01

    AlN/Al dual protective coatings were prepared on NdFeB by DC magnetron sputtering in a home-made industrial apparatus. Comparing with Al coating, AlN/Al coatings have a denser structure of an outmost AlN amorphous layer following an inner Al columnar crystal layer. The coatings and NdFeB substrate combine well, and moreover, there is occurrence of metallurgy bonding in the interface layer. Both Al and AlN/Al coatings have a good protective ability to NdFeB. Especially, the corrosion resistance of AlN/Al coated NdFeB is improved largely. AlN/Al and Al protective coatings not only do not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB, but contribute to their slight increase.

  14. DC magnetron sputtering prepared Ag-C thin film anode for thin film lithium ion microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Tu, J.P.; Shi, D.Q.; Huang, X.H.; Wu, H.M.; Yuan, Y.F.; Zhao, X.B.

    2007-01-01

    An Ag-C thin film was prepared by DC magnetron co-sputtering, using pure silver and graphite as the targets. The microstructure and morphology of the deposited thin film were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrochemical performances of the Ag-C thin film anode were investigated by means of discharge/charge and cyclic voltammogram (CV) tests in model cells. The electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS) characteristics and the chemical diffusion coefficient, D Li of the Ag-C thin film electrode at different discharging states were discussed. It was believed that the excellent cycling performance of the Ag-C electrode was ascribed to the good conductivity of silver and the volume stability of the thin film

  15. Arsenic doped p-type zinc oxide films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J. C.; Zhu, C. Y.; Fung, S.; Zhong, Y. C.; Wong, K. S.; Xie, Z.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.; To, C. K.; Yang, B.; Beling, C. D.; Ling, C. C.

    2009-10-01

    As-doped ZnO films were grown by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering method. As the substrate temperature during growth was raised above ˜400 °C, the films changed from n type to p type. Hole concentration and mobility of ˜6×1017 cm-3 and ˜6 cm2 V-1 s-1 were achieved. The ZnO films were studied by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low temperature photoluminescence (PL), and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The results were consistent with the AsZn-2VZn shallow acceptor model proposed by Limpijumnong et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 155504 (2004)]. The results of the XPS, PL, PAS, and thermal studies lead us to suggest a comprehensive picture of the As-related shallow acceptor formation.

  16. Direct current magnetron sputter-deposited ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoon, Jian-Wei; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Krishnasamy, Jegenathan; Tou, Teck-Yong; Knipp, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a very promising electronic material for emerging transparent large-area electronic applications including thin-film sensors, transistors and solar cells. We fabricated ZnO thin films by employing direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering deposition technique. ZnO films with different thicknesses ranging from 150 nm to 750 nm were deposited on glass substrates. The deposition pressure and the substrate temperature were varied from 12 mTorr to 25 mTorr, and from room temperature to 450 deg. C, respectively. The influence of the film thickness, deposition pressure and the substrate temperature on structural and optical properties of the ZnO films was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. The experimental results reveal that the film thickness, deposition pressure and the substrate temperature play significant role in the structural formation and the optical properties of the deposited ZnO thin films.

  17. Structural and morphological properties of ITO thin films grown by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorannevis, Z.; Akbarnejad, E.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2015-10-01

    Physical properties of transparent and conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films grown by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering are studied systematically by changing deposition time. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data indicate polycrystalline thin films with grain orientations predominantly along the (2 2 2) and (4 0 0) directions. From atomic force microscopy (AFM) it is found that by increasing the deposition time, the roughness of the film increases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show a network of a high-porosity interconnected nanoparticles, which approximately have a pore size ranging between 20 and 30 nm. Optical measurements suggest an average transmission of 80 % for the ITO films. Sheet resistances are investigated using four-point probes, which imply that by increasing the film thickness the resistivities of the films decrease to 2.43 × 10-5 Ω cm.

  18. Characteristics of W Doped Nanocrystalline Carbon Films Prepared by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Seob; Park, Chul Min; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Moon

    2016-05-01

    Nanocrystalline tungsten doped carbon (WC) films were prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering. Tungsten was used as the doping material in carbon thin films with the aim of application as a contact strip in an electric railway. The structural, physical, and electrical properties of the fabricated WC films with various DC bias voltages were investigated. The films had a uniform and smooth surface. Hardness and frication characteristics of the films were improved, and the resistivity and sheet resistance decreased with increasing negative DC bias voltage. These results are associated with the nanocrystalline WC phase and sp(2) clusters in carbon networks increased by ion bombardment enhanced with increasing DC bias voltage. Consequently, the increase of sp(2) clusters containing WC nanocrystalline in the carbon films is attributed to the improvement in the physical and electrical properties.

  19. Nanopatterned Silicon Substrate Use in Heterojunction Thin Film Solar Cells Made by Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Ze Tseng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for fabricating silicon heterojunction thin film solar cells with an ITO/p-type a-Si : H/n-type c-Si structure by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering. A short-circuit current density and efficiency of 28.80 mA/cm2 and 8.67% were achieved. Novel nanopatterned silicon wafers for use in cells are presented. Improved heterojunction cells are formed on a nanopatterned silicon substrate that is prepared with a self-assembled monolayer of SiO2 nanospheres with a diameter of 550 nm used as an etching mask. The efficiency of the nanopattern silicon substrate heterojunction cells was 31.49% greater than that of heterojunction cells on a flat silicon wafer.

  20. Structural and thermal properties of nanocrystalline CuO synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M. [Department of Chemistry, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667, India and Nano Science Laboratory, Institute Instrumentation Centre, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667 (India); Gupta, V. K. [Department of Chemistry, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667 (India); Gautam, Y. K.; Dave, V.; Chandra, R. [Nano Science Laboratory, Institute Instrumentation Centre, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667 (India)

    2014-01-28

    Recent research has shown immense application of metal oxides like CuO, MgO, CaO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, etc. in different areas which includes chemical warfare agents, medical drugs, magnetic storage media and solar energy transformation. Among the metal oxides, CuO nanoparticles are of special interest because of their excellent gas sensing and catalytic properties. In this paper we report structural and thermal properties of CuO synthesized by reactive magnetron DC sputtering. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometer. The XRD result reveals that as DC power increased from 30W to 80W, size of the CuO nanoparticles increased. The same results have been verified through TEM analysis. Thermal properties of these particles were studied using thermogravimetry.

  1. Characterization of barium strontium titanate thin films on sapphire substrate prepared via RF magnetron sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaluddin, F. W.; Khalid, M. F. Abdul; Mamat, M. H.; Zoolfakar, A. S.; Zulkefle, M. A.; Rusop, M.; Awang, Z.

    2018-05-01

    Barium Strontium Titanate (Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3) is known to have a high dielectric constant and low loss at microwave frequencies. These unique features are useful for many electronic applications. This paper focuses on material characterization of BST thin films deposited on sapphire substrate by RF magnetron sputtering system. The sample was then annealed at 900 °C for two hours. Several methods were used to characterize the structural properties of the material such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used to analyze the surface morphology of the thin film. From the results obtained, it can be shown that the annealed sample had a rougher surface and better crystallinity as compared to as-deposited sample.

  2. Direct current magnetron sputtering deposition of InN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xingmin; Hao Yanqing; Zhang Dongping; Fan Ping

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, InN thin films were deposited on Si (1 0 0) and K9 glass by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering. The target was In metal with the purity of 99.999% and the gases were Ar (99.999%) and N 2 (99.999%). The properties of InN thin films were studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the film surface is very rough and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) shows that the film contains In, N and very little O. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering reveal that the film mainly contains hexagonal InN. The four-probe measurement shows that InN film is conductive. The transmission measurement demonstrates that the transmission of InN deposited on K9 glass is as low as 0.5% from 400 nm to 800 nm.

  3. RF magnetron-sputtered coatings deposited from biphasic calcium phosphate targets for biomedical implant applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Prosolov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive calcium phosphate coatings were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering from biphasic targets of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate, sintered at different mass % ratios. According to Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction data, the deposited hydroxyapatite coatings have a disordered structure. High-temperature treatment of the coatings in air leads to a transformation of the quasi-amorphous structure into a crystalline one. A correlation has been observed between the increase in the Ca content in the coatings and a subsequent decrease in Ca in the biphasic targets after a series of deposition processes. It was proposed that the addition of tricalcium phosphate to the targets would led to a finer coating's surface topography with the average size of 78 nm for the structural elements.

  4. Deposition and characterization of TaAIN thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, G.B.; Fernandez, D.R.; Fontes Junior, A.S.; Felix, L.C.; Tentardini, E.K.; Silva Junior, A.H. da

    2016-01-01

    Phase stability, oxidation resistance and great mechanical properties are the main objectives when synthesizing protective coatings. The tantalum nitride (TaN) has aroused interest because of its high temperature stability, chemical inertness and thermal conductivity. However, it has a low hardness value when compared to other coatings. Researches has shown that one way to improvements in the properties of a thin film is by adding other elements in the deposition process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to deposit thin films of TaAlN by magnetron sputtering, changing the aluminum concentration of 2, 5, 7, to 14%. Then the coatings were characterized by EDS, RBS, GIXRD and nanohardness. In this study was found that the aluminum deposited did not change the oxidation resistance of the coating, and the highest value of hardness was 28 GPa for the sample with 14 at.%. (author)

  5. Omnidirectional photonic band gap in magnetron sputtered TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} one dimensional photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jena, S., E-mail: shuvendujena9@gmail.com [Atomic & Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Tokas, R.B.; Sarkar, P. [Atomic & Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Misal, J.S.; Maidul Haque, S.; Rao, K.D. [Photonics & Nanotechnology Section, BARC-Vizag, Autonagar, Atomic & Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre facility, Visakhapatnam 530 012 (India); Thakur, S.; Sahoo, N.K. [Atomic & Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2016-01-29

    One dimensional photonic crystal (1DPC) of TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} multilayer has been fabricated by sequential asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering of TiO{sub 2} and radio frequency magnetron sputtering of SiO{sub 2} to achieve wide omnidirectional photonic band in the visible region. The microstructure and optical response of the TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} photonic crystal have been characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and spectrophotometry respectively. The surface of the photonic crystal is very smooth having surface roughness of 2.6 nm. Reflection and transmission spectra have been measured in the wavelength range 300 to 1000 nm for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic waves. Wide high reflection photonic band gap (∆ λ = 245 nm) in the visible and near infrared regions (592–837 nm) at normal incidence has been achieved. The measured photonic band gap (PBG) is found well matching with the calculated photonic band gap of an infinite 1DPC. The experimentally observed omnidirectional photonic band 592–668 nm (∆ λ = 76 nm) in the visible region with band to mid-band ratio ∆ λ/λ = 12% for reflectivity R > 99% over the incident angle range of 0°–70° is found almost matching with the calculated omnidirectional PBG. The omnidirectional reflection band is found much wider as compared to the values reported in literature so far in the visible region for TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} periodic photonic crystal. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} 1DPC has been fabricated using magnetron sputtering technique. • Experimental optical response is found good agreement with simulation results. • Wide omnidirectional photonic band in the visible spectrum has been achieved.

  6. RF Magnetron Sputtering Deposited W/Ti Thin Film For Smart Window Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksuz, Lutfi; Kiristi, Melek; Bozduman, Ferhat; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul

    2014-10-01

    Electrochromic (EC) devices can change reversible and persistent their optical properties in the visible region (400-800 nm) upon charge insertion/extraction according to the applied voltage. A complementary type EC is a device containing two electrochromic layers, one of which is anodically colored such as vanadium oxide (V2 O5) while the other cathodically colored such as tungsten oxide (WO3) which is separated by an ionic conduction layer (electrolyte). The use of a solid electrolyte such as Nafion eliminates the need for containment of the liquid electrolyte, which simplifies the cell design, as well as improves safety and durability. In this work, the EC device was fabricated on a ITO/glass slide. The WO3-TiO2 thin film was deposited by reactive RF magnetron sputtering using a 2-in W/Ti (9:1%wt) target with purity of 99.9% in a mixture gas of argon and oxygen. As a counter electrode layer, V2O5 film was deposited on an ITO/glass substrate using V2O3 target with the same conditions of reactive RF magnetron sputtering. Modified Nafion was used as an electrolyte to complete EC device. The transmittance spectra of the complementary EC device was measured by optical spectrophotometry when a voltage of +/-3 V was applied to the EC device by computer controlled system. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) (Fig. 2). The cyclic voltammetry (CV) for EC device was performed by sweeping the potential between +/-3 V at a scan rate of 50 mV/s.

  7. Fractal features of CdTe thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinpanahi, Fayegh, E-mail: f.hosseinpanahi@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-4697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raoufi, Davood [Department of Physics, University of Bu Ali Sina, P.O. Box 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ranjbarghanei, Khadijeh [Department of Physics, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science & Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, Bayan [Department of Physics, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-4697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Babaei, Reza [Department of Physics, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science & Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hasani, Ebrahim [Department of Physics, University of Bu Ali Sina, P.O. Box 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CdTe thin films were deposited on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature with different deposition time 5, 10 and 15 min. • Nanostructure of CdTe layer indicates that CdTe films are polycrystalline and have zinc blende structure, irrespective of their deposition time. • Complexity and roughness of the CdTe films and strength of multifractality increase with increasing deposition time. • Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and also multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) methods showed that prepared CdTe films have multifractal nature. - Abstract: Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on glass substrates at room temperature (RT). The film deposition was performed for 5, 10, and 15 min at power of 30 W with a frequency of 13.56 MHz. The crystal structure of the prepared CdTe thin films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. XRD analyses indicate that the CdTe films are polycrystalline, having zinc blende structure of CdTe irrespective of their deposition time. All CdTe films showed a preferred orientation along (1 1 1) crystalline plane. The surface morphology characterization of the films was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The quantitative AFM characterization shows that the RMS surface roughness of the prepared CdTe thin films increases with increasing the deposition time. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and also multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) methods showed that prepared CdTe thin films have multifractal nature. The complexity, roughness of the CdTe thin films and strength of the multifractality increase as deposition time increases.

  8. Bioactivity response of Ta_1_-_xO_x coatings deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Alves, C.F.; Cavaleiro, A.; Carvalho, S.

    2016-01-01

    The use of dental implants is sometimes accompanied by failure due to periimplantitis disease and subsequently poor esthetics when soft–hard tissue margin recedes. As a consequence, further research is needed for developing new bioactive surfaces able to enhance the osseous growth. Tantalum (Ta) is a promising material for dental implants since, comparing with titanium (Ti), it is bioactive and has an interesting chemistry which promotes the osseointegration. Another promising approach for implantology is the development of implants with oxidized surfaces since bone progenitor cells interact with the oxide layer forming a diffusion zone due to its ability to bind with calcium which promotes a stronger bond. In the present report Ta-based coatings were deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering onto Ti CP substrates in an Ar + O_2 atmosphere. In order to assess the osteoconductive response of the studied materials, contact angle and in vitro tests of the samples immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) were performed. Structural results showed that oxide phases where achieved with larger amounts of oxygen (70 at.% O). More compact and smooth coatings were deposited by increasing the oxygen content. The as-deposited Ta coating presented the most hydrophobic character (100°); with increasing oxygen amount contact angles progressively diminished, down to the lowest measured value, 63°. The higher wettability is also accompanied by an increase on the surface energy. Bioactivity tests demonstrated that highest O-content coating, in good agreement with wettability and surface energy values, showed an increased affinity for apatite adhesion, with higher Ca/P ratio formation, when compared to the bare Ti substrates. - Highlights: • Ta_1_-_xO_x coatings were deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. • Amorphous oxide phases were achieved with higher oxygen amounts. • Contact angles progressively diminished, with increasing oxygen content. • Ta oxide surface

  9. Titanium dioxide (TIO2) thin film and plasma properties in RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2013-01-01

    Lately, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) films with anatase crystalline property received numerous attentions as unique material properties. There are wide applications of TiO 2 thin film such as for photocatalytic application in solar cell. In the present study, radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique has been used to produce high dense, homogeneously controllable film layer at low deposition temperature using titanium (Ti) target. The diameter of the Ti target is 3 inch with fixed discharge power of 400W. Magnetron sputtering plasma has been produced in high purity 99.99% Argon (Ar) and 99.99% Oxygen (O 2 ) environment pressure ranging from 5 to 20 mTorr. The TiO2 were growth on silicon and glass substrates. Substrate temperature during deposition was kept constant at 400°C. The distance between target and substrate holder was maintain at 14 cm with rotation of 10 rotation-per-minutes. Our X-ray diffraction result, shows anatase crystalline successfully formed with characterization peaks of plane (101) at 2θ = 25.28°, plane (202) at 2θ = 48.05° and plane (211) at 2θ = 55.06°. In addition, it is our interest to study the plasma properties and optical spectrum of Ti, Ti+ , O- , ArM and Ar+ in the chamber during the deposition process. Result of emission line intensities, electron density and temperature from optical spectroscope and Langmuir probe will be discuss further during the workshop. This works were supported by Graduate Incentive Scheme of Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) and Fundamental Research Grant Scheme of Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. (author)

  10. Compositionally graded SiCu thin film anode by magnetron sputtering for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, B.D., E-mail: bpolat@itu.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey); Eryilmaz, O.L. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Keleş, O., E-mail: ozgulkeles@itu.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey); Erdemir, A. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Amine, K. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Compositionally graded and non-graded composite SiCu thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on Cu disks for investigation of their potentials in lithium ion battery applications. The compositionally graded thin film electrodes with 30 at.% Cu delivered a 1400 mAh g{sup −1} capacity with 80% Coulombic efficiency in the first cycle and still retained its capacity at around 600 mAh g{sup −1} (with 99.9% Coulombic efficiency) even after 100 cycles. On the other hand, the non-graded thin film electrodes with 30 at.% Cu exhibited 1100 mAh g{sup −1} as the first discharge capacity with 78% Coulombic efficiency but the cycle life of this film degraded very quickly, delivering only 250 mAh g{sup −1} capacity after 100th cycles. Not only the Cu content but also the graded film thickness were believed to be the main contributors to the much superior performance of the compositionally graded SiCu films. We also believe that the Cu-rich region of the graded film helped reduce internal stress build-up and thus prevented film delamination during cycling. In particular, the decrease of Cu content from interface region to the top of the coating reduced the possibility of stress build-up across the film during cycling, thus leading to a high electrochemical performance.b - Highlights: • Highly adherent SiCu films are deposited by magnetron sputtering. • Compositionally graded SiCu film is produced and characterized. • Decrease of Cu content diverted the propagation of stress in the anode. • Cu rich layer at the bottom improves the adherence of the film.

  11. Turbostratic-like carbon nitride coatings deposited by industrial-scale direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louring, S.; Madsen, N.D.; Berthelsen, A.N.; Christensen, B.H.; Almtoft, K.P.; Nielsen, L.P.; Bøttiger, J.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nitride thin films were deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering in an industrial-scale equipment at different deposition temperatures and substrate bias voltages. The films had N/(N + C) atomic fractions between 0.2 and 0.3 as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Raman spectroscopy provided insight into the ordering and extension of the graphite-like clusters, whereas nanoindentation revealed information on the mechanical properties of the films. The internal compressive film stress was evaluated from the substrate bending method. At low deposition temperatures the films were amorphous, whereas the film deposited at approximately 380 °C had a turbostratic-like structure as confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images. The turbostratic-like film had a highly elastic response when subjected to nanoindentation. When a CrN interlayer was deposited between the film and the substrate, XPS and Raman spectroscopy indicated that the turbostratic-like structure was maintained. However, it was inconclusive whether the film still exhibited an extraordinary elastic recovery. An increased substrate bias voltage, without additional heating and without deposition of an interlayer, resulted in a structural ordering, although not to the extent of a turbostratic-like structure. - Highlights: • Carbon nitride films were deposited by industrial-scale magnetron sputtering. • The deposition temperature and the substrate bias voltage were varied. • A turbostratic-like structure was obtained at an elevated deposition temperature. • The turbostratic-like film exhibited a very high elastic recovery. • The influence of a CrN interlayer on the film properties was investigated

  12. Structure dependent resistivity and dielectric characteristics of tantalum oxynitride thin films produced by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristea, D., E-mail: daniel.cristea@unitbv.ro [Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Crisan, A. [Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Cretu, N. [Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics Department, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Borges, J. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 - 057 Braga (Portugal); Instituto Pedro Nunes, Laboratório de Ensaios, Desgaste e Materiais, Rua Pedro Nunes, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Lopes, C.; Cunha, L. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 - 057 Braga (Portugal); Ion, V.; Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, “Photonic Processing of Advanced Materials” Group, PO Box MG-16, RO 77125 Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Barradas, N.P. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Alves, E. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Apreutesei, M. [MATEIS Laboratory-INSA de Lyon, 21 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon INL-UMR5270, CNRS, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully F-69134 (France); Munteanu, D. [Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Tantalum oxynitride thin films have been deposited by magnetron sputtering, in various configurations. • The rising of the reactive gases mixture flow has the consequence of a gradual increase in the non-metallic content in the films, which results in a 10 orders of magnitude resistivity domain. • The higher resistivity films exhibit dielectric constants up to 41 and quality factors up to 70. - Abstract: The main purpose of this work is to present and to interpret the change of electrical properties of Ta{sub x}N{sub y}O{sub z} thin films, produced by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. Some parameters were varied during deposition: the flow of the reactive gases mixture (N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, with a constant concentration ratio of 17:3); the substrate voltage bias (grounded, −50 V or −100 V) and the substrate (glass, (1 0 0) Si or high speed steel). The obtained films exhibit significant differences. The variation of the deposition parameters induces variations of the composition, microstructure and morphology. These differences cause variation of the electrical resistivity essentially correlated with the composition and structural changes. The gradual decrease of the Ta concentration in the films induces amorphization and causes a raise of the resistivity. The dielectric characteristics of some of the high resistance Ta{sub x}N{sub y}O{sub z} films were obtained in the samples with a capacitor-like design (deposited onto high speed steel, with gold pads deposited on the dielectric Ta{sub x}N{sub y}O{sub z} films). Some of these films exhibited dielectric constant values higher than those reported for other tantalum based dielectric films.

  13. Properties of reactively radio frequency-magnetron sputtered (Zr,Sn)TiO4 dielectric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.-L.; Hsu, C.-H.

    2004-01-01

    Zirconium tin titanium oxide doped 1 wt % ZnO thin films on n-type Si substrate were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering at a fixed rf power of 350 W with various argon-oxygen (Ar/O 2 ) mixture and different substrate temperatures. Electrical properties and microstructures of ZnO-doped (Zr 0.8 Sn 0.2 )TiO 4 thin films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering on n-type Si(100) substrates at different Ar/O 2 ratios and substrate temperatures have been investigated. The surface structural and morphological characteristics analyzed by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscope were sensitive to the deposition conditions, such as Ar/O 2 ratio (100/0-80/20) and substrate temperature (350 deg. C-450 deg. C). The selected-area diffraction pattern showed that the deposited films exhibited a polycrystalline microstructure. All films exhibited ZST (111) orientation perpendicular to the substrate surface and the grain size as well as the deposition rate of the films increased with the increase of both the Ar partial pressure and the substrate temperature. At a Ar/O 2 ratio of 100/0, rf power level of 350 W and substrate temperature of 450 deg. C, the Zr 0.8 Sn 0.2 TiO 4 films with 6.44 μm thickness possess a dielectric constant of 42 (at 10 MHz), a dissipation factor of 0.065 (at 10 MHz), and a leakage current density of 2x10 -7 A/cm 2 at an electrical field of 1 kV/cm

  14. A Magnetron Sputter Deposition System for the Development of X-Ray Multilayer Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, David

    2015-01-01

    The project objective is to establish the capability to deposit multilayer structures for x-ray, neutron, and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optic applications through the development of a magnetron sputtering deposition system. A specific goal of this endeavor is to combine multilayer deposition technology with the replication process in order to enhance NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) position as a world leader in the design of innovative x-ray instrumentation through the development of full shell replicated multilayer optics. The development of multilayer structures are absolutely necessary in order to advance the field of x-ray astronomy by pushing the limit for observing the universe to ever-increasing photon energies (i.e., up to 200 keV or higher), well beyond Chandra's (approx.10 keV) and NuStar's (approx.75 keV) capability. The addition of multilayer technology would significantly enhance the x-ray optics capability at MSFC and allow NASA to maintain its world leadership position in the development, fabrication, and design of innovative x-ray instrumentation, which would be the first of its kind by combining multilayer technology with the mirror replication process. This marriage of these technologies would allow astronomers to see the universe in a new light by pushing to higher energies that are out of reach with today's instruments. To this aim, a magnetron vacuum sputter deposition system for the deposition of novel multilayer thin film x-ray optics is proposed. A significant secondary use of the vacuum deposition system includes the capability to fabricate multilayers for applications in the field of EUV optics for solar physics, neutron optics, and x-ray optics for a broad range of applications including medical imaging.

  15. A Magnetron Sputter Deposition System for the Development of Multilayer X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, David; Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The proposal objective is to establish the capability to deposit multilayer structures for x-ray, neutron, and EUV optic applications through the development of a magnetron sputtering deposition system. A specific goal of this endeavor is to combine multilayer deposition technology with the replication process in order to enhance the MSFC's position as a world leader in the design of innovative X-ray instrumentation through the development of full shell replicated multilayer optics. The development of multilayer structures is absolutely necessary in order to advance the field of X-ray astronomy by pushing the limit for observing the universe to ever increasing photon energies (i. e. up to 200 keV or higher); well beyond Chandra (approx. 10 keV) and NuStar's (approx. 75 keV) capability. The addition of multilayer technology would significantly enhance the X-ray optics capability at MSFC and allow NASA to maintain its world leadership position in the development, fabrication and design of innovative X-ray instrumentation which would be the first of its kind by combining multilayer technology with the mirror replication process. This marriage of these technologies would allow astronomers to see the universe in a new light by pushing to higher energies that are out of reach with today's instruments.To this aim, a magnetron vacum sputter deposition system for the deposition of novel multilayer thin film X-ray optics is proposed. A significant secondary use of the vacuum deposition system includes the capability to fabricate multilayers for applications in the field of EUV optics for solar physics, neutron optics, and X-ray optics for a broad range of applications including medical imaging.

  16. Fractal features of CdTe thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinpanahi, Fayegh; Raoufi, Davood; Ranjbarghanei, Khadijeh; Karimi, Bayan; Babaei, Reza; Hasani, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CdTe thin films were deposited on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature with different deposition time 5, 10 and 15 min. • Nanostructure of CdTe layer indicates that CdTe films are polycrystalline and have zinc blende structure, irrespective of their deposition time. • Complexity and roughness of the CdTe films and strength of multifractality increase with increasing deposition time. • Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and also multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) methods showed that prepared CdTe films have multifractal nature. - Abstract: Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on glass substrates at room temperature (RT). The film deposition was performed for 5, 10, and 15 min at power of 30 W with a frequency of 13.56 MHz. The crystal structure of the prepared CdTe thin films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. XRD analyses indicate that the CdTe films are polycrystalline, having zinc blende structure of CdTe irrespective of their deposition time. All CdTe films showed a preferred orientation along (1 1 1) crystalline plane. The surface morphology characterization of the films was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The quantitative AFM characterization shows that the RMS surface roughness of the prepared CdTe thin films increases with increasing the deposition time. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and also multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) methods showed that prepared CdTe thin films have multifractal nature. The complexity, roughness of the CdTe thin films and strength of the multifractality increase as deposition time increases.

  17. Computer investigations of the influences of magnets for magnetron-sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotek, O.; Loeffler, F.; Schnaut, U.; Guan, W.

    1993-01-01

    For a long time PVD (Physical-Vapour-Deposition) technology has been applied in various modern technical fields, owing to the wide range of possible coating materials whose potential is virtually unlimited. Besides electronic, optical and decorative applications for PVD films, hard films, in particular, have been widely applied for tool coatings which play important roles for the resistance against wear and corrosion. The MSIP (Magnetron-Sputter-Ion-Plating) coating process is one of the PVD-processes, providing 1) relatively high deposition rates, 2) large deposition areas, and 3) low substrate heating. The magnetron behind the target influences the distribution of the electrons moving in the plasma and the space between the cathode and anode, thus the distribution of the ions impinging on the surface of the target. Since the electrons are distributed unevenly in front of the target, the working gas atoms are therefore unevenly ionized in the plasma and the ions also unevenly bombard the target surface and the erosion of the target surface is uneven. Therefore the investigations of the magnetic field in the MSIP are very important for the optimization of the deposition process and the usage of the target. Generally, the accurate calculations or measurements of the direction and strength of the magnetic field (magnetic induction or magnetic flux density vector B) is difficult in comparison to measurements of the electrical field, because vector B is a vector with varying direction and magnitude. In this paper, it is shown that a magnetic field of a cylindrical magnetron in MSIP-equipment can be quickly simulated through a simple model and the distribution of the field is discussed. (orig.)

  18. Heating of polymer substrate by discharge plasma in radiofrequency magnetron sputtering deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirghi, Lucel; Popa, Gheorghe; Hatanaka, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    The substrate used for the thin film deposition in a radiofrequency magnetron sputtering deposition system is heated by the deposition plasma. This may change drastically the surface properties of the polymer substrates. Deposition of titanium dioxide thin films on polymethyl methacrylate and polycarbonate substrates resulted in buckling of the substrate surfaces. This effect was evaluated by analysis of atomic force microscopy topography images of the deposited films. The amount of energy received by the substrate surface during the film deposition was determined by a thermal probe. Then, the results of the thermal probe measurements were used to compute the surface temperature of the polymer substrate. The computation revealed that the substrate surface temperature depends on the substrate thickness, discharge power and substrate holder temperature. For the case of the TiO 2 film depositions in the radiofrequency magnetron plasma, the computation indicated substrate surface temperature values under the polymer melting temperature. Therefore, the buckling of polymer substrate surface in the deposition plasma may not be regarded as a temperature driven surface instability, but more as an effect of argon ion bombardment

  19. Microstructure and electrical properties of bismuth and bismuth oxide deposited by magnetron sputtering UBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otalora B, D. M.; Dussan, A.; Olaya F, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, bismuth (Bi) and bismuth oxide (Bi 2 O 3 ) thin films were prepared, at room temperature, by Sputtering Unbalanced Magnetron (UBM - Unbalance Magnetron) technique under glass substrates. Microstructural and electrical properties of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and System for Measuring Physical Properties - PPMS (Physical Property Measurement System). Dark resistivity of the material was measured for a temperature range between 100 and 400 K. From the XRD measurements it was observed a polycrystalline character of the Bi associated to the presence of phases above the main peak, 2θ = 26.42 grades and a growth governed by a rhombohedral structure. Crystal parameters were obtained for both compounds, Bi and Bi 2 O 3 . From the analysis of the spectra of the conductivity as a function of temperature, it was established that the transport mechanism that governs the region of high temperature (T>300 K) is thermally activated carriers. From conductivity measurements the activation energies were obtained of 0.0094 eV and 0.015 eV for Bi 2 O 3 and Bi, respectively. (Author)

  20. Room temperature growth of nanocrystalline anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films by dc magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Preetam, E-mail: preetamphy@gmail.co [Functional Nanomaterials Research Lab, Department of Physics and Centre of Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Kaur, Davinder [Functional Nanomaterials Research Lab, Department of Physics and Centre of Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2010-03-01

    We report, the structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films grown on glass substrate by dc magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The influence of sputtering power and pressure over crystallinity and surface morphology of the films were investigated. It was observed that increase in sputtering power activates the TiO{sub 2} film growth from relative lower surface free energy to higher surface free energy. XRD pattern revealed the change in preferred orientation from (1 0 1) to (0 0 4) with increase in sputtering power, which is accounted for different surface energy associated with different planes. Microstructure of the films also changes from cauliflower type to columnar type structures with increase in sputtering power. FESEM images of films grown at low pressure and low sputtering power showed typical cauliflower like structure. The optical measurement revealed the systematic variation of the optical constants with deposition parameters. The films are highly transparent with transmission higher than 90% with sharp ultraviolet cut off. The transmittance of these films was found to be influenced by the surface roughness and film thickness. The optical band gap was found to decrease with increase in the sputtering power and pressure. The refractive index of the films was found to vary in the range of 2.50-2.24 with increase in sputtering pressure or sputtering power, resulting in the possibility of producing TiO{sub 2} films for device applications with different refractive index, by changing the deposition parameters.

