WorldWideScience

Sample records for pulsed laser ablation

  1. Numerical simulation of copper ablation by ultrashort laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, PengJi; Li, YuHong

    2011-01-01

    Using a modified self-consistent one-dimensional hydrodynamic lagrangian fluid code, laser ablation of solid copper by ultrashort laser pulses in vacuum was simulated to study fundamental mechanisms and to provide a guide for drilling periodic microholes or microgratings on the metal surface. The simulated laser ablation threshold is a approximate constancy in femtosecond regime and increases as the square root of pulse duration in picosecond regime. The ablation depth as a function of pulse duration shows four different regimes and a minimum for a pulse duration of ~ 12ps for various laser fluences. The influence of laser-induced plasma shielding on ablation depth is also studied.

  2. Fundamental studies of pulsed laser ablation

    CERN Document Server

    Claeyssens, F

    2001-01-01

    dopant) have resulted in a coherent view of the resulting plume, which exhibits a multi-component structure correlated with different regimes of ablation, which are attributed to ejection from ZnO and ablation from a Zn melt. OES measurements show that the emitting Zn component within the plume accelerates during expansion in vacuum - an observation attributable to the presence of hot, fast electrons in the plume. The same acceleration behaviour is observed in the case of Al atomic emissions resulting from ablation of an Al target in vacuum. Deposition conditions, substrate temperature and background gas pressure were all varied in a quest for optimally aligned, high quality ZnO thin films. Initial ab initio calculations were performed also, to aid in understanding the stability of these c-axis aligned films. The pulsed ultraviolet (lambda = 193, 248 nm) laser ablation of graphite, polycrystalline diamond and ZnO targets has been investigated. Characteristics of the resulting plumes of ablated material have b...

  3. Ablation of steel using picosecond laser pulses in burst mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickschat, Peter; Demba, Alexander; Weissmantel, Steffen

    2017-02-01

    Results obtained in picosecond laser processing of steel applying the burst mode are presented. Using the burst mode, pulse trains, i.e., bursts, consisting of a number of picosecond pulses with an inter-pulse delay of 12.5 ns and 10 ps pulse duration are applied for material processing. Small cavities with sizes in the range of the laser beam diameter made by single-burst ablation are compared to quadratic cavities of 0.5 × 0.5 mm² produced by multiburst ablation and simultaneous scanning of the laser beam across the steel sample surface. The ablated volume per pulse within the burst was calculated either from the ablated volume per burst or from the ablation depth of the quadratic cavities. With the second to fourth pulses in the bursts, a reduction of the ablated volume per pulse in comparison with the first pulse in the bursts (i.e., to the use of single pulses) was found for both single- and multiburst ablation, which is assumed to be due to plasma shielding. By contrast, the ablated volume per pulse within the bursts increases for the fifth to eighth pulses. Heat accumulation effect and the influence of the heated plasma can be assumed to be the reason for these higher ablation rates. SEM micrographs also show that there is a higher melt ejection out of the laser processed area. This is indicated by the formation of bulges about the ablated area.

  4. Pulsed laser ablation of solids basics, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stafe, Mihai; Puscas, Niculae N

    2014-01-01

    The book introduces ‘the state of the art' of pulsed laser ablation and its applications. It is based on recent theoretical and experimental studies. The book reaches from the basics to advanced topics of pulsed laser ablation. Theoretical and experimental fundamental phenomena involved in pulsed laser ablation are discussed with respect to material properties, laser wavelength, fluence and intensity regime of the light absorbed linearly or non-linearly in the target material. The energy absorbed by the electrons leads to atom/molecule excitation, ionization and/or direct chemical bond breaking and is also transferred to the lattice leading to material heating and phase transitions. Experimental  non-invasive optical methods for analyzing these phenomena in real time are described. Theoretical models for pulsed laser ablation and phase transitions induced by laser beams and laser-vapour/plasma interaction during the plume expansion above the target are also presented. Calculations of the ablation speed and...

  5. Wavelength dependence of soft tissue ablation by using pulsed lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianzeng Zhang; Shusen Xie; Qing Ye; Zhenlin Zhan

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of soft biological tissue was studied at 10.6-, 2.94-, and 2.08-μm wavelengths. The ablation effects were assessed by means of optical microscope, the ablation crater depths were measured with reading microscope. It was shown that Er:YAG laser produced the highest quality ablation with clear,sharp cuts following closely the patial contour of the incident beam and the lowest fluence threshold. The pulsed CO2 laser presented the moderate quality ablation with the highest ablation efficiency. The craters drilled with Ho:YAG laser were generally larger than the incident laser beam spot, irregular in shape, and clearly dependent on the local morphology of biotissue. The blation characteristics, including fluence threshold and ablation efficiency, varied substantially with wavelength. It is not evident that water is the only dominant chromophore in tissue.

  6. Tissue tearing caused by pulsed laser-induced ablation pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, J P; Walsh, J T

    1993-02-01

    Pressure induced by ablative pulses of laser radiation is shown to correlate with the mechanical disruption of tissue. The ablation pressure induced during Er:YSGG laser irradiation of skin, liver, and aorta was calculated from a ballistic pendulum-based measurement of recoil momentum. The ejected material and ablation crater were examined grossly and microscopically after ablation. A gas-dynamic model of laser-induced vaporization was used to understand the measured pressures. The results show that mechanical disruption of tissue occurs when the ablation pressure exceeds the strength of the irradiated tissue at sites of intrinsic weakness.

  7. Femtosecond laser ablation of Au film around single pulse threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaochang Ni; Ching-Yue Wang; Yinzhong Wu; Li Yang; Wei Jia; Lu Chai

    2006-01-01

    @@ Ablation process of 1-kHz femtosecond lasers (pulse duration of 148 fs, wavelength of 775 nm) of Au film on silica substrates is studied. The thresholds for single and multi pulses can be obtained directly from the relation between the squared diameter D2 of the ablated craters and the laser fluence φo. From the plot of the accumulated laser fluence Nφth(N) and the number of laser pulses N, incubation coefficient of Au film is obtained to be 0.765. Some experimental data obtained around the single pulse threshold are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation.

  8. Pulsed laser deposition: metal versus oxide ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, L.M.; Rijnders, G.; Blank, D.H.A.

    2004-01-01

    We present experimental results of pulsed laser interaction with metal (Ni, Fe, Nb) and oxide (TiO2, SrTiO3, BaTiO3) targets. The influence of the laser fluence and the number of laser pulses on the resulting target morphology are discussed. Although different responses for metal and oxide targets t

  9. Metal cathode patterning for OLED by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chen; ZHU Guang-xi; LIU De-ming

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,nanosecond pulsed laser is introduced to selectively ablate away indium tin oxide film and metal film without destroying the underlying layers for fabricating organic light-emitting diodes. By varying density of energy, pulse number and width of the laser, the influence on morphology of the laser trenches of indium tin oxide and metal films are investigated. It is presented that uniform ablation trench can be obtained with 16 laser pulses at 0.15 J/cm2 for aluminum film and 10 laser pulses at 0.65 J/cm2 for indium tin oxide film. It is found that the characteristics of the organic light-emitting diodes prepared with laser ablation are almost the same as those of that prepared with conventional patterning method.

  10. Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with ultrashort laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oraevsky, A.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; DaSilva, L.B.; Feit, M.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-03-08

    Plasma mediated ablation of collagen gels and porcine cornea was studied at various laser pulse durations in the range from 350 fs to 1 ns at 1,053 nm wavelength. A time resolved stress detection technique was employed to measure transient stress profiles and amplitudes. Optical microscopy was used to characterize ablation craters qualitatively, while a wide band acoustic transducer helped to quantify tissue mechanical response and the ablation threshold. The ablation threshold was measured as a function of laser pulse duration and linear absorption coefficient. For nanosecond pulses the ablation threshold was found to have a strong dependence on the linear absorption coefficient of the material. As the pulse length decreased into the subpicosecond regime the ablation threshold became insensitive to the linear absorption coefficient. The ablation efficiency was found to be insensitive to both the laser pulse duration and the linear absorption coefficient. High quality ablation craters with no thermal or mechanical damage to surrounding material were obtained with 350 fs laser pulses. The mechanism of optical breakdown at the tissue surface was theoretically investigated. In the nanosecond regime, optical breakdown proceeds as an electron collisional avalanche ionization initiated by thermal seed electrons. These seed electrons are created by heating of the tissue by linear absorption. In the ultrashort pulse range, optical breakdown is initiated by the multiphoton ionization of the irradiated medium (6 photons in case of tissue irradiated at 1,053 nm wavelength), and becomes less sensitive to the linear absorption coefficient. The energy deposition profile is insensitive to both the laser pulse duration and the linear absorption coefficient.

  11. Pulsed laser ablation and deposition of niobium carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, M.; De Bonis, A.; Santagata, A.; Rau, J. V.; Galasso, A.; Teghil, R.

    2016-06-01

    NbC crystalline films have been deposited in vacuum by ultra-short pulsed laser deposition technique. The films have been characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopies and by X-ray diffraction. To clarify the ablation-deposition mechanism, the plasma produced by the ablation process has been characterized by optical emission spectroscopy and fast imaging. A comparison of the results with those obtained by ns pulsed deposition of the same target has been carried out.

  12. Ablation of silicon with bursts of femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiuso, Caterina; Kämmer, Helena; Dreisow, Felix; Ancona, Antonio; Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    We report on an experimental investigation of ultrafast laser ablation of silicon with bursts of pulses. The pristine 1030nm-wavelength 200-fs pulses were split into bursts of up to 16 sub-pulses with time separation ranging from 0.5ps to 4080ps. The total ablation threshold fluence was measured depending on the burst features, finding that it strongly increases with the number of sub-pulses for longer sub-pulse delays, while a slowly increasing trend is observed for shorter separation time. The ablation depth per burst follows two different trends according to the time separation between the sub-pulses, as well as the total threshold fluence. For delays shorter than 4ps it decreases with the number of pulses, while for time separations longer than 510ps, deeper craters were achieved by increasing the number of subpulses in the burst, probably due to a change of the effective penetration depth.

  13. Pulsed Tm:YAG laser ablation of knee joint tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei-Qiang; Vari, Sandor G.; Duffy, J. T.; Miller, J. M.; Weiss, Andrew B.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1992-06-01

    We investigated the effect of a free-running 2.01 micron pulsed Tm:YAG laser on bovine knee joint tissues. Ablation rates of fresh fibrocartilage, hyaline cartilage, and bone were measured in saline as a function of laser fluence (160 - 640 J/cm2) and fiber core size (400 and 600 microns). All tissues could be effectively ablated and the ablation rate increased linearly with the increasing fluence. Use of fibers of different core sizes, while maintaining constant energy fluence, did not result in significant difference in ablation rate. Histology analyses of the ablated tissue samples reveal average Tm:YAG radiation induced thermal damage (denatunalization) zones ranging between 130 and 540 microns, depending on the laser parameters and the tissue type.

  14. Ablation enhancement of silicon by ultrashort double-pulse laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin; Shin, Yung C. [Center for Laser-Based Manufacturing, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    In this study, the ultrashort double-pulse ablation of silicon is investigated. An atomistic simulation model is developed to analyze the underlying physics. It is revealed that the double-pulse ablation could significantly increase the ablation rate of silicon, compared with the single pulse ablation with the same total pulse energy, which is totally different from the case of metals. In the long pulse delay range (over 1 ps), the enhancement is caused by the metallic transition of melted silicon with the corresponding absorption efficiency. At ultrashort pulse delay (below 1 ps), the enhancement is due to the electron excitation by the first pulse. The enhancement only occurs at low and moderate laser fluence. The ablation is suppressed at high fluence due to the strong plasma shielding effect.

  15. A unified model in the pulsed laser ablation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU De-zhi

    2008-01-01

    In this unified model, we introduce the electron-phonon coupling time (t) and laser pulse width (t). For long pulses, it can substitute for the traditional thermal conduction model; while for ultrashort pulses, it can substitute for the standard two-temperature model. As an example of the gold target, we get the dependence of the electron and ion temperature evolvement on the time and position by solving the thermal conduction equation using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method.It is in good agreement with experimental data. We obtain the critical temperature of the onset of ablation using the Saha equation and then obtain the theoretical value of the laser ablation threshold when the laser pulse width ranges from nanosecond to femtosecond timescale, which consists well with the experimental data.

  16. Synthesis of selenium nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, M.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.; Morales, J.; Batina, N.

    2002-07-01

    The synthesis of selenium nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation using a YAG laser at 532 nm is reported. The nanoparticles were deposited on three different substrates: metallic gold films, silicon wafers and glass, and subsequently visualized and characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that the size, shape and population of the selenium nanoparticles are strongly dependent on the experimental conditions during the ablation process; in particular on the energy density, number of laser pulses and the nature of the substrate. Atomic force microscopy imaging allows recognition, quantitative and qualitative characterization of individual selenium nanoparticles and their aggregates as well. In most of the experiments just a few laser pulses (up to five), were sufficient to produce a noticeable amount of nanoparticles on the substrate surface.

  17. Pulsed laser ablation of dental calculus in the near ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenly, Joshua E; Seka, Wolf; Rechmann, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Pulsed lasers emitting wavelengths near 400 nm can selectively ablate dental calculus without damaging underlying and surrounding sound dental hard tissue. Our results indicate that calculus ablation at this wavelength relies on the absorption of porphyrins endogenous to oral bacteria commonly found in calculus. Sub- and supragingival calculus on extracted human teeth, irradiated with 400-nm, 60-ns laser pulses at ≤8  J/cm2, exhibits a photobleached surface layer. Blue-light microscopy indicates this layer highly scatters 400-nm photons, whereas fluorescence spectroscopy indicates that bacterial porphyrins are permanently photobleached. A modified blow-off model for ablation is proposed that is based upon these observations and also reproduces our calculus ablation rates measured from laser profilometry. Tissue scattering and a stratified layering of absorbers within the calculus medium explain the gradual decrease in ablation rate from successive pulses. Depending on the calculus thickness, ablation stalling may occur at <5  J/cm2 but has not been observed above this fluence.

  18. Heat effects of metals ablated with femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Yoichi; Obara, Minoru

    2002-09-01

    Heat effects of metallic bulk crystals of Au, Ag, Cu, and Fe ablated with femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulses is experimentally studied. As a result of X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, the XRD peak signal of the area ablated with Ti:sapphire laser is much smaller than that of the crystalline metal sample. While the crystal form of the metal sample is crystalline before laser ablation, the crystal form in the ablated area is partially changed into the amorphous form. The residual pulse energy that did not contribute to the ablation process remains, which leads to the formation of thin layer of melted phase. The melted layer is abruptly cooled down not to be re-crystallized, but to transform into amorphous form. It is evident that the area ablated with femtosecond laser is changed into amorphous metals. This mechanism would be the same as the melt-quenching generally used as the fabrication method of amorphous metals. This experimental result is consistent with the theoretical result.

  19. Optical feedback signal for ultrashort laser pulse ablation of tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.-M.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Mammini, B.M.; Da Silva, L.B.

    1997-07-01

    An optical feedback system for controlled precise tissue ablation is discussed. Our setup includes an ultrashort pulse laser (USPL), and a diagnostic system using analysis of either tissue fluorescence or plasma emission luminescence. Current research is focused on discriminating hard and soft tissues such as bone and spinal cord during surgery using either technique. Our experimental observations exhibit considerable spectroscopic contrast between hard and soft tissue, and both techniques offer promise for a practical diagnostic system.

  20. Laser ablation of borosilicate glass with high power shaped UV nanosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Witzendorff, Philipp; Bordin, Andrea; Suttmann, Oliver; Patel, Rajesh S.; Bovatsek, James; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2016-03-01

    The application of thin borosilicate glass as interposer material requires methods for separation and drilling of this material. Laser processing with short and ultra-short laser pulses have proven to enable high quality cuts by either direct ablation or internal glass modification and cleavage. A recently developed high power UV nanosecond laser source allows for pulse shaping of individual laser pulses. Thus, the pulse duration, pulse bursts and the repetition rate can be set individually at a maximum output power of up to 60 W. This opens a completely new process window, which could not be entered with conventional Q-switched pulsed laser sources. In this study, the novel pulsed UV laser system was used to study the laser ablation process on 400 μm thin borosilicate glass at different pulse durations ranging from 2 - 10 ns and a pulse burst with two 10 ns laser pulses with a separation of 10 ns. Single line scan experiments were performed to correlate the process parameters and the laser pulse shape with the ablation depth and cutting edge chipping. Increasing the pulse duration within the single pulse experiments from 2 ns to longer pulse durations led to a moderate increase in ablation depth and a significant increase in chipping. The highest material removal was achieved with the 2x10 ns pulse burst. Experimental data also suggest that chipping could be reduced, while maintaining a high ablation depth by selecting an adequate pulse overlap. We also demonstrate that real-time combination of different pulse patterns during drilling a thin borosilicate glass produced holes with low overall chipping at a high throughput rate.

  1. Pulsed laser ablation and deposition of niobium carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansone, M.; De Bonis, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università della Basilicata, Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Santagata, A. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, UOS Tito Scalo, C.da Santa Loja, 85010 Tito, PZ (Italy); Rau, J.V. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Galasso, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università della Basilicata, Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Teghil, R., E-mail: roberto.teghil@unibas.it [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università della Basilicata, Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza (Italy)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • We have deposited in vacuum niobium carbide films by fs and ns PLD. • We have compared PLD performed by ultra-short and short laser pulses. • The films deposited by fs PLD of NbC are formed by nanoparticles. • The structure of the films produced by fs PLD at 500 °C corresponds to NbC. - Abstract: NbC crystalline films have been deposited in vacuum by ultra-short pulsed laser deposition technique. The films have been characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopies and by X-ray diffraction. To clarify the ablation–deposition mechanism, the plasma produced by the ablation process has been characterized by optical emission spectroscopy and fast imaging. A comparison of the results with those obtained by ns pulsed deposition of the same target has been carried out.

  2. XUV-laser induced ablation of PMMA with nano-, pico-, and femtosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juha, L. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: juha@fzu.cz; Bittner, M. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Chvostova, D. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)] (and others)

    2005-06-15

    For conventional wavelength (UV-vis-IR) lasers delivering radiation energy to the surface of materials, ablation thresholds, etch (ablation) rates, and the quality of ablated structures often differ dramatically between short (typically nanosecond) and ultrashort (typically femtosecond) pulses. Various very short-wavelength ({lambda} < 100 nm) lasers, emitting pulses with durations ranging from {approx}10 fs to {approx}1 ns, have recently been placed into routine operation. This has facilitated the investigation of how ablation characteristics depend on the pulse duration in the XUV spectral region. Ablation of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) induced by three particular short-wavelength lasers emitting pulses of various durations, is reported in this contribution.

  3. Oxidation of uranium nanoparticles produced via pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trelenberg, T W; Glade, S C; Tobin, J G; Felter, T E; Hamza, A V

    2005-12-07

    An experimental apparatus designed for the synthesis, via pulsed laser deposition, and analysis of metallic nanoparticles and thin films of plutonium and other actinides was tested on depleted uranium samples. Five nanosecond pulses from a Nd:YAG laser produced films of {approx}1600 {angstrom} thickness that were deposited showing an angular distribution typical thermal ablation. The films remained contiguous for many months in vacuum but blistered due to induced tensile stresses several days after exposure to air. The films were allowed to oxidize from the residual water vapor within the chamber (2 x 10{sup -10} Torr base pressure). The oxidation was monitored by in-situ analysis techniques including x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and followed Langmuir kinetics.

  4. Numerical analysis of laser ablation and damage in glass with multiple picosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingying; Eppelt, Urs; Russ, Simone; Hartmann, Claudia; Siebert, Christof; Zhu, Jianqiang; Schulz, Wolfgang

    2013-04-08

    This study presents a novel numerical model for laser ablation and laser damage in glass including beam propagation and nonlinear absorption of multiple incident ultrashort laser pulses. The laser ablation and damage in the glass cutting process with a picosecond pulsed laser was studied. The numerical results were in good agreement with our experimental observations, thereby revealing the damage mechanism induced by laser ablation. Beam propagation effects such as interference, diffraction and refraction, play a major role in the evolution of the crater structure and the damage region. There are three different damage regions, a thin layer and two different kinds of spikes. Moreover, the electronic damage mechanism was verified and distinguished from heat modification using the experimental results with different pulse spatial overlaps.

  5. Demonstration of periodic nanostructure formation with less ablation by double-pulse laser irradiation on titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Yuki; Sakata, Ryoichi; Konishi, Kazuki; Ono, Koki; Matsuoka, Shusaku; Watanabe, Kota; Inoue, Shunsuke; Hashida, Masaki; Sakabe, Shuji

    2016-06-01

    By pairing femtosecond laser pulses (duration ˜40 fs and central wavelength ˜810 nm) at an appropriate time interval, a laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) is formed with much less ablation than one formed with a single pulse. On a titanium plate, a pair of laser pulses with fluences of 70 and 140 mJ/cm2 and a rather large time interval (>10 ps) creates a LIPSS with an interspace of 600 nm, the same as that formed by a single pulse of 210 mJ/cm2, while the double pulse ablates only 4 nm, a quarter of the ablation depth of a single pulse.

  6. Modeling of ablation threshold dependence on pulse duration for dielectrics with ultrashort pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingying; Zhu, Jianqiang; Lin, Zunqi

    2017-01-01

    We present a numerical model of plasma formation in ultrafast laser ablation on the dielectrics surface. Ablation threshold dependence on pulse duration is predicted with the model and the numerical results for water agrees well with the experimental data for pulse duration from 140 fs to 10 ps. Influences of parameters and approximations of photo- and avalanche-ionization on the ablation threshold prediction are analyzed in detail for various pulse lengths. The calculated ablation threshold is strongly dependent on electron collision time for all the pulse durations. The complete photoionization model is preferred for pulses shorter than 1 ps rather than the multiphoton ionization approximations. The transition time of inverse bremsstrahlung absorption needs to be considered when pulses are shorter than 5 ps and it can also ensure the avalanche ionization (AI) coefficient consistent with that in multiple rate equations (MREs) for pulses shorter than 300 fs. The threshold electron density for AI is only crucial for longer pulses. It is reasonable to ignore the recombination loss for pulses shorter than 100 fs. In addition to thermal transport and hydrodynamics, neglecting the threshold density for AI and recombination could also contribute to the disagreements between the numerical and the experimental results for longer pulses.

  7. Ablation experiment and threshold calculation of titanium alloy irradiated by ultra-fast pulse laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buxiang Zheng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between an ultra-fast pulse laser and a material's surface has become a research hotspot in recent years. Micromachining of titanium alloy with an ultra-fast pulse laser is a very important research direction, and it has very important theoretical significance and application value in investigating the ablation threshold of titanium alloy irradiated by ultra-fast pulse lasers. Irradiated by a picosecond pulse laser with wavelengths of 1064 nm and 532 nm, the surface morphology and feature sizes, including ablation crater width (i.e. diameter, ablation depth, ablation area, ablation volume, single pulse ablation rate, and so forth, of the titanium alloy were studied, and their ablation distributions were obtained. The experimental results show that titanium alloy irradiated by a picosecond pulse infrared laser with a 1064 nm wavelength has better ablation morphology than that of the green picosecond pulse laser with a 532 nm wavelength. The feature sizes are approximately linearly dependent on the laser pulse energy density at low energy density and the monotonic increase in laser pulse energy density. With the increase in energy density, the ablation feature sizes are increased. The rate of increase in the feature sizes slows down gradually once the energy density reaches a certain value, and gradually saturated trends occur at a relatively high energy density. Based on the linear relation between the laser pulse energy density and the crater area of the titanium alloy surface, and the Gaussian distribution of the laser intensity on the cross section, the ablation threshold of titanium alloy irradiated by an ultra-fast pulse laser was calculated to be about 0.109 J/cm2.

  8. Multidiagnostic analysis of ultrafast laser ablation of metals with pulse pair

    OpenAIRE

    LUNNEY, JAMES

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Copper targets are irradiated in the ablation regime by pairs of equal, time-delayed collinear laser pulses separated on a timescale going from 2 ps to 2 ns. The ablation plume is characterized by ion probe diagnostic, fast imaging, and temporally and spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy. The variation in the ablation efficiency with the delay between the pulses is analyzed by measuring the ablation crater profile with a contact profilometer. The second ...

  9. Ablation and analysis of small cell populations and single cells by consecutive laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bindesh; Nemes, Peter; Vertes, Akos

    2010-10-01

    Laser ablation of single cells through a sharpened optical fiber is used for the detection of metabolites by laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) mass spectrometry (MS). Ablation of the same Allium cepa epidermal cell by consecutive pulses indicates the rupture of the cell wall by the second shot. Intracellular sucrose heterogeneity is detected by subsequent laser pulses pointing to rupturing the vacuolar membrane by the third exposure. Ion production by bursts of laser pulses shows that the drying of ruptured A. cepa cells occurs in ˜50 s at low pulse rates (10 pulses/s bursts) and significantly faster at high pulse rates (100 pulses/s bursts). These results point to the competing role of cytoplasm ejection and evaporative drying in diminishing the LAESI-MS signal in ˜50 s or 100 laser pulses, whichever occurs first.

  10. Laser-induced back-ablation of aluminum thin films using picosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BULLOCK, A B

    1999-05-26

    Experiments were performed to understand laser-induced back-ablation of Al film targets with picosecond laser pulses. Al films deposited on the back surface of BK-7 substrates are ablated by picosecond laser pulses propagating into the Al film through the substrate. The ablated Al plume is transversely probed by a time-delayed, two-color sub-picoseond (500 fs) pulse, and this probe is then used to produce self-referencing interferograms and shadowgraphs of the Al plume in flight. Optical emission from the Al target due to LIBA is directed into a time-integrated grating spectrometer, and a time-integrating CCD camera records images of the Al plume emission. Ablated Al plumes are also redeposited on to receiving substrates. A post-experimental study of the Al target and recollected deposit characteristics was also done using optical microscopy, interferometry, and profilometry. In this high laser intensity regime, laser-induced substrate ionization and damage strongly limits transmitted laser fluence through the substrate above a threshold fluence. The threshold fluence for this ionization-based transmission limit in the substrate is dependent on the duration of the incident pulse. The substrate ionization can be used as a dynamic control of both transmitted spatial pulse profile and ablated Al plume shape. The efficiency of laser energy transfer between the laser pulse incident on the Al film and the ablated Al plume is estimated to be of order 5% and is a weak function of laser pulsewidth. The Al plume is highly directed. Low plume divergence ({theta}{sub divergence} < 5{sup o}) shows the ablated plume temperature to be very low at long time delays ( T << 0.5 eV at delays of 255 ns). Spectroscopic observations and calculations indicate that, in early time (t < 100 ps), the Al film region near the substrate/metal interface is at temperatures of order 0.5 eV. Interferograms of Al plumes produced with 0.1 {micro}m films show these plumes to be of high neutral atom

  11. Laser ablation of lysozyme with UV, visible and infrared femto- and nanosecond pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Canulescu, Stela; Matei, Andreea

    industry. Lysozyme molecules do not absorb energy for wavelengths above 310 nm, but nevertheless there is a strong mass loss by ablation for laser irradiation in the visible regime. The total ablation yield of lysozyme at 355 nm and at 2 J/cm2 is about 155 µg/pulse, possibly one of the highest ablation...

  12. Effect of nanosecond pulse laser ablation on the surface morphology of Zr-based metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunhu; Fu, Jie; Zheng, Chao; Ji, Zhong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the ripple patterns formation on the surface of Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 (vit1) bulk metallic glass using a nanosecond pulse laser ablation in air with a wavelength of 1064 nm. The strong thermal ablation phenomenon could be observed on vit1 BMG surface at laser energy of 200 mJ as a result of the adhibition of confining overlay. Many periodic ripples had formed on the edge of the ablated area at laser energy of 400 mJ because of the high intensity pulsed laser beam. The underlying mechanism of the periodic ripples formation could be explained by the K-H hydrodynamic instability theory. It had been shown that laser ablation with 600 mJ and 200 pulses results in the formation of many micro-cracks on the ablated area. Further analysis showed that the spatial occupation of the laser ablated area and the spacing between two adjacent ripples increased as the laser energy and the number of incident laser pulses increasing. The surface ripples feature on the edge of ablated area became more obvious with increasing laser pulses, but it was not correlated closely with the laser energies variation.

  13. Double-pulse laser ablation coupled to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaus, Reto, E-mail: reglaus@ufl.edu; Hahn, David W.

    2014-08-01

    Laser ablation coupled to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LA-LIBS) is an analytical method, which minimizes sample matrix effects typically found in quantitative LIBS-based direct solid analyses. This paper reports the application of double-pulse laser ablation (DP-LA) to improve the analyte response and the achievable precisions of LA-LIBS. Two coaxial laser beams were applied at the ablation site and the analytical signals were then collected from a second free-standing LIBS plasma downstream of the ablation site. Signal improvements of up to one order of magnitude were observed compared to single-pulse LA-LIBS. The effect of the interpulse delay on the observed signal-to-noise ratios was studied and the quantification capabilities of the optimized DP-LA-LIBS setup were investigated for manganese and iron in a broad range of different alloy types. A linear response was observed for manganese across the different matrices, allowing for nonmatrix-matched calibrations. Matrix effects were observed when analyzing aluminum samples, which, however, could be compensated for by applying iron as internal standard. Size distributions of the ablated material and electron density measurements provide additional insight into the double-pulse process, with additional future work suggested. - Highlights: • Double-pulse laser ablation was coupled to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. • Nonmatrix-matched calibration of manganese in various alloys was performed. • Improved sensitivities and precisions compared to single-pulse LA were demonstrated. • Remaining matrix effects and internal standardization are discussed.

  14. Tracing the plasma interactions for pulsed reactive crossed-beam laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jikun; Stender, Dieter; Pichler, Markus; Pergolesi, Daniele; Schneider, Christof W.; Wokaun, Alexander; Lippert, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.lippert@psi.ch [General Energy Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Döbeli, Max [Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-10-28

    Pulsed reactive crossed-beam laser ablation is an effective technique to govern the chemical activity of plasma species and background molecules during pulsed laser deposition. Instead of using a constant background pressure, a gas pulse with a reactive gas, synchronized with the laser beam, is injected into vacuum or a low background pressure near the ablated area of the target. It intercepts the initially generated plasma plume, thereby enhancing the physicochemical interactions between the gaseous environment and the plasma species. For this study, kinetic energy resolved mass-spectrometry and time-resolved plasma imaging were used to study the physicochemical processes occurring during the reactive crossed beam laser ablation of a partially {sup 18}O substituted La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}MnO{sub 3} target using oxygen as gas pulse. The characteristics of the ablated plasma are compared with those observed during pulsed laser deposition in different oxygen background pressures.

  15. Simulation of femtosecond pulsed laser ablation of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, R. V.; Antonov, V. I.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper a mathematical model for femtosecond laser ablation of metals is proposed, based on standard two-temperature model connected with 1D hydrodynamic equations. Wide-range equation of state has been developed. The simulation results are compared with experimental data for aluminium and copper. A good agreement for both metals with numerical results and experiment shows that this model can be employed for choosing laser parameters to better accuracy in nanoparticles production by ablation of metals.

  16. Approximate theory of highly absorbing polymer ablation by nanosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furzikov, N. P.

    1990-04-01

    Surface interference, nonlinearly saturated instability of laser-induced thermodestruction, and subsequent oscillation of absorption mode permit the description of analytical ablation thresholds and depths per pulse of polymers having high absorption at laser wavelengths, e.g., polyimide and poly(ethylene terephtalate). Inverse problem solution for polycarbonate and ablation invariant designing are also realized.

  17. Determining Optimum Propellants, Pulse Lengths, and Laser Intensity for Ablative Laser Propulsion Using the Pals Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boody, Frederick P.

    2004-10-01

    Ablative Laser Propulsion (ALP) can potentially reduce the cost of launching payloads into near earth orbit by a factor of 100. Preliminary experiments have demonstrated high efficiency, coupling coefficient, and specific impulse that would be suitable for applications. These experiments, however, were performed at wavelengths not usable in the atmosphere and at pulse energies and spot sizes much smaller than will be required for application. The parameters of the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) high-energy iodine laser, other than wavelength: pulse energy, pulse length, and beam diameter, are equal to those required for application. While its wavelength is a little shorter than required, it is closer than any other laser available and, due to PALS' 2ω and 3ω capability, the wavelength dependence can be studied and the results extrapolated to application values. In fact, PALS is probably the only laser in the world with parameters suitable for definitive ALP studies. PALS also has a suitable infrastructure for measuring plasma parameters already and only an instrument for measuring momentum transfer, such as a ballistic pendulum, would have to be added.

  18. Heat-affected zone of metals ablated with femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Yoichi; Obara, Minoru

    2003-07-01

    The melted area is found on the surface ablated by nanosecond and picosecond laser pulses. However, the heat effect is little on the ablated surface in the case of femtosecond laser due to non-thermal ablation process. Heat-affected zone of metallic bulk crystal ablated with femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulses is experimentally studied. As a result of XRD (X-ray diffraction) measurements, the XRD peak signal of the area ablated with Ti:sapphire laser becomes smaller than that of the crystalline metal sample. While the crystallinity of the metal sample is crystalline before the laser ablation, the crystallinity in the ablated area is partially changed into the amorphous form. Because the residual pulse energy that is not used for the ablation process remains, leading to the formation of thin layer of melt phase. The melt layer is abruptly cooled down not to be re-crystallized, but to transform into the amorphous form. It is evident that the area ablated with femtosecond laser is changed into the amorphous metal. Additionally XRD measurements and AR+ etching are performed alternately to measure the thickness of the amorphous layer. In the case of iron, the thickness is measured to be 1 μm approximately, therefore heat-affected zone is quite small.

  19. The theory study of Metal absorptivity in femtosecond pulsed laser ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; ZHANG Duan-ming; LI Zhi-hua; TAN Xin-yu; FANG Ran-ran

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,the effect of the absorptivity of metal on femtosecond pulsed laser ablation is investigated.The formulas for the absorptivity depending on target temperature are derived from Maxwell Equations and the Lambert-Beer's law.Based on this,a new two-temperature model is proposed to describe the femtosecond pulsed laser ablation with metal.Then,using Au as an example,a finite difference method is employed to simulate the space-dependent and time-dependent absorptivity and the target temperature.The temperature evolution of our model is compared with the result obtained form the heat conduction model taking the absorptivity as constant.It is shown that the absorptivity plays an important role in the femtosecond pulsed laser ablation.The results of this paper are helpful in choosing the best technical parameters in femtosecond pulsed laser ablation.

  20. Langmuir probe study of plasma expansion in pulsed laser ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T.N.; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Langmuir probes were used to monitor the asymptotic expansion of the plasma produced by the laser ablation of a silver target in a vacuum. The measured angular and temporal distributions of the ion flux and electron temperature were found to be in good agreement with the self-similar isentropic...... and adiabatic solution of the gas dynamics equations describing the expansion. The value of the adiabatic index gamma was about 1.25, consistent with the ablation plume being a low temperature plasma....

  1. Pulsed laser ablation of polymers for display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedder, James E. A.; Holmes, Andrew S.; Booth, Heather J.

    2008-02-01

    Laser micromachining by ablation is a well established technique used for the production of 2.5D and 3D features in a wide variety of materials. The fabrication of stepped, multi-level, structures can be achieved using a number of binary mask projection techniques using excimer lasers. Alternatively, direct-writing of complex 2.5D features can easily be achieved with solid-state lasers. Excimer laser ablation using half-tone masks allows almost continuous surface relief and the generation of features with low surface roughness. We have developed techniques to create large arrays of repeating micro-optical structures on polymer substrates. Here, we show our recent developments in laser structuring with the combination of half-tone and binary mask techniques.

  2. Selective Ablation of thin Nickel-chromium-alloy Films Using Ultrashort Pulsed Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, Linda; Ebert, Robby; Exner, Horst

    The selective ablation of 100nm thin Nickel-Chromium-alloy films on glass substrate was investigated using femtosecond laser pulses (λ=1030nm, τp=170 fs, Ep,max=7μJ). The influence of the processing parameters such as fluence, pulse number and pulse repetition rate on the ablation process was examined. Single and multiple pulses ablation thresholds of the Nickel-Chromium-alloy film were determined and the incubation coefficient calculated. Optical and electron microscopy were employed to characterize the patterned area. As a result, different irradiation morphologies were observed, dependent from the processing parameters. A processing window for film side ablation of the Nickel-Chromium-alloy film without damaging the underlying glass substrate was found, however, the edge of the ablation craters were covered with laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS).

  3. All-optical histology using two photon laser scanning microscopy and ablation with ultrashort pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Philbert S.

    This dissertation discusses the use of ultrashort laser pulses to image and manipulate tissue for the purpose of three-dimensional histological reconstruction of extended brain structures. Two photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) and ultrashort pulsed laser ablation are used to provide in situ three-dimensional imaging through thick preparations of fixed tissue. Surface regions of fixed tissue are first imaged using TPLSM. The imaged regions are then removed by ablation with amplified, ultrashort laser pulses, thereby exposing a previously underlying tissue region for imaging. This process of imaging and ablation proceeds iteratively until the desired tissue volume has been processed. First, the principles, design, and construction of a two photon laser scanning microscope are discussed, followed by a discussion of the physical mechanisms of tissue ablation with ultrashort laser pulses. The compatibility of tissue ablation using ultrashort pulses with subsequent histological analysis, particularly with fluorescent microscopy, is evaluated. Tissue ablation with ultrashort laser pulses is found to produce ablated tissue surfaces that are smooth to within a micrometer. Intrinsic fluorescence as well as immunoreactivity are found to be resilient to the ablation process. The all-optical histological technique is demonstrated on brain tissue from rats and mice, including tissue from embryonic mouse as early at E15. The ablation process is shown to preserve both macroscopic and microscopic structures within tissue. To facilitate the all-optical histological analysis of neuronal vasculature and its relative distribution to surrounding neuronal tissue, a fluorescent gel perfusion technique is developed that provides a temperature-stabilized fluorescent label of the neuronal vasculature. The use of immunohistochemistry to label specific cell populations throughout an 800 micrometer-thick tissue section is demonstrated. Additionally, the immersion of fixed tissue in high

  4. Particle Generation by Pulsed Excimer Laser Ablation in Liquid: Hollow Structures and Laser-Induced Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zijie

    2011-12-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of solid targets in liquid media is a powerful method to fabricate micro-/nanoparticles, which has attracted much interest in the past decade. It represents a combinatorial library of constituents and interactions, and one can explore disparate regions of parameter space with outcomes that are impossible to envision a priori. In this work, a pulsed excimer laser (wavelength 248 nm, pulse width 30 ns) has been used to ablate targets in liquid media with varying laser fluences, frequencies, ablation times and surfactants. It is observed that hollow particles could be fabricated by excimer laser ablation of Al, Pt, Zn, Mg, Ag, Si, TiO2, and Nb2O5 in water or aqueous solutions. The hollow particles, with sizes from tens of nanometers to micrometers, may have smooth and continuous shells or have morphologies demonstrating that they were assembled from nanoparticles. A new mechanism has been proposed to explain the formation of these novel particle geometries. They were formed on laser-produced bubbles through bubble interface pinning by laser-produced solid species. Considering the bubble dynamics, thermodynamic and kinetic requirements have been discussed in the mechanism that can explain some phenomena associated with the formation of hollow particles, especially (1) larger particles are more likely to be hollow particles; (2) Mg and Al targets have stronger tendency to generate hollow particles; and (3) the 248 nm excimer laser is more beneficial to fabricate hollow particles in water than other lasers with longer wavelengths. The work has also demonstrated the possiblities to fabricate novel nanostructures through laser-induced reactions. Zn(OH)2/dodecyl sulfate flower-like nanostructures, AgCl cubes, and Ag2O cubes, pyramids, triangular plates, pentagonal rods and bars have been obtained via reactions between laser-produced species with water, electrolyes, or surfactant molecules. The underlying mechanisms of forming these structures have been

  5. Experimental verification of the ablation pressure dependence upon the laser intensity at pulsed irradiation of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasyuk, I. K.; Semenov, A. Yu; Stuchebryukhov, I. A.; Khishchenko, K. V.

    2016-11-01

    Experiments for verification of a functional dependence of the ablation pressure on the irradiated surface of a target upon the laser intensity in a range from 1.2 to 350 TW/cm2 have been carried out. For that, at some intensities of the laser irradiation, time intervals between the laser pulse maximum and the moment of the shock-wave front arrival to the rear surface of the target were measured, which are dependent on the ablation pressure. Two schemes of the measurements were used. At the first scheme, at higher laser intensities, the front arrival moment is determined via an electron-optical camera when the rear surface begins glowing. At the second scheme, the front arrival moment is recorded when a probe laser pulse changes the character of the reflection by the rear surface of the irradiated target. Results of measurements are in agreement with the ablation pressure dependence upon the laser pulse intensity within 20%.

  6. Visualization of liquid-assisted hard tissue ablation with a pulsed CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. W.; Chen, C. G.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhan, Z. L.; Xie, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of liquid-mediated hard tissue ablation induced by a pulsed CO2 laser with a wavelength of 10.6 μm, a high speed camera was used to monitor the interaction between water, tissue and laser irradiation. The results showed that laser irradiation can directly impact on tissue through a vapor channel formed by the leading part of the laser pulse. The ablation debris plays a key role in liquid-assisted laser ablation, having the ability to keep the vapor channel open to extend actuation time. The runoff effect induced by vortex convection liquid flow can remove the tissue that obstructs the effect of the next laser pulse.

  7. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by laser ablation in ethanol: A pulsed photoacoustic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valverde-Alva, M.A., E-mail: azbmiguel@gmail.com [Posgrado en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), México D.F., C.P. 04510, México (Mexico); García-Fernández, T. [Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México (UACM), Prolongación San Isidro 151, Col. San Lorenzo Tezonco, México D.F., C.P. 09790, México (Mexico); Villagrán-Muniz, M.; Sánchez-Aké, C.; Castañeda-Guzmán, R. [CCADET Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), México D.F., C.P. 04510, México (Mexico); Esparza-Alegría, E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), México D.F., C.P. 04510, México (Mexico); Sánchez-Valdés, C.F. [Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica A.C., Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a sección, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P., C.P. 78216, México (Mexico); and others

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pulsed photoacoustic technique allowed to determine the production rate of NPs. • Pulsed photoacoustic technique allows to determine the Ag concentration in colloids. • The nanoparticles production rate drops quickly during the first laser pulses. • Nanoparticles production rate is almost constant after few hundreds of laser shots. • Photoacoustic signal amplitude was proportional to fluence on the target surface. - Abstract: The pulsed photoacoustic (PA) technique was used to study the synthesis by laser ablation of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in ethanol. PA technique allowed to determine the production rate per laser pulse and concentration of synthesized Ag-NPs. The samples were produced by using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser with 1064 nm of wavelength and 7 ns of pulse duration. The laser pulse energy varied from 10 to 100 mJ. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs demonstrated that the obtained nanoparticles were spherical with an average size close to 10 nm. The absorption spectra of the colloids showed a plasmon absorption peak around 400 nm. The PA analyses showed a significant reduction of the production rate of Ag-NPs during the first hundreds of laser pulses. For a higher number of pulses this rate was kept almost constant. Finally, we found that the root mean square (RMS) value of the PA signal was proportional to the laser pulse fluence on the target surface. Thus PA technique was useful to monitor the ablation process.

  8. Single and double long pulse laser ablation of aluminum induced in air and water ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Jafarabadi, Marzieh; Mahdieh, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, single pulse and double pulse laser ablation of an aluminum target in two interaction ambient was investigated experimentally. The interaction was performed by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser beam in air and four depths (i.e. 9, 13, 17, and 21 mm) of distilled water ambient. The irradiation was carried out in single and collinear double pulse configurations in both air and liquid ambient. Crater geometry (depth and diameter) was measured by an optical microscope. The results indicated that the crater geometry strongly depends on both single pulse and double pulse configurations and interaction ambient. In single pulse regime, the crater diameter is higher for all water depths compared to that of air. However, the crater depth, depend on water depth, is higher or lower than the crater depth in air. In double pulse laser ablation, there are greater values for both crater diameters and crater depths in the water.

  9. SOLID BODY ABLATION UNDER EXPOSURE TO ULTRA SHORT LASER PULSES: STUDY BY MOLECULAR DYNAMICS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Ivanov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The process of laser ablation under the influence of ultra short laser pulses on metals is investigated by methods of molecular dynamics. The validity and applicability of the hybrid atomistic-continuous model for the estimation of optimum modes of ultra short laser pulses processing are explored. Combination of atomistic model of laser-induced non-equilibrium process of a phase transition at the atomic level with continuous two-temperature model for describing the dynamics of photo-excitation of free media is proposed. Applicability of laser ablation model on the example of aluminum films and gold under exposure to pulses with different energy density and duration is shown. It is indicated that, depending on the ratio of the laser pulse duration and the characteristic time of electron-phonon material interaction, photothermal and photomechanical modes of destruction are implemented that determine the quality and performance of the laser processing. It is established that at the duration of laser pulse less than the time of electron-phonon interaction high-performance photomechanical type of destruction is implemented by internal stresses arising in the area of exposure. This is confirmed by a linear dependence of the ablation rate from the absorbed energy. At the duration of laser pulse greater than the time of electron-phonon interaction inefficient photothermal mode of destruction is implemented. The results may be useful for specialists engaged in the development of laser technologies

  10. Ablation and nanostructuring of metals by femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashitkov, S I; Komarov, P S; Ovchinnikov, A V; Struleva, E V; Agranat, M B [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhakhovskii, V V [All-Russian Institute of Automatics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Inogamov, N A [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2014-06-30

    Using an interferometric continuous monitoring technique, we have investigated the motion of the surface of an aluminium target in the case of femtosecond laser ablation at picosecond time delays relative to the instant of laser exposure. Measurements of the temporal target dispersion dynamics, molecular dynamics simulation results and the morphology of the ablation crater have demonstrated a thermomechanical (spall) nature of the disruption of the condensed phase due to the cavitation-driven formation and growth of vapour phase nuclei upon melt expansion, followed by the formation of surface nanostructures upon melt solidification. The tensile strength of heated aluminium in a condensed state has been determined experimentally at an expansion rate of ∼10{sup 9} s{sup -1}. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  11. Non-thermal ablation of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene with an intense femtosecond-pulse laser

    OpenAIRE

    Hashida, M.; Mishima, H.; Tokita, S.; Sakabe, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ablation of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene without disruption of the fine porous structure is demonstrated using an intense femtosecond-pulse laser. As a result of laser-matter interactions near ablation threshold fluence, high-energy ions are emitted, which cannot be produced by thermal dissociation of the molecules. The ion energy is produced by Coulomb explosion of the elements of (-CF_{2}-CF_{2-})n and the energy spectra of the ions show contributions from the Coulomb explosions of the ...

  12. Hyperthermal Pulsed-Laser Ablation Beams for Film Deposition and Surface Microstructural Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowndes, D.H.

    1999-11-08

    This paper presents an overview of pulsed-laser ablation for film deposition and surface microstructure formation. By changing the ambient gas pressure from high vacuum to several Torr (several hundred Pa) and by selecting the pulsed-laser wavelength, the kinetic energy of ablated atoms/ions can be varied from several hundred eV down to {approximately}0.1 eV and films ranging from superhard to nanocrystalline may be deposited. Furthermore, cumulative (multi-pulse) irradiation of a semiconductor surface (e.g. silicon) in an oxidizing gas (0{sub 2}, SF{sub 6}) et atmospheric pressure can produce dense, self-organized arrays of high-aspect-ratio microcolumns or microcones. Thus, a wide range of materials synthesis and processing opportunities result from the hyperthermal flux and reactive growth conditions provided by pulsed-laser ablation.

  13. Myocardium tissue ablation with hollow-waveguide-delivered near-infrared nanosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shunichi; Arai, Tsunenori; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2001-06-01

    With 1064-nm, nanosecond laser pulses delivered from hollow waveguide, ablation characteristics of porcine myocardium tissue have been investigated in vitro. For the hollow waveguide a vacuum-cored scheme was introduced to suppress the laser-induced air breakdown that limited the available transmitted laser energy/power. The delivered laser pulse beam was focused with a collimation lens and a focusing lens, and it was shown that higher efficiency ablation was obtained when a focusing lens with a shorter focal length was used. Waveguide bending (bending angle 90 degree(s)C, bending radius approximately 50 cm) caused no deteriorating effect on the ablation characteristics for ablation energies up to approximately 60 mJ/pulse. It was demonstrated that deep and sharp ablated holes with aspect ratios > 8 was obtained with the hollow-waveguide-delivered laser pulses. It may be a realistic option to aim at using the present hollow waveguide system for trocar-based applications or replacing articulated mirror-based laser delivery systems. It is an important part of the future works to downsize the waveguide output unit for catheter-based applications.

  14. Wavelength effect on hole shapes and morphology evolution during ablation by picosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wanqin; Wang, Wenjun; Li, Ben Q.; Jiang, Gedong; Mei, Xuesong

    2016-10-01

    An experimental study is presented of the effect of wavelength on the shape and morphology evolution of micro holes ablated on stainless steel surface by a 10 ps Q-switched Nd:VAN pulsed laser. Two routes of hole development are associated with the visible (532 nm) and near-infrared (1064 nm) laser beams, respectively. The evolution of various geometric shapes and morphological characteristics of the micro holes ablated with the two different wavelengths is comparatively studied for other given processing conditions such as a laser power levels and the number of pulses applied. Plausible explanations, based on the light-materials interaction associated with laser micromachining, are also provided for the discernable paths of geometric and morphological development of holes under laser ablation.

  15. Nanograting formation in air through plasmonic near-field ablation induced by femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Godai; Miyazaki, Kenzo

    2017-02-01

    Superimposed multiple shots of low-fluence femtosecond (fs) laser pulses form a periodic nanostructure on solid surfaces through ablation. We have demonstrated that the self-organization process of nanostructuring can be regulated to fabricate a homogeneous nanograting on the target surface in air. A simple two-step ablation process and an ablation technique using interfering fs laser beams were developed to control plasmonic near-fields generated by fs laser pulses. The results have shown the nature of a single spatial standing wave mode of surface plasmon polaritons of which periodically enhanced near-fields ablate the target surface, to fabricate the nanograting on gallium nitride (GaN) and metals such as stainless steel (SUS) and titanium (Ti).

  16. An improved three-dimensional two-temperature model for multi-pulse femtosecond laser ablation of aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinping; Chen, Yuping, E-mail: ypchen@sjtu.edu.cn; Hu, Mengning; Chen, Xianfeng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-02-14

    In this paper, an improved three-dimensional two-temperature model for multi-pulse femtosecond laser ablation of aluminum was proposed and proved in our experiment. Aiming to achieve hole-drilling with a high ratio of depth/entrance diameter in vacuum, this model can predict the depth and radius of the drilled holes precisely when employing different laser parameters. Additionally, for multi-pulse laser ablation, we found that the laser fluence and number of pulses are the dominant parameters and the multi-pulse ablation threshold is much lower than the single-pulse one, which will help to obtain high-quality holes.