  1. Downstream plasma transport and metal ionization in a high-powered pulsed-plasma magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Liang; Szott, Matthew M.; McLain, Jake T.; Ruzic, David N.; Yu, He

    2014-01-01

    Downstream plasma transport and ionization processes in a high-powered pulsed-plasma magnetron were studied. The temporal evolution and spatial distribution of electron density (n e ) and temperature (T e ) were characterized with a 3D scanning triple Langmuir probe. Plasma expanded from the racetrack region into the downstream region, where a high n e peak was formed some time into the pulse-off period. The expansion speed and directionality towards the substrate increased with a stronger magnetic field (B), largely as a consequence of a larger potential drop in the bulk plasma region during a relatively slower sheath formation. The fraction of Cu ions in the deposition flux was measured on the substrate using a gridded energy analyzer. It increased with higher pulse voltage. With increased B field from 200 to 800 Gauss above racetrack, n e increased but the Cu ion fraction decreased from 42% to 16%. A comprehensive model was built, including the diffusion of as-sputtered Cu flux, the Cu ionization in the entire plasma region using the mapped n e and T e data, and ion extraction efficiency based on the measured plasma potential (V p ) distribution. The calculations matched the measurements and indicated the main causes of lower Cu ion fractions in stronger B fields to be the lower T e and inefficient ion extraction in a larger pre-sheath potential.

  2. The effect of sputtering gas pressure on the structure and optical properties of MgNiO films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wuze; Jiao, Shujie, E-mail: shujiejiao@gmail.com; Wang, Dongbo; Gao, Shiyong; Wang, Jinzhong; Yu, Qingjiang; Li, Hongtao

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • MgNiO thin films were fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • The structure and optical properties of MgNiO films were studied. • The mechanism of phase separation was discussed in detail. • The effect of different sputtering pressure also was discussed. - Abstract: In this study, MgNiO thin films were grown on quartz substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The influence of different sputtering pressures on the crystalline and optical properties of MgNiO thin films has been studied. X-ray diffraction measurement indicates that the MgNiO films are cubic structure with (200) preferred orientation. UV–vis transmission spectra show that all the MgNiO thin films show more than 75% transmission at visible region, and the absorption edges of all thin films locate at solar-blind region (220 nm–280 nm). The lattice constant and Mg content of MgNiO samples were calculated using X-ray diffraction and transmission spectra data. The phase separation is observed both in the X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission spectra, and the phase separation is studied in detail based on the crystal growth theory and sputtering process.

  3. Characterization of Ta–Si–N coatings prepared using direct current magnetron co-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yung-I, E-mail: yichen@mail.ntou.edu.tw; Lin, Kun-Yi; Wang, Hsiu-Hui; Cheng, Yu-Ru

    2014-06-01

    Ta–Si–N coatings were prepared using reactive direct current magnetron co-sputtering on silicon substrates. When the sputtering powers and N{sub 2} flow ratio were varied, Ta–Si–N coatings exhibited various chemical compositions and crystalline characteristics. The high-Si-content Ta–Si–N coatings exhibited an amorphous phase in the as-deposited states, whereas the low-Si-content coatings exhibited a face-centered cubic phase or an amorphous phase depending on the N content. This study evaluated the application of amorphous Ta–Si–N coatings, such as the protective coatings on glass molding dies, in high-temperature and oxygen-containing atmospheres for longed operation durations. To explore the oxidation resistance and mechanical properties of the Ta–Si–N coatings, annealing treatments were conducted in a 1%O{sub 2}–99%Ar atmosphere at 600 °C for 4–100 h. The material characteristics and oxidation behavior of the annealed Ta–Si–N coatings were examined using atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and a nanoindentation tester. The Si oxidized preferentially in the Ta–Si–N coatings. The in-diffusion of oxygen during 600 °C annealing was restricted by the formation of an amorphous oxide scale consisting of Si and O.

  4. Resputtering effect during MgO buffer layer deposition by magnetron sputtering for superconducting coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Shaozhu; Shi, Kai; Deng, Shutong; Han, Zhenghe [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng, Feng, E-mail: feng.feng@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn; Lu, Hongyuan [Division of Advanced Manufacturing, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Qu, Timing; Zhu, Yuping [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Huang, Rongxia [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2015-07-15

    In this study, MgO thin films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The film thickness in the deposition area directly facing the target center obviously decreased compared with that in other areas. This reduction in thickness could be attributed to the resputtering effect resulting from bombardment by energetic particles mainly comprising oxygen atoms and negative oxygen ions. The influences of deposition position and sputtering pressure on the deposition rate were investigated. Resputtering altered the orientation of the MgO film from (111) to (001) when the film was deposited on a single crystal yttria-stabilized zirconia substrate. The density distribution of energetic particles was calculated on the basis of the measured thicknesses of the MgO films deposited at different positions. The divergence angle of the energetic particle flux was estimated to be approximately 15°. The energetic particle flux might be similar to the assisting ion flux in the ion beam assisted deposition process and could affect the orientation of the MgO film growth.

  5. Helium-Charged La-Ni-Al Thin Films Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Liqun; Chen Deming; Xu Shilin; Liu Chaozhu; Hao Wanli; Zhou Zhuyin

    2005-01-01

    An advanced implantation of low energy helium-4 atoms during the La-Ni-Al film growth by adopting magnetron sputtering with Ar/He mixture gases is discussed. Both proton backscattering spectroscopy (PBS) and elastic recoil detection (ERD) analyses were adopted to measure helium concentration of the films and distribution in the near-surface region. Helium atoms with a high concentration incorporate evenly in deposited film. The introduction of the helium with no extra irradiation damage is expected by choosing suitable deposition conditions. It was found that amorphous and crystalline LaNi 5 -type structures can be achieved when sputtered with pure Ar and Ar/He mixture gases at room temperature, respectively. Thermal desorption experiments proposes that a part of hydrogen atoms are bound to trapped helium at crystal and releases together with helium. Only a small fraction of helium is released from the helium-vacancy clusters in lower temperature range and most of helium is released from small size helium bubbles in the high temperature range

  6. Composition and optical properties tunability of hydrogenated silicon carbonitride thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachar, A.; Bousquet, A.; Mehdi, H.; Monier, G.; Robert-Goumet, C.; Thomas, L.; Belmahi, M.; Goullet, A.; Sauvage, T.; Tomasella, E.

    2018-06-01

    Radiofrequency reactive magnetron sputtering was used to deposit hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbonitride (a-SiCxNy:H) at 400 °C by sputtering a silicon target under CH4 and N2 reactive gas mixture. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry revealed that the change of reactive gases flow rate (the ratio R = FN2/(FN2+FCH4)) induced a smooth chemical composition tunability from a silicon carbide-like film for R = 0 to a silicon nitride-like one at R = 1 with a large area of silicon carbonitrides between the two regions. The deconvolution of Fourier Transform InfraRed and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectrum highlighted a shift of the chemical environment of the deposited films corresponding to the changes seen by RBS. The consequence of these observations is that a control of refractive index in the range of [1.9-2.5] at λ = 633 nm and optical bandgap in the range [2 eV-3.8 eV] have been obtained which induces that these coatings can be used as antireflective coatings in silicon photovoltaic cells.

  7. Mechanical and tribological properties of crystalline aluminum nitride coatings deposited on stainless steel by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, R.K.; Mishra, S.C.; Mishra, P.; Limaye, P.K.; Singh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) coating is a potential candidate for addressing the problems of MHD pressure drop, tritium permeation and liquid metal corrosion of the test blanket module of fusion reactor. In this work, AlN coatings were grown on stainless steel by magnetron sputtering. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurement revealed that formation of mixed phase (wurtzite and rock salt) AlN was favored at low discharge power and substrate negative biasing. However, at sufficiently high discharge power and substrate bias, (100) oriented wurtzite AlN was obtained. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy showed presence of oxygen in the coatings. The highest value of hardness and Young's modulus were 14.1 GPa and 215 GPa, respectively. Scratch test showed adhesive failure at a load of about 20 N. Wear test showed improved wear resistance of the coatings obtained at higher substrate bias. - Highlights: • Crystalline AlN coatings obtained on stainless steel by reactive sputtering. • Wurtzite AlN formed at higher discharge power and higher substrate biasing. • Mixture of wurtzite and rock salt AlN formed at low power and low biasing. • Substrate negative biasing improved adhesion of AlN coatings. • Substrate negative biasing improved wear resistance and hardness of AlN coatings.

  8. Origin of stress in radio frequency magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, Rashmi; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, K.; Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C.

    2011-01-01

    Highly c-axis oriented ZnO thin films have been deposited on silicon substrates by planar rf magnetron sputtering under varying pressure (10-50 mTorr) and oxygen percentage (50-100%) in the reactive gas (Ar + O 2 ) mixture. The as-grown films were found to be stressed over a wide range from -1 x 10 11 to -2 x 10 8 dyne/cm 2 that in turn depends strongly on the processing conditions, and the film becomes stress free at a unique combination of sputtering pressure and reactive gas composition. Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) analyses identified the origin of stress as lattice distortion due to defects introduced in the ZnO thin film. FTIR study reveals that Zn-O bond becomes stronger with the increase in oxygen fraction in the reactive gas mixture. The lattice distortion or stress depends on the type of defects introduced during deposition. PL spectra show the formation of a shoulder in band emission with an increase in the processing pressure and are related to the presence of stress. The ratio of band emission to defect emission decreases with the increase in oxygen percentage from 50 to 100%. The studies show a correlation of stress with the structural, vibrational, and photoluminescence properties of the ZnO thin film. The systematic study of the stress will help in the fabrication of efficient devices based on ZnO film.

  9. Improvement of dielectric properties of BLT thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besland, M P; Barroy, P R J; Richard-Plouet, M; Tessier, P Y; Brohan, L; Djouadi, M A [Universite de Nantes - Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, UMR CNRS 6502, 2, rue de la Houssiniere BP32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex (France); Borderon, C; Tacon, S Le; Averty, D; Gundel, H W [Institut de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nantes Atlantique, UPRES-EA 1770, IREENA, Universite de Nantes, 2, rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex (France)], E-mail: Marie-Paule.Besland@cnrs-imn.fr

    2008-01-15

    Well crystallized BLT thin films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering using a target of Aurivillius phase Bi{sub 3.25}La{sub 0.75}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}(BLT{sub 0,75}), elaborated in our institute. RF sputtering experiments were performed at room temperature with an argon/oxygen mixture, in a pressure range of 20-50 mTorr. Optimisation of the plasma parameters, namely deposition pressure, RF power and oxygen content in the gas phase, allows obtaining BLT films with a chemical composition close to Bi{sub 3.25}La{sub 0.75}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}. After ex-situ annealing under oxygen atmosphere at 650 deg. C, BLT films deposited on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si (multilayer) substrates exhibit well defined rod-like grains morphology. A two step deposition process appeared to be necessary in order to reach satisfying dielectric properties. The effect of the plasma parameters on the chemical composition and electrical properties are presented and discussed.

  10. Improvement of dielectric properties of BLT thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besland, M P; Barroy, P R J; Richard-Plouet, M; Tessier, P Y; Brohan, L; Djouadi, M A; Borderon, C; Tacon, S Le; Averty, D; Gundel, H W

    2008-01-01

    Well crystallized BLT thin films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering using a target of Aurivillius phase Bi 3.25 La 0.75 Ti 3 O 12 (BLT 0,75 ), elaborated in our institute. RF sputtering experiments were performed at room temperature with an argon/oxygen mixture, in a pressure range of 20-50 mTorr. Optimisation of the plasma parameters, namely deposition pressure, RF power and oxygen content in the gas phase, allows obtaining BLT films with a chemical composition close to Bi 3.25 La 0.75 Ti 3 O 12 . After ex-situ annealing under oxygen atmosphere at 650 deg. C, BLT films deposited on Pt/TiO 2 /SiO 2 /Si (multilayer) substrates exhibit well defined rod-like grains morphology. A two step deposition process appeared to be necessary in order to reach satisfying dielectric properties. The effect of the plasma parameters on the chemical composition and electrical properties are presented and discussed

  11. Study on helium-charged titanium films deposited by DC-magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Liqun; Jin Qinhua; Liu Chaozhuo; Xu Shilin; Zhou Zhuying

    2005-01-01

    Helium trapping in the Ti films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering with a He/Ar mixture was studied. He atoms with a surprisingly high concentration (He/Ti atomic ratio is as high as 56%) incorporate evenly in deposited film. The trapped amount of He can be controlled by the helium partial amount. The introduction of the helium with no extra damage (or very low damage) can be realized by choosing suitable deposition conditions. It was also found that because of the formation of nanophase Ti film a relative high He flux for bubble formation is needed and the amount of the retaining He in sputtering Ti films is much higher than that in the coarse-grain Ti films. The nanophase Ti film can accommodate larger concentration of trapped sites to He, which results in a high density and small size of the He bubbles. With increasing He irradiation flux, the grain size of Ti film decreases and the lattice spacing and width of the X-ray diffraction peak increase due to the He introduction, and the film tends to amorphous phase. (authors)

  12. TiOx deposited by magnetron sputtering: a joint modelling and experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonneau, R.; Moskovkin, P.; Pflug, A.; Lucas, S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a 3D multiscale simulation approach to model magnetron reactive sputter deposition of TiOx⩽2 at various O2 inlets and its validation against experimental results. The simulation first involves the transport of sputtered material in a vacuum chamber by means of a three-dimensional direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique. Second, the film growth at different positions on a 3D substrate is simulated using a kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) method. When simulating the transport of species in the chamber, wall chemistry reactions are taken into account in order to get the proper content of the reactive species in the volume. Angular and energy distributions of particles are extracted from DSMC and used for film growth modelling by kMC. Along with the simulation, experimental deposition of TiOx coatings on silicon samples placed at different positions on a curved sample holder was performed. The experimental results are in agreement with the simulated ones. For a given coater, the plasma phase hysteresis behaviour, film composition and film morphology are predicted. The used methodology can be applied to any coater and any films. This paves the way to the elaboration of a virtual coater allowing a user to predict composition and morphology of films deposited in silico.

  13. Surface treatment effect on Si (111) substrate for carbon deposition using DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aji, A. S., E-mail: aji.ravazes70@gmail.com; Sahdan, M. F.; Hendra, I. B.; Dinari, P.; Darma, Y. [Quantum Semiconductor and Devices Lab., Physics of Material Electronics Research Division, Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    In this work, we studied the effect of HF treatment in silicon (111) substrate surface for depositing thin layer carbon. We performed the deposition of carbon by using DC Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering with carbon pallet (5% Fe) as target. From SEM characterization results it can be concluded that the carbon layer on HF treated substrate is more uniform than on substrate without treated. Carbon deposition rate is higher as confirmed by AFM results if the silicon substrate is treated by HF solution. EDAX characterization results tell that silicon (111) substrate with HF treatment have more carbon fraction than substrate without treatment. These results confirmed that HF treatment on silicon Si (111) substrates could enhance the carbon deposition by using DC sputtering. Afterward, the carbon atomic arrangement on silicon (111) surface is studied by performing thermal annealing process to 900 °C. From Raman spectroscopy results, thin film carbon is not changing until 600 °C thermal budged. But, when temperature increase to 900 °C, thin film carbon is starting to diffuse to silicon (111) substrates.

  14. Influence of Continuous and Discontinuous Depositions on Properties of Ito Films Prepared by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiempanakit, K.; Rakkwamsuk, P.; Dumrongrattana, S.

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on glass substrate without external heating by DC magnetron sputtering with continuous deposition of 800 s (S1) and discontinuous depositions of 400 s × 2 times (S2), 200 s × 4 times (S3) and 100 s × 8 times (S4). The structural, surface morphology, optical transmittance and electrical resistivity of ITO films were measured by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, spectrophotometer and four-point probe, respectively. The deposition process of the S1 condition shows the highest target voltage due to more target poisoning occurrence. The substrate temperature of the S1 condition increases with the saturation curve of the RC charging circuit while other conditions increase and decrease due to deposition steps as DC power turns on and off. Target voltage and substrate temperature of ITO films decrease when changing the deposition conditions from S1 to S2, S3 and S4, respectively. The preferential orientation of ITO films were changed from dominate (222) plane to (400) plane with the increasing number of deposition steps. The ITO film for the S4 condition shows the lowest electrical resistivity of 1.44 × 10-3 Ω·cm with the highest energy gap of 4.09 eV and the highest surface roughness of 3.43 nm. These results were discussed from the point of different oxygen occurring on the surface ITO target between the sputtering processes which affected the properties of ITO films.

  15. Origin of stress in radio frequency magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Rashmi; Gupta, Vinay; Tan, H. H.; Sreenivas, K.; Jagadish, C.

    2011-03-01

    Highly c-axis oriented ZnO thin films have been deposited on silicon substrates by planar rf magnetron sputtering under varying pressure (10-50 mTorr) and oxygen percentage (50-100%) in the reactive gas (Ar + O2) mixture. The as-grown films were found to be stressed over a wide range from -1 × 1011 to -2 × 108 dyne/cm2 that in turn depends strongly on the processing conditions, and the film becomes stress free at a unique combination of sputtering pressure and reactive gas composition. Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) analyses identified the origin of stress as lattice distortion due to defects introduced in the ZnO thin film. FTIR study reveals that Zn-O bond becomes stronger with the increase in oxygen fraction in the reactive gas mixture. The lattice distortion or stress depends on the type of defects introduced during deposition. PL spectra show the formation of a shoulder in band emission with an increase in the processing pressure and are related to the presence of stress. The ratio of band emission to defect emission decreases with the increase in oxygen percentage from 50 to 100%. The studies show a correlation of stress with the structural, vibrational, and photoluminescence properties of the ZnO thin film. The systematic study of the stress will help in the fabrication of efficient devices based on ZnO film.

  16. RF magnetron sputtering of a hydroxyapatite target: A comparison study on polytetrafluorethylene and titanium substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmenev, Roman A.; Surmeneva, Maria A.; Grubova, Irina Yu.; Chernozem, Roman V.; Krause, Bärbel; Baumbach, Tilo; Loza, Kateryna; Epple, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    A pure hydroxyapatite (HA) target was used to prepare the biocompatible coating of HA on the surface of a polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) substrate, which was placed on the same substrate holder with technically pure titanium (Ti) in the single deposition runs by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The XPS, XRD and FTIR analyses of the obtained surfaces showed that for all substrates, instead of the HA coating deposition, the coating of a mixture of calcium carbonate and calcium fluoride was grown. According to SEM investigations, the surface of PTFE was etched, and the surface topography of uncoated Ti was preserved after the depositions. The FTIR results reveal no phosphate bonds; only calcium tracks were observed in the EDX-spectra on the surface of the coated PTFE substrates. Phosphate oxide (V), which originated from the target, could be removed using a vacuum pump system, or no phosphate-containing bonds could be formed on the substrate surface because of the severe substrate bombardment process, which prevented the HA coating deposition. The observed results may be connected with the surface re-sputtering effect of the growing film by high-energy negatively charged ions (most probably oxygen or fluorine), which are accelerated in the cathode dark sheath.

  17. Rhodium-coated mirrors deposited by magnetron sputtering for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marot, L.; Temmermann, G. de; Oelhafen, P.; Mathys, D.; Covarel, G.; Litnovsky, A.

    2007-01-01

    Metallic mirrors will be essential components of all optical spectroscopy and imaging systems for plasma diagnostics that will be used in ITER. Any change in the mirror performance, in particular its reflectivity, will influence the quality and reliability of detected signals. Due to its high reflectivity in the visible wavelength range and its low sputtering yield, rhodium may be a good candidate material for first mirrors in ITER. However, the very high price of the raw material calls for using it in the form of a film deposited onto metallic substrates. The development of a reliable technique for the preparation of high reflectivity rhodium films is therefore of the highest importance. Rhodium layers with thicknesses of up to 2 μm were produced on different relevant substrates (Mo, Stainless Steel, Cu) by magnetron sputtering. Produced films exhibit a low roughness, crystallite size of about 10 nm with a dense columnar structure. No impurities were detected on the surface after deposition. Scratch test results demonstrate that adhesion properties increase with the substrate hardness. The detailed optical characterizations of Rh coated mirrors as well as the results of erosion tests performed both under laboratory conditions and in TEXTOR will be presented in this paper. (orig.)

  18. Mechanical and tribological properties of crystalline aluminum nitride coatings deposited on stainless steel by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, R.K., E-mail: crupeshbarc@gmail.com [Materials Processing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, S.C.; Mishra, P. [Materials Processing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Limaye, P.K. [Refuelling Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, K. [Fusion Reactor Materials Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) coating is a potential candidate for addressing the problems of MHD pressure drop, tritium permeation and liquid metal corrosion of the test blanket module of fusion reactor. In this work, AlN coatings were grown on stainless steel by magnetron sputtering. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurement revealed that formation of mixed phase (wurtzite and rock salt) AlN was favored at low discharge power and substrate negative biasing. However, at sufficiently high discharge power and substrate bias, (100) oriented wurtzite AlN was obtained. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy showed presence of oxygen in the coatings. The highest value of hardness and Young's modulus were 14.1 GPa and 215 GPa, respectively. Scratch test showed adhesive failure at a load of about 20 N. Wear test showed improved wear resistance of the coatings obtained at higher substrate bias. - Highlights: • Crystalline AlN coatings obtained on stainless steel by reactive sputtering. • Wurtzite AlN formed at higher discharge power and higher substrate biasing. • Mixture of wurtzite and rock salt AlN formed at low power and low biasing. • Substrate negative biasing improved adhesion of AlN coatings. • Substrate negative biasing improved wear resistance and hardness of AlN coatings.

  19. Novel high power impulse magnetron sputtering enhanced by an auxiliary electrical field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chunwei, E-mail: lcwnefu@126.com, E-mail: xiubotian@163.com [College of Engineering and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Tian, Xiubo, E-mail: lcwnefu@126.com, E-mail: xiubotian@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-08-15

    The high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) technique is a novel highly ionized physical vapor deposition method with a high application potential. However, the electron utilization efficiency during sputtering is rather low and the metal particle ionization rate needs to be considerably improved to allow for a large-scale industrial application. Therefore, we enhanced the HIPIMS technique by simultaneously applying an electric field (EF-HIPIMS). The effect of the electric field on the discharge process was studied using a current sensor and an optical emission spectrometer. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the electric potential and electric field during the EF-HIPIMS process was simulated using the ANSYS software. The results indicate that a higher electron utilization efficiency and a higher particle ionization rate could be achieved. The auxiliary anode obviously changed the distribution of the electric potential and the electric field in the discharge region, which increased the plasma density and enhanced the degree of ionization of the vanadium and argon gas. Vanadium films were deposited to further compare both techniques, and the morphology of the prepared films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The films showed a smaller crystal grain size and a denser growth structure when the electric field was applied during the discharge process.

  20. Growth of high quality AlN films on CVD diamond by RF reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-xian; Liu, Hao; Liu, Sheng; Li, Cheng-ming; Wang, Yi-chao; An, Kang; Hua, Chen-yi; Liu, Jin-long; Wei, Jun-jun; Hei, Li-fu; Lv, Fan-xiu

    2018-02-01

    A highly oriented AlN layer has been successfully grown along the c-axis on a polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond by RF reactive magnetron sputtering. Structural, morphological and mechanical properties of the heterostructure were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Nano-indentation and Four-probe meter. A compact AlN film was demonstrated on the diamond layer, showing columnar grains and a low surface roughness of 1.4 nm. TEM results revealed a sharp AlN/diamond interface, which was characterized by the presence of a distinct 10 nm thick buffer layer resulting from the initial AlN growth stage. The FWHM of AlN (002) diffraction peak and its rocking curve are as low as 0.41° and 3.35° respectively, indicating a highly preferred orientation along the c-axis. AlN sputtered films deposited on glass substrates show a higher bulk resistivity (up to 3 × 1012 Ω cm), compared to AlN films deposited on diamond (∼1010 Ω cm). Finally, the film hardness and Young's modulus of AlN films on diamond are 25.8 GPa and 489.5 GPa, respectively.

  1. Structural and mechanical properties of ZrSiN thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, F.G.R.; Conceicao, A.G.S.; Vitoria, E.R.; Carvalho, R.G.; Tentardini, E.K.; Hübler, R.; Soares, G.

    2014-01-01

    Zirconium silicon nitride (ZrSiN) thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in order to verify the silicon influence on coating morphology and mechanical properties. The Si/(Zr+Si) ratio was adjusted between 0 to 14.5% just modifying the power applied on the silicon target. Only peaks associated to ZrN crystalline structure were observed in XRD analysis, since Si_3N_4 phase was amorphous. All samples have (111) preferred orientation, but there is a peak intensity reduction and a broadening increase for the sample with the highest Si/(Zr+Si) ratio (14.5%), demonstrating a considerable loss of crystallinity or grain size reduction (about 8 nm calculated by Scherrer). It was also observed that the texture coefficient for (200) increases with silicon addition. Chemical composition and thickness of the coatings were determined by RBS analysis. No significant changes in nano hardness with increasing Si content were found. The thin film morphology observed by SEM presents columnar and non columnar characteristics. The set of results suggests that Si addition is restricting the columnar growth of ZrN thin films. This conclusion is justified by the fact that Si contributes to increase the ZrN grains nucleation during the sputtering process. (author)

  2. RF magnetron sputtered La3+-modified PZT thin films: Perovskite phase stabilization and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ravindra; Goel, T.C.; Chandra, Sudhir

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we report the preparation of lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) thin films in pure perovskite phase by RF magnetron sputtering. Various deposition parameters such as target-to-substrate spacing, sputtering gas composition, deposition temperature, post-deposition annealing temperature and time have been optimized to obtain PLZT films in pure perovskite phase. The films prepared in pure argon at 100 W RF power without external substrate heating exhibit pure perovskite phase after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 700 deg. C for 5 min. The film prepared at 225 deg. C substrate temperature also exhibits pure perovskite phase after RTA at 700 deg. C for 2 min. SIMS depth profile performed on one of the pure perovskite films (RTA at 700 deg. C for 5 min) shows very good stoichiometric uniformity of all elements of PLZT. The surface morphology of the films was examined using SEM and AFM. The dielectric, ferroelectric and electrical properties of the pure perovskite films were also investigated in detail. The remanent polarization for the films annealed at 700 deg. C for 5 and 2 min were found to be 15 and 13.5 μC cm -2 , respectively. Both the films have high DC resistivity of the order of 10 11 Ω cm at the electric field of ∼80 kV cm -1

  3. Corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC/Al bilayer thin films by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yiqin; Li, Heqin; Zuo, Min; Tao, Lei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Tang, Qiong; Bai, Peiwen

    2016-07-01

    The poor corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB imposes a great challenge in industrial applications. In this work, the SiC/Al bilayer thin films with the thickness of 510 nm were deposited on sintered NdFeB by magnetron sputtering to improve the corrosion resistance. A 100 nm Al buffer film was used to reduce the internal stress between SiC and NdFeB and improve the surface roughness of the SiC thin film. The morphologies and structures of SiC/Al bilayer thin films and SiC monolayer film were investigated with FESEM, AFM and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion behaviors of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC monolayer film and SiC/Al bilayer thin films were analyzed by polarization curves. The magnetic properties were measured with an ultra-high coercivity permanent magnet pulse tester. The results show that the surface of SiC/Al bilayer thin films is more compact and uniform than that of SiC monolayer film. The corrosion current densities of SiC/Al bilayer films coated on NdFeB in acid, alkali and salt solutions are much lower than that of SiC monolayer film. The SiC/Al bilayer thin films have little influence to the magnetic properties of NdFeB.

  4. Magnetron sputtered zinc oxide nanorods as thickness-insensitive cathode interlayer for perovskite planar-heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lusheng; Huang, Zhifeng; Cai, Longhua; Chen, Weizhong; Wang, Baozeng; Chen, Kaiwu; Bai, Hua; Tian, Qingyong; Fan, Bin

    2014-12-10

    Suitable electrode interfacial layers are essential to the high performance of perovskite planar heterojunction solar cells. In this letter, we report magnetron sputtered zinc oxide (ZnO) film as the cathode interlayer for methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite solar cell. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrate that the sputtered ZnO films consist of c-axis aligned nanorods. The solar cells based on this ZnO cathode interlayer showed high short circuit current and power conversion efficiency. Besides, the performance of the device is insensitive to the thickness of ZnO cathode interlayer. Considering the high reliability and maturity of sputtering technique both in lab and industry, we believe that the sputtered ZnO films are promising cathode interlayers for perovskite solar cells, especially in large-scale production.

  5. Decorative black TiCxOy film fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering without importing oxygen reactive gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Katsushi; Wakabayashi, Masao; Tsukakoshi, Yukio; Abe, Yoshiyuki

    2016-02-01

    Decorative black TiCxOy films were fabricated by dc (direct current) magnetron sputtering without importing the oxygen reactive gas into the sputtering chamber. Using a ceramic target of titanium oxycarbide (TiC1.59O0.31), the oxygen content in the films could be easily controlled by adjustment of total sputtering gas pressure without remarkable change of the carbon content. The films deposited at 2.0 and 4.0 Pa, those are higher pressure when compared with that in conventional magnetron sputtering, showed an attractive black color. In particular, the film at 4.0 Pa had the composition of TiC1.03O1.10, exhibited the L* of 41.5, a* of 0.2 and b* of 0.6 in CIELAB color space. These values were smaller than those in the TiC0.29O1.38 films (L* of 45.8, a* of 1.2 and b* of 1.2) fabricated by conventional reactive sputtering method from the same target under the conditions of gas pressure of 0.3 Pa and optimized oxygen reactive gas concentration of 2.5 vol.% in sputtering gas. Analysis of XRD and XPS revealed that the black film deposited at 4.0 Pa was the amorphous film composed of TiC, TiO and C. The adhesion property and the heat resisting property were enough for decorative uses. This sputtering process has an industrial advantage that the decorative black coating with color uniformity in large area can be easily obtained by plain operation because of unnecessary of the oxygen reactive gas importing which is difficult to be controlled uniformly in the sputtering chamber.

  6. As(III) Removal from Drinking Water by Carbon Nanotube Membranes with Magnetron-Sputtered Copper: Performance and Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Hongyan; Zhang, Quan; Cheng, Guo-An; Huang, Haiou

    2018-06-07

    Current approaches for functionalizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) often utilize harsh chemical conditions, and the resulting harmful wastes can cause various environmental and health concerns. In this study, magnetron sputtering technique is facilely employed to functionalize CNT membranes by depositing Cu onto premade CNT membranes without using any chemical treatment. A comparative evaluation of the substrate polymeric membrane (mixed cellulose ester (MCE)), MCE sputtered with copper (Cu/MCE), the pristine CNT membrane (CNT), and CNT membrane sputtered with Cu (Cu/CNT) shows that Cu/CNT possesses mechanically stable structures and similar membrane permeability as MCE. More importantly, Cu/CNT outperforms other membranes with high As(III) removal efficiency of above 90%, as compared to less than 10% by MCE and CNT, and 75% by Cu/MCE from water. The performance of Cu/CNT membranes for As(III) removal is also investigated as a function of ionic strength, sputtering time, co-existing ions, solution pH, and the reusability. Further characterizations of As speciation in the filtrate and on Cu/CNT reveal that arsenite removal by Cu/CNT possibly began with Cu-catalyzed oxidation of arsenite to arsenate, followed by adsorptive filtration of arsenate by the membrane. Overall, this study demonstrates that magnetron sputtering is a promising greener technology for the productions of metal-CNT composite membranes for environmental applications.

  7. Ultra-hard AlMgB14 coatings fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering from a stoichiometric target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, A. M.; Khartsev, S. I.; Böhlmark, J.; Ahlgren, M.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time hard aluminum magnesium boride films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering from a single stoichiometric ceramic AlMgB14 target. Optimized processing conditions (substrate temperature, target sputtering power and target-to-substrate distance) enable fabrication of stoichiometric in-depth compositionally homogeneous films with the peak values of nanohardness 88 GPa and Young's modulus 517 GPa at the penetration depth of 26 nm and, respectively, 35 and 275 GPa at 200 nm depth in 2 μm thick film.

  8. Residual stress and texture in Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide layers deposited by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azanza Ricardo, C.L., E-mail: Cristy.Azanza@ing.unitn.it [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 via Mesiano 77, Trento (Italy); Pastorelli, M.; D' Incau, M. [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 via Mesiano 77, Trento (Italy); Aswath, P. [College of Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, TX (United States); Scardi, P. [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 via Mesiano 77, Trento (Italy)

    2016-04-30

    Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide thin films were deposited on standard soda-lime substrates by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Residual stress and texture were studied by X-ray diffraction, while X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy provided information on the Al environment in the best performing thin films. The influence of deposition parameters on structural and microstructural properties is discussed. A correlation between microstructure and residual stress state with electrical and optical properties is proposed. - Highlights: • Al doped ZnO thin films were obtained by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • Correlation of stresses and texture with electrical and optical properties is shown. • Homogeneous and stress-free thin-films are the best performing ones. • XANES confirmed the doping mechanism and excluded some spurious phases.

  9. Time resolved 2-D optical imaging of a pulsed unbalanced magnetron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J W; Clarke, G C B; Braithwaite, N St J; Bryant, P M; Kelly, P J

    2006-01-01

    Using wavelength filtered two dimensional (2-D) optical imaging, the temporal and spatial evolution of selected excited species in a pulsed magnetron discharge has been studied. A titanium target was sputtered at a pulse frequency of 100 kHz, in an argon atmosphere, at an operating pressure of 0.27 Pa. The radial information of the emissivity was determined using the Abel inversion technique. The results show strong excitation of the observed species above the racetrack in the on-time, and the possible development of an ion-acoustic wave, initiated after the off-on transition. The on-off transition is accompanied by a burst of light from the plasma bulk consistent with the transient plasma potential reaching about +200 V. During this phase, we argue that there is a release of secondary electrons from the grounded substrate and walls due to ion bombardment, as well as an increased confinement of energetic plasma electrons. The characteristic decay times of the selected transitions at 750.4, 751.5, 810.4 and 811.5 nm (ArI), present within the bandpass width of our filters, is briefly discussed in terms of the production of fast electrons in the system

  10. Rotating dust ring in an RF discharge coupled with a dc-magnetron sputter source. Experiment and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyash, K; Froehlich, M; Kersten, H; Thieme, G; Schneider, R; Hannemann, M; Hippler, R

    2004-01-01

    During an experiment involving coating of dust grains trapped in an RF discharge using a sputtering dc-magnetron source, a rotating dust ring was observed and investigated. After the magnetron was switched on, the dust cloud levitating above the RF electrode formed a ring rotating as a rigid body. Langmuir probe diagnostics were used for the measurement of plasma density and potential. It was discovered that the coupling of the dc-magnetron source to the RF discharge causes steep radial gradients in electron density and plasma potential. The rotation of the dust ring is attributed to the azimuthal component of the ion drag force, which appears due to the azimuthal drift of the ions caused by crossed radial electric and axial magnetic fields. In order to get more insight into the mechanism of dust ring rotation, a Particle-in-Cell simulation of a rotating dust cloud was performed. The results of the experiment and simulation are presented and discussed

  11. Rotating dust ring in an RF discharge coupled with a dc-magnetron sputter source. Experiment and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyash, K [Institut fuer Niedertemperaturplasmaphysik Greifswald, Fr.-L.-Jahn-Strasse 19, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Froehlich, M [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Domstrasse 10a, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Kersten, H [Institut fuer Niedertemperaturplasmaphysik Greifswald, Fr.-L.-Jahn-Strasse 19, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Thieme, G [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Domstrasse 10a, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Schneider, R [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Hannemann, M [Institut fuer Niedertemperaturplasmaphysik Greifswald, Fr.-L.-Jahn-Strasse 19, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Hippler, R [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Domstrasse 10a, 17487 Greifswald (Germany)

    2004-10-07

    During an experiment involving coating of dust grains trapped in an RF discharge using a sputtering dc-magnetron source, a rotating dust ring was observed and investigated. After the magnetron was switched on, the dust cloud levitating above the RF electrode formed a ring rotating as a rigid body. Langmuir probe diagnostics were used for the measurement of plasma density and potential. It was discovered that the coupling of the dc-magnetron source to the RF discharge causes steep radial gradients in electron density and plasma potential. The rotation of the dust ring is attributed to the azimuthal component of the ion drag force, which appears due to the azimuthal drift of the ions caused by crossed radial electric and axial magnetic fields. In order to get more insight into the mechanism of dust ring rotation, a Particle-in-Cell simulation of a rotating dust cloud was performed. The results of the experiment and simulation are presented and discussed.

  12. INFLUENCE OF SUBSTRATE TEMPERATURE ON STRUCTURAL, ELECTRICAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF ITO THIN FILMS PREPARED BY RF MAGNETRON SPUTTERING

    OpenAIRE

    BO HE; LEI ZHAO; JING XU; HUAIZHONG XING; SHAOLIN XUE; MENG JIANG

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrates deposited by RF magnetron sputtering using ceramic target to find the optimal condition for fabricating optoelectronic devices. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the ITO films prepared at various substrate temperatures were investigated. The results indicate the grain size increases with substrate temperature increases. As the substrate temperature grew up, the resistivity of ITO films grea...

  13. Fabrication and characterization of anatase/rutile–TiO2 thin films by magnetron sputtering: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakae Tanemura, Lei Miao, Wilfried Wunderlich, Masaki Tanemura, Yukimasa Mori, Shoichi Toh and Kenji Kaneko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article summarizes briefly some important achievements of our recent reserach on anatase and/or rutile TiO2 thin films, fabricated by helicon RF magnetron sputtering, with good crystal quality and high density, and gives the-state-of-the-art of the knowledge on systematic interrelationship for fabrication conditions, crystal structure, composition, optical properties, and bactericidal abilities, and on the effective surface treatment to improve the optical reactivity of the obtained films.

  14. Influence of reactive oxygen species during deposition of iron oxide films by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straňák, V.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Čada, Martin; Bogdanowicz, R.; Wulff, H.; Helm, C.A.; Hippler, R.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 9 (2018), s. 1-12, č. článku 095205. ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-08389S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) * iron oxide thin films * wüstite * magnetite * maghemite * hematite Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics ) Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016

  15. Morphology control of tungsten nanorods grown by glancing angle RF magnetron sputtering under variable argon pressure and flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khedir, Khedir R.; Kannarpady, Ganesh K.; Ishihara, Hidetaka; Woo, Justin; Ryerson, Charles; Biris, Alexandru S.

    2010-01-01

    Morphologically novel tungsten nanorods (WNRs) with the co-existence of two crystalline phases, α-W (thermodynamically stable) and β-W, were fabricated by glancing angle RF magnetron sputtering technique under various Ar pressures and flow rates. For these nanorods, a significant variation in their morphology and surface roughness was observed. These structures could be useful in a wide range of applications such as field emission, robust superhydrophobic coatings, energy, and medicine.

  16. Recent Developments in R.F. Magnetron Sputtered Thin Films for pH Sensing Applications—An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    D. K. Maurya; A. Sardarinejad; K. Alameh

    2014-01-01

    pH sensors are widely used in chemical and biological applications. Metal oxides-based pH sensors have many attractive features including insolubility, stability, mechanical strength, electrocatalyst and manufacturing technology. Various metal oxide thin films prepared by radio frequency (R.F.) magnetron sputtering have attractive features, including high pH sensitivity, fast response, high resolution, good stability and reversibility as well as potential for measuring pH under conditions th...

  17. Electrical resistivity of CuAlMo thin films grown at room temperature by dc magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Birkett, Martin; Penlington, Roger

    2016-01-01

    We report on the thickness dependence of electrical resistivity of CuAlMo films grown by dc magnetron sputtering on glass substrates at room temperature. The electrical resistance of the films was monitored in situ during their growth in the thickness range 10–1000 nm. By theoretically modelling the evolution of resistivity during growth we were able to gain an insight into the dominant electrical conduction mechanisms with increasing film thickness. For thicknesses in the range 10–25 nm the ...

  18. Vacuum system for applying reflective coatings on large-size optical components using the method of magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azerbaev, Alexander A.; Abdulkadyrov, Magomed A.; Belousov, Sergey P.; Ignatov, Aleksandr N.; Mukhammedzyanov, Timur R.

    2016-10-01

    Vacuum system for reflective coatings deposition on large-size optical components up to 4.0 m diameter using the method of magnetron sputtering was built at JSC LZOS. The technological process for deposition of reflective Al coating with protective SiO2 layer was designed and approved. After climatic tests the lifetime of such coating was estimated as 30 years. Uniformity of coating thickness ±5% was achieved on maximum diameter 4.0 m.

  19. Features of copper coatings growth at high-rate deposition using magnetron sputtering systems with a liquid metal target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bleykher, G.A.; Borduleva, A.O.; Yuryeva, A.V.; Krivobokov, V.P.; Lančok, Ján; Bulíř, Jiří; Drahokoupil, Jan; Klimša, Ladislav; Kopeček, Jaromír; Fekete, Ladislav; Čtvrtlík, Radim; Tomáštík, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 324, Sep (2017), s. 111-120 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetron sputtering * evaporation * high-rate coating deposition * coating properties * Cu coatings Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016

  20. Solid-state pulse modulator for a 1.7-MW X-band magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jaegu; Shin, Yongmoon; Choi, Youngwook; Kim, Kwanho

    2014-01-01

    Medical linear accelerators (LINAC) for cancer treatment require pulse modulators to generate high-power pulses with a fast rise time, flat top and short duration to drive high-power magnetrons. Solid-state pulse modulators (SSPM) for medical LINACs that use high power semiconductor switches with high repetition rates, high stability and long lifetimes have been introduced to replace conventional linear-type pulse generators that use gaseous discharge switches. In this paper, the performance of a developed SSPM, which mainly consists of a capacitor charger, an insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) - capacitor stack and a pulse transformer, is evaluated with a dummy load and an X-band magnetron load. A theoretical analysis of the pulse transformer, which is a critical element of the SSPM, is carried out. The output pulse has a fast rise time and low droop, such that the modulator can drive the X-band magnetron.

  1. Low resistivity of Ni–Al co-doped ZnO thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering at low sputtering power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, JongWoo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Hui, K.N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hui, K.S., E-mail: kshui@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Y.R., E-mail: yescho@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Ho-Hwan [Global Core Research Center for Ships and Offshore Plants (GCRC-SOP), Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-28

    Ni–Al co-doped ZnO (NiAl:ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering in Ar using a single ceramic, spark-plasma-sintered target with 2 wt% Al and 5 wt% Ni. The effects of the sputtering power and gas pressure on the NiAl:ZnO films were studied. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Hall effect measurements and UV–vis transmission spectroscopy. As the sputtering power and gas pressure increased, the crystallinity, electrical properties and optical band gap of the films were improved. The NiAl:ZnO film deposited at 40 W at 6.0 mTorr had the strongest (0 0 2) XRD peak and the lowest resistivity of approximately 2.19 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm with an optical transmittance of 90%.

  2. Non-isothermal kinetics of phase transformations in magnetron sputtered alumina films with metastable structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuzjaková, Š.; Zeman, P.; Kos, Š.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Non-isothermal kinetics of phase transformations in alumina films was investigated. • The structure of alumina films affects kinetics of the transformation processes. • Kinetic triplets of all transformation processes were determined. • The KAS, FWO, FR and IKP methods for determination of E a and A were used. • The Málek method for determination of the kinetic model was used. - Abstract: The paper reports on non-isothermal kinetics of transformation processes in magnetron sputtered alumina thin films with an amorphous and γ-phase structure leading ultimately to the formation of the thermodynamically stable α-Al 2 O 3 phase. Phase transformation sequences in the alumina films were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at four different heating rates (10, 20, 30, 40 °C/min). Three isoconversional methods (Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose (KAS), Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO) and Friedman (FR) method) as well as the invariant kinetic parameters (IKP) method were used to determine the activation energies for transformation processes. Moreover, the pre-exponential factors were determined using the IKP method. The kinetic models of the transformation processes were determined using the Málek method. It was found that the as-deposited structure of alumina films affects kinetics of the transformation processes. The film with the amorphous as-deposited structure heated at 40 °C/min transforms to the crystalline γ phase at a temperature of ∼930 °C (E a,IKP = 463 ± 10 kJ/mol) and subsequently to the crystalline α phase at a temperature of ∼1200 °C (E a,IKP = 589 ± 10 kJ/mol). The film with the crystalline γ-phase structure heated at 40 °C/min is thermally stable up to ∼1100 °C and transforms to the crystalline α phase (E a,IKP = 511 ± 16 kJ/mol) at a temperature of ∼1195 °C. The empirical two-parameter Šesták–Berggren kinetic model was found to be the most adequate one to describe all transformation processes

  3. An investigation of material properties and tribological performance of magnetron sputtered thin film coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpal

    This dissertation is divided into two categories based upon lubrication functionality and its application. The categories are: Dry film lubrication and Fluid film lubrication with thin film coatings. Thin film coatings examined in this work were deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering and RF-DC coupled magnetron sputtering systems. In Dry/Solid film lubrication, the mechanical, structural and tribological properties of two Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) based coatings are examined and evaluated. Among the two coatings, one coating is doped with Ti (Ti-MoS2) and the other is a combination of metal, lubricant and oxide (Sb2O3/Au - MoS2). These coatings are known to provide low friction in vacuum environments. The goal of this work was to evaluate friction and wear performance of MoS2 doped coatings in unidirectional and reciprocating sliding contact under different environmental conditions. Sliding contact results showed friction and wear dependence on temperature and humidity. The formation and removal of transfer films and the recrystallization and reorientation of basal layers on the steel counterface was observed as the mechanism for low friction. Structural analysis revealed a relationship between the microstructural properties and tribological performance. It was also observed that the addition of dopants (Ti, Au, Sb 2O3) improved the mechanical properties as compared to pure MoS2 coatings. Further, the rolling contact performance of the coatings was measured on a five ball on rod tribometer and a Thrust bearing tribometer under vacuum and air environments. The rolling contact experiments indicated that life of the rolling components depend on the amount of material present between the contacts. Fluid film lubrication with thin film coatings investigates the possibilities to improve the performance and durability of tribological components when oils and thin films are synergistically coupled. In this work, the ability of a Diamond Like Carbon

  4. A study of the transient plasma potential in a pulsed bi-polar dc magnetron discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J W; Karkari, S K; Vetushka, A

    2004-01-01

    measurements of V p presented here confirm a simple picture of the evolution of V p , predicted from previously made time-resolved mass spectroscopic measurements of the ionic component in the pulsed magnetron. This paper describes the development and characteristics of the emissive probe technique for such fast measurements, together with implications for the form of the measured transient potential profiles on the operation of the magnetron discharge. In particular, it addresses the charged particle drifts and the potential for sputtering of the walls and the anode by ion impact

  5. Electrochemical characterization of silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid lithium-ion battery anodes produced via RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toçoğlu, Ubeyd, E-mail: utocoglu@sakarya.edu.tr; Hatipoğlu, Gizem; Alaf, Miraç; Kayış, Fuat; Akbulut, Hatem

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid composite anodes were produced via RF magnetron sputtering technique. CR2016 type coin cells were assembled for electrochemical characterization of anodes. Electrochemical characterizations of anodes were conducted via galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. - Highlights: • Silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid negative lithium ion battery anodes were produced via magnetron sputtering. • Structural and electrochemical characterizations of composite anodes were conducted comprehensively. • The capacity values exhibited by composite anodes were found to be almost more than two times compared to thin film anodes after 100 cycles. - Abstract: In this study it was aimed to enhance cycling performance of silicon lithium ion battery anodes via producing flexible Silicon/Graphene/MWCNT composite structures. The volumetric expansions, which are the primary obstacle that hinders the practical usage of silicon anodes, were tried to suppress using flexible graphene/MWCNT paper substrates. Moreover to achieve lightweight and high electrical conductive anodes, the advantage of graphene was aimed to be exploited. Silicon/graphene/MWCNT flexible composite anodes were produced via radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. Graphene/MWCNT papers were produced with vacuum filtration technique as substrate for sputtering process. At coating process of papers constant sputtering power was applied. Phase analysis was conducted with X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and Raman spectroscopy. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests were carried out to reveal reversible reactions between silicon and lithium. Galvanostatic charge/discharge technique was employed to determine the cyclic performance of anodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique was used to understand the relation between cyclic performance and

  6. Electrochemical characterization of silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid lithium-ion battery anodes produced via RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toçoğlu, Ubeyd; Hatipoğlu, Gizem; Alaf, Miraç; Kayış, Fuat; Akbulut, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid composite anodes were produced via RF magnetron sputtering technique. CR2016 type coin cells were assembled for electrochemical characterization of anodes. Electrochemical characterizations of anodes were conducted via galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. - Highlights: • Silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid negative lithium ion battery anodes were produced via magnetron sputtering. • Structural and electrochemical characterizations of composite anodes were conducted comprehensively. • The capacity values exhibited by composite anodes were found to be almost more than two times compared to thin film anodes after 100 cycles. - Abstract: In this study it was aimed to enhance cycling performance of silicon lithium ion battery anodes via producing flexible Silicon/Graphene/MWCNT composite structures. The volumetric expansions, which are the primary obstacle that hinders the practical usage of silicon anodes, were tried to suppress using flexible graphene/MWCNT paper substrates. Moreover to achieve lightweight and high electrical conductive anodes, the advantage of graphene was aimed to be exploited. Silicon/graphene/MWCNT flexible composite anodes were produced via radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. Graphene/MWCNT papers were produced with vacuum filtration technique as substrate for sputtering process. At coating process of papers constant sputtering power was applied. Phase analysis was conducted with X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and Raman spectroscopy. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests were carried out to reveal reversible reactions between silicon and lithium. Galvanostatic charge/discharge technique was employed to determine the cyclic performance of anodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique was used to understand the relation between cyclic performance and

  7. Small grain size zirconium-based coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, O., E-mail: omar.jimenez.udg@gmail.com [Departamento de Ingeniería de Proyectos, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, AP 307, CP 45101 Zapopan, Jal (Mexico); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Audronis, M.; Leyland, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Flores, M.; Rodriguez, E. [Departamento de Ingeniería de Proyectos, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, AP 307, CP 45101 Zapopan, Jal (Mexico); Kanakis, K.; Matthews, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-30

    Hard, partly amorphous, ZrTiB(N) coatings were deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) onto (111) silicon wafers at low substrate temperatures of 85 and 110 °C using Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering. A segmented rectangular sputter target composed of three pieces (Zr/TiB{sub 2}/Zr) was used as the source of evaporation of coating components. Two different substrate biases (i.e. floating potential and − 50 V) and N{sub 2} reactive-gas flow rates of 2, 4 and 6 sccm were employed as the main deposition parameter variables. The chemical composition, structure, morphology and mechanical properties were investigated using a variety of analytical techniques such as Glow-Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy, cross-sectional Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD) and nanoindentation. With other parameters fixed, coating properties were found to be dependent on the substrate negative bias and nitrogen flow rate. Linear scan profiles and SEM imaging revealed that all coatings were smooth, dense and featureless (in fracture cross section) with no apparent columnar morphology or macro-defects. GAXRD structural analysis revealed that mostly metallic phases were formed for coatings containing no nitrogen, whereas a solid solution (Zr,Ti)N single phase nitride was found in most of the reactively deposited coatings — exhibiting a very small grain size due to nitrogen and boron grain refinement effects. Hardness values from as low as 8.6 GPa up to a maximum of 25.9 GPa are related mainly to solid solution strengthening effects. The measured elastic moduli correlated with the trends in hardness behaviour; values in the range of 120–200 GPa were observed depending on the selected deposition parameters. Also, high H/E values (> 0.1) were achieved with several of the coatings.

  8. Quantitative characterization of silicon- and aluminium oxynitride films produced by reactive dc-magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreer, S.

    2000-05-01

    The deposition of aluminum and silicon oxynitride films by reactive dc-magnetron sputtering was systematically planned by design of experiments, carried out and evaluated with the application of specialized statistics software. The influence of the deposition parameters on the resulting films was evaluated by multiple regression analysis. With the obtained data a model of the deposition process for the quantitative prediction of the deposition parameters necessary to obtain films with desired composition was built. This is also of technological importance, since the physical properties of the films strongly depend on their composition. Furthermore, the long term repeatability of the deposition process was implemented into the model. A precise and economic way for quantitative bulk analysis of silicon/aluminum, oxygen and nitrogen based on EPMA was presented and the use of data gained by the latter method is discussed for the calculation of relative sensitivity factors for SIMS and hf-SNMS. Advantages and disadvantages of SIMS, hf-SNMS, hf-GD-OES, and sputter AES were compared. The combination FT-IR/EPMA/SIMS at present offers the best possibility for a quantitative bulk and in depth distribution analysis of such films in the range of 20 to 1000 nm thickness. The films were also characterized by XRD and PAA. The refractive index and the growth rate of the films were determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. With indentation by a nano hardness tester the hardness and the Young's modulus of the films were obtained. The results of these measurements were evaluated by statistical software. The dependencies of the physical properties on the deposition parameters and on the film thickness were evaluated and quantified. Furthermore, the dependencies of the physical properties on the film composition represented by the oxygen content were evaluated. (author)

  9. RF power dependent formation of amorphous MoO3-x nanorods by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navas, I.; Vinodkumar, R.; Detty, A.P.; Mahadevan Pillai, V.P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The fabrication of nanorods has received increasing attention for their unique physical and chemical properties and a wide range of potential applications such as photonics and nanoelectronics Molybdenum oxide nanorods with high activity can be used in a wide variety of applications such as cathodes in rechargeable batteries, field emission devices, solid lubricants, superconductors thermoelectric materials, and electrochromic devices. In this paper, amorphous MoO 3-x nanorods can find excellent applications in electrochromic and gas sensing have been successfully prepared by varying the R F power in R F Magnetron Sputtering system without heating the substrate; other parameters which are optimised in our earlier studies. We have found that the optimum RF power for nanorod formation is 200W. At a moderate RF power (200W), sputtering redeposition takes places constructively which leads to formation of fine nanorods. Large RF power creates high energetic ion bombardment on the grains surfaces which can lead to re-nucleation, so the grains become smaller and columnar growth is interrupted. Beyond the RF power 200W, the etching effect of the plasma became more severe and damaged the surface of the nanorods. All the molybdenum oxide films prepared are amorphous; the XRD patterns exhibit no characteristic peak corresponds to MoO 3 . The amorphous nature is preferred for good electrochromic colouration The spectroscopic properties of the nanorods have been investigated systematically using atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, micro-Raman, UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The films exhibit two emission bands; a near band edge UV emission and a defect related deep level visible emission

  10. Determination of the sputter rate variation pattern of a silicon carbide target for radio frequency magnetron sputtering using optical transmission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez de la Puente, G.; Guerra Torres, J.A.; Erlenbach, O.; Steidl, M.; Weingaertner, R.; De Zela, F.; Winnacker, A.

    2010-01-01

    We produce amorphous silicon carbide thin films (a-SiC) by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering from SiC bulk target. We present the emission pattern of the rf magnetron with SiC target as a function of process parameters, like target sample distance, rf power, sputtering rate and process gas pressure. The emission pattern is determined by means of thickness distribution of the deposited a-SiC films obtained from optical transmission measurements using a slightly improved method of Swanepoel concerning the determination of construction of the envelopes in the interference pattern of the transmission spectra. A calibration curve is presented which allows the conversion of integrated transmission to film thickness. Holding constant a set of process parameters and only varying the target sample distance the emission pattern of the rf magnetron with SiC target was determined, which allowed us to predict the deposition rate distribution for a wide range of process parameters and target geometry. In addition, we have found that the transmission spectra of the a-SiC films change with time and saturate after approximately 10 days. Within this process no change in thickness is involved, so that the determination of thickness using transmission data is justified.

  11. Ge Nanoislands Grown by Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering: Comprehensive Investigation of Surface Morphology and Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Samavati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The comprehensive investigation of the effect of growth parameters on structural and optical properties of Si-based single layer Ge nanoislands grown via Stranski-Krastanov mechanism employing radio frequency magnetron sputtering due to its high deposition rate, easy procedure, economical cost, and safety is carried out. The estimated width and height of Ge nanoislands produced by this technique are in the range of ∼8 to ∼30 and ∼2 to 8 nm, respectively. Varieties parameters are manipulated to optimize the surface morphology and structural and optical behavior of Ge nanoislands. The resulted nanoislands are analyzed using various analytical techniques including atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, room temperature photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. The optimum parameters for growing high quality samples having high number density and homogenous and small size distribution are found to be 400°C for substrate temperature, 300 sec for deposition time, 10 sccm for Ar flow, and 100 W for radio frequency power. The excellent features of the results suggest that our systematic investigation on the organized growth factors and their effects on surface parameters and photoluminescence emission energy may constitute a basis for the tunable growth of Ge nanoislands (100 nanoislands suitable in nanophotonics.

  12. Antimicrobial brass coatings prepared on poly(ethylene terephthalate) textile by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying-Hung, E-mail: tieamo2002@gmail.com; Wu, Guo-Wei; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this work is to prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), which is known to provide high-density plasma, so as to generate a strongly adherent film at a reduced substrate temperature. The results reveal that the brass film grows in a layer-plus-island mode. Independent of their deposition time, the obtained films retain a Cu/Zn elemental composition ratio of 1.86 and exhibit primarily an α copper phase structure. Oxygen plasma pre-treatment for 1 min before coating can significantly increase film adhesion such that the brass-coated fabric of Grade 5 or Grade 4–5 can ultimately be obtained under dry and wet rubbing tests, respectively. However, a deposition time of 1 min suffices to provide effective antimicrobial properties for both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. As a whole, the feasibility of using such advanced HIPIMS coating technique to develop durable antimicrobial textile was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on PET fabric by HIPIMS • Brass-coated fabric with excellent durability, even undergone rubbing and washing tests • Brass-coated fabric provides effective antimicrobial properties for E. coli and S. aureus. • After brass coating, PET fabric still retained its mechanical property.

  13. Room temperature deposition of crystalline indium tin oxide films by cesium-assisted magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Deuk Yeon; Baik, Hong-Koo

    2008-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on a Si (1 0 0) substrate at room temperature by cesium-assisted magnetron sputtering. Including plasma characteristics, the structural, electrical, and optical properties of deposited films were investigated as a function of cesium partial vapor pressure controlled by cesium reservoir temperature. We calculated the cesium coverage on the target surface showing maximum formation efficiency of negative ions by means of the theoretical model. Cesium addition promotes the formation efficiency of negative ions, which plays important role in enhancing the crystallinity of ITO films. In particular, the plasma density was linearly increased with cesium concentrations. The resultant decrease in specific resistivity and increase in transmittance (82% in the visible region) at optimum cesium concentration (4.24 x 10 -4 Ω cm at 80 deg. C of reservoir temperature) may be due to enhanced crystallinity of ITO films. Excess cesium incorporation into ITO films resulted in amorphization of its microstructure leading to degradation of ITO crystallinity. We discuss the cesium effects based on the growth mechanism of ITO films and the plasma density

  14. Properties of Ce-doped ITO films deposited on polymer substrate by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.M.; Kwon, S.H.; Choi, J.H.; Cho, Y.J.; Song, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Ce-doped indium tin oxide (ITO:Ce) films were deposited on flexible polyimide substrates by DC magnetron sputtering using ITO targets containing various CeO 2 contents (CeO 2 : 0, 0.5, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0 wt.%) at room temperature and post-annealed at 200 o C. The crystallinity of the ITO films decreased with increasing Ce content, and it led to a decrease in surface roughness. In addition, a relatively small change in resistance in dynamic stress mode was obtained for ITO:Ce films even after the annealing at high temperature (200 o C). The minimum resistivity of the amorphous ITO:Ce films was 3.96 x 10 -4 Ωcm, which was deposited using a 3.0 wt.% CeO 2 doped ITO target. The amorphous ITO:Ce films not only have comparable electrical properties to the polycrystalline films but also have a crystallization temperature > 200 o C. In addition, the amorphous ITO:Ce film showed stable mechanical properties in the bended state.