  17. Heat accumulation in ultra-short pulsed scanning laser ablation of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Franziska; Michalowski, Andreas; Kiedrowski, Thomas; Nolte, Stefan

    2015-01-26

    High average laser powers can have a serious adverse impact on the ablation quality in ultra-short pulsed laser material processing of metals. With respect to the scanning speed, a sharp transition between a smooth, reflective and an uneven, dark ablated surface is observed. Investigating the influence of the sample temperature, it is experimentally shown that this effect stems from heat accumulation. In a numerical heat flow simulation, the critical scanning speed indicating the change in ablation quality is determined in good agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Modification of narrow ablating capillaries under the influence of multiple femtosecond laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Gubin, K V; Trunov, V I; Pestryakov, E V

    2016-01-01

    Powerful femtosecond laser pulses that propagate through narrow ablating capillaries cause modification of capillary walls, which is studied experimentally and theoretically. At low intensities, laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) and porous coating composed of sub-micron particles appear on the walls. At higher intensities, the surface is covered by deposited droplets of the size up to 10 $\\mu$m. In both cases, the ablated material forms a solid plug that completely blocks the capillary after several hundreds or thousands of pulses. The suggested theoretical model indicates that plug formation is a universal effect. It must take place in any narrow tube subject to ablation under the action of short laser pulses.

  19. Precise ablation of dental hard tissues with ultra-short pulsed lasers. Preliminary exploratory investigation on adequate laser parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Wehner, Martin; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula; Lampert, Friedrich; Poprawe, Reinhart; Hermans, Martin; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of introducing ultra-short pulsed lasers (USPL) in restorative dentistry by maintaining the well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also overcoming disadvantages, such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. USPL ablation of dental hard tissues was investigated in two phases. Phase 1--different wavelengths (355, 532, 1,045, and 1,064 nm), pulse durations (picoseconds and femtoseconds) and irradiation parameters (scanning speed, output power, and pulse repetition rate) were assessed for enamel and dentin. Ablation rate was determined, and the temperature increase measured in real time. Phase 2--the most favorable laser parameters were evaluated to correlate temperature increase to ablation rate and ablation efficiency. The influence of cooling methods (air, air-water spray) on ablation process was further analyzed. All parameters tested provided precise and selective tissue ablation. For all lasers, faster scanning speeds resulted in better interaction and reduced temperature increase. The most adequate results were observed for the 1064-nm ps-laser and the 1045-nm fs-laser. Forced cooling caused moderate changes in temperature increase, but reduced ablation, being considered unnecessary during irradiation with USPL. For dentin, the correlation between temperature increase and ablation efficiency was satisfactory for both pulse durations, while for enamel, the best correlation was observed for fs-laser, independently of the power used. USPL may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, since effective ablation and low temperature increase were observed. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this technique seems to be promising for promoting the laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach.

  20. Human dermis separation via ultra-short pulsed laser plasma-mediated ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Huan; Guo Zhixiong, E-mail: guo@jove.rutgers.ed [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2009-08-21

    In vitro layer separation of human dermal tissues via laser plasma-mediated ablation was successfully conducted for the first time. The ablation of wet dermis was generated using a 900 fs ultra-short pulsed laser with the wavelength centred at 1552 nm. The ablation and separation results were imaged and measured by scanning electron microscopy. The dermis ablation threshold was determined as 9.65 {+-} 1.21 J cm{sup -2} and the incubation factor was found as 0.46 {+-} 0.03. Histological examinations were performed to find proper laser parameters for dermis ablation and separation with minimal thermal damage. No thermal damage was found in the single line ablation results when the pulse overlap rate was not over 5 pulses {mu}m{sup -1}. Even in the multi-line ablation, thermal damage was insignificant and the lateral damage zone was generally within 5 {mu}m in the results with 100 continuously repeated line scans. The separation of a whole piece of wet dermal tissue into two thin layers was presented. Several separation tests with different layer thicknesses from 200 to 600 {mu}m were completed. The unevenness of the separated layers was generally under 10%. The cohesion and morphology of the separated tissue layers were not altered.

  1. Determination of ablation threshold for composite resins and amalgam irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, A. Z.; Freschi, L. R.; Samad, R. E.; Zezell, D. M.; Gouw-Soares, S. C.; Vieira, N. D., Jr.

    2010-03-01

    The use of laser for caries removal and cavity preparation is already a reality in the dental clinic. The objective of the present study was to consider the viability of ultrashort laser pulses for restorative material selective removal, by determining the ablation threshold fluence for composite resins and amalgam irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses. Lasers pulses centered at 830 nm with 50 fs of duration and 1 kHz of repetition rate, with energies in the range of 300 to 770 μJ were used to irradiate the samples. The samples were irradiated using two different geometrical methods for ablation threshold fluence determinations and the volume ablation was measured by optical coherence tomography. The shape of the ablated surfaces were analyzed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The determined ablation threshold fluence is 0.35 J/cm2 for the composite resins Z-100 and Z-350, and 0.25 J/cm2 for the amalgam. These values are half of the value for enamel in this temporal regime. Thermal damages were not observed in the samples. Using the OCT technique (optical coherence tomography) was possible to determine the ablated volume and the total mass removed.

  2. Double-pulse laser ablation sampling: Enhancement of analyte emission by a second laser pulse at 213 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Bruno Yue [Laser Technologies Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Mao, Xianglei [Laser Technologies Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hou, Huaming [Laser Technologies Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ocean University of China, Qingdao (China); Zorba, Vassilia; Russo, Richard E. [Laser Technologies Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheung, Nai-Ho, E-mail: nhcheung@hkbu.edu.hk [Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-08-01

    For the purpose of devising methods for minimally destructive multi-element analysis, we compare the performance of a 266 nm–213 nm double-pulse scheme against that of the single 266 nm pulse scheme. The first laser pulse at 266 nm ablates a mica sample. Ten ns later, the second pulse at 213 nm and 64 mJ cm{sup −2} orthogonally intercepts the gas plume to enhance the analyte signal. Emissions from aluminum, silicon, magnesium and sodium are simultaneously observed. At low 266 nm laser fluence when only sub-ng of sample mass is removed, the signal enhancement by the 213 nm pulse is especially apparent. The minimum detectable amount of aluminum is about 24 fmol; it will be a hundred times higher if the sample is analyzed by the 266 nm pulse alone. The minimum detectable mass for the other analytes is also reduced by about two orders of magnitude when the second pulse at 213 nm is introduced. The spectral and temporal properties of the enhanced signal are consistent with the mechanism of ultra-violet laser excited atomic fluorescence of dense plumes. - Highlights: • We devise a two-laser-pulse scheme to analyze the elemental composition of mica as test samples. • We compare the analytical performance of the single 266 nm pulse scheme against the 266 nm – 213 nm two pulse scheme. • The two pulse scheme improves the absolute LODs of the analytes by about a hundred times. • The spectral and temporal properties of the enhanced signal are consistent with the mechanism.

  3. Thermal characteristics of double-layer thin film target ablated by femtosecond laser pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Xun; Song Xiao-Wei; Lin Jing-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Thermal characteristics of tightly-contacted copper-gold double-layer thin film target under ablation of femtosecond laser pulses are investigated by using a two-temperature theoretical model. Numerical simulation shows that electron heat flux varies significantly on the boundary of copper-gold film with different maximal electron temperature of 1.15 × 103 K at 5 ps after ablating laser pulse in gold and copper films, which can reach a balance around 12.6 ps and 8.2 ps for a single and double pulse ablation, respectively, and in the meantime, the lattice temperature difference crossing the gold-copper interface is only about 0.04 × 103 K at the same time scale. It is also found that electron-lattice heat relaxation time increases linearly with laser fluence in both single and double pulse ablation, and a sudden change of the relaxation time appears after the laser energy density exceeds the ablation threshold.

  4. Precise ablation milling with ultrashort pulsed Nd:YAG lasers by optical and acoustical process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Volker; Weber, Patricia

    2010-02-01

    Laser ablation milling with ultra short pulsed Nd:YAG lasers enables micro structuring in nearly all kinds of solid materials like metals, ceramics and polymers. A precise machining result with high surface quality requires a defined ablation process. Problems arise through the scatter in the resulting ablation depth of the laser beam machining process where material is removed in layers. Since the ablated volume may change due to varying absorption properties in single layers and inhomogeneities in the material, the focal plane might deviate from the surface of the work piece when the next layer is machined. Thus the focal plane has to be adjusted after each layer. A newly developed optical and acoustical process control enables an in-process adjustment of the focal plane that leads to defined process conditions and thus to better ablation results. The optical process control is realized by assistance of a confocal white light sensor. It enables an automated work piece orientation before machining and an inline ablation depth monitoring. The optical device can be integrated for an online or offline process control. Both variants will be presented and discussed. A further approach for adjustment of the focal plane is the acoustical process control. Acoustic emissions are detected while laser beam machining. A signal analysis of the airborne sound spectrum emitted by the process enables conclusions about the focal position of the laser beam. Based on this correlation an acoustic focus positioning is built up. The focal plane can then be adjusted automatically before ablation.

  5. Analysis of surface damage produced by pulsed laser ablation on metal Al and semiconductor Si

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ManBao-Yuan; LiuAi-Hua; 等

    1998-01-01

    The suraface morphological changesd produced by Nd:YAG pulsed laser ablation of metal Al and semiconductor Si were carefully examined and analyzed by using scanning elkectron microscope.The formation mechanism of the droplets was discussed.and the reasons for formation of the microcracks on the laser irradiated area of the target surface were analyzed by calculating the thermal stress,the vapor pressure and the shock pressure induced by the laser supported detonation.

  6. Ultra-short laser pulse ablation using shear-force feedback: Femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samek, Ota [ISAS-Institute for Analytical Sciences, Bunsen-Kirchhoff Str.11, 44139 Dortmund (Germany)]. E-mail: samek@ansci.de; Kurowski, Andre [ISAS-Institute for Analytical Sciences, Bunsen-Kirchhoff Str.11, 44139 Dortmund (Germany); Kittel, Silke [ISAS-Institute for Analytical Sciences, Bunsen-Kirchhoff Str.11, 44139 Dortmund (Germany); Kukhlevsky, Sergei [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Ifjusag u. 6, Pecs 7624 (Hungary); Hergenroeder, Roland [ISAS-Institute for Analytical Sciences, Bunsen-Kirchhoff Str.11, 44139 Dortmund (Germany)

    2005-08-31

    This work reports on a feasibility study of proximity ablation using femtosecond pulses. Ultra-short pulses were launched to a bare tapered optical fiber and delivered to the sample. The tip-sample distance was controlled by means of shear-force feedback. Consequently, ablation craters with submicrometer dimensions were obtained. Potential analytical applications for Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique, such as e.g. inclusions in steel or bio cells, are suggested.

  7. Femtosecond pulse laser ablation of chromium: experimental results and two-temperature model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghebfar, M.; Tehrani, M. K.; Darbani, S. M. R.; Majd, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the results of experimental and computational single- and multi-shot ablation threshold and the incubation effect of chromium metal sample, irradiated by ultrashort laser pulses, are presented. The experimental value of the ablation threshold is determined based on D2 method by measuring the outer ablation crater diameters as a function of incident laser pulse energy using 800 nm, 30 fs, laser pulses. The value of 0.19 ± 0.04 (J/cm2 ), is obtained for the single-shot ablation threshold fluence. The experimental results are compared with time-dependent heat flow calculations based on the two-temperature model and the effect of number and separation time of two consecutive laser pulses with the same total fluence is studied for the Cr target. Moreover, the role of pulse width and absorbed fluence in thermal equilibrium time between electrons and lattice is investigated in two-temperature model. The thermal equilibrium between electron and lattice is established after a few picoseconds for low fluences and after a few tens of picoseconds at higher fluences.

  8. Femtosecond pulsed laser ablation of molybdenum carbide: Nanoparticles and thin film characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bonis, A.; Santagata, A.; Sansone, M.; Rau, J. V.; Mori, T.; Teghil, R.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we have used pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique to ablate a Mo2C target in vacuum by using an ultra-short pulse laser, with a 250 fs pulse duration, carrying out the study of both plasma and film characteristics. The aim of the work is to connect the film structure and morphology to the characteristics of the nanoparticles found in the plasma produced by the target ablation. To analyze the plasma we have used ICCD fast imaging and optical emission spectroscopy while the films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force spectroscopy. The obtained results have been interpreted considering an ablation model which justifies the emission of molten nanoparticles directly from the target.

  9. Doping He droplets by laser ablation with a pulsed supersonic jet source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzy, R.; Singer, M.; Izadnia, S.; LaForge, A. C., E-mail: aaron.laforge@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Stienkemeier, F. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Laser ablation offers the possibility to study a rich number of atoms, molecules, and clusters in the gas phase. By attaching laser ablated materials to helium nanodroplets, one can gain highly resolved spectra of isolated species in a cold, weakly perturbed system. Here, we present a new setup for doping pulsed helium nanodroplet beams by means of laser ablation. In comparison to more well-established techniques using a continuous nozzle, pulsed nozzles show significant differences in the doping efficiency depending on certain experimental parameters (e.g., position of the ablation plume with respect to the droplet formation, nozzle design, and expansion conditions). In particular, we demonstrate that when the ablation region overlaps with the droplet formation region, one also creates a supersonic beam of helium atoms seeded with the sample material. The processes are characterized using a surface ionization detector. The overall doping signal is compared to that of conventional oven cell doping showing very similar dependence on helium stagnation conditions, indicating a comparable doping process. Finally, the ablated material was spectroscopically studied via laser induced fluorescence.

  10. Applications of ultra-short pulsed laser ablation: thin films deposition and fs/ns dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teghil, R; De Bonis, A; Galasso, A [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita della Basilicata, Via N. Sauro 85, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Santagata, A; Albano, G; Villani, P; Spera, D; Parisi, G P [CNR-IMIP, Unita di Potenza, Via S. Loja, 85050 Tito Scalo (Italy)], E-mail: roberto.teghil@unibas.it

    2008-10-15

    In this paper, we report a survey of two of the large number of possible practical applications of the laser ablation performed by an ultra-short pulse laser, namely pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and fs/ns dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS). These applications differ from those using just longer pulsed lasers as a consequence of the distinctive characteristics of the plasma produced by ultra-short laser beams. The most important feature of this plasma is the large presence of particles with nanometric size which plays a fundamental role in both applications.

  11. LASER ABLATION OF MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON UNDER PULSED-FREQUENCY FIBER LASER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Veiko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of research. The paper deals with research of the surface ablation for single-crystal silicon wafers and properties of materials obtained in response to silicon ablation while scanning beam radiation of pulse fiber ytterbium laser with a wavelenght λ = 1062 nm in view of variation of radiation power and scanning modes. Method. Wafers of commercial p-type conductivity silicon doped with boron (111, n-type conductivity silicon doped with phosphorus (100 have been under research with a layer of intrinsical silicon oxide having the thickness equal to several 10 s of nanometers and SiO2 layer thickness from 120 to 300 nm grown by thermal oxidation method. The learning system comprises pulse fiber ytterbium laser with a wavelenght λ = 1062 nm. The laser rated-power output is equal to 20 W, pulse length is 100 ns. Pulses frequency is in the range from 20 kHz to 100 kHz. Rated energy in the pulse is equal to 1.0 mJ. Scanning has been carried out by means of two axial scanning device driven by VM2500+ and controlled by personal computer with «SinMarkТМ» software package. Scanning velocity is in the range from 10 mm/s to 4000 mm/s, the covering varies from 100 lines per mm to 3000 lines per mm. Control of samples has been carried out by means of Axio Imager A1m optical microscope Carl Zeiss production with a high definition digital video camera. All experiments have been carried out in the mode of focused laser beam with a radiation spot diameter at the substrate equal to 50 μm. The change of temperature and its distribution along the surface have been evaluated by FLIR IR imager of SC7000 series. Main results. It is shown that ablation occurs without silicon melting and with plasma torch origination. The particles of ejected silicon take part in formation of silicon ions plasma and atmosphere gases supporting the plasmo-chemical growth of SiO2. The range of beam scanning modes is determined where the growth of SiO2 layer is observed

  12. Picosecond pulsed laser ablation and micromachining of 4H-SiC wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molian, Pal, E-mail: molian@iastate.edu [Laboratory for Lasers, MEMS and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 301 Black, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Pecholt, Ben; Gupta, Saurabh [Laboratory for Lasers, MEMS and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 301 Black, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Ultra-short pulsed laser ablation and micromachining of n-type, 4H-SiC wafer was performed using a 1552 nm wavelength, 2 ps pulse, 5 {mu}J pulse energy erbium-doped fiber laser with an objective of rapid etching of diaphragms for pressure sensors. Ablation rate, studied as a function of energy fluence, reached a maximum of 20 nm per pulse at 10 mJ/cm{sup 2}, which is much higher than that achievable by the femtosecond laser for the equivalent energy fluence. Ablation threshold was determined as 2 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Scanning electron microscope images supported the Coulomb explosion (CE) mechanism by revealing very fine particulates, smooth surfaces and absence of thermal effects including melt layer formation. It is hypothesized that defect-activated absorption and multiphoton absorption mechanisms gave rise to a charge density in the surface layers required for CE and enabled material expulsion in the form of nanoparticles. Trenches and holes micromachined by the picosecond laser exhibited clean and smooth edges and non-thermal ablation mode for pulse repetition rates less than 250 kHz. However carbonaceous material and recast layer were noted in the machined region when the pulse repetition rate was increased 500 kHz that could be attributed to the interaction between air plasma and micro/nanoparticles. A comparison with femtosecond pulsed lasers shows the promise that picosecond lasers are more efficient and cost effective tools for creating sensor diaphragms and via holes in 4H-SiC.

  13. Hydrodynamic size distribution of gold nanoparticles controlled by repetition rate during pulsed laser ablation in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Manjón, Ana; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2011-02-01

    Most investigations on the laser generation and fragmentation of nanoparticles focus on Feret particle size, although the hydrodynamic size of nanoparticles is of great importance, for example in biotechnology for diffusion in living cells, or in engineering, for a tuned rheology of suspensions. In this sense, the formation and fragmentation of gold colloidal nanoparticles using femtosecond laser ablation at variable pulse repetition rates (100-5000 Hz) in deionized water were investigated through their plasmon resonance and hydrodynamic diameter, measured by Dynamic Light Scattering. The increment of the repetition rate does not influence the ablation efficiency, but produces a decrease of the hydrodynamic diameter and blue-shift of the plasmon resonance of the generated gold nanoparticles. Fragmentation, induced by inter-pulse irradiation of the colloids was measured online, showing to be more effective low repetition rates. The pulse repetition rate is shown to be an appropriate laser parameter for hydrodynamic size control of nanoparticles without further influence on the production efficiency.

  14. a Chirped-Pulse Fourier Transform Microwave Spectrometer Combined with a Laser Ablation Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, S.; Pena, I.; Cabezas, C.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.; Pate, B. H.

    2011-06-01

    The design of a chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer CP-FTMW combined with a laser ablation LA source is presented. The spectrometer is capable of measuring the 6.5-18 GHz region. Rotational spectra of solid samples of proline (m.p. 228° C) and alanine (m.p. 290° C) vaporized by laser ablation has been recorded. Four low-energy conformers of proline and two in alanine have been detected. 13C species of alanine in their natural abundance have been also observed. The performance of this spectrometer is compared to a LA-MB-FTMW spectrometer.

  15. Experimental and Analytical Investigation of Cemented Tungsten Carbide Ultra-Short Pulse Laser Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, J. P. Calderón; Daniel, C.; Emmelmann, C.

    Ultra-short pulse laser processing of hard materials, such as cemented tungsten carbide, requires an accurate and agile experimental and analytical investigation to obtain adequate information and setting parameters to maximize ablation rate. Therefore, this study presents a systematic approach which, first, experimentally searches for the variables with the most significant influence on the objective using a design of experiments method; and second, analyzes by means of existing ablation theory the interaction of the material and laser taking into account the Beer-Lambert law and incubation effect.Therefore, this places a basis for future analytical-experimental validation of the examined material.

  16. Investigation of pulsed laser ablation process of Hg0.8Cd0.2Te

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinling Zhou; Chuansong Chen; Baoyuan Man; Juan Guo

    2007-01-01

    The vaporization threshold was measured under the irradiation of 1.064-μm, 10-ns pulsed laser. Then we calculated the vaporization temperature based on the conservation law of energy and analyzed the vaporization time based on our established model. These results coincided well with the information from the micrograph of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the spectra of the plasma. Besides, the laser ablation rate was also computed and discussed theoretically.

  17. femtosecond laser ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Margetic, Vanja

    2003-01-01

    Femtosecond laser ablation was investigated as a solid sampling method for elemental chemical analysis. In comparison to the sampling with longer laser pulses, two aspects could be improved by using ultrashort pulses: elimination of the elemental fractionation from the ablation crater, which is necessary for an accurate quantitative analysis, and better control of the material removal (especially for metals), which increases the spatial resolution of microanalysis. Basic aspects of ultrashort...

  18. A study of ultrafast electron diffusion kinetics in ultrashort-pulse laser ablation of metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jian-Jun; Liu Wei-Wei; Zhu Xiao-Nong

    2007-01-01

    Temperature dependence of the electron diffusion in metallic targets, where the electron-electron collision is the dominant process, is investigated with the help of an extended two-temperature model. In sharp contrast to the low electron temperature case, where only the electron-phonon collisions are commonly considered, the electron diffusion process underlying the high electron temperatures evolves dramatically different in both temporal and spatial domains.Calculated results of the ablation yield at different pulse durations are presented for a copper plate impinged by ultrashort laser pulses with energy fluences ranging from 0.1 J/cm2 to 10 J/cm2. The excellent agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data indicates the significant role of electron-electron collisions in material ablations using intense ultrashort laser pulses.

  19. Optical properties of Germanium nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in acetone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikiran eVadavalli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Germanium (Ge nanoparticles (NPs are synthesized by means of pulsed laser ablation of bulk germanium target immersed in acetone with ns laser pulses at different pulse energies. The fabricated NPs are characterized by employing different techniques such as UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence, micro-Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM. The mean size of the Ge NPs is found to vary from few nm to 40 nm with the increase in laser pulse energy. Shift in the position of the absorption spectra is observed and also the photoluminescence peak shift is observed due to quantum confinement effects. High resolution TEM combined with micro-Raman spectroscopy confirms the crystalline nature of the generated germanium nanoparticles. The formation of various sizes of germanium NPs at different laser pulse energies is evident from the asymmetry in the Raman spectra and the shift in its peak position towards the lower wavenumber side. The FESEM micrographs confirm the formation of germanium micro/nanostructures at the laser ablated position of the bulk germanium. In particular, the measured NP sizes from the micro-Raman phonon quantum confinement model are found in good agreement with TEM measurements of Ge NPs.

  20. Heat generation caused by ablation of dental restorative materials with an ultra short pulse laser (USPL) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Andreas; Wehry, Richard; Brede, Olivier; Frentzen, Matthias; Schelle, Florian

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess heat generation in dental restoration materials following laser ablation using an Ultra Short Pulse Laser (USPL) system. Specimens of phosphate cement (PC), ceramic (CE) and composite (C) were used. Ablation was performed with an Nd:YVO4 laser at 1064 nm and a pulse length of 8 ps. Heat generation during laser ablation depended on the thickness of the restoration material. A time delay for temperature increase was observed in the PC and C group. Employing the USPL system for removal of restorative materials, heat generation has to be considered.

  1. Characteristics of Plasma Shock Waves Generated in the Pulsed Laser Ablation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智华; 张端明; 郁伯铭; 关丽

    2002-01-01

    We modify the Sedov theory to describe plasma shock waves generated in a pulsed laser ablating process. We also study the propagation characteristics of plasma shock waves during the preparation process of functional thin films deposited by a pulsed laser. In particular, we discuss in detail the temporal behaviour of energy causing the difference of the propagation characteristics between the plasma shock wave and the ideal shock wave in the point explosion model. Under the same experimental conditions, the theoretical results calculated with our modified Sedov theory are in good agreement with the existing experimental data.

  2. Characterization of Ag and Au nanoparticles created by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation in double distilled water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolov, A.S., E-mail: anastas_nikolov@abv.bg [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Nedyalkov, N.N.; Nikov, R.G.; Atanasov, P.A. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Alexandrov, M.T. [Institute of Experimental Pathology and Parasitology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, G. Bonchev Street, bl. 25, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2011-04-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of Ag and Au targets, immersed in double-distilled water is used to synthesize metallic nanoparticles (NPs). The targets are irradiated for 20 min by laser pulses at different wavelengths-the fundamental and the second harmonic (SHG) ({lambda} = 1064 and 532 nm, respectively) of a Nd:YAG laser system. The ablation process is performed at a repetition rate of 10 Hz and with pulse duration of 15 ns. Two boundary values of the laser fluence for each wavelength under the experimental conditions chosen were used-it varied from several J/cm{sup 2} to tens of J/cm{sup 2}. Only as-prepared samples were measured not later than two hours after fabrication. The NPs shape and size distribution were evaluated from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. The suspensions obtained were investigated by optical transmission spectroscopy in the near UV and in the visible region in order to get information about these parameters. Spherical shape of the NPs at the low laser fluence and appearance of aggregation and building of nanowires at the SHG and high laser fluence was seen. Dependence of the mean particle size at the SHG on the laser fluence was established. Comments on the results obtained have been also presented.

  3. Target-plane deposition of diamond-like carbon in pulsed laser ablation of graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, S.S. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Tou, T.Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia)], E-mail: tytou@mmu.edu.my

    2007-10-15

    In pulsed Nd:YAG laser ablation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) at 10{sup -6} Torr, diamond-like carbon (DLC) are deposited at laser wavelengths of 1064, 532, and 355 nm on substrates placed in the target-plane. These target-plane samples are found to contain varying sp{sup 3} content and composed of nanostructures of 40-200 nm in size depending on the laser wavelength and laser fluence. The material and origin of sp{sup 3} in the target-plane samples is closely correlated to that in the laser-modified HOPG surface layer, and hardly from the backward deposition of ablated carbon plume. The surface morphology of the target-plane samples shows the columnar growth and with a tendency for agglomeration between nanograins, in particular for long laser wavelength at 1064 nm. It is also proposed that DLC formation mechanism at the laser-ablated HOPG is possibly via the laser-induced subsurface melting and resolidification.

  4. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ge investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection technique and SEM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaseen, Nazish; Bashir, Shazia; Shabbir, Muhammad Kaif; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Akram, Mahreen; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq; Haq, Faizan-ul; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif

    2016-06-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation phenomena of single crystal Ge (100) has been investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection as well as SEM analysis techniques. Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 ns, 1–10 Hz) at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm{sup −2} is employed as pump beam to ablate Ge targets. In order to evaluate in-situe ablation threshold fluence of Ge by photoacoustic deflection technique, Continuous Wave (CW) He–Ne laser (632 nm, power 10 mW) is employed as a probe beam. It travels parallel to the target surface at a distance of 3 mm and after passing through Ge plasma it causes deflection due to density gradient of acoustic waves. The deflected signal is detected by photodiode and is recorded by oscilloscope. The threshold fluence of Ge, the velocity of ablated species and the amplitude of the deflected signal are evaluated. The threshold fluence of Ge comes out to be 0.5 J cm{sup −2} and is comparable with the analytical value. In order to compare the estimated value of threshold with ex-situe measurements, the quantitative analysis of laser irradiated Ge is performed by using SEM analysis. For this purpose Ge is exposed to single and multiple shots of 5, 10, 50 and 100 at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm{sup −2}. The threshold fluence for single and multiple shots as well as incubation coefficients are evaluated. It is observed that the value of incubation co-efficient decreases with increasing number of pulses and is therefore responsible for lowering the threshold fluence of Ge. SEM analysis also reveals the growth of various features such as porous structures, non-uniform ripples and blisters on the laser irradiated Ge. It is observed that both the fluence as well as number of laser shots plays a significant role for the growth of these structures.

  5. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ge investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection technique and SEM analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Nazish; Bashir, Shazia; Shabbir, Muhammad Kaif; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Akram, Mahreen; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq; Haq, Faizan-ul; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif

    2016-06-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation phenomena of single crystal Ge (100) has been investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection as well as SEM analysis techniques. Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 ns, 1-10 Hz) at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm-2 is employed as pump beam to ablate Ge targets. In order to evaluate in-situe ablation threshold fluence of Ge by photoacoustic deflection technique, Continuous Wave (CW) He-Ne laser (632 nm, power 10 mW) is employed as a probe beam. It travels parallel to the target surface at a distance of 3 mm and after passing through Ge plasma it causes deflection due to density gradient of acoustic waves. The deflected signal is detected by photodiode and is recorded by oscilloscope. The threshold fluence of Ge, the velocity of ablated species and the amplitude of the deflected signal are evaluated. The threshold fluence of Ge comes out to be 0.5 J cm-2 and is comparable with the analytical value. In order to compare the estimated value of threshold with ex-situe measurements, the quantitative analysis of laser irradiated Ge is performed by using SEM analysis. For this purpose Ge is exposed to single and multiple shots of 5, 10, 50 and 100 at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm-2. The threshold fluence for single and multiple shots as well as incubation coefficients are evaluated. It is observed that the value of incubation co-efficient decreases with increasing number of pulses and is therefore responsible for lowering the threshold fluence of Ge. SEM analysis also reveals the growth of various features such as porous structures, non-uniform ripples and blisters on the laser irradiated Ge. It is observed that both the fluence as well as number of laser shots plays a significant role for the growth of these structures.

  6. Spectroscopic studies on diamond like carbon films synthesized by pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, Madhusmita; Krishnan, R., E-mail: krish@igcar.gov.in; Ravindran, T. R.; Das, Arindam; Mangamma, G.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K. [Material Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam - 603102, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-05-23

    Hydrogen free Diamond like Carbon (DLC) thin films enriched with C-C sp{sup 3} bonding were grown on Si (111) substrates at laser pulse energies varying from 100 to 400 mJ (DLC-100, DLC-200, DLC-300, DLC-400), by Pulsed Laser Ablation (PLA) utilizing an Nd:YAG laser operating at fundamental wavelength. Structural, optical and morphological evolutions as a function of laser pulse energy were studied by micro Raman, UV-Vis spectroscopic studies and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), respectively. Raman spectra analysis provided critical clues for the variation in sp{sup 3} content and optical energy gap. The sp{sup 3} content was estimated using the FWHM of the G peak and found to be in the range of 62-69%. The trend of evolution of sp{sup 3} content matches well with the evolution of I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio with pulse energy. UV-Vis absorption study of DLC films revealed the variation of optical energy gap with laser pulse energy (1.88 – 2.23 eV), which matches well with the evolution of G-Peak position of the Raman spectra. AFM study revealed that roughness, size and density of particulate in DLC films increase with laser pulse energy.

  7. Tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3-x}) nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser ablation in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreca, F., E-mail: process@anmresearch.it [Advanced, Nano Materials Research s.r.l, Viale F. Stagno d' Alcontres 31, I-98166, Messina (Italy); Acacia, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica della Materia e Ingegneria Elettronica, Universita di Messina, Viale F. Stagno d' Alcontres 31, I-98166, Messina (Italy); Spadaro, S.; Curro, G. [Advanced, Nano Materials Research s.r.l, Viale F. Stagno d' Alcontres 31, I-98166, Messina (Italy); Neri, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica della Materia e Ingegneria Elettronica, Universita di Messina, Viale F. Stagno d' Alcontres 31, I-98166, Messina (Italy)

    2011-05-16

    Research highlights: {yields} First time prepared, by laser ablation in water, WO{sub x} nanoparticles (NPs). {yields} Nearly 60% of almost stoichiometric (x = 2.9), small size (2-6 nm) NPs plus 80-100 nm aggregates. {yields} A plasma shielding effect occurs at high laser fluence. {yields} Modulation of optical gap with the NPs size. {yields} Potential scalability of the production technique. - Abstract: Tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 2.9}) nanoparticles were prepared, to our knowledge for the first time, by pulsed laser ablation in distilled water. The experiments were performed irradiating a tungsten target with a second harmonic (532 nm) Nd:YAG laser beam varying the operative fluence between 1 and 7 J cm{sup -2} and the ablation time up to 120 min. As evidenced by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), at all investigated fluences, small nanostructures of 2-6 nm were accompanied by larger particles with a diameter of about 10-20 nm and aggregates of about 80-100 nm. A plasma shielding effect was evidenced upon increasing the laser fluence, while if the ablation time is increased the amount of particles increases as well, supporting the scalability of the production technique. The deposited nanoparticles stoichiometry has been verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), while the optical bandgap values were determined by UV-vis optical absorption measurements.

  8. Thin films of silver nanoparticles deposited in vacuum by pulsed laser ablation using a YAG:Nd laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J.C., E-mail: alonso@servidor.unam.mx [Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col Vicentina, Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Diamant, R.; Castillo, P.; Acosta-Garcia, M.C.; Batina, N.; Haro-Poniatowski, E. [Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col Vicentina, Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-02-15

    We report the deposition of thin films of silver (Ag) nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation in vacuum using the third line (355 nm) of a YAG:Nd laser. The nanostructure and/or morphology of the films was investigated as a function of the number of ablation pulses, by means of transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Our results show that films deposited with a small number of ablation pulses (500 or less), are not continuous, but formed of isolated nearly spherical Ag nanoparticles with diameters in the range from 1 nm to 8 nm. The effect of increasing the number of pulses by one order of magnitude (5000) is to increase the mean diameter of the globular nanoparticles and also the Ag areal density. Further increase of the number of pulses, up to 10,000, produces the formation of larger and anisotropic nanoparticles, and for 15,000 pulses, quasi-percolated Ag films are obtained. The presence of Ag nanoparticles in the films was also evidenced from the appearance of a strong optical absorption band associated with surface plasmon resonance. This band was widened and its peak shifted from 425 nm to 700 nm as the number of laser pulses was increased from 500 to 15,000.

  9. Liquid Phase – Pulsed Laser Ablation: A route to fabricate different carbon nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hamaoy, Ahmed [Advanced Processing Technology Research Centre, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Institute of Laser for Postgraduate Studies, University of Baghdad (Iraq); Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Anbar (Iraq); Chikarakara, Evans [Advanced Processing Technology Research Centre, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Jawad, Hussein [Institute of Laser for Postgraduate Studies, University of Baghdad (Iraq); Gupta, Kapil; Kumar, Dinesh; Rao, M.S. Ramachandra [Department of Physics, Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre and Materials Science Research Centre, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Krishnamurthy, Satheesh [Materials Engineering, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Morshed, Muhammad [Advanced Processing Technology Research Centre, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Fox, Eoin; Brougham, Dermot [School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); He, Xiaoyun; Vázquez, Mercedes [Advanced Processing Technology Research Centre, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Irish Separation Science Cluster (ISSC) National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Brabazon, Dermot, E-mail: dermot.brabazon@dcu.ie [Advanced Processing Technology Research Centre, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Irish Separation Science Cluster (ISSC) National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2014-05-01

    Carbon nanostructures in various forms and sizes, and with different speciation properties have been prepared from graphite by Liquid Phase – Pulsed Laser Ablation (LP-PLA) using a high frequency Nd:YAG laser. High energy densities and pulse repetition frequencies of up to 10 kHz were used in this ablation process to produce carbon nanomaterials with unique chemical structures. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), micro-Raman and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) were used to confirm the size distribution, morphology, chemical bonding, and crystallinity of these nanostructures. This article demonstrates how the fabrication process affects measured characteristics of the produced carbon nanomaterials. The obtained particle properties have potential use for various applications including biochemical speciation applications.

  10. Effect of inter-pulse delay time on production and size properties of colloidal nanoparticles prepared by collinear double-pulse laser ablation in liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Behzad; Mahdieh, Mohammah Hossein

    2016-08-01

    The influence of inter-pulse delay times (0-20 ns) between two collinear sequential nanosecond pulses on the production and size properties (mean size and size distribution) of colloidal nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser ablation of a silver target in a distilled water medium has been studied. Various laser fluences at different inter-pulse delay times between two collinear pulses were used. Furthermore, for a better understanding of the effect of the double-pulse and single-pulse mode, experiments were performed. The characterization of the synthesized colloidal nanoparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Our results showed that 5 ns time-delayed double-pulse laser ablation results in the production of nanoparticles with the highest concentration among the other time-delayed ablation experiments and even more than single-pulse-mode experiments. It also found that using a double-pulse approach with inter-pulse delay times in the range of 0-20 ns leads to the production of nanoparticles with smaller mean sizes and narrower size distributions in comparison to single-pulse-mode laser ablation. The effect of time overlapping between two pulses in the case of double-pulse ablation was analyzed.

  11. Study on Ultra-Short Laser Pulse Ablation of Metals by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xuan; WANG Yang; ZHAO Li-jie

    2006-01-01

    The dynamical progresses involved in ultra-short laser pulse ablation of face-centered cubic metals under stress confinement condition are described completely using molecular dynamics method. The laser beam absorption and thermal energy turning into kinetics energy of atoms are taken into account to give a detailed picture of laser metal interaction. Superheating phenomenon is observed, and the phase change from solid to liquid is characterized by a destroyed atom configuration and a decreased number density. The steep velocity gradients are found in the systems of Cu and Ni after pulse in consequence of located heating and exponential decrease of fluences following the Lambert-Beer expression. The shock wave velocities are predicted to be about 5000m/s in Cu and 7200m/s in Ni. The higher ablation rates are obtained from simulations compared with experimental data as a result of a well-defined crystalline surface irradiated by a single pulse. Simulation results show that the main mechanisms of ablation are evaporation and thermoelastic stress due to located heating.

  12. Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation as SERS substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vinod

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemically pure colloidal suspensions of gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized using pulsed laser ablation. The dependence of laser fluence on the surface plasmon characteristics of the nanoparticles was investigated. Au:Ag colloidal suspensions were prepared by mixing highly monodisperse Au and Ag nanocolloids. The plasmon band of these mixtures was found to be highly sensitive to Au:Ag concentration ratio and wavelength of the laser beam used in the ablation process. The Au:Ag mixture consists of almost spherical shaped nanostructures with a tendency to join with adjacent ones. The surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of the Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal suspensions was tested using crystal violet as probe molecules. Enhancement in Raman signal obtained with Au:Ag substrates was found to be promising and strongly depends on its plasmon characteristics.

  13. Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation as SERS substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Vinod; K.G.Gopchandran

    2014-01-01

    Chemically pure colloidal suspensions of gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized using pulsed laser ablation. The dependence of laser fluence on the surface plasmon characteristics of the nanoparticles was investigated. Au:Ag colloidal suspensions were prepared by mixing highly monodisperse Au and Ag nanocolloids. The plasmon band of these mixtures was found to be highly sensitive to Au:Ag concentration ratio and wavelength of the laser beam used in the ablation process. The Au:Ag mixture consists of almost spherical shaped nanostructures with a tendency to join with adjacent ones. The surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of the Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal suspensions was tested using crystal violet as probe molecules. Enhancement in Raman signal obtained with Au:Ag substrates was found to be promising and strongly depends on its plasmon characteristics.

  14. Escape of carbon element in surface ablation of cobalt cemented tungsten carbide with pulsed UV laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiejun; Lou, Qihong; Dong, Jingxing; Wei, Yunrong; Liu, Jingru

    2001-03-01

    Surface ablation of cobalt cemented tungsten carbide hardmetal has been carried out in this work using a 308 nm, 30 ns XeCl excimer laser. The surface phase transformation on different pulse number of laser shots has been investigated by means of XRD and microphotography as well as AES at laser fluence of 2.5 J/cm 2. The experimental results showed that the phase structure of irradiated area has partly transformed from original WC to β-WC 1- x, then to α-W 2C and CW 3, and finally to W crystal. It is suggested that the formation of non-stoichiometric tungsten carbide should result from the escaping of carbon element due to accumulated heating of surface by pulsed laser irradiation.

  15. Thin films deposited by femtosecond pulsed laser ablation of tungsten carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bonis, A.; Teghil, R.; Santagata, A.; Galasso, A.; Rau, J. V.

    2012-09-01

    Ultra-short Pulsed Laser Deposition has been applied to the production of thin films from a tungsten carbide target. The gaseous phase obtained by the laser ablation shows a very weak primary plume, in contrast with a very strong secondary one. The deposited films, investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction, present a mixture of WC and other phases with lower carbon content. All films are amorphous, independently from the substrate temperature. The characteristics of the deposits have been explained in terms of thermal evaporation and cooling rate of molten particles ejected from the target.

  16. Influence of dc bias on amorphous carbon deposited by pulse laser ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Amorphous carbon films were deposited on single-crystalline silicon and K9 glass by pulse laser ablation using different negative substrate bias. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe morphology of the surface. Thickness and refractive index of the film deposited on K9 glass were measured by ellipsometry. Micro-hardness of films was measured relatively to single crystal silicon. All films deposited on silicon were analyzed by Raman spectra. All spectra were deconvoluted to three peaks. Line-width ratios varied similarly with bias voltage when the laser energy was kept invariant.

  17. Green synthesis of selenium nanoparticles by excimer pulsed laser ablation in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Van Overschelde

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pure selenium nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by Liquid Phase - Pulsed Laser Ablation (LP-PLA in de-ionized water. Excimer laser (248 nm operating at low fluence (F ∼ 1 J/cm2 was used to generate colloidal solutions of selenium nanoparticles. The obtained selenium nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, and Transmission Electron Microscopy. We describe the multi-modal size distributions generated and use the centrifugation method to isolate the smallest nanoparticles (∼60 nm in diameter.

  18. Nanocomposite tantalum-carbon-based films deposited by femtosecond pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benchikh, N. [Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation, UMR 5516, Universite J. Monnet, 10 rue Barrouin, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Garrelie, F. [Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation, UMR 5516, Universite J. Monnet, 10 rue Barrouin, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Wolski, K. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Centre SMS - URA CNRS 5146, 158 cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne, Cedex 02 (France); Donnet, C. [Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation, UMR 5516, Universite J. Monnet, 10 rue Barrouin, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France)]. E-mail: Christophe.Donnet@univ-st-etienne.fr; Fillit, R.Y. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Centre SMS - URA CNRS 5146, 158 cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne, Cedex 02 (France); Rogemond, F. [Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation, UMR 5516, Universite J. Monnet, 10 rue Barrouin, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Subtil, J.L. [Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation, UMR 5516, Universite J. Monnet, 10 rue Barrouin, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Rouzaud, J.N. [Laboratoire de Geologie de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris 24, rue Lhomond 75231-Paris Cedex 5 (France); Laval, J.Y. [Laboratoire de Physique du Solide, UPR5 CNRS-ESPCI, 10 rue Vauquelin 75231-Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2006-01-03

    Nanostructured coatings of metal (tantalum) containing diamond-like carbon (a-C:Ta) have been prepared by femtosecond pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The films, containing 15 at.% tantalum, have been deposited by ablating sequentially graphite and metallic tantalum in vacuum conditions with an amplified Ti:sapphire laser. The coatings have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, grazing angle X-ray diffraction, energy filtered transmission electron microscopy, scanning and high resolution transmission electron microscopies. Evidence of metallic {alpha}-Ta and {beta}-Ta particles (diameter in the 100 nm range) and smaller quasi-amorphous tantalum clusters embedded in the carbonaceous matrix have been shown. A thin tantalum carbide interface between the carbon matrix and the top surface of the tantalum nodules has also been identified. The ability of femtosecond pulsed laser deposition to synthetize nanocomposite carbon-based films and to control their nanostructure is discussed.

  19. Optical time of flight studies of lithium plasma in double pulse laser ablation: Evidence of inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivakumaran, V.; Joshi, H. C.; Singh, R. K.; Kumar, Ajai, E-mail: ajai@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2014-06-15

    The early stage of formation of lithium plasma in a collinear—double pulse laser ablation mode has been studied using optical time of flight (OTOF) spectroscopy as a function of inter-pulse delay time, the distance from the target surface and the fluence of the ablation lasers. The experimental TOF measurements were carried out for lithium neutral (670.8 nm and 610.3 nm), and ionic (548.4 nm and 478.8 nm) lines. These experimental observations have been compared with that for single pulse laser ablation mode. It is found that depending on the fluence and laser pulse shape of the first pre-ablation laser and the second main ablation laser, the plasma plume formation and its characteristic features can be described in terms of plume-plume or laser-plume interaction processes. Moreover, the enhancement in the intensity of Li neutral and ionic lines is observed when the laser-plume interaction is the dominant process. Here, we see the evidence of the role of inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption process in the initial stage of formation of lithium plasma in this case.

  20. Processing condition influence on the characteristics of gold nanoparticles produced by pulsed laser ablation in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikov, R.G., E-mail: rosen_nikov@abv.bg [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko Chaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Nikolov, A.S.; Nedyalkov, N.N.; Atanasov, P.A. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko Chaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Alexandrov, M.T. [Institute of Experimental Pathology and Parasitology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, G. Bonchev Street, Building 25, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Karashanova, D.B. [Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, G. Bonchev Street, Building 109, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2013-06-01

    A study is presented of Au nanoparticles (NPs) created by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of a solid target in double distilled water. The influence was examined of the laser wavelength on the size, shape and optical properties of the resulting NPs. Three different wavelengths: the fundamental (λ = 1064 nm), second (λ{sub SHG} = 532) and third (λ{sub THG} = 355) harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser at the same fluence were utilized to produce various colloids. Ablation at the wavelength of 532 nm was investigated in more detail to reveal the influence of self-absorption by the already created NPs on their characteristics. The colloid produced was irradiated by λ{sub irrad} = 532 nm (laser energy 40 mJ) at different times up to 25 min after the end of ablation. The initial structure of welded NPs forming wires was modified. Transmission electron microscopy and optical transmission measurements were used to evaluate the shape and size distribution of the NPs.

  1. Picosecond Pulsed Laser Ablation for the Surface Preparation of Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Frank; Ledesma, Rodolfo; Fulton, Tayler; Arthur, Alexandria; Eldridge, Keishara; Thibeault, Sheila; Lin, Yi; Wohl, Chris; Connell, John

    2017-01-01

    As part of a technical challenge under the Advanced Composites Program, methods for improving pre-bond process control for aerospace composite surface treatments and inspections, in conjunction with Federal Aviation Administration guidelines, are under investigation. The overall goal is to demonstrate high fidelity, rapid and reproducible surface treatment and surface characterization methods to reduce uncertainty associated with the bonding process. The desired outcomes are reliable bonded airframe structure, and reduced timeline to certification. In this work, laser ablation was conducted using a q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser capable of nominal pulse durations of 8 picoseconds (ps). Aerospace structural carbon fiber reinforced composites with an epoxy resin matrix were laser treated, characterized, processed into bonded assemblies and mechanically tested. The characterization of ablated surfaces were conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water contact angle (WCA) goniometry, micro laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (uLIBS), and electron spin resonance (ESR). The bond performance was assessed using a double cantilever beam (DCB) test with an epoxy adhesive. The surface characteristics and bond performance obtained from picosecond ablated carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) are presented herein.

  2. Surface modification of biomaterials by pulsed laser ablation deposition and plasma/gamma polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Kaustubh R.

    Surface modification of stainless-steel was carried out by two different methods: pulsed laser ablation deposition (PLAD) and a combined plasma/gamma process. A potential application was the surface modification of endovascular stents, to enhance biocompatibility. The pulsed laser ablation deposition process, had not been previously reported for modifying stents and represented a unique and potentially important method for surface modification of biomaterials. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elatomer was studied using the PLAD technique. Cross- linked PDMS was deemed important because of its general use for biomedical implants and devices as well as in other fields. Furthermore, PDMS deposition using PLAD had not been previously studied and any information gained on its ablation characteristics could be important scientifically and technologically. The studies reported here showed that the deposited silicone film properties had a dependence on the laser energy density incident on the target. Smooth, hydrophobic, silicone-like films were deposited at low energy densities (100-150 mJ/cm2). At high energy densities (>200 mJ/cm2), the films had an higher oxygen content than PDMS, were hydrophilic and tended to show a more particulate morphology. It was also determined that (1)the deposited films were stable and extremely adherent to the substrate, (2)silicone deposition exhibited an `incubation effect' which led to the film properties changing with laser pulse number and (3)films deposited under high vacuum were similar to films deposited at low vacuum levels. The mechanical properties of the PLAD films were determined by nanomechanical measurements which are based on the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). From these measurements, it was possible to determine the modulus of the films and also study their scratch resistance. Such measurement techniques represent a significant advance over current state-of-the-art thin film characterization methods. An empirical model for

  3. Silver nanoparticles generated by pulsed laser ablation in supercritical CO2 medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machmudah, Siti; Sato, Takayuki; Wahyudiono; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu

    2012-03-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) has been widely employed in industrial and biological applications and in other fields. The environmental conditions in which PLA is conducted are important parameters that affect both the solid particle cloud and the deposition produced by the plume. In this work, the generation of nanoparticles (NPs) has been developed by performing PLA of silver (Ag) plates in a supercritical CO2 medium. Ag NPs were successfully generated by allowing the selective generation of clusters. Laser ablation was performed with an excitation wavelength of 532 nm under various pressures and temperatures of CO2 medium. On the basis of the experimental result, both surface of the irradiated Ag plate and structure of Ag NPs were significantly affected by the changes in supercritical CO2 pressure and temperature. With increasing irradiation pressure, plume deposited in the surrounding crater created by the ablation was clearly observed. In Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) the image of the generated Ag NPs on the silicon wafer and the morphology of Ag particles were basically a sphere-like structure. Ag particles contain NPs with large-varied diameter ranging from 5 nm to 1.2 μm. The bigger Ag NPs melted during the ablation process and then ejected smaller spherical Ag NPs, which formed nanoclusters attached on the molten Ag NPs. The smaller Ag NPs were also formed around the bigger Ag NPs. Based on the results, this new method can also be used to obtain advanced nano-structured materials.