  15. Indium tin oxide thin films by bias magnetron rf sputtering for heterojunction solar cells application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Liang; Zhou Zhibin; Peng Hua; Cui Rongqiang

    2005-01-01

    In this investigation ITO thin films were prepared by bias magnetron rf sputtering technique at substrate temperature of 180 deg. C and low substrate-target distance for future a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction (HJ) solar cells application. Microstructure, surface morphology, electrical and optical properties of these films were characterized and analyzed. The effects of ion bombardments on growing ITO films are well discussed. XRD analysis revealed a change in preferential orientation of polycrystalline structure from (2 2 2) to (4 0 0) plane with the increase of negative bias voltage. Textured surface were observed on AFM graphs of samples prepared at high negative bias. Hall measurements showed that the carrier density and Hall mobility of these ITO films are sensitive to the bias voltage applied. We attributed these effects to the sensitivity of energy of Ar + ions bombarding on growing films to the applied bias voltage in our experiments. At last the figure of merit was calculated to evaluate the quality of ITO thin films, the results of which show that sample prepared at bias voltage of -75 V is good to be used in HJ cells application

  16. Fracture toughness and sliding properties of magnetron sputtered CrBC and CrBCN coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianzhi; Zhou, Fei; Ma, Qiang; Callisti, Mauro; Polcar, Tomas; Yan, Jiwang

    2018-06-01

    CrBC and CrBCN coatings with low and high B contents were deposited on 316L steel and Si wafers using an unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. Mechanical properties including hardness (H), elastic modulus (E) and fracture toughness (KIc) as well as residual stresses (σ) were quantified. A clear correlation between structural, mechanical and tribological properties of coatings was found. In particular, structural analyses indicated that N incorporation in CrBC coatings with high B content caused a significant structural evolution of the nanocomposite structure (crystalline grains embedded into an amorphous matrix) from nc-CrB2/(a-CrBx, a-BCx) to nc-CrN/(a-BCx, a-BN). As a result, the hardness of CrBC coating with high B content decreased from 23.4 to 16.3 GPa but the fracture toughness was enhanced. Consequently, less cracks initiated on CrBCN coatings during tribological tests, which combined with the shielding effect of a-BN on wear debris, led to a low friction coefficient and wear rate.

  17. Damp heat stability and annealing behavior of aluminum doped zinc oxide films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohsophon, T.; Huepkes, J.; Calnan, S.; Reetz, W.; Rech, B.; Beyer, W.; Sirikulrat, N.

    2006-01-01

    The damp heat stability and subsequent vacuum annealing behavior of aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) films was investigated using Hall effect measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical spectrometry techniques. The AZO films were deposited on glass or silicon wafers using reactive and non-reactive magnetron sputtering from metallic and ceramic targets, respectively. Additionally, we characterized surface textured AZO films, which are used as light scattering transparent conductive oxide (TCO) in silicon thin film solar cells. For all films a degradation of the electrical film properties was found after the damp heat treatment. For thick compact films, with large grain size, only a small increase in the electrical resistivity was observed, whereas less compact films prepared at high deposition pressures or very thin films (< 300 nm) showed an increase in resistivity by up to a factor of three already after 300 h. The conductivity degradation during damp heat treatment could be largely reversed by annealing in vacuum. However, annealing temperatures of at least 150 deg. C were required. Possible mechanisms explaining the experimental results are discussed

  18. Magnetron sputtered TiN thin films toward enhanced performance supercapacitor electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Binbin

    2018-04-09

    Supercapacitors as a new type of energy storage devices bridging the gap between conventional capacitors and batteries have aroused widespread concern. Herein, binder-free titanium nitride (TiN) thin film electrodes for supercapacitors prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering technology are reported. The effect of N2 content on the supercapacitor performance is evaluated. A highest specific capacitance of 27.3 mF cm−2 at a current density of 1.0 mA cm−2, together with excellent cycling performance (98.2% capacitance retention after 20,000 cycles at 2.0 mA cm−2) is achieved in a 0.5 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. More importantly, a symmetric supercapacitor device assembled on the basis of TiN thin films can deliver a maximum energy density of 17.6 mWh cm−3 at a current density of 0.2 mA cm−2 and a maximum power density of 10.8 W cm−3 at a current density of 2 mA cm−2 with remarkable cycling stability. As a consequence, TiN thin films demonstrate great potential as promising supercapacitor electrode materials.

  19. CrN thin films prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering for symmetric supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Binbin

    2016-12-29

    Supercapacitors have been becoming indispensable energy storage devices in micro-electromechanical systems and have been widely studied over the past few decades. Transition metal nitrides with excellent electrical conductivity and superior cycling stability are promising candidates as supercapacitor electrode materials. In this work, we report the fabrication of CrN thin films using reactive DC magnetron sputtering and further their applications for symmetric supercapacitors for the first time. The CrN thin film electrodes fabricated under the deposition pressure of 3.5 Pa show an areal specific capacitance of 12.8 mF cm at 1.0 mA cm and high cycling stability with 92.1% capacitance retention after 20 000 cycles in a 0.5 M HSO electrolyte. Furthermore, our developed CrN//CrN symmetric supercapacitor can deliver a high energy density of 8.2 mW h cm at the power density of 0.7 W cm along with outstanding cycling stability. Thus, the CrN thin films have great potential for application in supercapacitors and other energy storage systems.

  20. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF InN PARTICLES OBTAINED BY RF MAGNETRON SPUTTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bernal Correa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available InN layers were prepared by magnetron sputtering, in a mixed atmosphere of argon and nitrogen on Si substrates (100, Si (111, and glass. The substrate temperature Ts was varied (300-500 oC in order to correlate it with the optical, structural, and morphological properties of the layers. X-ray results have revealed a presence of hexagonal InN type wurtzite in each of the layers in addition to oxides of indium (InxOy attributed to different factors. Dependence was evident on the crystalline quality of each layer according to Ts. The optical absorption coefficient and the band gap were determined from the absorbance and transmittance spectra obtained by UV/Vis. Vibration modes associated with the semiconductor InN and InxOy were identified by Raman microscopy. The morphology of the layers and the grain size was analyzed from SEM micrographs where it was determined the formation of particulates  ~ 0.5 mm and ~ 50 nm of different geometries.

  1. Experimental studies of thin films deposition by magnetron sputtering method for CIGS solar cell fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gułkowski Sławomir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among a variety of the thin film solar cell technologies of second generation, copper-indium-gallium-diselenide device (CIGS with the latest highest lab cell efficiency record of 22.4 % seems to be the most promising for the power generation. This is partly due to the advantages of using low cost films of few microns thick not only as a metallic contacts but also as a main structure of the solar cell consisted of high quality semiconductor layers. This paper reports the experimental studies of the CIGS absorber formation on Soda Lime Glass substrate covered by thin molybdenum film as a back contact layer. All structures were deposited with the use of magnetron sputtering method only. Technological parameters of the deposition process such as deposition power, pressure and deposition time were optimized for each layer of the structure. Mo back contact was examined in terms of resistivity. EDS measurements were carried out to verify stoichiometric composition of CIGS absorber. Thin film of Al was used as a top contact in order to examine the quality of p-n junction. The I-V electrical characteristic of the p-n junction was analysed in terms of solar cell application.

  2. Corrosion resistance of ZrNxOy thin films obtained by rf reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariza, E.; Rocha, L.A.; Vaz, F.; Cunha, L.; Ferreira, S.C.; Carvalho, P.; Rebouta, L.; Alves, E.; Goudeau, Ph.; Riviere, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of this work is the investigation of the corrosion resistance of single layered zirconium oxynitride, ZrN x O y , thin films in artificial sweat solution at ambient temperature. The films were produced by rf reactive magnetron sputtering, using a pure Zr target at a constant temperature of 300 deg. C. Two different sets of samples were produced. In the first set of films, the substrate bias voltage was the main variable, whereas in the second set, the flow rate of reactive gases (oxygen/nitrogen ratio) was varied. The control of the amount of oxygen allowed the film properties to be tailored from those of covalent zirconium nitride to those of the correspondent ionic oxide. The corrosion behaviour was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) tests. The analysis of EIS data provided detailed information of the corrosion processes occurring at the surface of the system throughout the immersion time. The modifications of the coating microstructure and/or chemical composition induced by the variation of the deposition parameters were also evaluated and correlated with the corrosion mechanisms occurring in each system

  3. Electrical and optical properties of reactive DC magnetron sputtered silver oxide thin films: role of oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Barik, Ullash; Srinivasan, S; Nagendra, C L; Subrahmanyam, A

    2003-04-01

    Silver oxide thin films have been prepared on soda lime glass substrates at room temperature (300 K) by reactive DC Magnetron sputtering technique using pure silver metal target; the oxygen flow rates have been varied in the range 0.00-2.01 sccm. The X-ray diffraction data on these films show a systematic change from metallic silver to silver (sub) oxides. The electrical resistivity increases with increasing oxygen flow. The films show a p-type behavior (by both Hall and Seebeck measurements) for the oxygen flow rates of 0.54, 1.09 and 1.43 sccm. The refractive index of the films (at 632.8 nm) decreases with increasing oxygen content and is in the range 1.167-1.145, whereas the p-type films show a higher refractive index (1.186-1.204). The work function of these silver oxide films has been measured by Kelvin Probe technique. The results, in specific, the p-type conductivity in the silver oxide films, have been explained on the basis of the theory of partial ionic charge proposed by Sanderson.

  4. Electrical and optical properties of reactive DC magnetron sputtered silver oxide thin films: role of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar Barik, Ullash; Srinivasan, S.; Nagendra, C.L.; Subrahmanyam, A.

    2003-01-01

    Silver oxide thin films have been prepared on soda lime glass substrates at room temperature (300 K) by reactive DC Magnetron sputtering technique using pure silver metal target; the oxygen flow rates have been varied in the range 0.00-2.01 sccm. The X-ray diffraction data on these films show a systematic change from metallic silver to silver (sub) oxides. The electrical resistivity increases with increasing oxygen flow. The films show a p-type behavior (by both Hall and Seebeck measurements) for the oxygen flow rates of 0.54, 1.09 and 1.43 sccm. The refractive index of the films (at 632.8 nm) decreases with increasing oxygen content and is in the range 1.167-1.145, whereas the p-type films show a higher refractive index (1.186-1.204). The work function of these silver oxide films has been measured by Kelvin Probe technique. The results, in specific, the p-type conductivity in the silver oxide films, have been explained on the basis of the theory of partial ionic charge proposed by Sanderson

  5. Experimental studies of thin films deposition by magnetron sputtering method for CIGS solar cell fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gułkowski, Sławomir; Krawczak, Ewelina

    2017-10-01

    Among a variety of the thin film solar cell technologies of second generation, copper-indium-gallium-diselenide device (CIGS) with the latest highest lab cell efficiency record of 22.4 % seems to be the most promising for the power generation. This is partly due to the advantages of using low cost films of few microns thick not only as a metallic contacts but also as a main structure of the solar cell consisted of high quality semiconductor layers. This paper reports the experimental studies of the CIGS absorber formation on Soda Lime Glass substrate covered by thin molybdenum film as a back contact layer. All structures were deposited with the use of magnetron sputtering method only. Technological parameters of the deposition process such as deposition power, pressure and deposition time were optimized for each layer of the structure. Mo back contact was examined in terms of resistivity. EDS measurements were carried out to verify stoichiometric composition of CIGS absorber. Thin film of Al was used as a top contact in order to examine the quality of p-n junction. The I-V electrical characteristic of the p-n junction was analysed in terms of solar cell application.

  6. Growth of TiO2 Thin Film on Various Substrates using RF Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2011-01-01

    The conductivity of Titanium Dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin film fabricated using Radio Frequency (RF) Magnetron Sputtering on Silicon (Si), Indium doped--Tin Oxide (ITO) and microscope glass (M) substrates is presented in this paper. The dependant of thin film thickness and type of substrate been discussed. TiO 2 was deposited using Ti target in Ar+O 2 (45:10) mixture at 250 W for 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 minute. Resultant thickness varies from 295 nm to 724 nm with deposition rate 6.4 nm/min. On the other hand, resistivity, Rs value for ITO substrate is between 5.72x10 -7 to 1.54x10 -6 Ω.m, Si substrate range is between 3.52x10 -6 to 1.76x10 -5 Ω.m and M substrate range is between 99 to 332 Ω.m. The value of resistivity increases with the thickness of the thin film.

  7. Microstructure of ZnO thin films deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, A.N., E-mail: amber.reed.5@us.af.mil [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Shamberger, P.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Hu, J.J. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); University of Dayton Research Institute, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Muratore, C. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Bultman, J.E. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); University of Dayton Research Institute, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Voevodin, A.A., E-mail: andrey.voevodin@us.af.mil [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States)

    2015-03-31

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering was used to deposit thin (~ 100 nm) zinc oxide (ZnO) films from a ceramic ZnO target onto substrates heated to 150 °C. The resulting films had strong crystallinity, highly aligned (002) texture and low surface roughness (root mean square roughness less than 10 nm), as determined by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force spectroscopy measurements. Deposition pressure and target–substrate distance had the greatest effect on film microstructure. The degree of alignment in the films was strongly dependent on the gas pressure. Deposition at pressures less than 0.93 Pa resulted in a bimodal distribution of grain sizes. An initial growth layer with preferred orientations (101) and (002) parallel to the interface was observed at the film–substrate interface under all conditions examined here; the extent of that competitive region was dependent on growth conditions. Time-resolved current measurements of the target and ion energy distributions, determined using energy resolved mass spectrometry, were correlated to film microstructure in order to investigate the effect of plasma conditions on film nucleation and growth. - Highlights: • Low temperature growth of nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) films. • ZnO films had a highly (002) textured, smooth, dense microstructure. • Dominant (002) orientation of films was pressure dependent. • Interfacial (101)/(002) mixed orientation layer controlled by substrate location.

  8. Annealing dependent evolution of columnar nanostructures in RF magnetron sputtered PTFE films for hydrophobic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, S.; De, Rajnarayan; Maidul Haque, S.; Divakar Rao, K.; Misal, J. S.; Prathap, C.; Das, S. C.; Patidar, Manju M.; Ganesan, V.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2018-01-01

    Present communication focuses on a relatively less explored direction of producing rough polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surfaces for possible hydrophobic applications. The experiments were carried out to make rough PTFE films without losing much of the transmission, which is an important factor while designing futuristic solar cell protection covers. After annealing temperature optimization, as grown RF magnetron sputtered PTFE films (prepared at 160 W RF power) were subjected to vacuum annealing at 200 °C for different time durations ranging from 1 to 4 h. The films show morphological evolution exhibiting formation and growth of columnar nanostructures that are responsible for roughening of the films due to annealing induced molecular migration and rearrangement. In agreement with this, qualitative analysis of corresponding x-ray reflectivity data shows modification in film thickness, which may again be attributed to the growth of columns at the expense of the atoms of remaining film molecules. However, the observations reveal that the film annealed at 200 °C for 2 h gives a combination of patterned columnar structures and reasonable transmission of >85% (in 500-1000 nm wavelength range), both of which are deteriorated when the films are annealed either at high temperature beyond 200 °C or for long durations >3 h. In addition, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results reveal that the molecular bonds remain intact upon annealing at any temperature within the studied range indicating the stable nature of the films.

  9. Environmental effects on electrical properties of Cr-Si-Ni resistive films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuqin; Dong Xianping; Wu Jiansheng

    2005-01-01

    The present paper investigated the environmental effects on electrical properties stability and long-term reliability of magnetron sputtered Cr-Si-Ni resistive films in 3.5% NaCl, 0.5 M Na 2 SO 4 and 0.5 M HCl solutions at 25 deg. C, which simulated marine, industrial and acidic environments. The relative resistance change (ΔR/R) for the annealed films revealed that the films had the best electrical properties stability and long-term reliability in industrial environments at 25 deg. C. After immersion in corrosion solutions for 480 h, the value of ΔR/R for the films was only 0.41% in industrial environments, and the values were 0.56 and 1.96% in marine and acidic environments, respectively. The polarization measurements and AES results indicated that the films presented a spontaneous trend to passivation, and could form a dense and stable protective oxide layer (Si oxide) on its surface rapidly that protected the films from further corrosion in three different environments. Furthermore, the formed passive film in industrial environments exhibited much more protective effects on the films than in marine and acidic environments

  10. Biocompatibility of GaSb thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Naoki; Fujihara, Junko; Yoshino, Katsumi

    2017-07-01

    GaSb may be suitable for biological applications, such as cellular sensors and bio-medical instrumentation because of its low toxicity compared with As (III) compounds and its band gap energy. Therefore, the biocompatibility and the film properties under physiological conditions were investigated for GaSb thin films with or without a surface coating. GaSb thin films were grown on quartz substrates by RF magnetron sputtering, and then coated with (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane (MPT). The electrical properties, surface morphology, and crystal structure of the GaSb thin film were unaffected by the MPT coating. The cell viability assay suggested that MPT-coated GaSb thin films are biocompatible. Bare GaSb was particularly unstable in pH9 buffer. Ga elution was prevented by the MPT coating, although the Ga concentration in the pH 9 buffer was higher than that in the other solutions. The surface morphology and crystal structure were not changed by exposure to the solutions, except for the pH 9 buffer, and the thin film properties of MPT-coated GaSb exposed to distilled water and H2O2 in saline were maintained. These results indicate that MPT-coated GaSb thin films are biocompatible and could be used for temporary biomedical devices.

  11. Characterization and properties Ti-Al-Si-N nanocomposite coatings prepared by middle frequency magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, C. W.; Zhang, J.; Xie, W.; Shao, L. X.; Guo, L. P.; Fu, D. J.

    2011-10-01

    TiN-containing amorphous Ti-Al-Si-N (nc-TiN/a-Si 3N 4 or a-AlN) nanocomposite coatings were deposited by using a modified closed field twin unbalanced magnetron sputtering system which is arc assisted and consists of two circles of targets, at a substrate temperature of 300 °C. XRD, XPS and High-resolution TEM experiments showed that the coatings contain TiN nanocrystals embedded in the amorphous Si 3N 4 or AlN matrix. The coatings exhibit good mechanical properties that are greatly influenced by the Si contents. The hardness of the Ti-Al-Si-N coatings deposited at Si targets currents of 5, 8, 10, and 12 A were 45, 47, 54 and 46 GPa, respectively. The high hardness of the deposited Ti-Al-Si-N coatings may be own to the plastic distortion and dislocation blocking by the nanocrystalline structure. On the other hand, the friction coefficient decreases monotonously with increasing Si contents. This result would be caused by tribo-chemical reactions, which often take place in many ceramics, e.g. Si 3N 4 reacts with H 2O to produce SiO 2 or Si(OH) 2 tribolay-layer.

  12. Chemical environment of iron atoms in iron oxynitride films synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafoute, M.; Petitjean, C.; Rousselot, C.; Pierson, J.F.; Greneche, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    An iron oxynitride film was deposited on silicon and glass substrates by magnetron sputtering in an Ar-N 2 -O 2 reactive mixture. Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry was used to determine the film composition (Fe 1.06 O 0.35 N 0.65 ). X-ray diffraction revealed the formation of a face-centred cubic (fcc) structure with a lattice parameter close to that of γ'''-FeN. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the occurrence of Fe-N and Fe-O bonds in the film. The local environment of iron atoms studied by 57 Fe Moessbauer spectrometry at both 300 and 77 K gives clear evidence that the Fe 1.06 O 0.35 N 0.65 is not a mixture of iron oxide and iron nitride phases. Despite a small amount of an iron nitride phase, the main sample consists of an iron oxynitride phase with an NaCl-type structure where oxygen atoms partially substitute for nitrogen atoms, thus indicating the formation of a iron oxynitride with an fcc structure

  13. Field emission from ZnS nanorods synthesized by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P. K.; Maiti, U. N.; Jana, S.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2006-11-01

    The field emission property of zinc sulphides nanorods synthesized in the thin film form on Si substrates has been studied. It is seen that ZnS nanorod thin films showed good field emission properties with a low-macroscopic turn-on field (2.9-6.3 V/μm). ZnS nanorods were synthesized by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering of a polycrystalline prefabricated ZnS target at a relatively higher pressure (10 -1 mbar) and at a lower substrate temperature (233-273 K) without using any catalyst. Transmission electron microscopic image showed the formation of ZnS nanorods with high aspect ratio (>60). The field emission data were analysed using Fowler-Nordhiem theory and the nearly straight-line nature of the F-N plots confirmed cold field emission of electrons. It was also found that the turn-on field decreased with the decrease of nanorod's diameters. The optical properties of the ZnS nanorods were also studied. From the measurements of transmittance of the films deposited on glass substrates, the direct allowed bandgap values have been calculated and they were in the range 3.83-4.03 eV. The thickness of the films was ˜600 nm.

  14. Substrates effect on Zn1-xMnxO thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elanchezhiyan, J.; Bhuvana, K.P.; Gopalakrishnan, N.; Balasubramanian, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we have presented the surface effect of the substrates on Mn doped ZnO (Zn 1-x Mn x O) thin films grown on Si(1 0 0) and sapphire [i.e. Al 2 O 3 (0 0 0 1)] by RF magnetron sputtering. These grown films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to know its structural, optical and magnetic properties. All these properties have been found to be strongly influenced by the substrate surface on which the films have been deposited. The XRD results show that the Mn doped ZnO films deposited on Si(1 0 0) exhibit a polycrystalline nature whereas the films on sapphire substrate have only (0 0 2) preferential orientations indicating that the films are single crystalline. The studies of room temperature PL spectra reveal that the Zn 1-x Mn x O/Si(1 0 0) system is under severe compressive strain while the strain is almost relaxed in Zn 1-x Mn x O/Al 2 O 3 (0 0 0 1) system. It has been observed from VSM studies that Zn 1-x Mn x O/Al 2 O 3 (0 0 0 1) system shows ferromagnetic nature while the paramagnetic behaviour observed in Zn 1-x Mn x O/Si(1 0 0) system

  15. Nanostructured multilayers of TiN/ZrN obtained by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caicedo A, J.C.; Bejarano G, G.; Gomez, M.E.; Prieto, P.; Cortez, C.; Munoz, J.

    2007-01-01

    In order to find an industrial application for thin films of TiN and ZrN monolayers, as well as TiN/ZrN multilayers were deposited onto silicon (100) and AISI 5160 steel substrates by r.f. (13.56 MHz) multi-target magnetron sputtering from high-purity (99.5%) Ti and (99.5%) Zr targets in an Ar (93%)/N 2 (7%) gas mixture. For their deposition, we applied a substrate bias voltage of -100 V and a target power of 350 W. The films were deposited at a pressure of 6x10 -3 mbar and a temperature of 250 C. The structure, composition, morphology, and topography were characterized by, XRD, FTIR, SEM, AFM, and optical microscopy. Mechanical properties like hardness and elastic modulus were determined by Nanoindentation. Hardness and elastic modulus of the films increased proportionally to the number of bilayers. Finally, cutting tools were coated with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 bilayers of TiN/ZrN. Cutting tests on paper blades were conducted. Increased cut quality performance was observed for cutting tools coated with 8 bilayers, as compared to uncoated tools. This work opens the possibility to use coated AISI 5160 as cutting tools for the paper industry, reducing the import of expensive high-quality tool steel. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Structure evolution of zinc oxide thin films deposited by unbalance DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aryanto, Didik, E-mail: didi027@lipi.go.id [Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Serpong 15314, Tangerang Selatan (Indonesia); Materials Research Group, Physics Department, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia); Marwoto, Putut; Sugianto [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia); Materials Research Group, Physics Department, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia); Sudiro, Toto [Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Serpong 15314, Tangerang Selatan (Indonesia); Birowosuto, Muhammad D. [Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Serpong 15314, Tangerang Selatan (Indonesia); CINTRA UMI CNRS/NTU/THALES 3288 Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Border X Block, level 6, 637553 (Singapore); Sulhadi [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films are deposited on corning glass substrates using unbalanced DC magnetron sputtering. The effect of growth temperature on surface morphology and crystallographic orientation of ZnO thin film is studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The surface morphology and crystallographic orientation of ZnO thin film are transformed against the increasing of growth temperature. The mean grain size of film and the surface roughness are inversely and directly proportional towards the growth temperature from room temperature to 300 °C, respectively. The smaller grain size and finer roughness of ZnO thin film are obtained at growth temperature of 400 °C. The result of AFM analysis is in good agreement with the result of XRD analysis. ZnO thin films deposited in a series of growth temperatures have hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline structures and they exhibit transformations in the crystallographic orientation. The results in this study reveal that the growth temperature strongly influences the surface morphology and crystallographic orientation of ZnO thin film.

  17. Thermal stability of tungsten sub-nitride thin film prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.X. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, 730050 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730050 (China); Wu, Y.Z., E-mail: youzhiwu@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, 730050 (China); Mu, B. [College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, 730050 (China); Qiao, L. [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730050 (China); Li, W.X.; Li, J.J. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, P., E-mail: pengwang@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730050 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Tungsten sub-nitride thin films deposited on silicon samples by reactive magnetron sputtering were used as a model system to study the phase stability and microstructural evolution during thermal treatments. XRD, SEM&FIB, XPS, RBS and TDS were applied to investigate the stability of tungsten nitride films after heating up to 1473 K in vacuum. At the given experimental parameters a 920 nm thick crystalline film with a tungsten and nitrogen stoichiometry of 2:1 were achieved. The results showed that no phase and microstructure change occurred due to W{sub 2}N film annealing in vacuum up to 973 K. Heating up to 1073 K led to a partial decomposition of the W{sub 2}N phase and the formation of a W enrichment layer at the surface. Increasing the annealing time at the same temperature, the further decomposition of the W{sub 2}N phase was negligible. The complete decomposition of W{sub 2}N film happened as the temperature reached up to 1473 K.

  18. Development of Nb$_3$Sn coatings by magnetron sputtering for SRF cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Rosaz, G.; Leaux, F.; Motschmann, F.; Mydlarz, Z.; Taborelli, M.; Vollenberg, W.

    2016-01-01

    Cost and energy savings are an integral requirement in the design of future particle accelerators. Very low losses SRF accelerating systems, together with high-efficiency cryogenics systems, have the potential of low running costs. The association to the capital cost reduction allowed by thin films coated copper cavities may represent the best overall cost-performance compromise. This strategy has been applied for instance in LEP, the LHC and HIE-ISOLDE with the niobium thin films technology. New materials must be considered to improve the quality factor of the cavities, such as Nb$_{3}$Sn, which could also ideally operate at higher temperature thus allowing further energy savings. The study considers the possibility to coat a copper resonator with an Nb$_{3}$Sn layer by means of magnetron sputtering using an alloyed target. We present the impact of the process parameters on the as-deposited layer stoichiometry. The latter is in good agreement with previous results reported in the literature and can be tuned ...

  19. Characterization of AZO and Ag based films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Dagang; Jiang, Shouxiang; Zhao, Hongmei; Shang, Songmin; Chen, Zhuoming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly infrared reflective AZO and Ag based films were prepared. • Ag showed better crystallization on AZO film than on glass substrate. • Infrared reflection rate was inversely proportional to the film sheet resistance. • Film with infrared reflection of 97% in FIR region was acquired. - Abstract: Ag, AZO/Ag, Ag/AZO and AZO/Ag/AZO films were prepared on glass substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technology. The prepared films were systematically investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), UV–visible spectrophotometer, a four-point probe system and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The results indicated that Ag inner layer starts forming a continuous film at the thickness of 10 nm and Ag layer presents superior crystallization on AZO substrate than that on glass substrate. The continuous Ag inner layer film provided the highest average visible transmittance of 85.4% (AZO/Ag/AZO). The lowest sheet resistance of 3.21 Ω/sq and the highest infrared reflection rate of 97% in FIR region can be obtained on AZO/Ag (15 nm)/AZO film. The high infrared reflection property of the AZO/Ag/AZO coating makes it a promising candidate for solar control films

  20. Characteristics of a-IGZO/ITO hybrid layer deposited by magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Joon-Ho; Park, Hee-Woo; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Song, Pung-Keun

    2012-04-01

    Transparent a-IGZO (In-Ga-Zn-O) films have been actively studied for use in the fabrication of high-quality TFTs. In this study, a-IGZO films and a-IGZO/ITO double layers were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering under various oxygen flow rates. The a-IGZO films showed an amorphous structure up to 500 degrees C. The deposition rate of these films decreased with an increase in the amount of oxygen gas. The amount of indium atoms in the film was confirmed to be 11.4% higher than the target. The resistivity of double layer follows the rules for parallel DC circuits The maximum Hall mobility of the a-IGZO/ITO double layers was found to be 37.42 cm2/V x N s. The electrical properties of the double layers were strongly dependent on their thickness ratio. The IGZO/ITO double layer was subjected to compressive stress, while the ITO/IGZO double layer was subjected to tensile stress. The bending tolerance was found to depend on the a-IGZO thickness.

  1. Deposition and characterization of NbAIN thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, R.G.; Felix, L.C.; Fernandez, D.A.R.; Fontes Junior, A.S.; Oliveira, G.B.; Tentardini, E.K.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study NbAlN thin films and the influence of variation in the concentration of aluminum in the crystal structure and oxidation resistance of these coatings. The thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering and characterized by Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and oxidation tests at high temperatures. NbAlN thin films were deposited and present at concentration of 10, 20 and 42 at% Al. The NbAlN crystalline phase obtained was the δ-NbN, however it was observed a shift of the peaks in the patterns obtained GIXRD of regions for larger angles for these samples, indicating the formation of a solid solution. The higher oxidation resistance temperature was 700° C for the sample with 42 in at% Al. From the SEM analysis it was possible to observe the surface of the film after oxidation, all films showed defects, however the amount of such defects was lower in samples with higher aluminum concentrations. (author)

  2. Deposition and characterization of IrOx nanofoils on carbon nanotube templates by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yi-Min; Cai, Jhen-Hong; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Lee, Kuei-Yi; Tsai, Dah-Shyang; Tiong, Kwong-Kau

    2012-01-01

    Large surface area IrO x nanofoils (IrO x NF) were deposited on multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) templates, forming IrO x /MWCNT nanocomposites, by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering using Ir metal target. The structural and spectroscopic properties of IrO x NF were characterized. The micrographs of field emission scanning electron microscopy showed the formation of foil-like structure for the as-deposited samples. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed the contiguous presence of glassy iridium oxide, iridium metal, and iridium dioxide nanocrystals in the foil. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis provided the information of the oxidation states and the stoichiometry of IrO x NF. Raman spectra revealed the amorphous-like phase of the as-deposited IrO x NF. The nanofoil structure provided ultra-high surface area for electrical charge storage which made the IrO x /MWCNT nanocomposites as an attractive candidate for the supercapacitor applications.