  4. Measurement of ablation threshold of oxide-film-coated aluminium nanoparticles irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chefonov, O V; Ovchinnikov, A V; Il' ina, I V; Agranat, M B [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-31

    We report the results of experiments on estimation of femtosecond laser threshold intensity at which nanoparticles are removed from the substrate surface. The studies are performed with nanoparticles obtained by femtosecond laser ablation of pure aluminium in distilled water. The attenuation (or extinction, i.e. absorption and scattering) spectra of nanoparticles are measured at room temperature in the UV and optical wavelength ranges. The size of nanoparticles is determined using atomic force microscopy. A new method of scanning photoluminescence is proposed to evaluate the threshold of nanoparticle removal from the surface of a glass substrate exposed to IR femtosecond laser pulses with intensities 10{sup 11} – 10{sup 13} W cm{sup -2}. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  5. Pulsed laser ablation of Germanium under vacuum and hydrogen environments at various fluences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Hassan [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, Government College University, Lahore (Pakistan); Bashir, Shazia, E-mail: shaziabashir@gcu.edu.pk [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, Government College University, Lahore (Pakistan); Rafique, Muhammad Shahid [Department of Physics, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Dawood, Asadullah; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Hayat, Asma; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, Government College University, Lahore (Pakistan); Mahmood, Arshad [National Institute of Laser and Optronics (NILOP), Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-07-30

    Highlights: • Germanium targets were exposed under vacuum and H{sub 2} environment by nanosecond laser pulses. • The effect of laser fluence and ambient environment has been investigated. • The surface morphology is investigated by SEM analysis. • Raman and FTIR Spectroscopy are performed to reveal structural modification. • Electrical conductivity is probed by four probe method. - Abstract: Laser fluence and ambient environment play a significant role for the formation and development of the micro/nano-structures on the laser irradiated targets. Single crystal (1 0 0) Germanium (Ge) has been ablated under two environments of vacuum (10{sup −3} Torr) and hydrogen (100 Torr) at various fluences ranging from 4.5 J cm{sup −2} to 6 J cm{sup −2}. For this purpose KrF Excimer laser with wavelength of 248 nm, pulse duration of 18 ns and repetition rate of 20 Hz has been employed. Surface morphology has been observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Whereas, structural modification of irradiated targets was explored by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. Electrical conductivity of the irradiated Ge is measured by four probe method. SEM analysis exhibits the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), cones and micro-bumps in both ambient environments (vacuum and hydrogen). The formation as well as development of these structures is strongly dependent upon the laser fluence and environmental conditions. The periodicity of LIPSS or ripples varies from 38 μm to 60 μm in case of vacuum whereas in case of hydrogen environment, the periodicity varies from 20 μm to 45 μm. The difference in number of ripples and periodicity as well as in shape and size of cones and bumps in vacuum and hydrogen is explained on the basis of confinement and shielding effect of plasma. FTIR spectroscopy reveals that no new bands are formed for laser ablated Ge under vacuum, whereas C−H stretching vibration band is

  6. Damage morphology and mechanism in ablation cutting of thin glass sheets with picosecond pulsed lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingying; Eppelt, Urs; Hartmann, Claudia; Schulz, Wolfgang; Zhu, Jianqiang; Lin, Zunqi

    2016-06-01

    We experimentally investigated the morphology and mechanism of laser-induced damage in the ablation cutting of thin glass sheets with picosecond pulsed lasers and we compared the experimental results to our models. After several passes of laser ablation, we observed two different kinds of damage morphologies on the cross-section of the cut channel. They are distinguished to be the damage region caused by high-density free-electrons and the heat-affected zone due to the heat accumulation, respectively. Furthermore, micro-cracks can be observed on the top surface of the workpiece near the cut edge. The nano-cracks could be generated by high energy free-electrons but opened and developed to be visible micro-cracks by thermal stress generated in the heat-affected zone. The crack length was proportional to the volume of heat-affected zone. Heat-affected-zone and visible-cracks free conditions of glass cutting were achieved by controlling the repetition rate and spatial overlap of laser pulses.

  7. Growth of epitaxial semiconductor alloys and superlattices with continuously variable composition by pulsed-laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCamy, J.W. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science; Lowndes, D.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    We describe a new method to grow epitaxial semiconductor alloys with continuously variable composition, while using a single pulsed laser ablation target of fixed composition. Epitaxial ZnSe{sub 1{minus}x}S{sub x} films with continuously variable sulfur content ``x`` were grown by ablating a ZnSe target through low-pressure ambient H{sub 2}S gas. The sulfur content was easily controlled by varying the H{sub 2}S partial pressure. The composition of ZnSe{sub 1{minus}x}S{sub x} films differs by as much as x = 0.52 from the pure ZnSe target. We have used this method to grow heteroepitaxial structures with either continuously graded or periodically repeating, abrupt compositional changes (compositional superlattices). Structures that simultaneously incorporate both types of compositional modulation also have been grown. This development removes the principal barrier to convenient pulsed-laser ablation (PLA) growth of compositionally graded semiconductor thin-film materials, namely that the film and target normally have the same composition. The method appears to have broad application for PLA growth of other compound semiconductor films and heterostructures, as well as for doping individual layers.

  8. Comparison Between Geometrically Focused Pulses Versus Filaments in Femtosecond Laser Ablation of Steel and Titanium Alloys (Reprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    14. ABSTRACT Kerr self-focusing of high - power ultrashort laser pulses in atmosphere may result in a structure or structures of high intensity...its unique properties. Salient features of filaments include a central region of intense laser power (greater than the ionization threshold of the...titanium samples are ablated by filaments and by sharply focused sub- picosecond laser pulses. We then performed metrology on the samples to compare the

  9. Ablation of hard dental tissues with an ArF-pulsed excimer laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neev, Joseph; Raney, Daniel; Whalen, William E.; Fujishige, Jack T.; Ho, Peter D.; McGrann, John V.; Berns, Michael W.

    1991-06-01

    The interaction of 15 ns pulses from an ArF excimer laser with hard dental tissue was investigated for the purpose of obtaining practical information on the ablation process. Dark field fast photography utilizing an auxiliary, 15 ns Nd:Yag laser 'probe', was used to study the ablation plume dynamics as a function of time, luminescence were studied at different fluence levels and prr. Dentin ablation was found to be about four times as efficient as ablation of enamel in the higher fluence levels tested (> 10 J/cm2) and about twice as efficient as the ablation in the lower fluence regime (approximately equals 1 J/cm2). The dentin etch depth per pulse was found to increase exponentially with fluence (at least up to the tested level of 11 J/cm2), while in enamel the etch depth per pulse appears to increase logarithmically with fluence. Dentin ablation yields a larger, more dense plume which can be ejected (depending on the fluence level) to a height of several millimeters above the surface with observed ejection velocity in access of 1200 m/s. The dentin plume consisted of a relatively uniform particle size distribution (0.1 micrometers to 10 micrometers in diameter). Enamel ablation, on the other hand, yields a smaller observed ejection velocities (about 800 m/s), and a much smaller plume of fine particles (about 0.1 micrometers in diameter) and gases, confined to within 0.5 mm of the surface. In addition, an even smaller amount of highly non-uniform debris, (from ten to several hundred micrometers in size) is observed to be ejected to higher levels, and reach roughly half the height of the corresponding dentin plume for similar fluence levels. Although both dentin and enamel yield lower ablation efficiencies at 1 Hz, no significant difference is detected between the ablation efficiency at 5 Hz and ablation 10 Hz prr. Both materials remained within 20 degree(s)C of room temperature even at fluences as high as 20 J/cm2 and prr as high as 10 Hz for enamel and 20 Hz for

  10. Bismuth Oxide Thin Films Deposited on Silicon Through Pulsed Laser Ablation, for Infrared Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condurache-Bota, Simona; Constantinescu, Catalin; Tigau, Nicolae; Praisler, Mirela

    2016-12-01

    Infrared detectors are used in many human activities, from industry to military, telecommunications, environmental studies and even medicine. Bismuth oxide thin films have proved their potential for optoelectronic applications, but their uses as infrared sensors have not been thoroughly studied so far. In this paper, pulsed laser ablation of pure bismuth targets within a controlled oxygen atmosphere is proposed for the deposition of bismuth oxide films on Si (100) substrates. Crystalline films were obtained, whose uniformity depends on the deposition conditions (number of laser pulses and the use of a radio-frequency (RF) discharge of the oxygen inside the deposition chamber). The optical analysis proved that the refractive index of the films is higher than 3 and that their optical bandgap is around 1eV, recommending them for infrared applications.

  11. Numerical Simulation and Analysis on 3D Temperature Field of the Metal Ablated with Femtosecond Pulse Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Li; Yang Wei [Science College, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China); Wang Chingyue, E-mail: y_lyang@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Opto-electronic Information Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2011-02-01

    To describe femtosecond laser ablation on the metal, numerical simulation on the basis of the double-temperature equation for three-dimension temperature field of the copper ablated with femtosecond pulse laser was performed by finite-difference method. Based on imbalance of the electronic and lattice's temperatures, the calefactive process of the electron and the lattice was obtained, respectively. The dependence of the electron-lattice coupling time on irradiated laser fluence was studied. The ablation depth and the ablation radius of the copper for single pulse fluence were calculated. The dependence of the start ablation (phase explosion arises) time of the copper on irradiated laser fluence was studied. The results indicate that the material jet due to phase explosion is earlier and the duration of ablation is longer with the increase of the laser fluence. When the laser fluence is higher than 1.5 J/cm{sup 2} the ablation start time is about 2-3 ps.

  12. In situ diagnosis of pulsed UV laser surface ablation of tungsten carbide hardmetal by using laser-induced optical emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiejun; Lou, Qihong; Wei, Yunrong; Huang, Feng; Dong, Jingxing; Liu, Jingru

    2001-12-01

    Surface ablation of cobalt cemented tungsten carbide hardmetal with pulsed UV laser has been in situ diagnosed by using the technique of laser-induced optical emission spectroscopy. The dependence of emission intensity of cobalt lines on number of laser shots was investigated at laser fluence of 2.5 J/cm 2. As a comparison, the reliance of emission intensity of cobalt lines as a function of laser pulse number by using pure cobalt as ablation sample was also studied at the same laser condition. It was found that for surface ablation of tungsten carbide hardmetal at laser fluence of 2.5 J/cm 2, the intensities of cobalt lines fell off dramatically in the first 300 consecutive laser shots and then slowed down to a low stable level with even more shots. For surface ablation of pure cobalt at the same laser condition, the intensities of cobalt lines remained constant more or less even after 500 laser shots and then reduced very slowly with even more shots. It was concluded that selective evaporation of cobalt at this laser fluence should be responsible for the dramatic fall-off of cobalt lines with laser shots accumulation for surface ablation of tungsten carbide hardmetal. In contrast, for surface ablation of pure cobalt, the slow reduction of cobalt lines with pulse number accumulation should be due to the formation of laser-induced crater effect.

  13. Investigation of Ag nanoparticles produced by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolov, A.S.; Nedyalkov, N.N.; Nikov, R.G.; Atanasov, P.A. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Electronics, Sofia (Bulgaria); Alexandrov, M.T. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Experimental Pathology and Parasitology, Sofia (Bulgaria); Karashanova, D.B. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2012-11-15

    A study is presented of the properties of Ag nanoparticles produced by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation in twice-distilled water. An Ag target was immersed in the liquid and irradiated by the fundamental, second, third and fourth harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser system to create different colloids. Two specific boundary values of the laser fluence were applied for each wavelength. The properties of the nanoparticles at different wavelengths of the laser radiation were examined. The characterization of the colloids was performed immediately after their fabrication. Spherical and spherical-like shapes of the nanoparticles created were established. The formation of nanowires was observed when the second and the third harmonics of the laser were used. It is connected with self-absorption of the incident laser light from the already-created nanoparticles and depends also on the laser fluence. The size distribution of the nanoparticles is estimated by transmission electron microscopy. Generally, their mean size and standard deviation decreased as the wavelength of the incident laser light was increased and increased with the increase of the laser fluence. The substantial discrepancy between the results already commented on for both characteristics considered and others, obtained by dynamic light scattering, is discussed. The structure of the nanoparticles was established to be single and polycrystalline, and the phase composition in both cases is identified as consisting of cubic silver. The nanoparticles are slightly oxidized. (orig.)

  14. Solid-like ablation propulsion generation in nanosecond pulsed laser interaction with carbon-doped glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Si-Qi; Liang, Tian; Qi, Jing; Tang, Wei-Chong; Xiao, Ke; Gao, Lu; Gao, Hua; Zhang, Zi-Li

    2017-03-01

    A solid-like propellant of carbon-doped glycerol ablated by a nanosecond pulsed laser is investigated. The results show that the specific impulse increases with increasing carbon content, and a maximum value of 228 s is obtained. The high specific impulse is attributed to the low ablated mass loss that occurs at high carbon content. More importantly, with increasing carbon content, the properties of the doped glycerol approach to those of a solid. These results indicate that propulsion at the required coupling coefficient and specific impulse can be realized by doping a liquid propellant with an absorber. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 53200859165 and 2562010050).

  15. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for on-line control of selective removal of cobalt binder from tungsten carbide hardmetal by pulsed UV laser surface ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiejun; Lou, Qihong; Wei, Yunrong; Huang, Feng; Dong, Jingxing; Liu, Jingru

    2001-09-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was successfully used in on-line control of selective removal of cobalt from tungsten carbide hardmetal by pulsed UV laser surface ablation. The dependence of LIBS on number of laser shots was investigated at different laser fluences. The optimal laser fluence of 2.5 J/cm 2 suited for selective removal of cobalt from surface layer of hardmetal was confirmed. The result sample was also subject to different post-examinations to evaluate the feasibility of the application of LIBS in this laser ablation process. It was demonstrated that, monitoring of the emission intensity of cobalt lines could be used as a control parameter for selective removal of cobalt from surface layer of hardmetal by pulsed UV laser. The on-line implementation of the spectroscopic technique LIBS to the surface-ablation process provided important information about the optimal-ablation parameters.

  16. Phase transformation during surface ablation of cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide with pulsed UV laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T. [Academia Sinica, Shanghai, SH (China). Shanghai Inst. of Optics and Fine Mechanics; Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an (China); Lou, Q.; Dong, J.; Wei, Y. [Academia Sinica, Shanghai, SH (China). Shanghai Inst. of Optics and Fine Mechanics; Liu, J. [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an (China)

    2001-09-01

    Surface ablation of cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide hard metal has been carried out in this work using a 308 nm, 20 ns XeCl excimer laser. Surface microphotography and XRD, as well as an electron probe have been used to investigate the transformation of phase and microstructure as a function of the pulse-number of laser shots at a laser fluence of 2.5 J/cm{sup 2}. The experimental results show that the microstructure of cemented tungsten carbide is transformed from the original polygonal grains of size 3 {mu}m to interlaced large, long grains with an increase in the number of laser shots up to 300, and finally to gross grains of size 10 {mu}m with clear grain boundaries after 700 shots of laser irradiation. The crystalline structure of the irradiated area is partly transformed from the original WC to {beta}WC{sub 1-x}, then to {alpha}W{sub 2}C and CW{sub 3}, and finally to W crystal. It is suggested that the undulating 'hill-valley' morphology may be the result of selective removal of cobalt binder from the surface layer of the hard metal. The formation of non-stoichiometric tungsten carbide may result from the escape of elemental carbon due to accumulated heating of the surface by pulsed laser irradiation. (orig.)

  17. Phase transformation during surface ablation of cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide with pulsed UV laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T.; Lou, Q.; Dong, J.; Wei, Y.; Liu, J.

    Surface ablation of cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide hard metal has been carried out in this work using a 308 nm, 20 ns XeCl excimer laser. Surface microphotography and XRD, as well as an electron probe have been used to investigate the transformation of phase and microstructure as a function of the pulse-number of laser shots at a laser fluence of 2.5 J/cm2. The experimental results show that the microstructure of cemented tungsten carbide is transformed from the original polygonal grains of size 3 μm to interlaced large, long grains with an increase in the number of laser shots up to 300, and finally to gross grains of size 10 μm with clear grain boundaries after 700 shots of laser irradiation. The crystalline structure of the irradiated area is partly transformed from the original WC to βWC1-x, then to αW2C and CW3, and finally to W crystal. It is suggested that the undulating `hill-valley' morphology may be the result of selective removal of cobalt binder from the surface layer of the hard metal. The formation of non-stoichiometric tungsten carbide may result from the escape of elemental carbon due to accumulated heating of the surface by pulsed laser irradiation.

  18. Pulsed laser generation of ultrasound in a metal plate between the melting and ablation thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Every, A. G., E-mail: arthur.every@wits.ac.za [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, PO Wits 2050 (South Africa); Utegulov, Z. N., E-mail: zhutegulov@nu.edu.kz [Department of Physics, School of Science and Technology, Nazarbayev University, Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan); Veres, I. A., E-mail: istvan.veres@recendt.at [RECENDT Research Center for Non Destructive Testing GmbH, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2015-03-31

    The generation of ultrasound in a metal plate exposed to nanosecond pulsed laser heating, sufficient to cause melting but not ablation, is treated. Consideration is given to the spatial and temporal profiles of the laser pulse, penetration of the laser beam into the sample, the evolution of the melt pool, and thermal conduction in the melt and surrounding solid. The excitation of the ultrasound takes place over a few nanoseconds, and occurs predominantly within the thermal diffusion length of a micron or so beneath the surface. Because of this, the output of the thermal simulations can be represented as axially symmetric transient radial and normal surface force distributions. The epicentral displacement response at the opposite surface to these forces is obtained by two methods, the one based on the elastodynamic Green’s functions for plate geometry determined by the Cagniard generalized ray method, and the other using a finite element numerical method. The two approaches are in very close agreement. Numerical simulations are reported of the epicentral displacement response of a 3.12mm thick tungsten plate irradiated with a 4 ns pulsed laser beam with Gaussian spatial profile, at intensities below and above the melt threshold. Comparison is made between results obtained using available temperature dependent thermophysical data, and room temperature materials constants except near the melting point.

  19. Ultra-fast Movies Resolve Ultra-short Pulse Laser Ablation and Bump Formation on Thin Molybdenum Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domke, Matthias; Rapp, Stephan; Huber, Heinz

    For the monolithic serial interconnection of CIS thin film solar cells, 470 nm molybdenum films on glass substrates must be separated galvanically. The single pulse ablation with a 660 fs laser at a wavelength of 1053 nm is investigated in a fluence regime from 0.5 to 5.0 J/cm2. At fluences above 2.0 J/cm2 bump and jet formation can be observed that could be used for creating microstructures. For the investigation of the underlying mechanisms of the laser ablation process itself as well as of the bump or jet formation, pump probe microscopy is utilized to resolve the transient ablation behavior.

  20. Improving adhesion of copper/epoxy joints by pulsed laser ablation

    KAUST Repository

    Hernandez, Edwin

    2015-10-19

    The purpose of the present work is to analyze the effect of pulsed laser ablation on copper substrates (CuZn40) deployed for adhesive bonding. Surface pre-treatment was carried using an Yb-fiber laser beam. Treated surfaces were probed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The mechanical performance of CuZn40/epoxy bonded joints was assessed using the T-peel test coupon. In order to resolve the mechanisms of failure and adhesive penetration within surface asperities induced by the laser treatment, fracture surfaces were surveyed using SEM. Finite element simulations, based on the use of the cohesive zone model of fracture, were carried out to evaluate the variation of bond toughness. Results indicated that the laser ablation process effectively modifies surface morphology and chemistry and enables enhanced mechanical interlocking and cohesive failure within the adhesive layer. Remarkable improvements of apparent peel energy and bond toughness were observed with respect to control samples with sanded substrates.

  1. Influence of water layer thickness on hard tissue ablation with pulsed CO2 laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianzeng; Zhan, Zhenlin; Liu, Haishan; Zhao, Haibin; Xie, Shusen; Ye, Qing

    2012-03-01

    The theory of hard tissue ablation reported for IR lasers is based on a process of thermomechanical interaction, which is explained by the absorption of the radiation in the water component of the tissue. The microexplosion of the water is the cause of tissue fragments being blasted from hard tissue. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the interdependence of water layer thickness and incident radiant exposure on ablation performance. A total of 282 specimens of bovine shank bone were irradiated with a pulse CO(2) laser. Irradiation was carried out in groups: without a water layer and with a static water layer of thickness ranging from 0.2 to 1.2 mm. Each group was subdivided into five subgroups for different radiant exposures ranging from 18 to 84 J/cm(2), respectively. The incision geometry, surface morphology, and microstructure of the cut walls as well as thermal injury were examined as a function of the water layer thickness at different radiant exposures. Our results demonstrate that the additional water layer is actually a mediator of laser-tissue interaction. There exists a critical thickness of water layer for a given radiant exposure, at which the additional water layer plays multiple roles, not only acting as a cleaner to produce a clean cut but also as a coolant to prevent bone heating and reduce thermal injury, but also helping to improve the regularity of the cut shape, smooth the cut surface, and enhance ablation rate and efficiency. The results suggest that desired ablation results depend on optimal selection of both water layer thickness and radiant exposure.

  2. Influence of water layer thickness on hard tissue ablation with pulsed CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianzeng; Zhan, Zhenlin; Liu, Haishan; Zhao, Haibin; Xie, Shusen; Ye, Qing

    2012-03-01

    The theory of hard tissue ablation reported for IR lasers is based on a process of thermomechanical interaction, which is explained by the absorption of the radiation in the water component of the tissue. The microexplosion of the water is the cause of tissue fragments being blasted from hard tissue. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the interdependence of water layer thickness and incident radiant exposure on ablation performance. A total of 282 specimens of bovine shank bone were irradiated with a pulse CO2 laser. Irradiation was carried out in groups: without a water layer and with a static water layer of thickness ranging from 0.2 to 1.2 mm. Each group was subdivided into five subgroups for different radiant exposures ranging from 18 to 84 J/cm2, respectively. The incision geometry, surface morphology, and microstructure of the cut walls as well as thermal injury were examined as a function of the water layer thickness at different radiant exposures. Our results demonstrate that the additional water layer is actually a mediator of laser-tissue interaction. There exists a critical thickness of water layer for a given radiant exposure, at which the additional water layer plays multiple roles, not only acting as a cleaner to produce a clean cut but also as a coolant to prevent bone heating and reduce thermal injury, but also helping to improve the regularity of the cut shape, smooth the cut surface, and enhance ablation rate and efficiency. The results suggest that desired ablation results depend on optimal selection of both water layer thickness and radiant exposure.

  3. Laser ablation efficiency during the production of Ag nanoparticles in ethanol at a low pulse repetition rate (1-10 Hz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde-Alva, M. A.; García-Fernández, T.; Esparza-Alegría, E.; Villagrán-Muniz, M.; Sánchez-Aké, C.; Castañeda-Guzmán, R.; de la Mora, M. B.; Márquez-Herrera, C. E.; Sánchez Llamazares, J. L.

    2016-10-01

    We studied the effect of the repetition rate of laser pulses (RRLP) in the range from 1-10 Hz in the production of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) by laser ablation in ethanol. Laser pulses with a duration of 7 ns, a wavelength of 1064 nm and an energy of 60 mJ were used to ablate a 99.99% pure silver target immersed in 10 ml of ethanol. Transmittance analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy were used to study the silver concentration in the colloidal solutions. The ablation process was studied by measuring the transmission of the laser pulses through the colloid. It is shown that for a fixed number of laser pulses (NLP) the ablation efficiency, in terms of the ablated silver mass per laser pulse, increases with the RRLP. This result contradicts what had previously been established in the literature.

  4. Impulse calculation and characteristic analysis of space debris by pulsed laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenglin; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Kunpeng

    2016-11-01

    Ablation by high-energy pulsed laser provides recoil impulse that results in the de-orbiting and atmospheric re-entry of space debris, which may be the best method of clearing space debris in the size range of 1-10 cm. Both the magnitude and direction of the recoil impulse depend on the shape and orientation of the target and serve as the foundation for studying orbital evolution and evaluating removal effects. However, how to calculate the recoil impulse and analyze the features of recoil impulse have not received sufficient attention in the literature. Based on certain assumed conditions, a general numerical method is proposed to calculate the recoil impulse of free motion debris under a set of laser pulses. Selecting cylindrical debris as the research target, we derive an analytical method to calculate the ablation-driven impulse. Moreover, the characteristics of single impulses changing over time and the total impulse are examined using analytical expressions. Finally, simulation experiments are conducted to validate both the numerical and analytical methods.

  5. Pulsed laser ablation of Germanium under vacuum and hydrogen environments at various fluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Hassan; Bashir, Shazia; Rafique, Muhammad Shahid; Dawood, Asadullah; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Hayat, Asma; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif; Mahmood, Arshad

    2015-07-01

    Laser fluence and ambient environment play a significant role for the formation and development of the micro/nano-structures on the laser irradiated targets. Single crystal (1 0 0) Germanium (Ge) has been ablated under two environments of vacuum (10-3 Torr) and hydrogen (100 Torr) at various fluences ranging from 4.5 J cm-2 to 6 J cm-2. For this purpose KrF Excimer laser with wavelength of 248 nm, pulse duration of 18 ns and repetition rate of 20 Hz has been employed. Surface morphology has been observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Whereas, structural modification of irradiated targets was explored by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. Electrical conductivity of the irradiated Ge is measured by four probe method. SEM analysis exhibits the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), cones and micro-bumps in both ambient environments (vacuum and hydrogen). The formation as well as development of these structures is strongly dependent upon the laser fluence and environmental conditions. The periodicity of LIPSS or ripples varies from 38 μm to 60 μm in case of vacuum whereas in case of hydrogen environment, the periodicity varies from 20 μm to 45 μm. The difference in number of ripples and periodicity as well as in shape and size of cones and bumps in vacuum and hydrogen is explained on the basis of confinement and shielding effect of plasma. FTIR spectroscopy reveals that no new bands are formed for laser ablated Ge under vacuum, whereas Csbnd H stretching vibration band is formed for two moderate fluences (5 J cm-2 and 5.5 J cm-2) in case of ablation in hydrogen. Raman spectroscopy shows that no new bands are formed in case of ablation in both environments; however a slight Raman shift is observed which is attributed to laser-induced stresses. The electrical conductivity of the irradiated Ge increases with increasing fluence and is also dependent upon the environment as well as grown structures.

  6. Liquid assisted ablation of zirconium for the growth of LIPSS at varying pulse durations and pulse energies by femtosecond laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Shazia; Rafique, M. Shahid; Husinsky, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Investigations have been performed to explore the optimized conditions for the growth of Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS) by varying pulse durations and pulse energies during ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of zirconium (Zr). The Ti: Sapphire laser with central wavelength of 800 nm, maximum pulse energy of 1 mJ is used to ablate Zr targets in the wet environment of ethanol. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis was performed for central as well as the peripheral ablated area to characterize nano and microstructures formed on the Zr surface. Raman spectroscopy was carried out to explore the chemical and compositional changes produced in laser ablated Zr. In order to explore the effect of varying pulse durations ranging from 25 to 100 fs, targets were exposed to 1000 succeeding pulses keeping the pulse energy constant at 600 μJ. The micrographs of peripheral ablated areas reveal the formation of nano scale ripples or Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS) for all pulse durations. LIPSS are more distinct and well organized for the shortest pulse duration of 25 fs. Whereas, LIPSS become diffused and indistinct with the increase in the pulse duration. This is the clear indication that shortest pulse duration (in our case 25 fs) is most suitable for the growth of nanoscale ripples. In order to explore the effect of varying pulse energies on the growth of LIPSS, targets were exposed to 1000 succeeding pulses with energies ranging from 200 μJ to 600 μJ for a pulse duration of 25 fs. In the peripheral ablated areas LIPSS are grown for all pulse energies. For the lowest pulse energy of 200 μJ, LIPSS are distinct and well defined. For intermediate energies of 300 and 400 μJ they become diffused and indistinct. For higher pulse energies of 500 and 600 μJ, their appearance again becomes well defined and distinct. For central ablated areas LIPSS are grown but their appearance diffuses with increasing pulse energies. For the highest pulse

  7. Ultrashort Pulsed Laser Ablation of Magnesium Diboride: Plasma Characterization and Thin Films Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela De Bonis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A MgB2 target has been ablated by Nd:glass laser with a pulse duration of 250 fs. The plasma produced by the laser-target interaction, showing two temporal separated emissions, has been characterized by time and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy and ICCD fast imaging. The films, deposited on silicon substrates and formed by the coalescence of particles with nanometric size, have been analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The first steps of the films growth have been studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy. The films deposition has been studied by varying the substrate temperature from 25 to 500°C and the best results have been obtained at room temperature.

  8. Preparation of SiN x film by pulsed laser ablation in nitrogen gas ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezu, I.; Yamaguchi, T.; Kohno, K.; Inada, M.; Sugimura, A.

    2002-09-01

    Silicon nitride films were synthesized by reactive pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of a Si target in N 2 gas atmosphere. At different laser fluences and N 2 gas pressures the infrared absorption peak attributed to Si-N bond was evaluated. The nitrogen concentration in the film increased with the increasing fluence. Nitrogen concentration depended also on N 2 gas pressure; it increased as N 2 pressure increase up to 10 Pa and then it decreased with further increasing N 2 gas pressure. These results indicate that decomposition of N 2 molecules and collisions of SiN x clusters with N 2 molecules are essential to prepare silicon nitride films by PLA method. The PLA is a promising method to fabricate nitrogen rich silicon nitride films without using poisonous gases such as silane and ammonia.

  9. Pulsed and CW adjustable 1942 nm single-mode all-fiber Tm-doped fiber laser system for surgical laser soft tissue ablation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yize; Jivraj, Jamil; Zhou, Jiaqi; Ramjist, Joel; Wong, Ronnie; Gu, Xijia; Yang, Victor X D

    2016-07-25

    A surgical laser soft tissue ablation system based on an adjustable 1942 nm single-mode all-fiber Tm-doped fiber laser operating in pulsed or CW mode with nitrogen assistance is demonstrated. Ex vivo ablation on soft tissue targets such as muscle (chicken breast) and spinal cord (porcine) with intact dura are performed at different ablation conditions to examine the relationship between the system parameters and ablation outcomes. The maximum laser average power is 14.4 W, and its maximum peak power is 133.1 W with 21.3 μJ pulse energy. The maximum CW power density is 2.33 × 106 W/cm2 and the maximum pulsed peak power density is 2.16 × 107 W/cm2. The system parameters examined include the average laser power in CW or pulsed operation mode, gain-switching frequency, total ablation exposure time, and the input gas flow rate. The ablation effects were measured by microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to evaluate the ablation depth, superficial heat-affected zone diameter (HAZD) and charring diameter (CD). Our results conclude that the system parameters can be tailored to meet different clinical requirements such as ablation for soft tissue cutting or thermal coagulation for future applications of hemostasis.

  10. Reflection of nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses in ablation of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, O; Lebedeva, O; Golikov, V

    2011-10-24

    Hemispherical total reflectivity of copper, nickel, and tungsten in ablation by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses in air of atmospheric pressure is experimentally studied as a function of laser fluence in the range of 0.1-100 J/cm(2). Our experiment shows that at laser fluences below the plasma formation threshold the reflectivity of mechanically polished metals remains virtually equal to the table room-temperature reflectivity values. The hemispherical total reflectivity of the studied metals begins to drop at a laser fluence of the plasma formation threshold. With increasing laser fluence above the plasma formation threshold the reflectivity sharply decreases to a low value and then remains unchanged with further increasing laser fluence. Computation of the surface temperature at the plasma formation threshold fluence reveals that its value is substantially below the melting point that indicates an important role of the surface nanostructural defects in the plasma formation on a real sample due to their enhanced heating caused by both plasmonic absorption and plasmonic nanofocusing.

  11. Pulsed erbium laser ablation of hard dental tissue: the effects of atomized water spray versus water surface film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberg, Robert J.; Cozean, Colette D.

    2002-06-01

    It has been established that the ability of erbium lasers to ablate hard dental tissue is due primarily to the laser- initiated subsurface expansion of the interstitial water trapped within the enamel and that by maintaining a thin film of water on the surface of the tooth, the efficiency of the laser ablation is enhanced. It has recently been suggested that a more aggressive ablative mechanism, designated as a hydrokinetic effect, occurs when atomized water droplets, introduced between the erbium laser and the surface of the tooth, are accelerated in the laser's field and impact the tooth's surface. It is the objective of this study to determine if the proposed hydrokinetic effect exists and to establish its contribution to the dental hard tissue ablation process. Two commercially available dental laser systems were employed in the hard tissue ablation studies. One system employed a water irrigation system in which the water was applied directly to the tooth, forming a thin film of water on the tooth's surface. The other system employed pressurized air and water to create an atomized mist of water droplets between the laser hand piece and the tooth. The ablative properties of the two lasers were studied upon hard inorganic materials, which were void of any water content, as well as dental enamel, which contained interstitial water within its crystalline structure. In each case the erbium laser beam was moved across the surface of the target material at a constant velocity. When exposing material void of any water content, no ablation of the surfaces was observed with either laser system. In contrast, when the irrigated dental enamel was exposed to the laser radiation, a linear groove was formed in the enamel surface. The volume of ablated dental tissue associated with each irrigation method was measured and plotted as a function of the energy within the laser pulse. Both dental laser systems exhibited similar enamel ablation rates and comparable ablated surface

  12. Synthesis of oxidation resistant lead nanoparticle films by modified pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Eunsung; Murray, P. Terrence; Subramanyam, Guru; Malik, Hans K.; Schwartz, Kenneth L. [Research Institute, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469-0170 (United States); Research Institute, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469-0170, USA and Graduate Materials Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469-0240 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469-0232 (United States); Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems, Linthicum, MD 21090 (United States)

    2012-07-30

    Thin layers of lead nanoparticles have been produced by a modified pulsed laser ablation (PLA) process in which smaller nanoparticles were swept out of the ablation chamber by a stream of flowing Ar. Large ({mu}m-sized) particles, which are usually deposited during the standard PLA process, were successfully eliminated from the deposit. The nanoparticles deposited on room temperature substrates were well distributed, and the most probable particle diameter was in the order of 30 nm. Since lead is highly reactive, the nanoparticles formed in Ar were quickly oxidized upon exposure to air. A small partial pressure of H{sub 2}S gas was subsequently added to the effluent, downstream from the ablation chamber, and this resulted in the formation of nanoparticle deposits that were surprisingly oxidation resistant. The properties of the nanoparticle films (as determined by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and conductivity measurements) are reported, and the mechanism of the oxidation retardation process is discussed.

  13. Modified surface morphology in surface ablation of cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide with pulsed UV laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiejun; Lou, Qihong; Dong, Jingxing; Wei, Yunrong; Liu, Jingru

    2001-03-01

    Surface ablation of cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide hardmetal has been carried out in this work using a 308 nm, 20 ns XeCl excimer laser. The influence of ablation rate, surface roughness, surface micromorphology as well as surface phase structure on laser conditions including laser irradiance and pulse number have been investigated. The experimental results showed that the ablation rate and surface roughness were controlled by varying the number of pulses and laser irradiance. The microstructure and crystalline structure of irradiated surface layer varied greatly with different laser conditions. After 300 shots of laser irradiation at irradiance of 125 MW/cm 2, the surface micromorphology characterizing a uniform framework pattern of "hill-valleys". With the increment of laser shots at laser irradiance of 125 MW/cm 2, the microstructure of cemented tungsten carbide transformed from original polygon grains with the size of 3 μm to interlaced large and long grains after 300 shots of laser irradiation, and finally to gross grains with the size of 10 μm with clear grain boundaries after 700 shots. The crystalline structure of irradiated area has partly transformed from original WC to β-WC 1- x, then to α-W 2C and CW 3, and finally to W crystal. At proper laser irradiance and pulse number, cobalt binder has been selectively removed from the surface layer of hardmetal. It has been demonstrated that surface ablation with pulsed UV laser should be a feasible way to selectively remove cobalt binder from surface layer of cemented tungsten carbide hardmetal.

  14. Structural and nonlinear optical characterizations of ZnS/ PVP nanocomposites synthesized by pulsed laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divyasree, M. C.; Chandrasekharan, K.

    2017-05-01

    ZnS/Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone nanocomposites were synthesized by pulsed laser ablation at ambient conditions using an Nd: YAG laser at 532 nm wavelength and 7ns pulse width. Linear optical characterizations were done using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and fluorometer. Both absorption and emission peaks were found to be blue shifted, which could be due to quantum confinement effect. Spherical morphology and the purity in the elemental composition of the sample were confirmed by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer respectively. Average particle size of the ZnS nanoparticles was found to be 13.45 nm from the Gaussian fitted histogram of transmission electron Microscopy image and the structure was confirmed as hexagonal wurtzite by X-ray diffraction analysis. The nonlinear optical parameters were figured out by z scan analysis with the same laser system. The nanocomposite showed good absorptive and refractive properties in the nonlinear optical regime. Detailed study of the nanocomposite revealed its potential applications in optoelectronics and nonlinear optical device fabrication.

  15. Deposition of NbC thin films by pulsed laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhalde, S.; Colaco, R.; Audebert, F.; Perrone, A.; Zocco, A.

    Niobium carbide thin films were prepared by pulsed laser ablation of a stoichiometric NbC target. XeCl (308 nm, 30 ns) and Nd:YAG (266 nm, 5 ns) lasers operating at a repetition rate of 10 Hz were used. Films were deposited on Si (100) substrates at room temperature either in vacuum or in an argon atmosphere (2×10-1 mbar). Different laser fluences (2, 4 and 6 J/cm2) and different numbers of pulses (1×104, 2×104 and 4×104) were tested. For the first time, NbC films were prepared through a clean procedure without the addition of a hydrocarbon atmosphere. The phase constitution of the films, unit cell size, mean crystallite dimensions and preferred orientation are determined as a function of deposition conditions by X-ray diffraction. Complementary morphological and structural analysis of the films were performed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy.

  16. Optical Properties of Co-doped Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles, Prepared by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Savchuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of study of Zn1 – xCoxO nanoparticles, which were grown by pulsed laser ablation in liquid medium (PLAL, have been presented. Zn1 – xCoxO nanoparticles were produced by laser ablation of ceramic plates as targets in deionized water. The structural analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD of nanocrystals reveals the formation of predominant (002 reflection corresponding to the hexagonal wurtzite structure without any secondary phase. The performed scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis suggests of the well-defined flower-like nanoparticles. In optical absorption spectra of the colloidal nanoparticles short wavelength shift of the absorption edge due to confinement effect has been observed. With increasing of cobalt content the optical absorption spectra shown a red shift of the band edge which are caused by to the s, p-d exchange interactions between the band electrons and the localized spins of magnetic impurities. In the room temperature photoluminescence spectra of Zn1 – xCoxO nanoparticles four main peaks were revealed, which are attributed to the band - edge transitions and vacancies or defects

  17. Preclinical investigations of articular cartilage ablation with femtosecond and pulsed infrared lasers as an alternative to microfracture surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Erica; Sun, Hui; Juhasz, Tibor; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Microfracture surgery is a bone marrow stimulation technique for treating cartilage defects and injuries in the knee. Current methods rely on surgical skill and instrumentation. This study investigates the potential use of laser technology as an alternate means to create the microfracture holes. Lasers investigated in this study include an erbium:YAG laser (λ=2.94  μm), titanium:sapphire femtosecond laser system (λ=1700  nm), and Nd:glass femtosecond laser (λ=1053  nm). Bovine samples were ablated at fluences of 8 to 18  J/cm2 with the erbium:YAG laser, at a power of 300±15  mW with the titanium:sapphire femtosecond system, and at an energy of 3  μJ/pulse with the Nd:glass laser. Samples were digitally photographed and histological sections were taken for analysis. The erbium:YAG laser is capable of fast and efficient ablation; specimen treated with fluences of 12 and 18  J/cm2 experienced significant amounts of bone removal and minimal carbonization with saline hydration. The femtosecond laser systems successfully removed cartilage but not clinically significant amounts of bone. Precise tissue removal was possible but not to substantial depths due to limitations of the systems. With additional studies and development, the use of femtosecond laser systems to ablate bone may be achieved at clinically valuable ablation rates. PMID:25200394

  18. Preclinical investigations of articular cartilage ablation with femtosecond and pulsed infrared lasers as an alternative to microfracture surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Erica; Sun, Hui; Juhasz, Tibor; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2014-09-01

    Microfracture surgery is a bone marrow stimulation technique for treating cartilage defects and injuries in the knee. Current methods rely on surgical skill and instrumentation. This study investigates the potential use of laser technology as an alternate means to create the microfracture holes. Lasers investigated in this study include an erbium:YAG laser (λ=2.94 μm), titanium:sapphire femtosecond laser system (λ=1700 nm), and Nd:glass femtosecond laser (λ=1053 nm). Bovine samples were ablated at fluences of 8 to 18 J/cm2 with the erbium:YAG laser, at a power of 300±15 mW with the titanium:sapphire femtosecond system, and at an energy of 3 μJ/pulse with the Nd:glass laser. Samples were digitally photographed and histological sections were taken for analysis. The erbium:YAG laser is capable of fast and efficient ablation; specimen treated with fluences of 12 and 18 J/cm2 experienced significant amounts of bone removal and minimal carbonization with saline hydration. The femtosecond laser systems successfully removed cartilage but not clinically significant amounts of bone. Precise tissue removal was possible but not to substantial depths due to limitations of the systems. With additional studies and development, the use of femtosecond laser systems to ablate bone may be achieved at clinically valuable ablation rates.

  19. Processing conditions in pulsed laser ablation of gold in liquid for fabrication of nanowire networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolov, A.S., E-mail: anastas_nikolov@abv.bg [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsarigradsko Chaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Nedyalkov, N.N.; Nikov, R.G.; Dimitrov, I.G.; Atanasov, P.A. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsarigradsko Chaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Maximova, K.; Delaporte, Ph.; Kabashin, A. [Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, LP3 Laboratory, Marseille 13288 (France); Alexandrov, M.T. [Institute of Experimental Pathology and Parasitology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, G. Bonchev Street, bl. 25, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Karashanova, D.B. [Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, G. Bonchev Street, bl. 109, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2014-05-01

    The experimental conditions were investigated enabling one to fabricate Au nanowire networks by pulsed laser ablation in water. The study revealed that it is possible to produce alternatively nanoparticles (or aggregates) or nanowire networks at certain wavelengths depending on the laser fluence. An Au disc immersed in double-distilled water was used as a target. The second (λ{sub SHG} = 532 nm) and the third (λ{sub THG} = 355 nm) harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser system were utilized to produce different Au colloids. The values of the laser fluence for both wavelengths under the experimental conditions chosen were varied from several J/cm{sup 2} to tens of J/cm{sup 2}. The optical extinction spectra of the colloids in the UV/vis region were obtained to evaluate the structure of the dispersed Au phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was applied to visualize the size and morphology of the colloidal particles. Their structure and phase composition were studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and used to make an assumption on how they had been formed.

  20. Dynamics of laser ablation at the early stage during and after ultrashort pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilnitsky, D. K.; Khokhlov, V. A.; Zhakhovsky, V. V.; Petrov, Yu V.; Migdal, K. P.; Inogamov, N. A.

    2016-11-01

    Study of material flow in two-temperature states is needed for a fundamental understanding the physics of femtosecond laser ablation. To explore phenomena at a very early stage of laser action on a metallic target our in-house two-temperature hydrodynamics code is used here. The early stage covers duration of laser pulse with next first few picoseconds. We draw attention to the difference in behavior at this stage between the cases: (i) of an ultrathin film (thickness of order of skin depth d skin or less), (ii) thin films (thickness of a film is 4-7 of d skin for gold), and (iii) bulk targets (more than 10d skin for gold). We demonstrate that these differences follow from a competition among conductive cooling of laser excited electrons in a skin layer, electron-ion coupling, and hydrodynamics of unloading caused by excess of pressure of excited free electrons. Conductive cooling of the skin needs a heat sink, which is performed by the cold material outside the skin. Such sink is unavailable in the ultrathin films.

  1. Pulsed laser ablation in liquids: Impact of the bubble dynamics on particle formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stefan; Schönfeld, Patrick; Wagener, Philipp; Letzel, Alexander; Ibrahimkutty, Shyjumon; Gökce, Bilal; Barcikowski, Stephan; Menzel, Andreas; Dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Plech, Anton

    2017-03-01

    Pulsed laser ablation in liquids (PLAL) is a multiscale process, involving multiple mutually interacting phenomena. In order to synthesize nanoparticles with well-defined properties it is important to understand the dynamics of the underlying structure evolution. We use visible-light stroboscopic imaging and X-ray radiography to investigate the dynamics occurring during PLAL of silver and gold on a macroscopic scale, whilst X-ray small angle scattering is utilized to deepen the understanding on particle genesis. By comparing our results with earlier reports we can elucidate the role of the cavitation bubble. We find that symmetry breaking at the liquid-solid interface is a critical factor for bubble motion and that the bubble motion acts on the particle distribution as confinement and retraction force to create secondary agglomerates.

  2. RAPID COMMUNICATION: ? thin film bilayers grown by pulsed laser ablation deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. K.; Palmer, S. B.; McK Paul, D.; Lees, M. R.

    1996-09-01

    We have grown superconducting thin films of 0022-3727/29/9/044/img2 (Y-123) on 0022-3727/29/9/044/img3 (PCMO) buffer layers and PCMO overlayers on Y-123 thin films using pulsed laser ablation deposition. For both sets of films below 50 K, the Y-123 layer is superconducting and the zero-field cooled PCMO layer is insulating. The application of a magnetic field of 8 T results in an insulator - metal transition in the PCMO layer. This field-induced conducting state is stable in zero magnetic field at low temperature. The PCMO layer can be returned to an insulating state by annealing above 100 K. This opens the way for the construction of devices incorporating these oxide materials in which the electronic properties of key components such as the substrate or the barrier layer can be switched in a controlled way by the application of a magnetic field.

  3. Influence of effective number of pulses on the morphological structure of teeth and bovine femur after femtosecond laser ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodelli, Gustavo; Lizarelli, Rosane de Fátima Zanirato; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2012-04-01

    Femtosecond lasers have been widely used in laser surgery as an instrument for contact-free tissue removal of hard dental, restorative materials, and osseous tissues, complementing conventional drilling or cutting tools. In order to obtain a laser system that provides an ablation efficiency comparable to mechanical instruments, the laser pulse rate must be maximal without causing thermal damage. The aim of this study was to compare the different morphological characteristics of the hard tissue after exposure to lasers operating in the femtosecond pulse regime. Two different kinds of samples were irradiated: dentin from human extracted teeth and bovine femur samples. Different procedures were applied, while paying special care to preserving the structures. The incubation factor S was calculated to be 0.788±0.004 for the bovine femur bone. These results indicate that the incubation effect is still substantial during the femtosecond laser ablation of hard tissues. The plasma-induced ablation has reduced side effects, i.e., we observe less thermal and mechanical damage when using a superficial femtosecond laser irradiation close to the threshold conditions. In the femtosecond regime, the morphology characteristics of the cavity were strongly influenced by the change of the effective number of pulses.

  4. Studies of craters' dimension for long-pulse laser ablation of metal targets at various experimental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margarone, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Messina, Ctr. Papardo-Sperone, 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy)], E-mail: margarone@lns.infn.it; Laska, L. [Institute of Physics, A.S.C.R., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Torrisi, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Messina, Ctr. Papardo-Sperone, 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Gammino, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Krasa, J.; Krousky, E. [Institute of Physics, A.S.C.R., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Parys, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery St. 23, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K. [Institute of Physics, A.S.C.R., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Rosinski, M.; Ryc, L. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery St. 23, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Skala, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Velyhan, A. [Institute of Physics, A.S.C.R., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Wolowski, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery St. 23, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)

    2008-02-28

    Long pulse laser shots of the PALS iodine laser in Prague have been used to obtain metal target ablation at various experimental conditions. Attention is paid mainly to the dependencies of the crater diameter on the position of minimum laser-focus spot with regard to the target surface, by using different laser wavelengths and laser energies. Not only a single one, but two minima, independently of the wavelength, of the target irradiation angle and of the target material, were recorded. Significant asymmetries, ascribed to the non-linear effects of intense laser beam with pre-formed plasma, were found, too. Estimations of ejected mass per laser pulse are reported and used to calculate the efficiency of laser-driven loading. Results on metal target ablation and crater formation at high intensities (from 2 x 10{sup 13} to 3 x 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}) are presented and compared. Crater depth, crater diameter and etching yield are reported versus the laser energy, in order to evaluate the ablation threshold fluence.

  5. Ablation of human carious dentin with a nanosecond pulsed laser at a wavelength of 5.85 μm: relationship between hardness and ablation depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Kita, Tetsuya; Yoshikawa, Kazushi; Yasuo, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Kazuyo; Awazu, Kunio

    2014-02-01

    Less invasive treatment and preservation of teeth, referred to as minimal intervention, are strong requirements in dentistry. In our previous study, the fundamental ablation properties of human dentin at wavelengths around 5.8 μm were investigated, and the results indicated that the wavelength of 5.85 μm was optimal for selective removal of carious dentin with less damage to normal dentin. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the ablation depth and hardness of human dentin including carious lesion. A nanosecond pulsed laser produced by difference-frequency generation was used for irradiations to human carious dentin. It was observed that correlation between ablation depth and Vickers hardness after 2 s laser irradiation at the wavelength of 5.85 μm and the average power density of 30 W/cm2. On the other hand, ablations did not depend on Vickers hardness at the wavelength of 6.00 μm. A nanosecond pulsed laser with the wavelength at 5.85 μm is useful for selective ablation of human carious dentin in accordance with the hardness.

  6. ZnO(101) films by pulsed reactive crossed-beam laser ablation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Angappane; N R Selvi; G U Kulkarni

    2009-06-01

    We have employed pulsed reactive crossed-beam laser ablation (PRCLA) to deposit a (101) oriented ZnO film. In this method, a supersonic jet of oxygen pulse is made to cross the laser plume from a zinc metal target while being carried to the Si(111) substrate. The obtained deposit was nanocrystalline ZnO as confirmed by a host of characterization techniques. When the substrate was held at varying temperatures, from room temperature to 900°C, the crystallinity of the obtained films increased as expected, but importantly, the crystallographic orientation of the films was varied. High substrate temperatures produced the usual (001) oriented films, while lower substrate temperatures gave rise to increasingly (101) oriented films. The substrate held at room temperature contained only the (101) orientation. The film morphology also varied with the substrate temperature, from being nanoparticulate to rod-like deposits for higher deposition temperatures. Surprisingly, the (101) orientation showed reactivity with acetone forming carbonaceous nanostructures on the surface.

  7. [Doppler effect on width of characteristic line in plasma induced by pulsed laser ablating Al].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi-Zhong; He, An-Zhi

    2005-05-01

    Aluminum (Al) plasma was induced with a pulsed Nd: YAG laser beam ablating Al target in Ar. Time-resolved information of the plasma radiation was taken with time-resolved technique, and the spectra of the radiation were recorded with an optical multi-path analyzer (OMA III ), whereupon, time-resolved spectra of the plasma radiation induced by pulsed laser were acquired. Based on the experiment data, Al resonant double lines, Al I 396.15 nm, Al I 394.40 nm, were respectively fitted with Lorentz, Gauss and their linear integrated function (abbr. Integrated function), whereupon, Lorentz and Gauss elements were separated from the experiment data profile curve. By contrasting Lorentz with Gauss curve separated, it was found that the experiment curve mainly consisted of Lorentz element, a with little Gauss. By contrasting Lorentz with Integrated fitting curve for experiment data, a visual picture of the characteristic lines broadened by Doppler effect was exhibited. According to the visual picture, the increase of full half-high width of the characteristic line broadened by Doppler effect was estimated. It was about 2 x 10(-)3 -8 x 10(-3) nm, approximating the theoretical value 6.7 x 10(-)3 nm. As a result, Doppler effect on the width of characteristic lines in the plasma could be reasonably explained by curve fitting analysis and theoretical calculation.