  3. Biocompatibility and Surface Properties of TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Huerta, Francisco; Cervantes, Blanca; González, Octavio; Hernández-Torres, Julián; García-González, Leandro; Vega, Rosario; Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Soto, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    We present the study of the biocompatibility and surface properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering. These films are deposited on a quartz substrate at room temperature and annealed with different temperatures (100, 300, 500, 800 and 1100 °C). The biocompatibility of the TiO2 thin films is analyzed using primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of Wistar rats, whose neurons are incubated on the TiO2 thin films and on a control substrate during 18 to 24 h. These neurons are activated by electrical stimuli and its ionic currents and action potential activity recorded. Through X-ray diffraction (XRD), the surface of TiO2 thin films showed a good quality, homogeneity and roughness. The XRD results showed the anatase to rutile phase transition in TiO2 thin films at temperatures between 500 and 1100 °C. This phase had a grain size from 15 to 38 nm, which allowed a suitable structural and crystal phase stability of the TiO2 thin films for low and high temperature. The biocompatibility experiments of these films indicated that they were appropriated for culture of living neurons which displayed normal electrical behavior. PMID:28788667

  4. Adhesion analysis for chromium nitride thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, F. M.; Merie, V. V.; Pintea, I. M.; Molea, A.

    2016-08-01

    The thin film industry is continuously growing due to the wide range of applications that require the fabrication of advanced components such as sensors, biological implants, micro-electromechanical devices, optical coatings and so on. The selection regarding the deposition materials, as well as the deposition technology influences the properties of the material and determines the suitability of devices for certain real-world applications. This paper is focused on the adhesion force for several chromium nitride thin films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering. All chromium nitride thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate, the discharge current and the argon flow being kept constant. The main purpose of the paper is to determine the influence of deposition parameters on the adhesion force. Therefore some of the deposition parameters were varied in order to study their effect on the adhesion force. Experimentally, the values of the adhesion force were determined in multiple points for each sample using the spectroscopy in point mode of the atomic force microscope. The obtained values were used to estimate the surface energy of the CrN thin films based on two existing mathematical models for the adhesion force when considering the contact between two bodies.

  5. Structural and optical properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered zinc aluminum oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, B. Rajesh, E-mail: rajphyind@gmail.com [Department of Physics, GITAM Institute of Technology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam - 530 045, A.P. (India); Rao, T. Subba, E-mail: thotasubbarao6@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapuramu - 515 003, A.P. (India)

    2014-10-15

    Highly transparent conductive Zinc Aluminum Oxide (ZAO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates using DC reactive magnetron sputtering method. The thin films were deposited at 200 °C and post-deposition annealing from 15 to 90 min. XRD patterns of ZAO films exhibit only (0 0 2) diffraction peak, indicating that they have c-axis preferred orientation perpendicular to the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the surface morphology of the films. The grain size obtained from SEM images of ZAO thin films are found to be in the range of 20 - 26 nm. The minimum resistivity of 1.74 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm and an average transmittance of 92% are obtained for the thin film post annealed for 30 min. The optical band gap of ZAO thin films increased from 3.49 to 3.60 eV with the increase of annealing time due to Burstein-Moss effect. The optical constants refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) were also determined from the optical transmission spectra.

  6. Corrosion resistance of CrN thin films produced by dc magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruden, A. [Laboratorio de Física del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 vía al Magdalena, Manizales (Colombia); Laboratorio de Recubrimientos Duros y Aplicaciones Industriales–RDAI, Universidad del Valle, Calle 13 N° 100-00 Ciudadela Meléndez, Cali (Colombia); Departamento de matemáticas, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Pereira (Colombia); Restrepo-Parra, E., E-mail: erestrepopa@unal.edu.co [Laboratorio de Física del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 vía al Magdalena, Manizales (Colombia); Paladines, A.U.; Sequeda, F. [Laboratorio de Recubrimientos Duros y Aplicaciones Industriales–RDAI, Universidad del Valle, Calle 13 N° 100-00 Ciudadela Meléndez, Cali (Colombia)

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the electrochemical behavior of chromium nitride (CrN) coatings deposited on two steel substrates, AISI 304 and AISI 1440, was investigated. The CrN coatings were prepared using a reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering deposition technique at two different pressures (P1 = 0.4 Pa and P2 = 4 Pa) with a mixture of N{sub 2}–Ar (1.5-10). The microstructure and crystallinity of the CrN coatings were investigated using X-ray diffraction. The aqueous corrosion behavior of the coatings was evaluated using two methods. The polarization resistance (Tafel curves) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) in a saline (3.5% NaCl solution) environment were measured in terms of the open-circuit potentials and polarization resistance (R{sub p}). The results indicated that the CrN coatings present better corrosion resistance and R{sub p} values than do the uncoated steel substrates, especially for the coatings produced on the AISI 304 substrates, which exhibited a strong enhancement in the corrosion resistance. Furthermore, better behavior was observed for the coatings produced at lower pressures (0.4 Pa) than those grown at 4 Pa.

  7. Spatial survey of a magnetron plasma sputtering system using a Langmuir probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, D.J.; Dew, S.K.; Burrell, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional spatial survey is conducted for a magnetron sputtering plasma at two pressures (40 and 5 mTorr) using a Langmuir probe. The plasma density is found to be highest (up to 6.0x10 10 cm -3 ) above the etch region of the cathode, near the magnetic trap. The density drops between the etch regions, near the edges of the cathode and also at distances farther away from the cathode. The floating potential was found to be most negative (down to -12 V) in regions where the highest electron temperatures were observed (up to almost 4 eV) and became less negative (near 0 V) in regions where the electron temperature was lowest (less than 0.5 eV). This complementary trend was consistent in all spatial locations and at both pressures. The plasma potential was found to have very weak dependence, if any, on spatial location and pressure. The relationship between electron transport processes, collision processes and electron temperatures is discussed. Electron energy distribution functions were found to be either Maxwellian or bi-Maxwellian in nature, depending on pressure and spatial location. Maxwellian distributions were found near the magnetic trap or source of the plasma. Bi-Maxwellian distributions were found further away from the source, and it appears they result from Maxwellian distributions bifurcating as they diffuse away from the source. The suitability of the popular models for this bifurcation is discussed

  8. Improving the Tribological Properties of Spark-Anodized Titanium by Magnetron Sputtered Diamond-Like Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxiang Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Spark-anodization of titanium can produce adherent and wear-resistant TiO2 film on the surface, but the spark-anodized titanium has lots of surface micro-pores, resulting in an unstable and high friction coefficient against many counterparts. In this study, the diamond-like carbon (DLC was introduced into the micro-pores of spark-anodized titanium by the magnetron sputtering technique and a TiO2/DLC composite coating was fabricated. The microstructure and tribological properties of TiO2/DLC composite coating were investigated and compared with the anodic TiO2 mono-film and DLC mono-film. Results show that the DLC deposition significantly decreased the surface roughness and porosity of spark-anodized titanium. The fabricated TiO2/DLC composite coating exhibited a more stable and much lower friction coefficient than anodic TiO2 mono-film. Although the friction coefficient of the composite coating and the DLC mono-film was similar under both light load and heavy load conditions, the wear life of the composite coating was about 43% longer than that of DLC mono-film under heavy load condition. The wear rate of titanium with protective composite coating was much lower than that of titanium with DLC mono-film. The superior low friction coefficient and wear rate of the TiO2/DLC composite coating make it a good candidate as protective coating on titanium alloys.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulation of temperature effects on deposition of Cu film on Si by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guo; Sun, Jiangping; Zhang, Libin; Gan, Zhiyin

    2018-06-01

    The temperature effects on the growth of Cu thin film on Si (0 0 1) in the context of magnetron sputtering deposition were systematically studied using molecular dynamics (MD) method. To improve the comparability of simulation results at varying temperatures, the initial status data of incident Cu atoms used in all simulations were read from an identical file via LAMMPS-Python interface. In particular, crystalline microstructure, interface mixing and internal stress of Cu thin film deposited at different temperatures were investigated in detail. With raising the substrate temperature, the interspecies mixed volume and the proportion of face-centered cubic (fcc) structure in the deposited film both increased, while the internal compressive stress decreased. It was found that the fcc structure in the deposited Cu thin films was 〈1 1 1〉 oriented, which was reasonably explained by surface energy minimization and the selectivity of bombardment energy to the crystalline planes. The quantified analysis of interface mixing revealed that the diffusion of Cu atoms dominated the interface mixing, and the injection of incident Cu atoms resulted in the densification of phase near the film-substrate interface. More important, the distribution of atomic stress indicated that the compressive stress was mainly originated from the film-substrate interface, which might be attributed to the densification of interfacial phase at the initial stage of film deposition.

  10. Characteristics of Iron-Palladium alloy thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y.-J.; Shen, C.-Y.; Chang, H.-W.; Jian, S.-R.

    2018-06-01

    The microstructural features, magnetic, nanomechanical properties and wettability behaviors of Iron-Palladium (FePd) alloy thin films are investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), nanoindentation and water contact angle (CA) techniques, respectively. The FePd alloy thin films were deposited on glass substrates using a magnetron sputtering system. The post-annealing processes of FePd alloy thin films were carried out at 400 °C and 750 °C and resulted in a significant increase of both the average grain size and surface roughness. The XRD analysis showed that FePd alloy thin films exhibited a predominant (1 1 1) orientation. The magnetic field dependence of magnetization of all FePd thin films are measured at room temperature showed the ferromagnetic characteristics. The nanoindentation with continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) is used to measure the hardness and Young's modulus of present films. The contact angle (θCA) increased with increasing surface roughness. The maximum θCA of 75° was achieved for the FePd alloy thin film after annealing at 750 °C and a surface roughness of 4.2 nm.

  11. Abrasion resistant low friction and ultra-hard magnetron sputtered AlMgB14 coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, A. M.

    2016-04-01

    Hard aluminum magnesium boride films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering from a single stoichiometric AlMgB14 ceramic target. X-ray amorphous AlMgB14 films are very smooth. Their roughness does not exceed the roughness of Si wafer and Corning glass used as the substrates. Dispersion of refractive index and extinction coefficient were determined within 300 to 2500 nm range for the film deposited onto Corning glass. Stoichiometric in-depth compositionally homogeneous 2 μm thick films on the Si(100) wafer possess the peak values of nanohardness 88 GPa and Young’s modulus 517 GPa at the penetration depth of 26 nm and, respectively, 35 GPa and 275 GPa at 200 nm depth. Friction coefficient was found to be 0.06. The coating scratch adhesion strength of 14 N was obtained as the first chipping of the coating whereas its spallation failure happened at 21 N. These critical loads and the work of adhesion, estimated as high as 18.4 J m-2, surpass characteristics of diamond like carbon films deposited onto tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) substrates.

  12. Structural and optical properties of magnetron sputtered MgxZn1-xO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Gupte, Vinay; Sreenivas, K

    2006-01-01

    Mg x Zn 1-x O (MZO) thin films prepared by an rf magnetron sputtering technique are reported. The films were grown at room temperature and at relatively low rf power of 50 W. MZO thin films were found to possess preferred c-axis orientation and exhibited hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO up to a Mg concentration of 42 mol%. A small variation in the c-axis lattice parameter of around 0.3% was observed with increasing Mg composition, showing the complete solubility of Mg in ZnO. The band gap of the MZO films in the wurtzite phase varied linearly with the Mg concentration and a maximum band gap ∼4.19 eV was achieved at x = 0.42. The refractive indices of the MgO films were found to decrease with increasing Mg content. The observed optical dispersion data are in agreement with the single oscillator model. A photoluminescence study revealed a blue shift in the near band edge emission peak with increasing Mg content in the MZO films. The results show the potential of MZO films in various opto-electronic applications

  13. Radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and wet thermal oxidation of ZnO thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H. F.; Chua, S. J.; Hu, G. X.; Gong, H.; Xiang, N.

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied the growth and wet thermal oxidation (WTO) of ZnO thin films using a radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique. X-ray diffraction reveals a preferred orientation of [1010]ZnO(0002)//[1120]Al 2 O 3 (0002) coexisted with a small amount of ZnO (1011) and ZnO (1013) crystals on the Al 2 O 3 (0001) substrate. The ZnO (1011) and ZnO (1013) crystals, as well as the in-plane preferred orientation, are absent from the growth of ZnO on the GaAs(001) substrate. WTO at 550 deg. C improves the crystalline and the photoluminescence more significantly than annealing in air, N 2 and O 2 ambient; it also tends to convert the crystal from ZnO (1011) and ZnO (1013) to ZnO (0002). The evolution of the photoluminescence upon WTO and annealing reveals that the green and orange emissions, centered at 520 and 650 nm, are likely originated from oxygen vacancies and oxygen interstitials, respectively; while the 420 nm emission, which is very sensitive to the postgrowth thermal processing regardless of the substrate and the ambient gas, is likely originated from the surface-state related defects

  14. Reducing the impurity incorporation from residual gas by ion bombardment during high vacuum magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Johanna; Widenkvist, Erika; Larsson, Karin; Kreissig, Ulrich; Mraz, Stanislav; Martinez, Carlos; Music, Denis; Schneider, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of ion energy on the hydrogen incorporation has been investigated for alumina thin films, deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in an Ar/O 2 /H 2 O environment. Ar + with an average kinetic energy of ∼5 eV was determined to be the dominating species in the plasma. The films were analyzed with x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and elastic recoil detection analysis, demonstrating evidence for amorphous films with stoichiometric O/Al ratio. As the substrate bias potential was increased from -15 V (floating potential) to -100 V, the hydrogen content decreased by ∼70%, from 9.1 to 2.8 at. %. Based on ab initio calculations, these results may be understood by thermodynamic principles, where a supply of energy enables surface diffusion, H 2 formation, and desorption [Rosen et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, L137 (2005)]. These findings are of importance for the understanding of the correlation between ion energy and film composition and also show a pathway to reduce impurity incorporation during film growth in a high vacuum ambient

  15. Antimicrobial brass coatings prepared on poly(ethylene terephthalate) textile by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ying-Hung; Wu, Guo-Wei; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is to prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), which is known to provide high-density plasma, so as to generate a strongly adherent film at a reduced substrate temperature. The results reveal that the brass film grows in a layer-plus-island mode. Independent of their deposition time, the obtained films retain a Cu/Zn elemental composition ratio of 1.86 and exhibit primarily an α copper phase structure. Oxygen plasma pre-treatment for 1 min before coating can significantly increase film adhesion such that the brass-coated fabric of Grade 5 or Grade 4–5 can ultimately be obtained under dry and wet rubbing tests, respectively. However, a deposition time of 1 min suffices to provide effective antimicrobial properties for both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. As a whole, the feasibility of using such advanced HIPIMS coating technique to develop durable antimicrobial textile was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on PET fabric by HIPIMS • Brass-coated fabric with excellent durability, even undergone rubbing and washing tests • Brass-coated fabric provides effective antimicrobial properties for E. coli and S. aureus. • After brass coating, PET fabric still retained its mechanical property

  16. Germanium nanoislands grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering: Annealing time dependent surface morphology and photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samavati, Alireza; Othaman, Z.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Amjad, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Structural and optical properties of ∼ 20 nm Ge nanoislands grown on Si(100) by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering under varying annealing conditions are reported. Rapid thermal annealing at a temperature of 600°C for 30 s, 90 s, and 120 s are performed to examine the influence of annealing time on the surface morphology and photoluminescence properties. X-ray diffraction spectra reveal prominent Ge and GeO 2 peaks highly sensitive to the annealing time. Atomic force microscope micrographs of the as-grown sample show pyramidal nanoislands with relatively high-density 10 11 cm −2) ). The nanoislands become dome-shaped upon annealing through a coarsening process mediated by Oswald ripening. The room temperature photoluminescence peaks for both as-grown 3.29 eV) and annealed 3.19 eV) samples consist of high intensity and broad emission, attributed to the effect of quantum confinement. The red shift (∼0.10 eV) of the emission peak is attributed to the change in the size of the Ge nanoislands caused by annealing. Our easy fabrication method may contribute to the development of Ge nanostructure-based optoelectronics. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  17. Nanoscale compositional analysis of NiTi shape memory alloy films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S. K.; Mohan, S. [Centre for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India); Bysakh, S. [Central Glass and Ceramics Research Institute, Kolkata-700032 (India); Kumar, A.; Kamat, S. V. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad-500058 (India)

    2013-11-15

    The formation of surface oxide layer as well as compositional changes along the thickness for NiTi shape memory alloy thin films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering at substrate temperature of 300 °C in the as-deposited condition as well as in the postannealed (at 600 °C) condition have been thoroughly studied by using secondary ion mass spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy techniques. Formation of titanium oxide (predominantly titanium dioxide) layer was observed in both as-deposited and postannealed NiTi films, although the oxide layer was much thinner (8 nm) in as-deposited condition. The depletion of Ti and enrichment of Ni below the oxide layer in postannealed films also resulted in the formation of a graded microstructure consisting of titanium oxide, Ni{sub 3}Ti, and B2 NiTi. A uniform composition of B2 NiTi was obtained in the postannealed film only below a depth of 200–250 nm from the surface. Postannealed film also exhibited formation of a ternary silicide (Ni{sub x}Ti{sub y}Si) at the film–substrate interface, whereas no silicide was seen in the as-deposited film. The formation of silicide also caused a depletion of Ni in the film in a region ∼250–300 nm just above the film substrate interface.

  18. Magnetron sputtered TiN thin films toward enhanced performance supercapacitor electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Binbin; Liang, Hanfeng; Zhang, Dongfang; Qi, Zhengbing; Shen, Hao; Wang, Zhoucheng

    2018-01-01

    Supercapacitors as a new type of energy storage devices bridging the gap between conventional capacitors and batteries have aroused widespread concern. Herein, binder-free titanium nitride (TiN) thin film electrodes for supercapacitors prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering technology are reported. The effect of N2 content on the supercapacitor performance is evaluated. A highest specific capacitance of 27.3 mF cm−2 at a current density of 1.0 mA cm−2, together with excellent cycling performance (98.2% capacitance retention after 20,000 cycles at 2.0 mA cm−2) is achieved in a 0.5 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. More importantly, a symmetric supercapacitor device assembled on the basis of TiN thin films can deliver a maximum energy density of 17.6 mWh cm−3 at a current density of 0.2 mA cm−2 and a maximum power density of 10.8 W cm−3 at a current density of 2 mA cm−2 with remarkable cycling stability. As a consequence, TiN thin films demonstrate great potential as promising supercapacitor electrode materials.

  19. Nanostructured multilayers of TiN/ZrN obtained by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caicedo A., J.C. [CDT ASTIN, SENA Regional Valle, Cali (Colombia); Grupo de Peliculas Delgadas, Universidad del Valle (Colombia); Centro de Excelencia en Nuevos Materiales, CENM, Universidad del Valle (Colombia); Bejarano G., G. [CDT ASTIN, SENA Regional Valle, Cali (Colombia); Group of Corrosion and Protection, Antioquia University, Medellin (Colombia); Gomez, M.E. [Grupo de Peliculas Delgadas, Universidad del Valle (Colombia); Centro de Excelencia en Nuevos Materiales, CENM, Universidad del Valle (Colombia); Prieto, P. [Centro de Excelencia en Nuevos Materiales, CENM, Universidad del Valle (Colombia); Cortez, C.; Munoz, J. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del CINVESTAV-IPN, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In order to find an industrial application for thin films of TiN and ZrN monolayers, as well as TiN/ZrN multilayers were deposited onto silicon (100) and AISI 5160 steel substrates by r.f. (13.56 MHz) multi-target magnetron sputtering from high-purity (99.5%) Ti and (99.5%) Zr targets in an Ar (93%)/N{sub 2} (7%) gas mixture. For their deposition, we applied a substrate bias voltage of -100 V and a target power of 350 W. The films were deposited at a pressure of 6x10{sup -3} mbar and a temperature of 250 C. The structure, composition, morphology, and topography were characterized by, XRD, FTIR, SEM, AFM, and optical microscopy. Mechanical properties like hardness and elastic modulus were determined by Nanoindentation. Hardness and elastic modulus of the films increased proportionally to the number of bilayers. Finally, cutting tools were coated with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 bilayers of TiN/ZrN. Cutting tests on paper blades were conducted. Increased cut quality performance was observed for cutting tools coated with 8 bilayers, as compared to uncoated tools. This work opens the possibility to use coated AISI 5160 as cutting tools for the paper industry, reducing the import of expensive high-quality tool steel. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Low friction coefficient coatings Ni-Cr by magnetron sputtering, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Hernandez, J.; Mandujano-Ruiz, A.; Torres-Gonzalez, J.; Espinosa-Beltran, F. J.; Herrera-Hernandez, H.

    2015-07-01

    Magnetron Sputter Deposition technique with DC was used for the deposition of Ni-Cr coatings on AISI 316 SS like substrate. The cathode with a nominal composition Ni-22 at% Cr was prepared by Mechanical Alloying (MA) technique, with a maximum milling time of 16 hours and, with a high energy SPEX 8000 mill. The coatings were made under Argon atmosphere at room temperature with a power of 100 W at different times of growth. Chemical composition, microstructure, topography, nano hardness and wear of the coatings were evaluated using the techniques of microanalysis by energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Nano-indentation and pin-on-Disk, respectively. After milling, was not detected contamination in the mixtures. XRD analysis revealed that the microstructure of the Ni-Cr alloy was maintained in the coatings with respect to MA powders, with some degree of recrystallization. Nano hardness values were in the order of 8.8 GPa with a Youngs modulus of 195 GPa. The adhesion of the films was evaluated according to their resistance to fracture when these were indented at different loads using Vickers microhardness. The wear test results showed a decrease in the friction coefficient with respect to the increase of thickness films, getting a minimum value of 0.08 with a thickness of 1 μm and which correspond with the maximum growing time. (Author)

  1. Electrical and optical study of transparent V-based oxide semiconductors prepared by magnetron sputtering under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Prociow

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on structural, optical and electrical behaviors of vanadium-based oxide thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering under different conditions. Thin films have been deposited on glass substrates from metallic vanadium target at low sputtering pressure. Different working gases: argon/oxygen mixture, and especially pure oxygen gas, have been applied. Results of X-ray diffraction together with optical transmission and temperature- dependent electrical resistivity measurements have been presented. Transmission coefficient, cut-off wavelength and the width of the optical band gap have been calculated from optical measurements. The d.c. resistivity values at room temperature and thermal activation energy have been obtained from electrical investigations. The influence of sputtering process conditions on optical and electrical properties has been discussed.

  2. Comparative study of zinc oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide transparent thin films grown by direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchea, M.; Christoulakis, S.; Katsarakis, N.; Kitsopoulos, T.; Kiriakidis, G.

    2007-01-01

    Pure and aluminum (Al) doped zinc oxide (ZnO and ZAO) thin films have been grown using direct current (dc) magnetron sputtering from pure metallic Zn and ceramic ZnO targets, as well as from Al-doped metallic ZnAl2at.% and ceramic ZnAl2at.%O targets at room temperature (RT). The effects of target composition on the film's surface topology, crystallinity, and optical transmission have been investigated for various oxygen partial pressures in the sputtering atmosphere. It has been shown that Al-doped ZnO films sputtered from either metallic or ceramic targets exhibit different surface morphology than the undoped ZnO films, while their preferential crystalline growth orientation revealed by X-ray diffraction remains always the (002). More significantly, Al-doping leads to a larger increase of the optical transmission and energy gap (E g ) of the metallic than of the ceramic target prepared films

  3. The influence of target oxygen on the YBa2Cu3O6+δ DC Magnetron sputtering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, G.; Selinder, T.I.; Helmersson, U

    1990-01-01

    The oxygen partial pressure and the target potential have been monitored under a range of process conditions during single target dc magnetron sputtering of Y-Ba-Cu-O. The introduced sputtering gas consisted in all but one instance of pure argon and hence the oxygen present in the plasma originated mainly from the target. During the first hours of sputtering the oxygen partial pressure was of the same magnitude as the argon pressure (3.0 Pa). As the oxygen was released from the target and subsequently removed by pumping, the target potential increased and the film composition became more stoichiometric. After 30-40 hours of sputtering the target potential and the oxygen pressure stabilized and the film composition was equal to that of the stoichiometric target. If an oxygen flow exceeding a critical level was mixed into the sputtering gas the target potential and the deposition rate decreased swiftly. This was due to target oxidation, further manifested in changing plasma and target colours. In some instances the stabilization after 'presputtering' was incomplete and oscillations in target voltage and oxygen partial pressure were observed. The fluctuations made it virtually impossible to obtain stoichiometric films. The oscillative behaviour of the sputtering process is tentatively explained by a target temperature dependent oxygen diffusion. (au)

  4. Pulsed Power Generators For Two-section Lia Relativistic Magnetron Driver

    CERN Document Server

    Agafonov, A V; Pevchev, V P

    2004-01-01

    Two prototypes of pulsed power generators for a two-sectional LIA - specialized driver of a relativistic magnetron were constructed and tested. The driver for the double-sided powering of a relativistic magnetron consists of two identical sets of induction modules (two sections of LIA) with inner electrodes - vacuum adders connected to both sides of a coaxial magnetron. It provides the symmetric power flowing in a magnetron and a possibility of localising of the electron flow in magnetron interaction region. The first generator designed for a small-scale laboratory installation provides the output pulses of 100 ns in duration with voltage amplitude of 50 kV at repetition rate of 1 pps. The construction of the generator is based on the application of experimental capacitor banks designed as a pulse forming line with the next parameters: charging voltage - 80 kV, impedance - 1,7 Ohm, pulse duration - 80 ns at a matched load. The second generator was designed for 1 MV integrated LIA - magnetron system. It cons...

  5. Comparative study of nanocomposites prepared by pulsed and dc sputtering combined with plasma polymerization suitable for photovoltaic device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Amreen A. [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam (India); Pal, Arup R., E-mail: arpal@iasst.gov.in [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam (India); Kar, Rajib [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Bailung, Heremba; Chutia, Joyanti [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam (India); Patil, Dinkar S. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2014-12-15

    Plasma processing, a single step method for production of large area composite films, is employed to deposit plasma polymerized aniline-Titanium dioxide (PPani-TiO{sub 2}) nanocomposite thin films. The deposition of PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films are made using reactive magnetron sputtering and plasma polymerization combined process. This study focuses on the direct comparison between continuous and pulsed dc magnetron sputtering techniques of titanium in combination with rf plasma polymerization of aniline. The deposited PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films are characterized and discussed in terms of structural, morphological and optical properties. A self powered hybrid photodetector has been developed by plasma based process. The proposed method provides a new route where the self-assembly of molecules, that is, the spontaneous association of atomic or molecular building blocks under plasma environment, emerge as a successful strategy to form well-defined structural and morphological units of nanometer dimensions. - Highlights: • PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite by pulsed and dc sputtering with rf plasma polymerization. • In-situ and Ex-situ H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} doping in PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite. • PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite based self-powered-hybrid photodetector.

  6. Comparative study of nanocomposites prepared by pulsed and dc sputtering combined with plasma polymerization suitable for photovoltaic device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Amreen A.; Pal, Arup R.; Kar, Rajib; Bailung, Heremba; Chutia, Joyanti; Patil, Dinkar S.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma processing, a single step method for production of large area composite films, is employed to deposit plasma polymerized aniline-Titanium dioxide (PPani-TiO 2 ) nanocomposite thin films. The deposition of PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite films are made using reactive magnetron sputtering and plasma polymerization combined process. This study focuses on the direct comparison between continuous and pulsed dc magnetron sputtering techniques of titanium in combination with rf plasma polymerization of aniline. The deposited PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite films are characterized and discussed in terms of structural, morphological and optical properties. A self powered hybrid photodetector has been developed by plasma based process. The proposed method provides a new route where the self-assembly of molecules, that is, the spontaneous association of atomic or molecular building blocks under plasma environment, emerge as a successful strategy to form well-defined structural and morphological units of nanometer dimensions. - Highlights: • PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite by pulsed and dc sputtering with rf plasma polymerization. • In-situ and Ex-situ H 2 SO 4 doping in PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite. • PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite based self-powered-hybrid photodetector

  7. Dielectric properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasanna, S. [Thin Film Center, Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 004 (India); Mohan Rao, G. [Department of Instrumentation, Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore, 560 012 (India); Jayakumar, S., E-mail: s_jayakumar_99@yahoo.com [Thin Film Center, Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 004 (India); Kannan, M.D. [Thin Film Center, Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 004 (India); Ganesan, V. [Low Temperature Lab, UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research (CSR), Indore, 452 017 (India)

    2012-01-31

    Alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films were sputter deposited over well-cleaned glass and Si < 100 > substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering under various oxygen gas pressures and sputtering powers. The composition of the films was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and an optimal O/Al atomic ratio of 1.59 was obtained at a reactive gas pressure of 0.03 Pa and sputtering power of 70 W. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the films were amorphous until 550 Degree-Sign C. The surface morphology of the films was studied using scanning electron microscopy and the as-deposited films were found to be smooth. The topography of the as-deposited and annealed films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and a progressive increase in the rms roughness of the films from 3.2 nm to 4.53 nm was also observed with increase in the annealing temperature. Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al thin film capacitors were then fabricated on glass substrates to study the effect of temperature and frequency on the dielectric property of the films. Temperature coefficient of capacitance, AC conductivity and activation energy were determined and the results are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films were found to be amorphous up to annealing temperature of 550 C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An increase in rms roughness of the films was observed with annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al thin film capacitors were fabricated and dielectric constant was 7.5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The activation energy decreased with increase in frequency.

  8. Structural investigation of ZnO:Al films deposited on the Si substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.Y.; Yang, J.R.; Cheng, S.L.; Shiojiri, M.

    2013-01-01

    ZnO:Al films 400 nm thick were prepared on (100) Si substrates by magnetron sputtering. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that in the initial stage of the deposition, an amorphous silicon oxide layer about 4 nm thick formed from damage to the Si substrate due to sputtered particle bombardment and the incorporation of Si atoms with oxygen. Subsequently, a crystalline Si (Zn) layer about 30 nm thick grew on the silicon oxide layer by co-deposition of Si atoms sputtered away from the substrate with Zn atoms from the target. Finally, a ZnO:Al film with columnar grains was deposited on the Si (Zn) layer. The sputtered particle bombardment greatly influenced the structure of the object films. The (0001) lattice fringes of the ZnO:Al film were observed in high-resolution TEM images, and the forbidden 0001 reflection spots in electron diffraction patterns were attributed to double diffraction. Therefore, the appearance of the forbidden reflection did not imply any ordering of Al atoms and/or O vacancies in the ZnO:Al film. - Highlights: • ZnO:Al films were deposited on (100) Si substrate using magnetron sputtering. • An amorphous silicon oxide layer with a thickness of 4 nm was formed on Si substrate. • Crystalline Si (Zn) layer about 30 nm thick grew on amorphous silicon oxide layer. • ZnO:Al film comprising columnar grains was deposited on the Si(Zn) layer. • Lattice image of the ZnO:Al film has been interpreted

  9. Physical–chemical and biological behavior of an amorphous calcium phosphate thin film produced by RF-magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Euler A. dos; Moldovan, Simona; Mateescu, Mihaela; Faerber, Jacques; Acosta, Manuel; Pelletier, Hervé; Anselme, Karine; Werckmann, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluates the thermal reactivity and the biological reactivity of an amorphous calcium phosphate thin film produced by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering onto titanium substrates. The analyses showed that the sputtering conditions used in this work led to the deposition of an amorphous calcium phosphate. The thermal treatment of this amorphous coating in the presence of H 2 O and CO 2 promoted the formation of a carbonated HA crystalline coating with the entrance of CO 3 2− ions into the hydroxyl HA lattice. When immersed in culture medium, the amorphous and carbonated coatings exhibited a remarkable instability. The presence of proteins increased the dissolution process, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. Moreover, the carbonated HA coating induced precipitation independently of the presence of proteins under dynamic conditions. Despite this surface instability, this reactive calcium phosphate significantly improved the cellular behavior. The cell proliferation was higher on the Ticp than on the calcium phosphate coatings, but the two coatings increased cellular spreading and stress fiber formation. In this sense, the presence of reactive calcium phosphate coatings can stimulate cellular behavior. - Highlights: ► Functionalization of Ti with reactive CaP thin film by RF-magnetron sputtering. ► De-hydroxylation facilitating the insertion of CO 3 2− into the HA lattice. ► High surface reactivity in the presence of culture medium. ► Cell behavior improved by the presence of reactive films.