  8. Liquid assisted ablation of zirconium for the growth of LIPSS at varying pulse durations and pulse energies by femtosecond laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashir, Shazia [Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University Lahore (Pakistan); Rafique, M. Shahid [Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Department of Physics, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore (Pakistan); Husinsky, Wolfgang [Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •Femtosecond laser ablation of Zr has been investigated. •The ablation was performed in ethanol environment. •The surface morphology of irradiated targets was explored by SEM analysis. •The compositional modification was performed by Raman spectroscopy. •The effect of pulse duration as well as pulse energy was revealed. -- Abstract: Investigations have been performed to explore the optimized conditions for the growth of Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS) by varying pulse durations and pulse energies during ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of zirconium (Zr). The Ti: Sapphire laser with central wavelength of 800 nm, maximum pulse energy of 1 mJ is used to ablate Zr targets in the wet environment of ethanol. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis was performed for central as well as the peripheral ablated area to characterize nano and microstructures formed on the Zr surface. Raman spectroscopy was carried out to explore the chemical and compositional changes produced in laser ablated Zr. In order to explore the effect of varying pulse durations ranging from 25 to 100 fs, targets were exposed to 1000 succeeding pulses keeping the pulse energy constant at 600 μJ. The micrographs of peripheral ablated areas reveal the formation of nano scale ripples or Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS) for all pulse durations. LIPSS are more distinct and well organized for the shortest pulse duration of 25 fs. Whereas, LIPSS become diffused and indistinct with the increase in the pulse duration. This is the clear indication that shortest pulse duration (in our case 25 fs) is most suitable for the growth of nanoscale ripples. In order to explore the effect of varying pulse energies on the growth of LIPSS, targets were exposed to 1000 succeeding pulses with energies ranging from 200 μJ to 600 μJ for a pulse duration of 25 fs. In the peripheral ablated areas LIPSS are grown for all pulse energies. For the lowest pulse energy of

  9. Diamond nanospherulite: A novel material produced at carbon-water interface by pulsed-laser ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王育煌; 黄群健; 陈忠; 黄荣彬; 郑兰荪

    1997-01-01

    Formation of carbon nanoparticles with perfectly spherical.shape and diamond structure (diamond nanospherulite) by laser-ablating a variety of carbon samples in water is reported for the first time The studies reveal that molten carbon nanoparticles generated by laser ablation are quenched directly by water and end up as diamond nanospherulites,possibly due to the high pressure arising from surface tension and the high stability resulting from termination of dangling bonds with hydrogen atoms.

  10. Preparation of antimony sulfide semiconductor nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ren-De, E-mail: son003@sekisui.com [Research & Development Institute, High Performance Plastics Company, Sekisui Chemical Co., Ltd. 2-1 Hyakuyama, Shimamoto-Cho, Mishima-Gun, Osaka, 618-0021 (Japan); Tsuji, Takeshi [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-Cho, Matsue, 690-8504 (Japan)

    2015-09-01

    Highlights: • Pulsed laser ablation in liquid (LAL) was applied to prepare antimony sulfide nanoparticles (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} NPs). • Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} NPs with a stoichiometric composition were successfully prepared by LAL in water without using any surfactants or capping agents. • Thus-prepared Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} NPs showed low-temperature crystallization and melting at a temperature low as 200 °C. • The NPs-coated Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film showed comparable semiconductor properties (carrier mobility and carrier density) to the vacuum deposited one. • Byproducts such as CS{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and CO were detected by GC-MS analysis when LAL was performed in organic solvent. • The LAL-induced decomposition mechanism of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and organic solvents was discussed based on the GC-MS results. - Abstract: In this paper, we report on the synthesis of antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) semiconductor nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation in liquid without using any surfactants or capping agents. Different results were obtained in water and organic solvents. In the case of water, Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles with chemical compositions of stoichiometry were successfully prepared when laser irradiation was performed under the condition with the dissolved oxygen removed by argon gas bubbling. It was shown that thus-obtained Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles exhibit features of not only low-temperature crystallization but also low-temperature melting at a temperature as low as 200 °C. Nanoparticle-coated Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were found to show good visible light absorption and satisfying semiconductor properties (i.e., carrier mobility and density), which are essential for photovoltaic application. On the other hand, in the case of organic solvents (e.g., acetone, ethanol), such unexpected byproducts as CS{sub 2}, CO and CH{sub 4} were detected from the reaction system by GC-MS analysis, which suggests that both Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and organic

  11. Growth of anatase and rutile phase TiO2 nanoparticles using pulsed laser ablation in liquid: Influence of surfactant addition and ablation time variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Amita; Joshi, M. P.; Mondal, P.; Sinha, A. K.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2017-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were grown using nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ti target in DI water and in 0.001 M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant aqueous solution. Growth was carried out with varying ablation times i. e. 30 min, 60 min and 90 min. The objective of our study was to investigate the influence of variations in liquid ambience conditions on the growth of the nanoparticles in a pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) process. Size, composition and optical properties of the grown TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The obtained nanoparticles of TiO2 were found almost spherical in shape and polycrystalline in nature in both the liquid mediums i.e. DI water and aqueous solution of surfactant. Nanoparticles number density was also found to increase with increasing ablation time in both the liquid mediums. However crystalline phase of the grown TiO2 nanoparticles differs with the change in liquid ambience conditions. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED), PL and XRD studies suggest that DI water ambience is favorable for the growth of anatase phase TiO2 nanoparticles for all ablation times. While Surfactant added water ambience is favorable for the growth of rutile phase TiO2 nanoparticles but for shorter ablation times of 30 min and 60 min only, for longer ablation time of 90 min anatase phase was also observed along with the rutile phase TiO2 nanoparticles. The formation of anatase phase in DI water and rutile and anatase phase in aqueous solution of surfactant is explained on the basis of varying thermodynamic conditions with the two different liquid ambiences and different ablation times.

  12. Study on pulsed laser ablation and deposition of ZnO thin films by L-MBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    ZnO,as a wide-band gap semiconductor,has recently become a new research fo-cus in the field of ultraviolet optoelectronic semiconductors. Laser molecular beam epitaxy(L-MBE) is quite useful for the unit cell layer-by-layer epitaxial growth of zinc oxide thin films from the sintered ceramic target. The ZnO ceramic target with high purity was ablated by KrF laser pulses in an ultra high vacuum to deposit ZnO thin film during the process of L-MBE. It is found that the deposition rate of ZnO thin film by L-MBE is much lower than that by conventional pulsed laser deposition(PLD) . Based on the experimental phenomena in the ZnO thin film growth process and the thermal-controlling mechanism of the nanosecond(ns) pulsed laser abla-tion of ZnO ceramic target,the suggested effective ablating time during the pulse duration can explain the very low deposition rate of the ZnO film by L-MBE. The unique dynamic mechanism for growing ZnO thin film is analyzed. Both the high energy of the deposition species and the low growth rate of the film are really beneficial for the L-MBE growth of the ZnO thin film with high crystallinity at low temperature.

  13. Study on pulsed laser ablation and deposition of ZnO thin films by L-MBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE YongNing; ZHANG JingWen; YANG XiaoDong; XU QingAn; ZHU ChangChun; HOU Xun

    2007-01-01

    ZnO, as a wide-band gap semiconductor, has recently become a new research focus in the field of ultraviolet optoelectronic semiconductors. Laser molecular beam epitaxy (L-MBE) is quite useful for the unit cell layer-by-layer epitaxial growth of zinc oxide thin films from the sintered ceramic target. The ZnO ceramic target with high purity was ablated by KrF laser pulses in an ultra high vacuum to deposit ZnO thin film during the process of L-MBE. It is found that the deposition rate of ZnO thin film by L-MBE is much lower than that by conventional pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Based on the experimental phenomena in the ZnO thin film growth process and the thermal-controlling mechanism of the nanosecond (ns) pulsed laser ablation of ZnO ceramic target, the suggested effective ablating time during the pulse duration can explain the very low deposition rate of the ZnO film by L-MBE. The unique dynamic mechanism for growing ZnO thin film is analyzed. Both the high energy of the deposition species and the low growth rate of the film are really beneficial for the L-MBE growth of the ZnO thin film with high crystallinity at low temperature.

  14. Two-phase zirconium boride thin film obtained by ultra-short pulsed laser ablation of a ZrB{sub 12} target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bonis, A., E-mail: angela.debonis@unibas.it [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università della Basilicata, Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano, 10 -85100 Potenza (Italy); Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, U.O.S. di Potenza, C.da Santa Loja, 85010 Tito Scalo, Potenza (Italy); Santagata, A. [Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, U.O.S. di Potenza, C.da Santa Loja, 85010 Tito Scalo, Potenza (Italy); Rau, J.V. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Latini, A. [Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, Dipartimento di Chimica, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5 -00185 Rome (Italy); Mori, T. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) WPI Materials Nanoarchitectonics Center (MANA), Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Medici, L. [Istituto di Metodologie per le Analisi Ambientali, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, U.O.S. di Potenza, C.da Santa Loja, 85010 Tito Scalo, Potenza (Italy); Teghil, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università della Basilicata, Viale dell’Ateneo Lucano, 10 -85100 Potenza (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Two-phase zirconium boride thin films have been obtained by ultra-short pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of a zirconium dodecaboride (ZrB{sub 12}) target performed in vacuum. The ablation source was a frequency doubled (λ = 527 nm) Nd:glass laser with a pulse duration of 250 fs. Laser induced plasma has been studied by ICCD imaging and time and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES), whereas the deposited films have been characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The film morphology and composition have been interpreted on the basis of the laser ablation mechanism.

  15. Investigation of the ablation of zinc oxide thin films on copper-indium-selenide layers by ps laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Gerhard; Dickmann, Marcel; Domke, Matthias; Heiss, Andreas; Kuznicki, Thomas; Palm, Jörg; Richter, Isabel; Vogt, Helmut; Huber, Heinz P.

    2011-07-01

    The selective laser structuring of zinc oxide thin films, which serve as the transparent negative electrodes of copper-indium-selenide (CIS) thin film solar cells, is of great common interest as it can replace the mechanical scribing of the so-called pattern 3 (P3) process step for the monolithic serial interconnection of these cells. We present an investigation of the single-pulse ablation behavior of zinc oxide thin films on glass substrates and on CIS layers and of trench scribing with 10-ps laser pulses at 1064 nm and at 532 nm. We show that the ablation behavior strongly depends on the properties of the underling substrate and that the energy required to ablate a specific volume using induced laser processes (often referred to as `lift off') is considerably reduced compared to the direct ablation of zinc oxide. With laser powers below 2 W at a wavelength of 1064 nm process speeds of 6 m/s for the P3 process have been achieved.

  16. Fluorescence Enhancement Ratio Dropdown at Low Fluences during Femtosecond Double Pulse Laser Ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sima SINGHA; Robert J. GORDON; HU Zhan

    2008-01-01

    In the study of double pulse ablation of materials (silicon and copper), a dropdown of double pulse to single pulse fluorescence signal enhancement at low fluences is observed. The dropdown is analysed with a simple theoretical one-dimensional heat diffusion model and verified by fluorescence time constants change as a function of fluence. The dropdown is explained as a result of liquid-solid mixture layer at the liquid and solid boundary. The effect of the layer becomes important at low fluences.

  17. Thin films deposited by femtosecond pulsed laser ablation of tungsten carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bonis, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica ' A.M. Tamburro' , Universita della Basilicata, Via dell' Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali - INSTM, Via G. Giusti 9, 00121 Florence (Italy); Teghil, R., E-mail: roberto.teghil@unibas.it [Dipartimento di Chimica ' A.M. Tamburro' , Universita della Basilicata, Via dell' Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali - INSTM, Via G. Giusti 9, 00121 Florence (Italy); Santagata, A. [Istituto Metodologie Inorganiche e Plasmi, CNR, Unita di Potenza, via S. Loja, 85050 Tito Scalo PZ (Italy); Galasso, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica ' A.M. Tamburro' , Universita della Basilicata, Via dell' Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Rau, J.V. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, CNR, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have deposited amorphous tungsten carbide films by ultra-short PLD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the films different W-C phases are present. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films are formed mainly by particles with nanometric size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose that the particles are directly ejected from the target. - Abstract: Ultra-short Pulsed Laser Deposition has been applied to the production of thin films from a tungsten carbide target. The gaseous phase obtained by the laser ablation shows a very weak primary plume, in contrast with a very strong secondary one. The deposited films, investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction, present a mixture of WC and other phases with lower carbon content. All films are amorphous, independently from the substrate temperature. The characteristics of the deposits have been explained in terms of thermal evaporation and cooling rate of molten particles ejected from the target.

  18. Morphology and topography of perovskite solar cell films ablated and scribed with short and ultrashort laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Lukas; Ehrhardt, Martin; Lorenz, Pierre; Pisoni, Stefano; Buecheler, Stephan; Tiwari, Ayodhya N.; Zimmer, Klaus

    2017-09-01

    The unique properties of halide perovskites are suitable for low-cost high-efficiency photovoltaic applications. For commercialization of this technology, it is pivotal to upscale towards solar modules. Monolithic interconnection of solar cells is a necessary step for realization of thin-film solar modules and the laser scribing of the constituent layers with well-defined profiles of high accuracy is a promising approach for high speed processing. Here the laser ablation and scribing of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3: MAPbI3) layers are investigated. Nanosecond (ns) and picosecond (ps) laser pulses were used to ablate and scribe MAPbI3 films on FTO/glass by irradiation from the film- and the glass-side. Depending on the irradiation configuration laser ablation or lift-off delamination was determined to be the dominating mechanism of thin-film removal. Various surface modifications such as film smoothening and decomposition of the MAPbI3 have been observed, especially when nanosecond laser pulses are used. The complete removal of the MAPbI3, film without damaging the FTO/substrate, has been achieved for all studied laser sources.

  19. Reduction of picosecond laser ablation threshold and damage via nanosecond pre-pulse for removal of dielectric layers on silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, A. A.; Meyer, F.; Nekarda, J.-F.; Preu, R.

    2014-10-01

    Laser microstructuring of thin dielectric layers on sensitive electronic devices, such as crystalline silicon solar cells, requires a careful design of the laser ablation process. For instance, degradation of the substrate's crystallinity can vastly decrease minority carrier lifetime and consequently impair the efficiency of such devices. Short-pulse laser ablation seems well suited for clean and spatially confined structuring because of the small heat-affected zone in the remaining substrate material [Dube and Gonsiorawski in Conference record of the twenty first IEEE photovoltaic specialists conference, 624-628 1990]. The short-time regimes, however, generate steep temperature gradients that can lead to amorphization of the remaining silicon surface. By `heating' the substrate via a non-ablative laser pulse in the nanosecond regime before the actual ablation pulse occurs we are able to prevent amorphization of the surface of the silicon solar cell substrate, while lowering the ablation thresholds of a SiNx layer on crystalline silicon wafers.

  20. Imaging the ultrafast Kerr effect, free carrier generation, relaxation and ablation dynamics of Lithium Niobate irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Lechuga, Mario, E-mail: mario@io.cfmac.csic.es; Siegel, Jan, E-mail: j.siegel@io.cfmac.csic.es; Hernandez-Rueda, Javier; Solis, Javier [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Optica, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-21

    The interaction of high-power single 130 femtosecond (fs) laser pulses with the surface of Lithium Niobate is experimentally investigated in this work. The use of fs-resolution time-resolved microscopy allows us to separately observe the instantaneous optical Kerr effect induced by the pulse and the generation of a free electron plasma. The maximum electron density is reached 550 fs after the peak of the Kerr effect, confirming the presence of a delayed carrier generation mechanism. We have also observed the appearance of transient Newton rings during the ablation process, related to optical interference of the probe beam reflected at the front and back surface of the ablating layer. Finally, we have analyzed the dynamics of the photorefractive effect on a much longer time scale by measuring the evolution of the transmittance of the irradiated area for different fluences below the ablation threshold.

  1. Development of double-pulse lasers ablation system for generating gold ion source under applying an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, A. A. I.

    2015-12-01

    Double-pulse lasers ablation (DPLA) technique was developed to generate gold (Au) ion source and produce high current under applying an electric potential in an argon ambient gas environment. Two Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers operating at 1064 and 266 nm wavelengths are combined in an unconventional orthogonal (crossed-beam) double-pulse configuration with 45° angle to focus on a gold target along with a spectrometer for spectral analysis of gold plasma. The properties of gold plasma produced under double-pulse lasers excitation were studied. The velocity distribution function (VDF) of the emitted plasma was studied using a dedicated Faraday-cup ion probe (FCIP) under argon gas discharge. The experimental parameters were optimized to attain the best signal to noise (S/N) ratio. The results depicted that the VDF and current signals depend on the discharge applied voltage, laser intensity, laser wavelength and ambient argon gas pressure. A seven-fold increases in the current signal by increasing the discharge applied voltage and ion velocity under applying double-pulse lasers field. The plasma parameters (electron temperature and density) were also studied and their dependence on the delay (times between the excitation laser pulse and the opening of camera shutter) was investigated as well. This study could provide significant reference data for the optimization and design of DPLA systems engaged in laser induced plasma deposition thin films and facing components diagnostics.

  2. ns or fs pulsed laser ablation of a bulk InSb target in liquids for nanoparticles synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaltianos, N G; Hendry, E; Chang, H; Wears, M L; Monteil, G; Assoul, M; Malkhasyan, V; Blondeau-Patissier, V; Gauthier-Manuel, B; Moutarlier, V

    2016-05-01

    Laser ablation of bulk target materials in liquids has been established as an alternative method for the synthesis of nanoparticles colloidal solutions mainly due to the fact that the synthesized nanoparticles have bare, ligand-free surfaces since no chemical precursors are used for their synthesis. InSb is a narrow band gap semiconductor which has the highest carrier mobility of any known semiconductor and nanoparticles of this material are useful in optoelectronic device fabrication. In this paper a bulk InSb target was ablated in deionized (DI) water or ethanol using a nanosecond (20 ns) or a femtosecond (90 fs) pulsed laser source, for nanoparticles synthesis. In all four cases the largest percentage of the nanoparticles are of InSb in the zincblende crystal structure with fcc lattice. Oxides of either In or Sb are also formed in the nanoparticles ensembles in the case of ns or fs ablation, respectively. Formation of an oxide of either element from the two elements of the binary bulk alloy is explained based on the difference in the ablation mechanism of the material in the case of ns or fs pulsed laser irradiation in which the slow or fast deposition of energy into the material results to mainly melting or vaporization, respectively under the present conditions of ablation, in combination with the lower melting point but higher vaporization enthalpy of In as compared to Sb. InSb in the metastable phase with orthorhombic lattice is also formed in the nanoparticles ensembles in the case of fs ablation in DI water (as well as oxide of InSb) which indicates that the synthesized nanoparticles exhibit polymorphism controlled by the type of the laser source used for their synthesis. The nanoparticles exhibit absorption which is observed to be extended in the infrared region of the spectrum.

  3. Ablation of CdTe with 100 {mu}s Nd:YAG laser pulses: dependence on target preparation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rzeszutek, J. [Instytut Fizyki, Politechnika Poznanska, ul. Nieszawska 13a, 61-965 Poznan (Poland); Savchuk, V. [Pidstryhach Institute for Applied Problems of Mechanics and Mathematics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3B Naukova Street, 79601 Lviv (Ukraine); Oszwaldowski, M.

    2008-01-15

    The results of experimental studies of the ablation of CdTe with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 1064 nm) performed with 100 {mu}s pulses and repetition time of 35 Hz are presented for the pulse energy range from 0.13 to 0.25 J. The main goal is to elucidate the dependence of the ablation process on the target preparation method. The investigation of the vapour stream intensity and chemical composition and their evolution with time are performed with a quadrupole mass spectrometer synchronized with the laser pulses. These studies are performed for three kinds of targets: a target made of CdTe bulk crystal (BC target), a target made of CdTe fine powder pressed under the pressure of 700 atm (PP target), and a target made of loose CdTe powder (N-PP target). The applicability of these targets for obtaining high quality CdTe thin films is determined. The best chemical composition of the vapour stream can be obtained with the BC target. A major drawback of this target is the energetic threshold for ablation with Nd:YAG laser and resulting delay in the ablation process above the threshold. The advantage of powder targets over BC target is the lack of any ablation threshold or delay. Weaker angular dependence of the particle emission (associated with the surface roughness), if confirmed in further experiments, can be the most important advantage of PP and N-PP targets. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Laser ablation of enamel and composite using 355-nm laser pulses: influence of fluoride and laser treatment on adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Michael D.; Gardner, Andrew K.; Staninec, Michal; Fried, Daniel

    2006-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Q-switched 355-nm laser pulses can be used to remove composite sealants and restorations from tooth surfaces without significant damage to sound tooth surfaces and have also shown that 355-nm lasers pulses can also be used to selectively etch the interprismatic protein of enamel to increase the effectiveness of topical fluoride for inhibiting decay and increase the bond strength to restorative materials without acid-etching. The first aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that topical fluoride can be applied after laser irradiation before composite resin placement without significantly reducing the bond-strength. The second aim was to test the hypothesis that thermal damage to existing composite due to laser irradiation does not compromise the adhesion of newly applied composite. There was a slight but significant reduction in the magnitude of the shear-bond strength of laser-treated surfaces with and without fluoride application. There was no significant difference in the magnitude of the bond strength between laser irradiated and non-laser irradiated aged composite to newly applied composite. These results suggest that after composite removal with 355-nm laser pulses fluoride can be subsequently applied to inhibit secondary caries before placement of composite restorative materials and that 355-nm laser pulses can be used for the repair of existing restorations.

  5. Laser ablation at the hydrodynamic regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojani Ardian B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser ablation of several metals and PVC polymer by high energy nanosecond laser pulses is investigated experimentaly. Visualization by shadowgraphy revealed the dynamics of the discontinuities in ambient air and ablation plume above the target surface, while surface profiling allowed for determination of the ablated mass.

  6. Laser ablation at the hydrodynamic regime

    OpenAIRE

    Gojani Ardian B.

    2013-01-01

    Laser ablation of several metals and PVC polymer by high energy nanosecond laser pulses is investigated experimentaly. Visualization by shadowgraphy revealed the dynamics of the discontinuities in ambient air and ablation plume above the target surface, while surface profiling allowed for determination of the ablated mass.

  7. A new sealed RF-excited CO2 laser for enamel ablation operating at 9.4μm with pulse duration of 26 μs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Jew, Jamison M.; Fried, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Several studies over the past 20 years have identified that carbon dioxide lasers operating at wavelengths between 9.3 and 9.6-μm with pulse durations near 20-µs are ideal for hard tissue ablation. Those wavelengths are coincident with the peak absorption of the mineral phase and the pulse duration is close to the thermal relaxation time of the deposited energy of a few microseconds to minimize peripheral thermal damage and long enough to minimize plasma shielding effects to allow efficient ablation at practical rates. The desired pulse duration near 20-μs has been difficult to achieve since it is too long for TEA lasers and too short for RF-excited lasers for efficient operation. Recently, Coherent Inc. (Santa Clara, CA) developed the J5-V laser for microvia drilling which can produce laser pulses greater than 100 mJ in energy at 9.4-μm with a pulse duration of 26-µs and it can achieve pulse repetition rates of 3 KHz. We report the first results using this laser to ablate enamel and dentin. The onset of plasma shielding does not occur until the fluence exceeds 100 J/cm2 allowing efficient ablation at rates exceeding 50-μm per pulse. This laser is ideally suited for the selective ablation of carious lesions.

  8. Laser ablation principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Laser Ablation provides a broad picture of the current understanding of laser ablation and its many applications, from the views of key contributors to the field. Discussed are in detail the electronic processes in laser ablation of semiconductors and insulators, the post-ionization of laser-desorbed biomolecules, Fourier-transform mass spectroscopy, the interaction of laser radiation with organic polymers, laser ablation and optical surface damage, laser desorption/ablation with laser detection, and laser ablation of superconducting thin films.

  9. Room-temperature deposition of nanocrystalline PbWO 4 thin films by pulsed laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J. H.; Yoon, J.-W.; Shim, K. B.; Koshizaki, N.

    2006-07-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) was applied to synthesize nanocrystalline PbWO4 thin films onto glass substrates. The effects of Ar background gas pressure on phase evolution, microstructures and optical characteristics of PbWO4 thin films were investigated in detail. The PLA processes were carried out at room temperature without substrate heating or post-annealing treatment. XRD and HR-TEM results revealed that the PbWO4 thin films are composed of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases. Moreover, the films contained a high density of lattice defects such as twin boundaries and edge dislocations. The crystallite size and crystallinity increased, which were associated with a change in surface morphology as the Ar pressure increased. Reduced tungsten states W5+ or W4+ induced by oxygen vacancies were observed at 10 Pa and the atomic concentration of all constituent element was almost stoichiometric, especially the [Pb]/[W] ratio, which was nearly unity above 50 Pa. The optical energy band-gap was 3.03 eV at 50 Pa and increased to 3.35 eV at 100 Pa, which are narrower than the reported value (4.20 eV). This optical band-gap narrowing could be attributed to localized band-tail states and new energy levels induced by the amorphous structure and inherent lattice defects.

  10. Structural and optical properties of silicon nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser ablation in hydrogen background gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, T.; Inada, M.; Yoshida, K.; Umezu, I.; Sugimura, A.

    We studied the structural and optical properties of silicon (Si) nanoparticles (np-Si) prepared by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) in hydrogen (H2) background gas. The mean diameter of the np-Si was estimated to be approximately 5 nm. The infrared absorption corresponding to Si-Hn (n=1,2,3) bonds was observed at around 2100 cm-1, and a Raman scattering peak corresponding to crystalline Si was observed at around 520 cm-1. These results indicate that nanoparticles are not an alloy of Si and hydrogen but Si nanocrystal covered by hydrogen or hydrogenated silicon. This means that surface passivated Si nanoparticles can be prepared by PLA in H2 gas. The band-gap energy of np-Si prepared in H2 gas (1.9 eV) was larger than that of np-Si prepared in He gas (1.6 eV) even though they are almost the same diameter. After decreasing the hydrogen content in np-Si by thermal annealing, the band-gap energy decreased, and reached the same energy level as np-Si prepared in He gas. Thus, the optical properties of np-Si were affected by the hydrogenation of the surface of np-Si.

  11. Synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles using pulsed laser ablation in liquids and their optical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondal, M.A., E-mail: magondal@kfupm.edu.sa [Laser Research Group, Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology (CENT), King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Saleh, Tawfik A. [Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology (CENT), King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Drmosh, Q.A. [Laser Research Group, Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology (CENT), King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-07-01

    Nanomaterials are of great interest due to their applications in many fields. The structural and efficacy of nano-materials depend strongly on the method applied for their synthesis. In this work, nanosized nickel oxide (NiO) particles were prepared by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) technique in 3% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} aqueous solution The structural and optical properties of the NiO were investigated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDX), UV-Vis spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). XRD analysis confirms that the phase is pure nickel oxide with lattice parameter = 0.42033 nm and 8 nm grain size while photoluminescence emission spectrum showed strong peak at 3.62 eV attributed to the band edge transition. FT-IR spectra depicts a strong band at {approx}450 cm{sup -1} which corresponds to the bending vibration of Ni-O bond. This work demonstrates that PLA is an effective method to control the size, impurity and minimal chemical waste generation which is the major problem with other wet chemical methods.

  12. Room temperature ferromagnetism in liquid-phase pulsed laser ablation synthesized nanoparticles of nonmagnetic oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S. C., E-mail: subhash.laserlab@gmail.com; Gopal, R. [Laser Spectroscopy and Nanomaterials Lab, Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India); Kotnala, R. K. [Magnetic Standardization Division, National Physical Laboratory, K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi (India)

    2015-08-14

    Intrinsic Room Temperature Ferromagnetism (RTF) has been observed in undoped/uncapped zinc oxide and titanium dioxide spherical nanoparticles (NPs) obtained by a purely green approach of liquid phase pulsed laser ablation of corresponding metal targets in pure water. Saturation magnetization values observed for zinc oxide (average size, 9 ± 1.2 nm) and titanium dioxide (average size, 4.4 ± 0.3 nm) NPs are 62.37 and 42.17 memu/g, respectively, which are several orders of magnitude larger than those of previous reports. In contrast to the previous works, no postprocessing treatments or surface modification is required to induce ferromagnetism in the case of present communication. The most important result, related to the field of intrinsic ferromagnetism in nonmagnetic materials, is the observation of size dependent ferromagnetism. Degree of ferromagnetism in titanium dioxide increases with the increase in particle size, while it is reverse for zinc oxide. Surface and volume defects play significant roles for the origin of RTF in zinc oxide and titanium dioxide NPs, respectively. Single ionized oxygen and neutral zinc vacancies in zinc oxide and oxygen and neutral/ionized titanium vacancies in titanium dioxide are considered as predominant defect centres responsible for observed ferromagnetism. It is expected that origin of ferromagnetism is a consequence of exchange interactions between localized electron spin moments resulting from point defects.

  13. High-speed laser ablation of metal with pico- and subpicosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazhukin, V.I., E-mail: vim@modhef.ru; Demin, M.M.; Shapranov, A.V.

    2014-05-01

    The mechanism of the high-speed ablation of aluminum with pico- and subpicosecond (10{sup −11}–10{sup −13} s) laser pulses is considered. Mathematical modeling based on the continuum non-equilibrium two-temperature (TTM) model revealed that in a relatively narrow range of fluence 0.25–0.7 J/cm{sup 2}, the regime of mechanical fragmentation of the irradiated surface is realized. The maximum values of the lattice temperature for the specified range of fluence are 2100–3500 K. The removal of the material is mechanical due to the negative stresses in the rarefaction wave following the shock wave. Explicit tracking of temporal and spatial position of the melting front has allowed establishing its role in the generation of superheated metastable states in the solid phase and the propagation of the shock wave. The removed material with total thickness of 60–100 nm is a collection of separate plates with thickness from 1 nm to 55 nm.

  14. High-speed laser ablation of metal with pico- and subpicosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhukin, V. I.; Demin, M. M.; Shapranov, A. V.

    2014-05-01

    The mechanism of the high-speed ablation of aluminum with pico- and subpicosecond (10-11-10-13 s) laser pulses is considered. Mathematical modeling based on the continuum non-equilibrium two-temperature (TTM) model revealed that in a relatively narrow range of fluence 0.25-0.7 J/cm2, the regime of mechanical fragmentation of the irradiated surface is realized. The maximum values of the lattice temperature for the specified range of fluence are 2100-3500 K. The removal of the material is mechanical due to the negative stresses in the rarefaction wave following the shock wave. Explicit tracking of temporal and spatial position of the melting front has allowed establishing its role in the generation of superheated metastable states in the solid phase and the propagation of the shock wave. The removed material with total thickness of 60-100 nm is a collection of separate plates with thickness from 1 nm to 55 nm.

  15. Impacts of Ambient and Ablation Plasmas on Short- and Ultrashort-Pulse Laser Processing of Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda M. Bulgakova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the fact that more than five decades have passed since the invention of laser, some topics of laser-matter interaction still remain incompletely studied. One of such topics is plasma impact on the overall phenomenon of the interaction and its particular features, including influence of the laser-excited plasma re-radiation, back flux of energetic plasma species, and massive material redeposition, on the surface quality and processing efficiency. In this paper, we analyze different plasma aspects, which go beyond a simple consideration of the well-known effect of plasma shielding of laser radiation. The following effects are considered: ambient gas ionization above the target on material processing with formation of a “plasma pipe”; back heating of the target by both laser-driven ambient and ablation plasmas through conductive and radiative heat transfer; plasma chemical effects on surface processing including microstructure growth on liquid metals; complicated dynamics of the ablation plasma flow interacting with an ambient gas that can result in substantial redeposition of material around the ablation spot. Together with a review summarizing our main to-date achievements and outlining research directions, we present new results underlining importance of laser plasma dynamics and photoionization of the gas environment upon laser processing of materials.

  16. Transparent conducting AZO and ITO films produced by pulsed laser ablation at 355 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thestrup, B.; Schou, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    Thin films of aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) and indium tin oxide (ITO) were deposited on glass substrates by laser ablation in an oxygen environment. The electrical and optical properties of films grown at various oxygen pressures were compared. With no substrate heating, highly transparent...

  17. Laser ablation studies of nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Mkrtychev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The first experimental measurements of the threshold energy density values for the laser ablation of glass nanocomposites with nanodimensional coatings have been carried out under the action of the YAG–Nd laser power pulse radiation. The coatings in question were of different compositions and had been created by the sol–gel technology. The procedure for determining the laser ablation threshold energy density values was worked out on the base of the breakdown probability level of 0.5. The statistical processing of the measurement data over all the samples allowed obtaining the dependence of the ablation destruction threshold energy parameters on the coating physical and chemical properties such as the sample transmission in the visible region of the spectrum, coating thickness, the chemical composition of the film-forming solution, and on the pulse duration of laser radiation.

  18. Experimental investigation and 3D-simulation of the ablated morphology of titanium surface using femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Chen, Chuansong; Man, Baoyuan; Meng, Xue; Sun, Yanna; Li, Feifei

    2015-12-01

    The femtosecond laser ablated morphology on titanium surface is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A three dimensional two temperature model (3D-TTM) is used to simulate the surface morphology of titanium sample which is irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses. The electron heat capacity and electron-phonon coupling coefficient of titanium (transition metal) are complex temperature dependent, so the two parameters are corrected based on the theory of electron density of states (DOS). The model is solved by the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The 3D temperature field near the target surface is achieved. The radius and depth of the ablated crater are obtained based on the temperature field. The evolutions of the crate's radius and depth with laser fluence are discussed and compared with the experimental results. It is found that the back-flow of the molten material and the deposition of the material vapor should be responsible for the little discrepancy between the simulated and experimental results. The present work makes a better understanding of the thermodynamic process of femtosecond laser ablating metal and meanwhile provides an effective method tool to predict the micro manufacturing process on metals with femtosecond laser.

  19. Size properties of colloidal nanoparticles produced by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation and studying the effects of liquid medium and laser fluence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdieh, Mohammad Hossein, E-mail: mahdm@iust.ac.ir; Fattahi, Behzad

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • Colloidal aluminum- and titanium-based nanoparticles fabricated by laser ablation. • Various liquid environments and laser fluences were applied as variable parameters. • Physical characteristics of liquid medium influence ablation process and nanoparticle formation. • Size properties of prepared nanoparticles depend on liquid medium and laser fluence. • Ablation of both metals in ethanol results in nanoparticles with smaller size. - Abstract: In this paper, pulsed laser ablation method was used for synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles of aluminum and titanium targets in distilled water, ethanol, and acetone as liquid environments. Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for characterization of produced nanoparticles. Using image processing technique and analyzing the SEM images, nanoparticles’ mean size and size distribution were achieved. The results show that liquid medium has strong effect on size properties of produced nanoparticles. From the results, it was found that ablation of both metal targets in ethanol medium leads to formation of smaller size nanoparticles with narrower size distributions. The influence of laser fluence was also investigated. According to the results, higher laser fluence produces larger mean size nanoparticles with broader size distribution.

  20. Effective temperatures of polymer laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furzikov, Nickolay P.

    1991-09-01

    Effective temperatures of laser ablation of certain polymers are extracted from experimental dependences of ablation depths on laser fluences. Dependence of these temperatures on laser pulse durations is established. Comparison with the known thermodestruction data shows that the effective temperature corresponds to transient thermodestruction proceeding by the statistically most probable way.

  1. On the growth mechanism of nanoparticles in plasma during pulsed laser ablation in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccogna, F.; Dell’Aglio, M.; Rutigliano, M.; Valenza, G.; De Giacomo, A.

    2017-04-01

    Particle-in-cell methodology is applied to study the simultaneous charging and coagulation of a nanoparticle, taking into account the self-consistent dynamics of surrounding plasma induced by laser ablation in liquid. The model uses, as an input, plasma temperature and electron number density which are experimentally obtained by high temporally resolved optical emission spectroscopy of the laser-induced plasma in water. Results show the important role of ions in the growth process and of the atom-induced evaporation process for the final nanoparticle size. The competition between different mechanisms of nanoparticle formation in the laser-induced plasma is finally discussed.

  2. Preparation of TiO sub 2 nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation: Ambient pressure dependence of crystallization

    CERN Document Server

    Matsubara, M; Yamaki, T; Itoh, H; Abe, H

    2003-01-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) with a KrF excimer laser was used to prepare fine particles of titanium dioxide (TiO sub 2). The ablation in an atmosphere of Ar and O sub 2 (5:5) at total pressures of >= 1 Torr led to the formation of TiO sub 2 nanoparticles composed of anatase and rutile structures without any suboxides. The weight fraction of the rutile/anatase crystalline phases was dependent on the pressure of the Ar/O sub 2 gas. The TiO sub 2 nanoparticles had a spherical shape and their size, ranging from 10 and 14 nm, also appeared to be dependent on the ambient pressure. (author)

  3. Condensation of ablation plumes in the irradiation of metals by high-intensity nanosecond laser pulses at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozadaev, K V [A.N. Sevchenko Institute of Applied Physical Problems, Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)

    2016-01-31

    The Anisimov–Luk'yanchuk model is adapted for describing the condensation of vapour-plasma plumes produced in the irradiation of metal targets by high-intensity (10{sup 8} – 10{sup 10} W cm{sup -2}) nanosecond (10 – 100 ns) pulses at atmospheric pressure. The resultant data suggest that the initial stages of the development of metal ablation plumes correspond with a high degree of accuracy to the Zel'dovich–Raizer theory of dynamic condensation; however, at the stage of the ablation plume decay, the liquid-droplet phase is formed primarily by coalescence of 'nuclei'. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  4. Conditions for random and periodic hole formations during surface ablation of silicon with ultrashort pulsed lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domke, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    The formation of randomly distributed or periodic holes with a depth of several μm can be observed during the ablation of silicon with ultrafast lasers. In order to investigate the conditions for these hole formations, Si wafers with a thickness of 525 μm were ablated using a 380-fs laser at a wavelength of 520 nm. The surface was scanned parallel and perpendicular to the polarization of the laser beam with different fluences and numbers of scans. The ablated surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Their roughness was measured using confocal microscopy. At a fluences of 1.4 J/cm2, laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) orientate parallel to the polarization and periodic holes appear in the furrows independently of the polarization. At 4.3 J/cm2, LIPPS can be suppressed and the hole formation is reduced, if the polarization is perpendicular to the scan direction. The surface roughness reduces by a factor of 2. At 14.1 J/cm2, the formation of LIPPS is suppressed independently of the polarization, but the surface roughness increases again due to the increasing amount and size of melt ejections. The analysis of the surface suggests that random stacking of melt ejections creates bumps and holes. The depth of the holes increases with the number of scans. In this way, first random and then—with increasing number of scans—periodic holes appear. This effect can be enhanced by creating LIPPS.

  5. Investigation on repetition rate and pulse duration influences on ablation efficiency of metals using a high average power Yb-doped ultrafast laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast lasers provide an outstanding processing quality but their main drawback is the low removal rate per pulse compared to longer pulses. This limitation could be overcome by increasing both average power and repetition rate. In this paper, we report on the influence of high repetition rate and pulse duration on both ablation efficiency and processing quality on metals. All trials have been performed with a single tunable ultrafast laser (350 fs to 10ps.

  6. Experimental and modelling investigations into the laser ablation with picosecond pulses at second harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Paul; Zandonadi, Germana; Eberle, Gregory; Wegener, Konrad

    2015-03-01

    Ablation threshold experiments on various materials are carried out using a picosecond laser generating second harmonic radiation in air at atmospheric pressure. Various materials are investigated which vary according to their different electronic band gap structure and include: silicon, fine grain polycrystalline diamond, copper, steel and tungsten carbide. Through the use of scanning electron microscopy and 3D confocal microscopy, the crater depth and diameter are determined and a correlation is found. The ablation thresholds are given for the aforementioned materials and compared with recent literature results. Picosecond laser-material interactions are modelled using the two-temperature model, simulated and compared with experimental results for metallic materials. An extension of the two-temperature model to semiconducting and insulating materials is discussed. This alternative model uses multiple rate equations to describe the transient free electron density. Additionally, a set of coupled ordinary differential equations describes the processes of multiphoton excitation, inverse bremsstrahlung, and collisional excitation. The resulting electron density distribution can be used as an input for an electron density dependent twotemperature model. This multiple rate equation model is a generic and fast model, which provides important information like ablation threshold, ablation depth and optical properties.

  7. Enhancing ablation efficiency in micro structuring using a deformable mirror for beam shaping of ultra-short laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarra, M.; Dickmann, K.

    2016-03-01

    Using ultra-short laser pulses for the generation of microstructures results in a high flexible tool for free form geometries in the micro range. Increasing laser power and repetition rates increase as well the demand of high flexible and efficient process strategies. To increase the ablation efficiency the optimal fluency can be determined, which is a material specific value. By varying the beam shape, the ablation efficiency can be enhanced. In this study a deformable mirror was used to vary the beam shape. This mirror is built by combining a piezo-electric ceramic and a mirror substrate. The ceramic is divided into several segments, which can be controlled independently. This results in a high flexible deformable mirror which influences the beam shape and can be used to vary the spot size or generate line geometries. The ablation efficiency and roughness of small generated cavities were analyzed in this study as well as the dimensions of the cavity. This can be used to optimize process strategies to combine high volume ablation and fine detail generation.

  8. Turnover rates in microorganisms by laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and pulse-chase analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopka, Sylwia A.; Mansour, Tarek R.; Shrestha, Bindesh [Department of Chemistry, W.M. Keck Institute for Proteomics Technology and Applications, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Maréchal, Éric; Falconet, Denis [Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire et Végétale, UMR 5168, CEA-CNRS-INRA-Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble (France); Vertes, Akos, E-mail: vertes@gwu.edu [Department of Chemistry, W.M. Keck Institute for Proteomics Technology and Applications, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Biochemical processes rely on elaborate networks containing thousands of compounds participating in thousands of reaction. Rapid turnover of diverse metabolites and lipids in an organism is an essential part of homeostasis. It affects energy production and storage, two important processes utilized in bioengineering. Conventional approaches to simultaneously quantify a large number of turnover rates in biological systems are currently not feasible. Here we show that pulse-chase analysis followed by laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LAESI-MS) enable the simultaneous and rapid determination of metabolic turnover rates. The incorporation of ion mobility separation (IMS) allowed an additional dimension of analysis, i.e., the detection and identification of isotopologs based on their collision cross sections. We demonstrated these capabilities by determining metabolite, lipid, and peptide turnover in the photosynthetic green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in the presence of {sup 15}N-labeled ammonium chloride as the main nitrogen source. Following the reversal of isotope patterns in the chase phase by LAESI-IMS-MS revealed the turnover rates and half-lives for biochemical species with a wide range of natural concentrations, e.g., chlorophyll metabolites, lipids, and peptides. For example, the half-lives of lyso-DGTS(16:0) and DGTS(18:3/16:0), t{sub 1/2} = 43.6 ± 4.5 h and 47.6 ± 2.2 h, respectively, provided insight into lipid synthesis and degradation in this organism. Within the same experiment, half-lives for chlorophyll a, t{sub 1/2} = 24.1 ± 2.2 h, and a 2.8 kDa peptide, t{sub 1/2} = 10.4 ± 3.6 h, were also determined. - Highlights: • High-throughput pulse-chase analysis using direct sampling of biological cells. • Ion mobility separation for the elucidation of isotopologs. • Identification of isotopologs in difference heat plots of DT vs. m/z. • Simultaneous determination of turnover rates for lipids and

  9. Impulse-coupling coefficients from a pulsed-laser ablation of semiconductor GaAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Impulse-coupling coefficients from 1.06 - μm, 10-ns Nd:YAG pulsed-laser radiation to GaAs targets with different areas were measured using the ballistic pendulum method in the laser power density ranging from 4.0 × 108 to 5.0 × 109 W·cm-2.A detonation wave model of the plasma was established theoretically. The expansion process of plasma after the laser pulse ends is described in detail, and the impulse-coupling coefficients from pulsed laser with different energies to GaAs with different areas were calculated using the given model. It is found that the theoretical results agree well with the experimental data.

  10. Photoluminescence from Silicon Nano-Particles Synthesized by Pulsed Laser Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, V.; Thareja, R. K.

    We report on the synthesis and characterization of silicon nanoparticles by ablating silicon wafer in an ambient atmosphere of helium at 1 Torr. The mean cluster size ranging from 1.8 nm to 4.4 nm deposited on silicon substrate at room temperature is observed to depend on the laser fluence. The size of the nanoparticles decreases with laser fluence. Photoluminescence of the deposited films using Nd:YAG laser and Ar+ ion laser at 355 nm and 457.9 nm respectively shows emission peaks at 1.7, 2.2, and 2.7 eV. The luminescence peak at 2.2 eV and 2.7 eV are attributed to oxygen related impurities and the peak at 1.7 eV is attributed to quantum confinement.

  11. Ag nanoparticles formed by femtosecond pulse laser ablation in water: self-assembled fractal structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillán, Jesica M. J. [CONICET La Plata-CIC, Centro de Investigaciones Ópticas (CIOp) (Argentina); Fernández van Raap, Marcela B., E-mail: raap@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Mendoza Zélis, Pedro; Coral, Diego [CONICET, Instituto de Física La Plata (IFLP) (Argentina); Muraca, Diego [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin” (IFGW) (Brazil); Schinca, Daniel C.; Scaffardi, Lucía B., E-mail: lucias@ciop.unlp.edu.ar [CONICET La Plata-CIC, Centro de Investigaciones Ópticas (CIOp) (Argentina)

    2015-02-15

    We report for the first time on the formation of self-assembled fractals of spherical Ag nanoparticles (Nps) fabricated by femtosecond pulse laser ablation of a solid silver target in water. Fractal structures grew both in two and three Euclidean dimensions (d). Ramified-fractal assemblies of 2 nm height and 5–14 μm large, decorated with Ag Nps of 3 nm size, were obtained in a 2d geometry when highly diluted drops of colloidal suspension were dried at a fast heating rate over a mica substrate. When less-diluted drops were dried at slow heating rate, isolated single Nps or rosette-like structures were formed. Fractal aggregates about 31 nm size in 3d geometry were observed in the as-prepared colloidal suspension. Electron diffraction and optical extinction spectroscopy (OES) analyses performed on the samples confirmed the presence of Ag and Ag{sub 2}O. The analysis of the optical extinction spectrum, using the electrostatic approximation of Mie theory for small spheres, showed the existence of Ag bare core, Ag–Ag{sub 2}O and air–Ag core–shell Nps, Ag–Ag{sub 2}O being the most frequent type [69 % relative abundance (r.a.)]. Core-size and shell-thickness distribution was derived from OES. In situ scattering measurements of the Ag colloidal suspension, carried out by small-angle X-ray scattering, indicate a mass fractal composed of packaged 〈D{sub SAXS}〉 = (5 ± 1) nm particles and fractal dimension d{sub f} = 2.5. Ex situ atomic force microscopy imaging displayed well-ramified structures, which, analyzed with box-counting method, yield a fractal dimension d{sub f} = 1.67. The growing behavior of these 2d and 3d self-assembled fractals is consistent with the diffusion-limited aggregation model.

  12. Nanosecond laser ablation of bulk Al, Bronze, and Cu: ablation rate saturation and laserinduced oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    R. Maisterrena-Epstein; S. Camacho-López; L. Escobar-Alarcón; M. A. Camacho-López

    2007-01-01

    In this work we report about the characteristics of nanosecond laser ablation, in atmospheric air, of bulk Al, Bronze, and Cu. Average per pulse laser ablation rate and its dependence on ablation depth is presented for these three metals. We will demonstrate and discuss some distinctive features of the ablation saturation effect of the above metals. We will also present results on laser-induced oxidation of the metals which results off the ablation event. We studied the laser-induced oxidatio...

  13. Mechanism of Spatiotemporal Distribution of Laser Ablated Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Rong-Qing; CUI Yi-Ping; LU Jian; NI Xiao-Wu

    2009-01-01

    Interaction between subsequent laser and ablated materials in laser processing changes the laser spatiotemporal distribution and has influences on the efficiency and quality of laser processing. The theoretical and experimental researches on transportation behayiour of ablated materials are provided. It is shown that the velocity distribution of ablated materials is determined by ablation mechanism. The transportation behaviour of ablated materials is controlled by diffusion mechanism and light field force during laser pulse duration while it is only determined by diffusion mechanism when the laser pulse terminates. In addition, the spatiotemporal distribution of ablated materials is presented.

  14. Growth of GaAs “nano ice cream cones” by dual wavelength pulsed laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamp, C. T.; Jesser, W. A.; Shivaram, B. S.

    2007-05-01

    Harmonic generation crystals inherently offer the possibility of using multiple wavelengths of light in a single laser pulse. In the present experiment, the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonic (532 nm) wavelengths from an Nd:YAG laser are focused together on GaAs and GaSb targets for ablation. Incident energy densities up to about 45 J/cm 2 at 10 Hz with substrate temperatures between 25 and 600 °C for durations of about 60 s have been used in an ambient gas pressure of about 10 -6 Torr. The ablated material was collected on electron-transparent amorphous carbon films for TEM analysis. Apart from a high density of isolated nanocrystals, the most common morphology observed consists of a crystalline GaAs cone-like structure in contact with a sphere of liquid Ga, resembling an "ice cream cone", typically 50-100 nm in length. For all of the heterostuctures of this type, the liquid/solid/vacuum triple junction is found to correspond to the widest point on the cone. These heterostructures likely form by preferential evaporation of As from molten GaAs drops ablated from the target. The resulting morphology minimizes the interfacial and surface energies of the liquid Ga and solid GaAs.

  15. Femtosecond pulsed laser ablation in microfluidics for synthesis of photoluminescent ZnSe quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Feng, Guoying; Dai, Shenyu; Wang, Shutong; Li, Guang; Zhang, Hua; Zhou, Shouhuan

    2017-08-01

    A simple but new toxic chemical free method, Femtosecond Laser Ablation in Microfluidics (FLAM) was proposed for the first time. ZnSe quantum dots of 4-6 nm were synthesized and with the use of hyperbranched Polyethyleneimine (PEI) as both structural and functional coated layer. These aqueous nanosized micelles consisting of quantum dots exhibit deep defect states emission of bright green light centered at 500 nm. A possible mechanism for the enhanced board band emission was discussed. The properties of toxic matters free and enhanced photoluminescence without doped transition metal ions demonstrate an application potential for biomedical imaging.

  16. Ultra-short pulsed laser ablation of silicon nitride layers: Investigation near threshold fluence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, Gerrit, E-mail: gheinrich@cismst.de [CIS Forschungsinstititut für Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH, Konrad-Zuse-Straße 14, Erfurt 99099 (Germany); Technische Universität Ilmenau, Institut für Physik, Weimarer Str. 32, Ilmenau 98693 (Germany); Wollgarten, Markus [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Bereich Solarenergieforschung, Institut für Technologie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Bähr, Mario; Lawerenz, Alexander [CIS Forschungsinstititut für Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH, Konrad-Zuse-Straße 14, Erfurt 99099 (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    In this work, silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) layers, deposited on a planar silicon wafer are locally irradiated by ultra short laser pulses with fluences near the threshold fluence. The irradiated areas are investigated by SEM and TEM in order to analyze the laser influence to silicon and to the SiN{sub x} layer. Thereby, a lift-off process is observed for this SiN{sub x} layer. The silicon absorbs the laser pulse energy. For low fluences, crystalline silicon is disordered below the SiN{sub x} layer. For high fluences, silicon evaporates below the SiN{sub x} layer and bulge the SiN{sub x} layer. If the pressure within the bulge is high enough, the SiN{sub x} layer will break down due to high mechanical stress.

  17. Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Gamaly, E G; Tikhonchuk, V T; Luther-Davies, B

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of ablation of solids by intense femtosecond laser pulses is described in an explicit analytical form. It is shown that at high intensities when the ionization of the target material is complete before the end of the pulse, the ablation mechanism is the same for both metals and dielectrics. The physics of this new ablation regime involves ion acceleration in the electrostatic field caused by charge separation created by energetic electrons escaping from the target. The formulae for ablation thresholds and ablation rates for metals and dielectrics, combining the laser and target parameters, are derived and compared to experimental data. The calculated dependence of the ablation thresholds on the pulse duration is in agreement with the experimental data in a femtosecond range, and it is linked to the dependence for nanosecond pulses.

  18. Synthesis and Properties of Tin Sulfide Thin Films from Nanocolloids Prepared by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johny, Jacob; Sepulveda-Guzman, Selene; Krishnan, Bindu; Avellaneda, David A; Aguilar Martinez, Josue A; Shaji, Sadasivan

    2016-12-15

    Tin sulfide (SnS) nanoparticles were synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) technique using an Nd:YAG laser operated at 532 nm. SnS thin films were deposited by spraying the colloidal suspension onto the heated substrates. The influence of different liquid media (dimethyl formamide and isopropyl alcohol) on the thin film properties were studied. Morphology, crystalline structure, and chemical composition of the nanoparticles were identified using transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The crystalline structure of the thin films was analyzed by using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and the chemical states by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy was employed for the morphological analysis of the thin films. Annealing the films at 380 °C improved the crystallinity of the films exhibiting a layered morphology, which may be useful in optoelectronic and sensing applications. Cyclic voltammetry studies showed that the films have good electrochemical properties.

  19. The luminescent carbon nanoparticles with controllable oxygen-related functional groups prepared by pulsed laser ablation in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Gan, Zhixing; Hu, Guang; Tang, Yalu; Zhou, Lei; Jiang, Qingsong; Cui, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) are obtained via pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of a carbon target immersed in deionized water. By tuning the laser power for PLA, the density of oxygen-related functional groups at the surfaces is controllable. While the crystallinities, sizes, morphologies and defects are nearly retained, the prepared CNPs show blue fluorescence under UV exposure and the photoluminescence (PL) intensities of the C-dots are dependent on the oxygen contents. Accordingly, the PL is attributed to the transition of electronic states caused by oxygen-related functional groups. This work sheds new light on the PL mechanism of CNPs and proposes an efficient way to prepare CNPs with controllable oxygen-related functional groups.

  20. Generation of ultra-small InN nanocrystals by pulsed laser ablation of suspension in organic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kursungoez, Canan; Uzcengiz Simsek, Elif; Ortac, Buelend [Bilkent University, Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department, UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Ankara (Turkey); Bilkent University, Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Ankara (Turkey); Tuzakli, Refik [Bilkent University, Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department, UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Ankara (Turkey)

    2017-03-15

    Nanostructures of InN have been extensively investigated since nano-size provides a number of advantages allowing applications in nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. It is quite important to obtain pure InN nanocrystals (InN-NCs) to reveal the characteristic features, which gain interest in the literature. Here, we proposed a new approach for the synthesis of ultra-small hexagonal InN-NCs by using suspension of micron-sized InN powder in ethanol with pulsed laser ablation method. The liquid environment, laser energy and ablation time were optimized and a post-synthesis treatment, centrifugation, was performed to achieve InN-NCs with the smallest size. Besides, the micron-sized InN powder suspension, as a starting material, enabled us to obtain InN-NCs having diameters smaller than 5 nm. We also presented a detailed characterization of InN-NCs and demonstrated that the formation mechanism mainly depends on the fragmentation due to laser irradiation of the suspension. (orig.)

  1. Power Laser Ablation Symposia

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, Claude

    2007-01-01

    Laser ablation describes the interaction of intense optical fields with matter, in which atoms are selectively driven off by thermal or nonthermal mechanisms. The field of laser ablation physics is advancing so rapidly that its principal results are seen only in specialized journals and conferences. This is the first book that combines the most recent results in this rapidly advancing field with authoritative treatment of laser ablation and its applications, including the physics of high-power laser-matter interaction. Many practical applications exist, ranging from inertial confinement fusion to propulsion of aerostats for pollution monitoring to laser ignition of hypersonic engines to laser cleaning nanoscale contaminants in high-volume computer hard drive manufacture to direct observation of the electronic or dissociative states in atoms and molecules, to studying the properties of materials during 200kbar shocks developed in 200fs. Selecting topics which are representative of such a broad field is difficu...

  2. Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics

    OpenAIRE

    Gamaly, E. G.; Rode, A. V.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Luther-Davies, B.

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of ablation of solids by intense femtosecond laser pulses is described in an explicit analytical form. It is shown that at high intensities when the ionization of the target material is complete before the end of the pulse, the ablation mechanism is the same for both metals and dielectrics. The physics of this new ablation regime involves ion acceleration in the electrostatic field caused by charge separation created by energetic electrons escaping from the target. The formulae ...

  3. Pulsed laser ablation of zinc selenide in nitrogen ambience: Formation of zinc nitride films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simi, S.; Navas, I.; Vinodkumar, R.; Chalana, S. R.; Gangrade, Mohan; Ganesan, V.; Pillai, V. P. Mahadevan

    2011-09-01

    Zinc nitride (Zn 3N 2) thin films are prepared using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) from zinc selenide (ZnSe) target at different nitrogen ambient pressures viz. 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 Pa. The films prepared with nitrogen pressures 1 and 3 Pa are amorphous in nature, whereas the films prepared at 5, 7 and 10 Pa exhibit the presence of cubic bixbyite Zn 3N 2 structure with lattice parameter very close to bulk of Zn 3N 2. The particle size calculated by Debye Scherrer's formula is in the nano regime. Surface morphology of the films is studied by SEM and AFM analysis. Optical parameters such as band gap, refractive index and porosity of the films are calculated. Moreover, the present study confers an outlook about how do various factors such as substrate temperature, reactive supplementing gas and laser-target interaction influence the film developing process during pulsed lased deposition.

  4. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles obtained by pulsed laser ablation in pure water and in chloride solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunella Perito

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have increasingly gained importance as antibacterial agents with applications in several fields due to their strong, broad-range antimicrobial properties. AgNP synthesis by pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL permits the preparation of stable Ag colloids in pure solvents without capping or stabilizing agents, producing AgNPs more suitable for biomedical applications than those prepared with common, wet chemical preparation techniques. To date, only a few investigations into the antimicrobial effect of AgNPs produced by PLAL have been performed. These have mainly been performed by ablation in water with nanosecond pulse widths. We previously observed a strong surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS signal from such AgNPs by “activating” the NP surface by the addition of a small quantity of LiCl to the colloid. Such surface effects could also influence the antimicrobial activity of the NPs. Their activity, on the other hand, could also be affected by other parameters linked to the ablation conditions, such as the pulse width. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs was evaluated for NPs obtained either by nanosecond (ns or picosecond (ps PLAL using a 1064 nm ablation wavelength, in pure water or in LiCl aqueous solution, with Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis as references for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. In all cases, AgNPs with an average diameter less than 10 nm were obtained, which has been shown in previous works to be the most effective size for bactericidal activity. The measured zeta-potential values were very negative, indicating excellent long-term colloidal stability. Antibacterial activity was observed against both microorganisms for the four AgNP formulations, but the ps-ablated nanoparticles were shown to more effectively inhibit the growth of both microorganisms. Moreover, LiCl modified AgNPs were the most effective, showing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values in

  5. Effects of oxidizing medium on the composition, morphology and optical properties of copper oxide nanoparticles produced by pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondal, M.A., E-mail: magondal@kfupm.edu.sa [Laser Research Laboratory, Physics Department and Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology (CENT), King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Qahtan, Talal F.; Dastageer, M.A. [Laser Research Laboratory, Physics Department and Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology (CENT), King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Saleh, Tawfik A. [Chemistry Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Maganda, Yasin W. [Laser Research Laboratory, Physics Department and Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology (CENT), King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Anjum, D.H. [Nanofabrication, Imaging and Characterization Core Lab, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23599-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-12-01

    Pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) with 532 nm wavelength laser with 5 ns pulse duration is used to produce the nanostructure copper oxide and the effects of oxidizing media (deionized water and hydrogen peroxide) on the composition, morphology and optical properties of the product materials produced by PLAL were studied. XRD and TEM studies indicate that in the absence of hydrogen peroxide, the product material is in two phases (Cu/Cu{sub 2}O) with the spherical nanoparticle structure, whereas in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in the liquid medium, the product material revealed other two phases (Cu/CuO) with nanorod-like structure. The optical studies revealed a considerable red shift (3.34–2.5 eV) in the band gap energy in the case of hydrogen peroxide in the liquid medium in PLAL synthesis compared to the one in the absence of it. Also the product material in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in the liquid medium showed a reduced photoluminescence intensity indicating the reduced electron–hole recombination rate. The red shift in the band gap energy and the reduced electron–hole recombination rate make the product material an ideal photocatalyst to harvest solar radiation for various applications. The most relevant signals on the FTIR spectrum for the samples are the absorption bands in the region between 450 and 700 cm{sup −1} which are the characteristics bands of copper-oxygen bonds. The reported laser ablation approach for the synthesis of Cu{sub 2}O and CuO nanoparticles has the advantages of being clean method with controlled particle properties.

  6. Effects of oxidizing medium on the composition, morphology and optical properties of copper oxide nanoparticles produced by pulsed laser ablation

    KAUST Repository

    Gondal, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) with 532 nm wavelength laser with 5 ns pulse duration is used to produce the nanostructure copper oxide and the effects of oxidizing media (deionized water and hydrogen peroxide) on the composition, morphology and optical properties of the product materials produced by PLAL were studied. XRD and TEM studies indicate that in the absence of hydrogen peroxide, the product material is in two phases (Cu/Cu2O) with the spherical nanoparticle structure, whereas in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in the liquid medium, the product material revealed other two phases (Cu/CuO) with nanorod-like structure. The optical studies revealed a considerable red shift (3.34-2.5 eV) in the band gap energy in the case of hydrogen peroxide in the liquid medium in PLAL synthesis compared to the one in the absence of it. Also the product material in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in the liquid medium showed a reduced photoluminescence intensity indicating the reduced electron-hole recombination rate. The red shift in the band gap energy and the reduced electron-hole recombination rate make the product material an ideal photocatalyst to harvest solar radiation for various applications. The most relevant signals on the FTIR spectrum for the samples are the absorption bands in the region between 450 and 700 cm-1 which are the characteristics bands of copperoxygen bonds. The reported laser ablation approach for the synthesis of Cu2O and CuO nanoparticles has the advantages of being clean method with controlled particle properties. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of organic pigments using silver and gold nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, E.; Trusso, S.; Ponterio, R. C.

    2013-05-01

    The identification of pigments used in ancient times represents an interesting task in order to discriminate a production of a precise geographic area or to trace out the ancient commercial networks. Conventional micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS), being a non-destructiveness technique, has been largely used for the analysis of dyes. Nevertheless several pigments, especially of organic origin, show weak Raman activity beside a strong a fluorescence that prevents their identification. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) can address such difficulties. The presence of noble metal nanoparticles induces a giant amplification of the Raman signal beside the fluorescence quenching. In this work we present the use of gold and silver nanoparticles to enhance the Raman signal of some commercial red organic dyes: bazilwood, dragon's blood, carmine and madder lake. The nanoparticles were prepared adopting two approaches: (1) ablating metallic targets in water using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm and (2) depositing the nanoparticles on glass substrates by means of a KrF excimer laser ablation process, performed in a controlled argon atmosphere.

  8. Ablation of carbide materials with femtosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Gabriel; Romano, Valerio; Weber, Heinz P.; Sentis, Marc; Marine, Wladimir

    2003-01-01

    The response of cemented tungsten carbide and of titanium carbonitride was investigated with respect to damage and ablation properties, under interaction with ultrashort laser pulses. These carbide materials present high microhardness and are of significant interest for tribological applications. The experiments were carried out in air with a commercial Ti:sapphire laser at energy densities on the target up to 6.5 J/cm 2. The irradiated target surfaces were analyzed with optical, SEM and AFM techniques and the damage and ablation threshold values were determined using the measured spot diameters and the calculated incident energy density distributions.

  9. Specific features of single-pulse femtosecond laser micron and submicron ablation of a thin silver film coated with a micron-thick photoresist layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayarnyi, D A; Ionin, A A; Kudryashov, S I; Makarov, S V; Rudenko, A A [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Drozdova, E A; Odinokov, S B [N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-31

    Specific features of ablation of a thin silver film with a 1-μm-thick layer of a highly transparent photoresist and the same film without a photoresist layer under single tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses in the visible range (515 nm) are experimentally investigated. Interference effects of internal modification of the photoresist layer, its spallation ablation from the film surface and formation of through hollow submicron channels in the resist without its spallation but with ablation of the silver film lying under the resist are found and discussed. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  10. Influence of wavelength and pulse duration on peripheral thermal and mechanical damage to dentin and alveolar bone during IR laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Ragadio, Jerome N.; Fried, Daniel

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the peripheral thermal damage produced during the laser ablation of alveolar bone and dentin for clinically relevant IR laser systems. Previous studies have demonstrated that a char layer produced around the laser incision site can inhibit the wound healing process. Moreover, in the case of dentin, a char layer is unsightly and is difficult to bond to with restorative materials. Thermal damage was assessed using polarized light microscopy for laser pulse widths from 500 ns to 300 microseconds at 2.94 micrometer and 9.6 micrometer. Water- cooling was not employed to alleviate thermal damage during the laser irradiation. At 9.6 micrometer, minimal thermal damage was observed for pulse widths on the order of the thermal relaxation time of the deposited laser energy in the tissue, 3 - 4 microseconds, and peripheral thermal damage increased with increasing pulse duration. At 2.94 micrometer, thermal damage was minimal for the Q-switched (500 ns) laser system. This study shows that 9.6 micrometer CO2 laser pulses with pulse widths of 5 - 10 microseconds are well suited for the efficient ablation of dentin and bone with minimal peripheral damage. This work was supported by NIH/NIDCR R29DE12091.

  11. Femtosecond laser ablation of enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Quang-Tri; Bertrand, Caroline; Vilar, Rui

    2016-06-01

    The surface topographical, compositional, and structural modifications induced in human enamel by femtosecond laser ablation is studied. The laser treatments were performed using a Yb:KYW chirped-pulse-regenerative amplification laser system (560 fs and 1030 nm) and fluences up to 14 J/cm2. The ablation surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Regardless of the fluence, the ablation surfaces were covered by a layer of resolidified material, indicating that ablation is accompanied by melting of hydroxyapatite. This layer presented pores and exploded gas bubbles, created by the release of gaseous decomposition products of hydroxyapatite (CO2 and H2O) within the liquid phase. In the specimen treated with 1-kHz repetition frequency and 14 J/cm2, thickness of the resolidified material is in the range of 300 to 900 nm. The micro-Raman analysis revealed that the resolidified material contains amorphous calcium phosphate, while grazing incidence x-ray diffraction analysis allowed detecting traces of a calcium phosphate other than hydroxyapatite, probably β-tricalcium phosphate Ca3), at the surface of this specimen. The present results show that the ablation of enamel involves melting of enamel's hydroxyapatite, but the thickness of the altered layer is very small and thermal damage of the remaining material is negligible.

  12. Deposition of Y thin films by nanosecond UV pulsed laser ablation for photocathode application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorusso, A. [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Anni, M. [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Caricato, A.P. [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Gontad, F., E-mail: francisco.gontad@le.infn.it [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Perulli, A. [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Taurino, A. [National Research Council, Institute for Microelectronics & Microsystems, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Perrone, A. [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Chiadroni, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2016-03-31

    In this work, yttrium (Y) thin films have been deposited on Si (100) substrates by the pulsed laser deposition technique. Ex-situ morphological, structural and optical characterisations of such films have been performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry. Polycrystalline films with a thickness of 1.2 μm, homogenous with a root mean square roughness of about 2 nm, were obtained by optimised laser irradiation conditions. Despite the relatively high thickness, the films resulted very adherent to the substrates. The high quality of such thin films is important to the synthesis of metallic photocathodes based on Y thin film, which could be used as electron sources of high photoemission performance in radio-frequency guns. - Highlights: • Pulsed laser deposition of Yttrium thin films is investigated. • 1.2 μm thick films were deposited with very low RMS roughness. • The Y thin films were very adherent to the Si substrate • Optical characterisation showed a very high absorption coefficient for the films.

  13. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles obtained by laser ablation in water: Influence of pulse energy and duration on the crystalline phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorgetti, E., E-mail: emilia.giorgetti@fi.isc.cnr.it [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi (ISC) CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Muniz Miranda, M.; Caporali, S. [Dipartimento di Chimica “Ugo Schiff”, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Canton, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Università Ca’ Foscari, Via Torino, 30170 Venezia-Mestre (Italy); Marsili, P. [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi (ISC) CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Vergari, C.; Giammanco, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Laser ablation of Ti in water at 1064 nm and comparison of ns and ps temporal regimes. • Structural and spectroscopic characterization of the colloids: TiO{sub 2} is the predominant phase. • Determination of an energy window where ps ablation produces more anatase than rutile. • Modelling of the experimental dependence of anatase/rutile yield on pulse length and energy. - Abstract: We fabricated Ti oxide nanoparticles by laser ablation of a Ti target in doubly deionized water with ps or ns pulses at a laser wavelength of 1064 nm. Electron microscopy, Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that, while with ns pulses the dominant oxide phase is rutile, with ps pulses anatase is the most abundant form in an intermediate energy window centered around 25 mJ per pulse. This experimental behavior can be described by a theoretical model which calculates the pressure and temperature evolution of the ablated material and, from this, the rutile and anatase yield.

  14. Hydrodynamic modeling of ns-laser ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Autrique

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Laser ablation is a versatile and widespread technique, applied in an increasing number of medical, industrial and analytical applications. A hydrodynamic multiphase model describing nanosecond-laser ablation (ns-LA is outlined. The model accounts for target heating and mass removal mechanisms as well as plume expansion and plasma formation. A copper target is placed in an ambient environment consisting of helium and irradiated by a nanosecond-laser pulse. The effect of variable laser settings on the ablation process is explored in 1-D numerical simulations.

  15. Study on ablation of Ni film by ultrashort laser pulse-train%超短激光脉冲序列烧蚀镍薄膜的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩飞; 闫寒; 周海波; 王琼娥

    2013-01-01

      超短(飞秒)激光脉冲序列技术能有效地提高激光加工金属的加工精度,它在微/纳制造中具有重要的理论意义和生产价值。为了研究脉冲间隔对激光烧蚀金属加工精度的影响,以过渡金属镍为研究对象,采用双温模型和分子动力学模拟相结合的方法,对飞秒激光脉冲序列(脉冲间隔不同)烧蚀金属镍的过程、现象进行了研究,取得了脉冲序列烧蚀镍薄膜的动态表层电子温度和晶格温度随时间演化的数据和烧蚀区域在不同时刻的快照。结果表明,一定范围内,随着脉冲间隔的增加,脉冲序列烧蚀镍薄膜所产生的纳米粒子更加均匀,烧蚀平面更加平整,初始熔化速度、烧蚀率呈降低趋势,有利于提高加工的精度。%Micromaching by ultrashort laser pulse-train can effectively improve femtosecond laser ablation of metal , which are important both theoretically and practically in micro /nano-laser fabrication applications.In order to study the effect of separation of pulse on the accuracy of laser ablation , the phenomena and process of laser ablation with different separation of pulse train were studied in detail by combining the molecular dynamic simulation and two -temperature model, the electron and lattice temperatures of the layers next to dynamic film surfaces and the snapshots of nickel thin films irradiated by the femtosecond laser pulse trains were obtained .The result is that ,within a certain range, as the increase of the separation of pulse, femtosecond pulse train laser ablation of Ni films can apparently cause more flat ablation plane , slower initial melting speed, smaller and more uniform nanoparticles , smaller ablation ratio,which can effectively improve femtosecond laser ablation of metal .

  16. Investigations of ZnO thin films deposited by a reactive pulsed laser ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.; C.; SOO; H.; KANDEL; M.; A.; THOMAS; C.; P.; DAGHLIAN

    2009-01-01

    Highly transparent ZnO thin films were deposited at different substrate temperatures by pulsed laser deposition in an oxygen atmosphere. The thin films were characterized by various techniques including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical absorption, and photoluminescence. We demonstrated that oriented wurtzite ZnO thin films could be deposited at room temperature using a high purity zinc target. Variable temperature photoluminescence revealed new characteristics in the band edge emission. The underlying mechanism for the observed phenomena was also discussed.

  17. Metals and metal oxides particles produced by pulsed laser ablation under high vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    SIRAJ, Khurram; TABASSUM, Yasir SOHAIL and Aasma

    2011-01-01

    A pulsed KrF Excimer laser (248 nm, 15 mJ) was utilized to synthesize different particles on (111) Si substrate under vacuum \\sim 10-6 torr using Aluminum (Al), Platinum (Pt), Tungsten (W), Molybdenum (Mo), Cadmium Oxide (CdO), and Yttrium Oxide (Y2O3) targets. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study particle size distribution on silicon substrate. The size of individual metal particles was found to be ranging from 71 nm to 2 m m whereas metal oxides particles were found...

  18. Growth evolution of ZnO films deposited by pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, E.; Zaldo, C.; Vazquez, L. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: lvb@icmm.csic.es

    2001-07-16

    We study the surface morphology evolution of ZnO films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Atomic force microscopy measurements show the existence of two growth regimes. Initially, the growth morphology is determined by shadowing effects due to the angular spreading of the plume in the 0.1 mbar oxygen working pressure. For longer deposition times a stepped pyramid-like structure is developed, whose roughening and coarsening behaviours are in agreement with those expected for growth systems with step-edge barriers. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  19. Magnetic properties of pulsed laser ablated YIG thin films on different substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naresh; Misra, D. S.; Venkataramani, N.; Prasad, Shiva; Krishnan, R.

    2004-05-01

    Thin films of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) were deposited on single crystals of gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) (111) and Si (100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The films deposited at substrate temperature (Ts) of 750°C on GGG substrates show textured YIG phase. However, films deposited on Si substrates at Ts of 600-750°C, show YFeO3 phase along with one YIG (400) peak. For a Ts of 850°C only one peak of very low intensity is observed which is close to (820) of YIG and (231) of YFeO3.

  20. Studies on the Surface Morphology and Orientation of CeO2 Films Deposited by Pulsed Laser Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Develos, Katherine; Kusunoki, Masanobu; Ohshima, Shigetoshi

    1998-11-01

    We studied the surface morphology and orientation of CeO2 films grown by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) on r-cut (1\\=102) Al2O3 substrates and evaluated the effects of predeposition annealing conditions of Al2O3 and film thickness of CeO2. The annealing of Al2O3 substrates improves the smoothness of the surface and performing this in high vacuum leads to better crystallinity and orientation of deposited CeO2 films compared to those annealed in oxygen. A critical value of the film thickness was found beyond which the surface roughness increases abruptly. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) study showed that the surface of CeO2 films is characterized by a mazelike pattern. Increasing the film thickness leads to the formation of larger islands which cause the increase in the surface roughness of the films. The areal density and height of these islands increased with film thickness.

  1. Growth and study of SrBi 2 (Ta, Nb) 2 O 9 thin films by pulsed excimer laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Bharadwaja, S. S. N.; Krupanidhi, S. B.

    2000-05-01

    Thin films of SrBi 2(Ta,Nb) 2O 9 (SBTN) were grown using pulsed-laser ablation and were ex situ crystallized. Ferroelectric properties were achieved by low temperature deposition. A polycrystalline structure was achieved, with a Ta- to Nb-ratio nearly 1:1. The smaller thickness of the film allowed the switching voltage to be low enough (1.5 V), without affecting the insulating nature of the films. The hysteresis results showed an excellent square shaped loop with a remnant polarization ( Pr) of 7.6 μC/cm 2 and a coercive field ( Ec) of 75 kV/cm. This ferroelectric material composition is having a very high Curie temperature with higher stability and can be used in non-volatile random access memory (NVRAM) devices.

  2. Reduced aggregation and cytotoxicity of amyloid peptides by graphene oxide/gold nanocomposites prepared by pulsed laser ablation in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingying; Han, Qiusen; Wang, Xinhuan; Yu, Ning; Yang, Lin; Yang, Rong; Wang, Chen

    2014-11-12

    A novel and convenient method to synthesize the nanocomposites combining graphene oxides (GO) with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is reported and their applications to modulate amyloid peptide aggregation are demonstrated. The nanocomposites produced by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) in water show good biocompatibility and solubility. The reduced aggregation of amyloid peptides by the nanocomposites is confirmed by Thioflavin T fluorescence and atomic force microscopy. The cell viability experiments reveals that the presence of the nanocomposites can significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of the amyloid peptides. Furthermore, the depolymerization of peptide fibrils and inhibition of their cellular cytotoxicity by GO/AuNPs is also observed. These observations suggest that the nanocomposites combining GO and AuNPs have a great potential for designing new therapeutic agents and are promising for future treatment of amyloid-related diseases.

  3. Structure and morphologies of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in liquid: Effects of temperature and energy fluence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillén, G. García; Palma, M.I. Mendivil [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66455 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66455 (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León – Centro de Innovación, Investigación y Desarrollo de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Apodaca, Nuevo León 66600 (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Roy, T.K. Das [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66455 (Mexico); and others

    2015-07-15

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by pulsed laser ablation of a zinc metal target at different water temperatures (room temperature, 50, 70 and 90 °C). Ablation was carried out using 532 nm output from a pulsed (10 ns, 10 Hz) Nd:YAG laser at three different laser fluence. Analysis of the morphology, crystalline phase, elemental composition, optical and luminescent properties were done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), UV–visible absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. TEM analysis showed that a change in temperature resulted in ZnO and Zn(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles with different sizes and morphologies. XPS results confirmed the compositions and chemical states of these nanoparticles. These zinc nanomaterials showed emission in the ultraviolet (UV) and blue regions. The results of this work demonstrated that by varying the liquid medium temperature, the structure, composition, morphology and optical properties of the nanomaterials could be modified during pulsed laser ablation in liquid. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Zinc nanomaterial colloids were synthesized by PLAL. • Effects of laser fluence and the distilled water temperature were analyzed. • The final structure varied with the distilled water temperature and laser fluence. • The morphology was dependent on the distilled water temperature and laser fluence. • Zinc nanocolloids showed emission in the UV and blue region.

  4. Formation of upconversion nanoparticles of 18%Yb:1%Er:NAYF4 by ultra-short pulse laser ablation in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemini, Laura; Hernandez, Marie-Caroline; Kling, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    Pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) is nowadays gaining popularity as innovative, reliable and efficient technique to produce high-purity nanoparticles (NPs) of many inorganic and organic materials. In this context, attention has been recently focused on luminescent up-conversion NPs (UCNPs) which, being characterized by sharp emission bands in ultraviolet (UV)-to-near-infrared (NIR) range upon NIR irradiation, are in fact of great interest in many biological and biomedical applications. Moreover, with respect to organic dyes NPs and quantum dots, UCNPs show less toxicity, increased chemical stability, long-lifetime decays and lack of photo-bleaching. Our research focuses on generation of UCNPs of rare earth lanthanide-doped crystalline material, namely 18%Yb:1%Er:NAYF4, by PLAL in water. It is well known that optical properties of NPs strongly depend on their features, as for instance size and shape, which in turn may be controlled by laser ablation parameters. Therefore, two different laser sources are used for the ablation processes in order to find the set of laser parameter, i.e. pulse duration, laser fluence and repetition rate, for which the luminescence of UPNPs is optimized: (i) Amplitude Satsuma HP3 system: 330 fs pulse duration, 1030 wavelength and (ii) Eolite Hegoa system: 50 ps pulse duration, 1030 nm wavelength. UCNPs are finally characterized by spectrophotometer analyses to define emission range and intensity under NIR light and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine their size and shape.

  5. Optical Properties Dependence with Gas Pressure in AlN Films Deposited by Pulsed Laser Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J A; Riascos, H [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Grupo plasma Laser y Aplicaciones A.A 097 (Colombia); Caicedo, J C [Grupo pelIculas delgadas, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Cabrera, G; Yate, L, E-mail: jcaicedoangulo@gmail.com [Department de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    AlN films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition technique (PLD) using an Nd: YAG laser ({lambda} = 1064 nm). The films were deposited in a nitrogen atmosphere as working gas; the target was an aluminum high purity (99.99%). The films were deposited with a laser fluence of 7 J/cm2 for 10 minutes on silicon (100) substrates. The substrate temperature was 300 deg. C and the working pressure was varied from 3 mtorr to 11 mtorr. The thickness measured by profilometer was 150 nm for all films. The crystallinity was observed via XRD pattern, the morphology and composition of the films were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), respectively. The optical reflectance spectra and color coordinates of the films were obtained by optical spectral reflectometry technique in the range of 400 cm-1- 900 cm-1 by an Ocean Optics 2000 spectrophotometer. In this work, a clear dependence of the reflectance, dominant wavelength and color purity was found in terms of the applied pressure to the AlN films. A reduction in reflectance of about 55% when the pressure was increased from 3 mtorr to 11 mtorr was observed. This paper deals with the formation of AlN thin films as promising materials for the integration of SAW devices on Si substrates due to their good piezoelectric properties and the possibility of deposition at low temperature compatible with the manufacturing of Si integrated circuits.

  6. Ablation-cooled material removal with ultrafast bursts of pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerse, Can; Kalaycıoğlu, Hamit; Elahi, Parviz; Çetin, Barbaros; Kesim, Denizhan K.; Akçaalan, Önder; Yavaş, Seydi; Aşık, Mehmet D.; Öktem, Bülent; Hoogland, Heinar; Holzwarth, Ronald; Ilday, Fatih Ömer

    2016-09-01

    The use of femtosecond laser pulses allows precise and thermal-damage-free removal of material (ablation) with wide-ranging scientific, medical and industrial applications. However, its potential is limited by the low speeds at which material can be removed and the complexity of the associated laser technology. The complexity of the laser design arises from the need to overcome the high pulse energy threshold for efficient ablation. However, the use of more powerful lasers to increase the ablation rate results in unwanted effects such as shielding, saturation and collateral damage from heat accumulation at higher laser powers. Here we circumvent this limitation by exploiting ablation cooling, in analogy to a technique routinely used in aerospace engineering. We apply ultrafast successions (bursts) of laser pulses to ablate the target material before the residual heat deposited by previous pulses diffuses away from the processing region. Proof-of-principle experiments on various substrates demonstrate that extremely high repetition rates, which make ablation cooling possible, reduce the laser pulse energies needed for ablation and increase the efficiency of the removal process by an order of magnitude over previously used laser parameters. We also demonstrate the removal of brain tissue at two cubic millimetres per minute and dentine at three cubic millimetres per minute without any thermal damage to the bulk.

  7. Fractional ablative erbium YAG laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudorf, Elisabeth H; Haak, Christina S; Erlendsson, Andrés M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Treatment of a variety of skin disorders with ablative fractional lasers (AFXL) is driving the development of portable AFXLs. This study measures micropore dimensions produced by a small 2,940 nm AFXL using a variety of stacked pulses, and determines a model correlating...... laser parameters with tissue effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ex vivo pig skin was exposed to a miniaturized 2,940 nm AFXL, spot size 225 µm, density 5%, power levels 1.15-2.22 W, pulse durations 50-225 microseconds, pulse repetition rates 100-500 Hz, and 2, 20, or 50 stacked pulses, resulting in pulse...... 190 to 347 µm. CONCLUSIONS: Pulse stacking with a small, low power 2,940 nm AFXL created reproducible shallow to deep micropores, and influenced micropore configuration. Mathematical modeling established relations between laser settings and micropore dimensions, which assists in choosing laser...

  8. Explosive boiling of a metallic glass superheated by nanosecond pulse laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, M. Q., E-mail: mqjiang@imech.ac.cn, E-mail: lhdai@lnm.imech.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Institute of Materials Physics, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster 48149 (Germany); Wei, Y. P. [Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Fluid Solid Coupling Systems, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wilde, G. [Institute of Materials Physics, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster 48149 (Germany); Dai, L. H., E-mail: mqjiang@imech.ac.cn, E-mail: lhdai@lnm.imech.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-01-12

    We report an explosive boiling in a Zr-based (Vitreloy 1) bulk metallic glass irradiated by a nanosecond pulse laser with a single shot. This critical phenomenon is accompanied by the ejection of high-temperature matter from the target and the formation of a liquid-gas spinodal pattern on the irradiated area. An analytical model reveals that the glassy target experiences the normal heating (melting) and significant superheating, eventually culminating in explosive boiling near the spinodal limit. Furthermore, the time lag of nucleation and the critical radius of vapor bubbles are theoretically predicted, which are in agreement with the experimental observations. This study provides the investigation on the instability of a metallic glass liquid near the thermodynamic critical temperature.

  9. Ablation morphology of germanium with multi-pulse femtosecond laser%多脉冲飞秒激光对锗材料的烧蚀效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛建婷; 谭放; 罗国强; 马小军; 赵宗清; 韩丹

    2011-01-01

    开展了脉宽为40 fs的不同数量激光脉冲对锗材料的烧蚀效应实验,采用扫描电镜、激光共聚焦显微镜等方法对不同数量的飞秒激光脉冲作用下锗材料表面烧蚀区进行了检测,并对作用后材料烧蚀形貌演化规律进行了分析,初步分析了锗材料烧蚀区周围形成的不同环区的形貌特征及成因,对各环区烧蚀形貌特征随激光作用脉冲数的增加而产生的形貌演化过程进行了观测.并给出单脉冲飞秒激光对锗材料的烧蚀阈值为1.2 J·cm-2,采用激光共聚焦显微镜测得该阈值条件下单个飞秒激光脉冲对锗材料的烧蚀深度约为150 nm.%Ablation morphology on germanium surface using multi-pulse femtosecond laser is reported. The SEM and laser focus give magnified views of the ablated portion. The ablation morphology shows a periodic surface structure with various laser pulses. And the formation of amorphous rings and ripples in the damage spot is discussed. The ablation threshold is 1. 2 J ? cm-2 and the ablation depth with single femtosecond laser pulse is about 150 nm. It is meanful for research the interaction of femtosec-ond laser and material, and the application of femtosecond laser in micromachining.

  10. A study of surface swelling caused by graphitisation during pulsed laser ablation of carbon allotrope with high content of sp3 bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadot, G. B. J.; Billingham, J.; Axinte, D. A.

    2017-06-01

    Experiments and theory are employed to investigate the laser ablation of boron doped diamond and tetrahedral amorphous carbon using nanosecond laser pulses. For a single laser pulse at low values of fluence, the laser induces a swelling of the surface due to graphitisation, whilst a high level of fluence leads to recession of the surface due to vaporization. To understand and investigate the underlying phenomena during the diamond-laser interaction, a model has been developed to reliably and quickly predict the behaviour of the surface and the thickness of the heat affected zone. The model is based on conservation of heat and mass during the laser-workpiece interaction. It consists of a one-dimensional system of non-linear equations that models the material heating, evaporation, graphitisation and plasma shielding. There is excellent agreement between numerical and experimental results for the position of the interfaces up to a high laser fluence. This model is the first to investigate the ablation of diamond that is able to capture surface swelling due to the graphitisation of the diamond layer, the graphite thickness and the amount of ablated material within a single framework. Furthermore, the model provides a novel methodology to investigate the thermal stability of diamond-like carbon films. The activation energy for tetrahedral amorphous carbon is obtained using the model with an accuracy of 3.15-0.22+1.0 eV.

  11. Laser Ablation Propulsion A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Sayed A.; Ugalatad, Akshata C.

    Laser Ablation Propulsion (LAP) will serve as an alternative propulsion system for development of microthrusters. The principle of LAP is that when a laser (pulsed or continuous wave) with sufficient energy (more than the vaporization threshold energy of material) is incident on material, ablation or vaporization takes place which leads to the generation of plasma. The generated plasma has the property to move away from the material hence pressure is generated which leads to the generation of thrust. Nowadays nano satellites are very common in different space and defence applications. It is important to build micro thruster which are useful for orienting and re-positioning small aircraft (like nano satellites) above the atmosphere. modelling of LAP using MATLAB and Mathematica. Schematic is made for the suitable optical configuration of LAP. Practical experiments with shadowgraphy and self emission techniques and the results obtained are analysed taking poly (vinyl-chloride) (PVC) as propellant to study the

  12. Selective mucosal ablation using CO2 laser for the development of novel endoscopic submucosal dissection: comparison of continuous wave and nanosecond pulsed wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, K.; Watanabe, S.; Obata, D.; Hazama, H.; Morita, Y.; Matsuoka, Y.; Kutsumi, H.; Azuma, T.; Awazu, K.

    2010-02-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is accepted as a minimally invasive treatment technique for small early gastric cancers. Procedures are carried out using some specialized electrosurgical knifes with a submucosal injection solution. However it is not widely used because its procedure is difficult. The objective of this study is to develop a novel ESD method which is safe in principle and widely used by using laser techniques. In this study, we used CO2 lasers with a wavelength of 10.6 μm for mucosal ablation. Two types of pulse, continuous wave and pulsed wave with a pulse width of 110 ns, were studied to compare their values. Porcine stomach tissues were used as a sample. Aqueous solution of sodium hyaluronate (MucoUpR) with 50 mg/ml sodium dihydrogenphosphate is injected to a submucosal layer. As a result, ablation effect by CO2 laser irradiation was stopped because submucosal injection solution completely absorbed CO2 laser energy in the invasive energy condition which perforates a muscle layer without submucosal injection solution. Mucosal ablation by the combination of CO2 Laser and a submucosal injection solution is a feasible technique for treating early gastric cancers safely because it provides a selective mucosal resection and less-invasive interaction to muscle layer.

  13. Photoluminescence of CdTe nanocrystals grown by pulsed laser ablation on a template of Si nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen-Cervantes, A.; Silva-Lopez, H.; Becerril-Silva, M.; Arias-Ceron, J.S.; Campos-Gonzalez, E.; Zelaya-Angel, O. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Physics Department, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico (Mexico); Medina-Torres, A.C. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN, Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-11-12

    CdTe nanocrystals were grown on eroded Si (111) substrates at room temperature by pulsed laser ablation. Before growth, Si substrates were subjected to different erosion time in order to investigate the effect on the CdTe samples. The erosion process consists of exposition to a pulsed high-voltage electric arc. The surface consequence of the erosion process consists of Si nanoparticles which acted as a template for the growth of CdTe nanocrystals. CdTe samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), room temperature photoluminescence (RT PL) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). CdTe nanocrystals grew in the stable cubic phase, according to XRD spectra. A strong visible emission was detected in photoluminescence (PL) experiments. The PL signal was centered at 540 nm (∝2.34 eV). With the effective mass approximation, the size of the CdTe crystals was estimated around 3.5 nm. HRTEM images corroborated the physical characteristics of CdTe nanocrystals. These results could be useful for the development of CdTe optoelectronic devices. (orig.)

  14. Investigation of optical limiting properties of Aluminium nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser ablation in different carrier media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuladeep, Rajamudili; Jyothi, L.; Prakash, P.; Mayank Shekhar, S.; Durga Prasad, M.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2013-12-01

    In this communication, we carried out the systematic investigation of nonlinear absorption and scattering properties of Aluminium nanoparticles (Al NPs) in various polar and non-polar solvents. Al NPs were synthesized with pulsed Nd:YAG laser operated at 1064 nm by ablating Al target in polar and non-polar liquid environment like chloroform, chlorobenzene, toluene, benzene, and carbon tetrachloride. Synthesized Al NPs colloids of various solvents differ in appearance and UV-Vis extinction spectra exhibit absorption in the UV region. The characterization of Al NPs performed by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies reveal that NPs are made up of a well crystallized Al inner part (bright zone) embedded with an amorphous metal Al shell (dark region). Growth, aggregation, and precipitation mechanisms which influence the optical properties and stability of NPs are found to be related to the dipole moment of the surrounding liquid environment. The nonlinear absorption and scattering studies are performed by open aperture Z-scan technique with 532 nm under nanosecond pulse excitation. The Z-scan measurements are fitted theoretically to estimate both two-photon absorption (TPA) and nonlinear scattering (NLS) coefficients. In polar solvents like chlorobenzene, chloroform synthesized Al NPs exhibited higher TPA, NLS coefficient values, and lower optical limiting threshold values in comparison with partially polar solvent like toluene and non-polar solvents like benzene and carbontetrachloride. These results indicate the potential use of Al NPs as a versatile optical limiting material.

  15. Effect of Ablation Rate on the Microstructure and Electrochromic Properties of Pulsed-Laser-Deposited Molybdenum Oxide Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, S; Mathankumar, M; Selva Chandrasekaran, S; Nanda Kumar, A K; Murugan, P; Subramanian, B

    2017-01-10

    Molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) is a well-known electrochromic material. In the present work, n-type α-MoO3 thin films with both direct and indirect band gaps were fabricated by varying the laser repetition (ablation) rate in a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) system at a constant reactive O2 pressure. The electrochromic properties of the films are compared and correlated to the microstructure and molecular-level coordination. Mixed amorphous and textured crystallites evolve at the microstructural level. At the molecular level, using NMR and EPR, we show that the change in the repetition rate results in a variation of the molybdenum coordination with oxygen: at low repetition rates (2 Hz), the larger the octahedral coordination, and greater the texture, whereas at 10 Hz, tetrahedral coordination is significant. The anion vacancies also introduce a large density of defect states into the band gap, as evidenced by XPS studies of the valence band and supported by DFT calculations. The electrochromic contrast improved remarkably by almost 100% at higher repetition rates whereas the switching speed decreased by almost 6-fold. Although the electrochromic contrast and coloration efficiency were better at higher repetition rates, the switching speed, reversibility, and stability were better at low repetition rates. This difference in the electrochromic properties of the two MoO3 films is attributed to the variation in the defect and molecular coordination states of the Mo cation.

  16. Laser ablation in analytical chemistry - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Richard E.; Mao, Xianglei; Liu, Haichen; Gonzalez, Jhanis; Mao, Samuel S.

    2001-10-10

    Laser ablation is becoming a dominant technology for direct solid sampling in analytical chemistry. Laser ablation refers to the process in which an intense burst of energy delivered by a short laser pulse is used to sample (remove a portion of) a material. The advantages of laser ablation chemical analysis include direct characterization of solids, no chemical procedures for dissolution, reduced risk of contamination or sample loss, analysis of very small samples not separable for solution analysis, and determination of spatial distributions of elemental composition. This review describes recent research to understand and utilize laser ablation for direct solid sampling, with emphasis on sample introduction to an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Current research related to contemporary experimental systems, calibration and optimization, and fractionation is discussed, with a summary of applications in several areas.

  17. Femtosecond laser ablation of silver foil with single and double pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, DE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available length [2]. Several experimental studies on different metals confirmed the logarithmic dependence on fluence of the ablation depth as well as the existence of two different regimes [3–7]. In spite of the success of the basic two temperature...,16]. These problems continue to stimulate further studies of femto- second ablation. For example, more recent experimental results have shown other fluence regimes than the two noted above: an even lower fluence regime with Fth � 0.018 J cm�2 for copper [5...

  18. KrF pulsed laser ablation of thin films made from fluorinated heterocyclic poly(naphthyl-imide)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaceanu, Mariana-Dana; Rusu, Radu-Dan; Olaru, Mihaela Adriana; Timpu, Daniel; Bruma, Maria

    2012-06-01

    Among the many aspects of laser ablation, development of conical structures induced by excimer laser radiation on polyimide surfaces has been thoroughly investigated. Because the mechanisms that produce these surface textures are not fully understood, two theories, photochemical bond breaking and thermal reaction, have been introduced. Here we present the first study of ultraviolet laser ablation behavior of thin films made from fluorinated poly(naphthyl-imide)s containing oxadiazole rings and the investigation of the mechanism of cone-like structure formation at two laser fluences, 57 and 240 mJ/cm(2). The morphology of thin films before and after laser ablation was studied by using various spectroscopy techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, time-resolved emission and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle measurements. All of the data suggest impurities shielded at low fluence radiation (57 mJ/cm(2)) and a radiation hardening process at high value fluence (240 mJ/cm(2)), which are proposed as the main mechanisms for laser ablation of our polyimide films, and we bring evidence to support them.

  19. Ablation of GaN Using a Femtosecond Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟民; 朱荣毅; 钱土雄; 袁述; 张国义

    2002-01-01

    We study the pulsed laser ablation of wurtzite gallium nitride (GaN) films grown on sapphire, using the fem tosecond laser beam at a central wavelength of 800nm as the source for the high-speed ablation of GaN films. By measuring the backscattered Raman spectrum of ablated samples, the dependence of the ablation depth on laser fluence with one pulse was obtained. The threshold laser fluence for the ablation of GaN films was determined to be about 0.25J/cm2. Laser ablation depth increases with the increasing laser fluence until the amount of removed material is not further increased. The ablated surface was investigated by an optical surface interference profile meter.

  20. Nanofabrication with pulsed lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabashin, Av; Delaporte, Ph; Pereira, A; Grojo, D; Torres, R; Sarnet, Th; Sentis, M

    2010-02-24

    An overview of pulsed laser-assisted methods for nanofabrication, which are currently developed in our Institute (LP3), is presented. The methods compass a variety of possibilities for material nanostructuring offered by laser-matter interactions and imply either the nanostructuring of the laser-illuminated surface itself, as in cases of direct laser ablation or laser plasma-assisted treatment of semiconductors to form light-absorbing and light-emitting nano-architectures, as well as periodic nanoarrays, or laser-assisted production of nanoclusters and their controlled growth in gaseous or liquid medium to form nanostructured films or colloidal nanoparticles. Nanomaterials synthesized by laser-assisted methods have a variety of unique properties, not reproducible by any other route, and are of importance for photovoltaics, optoelectronics, biological sensing, imaging and therapeutics.

  1. A new sealed RF-excited CO2 laser for enamel ablation operating at 9.4-μm with a pulse duration of 26-μs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kenneth H; Jew, Jamison M; Fried, Daniel

    2016-02-13

    Several studies over the past 20 years have shown that carbon dioxide lasers operating at wavelengths between 9.3 and 9.6-μm with pulse durations near 20-μs are ideal for hard tissue ablation. Those wavelengths are coincident with the peak absorption of the mineral phase. The pulse duration is close to the thermal relaxation time of the deposited energy of a few microseconds which is short enough to minimize peripheral thermal damage and long enough to minimize plasma shielding effects to allow efficient ablation at practical rates. The desired pulse duration near 20-μs has been difficult to achieve since it is too long for transverse excited atmospheric pressure (TEA) lasers and too short for radio-frequency (RF) excited lasers for efficient operation. Recently, Coherent Inc. (Santa Clara, CA) developed the Diamond J5-V laser for microvia drilling which can produce laser pulses greater than 100-mJ in energy at 9.4-μm with a pulse duration of 26-μs and it can achieve pulse repetition rates of 3 KHz. We report the first results using this laser to ablate dental enamel. Efficient ablation of dental enamel is possible at rates exceeding 50-μm per pulse. This laser is ideally suited for the selective ablation of carious lesions.

  2. Analysis of infrared laser tissue ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Gordon P.; Timmerman, Brenda H.; Bryanston-Cross, Peter J.

    2005-04-01

    The mechanisms involved in infrared laser tissue ablation are studied using a free electron laser (FELIX) in order to clarify whether the increased ablation efficiency reported in literature for certain infrared wavelengths is due to a wavelength effect or to the specific pulse structure of the lasers that are generally used in these studies. Investigations are presented of ablation of vitreous from pigs" eyes using several techniques including protein gel electrophoresis and ablation plume visualization. The ablation effects of three different infrared wavelengths are compared: 3 mm, which is currently in clinical surgical use, and the wavelengths associated with the amide I and amide II bands, i.e. 6.2 mm and 6.45mm, respectively. The results suggest a different ablation mechanism to be in operation for each studied wavelength, thus indicating that the generally reported increased ablation efficiency in the 6-6.5 micron range is due to the wavelength rather than the typical free electron laser pulse structure.

  3. Thermal character in organic polymers with nanojoule femtosecond laser ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaochang Ni(倪晓昌); Ching-Yue Wang(王清月); Yanfeng Li(栗岩峰); Minglie Hu(胡明列); Zhuan Wang(王专); Lu Chai(柴路)

    2003-01-01

    Ablation experiments with femtosecond (fs) laser pulse (pulse duration 37 fs, wavelength 800 nm) on organic polymers have been performed in air. The ablation threshold is found to be only several nanojoules. The diameters of the dots ablated in the organic polymers are influenced by the laser fluence and the number of laser pulses. It is observed that heat is diffused in a threadlike manner in all directions around the central focus region. Explanations of the observed phenomena are presented. A one-dimensional waveguide is also ablated in the organic polymers.

  4. Nanostructured europium oxide thin films deposited by pulsed laser ablation of a metallic target in a He buffer atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, H.; Franceschini, D. F.; Prioli, R.; Guimaraes, R. B.; Sanchez, C. M.; Canal, G. P.; Barbosa, M. D. L.; Galvao, R. M. O. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cx. Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ 24210-346 (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ 24210-346 (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Laboratorio de Plasmas Aplicados, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Departamento de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66328, 05315-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Laboratorio de Plasmas Aplicados, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    Nanostrucured europium oxide and hydroxide films were obtained by pulsed Nd:YAG (532 nm) laser ablation of a europium metallic target, in the presence of a 1 mbar helium buffer atmosphere. Both the produced film and the ambient plasma were characterized. The plasma was monitored by an electrostatic probe, for plume expansion in vacuum or in the presence of the buffer atmosphere. The time evolution of the ion saturation current was obtained for several probe to substrate distances. The results show the splitting of the plume into two velocity groups, being the lower velocity profile associated with metal cluster formation within the plume. The films were obtained in the presence of helium atmosphere, for several target-to-substrate distances. They were analyzed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy, for as-deposited and 600 deg. C treated-in-air samples. The results show that the as-deposited samples are amorphous and have chemical composition compatible with europium hydroxide. The thermally treated samples show x-ray diffraction peaks of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, with chemical composition showing excess oxygen. Film nanostructuring was shown to be strongly correlated with cluster formation, as shown by velocity splitting in probe current versus time plots.