  10. Characterization of aluminum/aluminum nitride coatings sputter deposited using the pulsed-gas process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, R.W.; Hosford, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    A dc triode magnetron has been used to produce freestanding Al/Al + AlN lamellar foils by sputter deposition. The 5-μm-thick foils produced on both flat substrates as well as curved substrates exhibited good specularity as well as excellent mechanical properties. The pulse spacing was varied from none to 100-nm spacing. The yield strength of the material was found to obey the Hall-Petch relation sigma/sub ys/ = 230 + .07/d/sup 1/2/, where sigma/sub ys/ is in MPa. Auger electron Spectroscopy and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy indicate that the large flow stress of 230 MPa must be due to grain refinement of the extended source and not an impurity effect. The result is that limitations of masking found in uniaxial flux sources for curved surfaces can be removed allowing the high quality coating of more general shapes

  11. Microstructure and tribological properties of NbN-Ag composite films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Hongbo; Xu, Junhua, E-mail: jhxu@just.edu.cn

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • NbN-Ag films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. • The fcc-NbN, hcp-NbN and fcc-Ag coexisted in NbN-Ag films. • The incorporation of Ag into NbN matrix led to the decrease of hardness. • The films (9.2–13.5 at.% Ag) were found to be optimized for wear resistance tools. - Abstract: Recently, the chameleon thin films were developed with the purpose of adjusting their chemistry at self-mating interfaces in response to environmental changes at a wide temperature range. However, very few studies have focused on what state the lubricious noble metal exists in the films and the tribological properties at room temperature (RT). Composite NbN-Ag films with various Ag content (Ag/(Nb + Ag)) were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering to investigate the crystal structure, mechanical and tribological properties. A combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analyses showed that face-centered cubic (fcc) NbN, hexagonal close-packed (hcp) NbN and fcc silver coexisted in NbN-Ag films. The incorporation of soft Ag into NbN matrix led to the hardness decrease from 29.6 GPa at 0 at.% Ag to 11.3 GPa at 19.9 at.% Ag. Tribological properties of NbN-Ag films performed using dry pin-on-disc wear tests against Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} depended on Ag content to a large extent. The average friction coefficient and wear rate of NbN-Ag films decreased as Ag content increased from 4.0 to 9.2 at.%. With a further increase of Ag content, the average friction coefficient further decreased, while the wear rate increased gradually. The optimal Ag content was found to be 9.2–13.5 at.%, which showed low average friction coefficient values of 0.46–0.40 and wear rate values of 1.1 × 10{sup −8} to 1.7 × 10{sup −8} mm{sup 3}/(mm N). 3D Profiler and Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed that the lubricant tribo-film AgNbO{sub 3} detected on the surface of the

  12. Low friction coefficient coatings Ni-Cr by magnetron sputtering, DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Hernández, Jorge

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetron Sputter Deposition technique with DC was used for the deposition of Ni-Cr coatings on AISI 316 SS like substrate. The cathode with a nominal composition Ni-22 at% Cr was prepared by Mechanical Alloying (MA technique, with a maximum milling time of 16 hours and, with a high energy SPEX 8000 mill. The coatings were made under Argon atmosphere at room temperature with a power of 100 W at different times of growth. Chemical composition, microstructure, topography, nanohardness and wear of the coatings were evaluated using the techniques of microanalysis by energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, Nano-indentation and pin-on-Disk, respectively. After milling, was not detected contamination in the mixtures. XRD analysis revealed that the microstructure of the Ni-Cr alloy was maintained in the coatings with respect to MA powders, with some degree of recrystallization. Nanohardness values were in the order of 8.8 GPa with a Young’s modulus of 195 GPa. The adhesion of the films was evaluated according to their resistance to fracture when these were indented at different loads using Vickers microhardness. The wear test results showed a decrease in the friction coefficient with respect to the increase of thickness’ films, getting a minimum value of 0.08 with a thickness of 1 μm and which correspond with the maximum growing time.La técnica de Deposición por Chisporroteo Magnético (Magnetron Sputtering con el proceso DC, fue usado para la deposición de los recubrimientos de Ni-Cr sobre acero inoxidable AISI 316 como sustrato. El cátodo con una composición nominal Ni-22 at% Cr fue preparado por la técnica de Aleado Mecánico (AM, con un tiempo máximo de molienda de 16 horas y con un molino de alta energía tipo SPEX 8000. Las películas se realizaron bajo una atmósfera de argón a temperatura ambiente con una potencia de 100 W a diferentes tiempos de crecimiento. La composición qu

  13. Photoluminescence of Mg{sub 2}Si films fabricated by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Yang-Fang [Institute of Advanced Optoelectronic Materials and Technology of College of BigData and Information Engineering of Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Science of Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001 (China); Xie, Quan, E-mail: qxie@gzu.edu.cn [Institute of Advanced Optoelectronic Materials and Technology of College of BigData and Information Engineering of Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Xiao, Qing-Quan [Institute of Advanced Optoelectronic Materials and Technology of College of BigData and Information Engineering of Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Engineering Center for Avionics Electrical and Information Network of Guizhou Provincial Colleges and Universities, Anshun 561000 (China); Chen, Qian; Fan, Meng-Hui [Institute of Advanced Optoelectronic Materials and Technology of College of BigData and Information Engineering of Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Xie, Jing [Institute of Advanced Optoelectronic Materials and Technology of College of BigData and Information Engineering of Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Science of Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001 (China); Huang, Jin; Zhang, Jin-Min; Ma, Rui; Wang, Shan-Lan; Wu, Hong-Xian; Fang, Di [Institute of Advanced Optoelectronic Materials and Technology of College of BigData and Information Engineering of Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • High quality Mg{sub 2}Si films were grown on Si (111) and glass substrates with magnetron sputtering, respectively. • The first observation of Photoluminescence (PL) of Mg{sub 2}Si films was reported. • The Mg{sub 2}Si PL emission wavelengths are almost independence on temperature in the range of 77–300 K. • The strongest PL emissions may be attributed to interstitial Mg donor level to valence band transitions. • The activation energy of Mg{sub 2}Si is determined from the quenching of major luminescence peaks. - Abstract: To understand the photoluminescence mechanisms and optimize the design of Mg{sub 2}Si-based light-emitting devices, Mg{sub 2}Si films were fabricated on silicon (111) and glass substrates by magnetron sputtering technique, and the influences of different substrates on the photoelectric properties of Mg{sub 2}Si films were investigated systematically. The crystal structure, cross-sectional morphology, composition ratios and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) of the Mg{sub 2}Si films were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and PL measurement system, respectively. XRD results indicate that the Mg{sub 2}Si film on Si (111) displays polycrystalline structure, whereas Mg{sub 2}Si film on glass substrate is of like-monocrystalline structure.SEM results show that Mg{sub 2}Si film on glass substrate is very compact with a typical dense columnar structure, and the film on Si substrate represents slight delamination phenomenon. EDS results suggest that the stoichiometry of Mg and Si is approximately 2:1. Photoluminescence (PL) of Mg{sub 2}Si films was observed for the first time. The PL emission wavelengths of Mg{sub 2}Si are almost independence on temperature in the range of 77–300 K. The PL intensity decreases gradually with increasing temperature. The PL intensity of Mg{sub 2}Si films on glass substrate is much larger than that of Mg

  14. Time-resolved investigation of an asymmetric bipolar pulsed magnetron deposition discharge: Influence of pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunger, Th.; Welzel, Th.; Welzel, S.; Richter, F.

    2005-01-01

    A bipolar pulsed magnetron deposition discharge has been studied with pulse frequencies of 100 and 150 kHz, respectively. The discharge was operated in an argon/oxygen mixture at different total pressures with a circular magnesium target as cathode. Time-resolved Langmuir double probe measurements

  15. Oxidation resistance of CrN/(Cr,V)N hard coatings deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panjan, P., E-mail: peter.panjan@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drnovšek, A.; Kovač, J.; Gselman, P. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Bončina, T. [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Paskvale, S.; Čekada, M.; Kek Merl, D.; Panjan, M. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-09-30

    In recent years vanadium-doped hard coatings have become available as possible candidates for self-lubrication at high temperatures. Their low coefficient of friction has mainly been attributed to the formation of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase. However, the formation of vanadium oxides must be controlled by the out-diffusion of vanadium in order to achieve the combination of a low coefficient of friction and good mechanical properties for the protective coatings. In this work the application of a nanolayer of CrN/(Cr,V)N hard coating was proposed as a way to better control the out-diffusion of vanadium, while the topmost chromium oxide layer acts as barrier for the vanadium diffusion. However, the aim of this investigation was not only to focus on the formation of the oxide layer. Special attention was given to the oxidation process that takes place at the growth defects, where we observed a strong diffusion of vanadium taking place. The CrN/(Cr,V)N nanolayer coatings were deposited by DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering in an CC800/9 (CemeCon) industrial unit. The vanadium concentration in the (Cr,V)N layers was varied in the range 1.0–11.5 at.%. - Highlights: • Oxidation processes of CrN/(Cr,V)N nanolayers with vanadium content were investigated. • The CrN/(Cr,V)N hard layers were oxidized at high temperature in O2 atm. • The top chromium oxide layer acts as a diffusion barrier for vanadium ions during oxidation. • Important role of growth defects during the oxidation process is demonstrated.

  16. Stress anisotropy and stress gradient in magnetron sputtered films with different deposition geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Z.B.; Yalisove, S.M.; Bilello, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Mo films were deposited via magnetron sputtering with two different deposition geometries: dynamic deposition (moving substrate) and static deposition (fixed substrate). The residual stress and structural morphologies of these films were investigated, with particular focus on in-plane anisotropy of the biaxial stress and stress gradient across the film thickness. The results revealed that the Mo films developed distinct states of residual stress, which depended on both deposition geometry and film thickness. With the dynamic geometry, the Mo films generally exhibited anisotropic stress. Both the degree of anisotropy and the magnitude of stress varied as functions of film thickness. The variation of stress was linked to the evolution of anisotropic microstructures in the films. The Mo films from the static geometry developed isotropic residual stress, which was more compressive and noticeably larger in magnitude than that of the Mo films from the dynamic geometry. Aside from these disparities, the two types of Mo films (i.e., anisotropic and isotropic) exhibited notably similar trends of stress variation with film thickness. Depth profiling indicated the presence of large stress gradients for the Mo films, irrespective of the deposition geometries. This observation seems to be consistent with the premise that Mo films develop a zone T structure, which is inherently inhomogeneous along the film thickness. Moreover, the largest stress gradient for both types of deposition geometries arises at roughly the same film depth (∼240 nm from substrate), where the stresses sharply transits from highly compressive to less compressive or even tensile. This appears to correspond to the boundary region that separates two distinct stages of microstructural evolution, a feature unique to zone T-type structure

  17. Constitution, microstructure, mechanical properties, and performance of magnetron-sputtered carbon films with additions of silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Materialforschung I, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Leiste, H.; Stueber, M.; Ulrich, S.; Holleck, H.

    2003-11-01

    Amorphous carbon films with additions of silicon were deposited by non-reactive magnetron sputtering on WC-Co hard metal and on silicon substrates. The targets were hot-pressed, homogenous mixtures of graphite and silicon carbide powder. Additional argon ion bombardment of the growing film was applied by a substrate bias varied between 0V and -800 V. The deposited amorphous carbon films with two different silicon contents (5 at.% and 23 at.% respectively) were characterised with respect to their microstructure, density, thickness, residual stress, Vickers hardness, Young's modulus, critical load of failure, friction coefficient, and wear behaviour. The residual stress of the carbon films could be remarkably lowered by silicon additions (23 at.%). The hardness reached high values (2200 HV0.05) and the friction coefficient for unlubricated sliding friction against a steel (1.3505) counterpart was as low as 0.06. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Amorphe Kohlenstoffschichten mit Zusaetzen von Silizium wurden nichtreaktiv durch Magnetronzerstaeubung auf Substraten aus WC-Co Hartmetall und Silizium abgeschieden. Die neuartigen Targets wurden durch Heisspressen einer homogenen Mischung aus Graphit- und Siliziumcarbidpulver hergestellt. Durch Anlegen einer elektrischen Substratvorspannung von 0 V bis -800 V wurden die aufwachsenden Schichten zusaetzlich mit Argonionen unterschiedlicher Energie beschossen. Die abgeschiedenen amorphen Kohlenstoffschichten mit Zusaetzen von Silizium (5 at% bzw. 23 at%) wurden hinsichtlich Struktur, Dichte, Dicke, Eigenspannungen, Vickershaerte, reduziertem Elastizitaetsmodul, kritischer Last des Versagens im Ritztest, Reibwert und Verschleissverhalten untersucht. Fuer Schichten mit hohem Siliziumgehalt (23 at%) erfolgte eine erhebliche Reduzierung der Eigenspannung, die Haerte wurde bei sehr hohen Werten stabilisiert (2200 HV0,05) und der Reibungskoeffizient fuer ungeschmierte Gleitreibung gegen Stahl (1

  18. Structure and giant magnetoresistance of carbon-based amorphous films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.; He, M.F.; Liu, Z.W.; Zeng, D.C.; Gu, Z.F.; Cheng, G.

    2014-01-01

    Pure amorphous carbon (a-C) and Co-doped Co x C 1−x films were prepared on n-Si(100) substrates by dc magnetron sputtering. In Co–C films, the nano-sized amorphous Co particles were homogeneously dispersed in the amorphous cross-linked carbon matrix. The structures of a-C and Co x C 1−x films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the a-C films were diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. After doping cobalt into DLC film, the sp 3 -hybridized carbon content in DLC composite films almost had no change. The as-deposited Co x C 1−x granular films had larger value of magnetoresistance (MR) than the amorphous carbon film. A very high positive MR, up to 15.5% at magnetic field B = 0.8 T and x = 2.5 at.% was observed in a Co x C 1−x granular film with thickness of 80 nm at room temperature when the external magnetic field was perpendicular to the electric current and the film surface. With increase of the film thickness and Co-doped content, the MR decreased gradually. It remains a challenge to well explain the observed MR effect in the Co x C 1−x granular films. - Highlights: • The amorphous carbon films were diamond-like carbon films. • No carbide appearing, the Co–C composite films form a good metal/insulator system. • A high positive magnetoresistance, up to 15.5% at B = 0.8 T was observed in Co–C films

  19. Chemical and Morphological Characterization of Magnetron Sputtered at Different Bias Voltages Cr-Al-C Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei Obrosov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available MAX phases (M = transition metal, A = A-group element, and X = C/N are of special interest because they possess a unique combination of the advantages of both metals and ceramics. Most attention is attracted to the ternary carbide Cr2AlC because of its excellent high-temperature oxidation, as well as hot corrosion resistance. Despite lots of publications, up to now the influence of bias voltage on the chemical bonding structure, surface morphology, and mechanical properties of the film is still not well understood. In the current study, Cr-Al-C films were deposited on silicon wafers (100 and Inconel 718 super alloy by dc magnetron sputtering with different substrate bias voltages and investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, and nanoindentation. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM was used to analyze the correlation between the growth of the films and the coating microstructure. The XPS results confirm the presence of Cr2AlC MAX phase due to a negative shift of 0.6–0.9 eV of the Al2p to pure aluminum carbide peak. The XRD results reveal the presence of Cr2AlC MAX Phase and carbide phases, as well as intermetallic AlCr2. The film thickness decreases from 8.95 to 6.98 µm with increasing bias voltage. The coatings deposited at 90 V exhibit the lowest roughness (33 nm and granular size (76 nm combined with the highest hardness (15.9 GPa. The ratio of Al carbide to carbide-like carbon state changes from 0.12 to 0.22 and correlates with the mechanical properties of the coatings. TEM confirms the columnar structure, with a nanocrystalline substructure, of the films.

  20. Gas barrier properties of titanium oxynitride films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, M.-C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National ChungHsin University, 250, Kuo-Kung Road, 40227 Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, L.-S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National ChungHsin University, 250, Kuo-Kung Road, 40227 Taichung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: lschang@dragon.nchu.edu.tw; Lin, H.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, 106 Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2008-03-30

    Titanium oxynitride (TiN{sub x}O{sub y}) films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by means of a reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system in which the power density and substrate bias were the varied parameters. Experimental results show that the deposited TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films exhibited an amorphous or a columnar structure with fine crystalline dependent on power density. The deposition rate increases significantly in conjunction as the power density increases from 2 W/cm{sup 2} to 7 W/cm{sup 2}. The maximum deposition rate occurs, as the substrate bias is -40 V at a certain power densities chosen in this study. The film's roughness slightly decreases with increasing substrate bias. The TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films deposited at power densities above 4 W/cm{sup 2} show a steady Ti:N:O ratio of about 1:1:0.8. The water vapor and oxygen transmission rates of the TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films reach values as low as 0.98 g/m{sup 2}-day-atm and 0.60 cm{sup 3}/m{sup 2}-day-atm which are about 6 and 47 times lower than those of the uncoated PET substrate, respectively. These transmission rates are comparable to those of DLC, carbon-based and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} barrier films. Therefore, TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films are potential candidates to be used as a gas permeation barrier for PET substrate.

  1. C-axis orientated AlN films deposited using deep oscillation magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jianliang; Chistyakov, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly orientated AlN films were deposited by DOMS technique. • Controlled ion flux bombardment improved the texture and crystalline quality. • Excessive ion bombardment showed a detrimental effect on the c-axis orientation growth. • Improved c-axis alignment accompanied with stress relaxation with increasing film thickness. - Abstract: Highly c-axis orientated aluminum nitride (AlN) films were deposited on silicon (100) substrates by reactive deep oscillation magnetron sputtering (DOMS). No epitaxial favored bond layer and substrate heating were applied for assisting texture growth. The effects of the peak target current density (varied from 0.39 to 0.8 Acm"−"2) and film thickness (varied from 0.25 to 3.3 μm) on the c-axis orientation, microstructure, residual stress and mechanical properties of the AlN films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction rocking curve methodology, transmission electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and nanoindentation. All AlN films exhibited a preferred orientation and compressive residual stresses. At similar film thicknesses, an increase in the peak target current density to 0.53 Acm"−"2 improved the orientation. Further increasing the peak target current density to above 0.53 Acm"−"2 showed limited contribution to the texture development. The study also showed that an increase in the thickness of the AlN films deposited by DOMS improved the c-axis alignment accompanied with a reduction in the residual stress.

  2. C-axis orientated AlN films deposited using deep oscillation magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jianliang, E-mail: Jianliang.lin@swri.org [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Chistyakov, Roman [Zpulser LLC, Mansfield, MA 02048 (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Highly <0001> orientated AlN films were deposited by DOMS technique. • Controlled ion flux bombardment improved the <0001> texture and crystalline quality. • Excessive ion bombardment showed a detrimental effect on the c-axis orientation growth. • Improved c-axis alignment accompanied with stress relaxation with increasing film thickness. - Abstract: Highly <0001> c-axis orientated aluminum nitride (AlN) films were deposited on silicon (100) substrates by reactive deep oscillation magnetron sputtering (DOMS). No epitaxial favored bond layer and substrate heating were applied for assisting texture growth. The effects of the peak target current density (varied from 0.39 to 0.8 Acm{sup −2}) and film thickness (varied from 0.25 to 3.3 μm) on the c-axis orientation, microstructure, residual stress and mechanical properties of the AlN films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction rocking curve methodology, transmission electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and nanoindentation. All AlN films exhibited a <0001> preferred orientation and compressive residual stresses. At similar film thicknesses, an increase in the peak target current density to 0.53 Acm{sup −2} improved the <0001> orientation. Further increasing the peak target current density to above 0.53 Acm{sup −2} showed limited contribution to the texture development. The study also showed that an increase in the thickness of the AlN films deposited by DOMS improved the c-axis alignment accompanied with a reduction in the residual stress.

  3. Oxidation resistance of CrN/(Cr,V)N hard coatings deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panjan, P.; Drnovšek, A.; Kovač, J.; Gselman, P.; Bončina, T.; Paskvale, S.; Čekada, M.; Kek Merl, D.; Panjan, M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years vanadium-doped hard coatings have become available as possible candidates for self-lubrication at high temperatures. Their low coefficient of friction has mainly been attributed to the formation of the V_2O_5 phase. However, the formation of vanadium oxides must be controlled by the out-diffusion of vanadium in order to achieve the combination of a low coefficient of friction and good mechanical properties for the protective coatings. In this work the application of a nanolayer of CrN/(Cr,V)N hard coating was proposed as a way to better control the out-diffusion of vanadium, while the topmost chromium oxide layer acts as barrier for the vanadium diffusion. However, the aim of this investigation was not only to focus on the formation of the oxide layer. Special attention was given to the oxidation process that takes place at the growth defects, where we observed a strong diffusion of vanadium taking place. The CrN/(Cr,V)N nanolayer coatings were deposited by DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering in an CC800/9 (CemeCon) industrial unit. The vanadium concentration in the (Cr,V)N layers was varied in the range 1.0–11.5 at.%. - Highlights: • Oxidation processes of CrN/(Cr,V)N nanolayers with vanadium content were investigated. • The CrN/(Cr,V)N hard layers were oxidized at high temperature in O2 atm. • The top chromium oxide layer acts as a diffusion barrier for vanadium ions during oxidation. • Important role of growth defects during the oxidation process is demonstrated.

  4. Structural and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broitman, E.; Hellgren, N.; Czigany, Zs.; Twesten, R.D.; Luning, J.; Petrov, I.; Hultman, L.; Holloway, B.C.

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure, morphology, and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering were investigated for microelectromechanical systems applications. Film properties were found to vary markedly with the ion energy (E ion ) and ion-to-carbon flux ratio (J ion /J C ). Cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed an amorphous microstructure. However, the presence of nanometer-sized domains at E ion ∼85 eV was detected. Film stresses, σ, which were compressive in all cases, ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 GPa and depended on the flux ratio as well as ion energy. The hardness (H), Young's moduli (ε), and elastic recovery (R) increased with E ion to maximum values of H=27 GPa, ε=250 GPa, and R=68% at E ion =85 eV and J ion /J C =4.4. However, near edge x-ray absorption fine structure and electron energy-loss spectrum analysis showed that the sp 2 /sp 3 content of the films does not change with E ion or J ion /J C . The measured change in mechanical properties without a corresponding change in sp 2 /sp 3 ratio is not consistent with any previously published models. We suggest that, in the ranges 5 eV ≤E ion ≤85 eV and 1.1 ≤J ion /J C ≤6.8, the presence of defective graphite formed by subplanted C and Ar atoms has the dominant influence on the mechanical properties of DLC films

  5. Surface free energy of CrN x films deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, C.-C.; Lee, S.-C.; Dai, S.-B.; Fu, Y.-S.; Wang, Y.-C.; Lee, Y.-H.

    2006-01-01

    CrN x thin films have attracted much attention for semiconductor IC packaging molding dies and forming tools due to their excellent hardness, thermal stability and non-sticking properties (low surface free energy). However, few data has been published on the surface free energy (SFE) of CrN x films at temperatures in the range 20-170 deg. C. In this study CrN x thin films with CrN, Cr(N), Cr 2 N (and mixture of these phases) were prepared using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering at a wide range of Cr +2 emission intensity. The contact angles of water, di-iodomethane and ethylene glycol on the coated surfaces were measured at temperatures in the range 20-170 deg. C using a Dataphysics OCA-20 contact angle analyzer. The surface free energy of the CrN x films and their components (e.g., dispersion, polar) were calculated using the Owens-Wendt geometric mean approach. The influences of CrN x film surface roughness and microstructure on the surface free energy were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The experimental results showed that the lowest total SFE was obtained corresponding to CrN at temperature in 20 deg. C. This is lower than that of Cr(N), Cr 2 N (and mixture of these phases). The total SFE, dispersive SFE and polar SFE of CrN x films decreased with increasing surface temperature. The film roughness has an obvious effect on the SFE and there is tendency for the SFE to increase with increasing film surface roughness

  6. Abnormal electrical resistivity in γ-TiAl thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, T.L.; Gadre, K.S.; Kim, H.C.; Deevi, S.C.

    2003-01-01

    Thin films of γ-TiAl are being considered as a potential conductor and/or diffusion barrier for high temperature electronics because of their high melting points and high oxidation resistance. However, it is not possible to form pure γ-TiAl thin films by thermal annealing of Al/Ti bilayers. This study, however, demonstrates the formation of γ-TiAl thin films by dc magnetron sputtering of a compound target. X-ray diffractometry and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analyses confirm the γ-TiAl phase formation, composition, and thermal stability in vacuum (up to 700 deg. C, 1 h) on SiO 2 . Four-point probe resistivity measurements in vacuum show an initial increase in the resistivity with temperature up to transition temperature for the γ-TiAl thin films. At higher temperatures a decrease in resistivity with additional heating (i.e., negative temperature coefficient of resistivity, TCR) is seen. The values of dρ/dT are typically on the order of -0.32 μΩ cm/ deg. C between 200 and 550 deg. C. At the highest temperature, a minimum value of resistivity of ∼13 μΩ cm is obtained; this value is about one half the value of bulk TiAl at room temperatures. The negative TCR, low resistivity values at high temperatures, and temperature stability are not typically seen in bulk TiAl. This abnormal electrical property is explained using a modified model for a thermally activated polaron-hopping mechanism

  7. Preparation and characterization of RF magnetron sputtered CuO/CaTi{sub 4}O{sub 9} thin films with enhanced third-order nonlinear optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Congfei; Liang, Xiaojuan, E-mail: lxj6126@126.com; Hu, Guangcai; Hu, Xie; Chen, Xipeng; Li, Pengzhi; Xiang, Weidong, E-mail: xiangweidong001@126.com

    2017-04-15

    The titanate, is a material of interest for various energy applications, including photovoltaics, catalysts, and high-rate energy storage devices. Herein, its related materials, CuO/CaTi{sub 4}O{sub 9} [CCTO] thin films, were successfully fabricated on SrTiO{sub 3} (100) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering assisted with subsequent oxygen annealing. This obtained CCTO thin films were then systemically studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scan electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). It was found that CuO and CaTi{sub 4}O{sub 9} (001) particles were closely accumulated together on the surface of the substrate in the annealing process after comparing with that of the as-prepared thin film, which was verified by SEM and AFM results. Furthermore, we investigated the third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of the as-prepared and annealed CCTO thin film by means of the Z-scan technique using 650 nm femtosecond laser pulse. Post-deposition oxygen annealing was found to modify the morphological characteristics of the films, resulting in enhancing their NLO properties. The observation of NLO performance of annealed CCTO thin film indicates that RF magnetron sputtering is a feasible method for the fabrication of optical thin films, which can be expanded to fabricate other NLO materials from the corresponding dispersions. Naturally, we concluded that the CCTO thin film occupy a better NLO property, and thus enlarge its application in nonlinear optics. - Highlights: • The CCTO thin film was prepared using the RF magnetron sputtering and oxygen annealing. • The film was prepared on the SrTiO{sub 3}(100) substrates with a Ca{sub 2}CuO{sub 3} target. • The oxygen annealing was found can effectively enhance the film quality and NLO property. • The film was characterized using XPS, SEM, AFM, TEM, XRD and Z-scan techniques.

  8. Development of natively textured surface hydrogenated Ga-doped ZnO-TCO thin films for solar cells via magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fei; Chen, Xin-liang; Geng, Xin-hua; Zhang, De-kun; Wei, Chang-chun; Huang, Qian; Zhang, Xiao-dan; Zhao, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Natively textured surface hydrogenated gallium-doped zinc oxide (HGZO) thin films have been deposited via magnetron sputtering on glass substrates. ► The directly deposited HGZO thin films present rough crater-type surface morphology. ► Typical HGZO thin film exhibits a high electron mobility of 41.3 cm 2 /V s and a relative low sheet resistance of ∼7.0 Ω. ► These HGZO thin films have high optical transmittances in the visible and near infrared region (∼380–1100 nm). ► A gradient H 2 growth method for fabricating HGZO thin films has been proposed in magnetron sputtering process. - Abstract: The main purposes are to obtain high quality transparent conductive oxide (TCO) based on zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with high optical transparency in the visible and near infrared spectral range, high electrical conductivity and good light-scattering capability to enhance the path of the light inside the Si-based thin film solar cells. Natively textured surface hydrogenated gallium-doped ZnO (HGZO) thin films have been deposited via pulsed direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering on glass substrates at a substrate temperature of 553 K. These natively textured HGZO thin films exhibit high optical transmittance (over 80%) in the visible and near infrared region (λ = 380–1100 nm) and excellent electrical properties. The optimized HGZO thin film with crater-type textured surface obtained at the hydrogen flow rate of ∼2.0 sccm exhibits a high electron mobility of 41.3 cm 2 /V s and a relatively low sheet resistance of ∼7.0 Ω. The influences of hydrogen flow rates on the surface morphology, electrical and optical properties of HGZO thin films were investigated in detail. In addition, we put forward a method of gradient H 2 growth technique for fabricating HGZO thin films so as to obtain rough surface structure with good light-scattering capability and high electrical conductivity. “Crater-like” surface feature size and optical transmittance

  9. Nanoscale Cu{sub 2}O films: Radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and structural and optical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudryashov, D. A., E-mail: kudryashovda@apbau.ru; Gudovskikh, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg National Research Academic University — Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation); Babichev, A. V.; Filimonov, A. V. [Connector Optics LLC (Russian Federation); Mozharov, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg National Research Academic University — Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation); Agekyan, V. F.; Borisov, E. V.; Serov, A. Yu.; Filosofov, N. G. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Nanoscale copper (I) oxide layers are formed by magnetron-assisted sputtering onto glassy and silicon substrates in an oxygen-free environment at room temperature, and the structural and optical properties of the layers are studied. It is shown that copper oxide formed on a silicon substrate exhibits a lower degree of disorder than that formed on a glassy substrate, which is supported by the observation of a higher intensity and a smaller half-width of reflections in the diffraction pattern. The highest intensity of reflections in the diffraction pattern is observed for Cu{sub 2}O films grown on silicon at a magnetron power of 150 W. The absorption and transmittance spectra of these Cu{sub 2}O films are in agreement with the well-known spectra of bulk crystals. In the Raman spectra of the films, phonons inherent in the crystal lattice of cubic Cu{sub 2}O crystals are identified.