  5. Effect of in situ annealing on structure and optical properties of ZnTe nanoparticles produced by pulsed laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orii, Takaaki; Hirasawa, Makoto; Seto, Takafumi

    2007-04-01

    An improvement in morphology, crystallinity, and optical property of ZnTe nanoparticles produced by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) was achieved by in situ annealing. ZnTe nanoparticles produced in argon gas ambience by PLA were annealed in the gas flow at a temperatures Ta ranging from 300 °C to 800 °C and size-selected by a differential mobility analyzer. The bimodal size distribution of the ZnTe nanoparticles changed to unimodal at Ta = 600 °C. In this condition, the shape of the monodispersed ZnTe nanoparticles, classified into around 20 nm, became uniformly spherical and their crystallinity estimated by x-ray diffraction was extremely improved. These improvements by the in situ annealing were examined for ZnTe nanoparticles produced from off-stoichiometric target. Although the optical property of ZnTe nanoparticles produced from a zinc rich target was improved, those produced from a tellurium rich target could not be improved. It was found that the effect of in situ annealing on optical properties of ZnTe nanoparticles was dependent upon its content.

  6. Room-temperature deposition of nanocrystalline PbWO{sub 4} thin films by pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, J.H.; Yoon, J.-W.; Shim, K.B. [Hanyang University, Department of Ceramic Engineering, Ceramic Processing Research Center (CPRC), Seoul (Korea); Koshizaki, N. [Nanoarchitectonics Research Center (NARC), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki (Japan)

    2006-07-15

    Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) was applied to synthesize nanocrystalline PbWO{sub 4} thin films onto glass substrates. The effects of Ar background gas pressure on phase evolution, microstructures and optical characteristics of PbWO{sub 4} thin films were investigated in detail. The PLA processes were carried out at room temperature without substrate heating or post-annealing treatment. XRD and HR-TEM results revealed that the PbWO{sub 4} thin films are composed of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases. Moreover, the films contained a high density of lattice defects such as twin boundaries and edge dislocations. The crystallite size and crystallinity increased, which were associated with a change in surface morphology as the Ar pressure increased. Reduced tungsten states W{sup 5+} or W{sup 4+} induced by oxygen vacancies were observed at 10 Pa and the atomic concentration of all constituent element was almost stoichiometric, especially the [Pb]/[W] ratio, which was nearly unity above 50 Pa. The optical energy band-gap was 3.03 eV at 50 Pa and increased to 3.35 eV at 100 Pa, which are narrower than the reported value (4.20 eV). This optical band-gap narrowing could be attributed to localized band-tail states and new energy levels induced by the amorphous structure and inherent lattice defects. (orig.)

  7. Effect of in situ annealing on structure and optical properties of ZnTe nanoparticles produced by pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orii, Takaaki [Research Consortium for Synthetic Nano-Function Materials Project (SYNAF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8568 (Japan); Hirasawa, Makoto [Research Consortium for Synthetic Nano-Function Materials Project (SYNAF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8568 (Japan); Seto, Takafumi [Research Consortium for Synthetic Nano-Function Materials Project (SYNAF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8568 (Japan)

    2007-04-15

    An improvement in morphology, crystallinity, and optical property of ZnTe nanoparticles produced by pulsed laser ablation (PLA) was achieved by in situ annealing. ZnTe nanoparticles produced in argon gas ambience by PLA were annealed in the gas flow at a temperatures T{sub a} ranging from 300 deg. C to 800 deg. C and size-selected by a differential mobility analyzer. The bimodal size distribution of the ZnTe nanoparticles changed to unimodal at T{sub a} = 600 deg. C. In this condition, the shape of the monodispersed ZnTe nanoparticles, classified into around 20 nm, became uniformly spherical and their crystallinity estimated by x-ray diffraction was extremely improved. These improvements by the in situ annealing were examined for ZnTe nanoparticles produced from off-stoichiometric target. Although the optical property of ZnTe nanoparticles produced from a zinc rich target was improved, those produced from a tellurium rich target could not be improved. It was found that the effect of in situ annealing on optical properties of ZnTe nanoparticles was dependent upon its content.

  8. Effect of ambient gas pressure on pulsed laser ablation plume dynamics and ZnTe film growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouleau, C.M.; Lowndes, D.H.; Geohegan, D.B.; Allard, L.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Strauss, M.A.; Cao, S.; Pedraza, A.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Puretzky, A.A. [Inst. of Spectroscopy, Troitsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    Epitaxial thin films of nitrogen-doped p-ZnTe were grown on single-crystal, semi-insulating Ga-As substrates via pulsed laser ablation of a stoichiometric ZnTe target. Both low pressure nitrogen ambients and high vacuum were used. Results of in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and time-resolved ion probe measurements have been compared with ex situ Hall effect and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. A strong correlation was observed between the nature of the film`s surface during growth (2-D vs. 3-D, assessed via RHEED) and the ambient gas pressures employed during deposition. The extended defect content (assessed via cross-sectional TEM) in the region >150 mn from the film/substrate interface was found to increase with the ambient gas pressure during deposition, which could not be explained by lattice mismatch alone. At sufficiently high pressures, misoriented, columnar grains developed which were not only consistent with the RHEED observations but also were correlated with a marked decrease in Hall mobility and a slight decrease in hole concentration. Ion probe measurements, which monitored the attenuation and slowing of the ion current arriving at the substrate surface, indicated that for increasing nitrogen pressure the fast (vacuum) velocity distribution splits into a distinct fast and two collisionally-slowed components or modes. Gas controlled variations in these components mirrored trends in electrical properties and microstructural measurements.

  9. Effect of aging on copper nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in water: structural and optical characterizations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Swarnkar; S C Singh; R Gopal

    2011-12-01

    Effect of aging on copper nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation of copper plate in water was studied. By characterization studies of the aged nanoparticles, it is found that copper nanoparticles converted into Cu@Cu2O nanostructure. The synthesized nanomaterial is characterized with UV-Visible absorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic techniques. TEM image shows that the aged nanoparticles get assembled into cactus like structure and are spherical in shape with average diameter 7 nm and dispersion 2 nm. XRD and FTIR spectrum confirm the formation of Cu@Cu2O in the aged sample. Raman spectrum also confirms the presence of Cu2O nanoparticles. PL spectrum of the aged nanoparticles shows a direct allowed transition with bandgap energy of 2.24 eV. The mechanism for synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles and formation of self-assembly of nanoparticles is also discussed.

  10. Silver and gold nanoparticles produced by pulsed laser ablation in liquid to investigate their interaction with Ubiquitin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Aglio, M.; Mangini, V.; Valenza, G.; De Pascale, O.; De Stradis, A.; Natile, G.; Arnesano, F.; De Giacomo, A.

    2016-06-01

    The interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with proteins is widely investigated since it can be a key issue in addressing the problem of nanotoxicity, particularly in the case of biological and medical applications. In this work, silver and gold nanoparticles (AgNPs and AuNPs) were produced in water by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid (PLAL) and allowed to react with Ubiquitin (Ub) (a small human protein essential for degradative processes in cells). NPs produced by PLAL are completely free of undesired contaminants and do not require the use of stabilizers. We found that the NPs + Ub system behaves differently if the NPs are or are not treated with a stabilizer before performing the interaction with Ub, since the presence of capping agents modifies the surface reactivity of the metal-NPs. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption spectroscopy was employed to monitor the fast changes occurring in the NP colloidal solutions upon interaction with Ub. The results obtained by SPR were confirmed by TEM analysis. Therefore, when Ub interacts with bare NPs a rapid aggregation occurs and, at the same time, Ub undergoes an amyloid transition. Notably, the aggregation of AuNPs occurs at a much greater rate than that of analogous AgNPs and the Ub fibrils that are formed can be imaged by thioflavin T fluorescence.

  11. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablated sub-10 nm silicon nanoparticles for improving photovoltaic conversion efficiency of commercial solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, H. R.; Ghobadi, A.; Ulusoy Ghobadi, T. G.; Ates, H.; Topalli, K.; Okyay, A. K.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the enhancement of photovoltaic (PV) solar cell efficiency using luminescent silicon nanoparticles (Si-NPs). Sub-10 nm Si-NPs are synthesized via pulsed laser ablation technique. These ultra-small Si nanoparticles exhibit photoluminescence (PL) character tics at 425 and 517 nm upon excitation by ultra-violet (UV) light. Therefore, they can act as secondary light sources that convert high energetic photons to ones at visible range. This down-shifting property can be a promising approach to enhance PV performance of the solar cell, regardless of its type. As proof-of-concept, polycrystalline commercial solar cells with an efficiency of ca 10% are coated with these luminescent Si-NPs. The nanoparticle-decorated solar cells exhibit up to 1.64% increase in the external quantum efficiency with respect to the uncoated reference cells. According to spectral photo-responsivity characterizations, the efficiency enhancement is stronger in wavelengths below 550 nm. As expected, this is attributed to down-shifting via Si-NPs, which is verified by their PL characteristics. The results presented here can serve as a beacon for future performance enhanced devices in a wide range of applications based on Si-NPs including PVs and LED applications.

  12. Enhanced antibacterial activity of copper/copper oxide nanowires prepared by pulsed laser ablation in water medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarnkar, R. K.; Pandey, J. K.; Soumya, K. K.; Dwivedi, P.; Sundaram, S.; Prasad, Sanjay; Gopal, R.

    2016-07-01

    Copper/copper oxide nanowires (NWs) are well known for its antibacterial activity against various pathogens. In the present study, we have shown the enhanced antibacterial activity of the NWs against gram-negative bacterial strains ( Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) and gram-positive bacterial strains ( Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus). The increase in the activity is because of the shape and size of the colloidal NWs which were prepared at room temperature in a one-step process by pulsed laser ablation of copper metal target. The purity, shape and size of the colloidal NWs were well characterized by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The NWs were of diameters in the range of 15-30 nm and lengths ranging from 200 to 600 nm. The dose-dependent antibacterial activity of these NWs was found to be more effective against gram-negative bacteria compared to gram-positive bacteria. As gram-negative bacteria have thinner layer of cell wall made up of peptidoglycan possibly which makes them more susceptible to Cu/Cu2O NWs, Cu/Cu2O NWs can be a potent candidate to be used as bactericidal or as growth inhibitor.

  13. Micro-structural, electrical and spectroscopic investigations of pulsed laser ablated palladium incorporated nanostructured tungsten oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lethy, K J; Beena, D; Pillai, V P Mahadevan; Suresh, K A

    2009-09-01

    Pure and Pd incorporated (0.5, 1 and 5 wt%) WO3 films are prepared on quartz substrates using pulsed laser ablation (PLD) technique in an oxygen ambient of 0.12 mbar, at a substrate temperature (Ts) of 873 K. Palladium incorporation effects on the microstructure, optical and electrical properties of tungsten oxide films are systematically investigated using techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), micro-Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and temperature dependent electrical resistivity measurements. The micro-structural analysis by XRD and micro-Raman indicates that Pd addition can perturb the tungsten oxide lattice and suppress the grain growth. Optical band gap values of the films increases from 3.17 eV for pure WO3 to 3.29 eV for 5 wt% Pd incorporated WO3 films. All the films present high transparency in the visible spectral range. The electrical resistivity studies of the pure and Pd incorporated films done at room temperature and for the range of temperature; 170-450 K reveal that Pd addition can lower the resistivity of the WO3 thin films. Room temperature resistivity as well as activation energy of the film decreases exponentially with Pd incorporation concentration. Highly transparent, nanocrystalline and semiconducting WO3 films with low resistivity obtained by Pd incorporation can make WO3 suitable for microelectronics industry and for gas sensing applications.

  14. Ultrafast laser ablation of transparent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Lara; Russ, Simone; Kaiser, Myriam; Kumkar, Malte; Faißt, Birgit; Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The present work investigates the influence of the pulse duration and the temporal spacing between pulses on the ablation of aluminosilicate glass by comparing the results obtained with pulse durations of 0.4 ps and 6 ps. We found that surface modifications occur already at fluences below the single pulse ablation threshold and that laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) emerge as a result of those surface modifications. For 0.4 ps the ablation threshold fluences is lower than for 6 ps. Scanning electron micrographs of LIPSS generated with 0.4 ps exhibit a more periodic and less coarse structure as compared to structures generated with 6 ps. Furthermore we report on the influence of temporal spacing between the pulses on the occurrence of LIPSS and the impact on the quality of the cutting edge. Keywords: LIPSS,

  15. Nanofabrication with Pulsed Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabashin AV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An overview of pulsed laser-assisted methods for nanofabrication, which are currently developed in our Institute (LP3, is presented. The methods compass a variety of possibilities for material nanostructuring offered by laser–matter interactions and imply either the nanostructuring of the laser-illuminated surface itself, as in cases of direct laser ablation or laser plasma-assisted treatment of semiconductors to form light-absorbing and light-emitting nano-architectures, as well as periodic nanoarrays, or laser-assisted production of nanoclusters and their controlled growth in gaseous or liquid medium to form nanostructured films or colloidal nanoparticles. Nanomaterials synthesized by laser-assisted methods have a variety of unique properties, not reproducible by any other route, and are of importance for photovoltaics, optoelectronics, biological sensing, imaging and therapeutics.

  16. Subcellular analysis by laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertes, Akos; Stolee, Jessica A; Shrestha, Bindesh

    2014-12-02

    In various embodiments, a method of laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LAESI-MS) may generally comprise micro-dissecting a cell comprising at least one of a cell wall and a cell membrane to expose at least one subcellular component therein, ablating the at least one subcellular component by an infrared laser pulse to form an ablation plume, intercepting the ablation plume by an electrospray plume to form ions, and detecting the ions by mass spectrometry.

  17. Computational modeling of ultra-short-pulse ablation of enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, R.A.; Bailey, D.S.; Young, D.A. [and others

    1996-02-29

    A computational model for the ablation of tooth enamel by ultra-short laser pulses is presented. The role of simulations using this model in designing and understanding laser drilling systems is discussed. Pulses of duration 300 sec and intensity greater than 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2} are considered. Laser absorption proceeds via multi-photon initiated plasma mechanism. The hydrodynamic response is calculated with a finite difference method, using an equation of state constructed from thermodynamic functions including electronic, ion motion, and chemical binding terms. Results for the ablation efficiency are presented. An analytic model describing the ablation threshold and ablation depth is presented. Thermal coupling to the remaining tissue and long-time thermal conduction are calculated. Simulation results are compared to experimental measurements of the ablation efficiency. Desired improvements in the model are presented.

  18. Single-pulse KrF laser ablation and nanopatterning in vacuum of {beta}-titanium alloys used in biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemot, F.; Porte-Durrieu, M.C.; Baquey, C. [INSERM U-577, Biomateriaux et Reparation Tissulaire, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076, Bordeaux cedex (France); Prima, F. [ENSCP, Laboratoire de Metallurgie Structurale, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231, Paris cedex 05 (France); Tokarev, V.N.; Belin, C.; Lazare, S. [CNRS UMR-5803, Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie Moleculaire, 351 cours de la Liberation, 33405, Talence cedex (France); Gloriant, T. [INSA, Groupe de Recherche en Chimie et Metallurgie, 20 av. des Buttes de Coesmes, 35043, Rennes cedex (France)

    2004-09-01

    We report the KrF laser (248 nm) nanosecond single-pulse irradiation in vacuum of a mirror-polished surface of a model {beta}-titanium alloy. A series of single-pulse laser-annealing experiments is performed with increasing fluence adjusted to obtain conditions from submelting (a few mJ/cm{sup 2}) up to intense laser ablation (30 J/cm{sup 2}). The structural and morphological changes are followed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, as well as with other analytical techniques, and compared with the starting {alpha}{beta} equilibrium mixture of the untreated sample. The results are discussed and related to the theoretical estimation of fluences corresponding to the {beta}-transus, melting, boiling and intense ablation (phase-explosion) thresholds as well as to the estimates of melt depth and lifetime evaluation as a function of fluence. By carrying out laser annealing in vacuum the surface oxidation is avoided while roughening and phase transformations are favoured within the laser-heated depth. The mirror-polished starting surface is composed of nanometric {alpha}-precipitates embedded in a {beta}-matrix, whose surface is systematically 5-10 nm above the {alpha}-surface. Upon laser annealing with increasing fluence the {alpha}-nanocrystals transform progressively into {beta}-phase, resulting in an increasing relief. At higher fluence the conditions for increasing roughness are studied. Submicrometre roughness is expected to improve cell adhesion to {beta}-titanium alloys and hence osteointegration. (orig.)

  19. Effect of boron incorporation on the structure and electrical properties of diamond-like carbon films deposited by femtosecond and nanosecond pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, A. [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR 5516 CNRS, Universite Jean Monnet, 18 Rue Pr. Benoit Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Bourgeois, O. [Institut Neel, UPR 2940 CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Sanchez-Lopez, J.C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Avda. Americo Vespucio, 49 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Rouzaud, J.-N. [Laboratoire de Geologie, UMR 8538 CNRS, Ecole Normale Superieure, 45 Rue d' Ulm, 75230 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Rojas, T.C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Avda. Americo Vespucio, 49 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Loir, A.-S. [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR 5516 CNRS, Universite Jean Monnet, 18 Rue Pr. Benoit Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Garden, J.-L. [Institut Neel, UPR 2940 CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Garrelie, F. [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR 5516 CNRS, Universite Jean Monnet, 18 Rue Pr. Benoit Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Donnet, C., E-mail: christophe.donnet@univ-st-etienne.f [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR 5516 CNRS, Universite Jean Monnet, 18 Rue Pr. Benoit Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France)

    2009-12-31

    The influence of the incorporation of boron in diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on the microstructure of the coatings has been investigated. The boron-containing DLC films (a-C:B) have been deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature in high vacuum conditions, by ablating graphite and boron targets either with a femtosecond pulsed laser (800 nm, 150 fs, fs-DLC) or with a nanosecond pulsed laser (248 nm, 20 ns, ns-DLC). Alternative ablation of the graphite and boron targets has been carried out to deposit the a-C:B films. The film structure and composition have been highlighted by coupling Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. Using the B K-edge, EELS characterization reveals the boron effect on the carbon bonding. Moreover, the plasmon energy reveals a tendency of graphitization associated to the boron doping. Pure boron particles have been characterized by HRTEM and reveal that those particles are amorphous or crystallized. The nanostructures of the boron-doped ns-DLC and the boron-doped fs-DLC are thus compared. In particular, the incorporation of boron in the DLC matrix is highlighted, depending on the laser used for deposition. Electrical measurements show that some of these films have potentialities to be used in low temperature thermometry, considering their conductivity and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) estimated within the temperature range 160-300 K.

  20. Safety and Efficacy Evaluation of Pulsed Dye Laser Treatment, CO2 Ablative Fractional Resurfacing, and Combined Treatment for Surgical Scar Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel L; Geronemus, Roy

    2016-11-01

    Surgical scars are an unwanted sequela following surgical procedures. Several different treatment modalities and approaches are currently being employed to improve the cosmesis of surgical scars with each having varying degrees of success. The objective of this study was to assess the ef cacy and safety pulsed dye laser treatment, CO2 ablative fractional resurfacing, and a combined treatment with these two modalities for the cosmetic improvement of surgical scarring that occurred following the surgical removal of skin cancer from different anatomic areas. Twenty-five patients with surgical scarring most frequently on the face following recent surgical excision of skin cancer with Mohs surgery were included in this multicenter, prospective clinical study. Patients were randomized into 4 treatment arms, namely, pulsed dye laser alone, CO2 laser alone, a combined treatment with these two modalities, and CO2 ablative fractional resurfacing on the same day of surgery to half of the scar, followed by a combined treatment with the two modalities to that half of the scar. Patients in each study arm received a total of 3-4 treatments, while those patients in Arm 4 underwent an additional treatment with CO2 laser immediately after surgery. Patients were followed up at 1 and 3 months after the final treatment session. No adverse events were seen. Significant improvements in the appearance of scars were achieved in all study arms, as as- sessed by the Vancouver Scar Scale and Global Evaluation Response scales, with the best clinical outcomes seen in those scars that underwent a combination treatment. All patients reported very high satisfaction from treatment. Both pulsed dye laser treatment and CO2 ablative fractional resurfacing, when used as a monotherapy, are safe and effective in the treatment and improvement of recent surgical scarring. When both of these modalities are used in combination, however, they appear to potentially have a synergistic effect and an accelerated

  1. Field enhancement induced laser ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiutowski, Jacek; Maibohm, Christian; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob

    Sub-diffraction spatially resolved, quantitative mapping of strongly localized field intensity enhancement on gold nanostructures via laser ablation of polymer thin films is reported. Illumination using a femtosecond laser scanning microscope excites surface plasmons in the nanostructures...

  2. Research on successive preparation of nano-FeNi alloy and its ethanol sol by pulsed laser ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Wengong; JIN; Zhaoguo

    2004-01-01

    Nano-FeNi alloy/ethanol sol and its nano-FeNi alloy have been successively prepared by pulsed laser ablation at the interface of flowing ethanol and rotative FeNi alloy target.The energy spectrum analysis shows that the weight ratio of constituents of the Fe and Ni in the nano-FeNi alloy particles is about 66: 34. The TEM shows that the nano-FeNi alloy particles'original sizes are about 1-5 nm, and the particle sizes gradually become 10-50 nm due to self-congregation during 1-3 d. The XRD analysis indicates that the nano-FeNi alloy particles are almost in non-crystalline. It is found that there are one strong excitation peak at 311.00 nm and two weak excitation peaks at 273.00 and 347.00 nm, and there is one strong emission peak at 418.00 nm when it is excitated by 311.00 nm at room temperature from the fluorescence spectrum of nano-FeNi alloy/ethanol sol. The UV-Vis spectrum of nano-FeNi alloy/ethanol sol indicates that there exist one strong absorption peak which is splitted into 9 distinguished small peaks at about 230.00 nm and one weak exciton absorption peak at 275.00 nm. The FT-IR spectrum of nano-FeNi alloy/ethanol sol exhibits that the stretching vibration absorption peak of associating hydroxyl (VO-H) in the sol has the distinct blue shift, and confirms that the surface of nano-FeNi alloy particles has been modified by carbon-hydrogen organic group from ethanol decomposition in the producing process of the nano-FeNi alloy/ethanol sol.

  3. Barium Ferrite Films Grown by Laser Ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisfi, A.; Lodder, J.C.; Haan, de P.; Smithers, M.A.; Roesthuis, F.J.G.

    1998-01-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) has been used to grow barium ferrite films on Al2O3 single crystal substrates. When deposition occurs in an oxidising atmosphere at high temperatures, the films are single BaFe12O19 phase, very well oriented with (001) texture, and exhibit a large perpendicular magnetic a

  4. In situ decoration of graphene sheets with gold nanoparticles synthetized by pulsed laser ablation in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Mendieta, Rafael; Ventura-Espinosa, David; Sabater, Sara; Lancis, Jesus; Mínguez-Vega, Gladys; Mata, Jose A.

    2016-07-01

    The demand for nanocomposites of graphene and carbonaceous materials decorated with metallic nanoparticles is increasing on account of their applications in science and technology. Traditionally, the production of graphene-metal assemblies is achieved by the non-environmentally friendly reduction of metallic salts in carbonaceous suspensions. However, precursor residues during nanoparticle growth may reduce their surface activity and promote cross-chemical undesired effects. In this work we present a laser-based alternative to synthesize ligand-free gold nanoparticles that are anchored onto the graphene surface in a single reaction step. Laser radiation is used to generate highly pure nanoparticles from a gold disk surrounded by a graphene oxide suspension. The produced gold nanoparticles are directly immobilized onto the graphene surface. Moreover, the presence of graphene oxide influences the size of the nanoparticles and its interaction with the laser, causes only a slight reduction of the material. This work constitutes a green alternative synthesis of graphene-metal assemblies and a practical methodology that may inspire future developments.

  5. UV laser ablation of parylene films from gold substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O. R. Musaev, P. Scott, J. M. Wrobel, and M. B. Kruger

    2009-11-19

    Parylene films, coating gold substrates, were removed by laser ablation using 248 nm light from an excimer laser. Each sample was processed by a different number of pulses in one of three different environments: air at atmospheric pressure, nitrogen at atmospheric pressure, and vacuum. The laser-induced craters were analyzed by optical microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Multi-pulse ablation thresholds of gold and parylene were estimated.

  6. Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon in air and vacuum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zehua Wu; Nan Zhang; Mingwei Wang; Xiaonong Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Femtosecond (fs) pulse laser ablation of silicon targets in air and in vacuum is investigated using a time-resolved shadowgraphic method. The observed dynamic process of the fs laser ablation of silicon in air is significantly different from that in vacuum. Similar to the ablation of metallic targets, while the shock wave front and a series of nearly concentric and semicircular stripes, as well as the contact front, are clearly identifiable in the process of ablation under 1 x 105 Pa, these phenomena are no longer observed when the ablation takes place in vacuum. Although the ambient air around the target strongly affects the evolution of the ablation plume, the three rounds of material ejection clearly observed in the shadowgraphs of fs laser ablation in standard air can also be distinguished in the process of ablation in vacuum. It is proven that the three rounds of material ejection are caused by different ablation mechanisms.%@@ Femtosecond(fs)pulse laser ablation of silicon targets in air and in vacuum is investigated using a timeresolved shadowgraphic method.The observed dynamic process of the fs laser ablation of silicon in air is significantly different from that in vacuum.Similar to the ablation of metallic targets,while the shock wave front and a series of nearly concentric and semicircular stripes,as well as the contact front,are clearly identifiable in the process of ablation under 1 x 105 Pa,these phenomena are no longer observed when the ablation takes place in vacuum.Although the ambient air around the target strongly affects the evolution of the ablation plume,the three rounds of material ejection clearly observed in the shadowgraphs of fs laser ablation in standard air can also be distinguished in the process of ablation in vacuum.It is proven that the three rounds of material ejection are caused by different ablation mechanisms.

  7. Nanosecond laser ablation of silver nanoparticle film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jaewon; Han, Sewoon; Lee, Daeho; Ahn, Sanghoon; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Moon, Jooho; Ko, Seung H.

    2013-02-01

    Nanosecond laser ablation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) protected silver nanoparticle (20 nm diameter) film is studied using a frequency doubled Nd:YAG nanosecond laser (532 nm wavelength, 6 ns full width half maximum pulse width). In the sintered silver nanoparticle film, absorbed light energy conducts well through the sintered porous structure, resulting in ablation craters of a porous dome shape or crown shape depending on the irradiation fluence due to the sudden vaporization of the PVP. In the unsintered silver nanoparticle film, the ablation crater with a clean edge profile is formed and many coalesced nanoparticles of 50 to 100 nm in size are observed inside the ablation crater. These results and an order of magnitude analysis indicate that the absorbed thermal energy is confined within the nanoparticles, causing melting of nanoparticles and their coalescence to larger agglomerates, which are removed following melting and subsequent partial vaporization.

  8. Laser ablation of a polysilane material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S. G.; Robitaille, T. E.

    1987-08-01

    The laser ablation properties of a (50%)-isopropyl methyl-(50%)-n-propyl methyl silane copolymer are examined. Both 193- and 248-nm-pulsed excimer laser radiation cleanly and completely remove this material in vacuum above certain energy thresholds (30 and 50 mJ/cm2, respectively). Under these conditions the ablation properties are quite similar to those reported for typical organic polymers. Below threshold, ablation is less efficient and becomes increasingly inefficient as irradiation continues due to spectral bleaching. In the presence of air, material removal is incomplete even for high-energy densities and long exposures. The ablation rate is shown to be independent of substrate material both above and below threshold.

  9. Pulsed laser ablation of wire-shaped target in a thin water jet: effects of plasma features and bubble dynamics on the PLAL process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Aglio, Marcella; De Giacomo, Alessandro; Kohsakowski, Sebastian; Barcikowski, Stephan; Wagener, Philipp; Santagata, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, emission spectroscopy and fast imaging surveys during pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) for nanoparticles (NPs) production have been used, in order to provide further details about the process involved and the potentialities offered by a wire-shaped sample ablated in a flowing water jet. This kind of set-up has been explored because the laser ablation efficiency in water increases when a thin water layer and a wire-shaped target are used. In order to understand the physical processes causing the increasing ablation efficiency, both the laser-induced plasma and bubble dynamics generated in a flowing liquid jet have been analysed. The plasma parameters and the bubble behaviour in such a system have been compared with those observed in conventional PLAL experiments, where either a bulk or a wire-shaped target is immersed in bulk water. From the data presented here it is evidenced that the plasma and shockwave induced during the breakdown process can play a direct role in the ablation efficiency variation observed. With regard to the cavitation bubbles evolving near a free surface (the interface between water and air) it should be noted that these have to be treated with caution as a consequence of the strong influence played in these circumstances by the boundary of the water jet during its expansion dynamics. The effects due to the size of the liquid layer, the presence of the water/air interface, the liquid characteristics, the target shape, the plasma evolution and the bubble dynamics together with their outcomes on the NPs’ production, are presented and discussed.

  10. Metal particles produced by laser ablation for ICP-MSmeasurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Jhanis J.; Liu, Chunyi; Wen, Sy-Bor; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.

    2007-06-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (266nm) was used to generate metal particles of Zn and Al alloys using femtosecond (150 fs) and nanosecond (4 ns) laser pulses with identical fluences of 50 J cm{sup -2}. Characterization of particles and correlation with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) performance was investigated. Particles produced by nanosecond laser ablation were mainly primary particles with irregular shape and hard agglomerates (without internal voids). Particles produced by femtosecond laser ablation consisted of spherical primary particles and soft agglomerates formed from numerous small particles. Examination of the craters by white light interferometric microscopy showed that there is a rim of material surrounding the craters formed after nanosecond laser ablation. The determination of the crater volume by white light interferometric microscopy, considering the rim of material surrounding ablation craters, revealed that the volume ratio (fs/ns) of the craters on the selected samples was approximately 9 (Zn), 7 (NIST627 alloy) and 5 (NIST1711 alloy) times more ablated mass with femtosecond pulsed ablation compared to nanosecond pulsed ablation. In addition, an increase of Al concentration from 0 to 5% in Zn base alloys caused a large increase in the diameter of the particles, up to 65% while using nanosecond laser pulses. When the ablated particles were carried in argon into an ICP-MS, the Zn and Al signals intensities were greater by factors of {approx} 50 and {approx} 12 for fs vs. ns ablation. Femtosecond pulsed ablation also reduced temporal fluctuations in the {sup 66}Zn transient signal by a factor of ten compared to nanosecond laser pulses.

  11. A comparative study on reflection of nanosecond Nd-YAG laser pulses in ablation of metals in air and in vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, O; May, L de la Cruz; Gil, A Flores

    2013-06-03

    A comparative study on reflection of nanosecond Nd-YAG laser pulses in ablation of aluminum in air and in vacuum under the same other experimental conditions is performed. We find that, hemispherical total reflectivity of aluminum undergoes a sharp drop at the plasma formation threshold both in the air and in vacuum. The initial large value (0.8) of aluminum reflectivity decreases to a level of about 0.14 and 0.24 for ablation in the air and in vacuum, respectively. These decreased reflectivity values remain virtually unchanged with further increasing laser fluence. The reflectivity drop in the air is observed to be sharper than in vacuum. Our study indicates that the reflectivity drop is predominantly caused by absorption of the laser light in plasma. Nano/micro-structural defects present on practical sample surfaces play the important role in the plasma formation, especially for the ablation in the air, where the plasma formation threshold is found to be by a factor of 3 smaller than in vacuum.

  12. Ablation of metals using ultrashort laser pulses in a pump-probe experiment dynamics of laser induced particle emission from metal surfaces on the femto and picosecond time scale

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, V

    2001-01-01

    The main part of this work deals with the dynamics of the laser ablation process of metals (Al, Ag, Fe and Ni) initiated by approx. 50 fs laser pulses. The phenomena have been investigated by interferometric time resolved pump and probe measurements. This work reports one of the first yield measurements of emitted singly charged ions and neutrals from a metal surface induced by laser light. The experiments have been performed using a two-pulse autocorrelation setup in which the differential yield of emitted metal ions is measured as a function of the temporal separation between a pair of excitation pulses with a reflectron-type time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer. The intensity of each pulse is kept below the ablation threshold, thus only the combined interaction of both pulses causes particle emission. It must be pointed out, that the time information obtained in this way concerns only the initial excitation responsible for ablation, but does not yield information about the dynamics of the way this excitation ...

  13. Simulation of ablation and plume dynamics under femtosecond double-pulse laser irradiation of aluminum: Comparison of atomistic and continual approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokin, Vladimir B.; Povarnitsyn, Mikhail E.; Levashov, Pavel R.

    2017-02-01

    We elaborated two numerical methods, two-temperature hydrodynamics and hybrid two-temperature molecular dynamics, which take into account basic mechanisms of a metal target response to ultrashort laser irradiation. The model used for the description of the electronic subsystem is identical for both approaches, while the ionic part is defined by an equation of state in hydrodynamics and by an interatomic potential in molecular dynamics. Since the phase diagram of the equation of state and corresponding potential match reasonably well, the dynamics of laser ablation obtained by both methods is quite similar. This correspondence can be considered as a first step towards the development of a self-consistent combined model. Two important processes are highlighted in simulations of double-pulse ablation: (1) the crater depth decrease as a result of recoil flux formation in the nascent plume when the delay between the pulses increases; (2) the plume reheating by the second pulse that gives rise to two- three-fold growth of the electron temperature with the delay varying from 0 to 200 ps.

  14. Characteristics of colloidal aluminum nanoparticles prepared by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation in deionized water in presence of parallel external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdieh, Mohammad Hossein; Mozaffari, Hossein

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate experimentally the effect of electric field on the size, optical properties and crystal structure of colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) of aluminum prepared by nanosecond Pulsed Laser Ablation (PLA) in deionized water. The experiments were conducted for two different conditions, with and without the electric field parallel to the laser beam path and the results were compared. To study the influence of electric field, two polished parallel aluminum metals plates perpendicular to laser beam path were used as the electrodes. The NPs were synthesized for target in negative, positive and neutral polarities. The colloidal nanoparticles were characterized using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that initial charge on the target has strong effect on the size properties and concentration of the synthesized nanoparticles. The XRD patterns show that the structure of produced NPs with and without presence of electric field is Boehmite (AlOOH).

  15. Fabrication and investigation of 1D and 2D structures in LiNbO 3 thin films by pulsed laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriche, F.; Boudrioua, A.; Kremer, R.; Dogheche, E.; Neiss-Clauss, E.; Mouras, R.; Fischer, A.; Beghoul, M.-R.; Fogarassy, E.; Boutaoui, N.

    2010-09-01

    Lithium niobate thin films were deposited on sapphire substrate by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique. One and two dimensional structures have been made using a KrF excimer laser at 248 nm and 6 ns pulse width, under various conditions of ablation, in order to assess the applicability of laser direct-writing of photonic waveguides. The optical and waveguiding properties of LiNbO 3 thin films were studied by prism-coupling technique, while micro-Raman spectroscopy was used for structural and composition characterization, as well as laser processing mechanism investigation. The surface morphology of the processed structures was obtained by a Nomarski optical microscope, an atomic force microscope and a White Light Interferometer Microscope.

  16. Excimer laser ablation of thin titanium oxide films on glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overschelde, O. van [Condensed Matter Physics Group, University of Mons-Hainaut, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Dinu, S. [University of ' Valahia' , Targoviste (Romania); Guisbiers, G. [Condensed Matter Physics Group, University of Mons-Hainaut, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Monteverde, F. [Materia Nova, Unit of Electronic Microscopy, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Nouvellon, C. [Materia Nova, Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Wautelet, M. [Condensed Matter Physics Group, University of Mons-Hainaut, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)]. E-mail: michel.wautelet@umh.ac.be

    2006-04-30

    Thin titanium dioxide films are deposited on glass substrates by magnetron sputter deposition. They are irradiated in air, by means of a KrF excimer laser. The ablation rate is measured as a function of the laser fluence per pulse, F, and of the number of pulses, N. Above a fluence threshold, the films are partially ablated. The ablated thickness does not vary linearly with N. This is the signature of a negative feedback between the film thickness and the ablation rate. The origin of this negative feedback is shown to be due to either thermal or electronic effects, or both. At high F, the film detachs from the substrate.

  17. Subpicosecond and picosecond laser ablation of dental enamel: comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Andrei V.; Madsen, Nathan R.; Kolev, Vesselin Z.; Gamaly, Eugene G.; Luther-Davies, Barry; Dawes, Judith M.; Chan, A.

    2004-06-01

    We report the use of sub-picosecond near-IR and ps UV pulsed lasers for precision ablation of freshly extracted human teeth. The sub-picosecond laser wavelength was ~800nm, with pulsewidth 150 fs and pulse repetition rate of 1kHz; the UV laser produced 10 ps pulses at 266 nm with pulse rate of ~1.2x105 pulses/s; both lasers produced ~1 W of output energy, and the laser fluence was kept at the same level of 10-25 J/cm2. Laser radiation from both laser were effectively absorbed in the teeth enamel, but the mechanisms of absorption were radically different: the near-IR laser energy was absorbed in a plasma layer formed through the optical breakdown mechanism initiated by multiphoton absorption, while the UV-radiation was absorbed due to molecular photodissociation of the enamel and conventional thermal deposition. The rise in the intrapulpal temperature was monitored by embedded thermocouples, and was shown to remain low with subpicosecond laser pulses, but risen up to 30°C, well above the 5°C pain level with the UV-laser. This study demonstrates the potential for ultra-short-pulsed lasers to precision and painless ablation of dental enamel, and indicated the optimal combination of laser parameters in terms of pulse energy, duration, intensity, and repetition rate, required for the laser ablation rates comparable to that of mechanical drill.

  18. Laser ablation in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Richard E; Mao, Xianglei; Gonzalez, Jhanis J; Zorba, Vassilia; Yoo, Jong

    2013-07-02

    In 2002, we wrote an Analytical Chemistry feature article describing the Physics of Laser Ablation in Microchemical Analysis. In line with the theme of the 2002 article, this manuscript discusses current issues in fundamental research, applications based on detecting photons at the ablation site (LIBS and LAMIS) and by collecting particles for excitation in a secondary source (ICP), and directions for the technology.

  19. Development of a fiber-optic laser delivery system capable of delivering 213 and 266 nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation for tissue ablation in a fluid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joe; Yu, Xiao-Bo; Yu, Paula K; Cringle, Stephen J; Yu, Dao-Yi

    2011-02-20

    Ultraviolet (UV) lasers have the capability to precisely remove tissue via ablation; however, due to strong absorption of the applicable portion the UV spectrum, their surgical use is currently limited to extraocular applications at the air/tissue boundary. Here we report the development and characterization of a fiber-optic laser delivery system capable of outputting high-fluence UV laser pulses to internal tissue surfaces. The system has been developed with a view to intraocular surgical applications and has been demonstrated to ablate ocular tissue at the fluid/tissue boundary. The fifth (213 nm) and fourth(266 nm) harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser were launched into optical fibers using a hollow glass taper to concentrate the beam. Standard and modified silica/silica optical fibers were used, all commercially available. The available energy and fluence as a function of optical fiber length was evaluated and maximized. The maximum fluence available to ablate tissue was affected by the wavelength dependence of the fiber transmission; this maximum fluence was greater for 266 nm pulses (8.4 J/cm2) than for 213 nm pulses (1.4 J/cm2). The type of silica/silica optical fiber used did not affect the transmission efficiency of 266 nm pulses, but transmission of 213 nm pulses was significantly greater through modified silica/silica optical fiber. The optical fiber transmission efficiency of 213 nm pulses decreased as a function of number of pulses transmitted, whereas the transmission efficiency of 266 nm radiation was unchanged. Single pulses have been used to ablate fresh porcine ocular tissue. In summary, we report a method for delivering the fifth (213 nm) and fourth (266 nm) harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser to the surface of immersed tissue, the reliability and stability of the system has been characterized, and proof of concept via tissue ablation of porcine ocular tissue demonstrates the potential for the intraocular surgical application of this

  20. Physical processes of laser tissue ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furzikov, Nickolay P.

    1991-05-01

    The revised ablation model applicable to homogeneous tissues is presented. It is based on the thermal mechanism and involves the instability of the laserinduced evaporation (thermodestruction) front the growth of the surface ripple structure the interference of the laser wave and of the surface wave arising by diffraction on the ripples Beer''s law violation the pulsed thermodestruction of the organic structural component the tissue water boiling and gas dynamic expansion of the resulting products into the surrounding medium which is followed by the shock wave formation. The UV and IR ablation schemes were implemented and compared to the corneal ablation experiments. The initial ablation pressure and temperature are given restored from the timeofflight measurements of the supersonic expansion of the product. 1.

  1. ZnO nanoparticles obtained by pulsed laser ablation and their composite with cotton fabric: Preparation and study of antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svetlichnyi, Valery; Shabalina, Anastasiia, E-mail: shabalinaav@gmail.com; Lapin, Ivan; Goncharova, Daria; Nemoykina, Anna

    2016-05-30

    Highlights: • ZnO nanoparticles obtained by pulsed laser ablation exhibit antibacterial activity. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Zn{sup 2+} are not responsible for antibacterial activity of obtained zinc oxide. • Nano-ZnO/cotton fabric composite is a promising material for antibacterial bandage. - Abstract: A simple deposition method was used to prepare a ZnO/cotton fabric composite from water and ethanol dispersions of ZnO nanoparticles obtained by the pulsed laser ablation method. The structure and composition of the nanoparticles from dispersions and as-prepared composites were studied using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and spectroscopy. The nanoparticles and composite obtained exhibited antibacterial activity to three different pathogenic microorganisms—Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. An attempt to understand a mechanism of bactericidal effect of ZnO nanoparticles was made. It was shown that zinc ions and hydrogen peroxide were not responsible for antibacterial activity of the particles and the composite, and surface properties of nanoparticles played an important role in antibacterial activity of zinc oxide. The proposed composite is a promising material for use as an antibacterial bandage.

  2. Hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol at room temperature: Boosting palladium nanocrystals efficiency by coupling with copper via liquid phase pulsed laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanbit; Reddy, D. Amaranatha; Kim, Yujin; Lee, Seunghee; Ma, Rory; Lim, Manho; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2017-04-01

    Ultra-dispersed bimetallic nanomaterials have attracted much attention in the hydrogenation of highly toxic aromatic nitro compounds to aromatic amines owing to their high stability, superior activity, reusability, and unique optical and electronic properties, as compared to monometalic nanocrystals. However, the lack of facile and economically controllable strategies of producing highly pure ultra-dispersed bimetallic nanocatalysts limits their practical industrial applications. Considering the above obstacles, we present a simple and effective strategy for the formation of bimetallic (PdCu) nanocrystals by liquid phase pulsed laser ablation using a bulk Pd metal plate submerged in CuCl2 solutions with different concentrations, in contrast to the complex and costly experimental methods used previously. The microstructural and optical properties of the synthesized nanocrystals indicate that the obtained bimetallic nanostructures are highly pure and monodispersed. Moreover, bimetallic PdCu nanostructures show a higher catalytic activity than monometallic Pd nanocrystals for the hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol at room temperature, also exhibiting high stability for up to four recycles. The mechanism of the enhanced catalytic activity and stability of bimetallic nanocrystals is discussed in detail. Finally, we believe that the presented design strategy and utilization of bimetallic nanocrystals for catalytic applications enables the development of novel bimetallic nanostructures by liquid phase pulsed laser ablation and their catalytic application for environmental remediation.

  3. Laser ablative fabrication of nanocrowns and nanojets on the Cu supported film surface using femtosecond laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchmizhak, A A; Vitrik, O B; Kulchin, Yu N

    2015-01-01

    Formation dynamics of the nanojets and nanocrowns induced on the surface of the Cu supported films of different thickness under the impact of tightly focused femtosecond pulses was studied in detail. We show that the single-shot fs-pulse irradiation of the 120-nm-thick Cu film results in formation of a single nanojet, which splits at increased pulse energy into two and then into a plurality of periodically arranged nanospikes eventually acquiring the form of the so-called nanocrown. The number of nanospike in the nanocrown was found to be linearly dependent on the pulse energy and nanocrown radius. The key role of subsurface boiling occurring on the metal film-substrate interface in the formation process of crown-like nanostructures was revealed by comparing the obtained results with the formation dynamics studied for thinner 60-nm and 20-nm-thick Cu films. In addition, the applicability of the fabricated nanostructures as low-cost substrate for photoluminescence signal enhancement of the organic dyes is also...

  4. Ultraviolet laser ablation of polyimide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R.; Braren, B.; Dreyfus, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Pulsed laser radiation at 193, 248, or 308 nm can etch films of polyimide (DuPont KaptonTM). The mechanism of this process has been examined by the chemical analysis of the condensible products, by laser-induced fluorescence analysis of the diatomic products, and by the measurement of the etch depth per pulse over a range of fluences of the laser pulse. The most important product as well as the only one condensible at room temperature is carbon. Laser-induced fluorescence analysis showed that C2 and CN were present in the ablation plume. At 248 nm, even well below the fluence threshold of 0.08 J/cm2 for significant ablation, these diatomic species are readily detected and are measured to leave the polymer surface with translational energy of ˜5 eV. These results, when combined with the photoacoustic studies of Dyer and Srinivasan [Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 445 (1986)], show that a simple photochemical mechanism in which one photon or less (on average) is absorbed per monomer is inadequate. The ablation process must involve many photons per monomer unit to account for the production of predominantly small (<4 atoms) products and the ejection of these fragments at supersonic velocities.

  5. Molecular effects of fractional ablative erbium:YAG laser treatment with multiple stacked pulses on standardized human three-dimensional organotypic skin models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Laurenz; Amann, P M; Marquardt, Y; Heise, R; Czaja, K; Gerber, P A; Steiner, T; Hölzle, F; Baron, Jens Malte

    2017-05-01

    The molecular changes in gene expression following ablative laser treatment of skin lesions, such as atrophic scars and UV-damaged skin, are not completely understood. A standardized in vitro model of human skin, to study the effects of laser treatment on human skin, has been recently developed. Therefore, the aim of the investigation was to examine morphological and molecular changes caused by fractional ablative erbium:YAG laser treatment on an in vitro full-thickness 3D standardized organotypic model of human skin. A fractional ablative erbium:YAG laser was used to irradiate organotypic human 3D models. Laser treatments were performed at four different settings using a variety of stacked pulses with similar cumulative total energy fluence (60 J/cm(2)). Specimens were harvested at specified time points and real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and microarray studies were performed. Frozen sections were examined histologically. Three days after erbium:YAG laser treatment, a significantly increased mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors (MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, TIMP1, and TIMP2), chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL5, and CXCL6), and cytokines such as IL6, IL8, and IL24 could be detected. qRT-PCR studies confirmed the enhanced mRNA expression of IL6, IL8, IL24, CXCLs, and MMPs. In contrast, the mRNA expression of epidermal differentiation markers, such as keratin-associated protein 4, filaggrin, filaggrin 2, and loricrin, and antimicrobial peptides (S100A7A, S100A9, and S100A12) as well as CASP14, DSG2, IL18, and IL36β was reduced. Four different settings with similar cumulative doses have been tested (N10%, C10%, E10%, and W25%). These laser treatments resulted in different morphological changes and effects on gene regulations. Longer pulse durations (1000 μs) especially had the strongest impact on gene expression and resulted in an upregulation of genes, such as collagen-1A2, collagen-5A2, and collagen-6A2, as well as FGF2. Histologically, all treatment

  6. Direct laser interference ablating nanostructures on organic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Ding, Ran; Lu, Shi-Yang; Wang, Lei; Feng, Jing; Chen, Qi-Dai; Sun, Hong-Bo; Fang, Honghua

    2012-01-01

    Two-beam interference ablation of 1,4-Bis(4-methylstyryl) benzene organic crystal by short laser pulses (10 ns, 355 nm) is presented. The influence of laser fluence, interference period, and pulse number on the morphology have been studied. The morphology is closely associated with the molecular int

  7. Histologic and photonic evaluation of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser for ablation of subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Kota; Tanino, Ryuzaburo; Wakaki, Moriaki

    2006-12-20

    Although various lasers are available, few of them are applicable in liposculpture. Laser interaction with fat tissue has not also been well documented. The aim of our study was to gather basic data on laser absorption in fat tissue and to analyze the relationship between laser energy and lipolysis for development of a more effective laser system. The transmittance rate in human fat specimens was measured by a spectrophotometer to determine the optimum wavelength. The absorption coefficient was used to evaluate laser absorption at a wavelength of 1064 nm. Areas of heat degeneration and evaporation were measured by scanning electron microscopy. The relation between laser energy and the areas was analyzed statistically among low-power and high-power groups and controls. Energy dispersion at the fiber tip was investigated and analyzed statistically using the far field pattern. A graph of the absorption rate at wavelengths from 400 to 2400 nm showed a peak near 1700 nm and increases at wavelengths over 2000 nm. The formula gave as an absorption coefficient of 0.4 cm(-1), and involvement of the photo-acoustic effect and non-linear effect with short-pulse and high-peak energy was suggested. Findings of tissue evaporation, destruction, heat coagulation, and rupture of cell membrane were more frequently seen in irradiated specimens than in controls in scanning electron microscopy. The destroyed area in the low-power irradiated groups was significantly larger than that of controls in the statistical analysis. The affected area in the high-power irradiated groups was significantly larger than that of low-power specimens. Energy was concentrated at the tip with laser coherency. Energy at the oblique-cut tip was statistically lower than that at the normal tip, revealing that durability and maintenance of the fiber tip is essential to maintain energy levels in clinical practice. This study is the first to demonstrate the histologic and photonic relationship of energy absorption

  8. Optical extinction for determining the size distribution of gold nanoparticles fabricated by ultra-short pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torchia, G.A. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CIOp), La Plata (Argentina); Universidad de Salamanca, Servicio Laser, Salamanca (Spain); Scaffardi, L.B. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CIOp), La Plata (Argentina); Universidad Nacional La Plata, Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, La Plata (Argentina); Mendez, C.; Moreno, P.; Roso, L. [Universidad de Salamanca, Servicio Laser, Salamanca (Spain); Tocho, J.O. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CIOp), La Plata (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, La Plata (Argentina)

    2008-12-15

    This work presents a method, based on measurements of the optical extinction spectra, to determine the size of spherical gold nanoparticles produced using the femtosecond laser ablation process in deionized water. By using an improved theoretical model that modifies the contribution of the free electrons to the dielectric function introducing a size-dependent term, it is possible to fit the full experimental extinction spectrum considering a certain size distribution. Additionally, in order to obtain complementary measurements of the size distribution, TEM analysis was performed. The results obtained showed that the predominant nanoparticle size distribution ranges from 1 to 11 nm in terms of radii. An optical extinction measurement together with an appropriate theoretical model based on Mie's theory represents a simple, low-cost, fast and easy method to describe a multimodal size distribution of spherical gold nanoparticles. (orig.)

  9. Synthesis of Ag@Silica Nanoparticles by Assisted Laser Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castillo, Jr.; Rodriguez, E.; Jimenez-Villar, E.; Rodríguez, D.; Salomon-García, I.; de Sá, Gilberto F.; García-Fernández, T.; Almeida, DB; Cesar, CL; Johnes, R.; Ibarra, Juana C.

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of silver nanoparticles coated with porous silica (Ag@Silica NPs) using an assisted laser ablation method. This method is a chemical synthesis where one of the reagents (the reducer agent) is introduced in nanometer form by laser ablation of a solid target submerged in an aqueous solution. In a first step, a silicon wafer immersed in water solution was laser ablated for several minutes. Subsequently, an AgNO3 aliquot was added to the aqueous solution. The redox reaction between the silver ions and ablation products leads to a colloidal suspension of core-shell Ag@Silica NPs. The influence of the laser pulse energy, laser wavelength, ablation time, and Ag+ concentration on the size and optical properties of the Ag@Silica NPs was investigated. Furthermore, the colloidal suspensions were studied by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM).

  10. Characterization of charge and kinetic energy distribution of ions emitted during nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of several metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogar, A. H.; Ullah, S.; Qayyum, H.; Rehman, Z. U.; Qayyum, A.

    2017-09-01

    The ion flux from various metals (Al, Ti, Cu, Sn and W) ablated with 20 ns Nd:YAG laser radiation at a wavelength of 1064 nm was investigated by an ion collector operating in time-of-flight (TOF) configuration. The laser irradiance at the target was varied in the range of 1.7  ×  108–5.73  ×  108 W cm‑2. Ion yield from various metals showed a linearly increasing trend with increasing laser irradiance, whereas ion yield was found to decrease with an increasing atomic mass of the target. Our results clearly indicate that ion yield is not a function of the volatility of the metal. TOF ion spectra showed at least two groups of low intensity peaks due to fast ions. The first group of ion peaks, which was present in the spectra of all five metals, was due to surface contamination. The additional fast ion structures in the spectra of Sn and W can be related to the ion acceleration due to the prompt electron emission from these high-Z metals. The ion velocity follows the anticipated inverse square root dependence on the ion mass. For the range of laser irradiance investigated here, the most probable energy of the Cu ions increases from about 100–600 eV. The fast increase in ion energy above ~3  ×  108 W cm‑2 is related to the increase of the Columb part of the ion energy due to the production of multiply charged ions.

  11. Femtosecond-laser ablation dynamics of dielectrics: basics and applications for thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, P.; Schou, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Laser ablation of dielectrics by ultrashort laser pulses is reviewed. The basic interaction between ultrashort light pulses and the dielectric material is described, and different approaches to the modeling of the femtosecond ablation dynamics are reviewed. Material excitation by ultrashort laser...

  12. Fabrication of CVD graphene-based devices via laser ablation for wafer-scale characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, David; Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Whelan, Patrick Rebsdorf;

    2015-01-01

    Selective laser ablation of a wafer-scale graphene film is shown to provide flexible, high speed (1 wafer/hour) device fabrication while avoiding the degradation of electrical properties associated with traditional lithographic methods. Picosecond laser pulses with single pulse peak fluences of 140......-effect mobility, doping level, on–off ratio, and conductance minimum before and after laser ablation fabrication....

  13. Modeling of multi-burst mode pico-second laser ablation for improved material removal rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wenqian; Shin, Yung C.; King, Galen [Purdue University, Center for Laser-based Manufacturing, School of Mechanical Engineering, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2010-02-15

    This paper deals with the unique phenomena occurring during the multi-burst mode picosecond (ps) laser ablation of metals through modeling and experimental studies. The two-temperature model (TTM) is used and expanded to calculate the ablation depth in the multi-burst mode. A nonlinear increment of ablation volume is found during the multi-burst laser ablation. The deactivation of ablated material and the application of temperature-dependent electron-phonon coupling are demonstrated to be important to provide reliable results. The simulation results based on this expanded laser ablation model are experimentally validated. A significant increase of ablation rate is found in the multi-burst mode, compared with the single-pulse mode under the same total fluence. This numerical model provides a physical perspective into the energy transport process during multi-burst laser ablation and can be used to study the pulse-to-pulse separation time effect on the ablation rate. (orig.)

  14. Modeling of multi-burst mode pico-second laser ablation for improved material removal rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenqian; Shin, Yung C.; King, Galen

    2010-02-01

    This paper deals with the unique phenomena occurring during the multi-burst mode picosecond (ps) laser ablation of metals through modeling and experimental studies. The two-temperature model (TTM) is used and expanded to calculate the ablation depth in the multi-burst mode. A nonlinear increment of ablation volume is found during the multi-burst laser ablation. The deactivation of ablated material and the application of temperature-dependent electron-phonon coupling are demonstrated to be important to provide reliable results. The simulation results based on this expanded laser ablation model are experimentally validated. A significant increase of ablation rate is found in the multi-burst mode, compared with the single-pulse mode under the same total fluence. This numerical model provides a physical perspective into the energy transport process during multi-burst laser ablation and can be used to study the pulse-to-pulse separation time effect on the ablation rate.

  15. Ultrasmall, Ligand-Free Ag Nanoparticles with High Antibacterial Activity Prepared by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Kőrösi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times, silver and its compounds have been known to have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities for bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Due to the increasing bacterial resistance to classic antibiotics, the investigations of Ag NPs have increased. Herein, we present the preparation of ligand-free Ag NPs with 3 and 20 nm sizes by applying picosecond laser ablation in liquid at 355 and 1065 nm. Our laser processing system allows a high control on particle sizes. The produced nanoparticles were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The size effect on the antibacterial activity of Ag NPs was tested against E. coli and S. aureus. The growth curves of bacteria were monitored at 0–5 mg/L of Ag NPs by a multimode microplate reader. The size effects as well as the concentration of Ag NPs on their antibacterial activity are discussed.

  16. Growth and structure of fullerene-like CNx thin films produced by pulsed laser ablation of graphite in nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voevodin, A. A.; Jones, J. G.; Zabinski, J. S.; Czigany, Zs.; Hultman, L.

    2002-11-01

    The growth and structure of fullerene-like CNx films produced by laser ablation of graphite in low pressure nitrogen were investigated. Deposition conditions were selected based on investigations of CN and C2 concentration at the condensation surface, vibrational temperature of CN radicals, and kinetic energies of atomic and molecular species. Films were characterized with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, nanoindentation, and stress analyses. The nitrogen content in CNx films directly depended on the concentration of CN radicals at the condensation surface. Formation of fullerene-like structures required a high vibrational temperature of these radicals, which was maximized at about 4 eV for depositions at 10 mTorr N2 and laser fluences of approx7 J/cm2. The presence of C2 had only a minor effect on film composition and structure. Optimization of plasma characteristics and a substrate temperature of 300 degC helped to produce about 1-mum-thick solid films of CNx (N/C ratioapproximately0.2-0.3) and pure carbon consisting of fullerene-like fragments and packages. In contrast to carbon films, fullerene-like CNx films exhibited a high elastic recovery of about 80% in using a Berkovich tip at 5 mN load and indentation depths up to 150 nm. Their elastic modulus was about 160 GPa measured from the unloading portion of an indentation curve, and about 250 GPa measured with a 40 Hz tip oscillation during nanoindentation tests. The difference was related to time dependent processes of shape restoration of fullerene-like fragments, and an analogy was made to the behavior of elastomer polymers. However, unlike elastomers, CNx film hardness was as high as 30 GPa, which was twice that of fullerene-like carbon films. The unusual combination of high elasticity and hardness of CNx films was explained by crosslinking of fullerene fragments induced by the incorporated nitrogen and stored compressive stress. The

  17. Laser-induced surface ablation and optical damage of ZnS crystals caused by single- and multiple-pulse laser-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlinghaus, H. F.; Calaway, W. F.; Gruen, D. M.; Chase, L. L.

    Velocity distributions and yields of neutral Zn atoms emitted from laser-irradiated ZnS crystals at power densities far below the single-pulse damage threshold have been analyzed by high-resolution two-photon laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and also by electron impact ionization mass spectrometry. Large differences in the measured kinetic temperatures have been found between the single- and multiple-pulse laser irradiation experiments. The high-kinetic temperatures, obtained in multiple-pulse experiments, may be caused by cumulative surface modification, such as thermally-induced cracking, leading to a reduction of the thermal conductivity compared to the bulk value. Optical damage was related to the interaction of a plasma formed at a critical combination of particle density and laser intensity, with the surface.

  18. Hetero-epitaxial growth of the cubic single crystalline HfO 2 film as high k materials by pulsed laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinqiang; Tu, Hailing; Wang, Xiaona; Xiong, Yuhua; Yang, Mengmeng; Wang, Lei; Du, Jun

    2010-10-01

    We report a hetero-epitaxial growth of cubic single crystalline HfO 2 film on Si substrates as high k materials by pulse laser ablation (PLA) at 820 °C. To eliminate the interfacial defects, the HfO 2 film has then been annealed at 900 °C for 5 min in N 2. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) results indicate orientation of the HfO 2 film on Si substrates corresponding to (∥( and [∥[. An interface layer has been revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Through capacitance-voltage ( C- V) and current-voltage ( I- V), it has been obtained that the leakage current of the HfO 2 gate insulator with dielectric constant of 26 is 5×10 -6 A/cm 2 at -1 V.

  19. ZnO nanoparticles obtained by pulsed laser ablation and their composite with cotton fabric: Preparation and study of antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlichnyi, Valery; Shabalina, Anastasiia; Lapin, Ivan; Goncharova, Daria; Nemoykina, Anna

    2016-05-01

    A simple deposition method was used to prepare a ZnO/cotton fabric composite from water and ethanol dispersions of ZnO nanoparticles obtained by the pulsed laser ablation method. The structure and composition of the nanoparticles from dispersions and as-prepared composites were studied using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and spectroscopy. The nanoparticles and composite obtained exhibited antibacterial activity to three different pathogenic microorganisms-Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. An attempt to understand a mechanism of bactericidal effect of ZnO nanoparticles was made. It was shown that zinc ions and hydrogen peroxide were not responsible for antibacterial activity of the particles and the composite, and surface properties of nanoparticles played an important role in antibacterial activity of zinc oxide. The proposed composite is a promising material for use as an antibacterial bandage.

  20. Laser ablation and optical surface damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, L. L.; Hamza, A. V.; Lee, H. W. H.

    Laser ablation usually accompanies optical surface damage to bare surfaces and coatings. Investigations of optical damage mechanisms by observation of ablation processes at laser fluences very close to the optical damage threshold are described. Several promising surface characterization methods for investigating damage mechanisms are also described. The possible role of laser ablation in initiating or promoting optical surface damage is discussed.

  1. Laser ablation mechanisms and optical surface damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, L. L.; Hamza, A. V.; Lee, H. W. H.

    1991-05-01

    Laser ablation usually accompanies optical surface damage to bare surfaces and coatings. Investigations of optical damage mechanisms by observation of ablation processes at laser fluences very close to the optical damage threshold are described. Several promising surface characterization methods for investigating damage mechanisms are also described. The possible role of laser ablation in initiating or promoting optical surface damage is discussed.

  2. Laser ablation cell sorting in scanning cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Feimo; Price, Jeffrey H.

    2001-05-01

    Flow cytometry has been an important tool for automated cells sorting. However, the lack of good sensitivity prevents it from being used for rare events sorting; furthermore, fragile cells, anchorage-dependent cells, and clump forming cells cannot be sorted this way. A fully automated, high-speed scanning cytometer with autofocus and image segmentation is capable of accurately locating contaminant cells in a monolayer cell population. A laser ablation system was incorporated into the cytometer to negatively sort out the unwanted cells by applying a focused, ultra-short laser pulse (sub-micron diameter, pulse duration = 4 nsec, wavelength - 500 nm) to each targeted cell. Due to the high power density (approximately 1010 W/cm2) that was present at the focal point, disruptive mechanical forces were generated and were responsible for the kill. Fluorescently stained NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells were used as a model contaminant target ells in an unstained NIH-3T3 population to determine the identification-kill effectiveness. The contaminant cells were stained with the fluorochrome CellTracker Blue CMAC, whereas the background cells were left intact. Ablation pulses were applied in frame-by-frame increment batches to the cell culture on the microscope. The negative sorting effectiveness was analyzed by automatically re-scanning the post-ablation cell culture in phase contrast and propidium iodide stained epi fluorescent fields to verify cell death.

  3. Effects of Laser Energy Density on Size and Morphology of NiO Nanoparticles Prepared by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Rory; Reddy, M. Amaranatha; Kim, Tae Kyu [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Metaloxide nanoparticles are of great importance to a large variety of chemical and material applications ranging from catalysts to electronic devices. Among the metal-oxide nanoparticles, NiO is one of the technologically versatile and important semiconducting materials. It has been extensively investigated because of its myriad applications in catalysts, gas sensors, Li-ion battery materials, electrochromic coatings, active optical fibers, fuel cell electrodes, and so on. The effect of laser ablation at various laser energy densities was investigated. At low energy densities, the produced nanoparticles were of irregular morphology with an average size of 2.4 nm. At higher laser energy densities, the produced nanoparticles were spherical, with a polycrystalline structure and their average size was around 10 nm. More detailed investigations on effects of laser wavelength and energy density as well as the particle size effect on the catalytic activity of synthesized NiO nanoparticles will be investigated in future works.

  4. Laser ablation for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Brian C; Eklund, Peter C; Smith, Michael W; Jordan, Kevin C; Shinn, Michelle

    2012-11-27

    Single walled carbon nanotubes are produced in a novel apparatus by the laser-induced ablation of moving carbon target. The laser used is of high average power and ultra-fast pulsing. According to various preferred embodiments, the laser produces and output above about 50 watts/cm.sup.2 at a repetition rate above about 15 MHz and exhibits a pulse duration below about 10 picoseconds. The carbon, carbon/catalyst target and the laser beam are moved relative to one another and a focused flow of "side pumped", preheated inert gas is introduced near the point of ablation to minimize or eliminate interference by the ablated plume by removal of the plume and introduction of new target area for incidence with the laser beam. When the target is moved relative to the laser beam, rotational or translational movement may be imparted thereto, but rotation of the target is preferred.

  5. Laser ablation for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Brian C. (Inventor); Eklund, Peter C. (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin C. (Inventor); Shinn, Michelle (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Single walled carbon nanotubes are produced in a novel apparatus by the laser-induced ablation of moving carbon target. The laser used is of high average power and ultra-fast pulsing. According to various preferred embodiments, the laser produces and output above about 50 watts/cm.sup.2 at a repetition rate above about 15 MHz and exhibits a pulse duration below about 10 picoseconds. The carbon, carbon/catalyst target and the laser beam are moved relative to one another and a focused flow of "side pumped", preheated inert gas is introduced near the point of ablation to minimize or eliminate interference by the ablated plume by removal of the plume and introduction of new target area for incidence with the laser beam. When the target is moved relative to the laser beam, rotational or translational movement may be imparted thereto, but rotation of the target is preferred.

  6. Investigations on laser hard tissue ablation under various environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, H W [American Medical Systems-ICSV, San Jose, CA (United States); Oh, J [Division of Mechanical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Welch, A J [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States)], E-mail: wook.kang@ammd.com

    2008-06-21

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of liquid environments upon laser bone ablation. A long-pulsed Er,Cr:YSGG laser was employed to ablate bovine bone tibia at various radiant exposures under dry, wet (using water or perfluorocarbon) and spray environmental conditions. Energy loss by the application of liquid during laser irradiation was evaluated, and ablation performance for all conditions was quantitatively measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Microscope images were also used to estimate thermal side effects in tissue after multiple-pulse ablation. Wet using water and spray conditions equally attenuated the 2.79 {mu}m wavelength laser beam. Higher transmission efficiency was obtained utilizing a layer of perfluorocarbon. Dry ablation exhibited severe carbonization due to excessive heat accumulation. Wet condition using water resulted in similar ablation volume to the dry case without carbonization. The perfluorocarbon layer produced the largest ablation volume but some carbonization due to the poor thermal conductivity. Spray induced clean cutting with slightly reduced efficiency. Liquid-assisted ablation provided significant beneficial effects such as augmented material removal and cooling/cleaning effects during laser osteotomy.

  7. In situ Diagnostics During Carbon Nanotube Production by Laser Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepalli, Sivaram

    1999-01-01

    The preliminary results of spectral analysis of the reaction zone during the carbon nanotube production by laser ablation method indicate synergetic dependence on dual laser setup. The emission spectra recorded from different regions of the laser ablated plume at different delay times from the laser pulses are used to map the temperatures of C2 and C3. These are compared with Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) spectra also obtained during production to model the growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes. Experiments conducted to correlate the spectral features with nanotube yields as a function of different production parameters will be discussed.

  8. Inhibition of E. coli and S. aureus with selenium nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in deionized water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guisbiers G

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available G Guisbiers,1 Q Wang,2 E Khachatryan,1 LC Mimun,1 R Mendoza-Cruz,1 P Larese-Casanova,3 TJ Webster,2,4,5 KL Nash1 1Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, 2Department of Bioengineering, 3Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 4Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 5Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Nosocomial diseases are mainly caused by two common pathogens, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, which are becoming more and more resistant to conventional antibiotics. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly necessary to find other alternative treatments than commonly utilized drugs. A promising strategy is to use nanomaterials such as selenium nanoparticles. However, the ability to produce nanoparticles free of any contamination is very challenging, especially for nano-medical applications. This paper reports the successful synthesis of pure selenium nanoparticles by laser ablation in water and determines the minimal concentration required for ~50% inhibition of either E. coli or S. aureus after 24 hours to be at least ~50 ppm. Total inhibition of E. coli and S. aureus is expected to occur at 107±12 and 79±4 ppm, respectively. In this manner, this study reports for the first time an easy synthesis process for creating pure selenium to inhibit bacterial growth. Keywords: nosocomial disease, bacteria, antibiotics resistant, cytotoxicity

  9. Generation of NiO nanoparticles via pulsed laser ablation in deionised water and their antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashan, Khawla S.; Sulaiman, Ghassan M.; Hamad, Abubaker H.; Abdulameer, Farah A.; Hadi, Assel

    2017-03-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles were synthesised by nanosecond laser ablation in deionised water. Spherical NiO nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 2 to 21 nm were produced. The optical absorption spectra of the nanoparticles were measured using UV-VIS spectroscopy, and their size distribution was characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystalline material structures were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to obtain infrared spectra of the samples. The results show that crystalline NiO nanoparticles were produced. The antibacterial activity of the nanoparticles against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then examined. It was found that the NiO nanoparticles have a synergistic effect on inhibiting E. coli and S. aureus growth; this effect was also tested using the well-diffusion method. In this method, NiO nanoparticles at a concentration of 1000 µg ml-1 along with amoxicillin yielded an inhibition zone against E. coli of 14.3 ± 1.15 mm; this zone was 12.6 ± 0.57 mm against S. aureus. Therefore, from the present findings, it can be concluded that the efficiency of inhibiting bacterial growth could be improved by the addition of metal-oxide nanoparticles to amoxicillin in comparison with either pure amoxicillin or pure metal-oxide nanoparticles.

  10. Femtosecond laser bone ablation with a high repetition rate fiber laser source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Luke J; Alt, Clemens; Turcotte, Raphaël; Masek, Marissa; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Côté, Daniel C; Xu, Chris; Intini, Giuseppe; Lin, Charles P

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond laser pulses can be used to perform very precise cutting of material, including biological samples from subcellular organelles to large areas of bone, through plasma-mediated ablation. The use of a kilohertz regenerative amplifier is usually needed to obtain the pulse energy required for ablation. This work investigates a 5 megahertz compact fiber laser for near-video rate imaging and ablation in bone. After optimization of ablation efficiency and reduction in autofluorescence, the system is demonstrated for the in vivo study of bone regeneration. Image-guided creation of a bone defect and longitudinal evaluation of cellular injury response in the defect provides insight into the bone regeneration process.

  11. Proton-induced nanorod melting in a coating obtained from the pulsed laser ablation of W{sub 2}B{sub 5}/B{sub 4}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadadjeu Sokeng, I., E-mail: ifriky@tlabs.ac.za [Department of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering, French South African Institute of Technology/Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville Campus, PO Box 1906, Bellville 7530 (South Africa); Electron Microscopy Unit, University of the Western Cape, Private bag x17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Ngom, B.D. [Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa (UNISA), Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanofrabrication, Groupes de physique du Solide et Sciences des Matriaux (GPSSM), Facult des sciences et Techniques, Universit Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (UCAD), B.P. 25114 Dakar-Fann, Dakar (Senegal); Cummings, F. [Electron Microscopy Unit, University of the Western Cape, Private bag x17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Kotsedi, L. [Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa (UNISA), Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Msimanga, M. [iThemba LABS Gauten, Private Bag 11, WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); Maaza, M. [Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa (UNISA), Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); and others

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • Coatings from ablated B{sub 4}C/W{sub 2}B{sub 5} were irradiated with 900 keV protons. • Nanorod clusters were observed to melt and disperse. • Uniformly shaped nanorods were observed to grow. • Lateral diffusion of energy and lateral dispersion of matter were observed. - Abstract: Coatings obtained from pulsed laser ablated W{sub 2}B{sub 5}/B{sub 4}C were irradiated with 900keV protons at fluences ranging from about 1×10{sup 15}protons/cm{sup 2} to about 4×10{sup 15}protons/cm{sup 2}. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) were used to study the resulting structural effects. Clusters of nanorods were observed to disperse and reduce in number with increase in proton fluence. The atomic percentage of constituent elements were observed to vary with proton fluence, both within the nanorods and the film floor. Our results show that the structural effect of proton irradiation on the coating is lateral dispersion of matter.

  12. Transient Newton rings in dielectrics upon fs laser ablation

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Lechuga, Mario; Hernandez-Rueda, Javier; Solis, Javier

    2014-01-01

    We report the appearance of transient Newton rings in dielectrics (sapphire and lead-oxide glass) during ablation with single fs laser pulses. Employing femtosecond microscopy with 800 nm excitation and 400 nm illumination, we observe a characteristic ring pattern that dynamically changes for increasing delay times between pump and probe pulse. Such transient Newton rings have been previously observed in metals and semiconductors at fluences above the ablation threshold and were related to optical interference of the probe beam reflected at the front surface of the ablating layer and at the interface of the non-ablating substrate. Yet, it had been generally assumed that this phenomenon cannot be (and has not been) observed in dielectrics due to the different ablation mechanism and optical properties of dielectrics. The fact that we are able to observe them has important consequences for the comprehension of the ablation mechanisms in dielectrics and provides a new method for investigating these mechanisms in ...

  13. Selective ablation of rabbit atherosclerotic plaque with less thermal effect by the control of pulse structure of a quantum cascade laser in the 5.7 μm wavelength range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimura, Keisuke; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2016-03-01

    Cholesteryl esters are main components of atherosclerotic plaques and have an absorption peak at the wavelength of 5.75 μm originated from C=O stretching vibration mode of ester bond. Our group achieved the selective ablation of atherosclerotic lesions using a quantum cascade laser (QCL) in the 5.7 μm wavelength range. QCLs are relatively new types of semiconductor lasers that can emit mid-infrared range. They are sufficiently compact and considered to be useful for clinical application. However, large thermal effects were observed because the QCL worked as quasicontinuous wave (CW) lasers due to its short pulse interval. Then we tried macro pulse irradiation (irradiation of pulses at intervals) of the QCL and achieved effective ablation with less-thermal effects than conventional quasi-CW irradiation. However, lesion selectivity might be changed by changing pulse structure. Therefore, in this study, irradiation effects of the macro pulse irradiation to rabbit atherosclerotic plaque and normal vessel were compared. The macro pulse width and the macro pulse interval were set to 0.5 and 12 ms, respectively, because the thermal relaxation time of rabbit normal and atherosclerotic aortas in the oscillation wavelength of the QCL was 0.5-12 ms. As a result, cutting difference was achieved between rabbit atherosclerotic and normal aortas by the macro pulse irradiation. Therefore, macro pulse irradiation of a QCL in the 5.7 μm wavelength range is effective for reducing thermal effects and selective ablation of the atherosclerotic plaque. QCLs have the potential of realizing less-invasive laser angioplasty.

  14. [Moist ablation of the corneal surface with the Er:YAG laser. Results of optimizing ablation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bende, T; Jean, B; Matallana, M; Seiler, T; Steiner, R

    1994-10-01

    The Er:YAG laser, emitting light at 2.94 microns, may be an alternative to the 193 nm excimer laser for photorefractive keratectomy. Compared to the excimer laser, the ablation rate is very high. Surface roughness is also more pronounced than for the excimer laser. Using a precorneal liquid film, these two factors can be reduced, as shown in ablation experiments performed on porcine corneas. Thermal damage of the remaining corneal tissue is another side effect. There is no significant decrease in the amount of thermal damage with this new technique,--not even when the pulse length is reduced.

  15. Thermal effect on CFRP ablation with a 100-W class pulse fiber laser using a PCF amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuji; Tsukamoto, Masahiro; Matsuoka, Fumihiro; Ohkubo, Tomomasa; Abe, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-01

    An experimental study on CFRP processing is presented using a high-power pulsed fiber laser operated at a 1064-nm fundamental wavelength, a 100-W average power, a 1-MHz repetition rate, and a 10-ns pulse width under ambient air, a dry air jet, or a nitrogen gas jet. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy are conducted to measure the heat-affected zone (HAZ) quantitatively. Here, the HAZ is defined as the sum of the matrix evaporation zone (MEZ) and the resin alteration zone (RAZ). The MEZ, RAZ, and HAZ in air exceed 600, 2550, and 3150 μm, respectively. In the case of N2 gas jet, the MEZ, RAZ, and HAZ are 30, 88, and 118 μm, respectively. The results show that a nitrogen gas jet most effectively suppresses the HAZ by suppressing oxidization of the carbon fiber and cooling of heat accumulation. Additionally, the cutting speed with a dry air jet or a nitrogen gas jet increases by about 10% compared to that in ambient air.

  16. Formation of nanostructures under femtosecond laser ablation of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashitkov, S I; Romashevskii, S A; Komarov, P S; Burmistrov, A A; Agranat, M B [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhakhovskii, V V [All-Russian Institute of Automatics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Inogamov, N A [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-30

    We present the results of studying the morphology of the modified surface of aluminium, nickel and tantalum after ablation of the surface layer by a femtosecond laser pulse. The sizes of characteristic elements of a cellular nanostructure are found to correlate with thermo-physical properties of the material and the intensity of laser radiation. (superstrong light fields)

  17. Ablation dynamics in laser sclerotomy ab externo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Ralf; Droege, Gerit; Mohrenstecher, Dirk; Scheu, M.; Birngruber, Reginald

    1996-01-01

    Laser sclerostomy ab externo with flashlamp excited mid-IR laser systems emitting in the 2-3 micrometer spectral range is in phase II clinical trials. Although acutely high success rates were achieved, the restenosis rate after several months is about 40%. Laser pulses of several hundreds of microseconds, known to induce thermo-mechanical explosive evaporation were used for this procedure. We investigated the ablation dynamics in tissue and the cavitation bubble dynamics in water by means of an Er:YAG laser system to estimate the extent of mechanical damage zones in the sclera and in the anterior chamber, which may contribute to the clinical failure. We found substantial mechanical tissue deformation during the ablation process caused by the cavitation effects. Stress waves up to several bar generated by explosive evaporization were measured. The fast mechanical stretching and collapsing of the scleral tissue induced by cavitation resulted in tissue dissection as could be proved by flash photography and histology. The observed high restenosis might be a result of a subsequent enhanced wound healing process. Early fistula occlusions due to iris adherences, observed in about 20% of the clinical cases may be attributed to intraocular trauma induced by vapor bubble expansion through the anterior chamber after scleral perforation. An automatic feedback system minimizing adverse effects by steering and terminating the laser process during scleral fistulization is demonstrated. Moreover, a new approach in laser sclerostomy ab externo is presented using a cw-IR laser diode system emitting at the 1.94 micrometer mid-IR water absorption peak. This system was used in vitro and showed smaller damage zones compared to the pulsed laser radiation.

  18. Emission spectroscopy analysis during Nopal cladodes dethorning by laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Díaz, M.; Ponce, L.; Arronte, M.; Flores, T.

    2007-04-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy of the pulsed laser ablation of spines and glochids from Opuntia (Nopal) cladodes was performed. Nopal cladodes were irradiated with Nd:YAG free-running laser pulses on their body, glochids and spines. Emission spectroscopy analyses in the 350-1000 nm region of the laser induced plasma were made. Plasma plume evolution characterization, theoretical calculations of plasma plume temperature and experiments varying the processing atmosphere showed that the process is dominated by a thermally activated combustion reaction which increases the dethorning process efficiency. Therefore, appropriate laser pulse energy for minimal damage of cladodes body and in the area beneath glochids and spines can be obtained.

  19. Emission spectroscopy analysis during Nopal cladodes dethorning by laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena-Diaz, M; Ponce, L; Arronte, M; Flores, T [Laboratorio TecnologIa Laser, CICATA-IPN, Unidad Altamira, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Ind. Altamira, 89600, TAMPS (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    Optical emission spectroscopy of the pulsed laser ablation of spines and glochids from Opuntia (Nopal) cladodes was performed. Nopal cladodes were irradiated with Nd:YAG free-running laser pulses on their body, glochids and spines. Emission spectroscopy analyses in the 350-1000 nm region of the laser induced plasma were made. Plasma plume evolution characterization, theoretical calculations of plasma plume temperature and experiments varying the processing atmosphere showed that the process is dominated by a thermally activated combustion reaction which increases the dethorning process efficiency. Therefore, appropriate laser pulse energy for minimal damage of cladodes body and in the area beneath glochids and spines can be obtained.

  20. Investigation of excimer laser ablation threshold of polymers using a microphone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Joerg; Niino, Hiroyuki; Yabe, Akira

    2002-09-30

    KrF excimer laser ablation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyimide (PI) and polycarbonate (PC) in air was studied by an in situ monitoring technique using a microphone. The microphone signal generated by a short acoustic pulse represented the etch rate of laser ablation depending on the laser fluence, i.e., the ablation 'strength'. From a linear relationship between the microphone output voltage and the laser fluence, the single-pulse ablation thresholds were found to be 30 mJ cm{sup -2} for PET, 37 mJ cm{sup -2} for PI and 51 mJ cm{sup -2} for PC (20-pulses threshold). The ablation thresholds of PET and PI were not influenced by the number of pulses per spot, while PC showed an incubation phenomenon. A microphone technique provides a simple method to determine the excimer laser ablation threshold of polymer films.

  1. Investigation of excimer laser ablation threshold of polymers using a microphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Jörg; Niino, Hiroyuki; Yabe, Akira

    2002-09-01

    KrF excimer laser ablation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyimide (PI) and polycarbonate (PC) in air was studied by an in situ monitoring technique using a microphone. The microphone signal generated by a short acoustic pulse represented the etch rate of laser ablation depending on the laser fluence, i.e., the ablation "strength". From a linear relationship between the microphone output voltage and the laser fluence, the single-pulse ablation thresholds were found to be 30 mJ cm -2 for PET, 37 mJ cm -2 for PI and 51 mJ cm -2 for PC (20-pulses threshold). The ablation thresholds of PET and PI were not influenced by the number of pulses per spot, while PC showed an incubation phenomenon. A microphone technique provides a simple method to determine the excimer laser ablation threshold of polymer films.

  2. Mechanisms of Carbon Nanotube Production by Laser Ablation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Carl D.; Arepalli, Sivaram; Nikolaev, Pavel; Smalley, Richard E.; Nocholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We will present possible mechanisms for nanotube production by laser oven process. Spectral emission of excited species during laser ablation of a composite graphite target is compared with that of laser irradiated C60 vapor. The similarities in the transient and spectral data suggest that fullerenes are intermediate precursors for nanotube formation. The confinement of the ablation products by means of a 25-mm diameter tube placed upstream of the target seems to improve the production and purity of nanotubes. Repeated laser pulses vaporize the amorphous/graphitic carbon and possibly catalyst particles, and dissociate fullerenes yielding additional feedstock for SWNT growth.

  3. Facile synthesis of silicon carbide-titanium dioxide semiconducting nanocomposite using pulsed laser ablation technique and its performance in photovoltaic dye sensitized solar cell and photocatalytic water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondal, M. A.; Ilyas, A. M.; Baig, Umair

    2016-08-01

    Separation of photo-generated charge carriers (electron and holes) is a major approach to improve the photovoltaic and photocatalytic performance of metal oxide semiconductors. For harsh environment like high temperature applications, ceramic like silicon carbide is very prominent. In this work, 10%, 20% and 40% by weight of pre-oxidized silicon carbide was coupled with titanium dioxide (TiO2) to form nanocomposite semiconductor via elegant pulsed laser ablation in liquid technique using second harmonic 532 nm wavelength of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd-YAG) laser. In addition, the effect of silicon carbide concentration on the performance of silicon carbide-titanium dioxide nanocomposite as photo-anode in dye sensitized solar cell and as photocatalyst in photodegradation of methyl orange dye in water was also studied. The result obtained shows that photo-conversion efficiency of the dye sensitized solar cell was improved from 0.6% to 1.65% and the percentage of methyl orange dye removed was enhanced from 22% to 77% at 24 min under ultraviolet-visible solar spectrum in the nanocomposite with 10% weight of silicon carbide. This remarkable performance enhancement could be due to the improvement in electron transfer phenomenon by the presence of silicon carbide on titanium dioxide.

  4. Drilling of Copper Using a Dual-Pulse Femtosecond Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Wei Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The drilling of copper using a dual-pulse femtosecond laser with wavelength of 800 nm, pulse duration of 120 fs and a variable pulse separation time (0.1–150 ps is investigated theoretically. A one-dimensional two-temperature model with temperature-dependent material properties is considered, including dynamic optical properties and the thermal-physical properties. Rapid phase change and phase explosion models are incorporated to simulate the material ablation process. Numerical results show that under the same total laser fluence of 4 J/cm2, a dual-pulse femtosecond laser with a pulse separation time of 30–150 ps can increase the ablation depth, compared to the single pulse. The optimum pulse separation time is 85 ps. It is also demonstrated that a dual pulse with a suitable pulse separation time for different laser fluences can enhance the ablation rate by about 1.6 times.

  5. Dynamics of Laser Ablation in Superfluid ^4{He}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelna, X.; Popov, E.; Eloranta, J.

    2017-02-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of metal targets immersed in superfluid ^4{He} is visualized by time-resolved shadowgraph photography and the products are analyzed by post-experiment atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The expansion dynamics of the gaseous ablation half-bubble on the target surface appears underdamped and follows the predicted behavior for the thermally induced bubble growth mechanism. An inherent instability of the ablation bubble appears near its maximum radius and no tightly focused cavity collapse or rebound events are observed. During the ablation bubble retreat phase, the presence of sharp edges in the target introduces flow patterns that lead to the creation of large classical vortex rings. Furthermore, on the nanometer scale, AFM data reveal that the metal nanoparticles created by laser ablation are trapped in spherical vortex tangles and quantized vortex rings present in the non-equilibrium liquid.

  6. Influence of argon ambience on the structural, morphological and optical properties of pulsed laser ablated zinc sulfide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalana, S.R.; Vinodkumar, R.; Navas, I. [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram 695581, Kerala (India); Ganesan, V. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 017 (India); Mahadevan Pillai, V.P., E-mail: vpmpillai9@gmail.com [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram 695581, Kerala (India)

    2012-04-15

    Nanostructured zinc suplhide thin films are successfully deposited on quartz substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) under different argon pressures (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 Pa). The influence of argon ambience on the microstructural, optical and luminescence properties of zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films is systematically investigated. The GIXRD data suggests rhombohedral structure for ZnS films prepared under different argon ambience. Self-assembly of grains into well-defined patterns along the y direction is observed in the AFM image of the film deposited under argon pressure 20 Pa. All the films show a blue shift in optical band gap. This can be due to the quantum confinement effect and less widening of conduction and valence band for the films with less thickness and smaller grain size. The PL spectra of the different films are recorded at excitation wavelengths 250 nm and 325 nm and the spectra are interpreted. The PL spectra of the films recorded at excitation wavelength 325 nm show intense yellow emission. The film deposited under an argon pressure of 15 Pa shows the highest PL intensity for excitation wavelength 325 nm. For the PL spectra (excitation at 250 nm), the highest PL intensity is observed for the film prepared under argon free ambience. In our study, 15 Pa is the optimum argon pressure for better crystallinity and intense yellow emission when excited at 325 nm. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All the films prepared under argon ambience show the presence of rhombohedral phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All the films show a blue shift in optical band gap. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Film deposited at Ar pressure 20 Pa shows a self-assembly of grain in regular patterns. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL spectra of the films for excitation wavelength of 325 nm show an intense yellow emission.

  7. PbTe quantum dots grown by femtosecond laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E.; Biggemann, D.; Moya, L.; Pippo, W. A.; Moreira, R. S.; Silva, D.; Cesar, C. L.; Barbosa, L. C.; Schrank, A.; Souza Filho, C. R.; de Oliveira, E. P.

    2008-02-01

    Laser ablation (LA) is a thin film fabrication technique which has generated a lot of interest in the past few years as one of the simplest and most versatile methods for the deposition of a wide variety of materials. With the rapid development experienced in the generation of ultra short laser pulses, new possibilities were opened for the laser ablation technique, using femtosecond lasers as ablation source. It is commonly believed that when the temporal length of the laser pulse became shorter than the several picoseconds required to couple the electronic energy to the lattice of the material, thermal effects could not play a significant role. Since the pulse width is too short for thermal effects to take place, with each laser pulse a few atom layers of material are direct vaporized away from the target surface and a better control in the quantum dots (QDs) fabrication could be achieved. In this work we report the fabrication of PbTe QDs by femtosecond laser ablation of a PbTe target in argon atmosphere. Experiments were carried out using a typical LA configuration comprising a deposition chamber and an ultra short pulsed laser (100 fs; 30 mJ) at a central wavelength of 800 nm. PbTe was chosen because its QDs absorption band can be controlled by its size to fall in the spectral window of interest for optical communications (1.3-1.5 μm). This, together with the QD high optical nonlinearity, makes this material an excellent candidate for development of photonic devices. It was investigated the influence of the number of laser pulses in the formation of the nanoparticles. The structural parameters and the surface density of the nanoparticles were studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM).

  8. Wavelength scaling of silicon laser ablation in picosecond regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, A.; Grojo, D.; Sentis, M.

    2017-07-01

    Single pulse laser ablation of silicon has been investigated at 343, 515, and 1030 nm using a laser pulse duration of 50 ps. In this large spectral range, ablation thresholds of silicon vary from 0.01 to 0.83 J/cm2, confirming a strong dependence on the wavelength. By solving the free-carrier density rate equation at threshold conditions, we show that band-to-band linear absorption dominates energy deposition at 343 and 515 nm, whereas at 1030 nm, the energy leading to ablation is primarily absorbed by the generated free-carriers. This allows us to determine the relevant criteria to derive a simple model predicting the wavelength dependence of the ablation threshold in this regime. We obtain an excellent agreement between experimental measurements and calculations by simply considering an averaged energy density required in the absorption depth for surface ablation and accounting for the laser-induced variations of the important thermophysical parameters. On the basis of this analysis, we discuss the optimal wavelength and fluence conditions for maximum removal rate, ablation efficiency, and accuracy. Despite the difference in mechanisms at the different wavelengths, we find that the maximal efficiency remains at around 7 times the ablation threshold fluence for all investigated wavelengths. This work provides guidelines for high-quality and efficient micromachining of silicon in the scarcely explored picosecond regime, while new picosecond sources offer numerous advantages for real throughput industrial applications.

  9. Role of target-substrate distance on the growth of CuInSe{sub 2} thin films by pulsed laser ablation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawat, Kusum; Dhruvashi [Department of Electronics, Zakir Husain Delhi College, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110002 (India); Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Delhi 110021 (India); Shishodia, P. K., E-mail: shishodiaprem@gmail.com [Department of Electronics, Zakir Husain Delhi College, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110002 (India)

    2016-05-06

    CuInSe{sub 2} thin films have been deposited on corning glass substrates by pulsed laser ablation technique. The chamber pressure and substrate temperature was maintained at 1 × 10{sup −6} torr and 550°C respectively during deposition of the films. The influence of target to substrate (T-S) distance on the structural and optical properties of thin films have been investigated by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. The study reveals that thin films crystallized in a chalcopyrite structure with highly preferential orientation along (112) plane. Optimum T-S distance has been attained for the growth of thin films with large grain size. An intense Raman peak at 174 cm{sup −1} corresponding to dominant A{sub 1} vibration mode is gradually shifted to smaller wavenumber with the increase in T-S distance. The optical bandgap energy of the films was evaluated and found to vary with the T-S distance. The bandgap tailing was observed to obey the Urbach rule and the Urbach energy was also calculated for the films. Scanning electron micrographs depicts uniform densely packed grains and EDAX studies revealed the elemental composition of CuInSe{sub 2} thin films.

  10. Effect of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of nanostructured zinc oxide thin films prepared by pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinodkumar, R.; Lethy, K.J.; Beena, D.; Satyanarayana, M.; Nayar, V.U.; Mahadevan Pillai, V.P. [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Kariavattom 695581, Thiruvananthapuram (India); Jayasree, R.S. [Department of Radiology, Sree Chithra Tirunaal Institute of Medical Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (India); Ganesan, V. [Inter University Consortium for DAE Facilities, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 017 (India)

    2009-01-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) films are prepared by pulsed laser ablation, on an optically flat quartz substrate for different deposition time. The influence of annealing temperature, on the structural and optical properties of ZnO films is investigated systematically using X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectra, UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The XRD pattern shows that the as-deposited films are amorphous and the annealed films are polycrystalline. The average size of the crystalline grains varies from 9 to 26 nm in the films. The SEM and AFM images reveal uniform distribution of grains in the films and the grains are in the nanoscale dimension. Raman spectra suggest the hexagonal wurtzite phase for the ZnO films. The UV-visible spectra show an increase in transmittance with annealing temperature. The observation of very intense PL emission from the films annealed at 773 K, suggest the suitability of these films for applications as light emitters in the visible region. The ability to produce the stochiometric ZnO thin films with reproducible structural, morphological and optical characteristics should be useful as a suitable window material for practical industrial solar cell and display devices. (author)

  11. Effect of ZnO doping on the structural and optical properties of BaWO 4 thin films prepared using pulsed laser ablation technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Venugopalan Pillai; R Vinodkumar; V Ganesan; Peter Koshy; V P Mahadevan Pillai

    2010-12-01

    BaWO4 doped with ZnO (2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt%) nanostructured films are prepared on quartz substrates by pulsed laser ablation. The films are post annealed at 900°C. GIXRD analysis of the post-annealed films reveal the change of orientation of scheelite tetragonal crystal growth from 1 1 2 reflection plane to 0 0 4 planes when doping concentration is more than 3 wt%. The AFM images show that film with 7 wt% ZnO doping concentration has good ceramic pattern with surface features giving a minimum value of rms surface roughness suitable for optoelectronic device applications. The optical transmittance and band-gap energy of the films are found to decrease considerably on post-annealing which can be due to the increase in grain size of the crystallites on annealing. Thus doping with ZnO improves the surface features of the films and increases the optical band-gap energy.

  12. Synthesis of oxocarbon-encapsulated gold nanoparticles with blue-shifted localized surface plasmon resonance by pulsed laser ablation in water with CO2 absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, T.; Rey, N. A.; Rosado, T.; Landi, S.; Larrude, D. G.; Romani, E. C.; Freire Junior, F. L.; Quinteiro, S. M.; Cremona, M.; Aucelio, R. Q.; Margheri, G.; Pandoli, O.

    2016-06-01

    Colloidal suspensions of oxocarbon-encapsulated gold nanoparticles have been synthesized in a one-step procedure by pulsed-laser ablation (PLA) at 532 nm of a solid gold target placed in aqueous solution containing CO2 absorbers, but without any stabilizing agent. Multi-wavelength surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy allows the identification of adsorbed amorphous carbon and graphite, Au-carbonyl, Au coordinated CO2-derived bicarbonates/carbonates and hydroxyl groups around the AuNPs core. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis and high resolution transmission electron microscopy highlight the organic shell structure around the crystalline metal core. The stability of the colloidal solution of nanocomposites (NCs) seems to be driven by solvation forces and is achieved only in neutral or basic pH using monovalent hydroxide counter-ions (NaOH, KOH). The NCs are characterized by a blue shift of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band typical of metal-ligand stabilization by terminal π-back bonding, attributed to a core charging effect caused by Au-carbonyls. Total organic carbon measurements detect the final content of organic carbon in the colloidal solution of NCs that is about six times higher than the value of the water solution used to perform PLA. The colloidal dispersions of NCs are stable for months and are applied as analytical probes in amino glycoside antibiotic LSPR based sensing.

  13. Dynamics of pulsed laser ablation plasmas in high-density CO2 near the critical point investigated by time-resolved shadowgraph imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urabe, Keiichiro; Kato, Toru; Himeno, Shohei; Kato, Satoshi; Stauss, Sven; Baba, Motoyoshi; Suemoto, Tohru; Terashima, Kazuo

    2013-09-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) plasmas generated in high-density gases and liquids are promising for the synthesis of nanomaterials. However, the characteristics of such plasmas are still not well understood. In order to improve the understandings of PLA plasmas in high-density fluids including gases, liquids, and supercritical fluids (SCFs), we have investigated the dynamics of PLA plasmas in high-density carbon dioxide (CO2) . We report on experimental results of time-resolved shadowgraph imaging, from the generation of plasma plume to the extinction of cavitation bubbles. Shadowgraph images revealed that the PLA plasma dynamics showed two distinct behaviors. These are divided by gas-liquid coexistence curve and the so-called Widom line, which separates gas-like and liquid-like SCF domains. Furthermore, cavitation bubble observed in liquid CO2 near the critical point showed peculiar characteristics, the formation of an inner bubble and an outer shell structure, which so far has never been reported. The experiments indicate that thermophysical properties of PLA plasmas can be tuned by controlling solvent temperature and pressure around the critical point, which may be useful for materials processing. This work was supported financially in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (No. 21110002) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan.

  14. Solubility enhancement and epitaxial core-shell structure of Si-doped ZnO via a specific pulsed laser ablation route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chang-Ning; Chen, Shuei-Yuan; Zheng, Yuyuan; Shen, Pouyan

    2015-09-01

    Wurtzite (W)-type ZnO nanocondensates and particulates with enhanced solid solubility of Si4+ and special defect nanostructures were synthesized via pulsed laser ablation of Zn2SiO4/ZnO composite target under a relatively high peak power density of 1.4 × 1012 W/cm2 in high vacuum (3.5 × 10-5 torr). The nanocondensates were either dispersed in an amorphous Zn-O-Si phase as a composite sphere up to submicrons in size or coalesced by the {}, {}, and {} facets as unity and twin. The particulates tended to have an epitaxial 1D commensurate 2× (0002) superstructure (i.e., 1 × 1 × 2 superstructure in 3D) at the edge with enhanced Si4+ doping and the amorphous phase coverage. Such W-ZnO nanocondensates and particulates have modified Raman bands and photoluminescence due to internal compressive stress and overdoped Si4+ in substitutional and/or interstitial sites coupled with charge/volume compensating defects for potential optoelectronic and optocatalytic applications.

  15. Influence of reactive oxygen ambience on the structural, morphological and optical properties of pulsed laser ablated potassium lithium niobate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasree, V. [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, Kerala (India); Ratheesh, R. [Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology, Athani P. O, Thrissur, Kerala (India); Ganesan, V.; Reddy, V.R. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore Centre, Madhya Pradesh (India); Sudarsanakumar, C. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala (India); Pillai, V.P. Mahadevan [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, Kerala (India)], E-mail: vpmpillai9@rediffmail.com; Nayar, V.U. [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, Kerala (India)

    2008-11-28

    The effect of oxygen ambience on the structure and properties of potassium lithium niobate (K{sub 3}Li{sub 2}Nb{sub 5}O{sub 15}: KLN) films prepared on glass substrates by pulsed laser ablation technique (PLD) are studied. The influence of annealing on the properties of vacuum deposited films is also investigated. The Gracing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) data suggests the tetragonal structure for the KLN film whose grain sizes increase on thermal annealing. The Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) analysis reveals the four-fold symmetric nature of the grains in the films. Self assembly of grains in the form of rings and rods are observed in AFM images of the films deposited in an oxygen ambience of 2 Pa. The films deposited at higher oxygen ambience show a blue shift in optical band gap. The direct current (DC) resistance measurement on the films deposited at non-reactive ambience reveals resistivity in the range of k{omega} m.

  16. Production of nanoparticles from natural hydroxylapatite by laser ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutinguiza Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Laser ablation of solids in liquids technique has been used to obtain colloidal nanoparticles from biological hydroxylapatite using pulsed as well as a continuous wave (CW laser. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM measurements revealed the formation of spherical particles with size distribution ranging from few nanometers to hundred nanometers and irregular submicronic particles. High resolution TEM showed that particles obtained by the use of pulsed laser were crystalline, while those obtained by the use of CW laser were amorphous. The shape and size of particles are consistent with the explosive ejection as formation mechanism.