  10. High-speed deposition of protective films of aluminium oxide by the method of reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaev, S.P.; Zakhrov, A.N.; Ladyzhenskii, O.P.; Sochugov, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    The high optical characteristics of aluminium films made them attractive for different functional and decorative applications. It is well-known that the corrosion resistance of alloying is determined by the presence of the oxide film on its surface, but on the aluminium films, deposited by vacuum methods, the resistance is extremely low resulting in the relatively rapid failure of the coating. At present, there is a large number of methods of depositing the films of aluminium oxide. In most cases, it is recommended to use reactive magnetron sputtering of an aluminium target in a magnetron spraying system (MSS) using direct current, on dispersion of the target of aluminium oxide in a high-frequency MSS

  11. Surface composition of magnetron sputtered Pt-Co thin film catalyst for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorokhta, Mykhailo, E-mail: vorohtam@gmail.com [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, V Holešovičkách 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Khalakhan, Ivan; Václavů, Michal [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, V Holešovičkách 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Kovács, Gábor; Kozlov, Sergey M. [Departament de Química Física and Institut de Química Teòrica i Computacional (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, c/ Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Kúš, Peter; Skála, Tomáš; Tsud, Natalia; Lavková, Jaroslava [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, V Holešovičkách 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Potin, Valerie [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Université Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); and others

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanostructured Pt-Co thin catalyst films were grown on carbon by magnetron sputtering. • The surface composition of the nanostructured Pt-Co films was investigated by surface analysis techniques. • We carried out modeling of Pt-Co nanoalloys by computational methods. • Both experiment and modeling based on density functional theory showed that the surface of Pt-Co nanoparticles is almost exclusively composed of Pt atoms. - Abstract: Recently we have tested a magnetron sputtered Pt-Co catalyst in a hydrogen-fed proton exchange membrane fuel cell and showed its high catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction. Here we present further investigation of the magnetron sputtered Pt-Co thin film catalyst by both experimental and theoretical methods. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy experiments confirmed the nanostructured character of the catalyst. The surface composition of as-deposited and annealed at 773 K Pt-Co films was investigated by surface analysis techniques, such as synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Modeling based on density functional theory showed that the surface of 6 nm large 1:1 Pt-Co nanoparticles is almost exclusively composed of Pt atoms (>90%) at typical operation conditions and the Co content does not exceed 20% at 773 K, in agreement with the experimental characterization of such films annealed in vacuum. According to experiment, the density of valence states of surface atoms in Pt-Co nanostructures is shifted by 0.3 eV to higher energies, which can be associated with their higher activity in the oxygen reduction reaction. The changes in electronic structure caused by alloying are also reflected in the measured Pt 4f, Co 3p and Co 2p photoelectron peak binding energies.

  12. Growth and characterization of a-axis oriented Cr-doped AlN films by DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, Padmalochan; Ramaseshan, R., E-mail: seshan@igcar.gov.in; Dash, S. [Materials Science Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India); Krishna, Nanda Gopala [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Wurtzite type Cr-doped AlN thin films were grown on Si (100) substrates using DC reactive magnetron sputtering with a function of N{sub 2} concentration (15 to 25%). Evolution of crystal structure of these films was studied by GIXRD where a-axis preferred orientation was observed. The electronic binding energy and concentration of Cr in these films were estimated by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). We have observed indentation hardness (H{sub IT}) of around 28.2 GPa for a nitrogen concentration of 25%.

  13. Characterization of ZnO:SnO{sub 2} (50:50) thin film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cynthia, S. R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Ponmudi, S. [Department of Physics, Alagappa Chettiar College of Engineering and Technology, Karaikudi-630004 (India); Sivakumar, R., E-mail: krsivakumar1979@yahoo.com [Directorate of Distance Education, Alagappa University, Karaikudi-630004 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films have attracted significant interest recently for use in optoelectronic application such as solar cells, flat panel displays, photonic devices, laser diodes and gas sensors because of their desirable electrical and optical properties and wide band gap. In the present study, thin films of ZnO:SnO{sub 2} (50:50) were deposited on pre-cleaned microscopic glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The substrate temperature and RF power induced changes in structural, surface morphological, compositional and optical properties of the films have been studied.

  14. Characterization and device applications of ZnO films deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, J. G.; Mayes, E. L. H.; McDougall, N. L.; Bilek, M. M. M.; McCulloch, D. G.

    2013-04-01

    ZnO films have been reactively deposited on sapphire substrates at 300 °C using a high impulse power magnetron sputtering deposition system and characterized structurally, optically and electronically. The unintentionally doped n-type ZnO films exhibit high transparency, moderate carrier concentration (˜5 × 1018 cm-3) and a Hall mobility of 8.0 cm2 V-1 s-1, making them suitable for electronic device applications. Pt/ZnO Schottky diodes formed on the HiPIMS deposited ZnO exhibited rectification ratios up to 104 at ±2 V and sensitivity to UV light.

  15. Effect of Ge Content on the Formation of Ge Nanoclusters in Magnetron-Sputtered GeZrOx-Based Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Khomenkova, L.; Lehninger, D.; Kondratenko, O.; Ponomaryov, S.; Gudymenko, O.; Tsybrii, Z.; Yukhymchuk, V.; Kladko, V.; von Borany, J.; Heitmann, J.

    2017-01-01

    Ge-rich ZrO2 films, fabricated by confocal RF magnetron sputtering of pure Ge and ZrO2 targets in Ar plasma, were studied by multi-angle laser ellipsometry, Raman scattering, Auger electron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction for varied deposition conditions and annealing treatments. It was found that as-deposited films are homogeneous for all Ge contents, thermal treatment stimulated a phase separation and a formation of crystalline Ge and ZrO2. The ?...

  16. Defect free C-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown at room temperature using RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunj, Saurabh; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-01-01

    Radio frequency Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to fabricate ZnO thin films on quartz substrate at room temperature. The effect of varying oxygen to argon (O_2/Ar) gas ratio on the structural and photoluminescence properties of the film is analyzed.X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO thin films with preferred orientation along (002) plane. Photoluminescence (PL) characterization reveals the preparation of highly crystalline films exhibiting intense Ultraviolet (UV) emission with negligible amount of defects as indicated by the absence of Deep Level Emission (DLE) in the PL spectra.

  17. Defect free C-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown at room temperature using RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunj, Saurabh; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-05-01

    Radio frequency Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to fabricate ZnO thin films on quartz substrate at room temperature. The effect of varying oxygen to argon (O2/Ar) gas ratio on the structural and photoluminescence properties of the film is analyzed.X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO thin films with preferred orientation along (002) plane. Photoluminescence (PL) characterization reveals the preparation of highly crystalline films exhibiting intense Ultraviolet (UV) emission with negligible amount of defects as indicated by the absence of Deep Level Emission (DLE) in the PL spectra.

  18. Defect free C-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown at room temperature using RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunj, Saurabh, E-mail: saurabhkunj22@gmail.com; Sreenivas, K. [Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Radio frequency Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to fabricate ZnO thin films on quartz substrate at room temperature. The effect of varying oxygen to argon (O{sub 2}/Ar) gas ratio on the structural and photoluminescence properties of the film is analyzed.X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO thin films with preferred orientation along (002) plane. Photoluminescence (PL) characterization reveals the preparation of highly crystalline films exhibiting intense Ultraviolet (UV) emission with negligible amount of defects as indicated by the absence of Deep Level Emission (DLE) in the PL spectra.

  19. Investigation of CaTiO3:Pr3+ thin films deposited by radiofrequency reactive magnetron sputtering for electroluminescence application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarakha, L; Bousquet, A; Tomasella, E; Boutinaud, P; Mahiou, R

    2010-01-01

    In this report we successfully deposited thin films of CaTiO 3 :Pr 3+ by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering. The films were studied and we tried to understand the evolution of their optical and electrical properties. We noticed that the annealing temperature and the deposition pressures have an important influence on these properties. Thin films with good optical and electrical properties have been obtained. These films are transparent and are characterized by an intense red photoluminescence and a low fixed charge density. They are well dedicated for electroluminescence purposes.

  20. Synthesis of nanofibrous ZnO by magnetron sputtering and its integration in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghimpu, L.; Tiginyanu, I.; Pauporte, T.; Guerin, V.M.; Lupan, O.

    2013-01-01

    This work demonstrates a cost-effective synthesis of nanofibrous ZnO layers by a magnetron sputtering. We present the results of layer characterization by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence which are indicative of good structural properties of the layers. The nanofibrous ZnO layers proves good structural properties offering a new nanomaterial for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) application. Their successful integration in DSC for solar energy conversion is demonstrated by impedance spectroscopy, and photo-current-voltage (J-V) studies.

  1. Grain boundary diffusion of Dy films prepared by magnetron sputtering for sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Luo, J. M.; Guan, Y. W.; Huang, Y. L.; Chen, M.; Hou, Y. H.

    2018-05-01

    Dy films, deposited on the surface of sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets by magnetron sputtering, were employed for grain boundary diffusion source. High coercivity sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets were successfully prepared. Effects of sputtering power and grain boundary diffusion processes (GBDP) on the microstructure and magnetic properties were investigated in detail. The dense and uniform Dy films were beneficial to prepare high coercivity magnets by GBDP. The maximum coercivity value of 1189 kA m‑1 could be shown, which was an amplification of 22.3%, compared with that of as-prepared Nd–Fe–B magnet. Furthermore, the improved remanence and maximum energy product were also achieved through tuning grain boundary diffusion processes. Our results demonstrated that the formation of (Nd, Dy)2Fe14B shell surrounding Nd2Fe14B grains and fine, uniform and continuous intergranular RE-rich phases jointly contribute to the improved coercivity.

  2. Structural and optical properties of zirconia thin films deposited by reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Jin, Jie [Tianjin University, School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin (China); Cheng, Jui-Ching, E-mail: juiching@ntut.edu.tw [Chang-Gung University, Department of Electronics, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jyh-Wei [Ming Chi University of Technology, College of Materials Engineering, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Wu, Kuo-Hong [Chang-Gung University, Department of Electronics, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuo-Cheng; Tsai, Jung-Ruey [Asia University, Department of Photonics and Communication Engineering, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Liu, Kou-Chen, E-mail: jacobliu@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Chang-Gung University, Department of Electronics, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    Zirconia films are deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) technology on glass and indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/glass substrates. Preparation, microstructure and optical characteristics of the films have been studied. During deposition, the influence of the target power and duty cycle on the peak current–voltage and power density has been observed in oxide mode. Transparent thin films under different oxygen proportions are obtained on the two substrates. Atomic force microscopy measurements showed that the surface roughness of the films was lower by reactive HiPIMS than DC sputtering for all oxygen contents. The transmission and reflectance properties of differently grown zirconia films were also investigated using an ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer. The optical transmittance of films grown on glass substrates by HiPIMS reached maximum values above 90%, which exceeded that by DC sputtering. The band edge near 5.86 eV shifted to a lower wavelength for zirconia films prepared with oxygen flow rates lower than 4.5 sccm. For the films prepared on ITO/glass substrates, the transmittance and the band gap of zirconia films were limited by ITO films; a maximum average transmittance of 84% was obtained at 4.5 sccm O{sub 2} and the energy band gap was in the range of 3.7–3.8 eV for oxygen flow rates ranging from 3.5 to 5.0 sccm. Finally, the electrical properties of zirconia films have also been discussed. - Highlights: • Zirconia films are deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering. • Low roughness films are obtained. • Films show a high transmittance (> 90%). • Films prepared on glass have a band gap of 5.9 eV.

  3. Effects of nitrogen ion implantation time on tungsten films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malau, Viktor, E-mail: malau@ugm.ac.id; Ilman, Mochammad Noer, E-mail: noer-ilman@yahoo.com; Iswanto, Priyo Tri, E-mail: priyatri@yahoo.com; Jatisukamto, Gaguk, E-mail: gagukjtsk@yahoo.co.id [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University Jl. Grafika 2, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    Nitrogen ion implantation time on tungsten thin film deposited on surface of AISI 410 steel has been performed. Tungsten thin film produced by dc magnetron sputtering method was deposited on AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel substrates, and then the nitrogen ions were implanted on tungsten thin film. The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of implantation deposition time on surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate of nitrogen implanted on tungsten film. Magnetron sputtering process was performed by using plasma gas of argon (Ar) to bombardier tungsten target (W) in a vacuum chamber with a pressure of 7.6 x 10{sup −2} torr, a voltage of 300 V, a sputter current of 80 mA for sputtered time of 10 minutes. Nitrogen implantation on tungsten film was done with an initial pressure of 3x10{sup −6} mbar, a fluence of 2 x 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}, an energy of 100 keV and implantation deposition times of 0, 20, 30 and 40 minutes. The surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate of the films were evaluated by surfcorder test, Vickers microhardness test, wear test and potentiostat (galvanostat) test respectively. The results show that the nitrogen ions implanted deposition time on tungsten film can modify the surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate. The minimum surface roughness, specific wear and corrosion rate can be obtained for implantation time of 20 minutes and the maximum microhardness of the film is 329 VHN (Vickers Hardness Number) for implantation time of 30 minutes. The specific wear and corrosion rate of the film depend directly on the surface roughness.

  4. Physical and chemical characterization of Ag-doped Ti coatings produced by magnetron sputtering of modular targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, Tobias; Warmuth, Franziska; Werner, Ewald; Hertl, Cornelia; Groll, Jürgen; Gbureck, Uwe; Moseke, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Silver-doped Ti films were produced using a single magnetron sputtering source equipped with a titanium target containing implemented silver modules under variation of bias voltage and substrate temperature. The Ti(Ag) films were characterized regarding their morphology, contact angle, phase composition, silver content and distribution as well as the elution of Ag + ions into cell media. SEM and AFM pictures showed that substrate heating during film deposition supported the formation of even and dense surface layers with small roughness values, an effect that could even be enforced, when a substrate bias voltage was applied instead. The deposition of both Ti and Ag was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. ICP-MS and EDX showed a clear correlation between the applied sputtering parameters and the silver content of the coatings. Surface-sensitive XPS measurements revealed that higher substrate temperatures led to an accumulation of Ag in the near-surface region, while the application of a bias voltage had the opposite effect. Additional elution measurements using ICP-MS showed that the release kinetics depended on the amount of silver located at the film surface and hence could be tailored by variation of the sputter parameters. - Highlights: • Modular targets were used to deposit Ti(Ag) films. • Ag-content is adjustable by bias voltage, sputtering power and substrate temperature. • Coating parameters significantly change film morphology and roughness. • A critical parameter for Ag release is the fraction of silver on the film surface

  5. Structural and magnetic properties of NiZn-ferrite thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yingli; Li Yuanxun; Zhang Huaiwu; Chen Daming; Mu Chunhong

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystalline NiZn-ferrite thin films were deposited on Si(100) substrate by rf magnetron sputtering, using targets with a nominal composition of Ni 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 . The effects of substrate condition, sputtering pressure, and postannealing on the structure and magnetic properties of thin films have been investigated. Our results show that the preferred orientation of the NiZn spinel film changed from (311) to (400) with increasing the Ar pressure from 0.8 to 1.6 Pa, meanwhile, the grain size also increased. Atomic force microscopy analysis indicates that perfect surface morphology of the film can be obtained at a relatively lower sputtering pressure of 1.0 Pa. The relative percentage of residual oxygen increases significantly on a condition of lower sputtering pressure, and plays an important role in film structure due to the strong molecular adsorption tendency of oxygen on the film surface during the deposition process. A thin film with a typical thickness of 1 μm, a saturation magnetization of 150 emu/cm 3 , and a coercivity of 8.8 kA/m has been obtained after annealing at 800 deg. C, which has the potential application in magnetic integrated circuits.

  6. Role of copper/vanadium on the optoelectronic properties of reactive RF magnetron sputtered NiO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Vengatesh; Chinnakutti, Karthik Kumar; Thankaraj Salammal, Shyju; Soman, Ajith Kumar; Parasuraman, Kuppusami; Vishwakarma, Vinita; Kanagasabai, Viswanathan

    2018-04-01

    In this study, pristine nickel oxide (NiO), copper-doped NiO (Cu-NiO) and vanadium-doped NiO (V-NiO) thin films were deposited using reactive RF magnetron co-sputtering as a function of dopant sputtering power. Cu (0-8 at%) and V (0-1 at%) were doped into the NiO lattice by varying the sputtering power of Cu and V in the range of 5-15 W. The effect of dopant concentration on optoelectronic behavior is investigated by UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer and Hall measurements. XRD analysis showed that the preferred orientation of the cubic phase for undoped NiO changes from (200) to (111) plane when the sputtering parameters are varied. The observed changes in the lattice parameters and bonding states of the doped NiO indicate the substitution of Ni ions by monovalent Cu and trivalent V ions. The optical bandgap of pristine NiO, Cu-NiO, and V-NiO was found to be 3.6, 3.45, and 3.05 eV, respectively, with decreased transmittance and resistivity. Further analysis using SEM and AFM described the morphological behavior of doped NiO thin films and Raman spectroscopy indicated the structural changes on doping. These findings would be helpful in fabricating solid-state solar cells using doped NiO as efficient hole transporting material.

  7. Microstructure, mechanical properties and oxidation behaviors of magnetron sputtered NbN{sub x} coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Zhengbing, E-mail: zbqi@xmut.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen (China); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Wu, Zhengtao; Zhang, Dongfang [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Zuo, Juan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen (China); Wang, Zhoucheng, E-mail: zcwang@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)

    2016-08-05

    Mechanical properties and oxidation resistance are of importance for the NbN{sub x} coatings as used in cutting and forming tools. In this study, the NbN{sub x} coatings were deposited by magnetron sputtering at nitrogen partial pressure ranging from 0 to 40%. The chemical and phase compositions, morphologies, mechanical properties and oxidation behaviors of the NbN{sub x} coatings were investigated by electron probe microanalysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and nanoindentation measurements. The results reveal the composition evolution of the NbN{sub x} coatings as α-Nb (0%), β-Nb{sub 2}N (5%), a mixture of β-Nb{sub 2}N and δ-NbN (10%), and δ-NbN (20–40%). The single phase coatings exhibit columnar structure while the mixed phases coating shows nano-composite structure. Compared with the single phase δ-NbN coatings (21.6 ± 0.8–28.0 ± 1.2 GPa), higher hardness of the single phase β-Nb{sub 2}N coating (30.9 ± 1.0 GPa) is due to the higher covalent character and much finer grains. The maximum hardness reaches 33.3 ± 1.5 GPa for the nano-composite coating with mixed phases of β-Nb{sub 2}N and δ-NbN. The oxidation results demonstrate that the activation energies are 219.3 and 192.3 kJ/mol for the Nb{sub 2}N and NbN coatings respectively. Non-protective Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} scales with cracks and pores result in poorer oxidation resistance of the NbN coating in comparison to the Nb{sub 2}N coating. - Highlights: • Chemical and phase compositions and microstructure of NbN{sub x} coatings were investigated. • Maximum hardness is obtained for nano-composite coating with mixed Nb{sub 2}N and NbN phases. • Activation energies are 219.3 and 192.3 kJ/mol for oxidation of Nb{sub 2}N and NbN coatings. • Non-protective Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} scales with cracks and pores lower oxidation resistance of NbN coating.

  8. Composition and structure variation for magnetron sputtered tantalum oxynitride thin films, as function of deposition parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristea, D.; Pătru, M.; Crisan, A.; Munteanu, D. [Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Crăciun, D. [Laser Department, National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Magurele (Romania); Barradas, N.P. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Alves, E. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Apreutesei, M. [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon INL-UMR 5270, CNRS, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully F-69134 (France); MATEIS Laboratory-INSA de Lyon, Bât. B. Pascal, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Moura, C. [Center of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Cunha, L., E-mail: lcunha@fisica.uminho.pt [Center of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Structural evolution from β-Ta, to fcc-Ta(O,N), to amorphous Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} with increasing P(N{sub 2} + O{sub 2}). • The substrate bias influences the N content, but does not influence the O content of the films. • The structural features of the films appear at lower P(N{sub 2} + O{sub 2}) when produced with grounded substrate. - Abstract: Tantalum oxynitride thin films were produced by magnetron sputtering. The films were deposited using a pure Ta target and a working atmosphere with a constant N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} ratio. The choice of this constant ratio limits the study concerning the influence of each reactive gas, but allows a deeper understanding of the aspects related to the affinity of Ta to the non-metallic elements and it is economically advantageous. This work begins by analysing the data obtained directly from the film deposition stage, followed by the analysis of the morphology, composition and structure. For a better understanding regarding the influence of the deposition parameters, the analyses are presented by using the following criterion: the films were divided into two sets, one of them produced with grounded substrate holder and the other with a polarization of −50 V. Each one of these sets was produced with different partial pressure of the reactive gases P(N{sub 2} + O{sub 2}). All the films exhibited a O/N ratio higher than the N/O ratio in the deposition chamber atmosphere. In the case of the films produced with grounded substrate holder, a strong increase of the O content is observed, associated to the strong decrease of the N content, when P(N{sub 2} + O{sub 2}) is higher than 0.13 Pa. The higher Ta affinity for O strongly influences the structural evolution of the films. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction showed that the lower partial pressure films were crystalline, while X-ray reflectivity studies found out that the density of the films depended on the deposition conditions: the higher the gas pressure, the

  9. Thermal conductivity of nitride films of Ti, Cr, and W deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagannadham, Kasichainula

    2015-01-01

    Nitride films of Ti, Cr, and W were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering from metal targets in argon and nitrogen plasma. TiN films with (200) orientation were achieved on silicon (100) at the substrate temperature of 500 and 600 °C. The films were polycrystalline at lower temperature. An amorphous interface layer was observed between the TiN film and Si wafer deposited at 600 °C. TiN film deposited at 600 °C showed the nitrogen to Ti ratio to be near unity, but films deposited at lower temperature were nitrogen deficient. CrN film with (200) orientation and good stoichiometry was achieved at 600 °C on Si(111) wafer but the film deposited at 500 °C showed cubic CrN and hexagonal Cr 2 N phases with smaller grain size and amorphous back ground in the x-ray diffraction pattern. An amorphous interface layer was not observed in the cubic CrN film on Si(111) deposited at 600 °C. Nitride film of tungsten deposited at 600 °C on Si(100) wafer was nitrogen deficient, contained both cubic W 2 N and hexagonal WN phases with smaller grain size. Nitride films of tungsten deposited at 500 °C were nonstoichiometric and contained cubic W 2 N and unreacted W phases. There was no amorphous phase formed along the interface for the tungsten nitride film deposited at 600 °C on the Si wafer. Thermal conductivity and interface thermal conductance of all the nitride films of Ti, Cr, and W were determined by transient thermoreflectance technique. The thermal conductivity of the films as function of deposition temperature, microstructure, nitrogen stoichiometry and amorphous interaction layer at the interface was determined. Tungsten nitride film containing both cubic and hexagonal phases was found to exhibit much higher thermal conductivity and interface thermal conductance. The amorphous interface layer was found to reduce effective thermal conductivity of TiN and CrN films

  10. In vitro biocompatibility of Ti-Mg alloys fabricated by direct current magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieda, Junko; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Nakai, Masaaki; Cho, Ken

    2015-09-01

    Ti-xMg (x=17, 33, and 55 mass%) alloy films, which cannot be prepared by conventional melting processes owing to the absence of a solid-solution phase in the phase diagram, were prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering in order to investigate their biocompatibility. Ti and Mg films were also prepared by the same process for comparison. The crystal structures were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Ti, Ti-xMg alloy, and Mg films were immersed in a 0.9% NaCl solution at 310 K for 7d to evaluate the dissolution amounts of Ti and Mg. In addition, to evaluate the formation ability of calcium phosphate in vitro, the Ti, Ti-xMg alloy, and Mg films were immersed in Hanks' solution at 310 K for 30 d. Ti and Mg form solid-solution alloys because the peaks attributed to pure Ti and Mg do not appear in the XRD patterns of any of the Ti-xMg alloy films. The surfaces of the Ti-17 Mg alloy and Ti-33 Mg alloy films contain Ti oxides and MgO, whereas MgO is the main component of the surface oxide of the Ti-55 Mg alloy and Mg films. The dissolution amounts of Ti from all films are below or near the detection limit of inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. On the other hand, the Ti-17 Mg alloy, Ti-33 Mg alloy, Ti-55 Mg alloy, and Mg films exhibit Mg dissolution amounts of approximately 2.5, 1.4, 21, and 41 μg/cm(2), respectively. The diffraction peaks attributed to calcium phosphate are present in the XRD patterns of the Ti-33 Mg alloy, Ti-55 Mg alloy, and Mg films after the immersion in Hanks' solution. Spherical calcium phosphate particles precipitate on the surface of the Ti-33 Mg film. However, many cracks are observed in the Ti-55 Mg film, and delamination of the film occurs after the immersion in Hanks' solution. The Mg film is dissolved in Hanks' solution and calcium phosphate particles precipitate on the glass substrate. Consequently, it is revealed that the Ti-33 Mg

  11. Microstructure, mechanical properties and oxidation behaviors of magnetron sputtered NbN_x coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Zhengbing; Wu, Zhengtao; Zhang, Dongfang; Zuo, Juan; Wang, Zhoucheng

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical properties and oxidation resistance are of importance for the NbN_x coatings as used in cutting and forming tools. In this study, the NbN_x coatings were deposited by magnetron sputtering at nitrogen partial pressure ranging from 0 to 40%. The chemical and phase compositions, morphologies, mechanical properties and oxidation behaviors of the NbN_x coatings were investigated by electron probe microanalysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and nanoindentation measurements. The results reveal the composition evolution of the NbN_x coatings as α-Nb (0%), β-Nb_2N (5%), a mixture of β-Nb_2N and δ-NbN (10%), and δ-NbN (20–40%). The single phase coatings exhibit columnar structure while the mixed phases coating shows nano-composite structure. Compared with the single phase δ-NbN coatings (21.6 ± 0.8–28.0 ± 1.2 GPa), higher hardness of the single phase β-Nb_2N coating (30.9 ± 1.0 GPa) is due to the higher covalent character and much finer grains. The maximum hardness reaches 33.3 ± 1.5 GPa for the nano-composite coating with mixed phases of β-Nb_2N and δ-NbN. The oxidation results demonstrate that the activation energies are 219.3 and 192.3 kJ/mol for the Nb_2N and NbN coatings respectively. Non-protective Nb_2O_5 scales with cracks and pores result in poorer oxidation resistance of the NbN coating in comparison to the Nb_2N coating. - Highlights: • Chemical and phase compositions and microstructure of NbN_x coatings were investigated. • Maximum hardness is obtained for nano-composite coating with mixed Nb_2N and NbN phases. • Activation energies are 219.3 and 192.3 kJ/mol for oxidation of Nb_2N and NbN coatings. • Non-protective Nb_2O_5 scales with cracks and pores lower oxidation resistance of NbN coating.

  12. The microstructure and properties of unbalanced magnetron sputtered CrNx coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurkmans, Antonius Petrus Arnoldus

    2002-01-01

    -conventional magnetron sputtering parameter window: a combination of a high substrate bias voltage (> -200 V) and a high partial pressure of nitrogen (a multitude of the argon partial pressure). This phase shows a strong {100} preferred crystallographic orientation and shows an excellent behaviour against corrosion and wear. (author)

  13. Growth, structure and magnetic properties of magnetron sputtered FePt thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantelli, Valentina

    2010-07-01

    The L1{sub 0} FePt phase belongs to the most promising hard ferromagnetic materials for high density recording media. The main challenges for thin FePt films are: (i) to lower the process temperature for the transition from the soft magnetic A1 to the hard magnetic L1{sub 0} phase, (ii) to realize c-axes preferential oriented layers independently from the substrate nature and (iii) to control layer morphology supporting the formation of FePt-L1{sub 0} selforganized isolated nanoislands towards an increase of the signal-to-noise ratio. In this study, dc magnetron sputtered FePt thin films on amorphous substrates were investigated. The work is focused on the correlation between structural and magnetic properties with respect to the influence of deposition parameters like growth mode (cosputtering vs. layer - by - layer) and the variation of the deposition gas (Ar, Xe) or pressure (0.3-3 Pa). In low-pressure Ar discharges, high energetic particle impacts support vacancies formation during layer growth lowering the phase transition temperature to (320{+-}20) C. By reducing the particle kinetic energy in Xe discharges, highly (001) preferential oriented L1{sub 0}-FePt films were obtained on a-SiO{sub 2} after vacuum annealing. L1{sub 0}-FePt nano-island formation was supported by the introduction of an Ag matrix, or by random ballistic aggregation and atomic self shadowing realized by FePt depositions at very high pressure (3 Pa). The high coercivity (1.5 T) of granular, magnetic isotropic FePt layers, deposited in Ar discharges, was measured with SQUID magnetometer hysteresis loops. For non-granular films with (001) preferential orientation the coercivity decreased (0.6 T) together with an enhancement of the out-of- plane anisotropy. Nanoislands show a coercive field close to the values obtained for granular layers but exhibit an in-plane easy axis due to shape anisotropy effects. An extensive study with different synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques, mainly

  14. Influence of Substrate Temperature on Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of Ito Thin Films Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Jing; Xing, Huaizhong; Xue, Shaolin; Jiang, Meng

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we investigated indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrates deposited by RF magnetron sputtering using ceramic target to find the optimal condition for fabricating optoelectronic devices. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the ITO films prepared at various substrate temperatures were investigated. The results indicate the grain size increases with substrate temperature increases. As the substrate temperature grew up, the resistivity of ITO films greatly decreased. The ITO film possesses high quality in terms of electrode functions, when substrate temperature is 480°C. The resistivity is as low as 9.42 × 10-5 Ω•cm, while the carrier concentration and mobility are as high as 3.461 × 1021 atom/cm3 and 19.1 cm2/Vṡs, respectively. The average transmittance of the film is about 95% in the visible region. The novel ITO/np-Silicon frame, which prepared by RF magnetron sputtering at 480°C substrate temperature, can be used not only for low-cost solar cell, but also for high quantum efficiency of UV and visible lights enhanced photodetector for various applications.

  15. Effects of oxygen addition in reactive cluster beam deposition of tungsten by magnetron sputtering with gas aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polášek, J.; Mašek, K.; Marek, A.; Vyskočil, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the possibilities of tungsten and tungsten oxide nanoclusters generation by means of non-reactive and reactive magnetron sputtering with gas aggregation. It was found that in pure argon atmosphere, cluster aggregation proceeded in two regimes depending on argon pressure in the aggregation chamber. At the lower pressure, cluster generation was dominated by two-body collisions yielding larger clusters (about 5.5 nm in diameter) at lower rate. At higher pressures, cluster generation was dominated by three-body collisions yielding smaller clusters (3–4 nm in diameter) at higher rate. The small amount of oxygen admixture in the aggregation chamber had considerable influence on cluster aggregation process. At certain critical pressure, the presence of oxygen led to the raise of deposition rate and cluster size. Resulting clusters were composed mostly of tungsten trioxide. The oxygen pressure higher than critical led to the target poisoning and the decrease in the sputtering rate. Critical oxygen pressure decreased with increasing argon pressure, suggesting that cluster aggregation process was influenced by atomic oxygen species (namely, O"− ion) generated by oxygen–argon collisions in the magnetron plasma. - Highlights: • Formation of tungsten and tungsten oxide clusters was observed. • Two modes of cluster aggregation in pure argon atmosphere were found. • Dependence of cluster deposition speed and size on oxygen admixture was observed. • Changes of dependence on oxygen with changing argon pressure were described.

  16. Growth of Ge/Si(100) Nanostructures by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering: the Role of Annealing Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALIREZA Samavati; S. K. Ghoshal; Z. Othaman

    2012-01-01

    Surface morphologies of Ge islands deposited on Si(100) substrates are characterized and their optical properties determined.Samples are prepared by rf magnetron sputtering in a high-vacuum chamber and are annealed at 600℃,700℃ and 800℃ for 2 min at nitrogen ambient pressure.Atomic force microscopy,field emission scanning electron microscopy,visible photoluminescence (PL) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy are employed.The results for the annealing temperature-dependent sample morphology and the optical properties are presented.The density,size and roughness are found to be strongly influenced by the annealing temperature.A red shift of ~0.29 eV in the PL peak is observed with increasing annealing temperature.%Surface morphologies of Ge islands deposited on Si(100) substrates are characterized and their optical properties determined. Samples are prepared by rf magnetron sputtering in a high-vacuum chamber and are annealed at 600℃, 700℃ and 800℃ for 2 min at nitrogen ambient pressure. Atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, visible photoluminescence (PL) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy are employed. The results for the annealing temperature-dependent sample morphology and the optical properties are presented. The density, size and roughness are found to be strongly influenced by the annealing temperature. A red shift of ~0.29 eV in the PL peak is observed with increasing annealing temperature.

  17. Electrical and optical properties of reactive dc magnetron sputtered silver-doped indium oxide thin films: role of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, A.; Barik, U.K.

    2006-01-01

    Silver-doped indium oxide thin films have been prepared on glass and quartz substrates at room temperature (300 K) by a reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique using an alloy target of pure indium and silver (80:20 at. %). During sputtering, the oxygen flow rates are varied in the range 0.00-2.86 sccm keeping the magnetron power constant at 40 W. The resistivity of these films is in the range 10 0 -10 -3 Ωcm and they show a negative temperature coefficient of resistivity. The films exhibit p-type conductivity at an oxygen flow rate of 1.71 sccm. The work function of these silver-indium oxide films has been measured by a Kelvin probe technique. The refractive index of the films (at 632.8 nm) varies in the range 1.13-1.20. Silver doping in indium oxide narrows the band gap of indium oxide (3.75 eV). (orig.)

  18. Electrical and optical properties of reactive dc magnetron sputtered silver-doped indium oxide thin films: role of oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subrahmanyam, A; Barik, U K [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Chennai (India)

    2006-07-15

    Silver-doped indium oxide thin films have been prepared on glass and quartz substrates at room temperature (300 K) by a reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique using an alloy target of pure indium and silver (80:20 at. %). During sputtering, the oxygen flow rates are varied in the range 0.00-2.86 sccm keeping the magnetron power constant at 40 W. The resistivity of these films is in the range 10{sup 0}-10{sup -3} {omega}cm and they show a negative temperature coefficient of resistivity. The films exhibit p-type conductivity at an oxygen flow rate of 1.71 sccm. The work function of these silver-indium oxide films has been measured by a Kelvin probe technique. The refractive index of the films (at 632.8 nm) varies in the range 1.13-1.20. Silver doping in indium oxide narrows the band gap of indium oxide (3.75 eV). (orig.)

  19. Effect of target power on the physical properties of Ti thin films prepared by DC magnetron sputtering with supported discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the effect of target power on the properties of Ti thin films prepared by DC magnetron sputtering with (triode mode and without (diode mode supported discharge. The traditional diode magnetron sputtering with an addition of a hot filament has been used to sustain the discharge at a lower pressure. The effect of target power (60, 80, 100 and 120 W on the physical properties of Ti thin films has been studied in diode and triode modes. XRD studies showed that the Ti thin films prepared at a target power up to 100 W in diode mode were amorphous in nature. The Ti thin films exhibited crystalline structure at much lower target power of 80 W with a preferred orientation along (0 0 2 plane. The grain size of Ti thin films prepared in triode mode increased from 64 nm to 80 nm, whereas in diode mode, the grain size increased from 2 nm to 5 nm. EDAX analysis confirmed that the incorporation of reactive gases was lower in triode mode compared to diode mode. The electrical resistivity of Ti thin films deposited in diode mode was found to be 85 µΩ⋅cm (target power 120 W. The electrical resistivity of Ti thin films in triode mode was found to be deceased to 15.2 µΩ⋅cm (target power 120 W.

  20. Effects of oxygen addition in reactive cluster beam deposition of tungsten by magnetron sputtering with gas aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polášek, J., E-mail: xpolasekj@seznam.cz [Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physic, Charles University, V Holešovičkách 2, Prague 8, CZ-18000 (Czech Republic); Mašek, K. [Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physic, Charles University, V Holešovičkách 2, Prague 8, CZ-18000 (Czech Republic); Marek, A.; Vyskočil, J. [HVM Plasma Ltd., Na Hutmance 2, Prague 5, CZ-158 00 (Czech Republic)

    2015-09-30

    In this work, we investigated the possibilities of tungsten and tungsten oxide nanoclusters generation by means of non-reactive and reactive magnetron sputtering with gas aggregation. It was found that in pure argon atmosphere, cluster aggregation proceeded in two regimes depending on argon pressure in the aggregation chamber. At the lower pressure, cluster generation was dominated by two-body collisions yielding larger clusters (about 5.5 nm in diameter) at lower rate. At higher pressures, cluster generation was dominated by three-body collisions yielding smaller clusters (3–4 nm in diameter) at higher rate. The small amount of oxygen admixture in the aggregation chamber had considerable influence on cluster aggregation process. At certain critical pressure, the presence of oxygen led to the raise of deposition rate and cluster size. Resulting clusters were composed mostly of tungsten trioxide. The oxygen pressure higher than critical led to the target poisoning and the decrease in the sputtering rate. Critical oxygen pressure decreased with increasing argon pressure, suggesting that cluster aggregation process was influenced by atomic oxygen species (namely, O{sup −} ion) generated by oxygen–argon collisions in the magnetron plasma. - Highlights: • Formation of tungsten and tungsten oxide clusters was observed. • Two modes of cluster aggregation in pure argon atmosphere were found. • Dependence of cluster deposition speed and size on oxygen admixture was observed. • Changes of dependence on oxygen with changing argon pressure were described.

  1. Adhesion Improvement and Characterization of Magnetron Sputter Deposited Bilayer Molybdenum Thin Films for Rear Contact Application in CIGS Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum (Mo thin films are widely used as rear electrodes in copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS solar cells. The challenge in Mo deposition by magnetron sputtering lies in simultaneously achieving good adhesion to the substrates while retaining the electrical and optical properties. Bilayer Mo films, comprising five different thickness ratios of a high pressure (HP deposited bottom layer and a low pressure (LP deposited top layer, were deposited on 40 cm × 30 cm soda-lime glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. We focus on understanding the effects of the individual layer properties on the resulting bilayer Mo films, such as microstructure, surface morphology, and surface oxidation. We show that the thickness of the bottom HP Mo layer plays a major role in determining the micromechanical and physical properties of the bilayer Mo stack. Our studies reveal that a thicker HP Mo bottom layer not only improves the adhesion of the bilayer Mo, but also helps to improve the film crystallinity along the preferred [110] direction. However, the surface roughness and the porosity of the bilayer Mo films are found to increase with increasing bottom layer thickness, which leads to lower optical reflectance and a higher probability for oxidation at the Mo surface.

  2. Reactive magnetron sputtering of N-doped carbon thin films on quartz glass for transmission photocathode applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balalykin, N. I.; Huran, J.; Nozdrin, M. A.; Feshchenko, A. A.; Kobzev, A. P.; Sasinková, V.; Boháček, P.; Arbet, J.

    2018-03-01

    N-doped carbon thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate and quartz glass by RF reactive magnetron sputtering using a carbon target and an Ar+N2 gas mixture. During the magnetron sputtering, the substrate holder temperatures was kept at 800 °C. The carbon film thickness on the silicon substrate was about 70 nm, while on the quartz glass it was in the range 15 nm – 60 nm. The elemental concentration in the films was determined by RBS and ERD. Raman spectroscopy was used to evaluate the intensity ratios I D/I G of the D and G peaks of the carbon films. The transmission photocathodes prepared were placed in the hollow-cathode assembly of a Pierce-structure DC gun to produce photoelectrons. The quantum efficiency (QE) was calculated from the laser energy and cathode charge measured. The properties of the transmission photocathodes based on semitransparent N-doped carbon thin films on quartz glass and their potential for application in DC gun technology are discussed.

  3. Mechanical, tribological and corrosion properties of CrBN films deposited by combined direct current and radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahodova, Vera; Ding, Xing-zhao; Seng, Debbie H.L.; Gulbinski, W.; Louda, P.

    2013-01-01

    Cr–B–N films were deposited on stainless steel substrates by a combined direct current and radio frequency (RF) reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering process using two elemental Cr and one compound BN targets. Boron content in the as-deposited films was qualitatively analyzed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Films' microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation and pin-on-disk tribometer experiments. Corrosion behavior of the Cr–B–N films was evaluated by electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization method in a 3 wt.% NaCl solution. All the films were crystallized into a NaCl-type cubic structure. At lower RF power applied on the BN target (≤ 600 W), films are relatively randomly oriented, and films' crystallinity increased with increasing RF power. With increasing RF power further (≥ 800 W), films became (200) preferentially oriented, and films' crystallinity decreased gradually. With incorporation of a small amount of boron atoms into the CrN films, hardness, wear- and corrosion-resistance were all improved evidently. The best wear and corrosion resistance was obtained for the film deposited with 600 W RF power applied on the BN target. - Highlights: • CrBN films deposited by direct current and radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • CrBN exhibited higher hardness, wear- and corrosion-resistance than pure CrN. • The best wear- and corrosion-resistant film was deposited with 600 W RF power

  4. 125 MeV Si 9+ ion irradiation of calcium phosphate thin film coated by rf-magnetron sputtering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayaraja, K.; Joshy, M. I. Ahymah; Suganthi, R. V.; Kalkura, S. Narayana; Palanichamy, M.; Ashok, M.; Sivakumar, V. V.; Kulriya, P. K.; Sulania, I.; Kanjilal, D.; Asokan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Titanium substrate was coated with hydroxyapatite by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering (rf-magnetron sputtering) technique and subjected to swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation of 125 MeV with Si 9+ at fluences of 1 × 10 10, 1 × 10 11 and 1 × 10 12 ions/cm 2. The glancing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis confirmed the HAp phase of the irradiated film. There was a considerable decrease in crystallinity and particle size after irradiation. In addition, DRS-UV reflectance spectra revealed a decrease in optical band gap ( Eg) from 5.2 to 4.6 eV. Wettability of biocompatible materials plays an important role in biological cells proliferation for tissue engineering, drug delivery, gene transfer and bone growth. HAp thin films irradiated with 1 × 10 11 ions/cm 2 fluence showed significant increase in wettability. While the SHI irradiated samples exhibited enhanced bioactivity, there was no significant variation in cell viability. Surface roughness, pores and average particle size were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  5. Distribution of Fe atom density in a dc magnetron sputtering plasma source measured by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibagaki, K.; Nafarizal, N.; Sasaki, K.; Toyoda, H.; Iwata, S.; Kato, T.; Tsunashima, S.; Sugai, H.

    2003-10-01

    Magnetron sputtering discharge is widely used as an efficient method for thin film fabrication. In order to achieve the optimized fabrication, understanding of the kinetics in plasmas is essential. In the present work, we measured the density distribution of sputtered Fe atoms using laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. A dc magnetron plasma source with a Fe target was used. An area of 20 × 2 mm in front of the target was irradiated by a tunable laser beam having a planar shape. The picture of laser-induced fluorescence on the laser beam was taken using an ICCD camera. In this way, we obtained the two-dimensional image of the Fe atom density. As a result, it has been found that the Fe atom density observed at a distance of several centimeters from the target is higher than that adjacent to the target, when the Ar gas pressure was relatively high. It is suggested from this result that some gas-phase production processes of Fe atoms are available in the plasma. This work has been performed under the 21st Century COE Program by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan.

  6. Preparation of single-crystal TiC (111) by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Q.; Zhang, W.Z.; Shi, L.Q.; Zhang, W.Y.; Zhang, W.; Zhang, B.

    2012-01-01

    Single-crystal films of TiC (111) have been synthesized at room temperature on Al 2 O 3 (0001) substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering using a compound Ti–C target. The substrate temperature and bias were varied to explore the influence of deposition parameters on the crystal structure. Both Al 2 O 3 (0001) and Si (100) substrates were used for epitaxial growth of TiC films. A series of characterizations of TiC films were carried out, including Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Single-crystal films of TiC (111) on the Al 2 O 3 (0001) were demonstrated. - Highlights: ► Single-crystal films of TiC (111) have been synthesized by RF magnetron sputtering. ► Both temperature and bias affect greatly the TiC crystal structure. ► Al 2 O 3 substrate is much better than Si substrate for TiC epitaxial growth. ► TiC (111) epitaxial film can be grown on Al 2 O 3 (0001) at room temperature.

  7. Tube Inner Coating of Non-Conductive Films by Pulsed Reactive Coaxial Magnetron Plasma with Outer Anode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musab Timan Idriss Gasab

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The double-ended coaxial magnetron pulsed plasma (DCMPP method with auxiliary outer anode was introduced in order to achieve the uniform coating of non-conductive thin films on the inner walls of insulator tubes. In this study, titanium (Ti was employed as a cathode (sputtering target, and a glass tube was used as a substrate. In an argon (Ar and oxygen (O2 gas mixture, magnetron plasma was generated. Oxygen gas was introduced to deposit a titanium oxide (TiO2 film. A comparison between films coated with and without an auxiliary outer anode was made. As a result, it was clearly shown that the DCMPP method using an auxiliary outer anode enhanced the uniformity of the deposited non-conductive film compared to the conventional DCMPP method. Moreover, the optimum conditions under which the thin TiO2 film was deposited on the inner wall of the glass tube were revealed. From the results, it was supposed that the auxiliary outer anode contributed to the uniformity of the distributions of deposited negative charge on the non-conductive film and consequently the electric field and the plasma density uniform.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of He-charged ODS-FeCrNi films deposited by a radio-frequency plasma magnetron sputtering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liang; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Le; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Wang; Jiang, Weibing; Zhang, Tao; Fang, Qianfeng; Liu, Changsong

    2017-04-01

    He-charged oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrNi films were prepared by a radio-frequency (RF) plasma magnetron sputtering method in a He and Ar mixed atmosphere at 150 °C. As a comparison, He-charged FeCrNi films were also fabricated at the same conditions through direct current (DC) plasma magnetron sputtering. The doping of He atoms and Y2O3 in the FeCrNi films was realized by the high backscattered rate of He ions and Y2O3/FeCrNi composite target sputtering method, respectively. Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the existence of Y2O3 in FeCrNi films, and Y2O3 content hardly changed with sputtering He/Ar ratio. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the FeCrNi films were composed of dense columnar nanocrystallines and the thickness of the films was obviously dependent on He/Ar ratio. Nanoindentation measurements revealed that the FeCrNi films fabricated through DC/RF plasma magnetron sputtering methods exhibited similar hardness values at each He/Ar ratio, while the dispersion of Y2O3 apparently increased the hardness of the films. Elastic recoil detection (ERD) showed that DC/RF magnetron sputtered FeCrNi films contained similar He amounts (˜17 at.%). Compared with the minimal change of He level with depth in DC-sputtered films, the He amount decreases gradually in depth in the RF-sputtered films. The Y2O3-doped FeCrNi films were shown to exhibit much smaller amounts of He owing to the lower backscattering possibility of Y2O3 and the inhibition effect of nano-sized Y2O3 particles on the He element.

  9. Low-cost ZnO:Al transparent contact by reactive rotatable magnetron sputtering for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menner, R.; Hariskos, D.; Linss, V.; Powalla, M.

    2011-01-01

    Sputtering ZnO as transparent front contact (TCO) is standard in today's industrial scale Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) module manufacturing. Although innovative concepts like rotatable magnetron sputtering from ceramic targets have been realised, costs are still high due to expensive ceramic targets. Significant cost reductions are expected by using reactive sputtering of metallic targets. Therefore, ZSW and industrial partners investigated the reactive sputtering of Al-doped zinc oxide (ZAO) as TCO on CIGS absorbers of high quality and industrial relevance. The reactive DC sputtering from rotatable magnetron targets is controlled in the transition mode by adjusting oxygen flow and discharge voltage. Optimisation leads to ZAO films with a TCO quality nearly comparable to standard films deposited by DC ceramic sputtering. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Hall analyses of the ZAO films are performed. Medium-size CIGS modules are coated with reactively sputtered ZAO, resulting in 12.8% module efficiency and surpassing the efficiency of the ceramic witness device. Cd-free buffered devices are also successfully coated with reactive TCO. Damp heat stability according to IEC61646 is met by all reactively sputtered devices.

  10. Structure, optical properties and thermal stability of HfErO films deposited by simultaneous RF and VHF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.Y. [Soochow University, College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou (China); Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, School of Tongda, Nanjing (China); Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); He, H.J.; Zhang, Z.; Jin, C.G.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Y.Y.; Ye, C. [Soochow University, College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou (China); Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); Zhuge, L.J. [Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); Soochow University, Analysis and Testing Center, Suzhou (China); Wu, X.M. [Soochow University, College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou (China); Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2015-01-23

    HfErO films are deposited on Si substrates by simultaneous radio frequency (RF) and very high frequency (VHF) magnetron sputtering technique. The content of the doped ingredient of Er and the body composition of HfO{sub x} are, respectively, controlled through the VHF and RF powers. Low content of Er doping in the HfErO films can be achieved, because the VHF source of 27.12 MHz has higher ion energy and lower ion flux than the RF source resulting in low sputtering rate in the magnetron sputtering system. The structure, optical properties and thermal stability of the HfErO films are investigated in this work. Results show that the doped content of Er is independently controlled by the VHF power. The oxygen vacancies are created by the Er incorporation. The hafnium in the HfErO films forms mixed valence of Hf{sup 2+} and Hf{sup 4+}. The HfErO films are composed with the structures of HfO{sub 2}, HfO and ErO{sub x}, which can be optimized through the VHF power. At high VHF power, the Hf-Er-O bonds are formed, which demonstrates that the Er atoms are doped into the lattice of HfO{sub 2} in the HfErO films. The HfErO films have bad thermal stability as the crystallization temperature decreases from 900 to 800 C. After thermal annealing, cubic phase of HfO{sub 2} are stabilized, which is ascribed to the oxygen vacancies creation by the Er incorporation. The optical properties such as the refractive index and the optical band gap of the HfErO films are optimized by the VHF power. (orig.)

  11. Structure, optical properties and thermal stability of HfErO films deposited by simultaneous RF and VHF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.Y.; He, H.J.; Zhang, Z.; Jin, C.G.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Y.Y.; Ye, C.; Zhuge, L.J.; Wu, X.M.

    2015-01-01

    HfErO films are deposited on Si substrates by simultaneous radio frequency (RF) and very high frequency (VHF) magnetron sputtering technique. The content of the doped ingredient of Er and the body composition of HfO x are, respectively, controlled through the VHF and RF powers. Low content of Er doping in the HfErO films can be achieved, because the VHF source of 27.12 MHz has higher ion energy and lower ion flux than the RF source resulting in low sputtering rate in the magnetron sputtering system. The structure, optical properties and thermal stability of the HfErO films are investigated in this work. Results show that the doped content of Er is independently controlled by the VHF power. The oxygen vacancies are created by the Er incorporation. The hafnium in the HfErO films forms mixed valence of Hf 2+ and Hf 4+ . The HfErO films are composed with the structures of HfO 2 , HfO and ErO x , which can be optimized through the VHF power. At high VHF power, the Hf-Er-O bonds are formed, which demonstrates that the Er atoms are doped into the lattice of HfO 2 in the HfErO films. The HfErO films have bad thermal stability as the crystallization temperature decreases from 900 to 800 C. After thermal annealing, cubic phase of HfO 2 are stabilized, which is ascribed to the oxygen vacancies creation by the Er incorporation. The optical properties such as the refractive index and the optical band gap of the HfErO films are optimized by the VHF power. (orig.)

  12. The comparison of the optical spectra of carbon coatings prepared by magnetron sputtering and microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition measured by the photothermal deflection spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Remeš, Zdeněk; Pham, T.T.; Varga, Marián; Kromka, Alexander; Mao, H.B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2015), s. 321-324 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * amorphous carbon * magnetron sputtering * CVD * optical spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  13. Evaluation of composition, mechanical properties and structure of nc-TiC/a-C:H coatings prepared by balanced magnetron sputtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Souček, P.; Schmidtová, T.; Zábranský, L.; Buršíková, V.; Vašina, P.; Caha, O.; Jílek, M.; Abdelazziz, El Mel.; Tessier, P.Y.; Schäfer, J.; Buršík, Jiří; Peřina, Vratislav; Mikšová, Romana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 211, OCT 25 (2012), s. 111-116 ISSN 0257-8972 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : nanocomposite * magnetron sputtering * titanium Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (UJF-V) Impact factor: 1.941, year: 2012

  14. Investigation of DC magnetron-sputtered TiO2 coatings: Effect of coating thickness, structure, and morphology on photocatalytic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Shabadi, Rajashekhara; Galca, Aurelian Catalin

    2014-01-01

    The photocatalytic performance of magnetron-sputtered titanium dioxide (TiO2) coatings of different thickness in anatase crystalline structure deposited on aluminium 1050 alloy substrates was investigated using a combination of photo-electrochemistry, methylene blue decomposition, and microscopic...

  15. In-situ TEM investigation of microstructural evolution in magnetron sputtered Al-Zr and Al-Zr-Si coatings during heat treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Rechendorff, Kristian; Balogh, Zoltan Imre

    2016-01-01

    The magnetron sputtered Al–Zr and Al–Zr–Si coatings were heat treated in-situ in a transmission electron microscope as well as ex-situ to observe their annealing behaviour and phase transformations. The samples were heated up to a temperature of 550 °C and then cooled to room temperature. A layer...

  16. Changes in the structural and electrical properties of vacuum post-annealed tungsten- and titanium-doped indium oxide films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, L.T.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten- and titanium-doped indium oxide (IWO and ITiO) filmswere deposited at room temperature by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, and vacuum post-annealing was used to improve the electron mobility. With increasing deposition power, the as deposited films showed an increasingly

  17. Transparent conducting Al-doped ZnO thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering with dc and rf powers applied in combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Ohtani, Yuusuke; Miyata, Toshihiro; Kuboi, Takeshi

    2007-01-01

    A newly developed Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin-film magnetron-sputtering deposition technique that decreases resistivity, improves resistivity distribution, and produces high-rate depositions has been demonstrated by dc magnetron-sputtering depositions that incorporate rf power (dc+rf-MS), either with or without the introduction of H 2 gas into the deposition chamber. The dc+rf-MS preparations were carried out in a pure Ar or an Ar+H 2 (0%-2%) gas atmosphere at a pressure of 0.4 Pa by adding a rf component (13.56 MHz) to a constant dc power of 80 W. The deposition rate in a dc+rf-MS deposition incorporating a rf power of 150 W was approximately 62 nm/min, an increase from the approximately 35 nm/min observed in dc magnetron sputtering with a dc power of 80 W. A resistivity as low as 3x10 -4 Ω cm and an improved resistivity distribution could be obtained in AZO thin films deposited on substrates at a low temperature of 150 deg. C by dc+rf-MS with the introduction of hydrogen gas with a content of 1.5%. This article describes the effects of adding a rf power component (i.e., dc+rf-MS deposition) as well as introducing H 2 gas into dc magnetron-sputtering preparations of transparent conducting AZO thin films

  18. Design and capabilities of an experimental setup based on magnetron sputtering for formation and deposition of size-selected metal clusters on ultra-clean surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Hannes; Popok, Vladimir; Barke, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    The design and performance of an experimental setup utilizing a magnetron sputtering source for production of beams of ionized size-selected clusters for deposition in ultra-high vacuum is described. For the case of copper cluster formation the influence of different source parameters is studied...

  19. Optical properties of aluminum nitride thin films grown by direct-current magnetron sputtering close to epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, A. [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Soltani, A., E-mail: ali.soltani@iemn.univ-lille1.fr [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Abdallah, B. [Department of Materials Physics, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic); Charrier, J. [Fonctions Optiques pour les Technologies de l' informatiON (FOTON), UMR CNRS 6082, 6, rue de Kerampont CS 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Deresmes, D. [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Jouan, P.-Y.; Djouadi, M.A. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel – IMN, UMR CNRS 6502, 2, rue de la Houssinère BP 32229, 44322 Nantes (France); Dogheche, E.; De Jaeger, J.-C. [Institut d' Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, PRES Lille, Université Nord de France, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2013-05-01

    Low-temperature Aluminum Nitride (AlN) thin films with a thickness of 3 μm were deposited by Direct-Current magnetron sputtering on sapphire substrate. They present optical properties similar to those of epitaxially grown films. Different characterization methods such as X-Ray Diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy were used to determine the structural properties of the films such as its roughness and crystallinity. Newton interferometer was used for stress measurement of the films. Non-destructive prism-coupling technique was used to determine refractive index and thickness homogeneity by a mapping on the whole sample area. Results show that AlN films grown on AlGaN layer have a high crystallinity close to epitaxial films, associated to a low intrinsic stress for low thickness. These results highlight that it is possible to grow thick sample with microstructure and optical properties close to epitaxy, even on a large surface. - Highlights: ► Aluminum Nitride sputtering technique with a low temperature growth process ► Epitaxial quality of two microns sputtered Aluminum Nitride film ► Optics as a non-destructive accurate tool for acoustic wave investigation.

  20. Impedimetric Thiourea Sensing in Copper Electrorefining Bath based on DC Magnetron Sputtered Nanosilver as Highly Uniform Transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozaffari, S.A.; Amoli, H. Salar; Simorgh, S.; Rahmanian, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fabrication of a novel disposable impedimetric thiourea sensor based on nanostructured Ag film transducer. • Exploiting sputtering as a high-tech method for preparation of highly uniform nanostructured Ag film. • A wonderful combination of nanostructured Ag film and carbon paper substrate as remarkably stable and reproducible sensor for thiourea detection in copper electrorefining bath. • Application of impedimetric assessment for thiourea monitoring due to its rapidity, sensitivity, and repeatability. - Abstract: Highly uniform sputtered nanostructured silver (Nano-Ag) film on the conductive carbon paper (CP) substrate (Nano-Ag/CP) was applied as a novel approach for thiourea (TU) measurement in copper electrorefining bath. Nano-Ag film was achieved by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering system at the optimized instrumental deposition conditions. Characterization of the surface structure of Nano-Ag film by field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), exhibits uniform Nano-Ag film as an effective transducer for TU sensing. Step by step monitoring of Nano-Ag/CP electrode fabrication were performed using electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Fabricated Nano-Ag/CP electrode was used for TU determination using EIS assessment. The impedimetric results show high sensitivity for TU sensing within 2.0–250 ppm.

  1. Characterization of Al-Doped ZnO Transparent Conducting Thin Film Prepared by Off-Axis Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin-Liang Ou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The off-axis sputtering technique was used to deposit Al-doped ZnO (AZO films on glass substrates at room temperature. For the illustration of the sample position in the sputtering chamber, the value of R/r is introduced. Here, r is the radius of AZO target and R is the distance between the sample and the center of substrate holder. A systematic study for the effect of deposition parameters on structural, optical, and electrical properties of AZO films has been investigated in detail. As the sample position of R/r is fixed at 1.8, it is found that the as-deposited AZO film has relatively low resistivity of 2.67 × 10−3 Ω-cm and high transmittance above 80% in the visible region. Additionally, after rapid thermal annealing (RTA at 600°C with N2 atmosphere, the resistivity of this AZO film can be further reduced to 1.19 × 10−3 Ω-cm. This indicates the AZO films prepared by off-axis magnetron sputtering and treated via the appropriate RTA process have great potential in optoelectronic applications.

  2. Microstructure and electrical properties of bismuth and bismuth oxide deposited by magnetron sputtering UBM; Microestructura y propiedades electricas de bismuto y oxido de bismuto depositados por magnetron sputtering UBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otalora B, D. M.; Dussan, A. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Departamento de Fisica, Grupo de Materiales Nanoestructurados y sus Aplicaciones, Carrera 30 No. 45-03, 111321 Bogota (Colombia); Olaya F, J. J., E-mail: jjolayaf@unal.edu.co [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Mecatronica, Carrera 30 No. 45-03, 111321 Bogota (Colombia)

    2015-07-01

    In this work, bismuth (Bi) and bismuth oxide (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films were prepared, at room temperature, by Sputtering Unbalanced Magnetron (UBM - Unbalance Magnetron) technique under glass substrates. Microstructural and electrical properties of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and System for Measuring Physical Properties - PPMS (Physical Property Measurement System). Dark resistivity of the material was measured for a temperature range between 100 and 400 K. From the XRD measurements it was observed a polycrystalline character of the Bi associated to the presence of phases above the main peak, 2θ = 26.42 grades and a growth governed by a rhombohedral structure. Crystal parameters were obtained for both compounds, Bi and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. From the analysis of the spectra of the conductivity as a function of temperature, it was established that the transport mechanism that governs the region of high temperature (T>300 K) is thermally activated carriers. From conductivity measurements the activation energies were obtained of 0.0094 eV and 0.015 eV for Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Bi, respectively. (Author)

  3. Deposition of lead-silicate glassy thin coatings by RF magnetron sputtering: Correlation between deposition parameters and electrical and structural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigato, V.; Maggioni, G.; Boscarino, D.; Della Mea, G.; Univ. di Trento, Mesiano

    1996-01-01

    Lead-silicate glassy thin films produced by means of Reactive Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering have found recent application in the development of MicroStrip Gas Chambers radiation detectors. Here, thin films (100--400 nm) of lead silicate glass have been deposited by RF magnetron sputtering in Ar plasma at different discharge conditions. The interaction of the sputt