  17. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Diels, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2e serves as an introduction to the phenomena of ultra short laser pulses and describes how this technology can be used to examine problems in areas such as electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena combines theoretical backgrounds and experimental techniques and will serve as a manual on designing and constructing femtosecond (""faster than electronics"") systems or experiments from scratch. Beyond the simple optical system, the various sources of ultrashort pulses are presented, again with emphasis on the basic

  18. A comparison of the characteristics of excimer and femtosecond laser ablation of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Tian Long; Liu, Zhu; Li, Lin; Zhong, Xiang Li

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the ablation characteristics of excimer laser (λ = 248 nm, τ = 15 ns) and femtosecond laser (λ = 800 nm, τ = 100 fs) on ABS polymer sheets. The laser-material interaction parameters (ablation threshold, optical penetration depth and incubation factor) and the changes in material chemical properties were evaluated and compared between the two lasers. The work shows that the ablation threshold and effective optical penetration depth values are dependent on the wavelength of laser beam (photon energy) and the pulse width. The ablation threshold value is lower for the excimer laser ablation of ABS (Fth = 0.087 J/cm2) than that for the femtosecond laser ablation of ABS (Fth = 1.576 J/cm2), demonstrating a more dominating role of laser wavelength than the pulse width in influencing the ablation threshold. The ablation depth versus the logarithmic scale of laser fluence shows two linear regions for the fs laser ablation, not previously known for polymers. The effective optical penetration depth value is lower for excimer laser ablation (α-1 = 223 nm) than that for femtosecond laser ablation (α-1 = 2917 nm). The ablation threshold decreases with increasing number of pulses (NOP) due to the chain scission process that shortens the polymeric chains, resulting in a weaker polymeric configuration and the dependency is governed by the incubation factor. Excimer laser treatment of ABS eliminates the Cdbnd C bond completely through the chain scission process whereas Cdbnd C bond is partially eliminated through the femtosecond laser treatment due to the difference in photon energy of the two laser beams. A reduction in the Cdbnd C bond through the chain scission process creates free radical carbons which then form crosslinks with each other or react with oxygen, nitrogen and water in air producing oxygen-rich (Csbnd O and Cdbnd O bond) and nitrogen-rich (Csbnd N) functional groups.

  19. Nanosecond laser ablation and deposition of silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siew, Wee Ong; Tou, Teck Yong [Multimedia University, Faculty of Engineering, Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Yap, Seong Shan; Reenaas, Turid Worren [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Trondheim (Norway); Ladam, Cecile; Dahl, Oeystein [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim (Norway)

    2011-09-15

    Nanosecond-pulsed KrF (248 nm, 25 ns) and Nd:YAG (1064 nm, 532 nm, 355 nm, 5 ns) lasers were used to ablate a polycrystalline Si target in a background pressure of <10{sup -4} Pa. Si films were deposited on Si and GaAs substrates at room temperature. The surface morphology of the films was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Round droplets from 20 nm to 5 {mu}m were detected on the deposited films. Raman Spectroscopy indicated that the micron-sized droplets were crystalline and the films were amorphous. The dependence of the properties of the films on laser wavelengths and fluence is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Clean synthesis of YOF:Er3+, Yb3+ upconversion colloidal nanoparticles in water through liquid phase pulsed laser ablation for imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjana, R.; Kurias, K. M.; Jayaraj, M. K.

    2017-10-01

    Upconversion luminescent nanomaterials have great outlook towards imaging applications. These materials have high chemical and thermal stability, low auto fluorescence, high photo stability and IR excitation does not cause photo damage to living cells and penetrate deeply into tissue. Most of the reported nanoparticles are synthesized through chemical methods in which surface modification is needed for dispersing nanoparticles in water. In this paper we report clean and simple synthesis of upconversion luminescent yttrium oxyfluoride (YOF) nanoparticles through laser ablation in deionized water. YOF:Er3+, Yb3+ pellets were used for ablation. Er3+ is the emission centre Yb3+ is the sensitizer. Obtained colloidal solution is transparent to day light and showing red emission on exciting with 980 nm IR laser. By controlling ablation parameters particles of size less than 10 nm dispersed uniformly in water can be obtained through this surfactant free method. The synthesized nanoparticles can be used for cell imaging.

  1. Facile synthesis of silicon carbide-titanium dioxide semiconducting nanocomposite using pulsed laser ablation technique and its performance in photovoltaic dye sensitized solar cell and photocatalytic water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondal, M.A., E-mail: magondal@kfupm.edu.sa [Laser Research Group, Physics Department & Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Ilyas, A.M. [Laser Research Group, Physics Department & Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Baig, Umair [Laser Research Group, Physics Department & Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Center of Excellence for Scientific Research Collaboration with MIT, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • SiC–TiO{sub 2} semiconducting nanocomposites synthesized by nanosecond PLAL technique. • Synthesized nanocomposites were morphologically and optically characterized. • Nanocomposites were applied for the photocatalytic degradation of toxic organic dye. • Photovoltaic performance was investigated in dye sensitized solar cell. - Abstract: Separation of photo-generated charge carriers (electron and holes) is a major approach to improve the photovoltaic and photocatalytic performance of metal oxide semiconductors. For harsh environment like high temperature applications, ceramic like silicon carbide is very prominent. In this work, 10%, 20% and 40% by weight of pre-oxidized silicon carbide was coupled with titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) to form nanocomposite semiconductor via elegant pulsed laser ablation in liquid technique using second harmonic 532 nm wavelength of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd-YAG) laser. In addition, the effect of silicon carbide concentration on the performance of silicon carbide-titanium dioxide nanocomposite as photo-anode in dye sensitized solar cell and as photocatalyst in photodegradation of methyl orange dye in water was also studied. The result obtained shows that photo-conversion efficiency of the dye sensitized solar cell was improved from 0.6% to 1.65% and the percentage of methyl orange dye removed was enhanced from 22% to 77% at 24 min under ultraviolet–visible solar spectrum in the nanocomposite with 10% weight of silicon carbide. This remarkable performance enhancement could be due to the improvement in electron transfer phenomenon by the presence of silicon carbide on titanium dioxide.

  2. Ceramic dentures manufactured with ultrashort laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werelius, Kristian; Weigl, Paul

    2004-06-01

    Conventional manufacturing of individual ceramic dental prosthesis implies a handmade metallic framework, which is then veneered with ceramic layers. In order to manufacture all-ceramic dental prosthesis a CAD/CAM system is necessary due to the three dimensional shaping of high strength ceramics. Most CAD/CAM systems presently grind blocks of ceramic after the construction process in order to create the prosthesis. Using high-strength ceramics, such as Hot Isostatic Pressed (HIP)-zirconia, this is limited to copings. Anatomically shaped fixed dentures have a sculptured surface with small details, which can't be created by existing grinding tools. This procedure is also time consuming and subject to significant loss in mechanical strength and thus reduced survival rate once inserted. Ultra-short laser pulses offer a possibility in machining highly complex sculptured surfaces out of high-strength ceramic with negligible damage to the surface and bulk of the ceramic. In order to determine efficiency, quality and damage, several laser ablation parameters such as pulse duration, pulse energy and ablation strategies were studied. The maximum ablation rate was found using 400 fs at high pulse energies. High pulse energies such as 200μJ were used with low damage in mechanical strength compared to grinding. Due to the limitation of available laser systems in pulse repetition rates and power, the use of special ablation strategies provide a possibility to manufacture fully ceramic dental prosthesis efficiently.

  3. Hydrodynamic model for ultra-short pulse ablation of hard dental tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, R.A.; Bailey, D.S.; Young, D.A.; Alley, W.E.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Neev, J. [Beckman Laser Inst., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1996-02-29

    A computational model for the ablation of tooth enamel by ultra-short laser pulses is presented. The role of simulations using this model in designing and understanding laser drilling systems is discussed. Pulses of duration 300 fsec and intensity greater than 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2} are considered. Laser absorption proceeds via multi-photon initiated plasma mechanism. The hydrodynamic response is calculated with a finite difference method, using an equation of state constructed from thermodynamic functions including electronic, ion motion, and chemical binding terms. Results for the ablation efficiency are presented. An analytic model describing the ablation threshold and ablation depth is presented. Thermal coupling to the remaining tissue and long-time thermal conduction are calculated. Simulation results are compared to experimental measurements of the ablation efficiency. Desired improvements in the model are presented.

  4. VUV laser ablation of polymers. Photochemical aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castex, M. C.; Bityurin, N.; Olivero, C.; Muraviov, S.; Bronnikova, N.; Riedel, D.

    2000-12-01

    A photochemical theory of laser ablation owing to the direct chain scission process is considered in quite general form taking into account the modification of material. The formulas obtained can be used for estimating mechanisms of VUV laser ablation of polymers.

  5. Zinc nanoparticles in solution by laser ablation technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Singh; R Gopal

    2007-06-01

    Colloidal zinc metallic nanoparticles are synthesized using pulsed laser ablation of metal plate in an aqueous solution of suitable surfactant to prevent aggregation. UV-visible absorption, TEM, small angle X-ray diffraction and wide-angle X-ray diffraction are used for the characterization of colloidal zinc metallic nanoparticles. Colloidal nanoparticles are found highly stable for a long time.

  6. Precise femtosecond laser ablation of dental hard tissue: preliminary investigation on adequate laser parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikov, Todor; Pecheva, Emilia; Montgomery, Paul; Antoni, Frederic; Leong-Hoi, Audrey; Petrov, Todor

    2017-01-01

    This work aims at evaluating the possibility of introducing state-of-the-art commercial femtosecond laser system in restorative dentistry by maintaining well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also in overcoming disadvantages such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. Femtosecond ablation of dental hard tissue is investigated by changing the irradiation parameters (pulsed laser energy, scanning speed and pulse repetition rate), assessed for enamel and dentin. The femtosecond laser system used in this work may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, due to the expected effective ablation and low temperature increase when using ultra short laser pulses. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this system seems to be promising for promoting a laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach in restorative dentistry.

  7. Excimer Laser Pulse Compress With Pulse Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>To attain a shorter laser pulse, a compressing technique called pulse feedback was developed from the saturation gain switch applied to the amplification in a discharge pumping excimer laser cavity. It can

  8. Thermal melting and ablation of silicon by femtosecond laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I., E-mail: sikudr@lebedev.ru; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Bunkin, A. F.; Lednev, V. N.; Pershin, S. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-15

    The space-time dynamics of thermal melting, subsurface cavitation, spallative ablation, and fragmentation ablation of the silicon surface excited by single IR femtosecond laser pulses is studied by timeresolved optical reflection microscopy. This dynamics is revealed by monitoring picosecond and (sub)nanosecond oscillations of probe pulse reflection, which is modulated by picosecond acoustic reverberations in the dynamically growing surface melt subjected to ablation and having another acoustic impedance, and by optical interference between the probe pulse replicas reflected by the spalled layer surface and the layer retained on the target surface. The acoustic reverberation periods change during the growth and ablation of the surface melt film, which makes it possible to quantitatively estimate the contributions of these processes to the thermal dynamics of the material surface. The results on the thermal dynamics of laser excitation are supported by dynamic measurements of the ablation parameters using noncontact ultrasonic diagnostics, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical interference microscopy of the modified regions appearing on the silicon surface after ablation.

  9. Laser ablation production of Ba, Ca, Dy, Er, La, Lu, and Yb ions

    CERN Document Server

    Olmschenk, S

    2016-01-01

    We use a pulsed nitrogen laser to produce atomic ions by laser ablation, measuring the relative ion yield for several elements, including some that have only recently been proposed for use in cold trapped ion experiments. For barium, we monitor the ion yield as a function of the number of applied ablation pulses for different substrates. We also investigate the ion production as a function of the pulse energy, and the efficiency of loading an ion trap as a function of radiofrequency voltage.

  10. A comparison of the characteristics of excimer and femtosecond laser ablation of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    See, Tian Long, E-mail: tianlong.see@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The Mill, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Liu, Zhu [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The Mill, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Li, Lin [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Zhong, Xiang Li [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The Mill, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-28

    Highlights: • Ablation threshold for excimer laser is lower compared to femtosecond laser. • Effective optical penetration depth for excimer laser is lower compared to femtosecond laser. • Two ablation characteristic regimes are observed for femtosecond laser ablation. • Reduction of C=C bond following excimer or fs laser ablation is observed. • Addition of oxygen- and nitrogen-rich functional groups is observed. - Abstract: This paper presents an investigation on the ablation characteristics of excimer laser (λ = 248 nm, τ = 15 ns) and femtosecond laser (λ = 800 nm, τ = 100 fs) on ABS polymer sheets. The laser–material interaction parameters (ablation threshold, optical penetration depth and incubation factor) and the changes in material chemical properties were evaluated and compared between the two lasers. The work shows that the ablation threshold and effective optical penetration depth values are dependent on the wavelength of laser beam (photon energy) and the pulse width. The ablation threshold value is lower for the excimer laser ablation of ABS (F{sub th} = 0.087 J/cm{sup 2}) than that for the femtosecond laser ablation of ABS (F{sub th} = 1.576 J/cm{sup 2}), demonstrating a more dominating role of laser wavelength than the pulse width in influencing the ablation threshold. The ablation depth versus the logarithmic scale of laser fluence shows two linear regions for the fs laser ablation, not previously known for polymers. The effective optical penetration depth value is lower for excimer laser ablation (α{sup −1} = 223 nm) than that for femtosecond laser ablation (α{sup −1} = 2917 nm). The ablation threshold decreases with increasing number of pulses (NOP) due to the chain scission process that shortens the polymeric chains, resulting in a weaker polymeric configuration and the dependency is governed by the incubation factor. Excimer laser treatment of ABS eliminates the C=C bond completely through the chain scission process whereas

  11. Glass particles produced by laser ablation for ICP-MSmeasurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.; Liu, C.; Wen, S.; Mao, X.; Russo, R.E.

    2007-06-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (266nm) was used to generate glass particles from two sets of standard reference materials using femtosecond (150fs) and nanosecond (4ns) laser pulses with identical fluences of 50 J cm{sup -2}. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the collected particles revealed that there are more and larger agglomerations of particles produced by nanosecond laser ablation. In contrast to the earlier findings for metal alloy samples, no correlation between the concentration of major elements and the median particle size was found. When the current data on glass were compared with the metal alloy data, there were clear differences in terms of particle size, crater depth, heat affected zone, and ICP-MS response. For example, glass particles were larger than metal alloy particles, the craters in glass were less deep than craters in metal alloys, and damage to the sample was less pronounced in glass compared to metal alloys samples. The femtosecond laser generated more intense ICP-MS signals compared to nanosecond laser ablation for both types of samples, although glass sample behavior was more similar between ns and fs-laser ablation than for metals alloys.

  12. Angular distributions and total yield of laser ablated silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Nordskov, A.; Schou, Jørgen;

    1997-01-01

    The angular distribution of laser ablated silver has been measured in situ with a newly constructed setup with an array of microbalances. The distribution is strongly peaked in the forward direction corresponding to cospθ, where p varies between 5 and 9 for laser fluences from 2 to 7 J/cm2 at 355...... nm for a beam spot of 0.015 cm2. The total deposited yield is of the order 1015 Ag-atoms per pulse....

  13. New insight in the treatment of refractory melasma: Laser Q-switched Nd: YAG non-ablative fractionated followed by intense pulsed light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Paulo Rowilson; Pinto, Clovis Antonio Lopes; Mattos, Camila Bonati; Cabrini, Dayane Peverari; Tolosa, Joana Lugli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to verify the results of the association of Q-switched Nd: YAG non-ablative fractionated with intense pulsed light, in order to treat patients with refractory melasma. The combination of these two devices seems to be the best treatment to combat hyperpigmentation produced by melasma, with low occurrence of side effects, which may be justified by the selective photothermolysis at subcellular level.

  14. Femtosecond laser for cavity preparation in enamel and dentin: ablation efficiency related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Li, H.; Sun, Yc.; Wang, Y.; Lü, Pj.

    2016-02-01

    To study the effects of laser fluence (laser energy density), scanning line spacing and ablation depth on the efficiency of a femtosecond laser for three-dimensional ablation of enamel and dentin. A diode-pumped, thin-disk femtosecond laser (wavelength 1025 nm, pulse width 400 fs) was used for the ablation of enamel and dentin. The laser spot was guided in a series of overlapping parallel lines on enamel and dentin surfaces to form a three-dimensional cavity. The depth and volume of the ablated cavity was then measured under a 3D measurement microscope to determine the ablation efficiency. Different values of fluence, scanning line spacing and ablation depth were used to assess the effects of each variable on ablation efficiency. Ablation efficiencies for enamel and dentin were maximized at different laser fluences and number of scanning lines and decreased with increases in laser fluence or with increases in scanning line spacing beyond spot diameter or with increases in ablation depth. Laser fluence, scanning line spacing and ablation depth all significantly affected femtosecond laser ablation efficiency. Use of a reasonable control for each of these parameters will improve future clinical application.

  15. Near-field mapping by laser ablation of PMMA coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiutowski, Jacek; Maibohm, Christian; Kostiucenko, Oksana

    The optical near-field of lithography-defined gold nanostructures, arranged into regular arrays on a gold film, is characterized via ablation of a polymer coating by laser illumination. The method utilizes femto-second laser pulses from a laser scanning microscope which induces electrical field...... that the different stages in the ablation process can be controlled and characterized making the technique suitable for characterizing optical near-fields of metal nanostructures....... enhancements on and around the gold nanostructures. At the positions of the enhancements, the ablation threshold of the polymer coating is significantly lowered creating subdiffractional topographic modifications on the surface which are quantified via scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy...

  16. Near-field mapping by laser ablation of PMMA coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiutowski, Jacek; Maibohm, Christian; Kostiucenko, Oksana

    The optical near-field of lithography-defined gold nanostructures, arranged into regular arrays on a gold film, is characterized via ablation of a polymer coating by laser illumination. The method utilizes femto-second laser pulses from a laser scanning microscope which induces electrical field...... that the different stages in the ablation process can be controlled and characterized making the technique suitable for characterizing optical near-fields of metal nanostructures....... enhancements on and around the gold nanostructures. At the positions of the enhancements, the ablation threshold of the polymer coating is significantly lowered creating sub-diffractional topographic modifications on the surface which are quantified via scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy...

  17. UV-laser ablation of sensory cells in living insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhr, G.; Ronacher, B.; Krahe, R.; Fest, S.; Shirley, S. G.; Rogaschewski, S.

    An experimental set-up for applying pulsed UV-laser ablation to the integument of insects and the high precision of ablation is demonstrated. In order to test for possible detrimental effects on physiological responses, this technique was applied to the ears of migratory locust (Locusta migratoria L.). The handling of living insects, the survival, and physiological response after treatment are described. We selectively interrupted the d-receptor of the tympanal organ, which is the receptor system responsible for the locust's sensitivity in the high-frequency range (>10 kHz). The effects of the laser treatment were tested by determining hearing thresholds in electrophysiological recordings from the tympanal nerves. In agreement with the literature, the interruption of the d-receptors led to a significant shift towards higher values of the thresholds in the high-frequency range. Future perspectives and biological applications of UV-laser ablation are discussed.

  18. Ablation of boron carbide for high-order harmonic generation of ultrafast pulses in laser-produced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeev, R. A.; Suzuki, M.; Kuroda, H.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate the generation of harmonics up to the 27th order (λ=29.9 nm) of 806 nm radiation in the boron carbide plasma. We analyze the advantages and disadvantages of this target compared with the ingredients comprising B4C (solid boron and graphite) by studying the plasma emission and harmonic spectra from three species. We compare different schemes of the two-color pump of B4C plasma, particularly using the second harmonics of 806 nm laser and optical parametric amplifier (1310 nm) as the assistant fields, as well as demonstrate the sum and difference frequency generation using the mixture of the wavelengths of two laser sources. These studies showed the advantages of the two-color pump of B4C plasma leading to the stable harmonic generation and the growth of harmonic conversion efficiency. We also show that the coincidence of harmonic and plasma emission wavelengths in most cases does not cause the enhancement or decrease of the conversion efficiency of this harmonic. Our spatial characterization of harmonics shows their on-axis modification depending on the conditions of frequency conversion.

  19. Ablation Study of WC and PCD Composites Using 10 Picosecond and 1 Nanosecond Pulse Durations at Green and Infrared Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Gregory; Wegener, Konrad

    An ablation study is carried out to compare 10 picosecond and 1 nanosecond pulse durations as well as 532 nanometre and 1064 nanometre wavelengths at each corresponding pulse duration. All laser parameters are kept constant in order to understand the influence of pulse duration and wavelength independently. The materials processed according to the electronic band structure are a metal and an insulator/metal composite, i.e. tungsten carbide and polycrystalline diamond composite respectively. After laser processing said materials, the ablation rate and surface roughness are determined. Analysis into the ablation behaviour between the various laser parameters and the materials processed is given, with a particular emphasis on the graphitisation of diamond.

  20. UV Laser Ablation of Electronically Conductive Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-16

    deionized water. The polymerization solution for polyaniline was prepared by mixing equal volumes of a solution that was 0.25 M in ammonium persulfate with a...rum2,0 vvcsL) TbeUV.layer ablation of thin polypyrrole and polyaniline films coated on an insulating substrate is described. UV laser ablation is used to...11liiii929. 6 1 2:- A ABSTRACT The UV laser ablation of thin polypyrrole and polyaniline films coated on an insulating substrate is described. UV laser

  1. UV solid state laser ablation of intraocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, A.; Lagiou, D. P.; Evangelatos, Ch.; Spyratou, E.; Bacharis, C.; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    Commercially available intraocular lenses (IOLs) are manufactured from silicone and acrylic, both rigid (e.g. PMMA) and foldable (hydrophobic or hydrophilic acrylic biomaterials), behaving different mechanical and optical properties. Recently, the use of apodizing technology to design new diffractive-refractive multifocals improved the refractive outcome of these intraocular lenses, providing good distant and near vision. There is also a major ongoing effort to refine laser refractive surgery to correct other defects besides conventional refractive errors. Using phakic IOLs to treat high myopia potentially provides better predictability and optical quality than corneal-based refractive surgery. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of laser ablation on IOL surface shaping, by drilling circular arrays of holes, with a homemade motorized rotation stage, and scattered holes on the polymer surface. In material science, the most popular lasers used for polymer machining are the UV lasers, and, therefore, we tried in this work the 3rd and the 5th harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ=355 nm and λ=213 nm respectively). The morphology of the ablated IOL surface was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fei - Innova Nanoscope) at various laser parameters. Quantitative measurements were performed with a contact profilometer (Dektak-150), in which a mechanical stylus scanned across the surface of gold-coated IOLs (after SEM imaging) to measure variations in surface height and, finally, the ablation rates were also mathematically simulated for depicting the possible laser ablation mechanism(s). The experimental results and the theoretical modelling of UV laser interaction with polymeric IOLs are discussed in relation with the physical (optical, mechanical and thermal) properties of the material, in addition to laser radiation parameters (laser energy fluence, number of pulses). The qualitative aspects of laser ablation at λ=213 nm reveal a

  2. Laser sclerostomy by pulsed-dye laser and goniolens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latina, M.A.; Dobrogowski, M.; March, W.F.; Birngruber, R. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (USA))

    1990-12-01

    We describe an ab-interno laser sclerostomy procedure using the method termed dye-enhanced ablation with a slit-lamp delivery system and special goniolens such that only the laser light beam penetrates the anterior chamber. The procedure uses a microsecond-pulsed-dye laser emitting at 666 nm and iontophoresis of methylene blue dye (absorption of 668 nm) into the sclera at the limbus to enhance the absorption of the laser light. We compared the number of pulses needed to perforate excised human sclera at pulse durations of 1.5, 20, and 300 microseconds. Pulse durations of 1.5 and 20 microseconds required 20 pulses or fewer to perforate excised human sclera with pulse energies of 75 to 100 mJ. The ab-interno laser sclerostomy procedure was performed in 54 eyes of Dutch-belted rabbits with pulse durations of 1.5 or 20 microseconds and a 100- or 200-microns incident spot diameter delivered using a CGF goniolens. Full-thickness fistulas were successfully created at both pulse durations in approximately 80% of eyes treated. A range of three to 25 pulses was required to perforate sclera with slightly fewer pulses and lower pulse energies at 1.5 microseconds compared with 20 microseconds. There were no significant complications from the procedure. This technique could permit filtration surgery to be performed on an outpatient basis.

  3. Automated ablation of dental composite using an IR pulsed laser coupled to a plume emission spectral feedback system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Andrew T.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Dental composites are used as restorative materials for filling cavities, shaping, and covering teeth for esthetic purposes, and as adhesives. Dentists spend more time replacing existing restorations that fail than they do placing new restorations. Tooth colored restorations are difficult to differentiate from the surrounding tooth structure making them challenging to remove without damaging healthy tooth structure. Previous studies have demonstrated that CO2 lasers in conjunction with spectral feedback can be used to selectively remove composite from tooth surfaces. The purpose of this study is to assemble a system that is feasible for clinical use incorporating a spectral feedback system, a scanning system, articulating arm and a clinical handpiece and then evaluate the performance of that system on extracted teeth. In addition, the selectivity of composite removal was analyzed using a high-speed optical coherence tomography system that is suitable for clinical use. The system was capable of rapidly removing composite from small preparations on tooth occlusal surfaces with a mean loss of enamel of less than 20-μm.

  4. Precision machining of pig intestine using ultrafast laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Rainer J.; Góra, Wojciech S.; Carter, Richard M.; Gunadi, Sonny; Jayne, David; Hand, Duncan P.; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2015-07-01

    Endoluminal surgery for the treatment of early stage colorectal cancer is typically based on electrocautery tools which imply restrictions on precision and the risk of harm through collateral thermal damage to the healthy tissue. As a potential alternative to mitigate these drawbacks we present laser machining of pig intestine by means of picosecond laser pulses. The high intensities of an ultrafast laser enable nonlinear absorption processes and a predominantly nonthermal ablation regime. Laser ablation results of square cavities with comparable thickness to early stage colorectal cancers are presented for a wavelength of 1030 nm using an industrial picosecond laser. The corresponding histology sections exhibit only minimal collateral damage to the surrounding tissue. The depth of the ablation can be controlled precisely by means of the pulse energy. Overall, the application of ultrafast lasers to ablate pig intestine enables significantly improved precision and reduced thermal damage to the surrounding tissue compared to conventional techniques.

  5. Ablation of Submicrometer Holes Using an Extreme-Ultraviolet Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossall, Andrew K.; Aslanyan, Valentin; Tallents, Greg J.; Kuznetsov, Ilya; Rocca, Jorge J.; Menoni, Carmen S.

    2015-06-01

    Simulations and experiments are used to study extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) laser drilling of submicrometer holes. The ablation process is studied with a 2D Eulerian hydrodynamic code that includes bound-free absorption processes relevant to the interaction of EUV lasers with a solid material. Good agreement is observed between the simulated and measured ablated depths for on-target irradiances of up to 1×10 10 W cm-2 . An increase in the irradiance to 1×10 12 W cm-2 is predicted to ablate material to a depth of 3.8 μ m from a single pulse with a hole diameter 3 to 4 times larger than the focal spot size. The model allows for the simulation of the interaction of a laser pulse with the crater created by a previous shot. Multiple-pulse lower-fluence irradiation configurations under optimized focusing conditions, i.e., approaching the diffraction limit, are shown to be advantageous for applications requiring mesoscale [(100 nm )- (1 μ m ) ] features and a high level of control over the ablation profile.

  6. Laser wavelength effect on nanosecond laser light reflection in ablation of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, O.; de la Cruz May, L.; Mejia, E. B.; Ruz Hernandez, J. A.; Flores Gil, A.

    2016-12-01

    Reflection of nanosecond laser pulses with different wavelengths (1.06 and 0.69 µm) in ablation of titanium in air is studied experimentally. The laser wavelength effect on reflection is essential at low laser fluence values. However, it becomes negligible for laser fluence values by about an order of magnitude higher than the plasma ignition threshold. We speculate that the disappearance of the wavelength effect is explained by counter-acting processes of the laser light absorption in plasma, which increases with laser wavelength, and absorption in the surface layer, which decreases with increasing laser wavelength.

  7. Double nanosecond pulses generation in ytterbium fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiko, V. P.; Samokhvalov, A. A., E-mail: samokhvalov.itmo@gmail.com; Yakovlev, E. B.; Zhitenev, I. Yu.; Kliushin, A. N. [Saint-Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Kronverksky Pr. 49, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lednev, V. N. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov Str., 38, Moscow (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskyave., 4, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pershin, S. M. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov Str., 38, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    Double pulse generation mode for nanosecond ytterbium fiber laser was developed. Two sequential 60-200 ns laser pulses with variable delay between them were generated by acousto-optic modulator opening with continuous diode pumping. A custom radio frequency generator was developed to produce two sequential “opening” radio pulses with a delay of 0.2–1 μs. It was demonstrated that double pulse generation did not decrease the average laser power while providing the control over the laser pulse power profile. Surprisingly, a greater peak power in the double pulse mode was observed for the second laser pulse. Laser crater studies and plasma emission measurements revealed an improved efficiency of laser ablation in the double pulse mode.

  8. Analysis of fabric materials cut using ultraviolet laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Chih-Chung; Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Huang, Kuo-Cheng; Andrew Yeh, J.

    2016-04-01

    Laser ablation technology has widely been applied in the clothing industry in recent years. However, the laser mechanism would affect the quality of fabric contours and its components. Hence, this study examined carbonization and oxidation conditions and contour variation in nonwoven, cotton, and composite leather fabrics cut by using an ultraviolet laser at a wavelength of 355 nm. Processing parameters such as laser power, pulse frequency, scanning speed, and number of pulses per spot were adjusted to investigate component variation of the materials and to determine suitable cutting parameters for the fabrics. The experimental results showed that the weights of the component changed substantially by pulse frequency but slightly by laser power, so pulse frequency of 100 kHz and laser power of 14 W were the approximate parameters for three fabrics for the smaller carbonization and a sufficient energy for rapidly cutting, which the pulse duration of laser system was fixed at 300 μs and laser irradiance was 0.98 J/mm2 simultaneously. In addition, the etiolate phenomenon of nonwoven was reduced, and the component weight of cotton and composite leather was closed to the value of knife-cut fabric as the scanning speed increased. The approximate scanning speed for nonwoven and composite leather was 200 mm/s, and one for cotton was 150 mm/s, respectively. The sharper and firmer edge is obtained by laser ablation mechanism in comparison with traditional knife cutting. Experimental results can serve as the reference for laser cutting in the clothing industry, for rapidly providing smoother patterns with lower carbonization and oxidation edge in the fashion industry.

  9. Ablation of biological tissues by radiation of strontium vapor laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldatov, A. N., E-mail: general@tic.tsu.ru; Vasilieva, A. V., E-mail: anita-tomsk@mail.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, Lenin ave., 36, 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    A two-stage laser system consisting of a master oscillator and a power amplifier based on sources of self- contained transitions in pairs SrI and SrII has been developed. The radiation spectrum contains 8 laser lines generating in the range of 1 – 6.45 μm, with a generation pulse length of 50 – 150 ns, and pulse energy of ∼ 2.5 mJ. The divergence of the output beam was close to the diffraction and did not exceed 0.5 mrad. The control range of the laser pulse repetition rate varied from 10 to 15 000 Hz. The given laser system has allowed to perform ablation of bone tissue samples without visible thermal damage.

  10. Superhydrophobic/superoleophilic magnetic elastomers by laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milionis, Athanasios, E-mail: am2vy@virginia.edu [Smart Materials-Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Fragouli, Despina; Brandi, Fernando; Liakos, Ioannis; Barroso, Suset [Smart Materials-Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Ruffilli, Roberta [Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Athanassiou, Athanassia, E-mail: athanassia.athanassiou@iit.it [Smart Materials-Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • We report the development of magnetic nanocomposite sheets. • Laser irradiation of the nanocomposites induces chemical and structural changes to the surface. • The laser-patterned surfaces exhibit superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity. • The particle contribution in altering the surface and bulk properties of the material is studied. - Abstract: We report the development of magnetic nanocomposite sheets with superhydrophobic and supeoleophilic surfaces generated by laser ablation. Polydimethylsiloxane elastomer free-standing films, loaded homogeneously with 2% wt. carbon coated iron nanoparticles, were ablated by UV (248 nm), nanosecond laser pulses. The laser irradiation induces chemical and structural changes (both in micro- and nano-scale) to the surfaces of the nanocomposites rendering them superhydrophobic. The use of nanoparticles increases the UV light absorption efficiency of the nanocomposite samples, and thus facilitates the ablation process, since the number of pulses and the laser fluence required are greatly reduced compared to the bare polymer. Additionally the magnetic nanoparticles enhance significantly the superhydrophobic and oleophilic properties of the PDMS sheets, and provide to PDMS magnetic properties making possible its actuation by a weak external magnetic field. These nanocomposite elastomers can be considered for applications requiring magnetic MEMS for the controlled separation of liquids.

  11. Ablation studies using a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 micro-laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervolaraki, M.; Dyer, P. E.; Monk, P.

    We report an investigation of ablating several materials using a nanosecond pulse duration Nd:YVO4 micro-laser operating at wavelengths of 1064 and 532 nm and high pulse-repetition rate (ballistic pendulum measurements and scanning electron microscopy are used to characterise the interaction. It is shown that good-quality micro-scale features can be produced in polyimide, gold foils and silicon targets by ablation using this laser.

  12. Ultrashort pulse laser microsurgery system with plasma luminescence feedback control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.M.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Gold, D.M.; Darrow, C.B.; Da Silva, L.B.

    1997-11-10

    Plasma luminescence spectroscopy was used for precise ablation of bone tissue during ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) micro-spinal surgery. Strong contrast of the luminescence spectra between bone marrow and spinal cord provided the real time feedback control so that only bone tissue can be selectively ablated while preserving the spinal cord.

  13. 纳秒紫外重复脉冲激光烧蚀单晶硅的热力学过程研究%Investigation of thermodynamic progress of silicon ablated by nanosecond uv repetitive pulse laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包凌东; 韩敬华; 段涛; 孙年春; 高翔; 冯国英; 杨李茗; 牛瑞华; 刘全喜

    2012-01-01

    采用波长为355nm的纳秒紫外重复脉冲激光对单晶硅片进行了盲孔加工实验,观测了随脉冲增加激光烧蚀硅片的外观形貌和盲孔孔深、孔径的变化规律,并对紫外激光辐照硅片的热力学过程进行了分析.研究结果表明:紫外激光加工硅盲孔是基于热、力效应共同作用的结果,热效应会使得硅材料熔化、气化甚至发生电离产生激光等离子体,为材料的去除提供条件;激光等离子体冲击波以及高温气态物向外膨胀会对熔化材料产生压力致使其向外喷射,为重复脉冲的进一步烧蚀提供了条件;力效应主要沿着激光传输的方向,垂直于硅表面,使得去除部位主要集中在孔的深度方向,达到较高的孔径比,实验观察孔径比可达8:1;此外,激光等离子体的产生也阻止了激光对靶面的作用,加之随孔深的增加激光发生散焦,使得烧蚀深度有一定的限制,实验观察烧蚀脉冲个数在前100个时加工效率较高.%The blind holes processing experiment is conducted on the silicon under the radiation of a 355 nm nanosecond UV repetitive pulse laser. With the increase of the laser pulse number, the variations of the silicon morphology, the depth and aperture of the blind holes are observed, and the thermodynamic process of UV laser irradiating silicon is analyzed. The results show that the formation of the blind silicon hole in the laser ablation process is due to the interaction between thermal effect and force effect. Thermal effect results in fusion, vaporization and even producing laser plasma by ionization in silicon, which is essential to the removal of the material. The molten material is compressed by the plasma shock wave and the expansion of the high-temperature gaseous material,and then ejection outward, which will benefit the further ablation; the force propagates along the laser transmission direction,perpendicular to the silicon

  14. Pulsed inductive HF laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razhev, A M; Kargapol' tsev, E S [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Churkin, D S; Demchuk, S V [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-31

    We report the results of experimentally investigated dependences of temporal, spectral and spatial characteristics of an inductive HF-laser generation on the pump conditions. Gas mixtures H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF6{sub 6}) and He(Ne) – H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF{sub 6}) were used as active media. The FWHM pulse duration reached 0.42 μs. This value corresponded to a pulsed power of 45 kW. For the first time, the emission spectrum of an inductive HF laser was investigated, which consisted of seven groups of bands with centres around the wavelengths of 2732, 2736, 2739, 2835, 2837, 2893 and 2913 nm. The cross section profile of the laser beam was a ring with a diameter of about 20 mm and width of about 5 mm. Parameters of laser operation in the repetitively pulsed regime were sufficiently stable. The amplitude instability of light pulses was no greater than 5% – 6%. (lasers)

  15. Fabrication of gold nanoparticles in water by laser ablation technique and their characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haider, A.F.M.Y.; Sengupta, S.; Abedin, K.M.; Talukder, Aminul I. [University of Dhaka, Physics Department and Non-linear Optics and Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, Centre of Advanced Research in Sciences, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2011-11-15

    A colloidal solution of gold nanoparticles in deionized nanopure water was produced by laser ablation technique without the use of any chemical/surfactant. Spectral characterization and morphological studies of these nanoparticles were carried out by UV-Vis Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy, respectively. A number of variables of the ablating laser pulse have been used to control the size of the fabricated nanoparticles. Excellent correlation between ablating laser pulse parameter and optical and morphological parameters of the gold colloids were obtained. The peak of the extinction spectra shows a monotonic blue shift for laser fluence of 410 J/cm{sup 2} and above. Below this the extinction peak remains fairly constant in wavelength. Blue shifts of the extinction spectra were also observed with increasing re-ablation time of previously ablated gold colloids. Possible explanations of all these observations are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Picosecond laser ablation of poly-L-lactide: Effect of crystallinity on the material response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Rocio; Quintana, Iban; Etxarri, Jon [Manufacturing Processes Department, Fundacion TEKNIKER, Av. Otaola 20, 20600, Eibar, Guipuzcoa (Spain); Lejardi, Ainhoa; Sarasua, Jose-Ramon [Department of Mining and Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, School of Engineering, University of the Basque Country (EHU-UPV), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-11-01

    The picosecond laser ablation of poly-L-lactide (PLLA) as a function of laser fluence and degree of crystallinity was examined. The ablation parameters and the surface modifications were analyzed under various irradiation conditions using laser wavelengths ranging from the ultraviolet through the visible. When processing the amorphous PLLA, both energy threshold and topography varied considerably depending on laser wavelength. Laser irradiation showed a reduction in the energy ablation threshold as the degree of crystallinity increased, probably related to photomechanical effects involved in laser ablation with ultra-short pulses and the lower stress accommodation behavior of semicrystalline polymers. In particular, cooperative chain motions are impeded by the higher degree of crystallinity, showing fragile mechanical behavior and lower energy dissipation. The experimental results on ablation rate versus laser energy showed that UV laser ablation on semicrystalline PLLA was more efficient than the visible ablation, i.e., it exhibits higher etch rates over a wide range of pulse energy conditions. These results were interpreted in terms of photo-thermal and photo-chemical response of polymers as a function of material micro-structure and incident laser wavelength. High quality micro-grooves were produced in amorphous PLLA, reveling the potential of ultra-fast laser processing technique in the field of micro-structuring biocompatible and biodegradable polymers for biomedical applications.

  17. Electrical and optical properties of thin indium tin oxide films produced by pulsed laser ablation in oxygen or rare gas atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thestrup, B.; Schou, Jørgen; Nordskov, A.

    1999-01-01

    Films of indium tin oxide (ITO) have been produced in different background gases by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The Films deposited in rare gas atmospheres on room temperature substrates were metallic, electrically conductive, but had poor transmission of visible light. For substrate...

  18. Laser ablation of titanium in liquid in external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkov, A.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); The Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education, “Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University)”, 9 Institutskiy per., 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Barmina, E.V., E-mail: barminaev@gmail.com [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shafeev, G.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 31, Kashirskoye Highway, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Voronov, V.V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-01

    Highlights: • Ablation of a bulk Ti target by 10 ps laser pulses in liquid is experimentally studied in external DC electric field. • Applied cathodic bias leads to increase in average size of self-organized nanostructures formed upon ablation of titanium target. • Laser ablation of Ti target in external electric field results in generation of elongated titanium oxide nanoparticles. - Abstract: Ablation of a bulk Ti target by 10 ps laser pulses in water is experimentally studied in external DC electric field. It is demonstrated that both lateral size of nanostructures (NS) on Ti surface and their density depend on the electric field applied to the target. Scanning Electron Microscopy of NS reveals the shift of their size distribution function toward larger sizes with applied field (cathodic bias, 25 V DC). Density of mushroom-like NS with applied electric field amounts to 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}. X-ray diffraction of generated nanoparticles (NPs) shows difference in the crystallographic structure of NPs of non-stoichiometric Ti oxides generated with and without electric field. This conclusion is corroborated with the optical absorption spectroscopy of obtained colloids. Transmission Electron Microscopy of NPs also shows difference in morphology of particles produced with and without cathodic bias. The results are interpreted on the basis of instability of the melt on Ti surface in the electric field.

  19. Diagnostics of laser ablated plasma plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoruso, S.; Toftmann, B.; Schou, Jørgen;

    2004-01-01

    The effect of an ambient gas on the expansion dynamics of laser ablated plasmas has been studied for two systems by exploiting different diagnostic techniques. First, the dynamics of a MgB2 laser produced plasma plume in an Ar atmosphere has been investigated by space-and time-resolved optical...

  20. Elemental fractionation in 785 nm picosecond and femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaheen, M.E., E-mail: mshaheen73@science.tanta.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Gagnon, J.E.; Fryer, B.J. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research (GLIER), University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2015-05-01

    Elemental fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse width laser beams originating from the same laser system. Femtosecond and picosecond laser beams at pulse widths of 130 fs and 110 ps, respectively, and wavelength of 785 nm were used to ablate NIST 610 synthetic glass and SRM 1107 Naval Brass B at the same spot for 800 to 1000 laser pulses at different repetition rates (5 to 50 Hz). Elemental fractionation was found to depend on repetition rate and showed a trend with femtosecond laser ablation that is opposite to that observed in picosecond laser ablation for most measured isotopes. ICP-MS signal intensity was higher in femtosecond than picosecond LA-ICP-MS in both NIST 610 and naval brass when ablation was conducted under the same fluence and repetition rate. The differences in signal intensity were partly related to differences in particle size distribution between particles generated by femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses and the consequent differences in transport and ionization efficiencies. The main reason for the higher signal intensity resulting from femtosecond laser pulses was related to the larger crater sizes compared to those created during picosecond laser ablation. Elemental ratios measured using {sup 66}Zn/{sup 63}Cu, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th/{sup 238}U, {sup 66}Zn/{sup 232}Th and {sup 66}Zn/{sup 208}Pb were found to change with the number of laser pulses with data points being more scattered in picosecond than femtosecond laser pulses. Reproducibility of replicate measurements of signal intensities, fractionation and elemental ratios was better for fs-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 3 to 6%) than ps-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 7 to 11%). - Highlights: • Fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse widths using NIST 610 and Naval Brass. • Dependence of fractionation indices on repetition rate and pulse width. • Higher ablation rate was observed in picosecond compared to

  1. Energy distribution of ions produced by laser ablation of silver in vacuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Schou, Jørgen; Canulescu, Stela

    2013-01-01

    The ion energy in a silver ablation plume for fluence in the range of 0.6–2.4Jcm−2, typical for a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) experiment has been investigated. In this fluence range the ion fraction of the ablated particles becomes gradually dominant and can be utilized to characterize the abla...

  2. Physical mechanisms of SiN{sub x} layer structuring with ultrafast lasers by direct and confined laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, S., E-mail: rapp@hm.edu [Faculty of Applied Sciences and Mechatronics, Munich University of Applied Sciences, Lothstraße 34, 80335 Munich (Germany); Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies (SAOT), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Paul-Gordan-Straße 6, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Heinrich, G. [Technische Universität Ilmenau, Institut für Physik, Weimarer Straße 25., 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH, Konrad-Zuse-Straße 14, 99099 Erfurt (Germany); Wollgarten, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Huber, H. P. [Faculty of Applied Sciences and Mechatronics, Munich University of Applied Sciences, Lothstraße 34, 80335 Munich (Germany); Schmidt, M. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Lehrstuhl für Photonische Technologien, Konrad-Zuse-Straße 3-5, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-03-14

    In the production process of silicon microelectronic devices and high efficiency silicon solar cells, local contact openings in thin dielectric layers are required. Instead of photolithography, these openings can be selectively structured with ultra-short laser pulses by confined laser ablation in a fast and efficient lift off production step. Thereby, the ultrafast laser pulse is transmitted by the dielectric layer and absorbed at the substrate surface leading to a selective layer removal in the nanosecond time domain. Thermal damage in the substrate due to absorption is an unwanted side effect. The aim of this work is to obtain a deeper understanding of the physical laser-material interaction with the goal of finding a damage-free ablation mechanism. For this, thin silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) layers on planar silicon (Si) wafers are processed with infrared fs-laser pulses. Two ablation types can be distinguished: The known confined ablation at fluences below 300 mJ/cm{sup 2} and a combined partial confined and partial direct ablation at higher fluences. The partial direct ablation process is caused by nonlinear absorption in the SiN{sub x} layer in the center of the applied Gaussian shaped laser pulses. Pump-probe investigations of the central area show ultra-fast reflectivity changes typical for direct laser ablation. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrate that the Si surface under the remaining SiN{sub x} island is not damaged by the laser ablation process. At optimized process parameters, the method of direct laser ablation could be a good candidate for damage-free selective structuring of dielectric layers on absorbing substrates.

  3. Laser Plasmas : Plasma dynamics from laser ablated solid lithium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debarati Bhattacharya

    2000-11-01

    Emission plasma plume generated by pulsed laser ablation of a lithium solid target by a ruby laser (694 nm, 20 ns, 3 J) was subjected to optical emission spectroscopy: time and space resolved optical emission was characterised as a function of distance from the target surface. Propagation of the plume was studied through ambient background of argon gas. Spectroscopic observations can, in general, be used to analyse plume structure with respect to an appropriate theoretical plasma model. The plume expansion dynamics in this case could be explained through a shock wave propagation model wherein, the experimental observations made were seen to fit well with the theoretical predictions. Spectral information derived from measurement of peak intensity and line width determined the parameters, electron temperature (e) and electron number density e, typically used to characterise laser produced plasma plume emission. These measurements were also used to validate the assumptions underlying the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model, invoked for the high density laser plasma under study. Some interesting results pertaining to the analysis of plume structure and spatio-temporal behaviour of e and e along the plume length will be presented and discussed.

  4. Femtosecond laser ablation of gold interdigitated electrodes for electronic tongues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoli, Alexandra; de Almeida, Gustavo F. B.; Filho, José A.; Mattoso, Luiz H. C.; Riul, Antonio; Mendonca, Cleber R.; Correa, Daniel S.

    2015-06-01

    Electronic tongue (e-tongue) sensors based on impedance spectroscopy have emerged as a potential technology to evaluate the quality and chemical composition of food, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. E-tongues usually employ transducers based on metal interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) coated with a thin layer of an active material, which is capable of interacting chemically with several types of analytes. IDEs are usually produced by photolithographic methods, which are time-consuming and costly, therefore, new fabrication technologies are required to make it more affordable. Here, we employed femtosecond laser ablation with pulse duration of 50 fs to microfabricate gold IDEs having finger width from 2.3 μm up to 3.2 μm. The parameters used in the laser ablation technique, such as light intensity, scan speed and beam spot size have been optimized to achieve uniform IDEs, which were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties of gold IDEs fabricated by laser ablation were evaluated by impedance spectroscopy, and compared to those produced by conventional photolithography. The results show that femtosecond laser ablation is a promising alternative to conventional photolithography for fabricating metal IDEs for e-tongue systems.

  5. UV laser ablation patterns in intraocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagiou, D. P.; Evangelatos, Ch.; Apostolopoulos, A.; Spyratou, E.; Bacharis, C.; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of UV solid state laser radiation on intraocular lens (IOL) polymer surfaces as an alternative method to conventional surface shaping techniques for IOLs customization. Laser ablation experiments were performed on PMMA plates and commercially available hydrophobic and hydrophilic acrylic IOLs with the 5th harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ=213 nm). Circular arrays of holes were drilled on the polymer surface, covering the centre and the peripheries of the IOL. The morphology of the ablated IOL surface was examined with a conventional optical microscope (Leitz GMBH Wetzlar) and with a scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fei - Innova Nanoscope) at various laser parameters. Quantitative measurements of ablation rates were performed with a contact profilometer (Dektak-150), in which a mechanical stylus scanned across the surface of gold-coated IOLs (after SEM imaging) to measure variationsF in surface height. Laser interaction with IOLs depends on optical and mechanical material properties, in addition to laser radiation parameters. The exact ablation mechanism is discussed. Some polymer materials, depending on their properties, are more susceptible to the photothermal mechanism than the photochemical one or vice versa. In summary, every IOL polymer exhibits specific attributes in its interaction with the 5th harmonic of Nd:YAG laser.

  6. Effects of Confined Laser Ablation on Laser Plasma Propulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Zhi-Yuan; ZHANG Jie; LU Xin; HAO Zuo-Qiang; XU Miao-Hua; WANG Zhao-Hua; WEI Zhi-Yi

    2005-01-01

    @@ We investigate the effects of confined laser ablation on laser plasma propulsion. Compared with planar ablation,the cavity ablation provides an effective way to obtain a large target momentum and a high coupling coefficient.When laser pukes are focused into a cavity with 1 mm diameter and 2mm depth, a high coupling coefficient is obtained. By using a glass layer to cover the cavity, the coupling coefficient is enhanced by 10 times. Meanwhile,it is found that with the increase of the target surface size, the target momentum presents a linear increase.

  7. Water content contribution in calculus phantom ablation during Q-switched Tm:YAG laser lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian J; Rajabhandharaks, Danop; Xuan, Jason Rongwei; Wang, Hui; Chia, Ray W J; Hasenberg, Tom; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Q-switched (QS) Tm:YAG laser ablation mechanisms on urinary calculi are still unclear to researchers. Here, dependence of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance was investigated. White gypsum cement was used as a calculus phantom model. The calculus phantoms were ablated by a total 3-J laser pulse exposure (20 mJ, 100 Hz, 1.5 s) and contact mode with N=15 sample size. Ablation volume was obtained on average 0.079, 0.122, and 0.391  mm3 in dry calculus in air, wet calculus in air, and wet calculus in-water groups, respectively. There were three proposed ablation mechanisms that could explain the effect of water content in calculus phantom on calculus ablation performance, including shock wave due to laser pulse injection and bubble collapse, spallation, and microexplosion. Increased absorption coefficient of wet calculus can cause stronger spallation process compared with that caused by dry calculus; as a result, higher calculus ablation was observed in both wet calculus in air and wet calculus in water. The test result also indicates that the shock waves generated by short laser pulse under the in-water condition have great impact on the ablation volume by Tm:YAG QS laser.

  8. Analysis of laser energy deposition leading to damage and ablation of HfO{sub 2} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} single layers submitted to 500 fs pulses at 1030 and 343 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douti, Dam-Be; Begou, Thomas; Lemarchand, Fabien; Lumeau, Julien; Commandre, Mireille; Gallais, Laurent [Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, Institut Fresnel UMR 7249, Marseille (France)

    2016-07-15

    Laser- induced damage thresholds and morphologies of laser ablated sites on dielectric thin films are studied based on experiments and simulations. The films are single layers of hafnia and niobia deposited on fused silica substrates with a magnetron sputtering technique. Laser experiments are conducted with 500 fs pulses at 1030 and 343 nm, and the irradiated sites are characterized with optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy. The results, i.e., LIDT and damage morphologies, are compared to simulations of energy deposition in the films based on the single rate equation for electron excitation, taking into account transient optical properties of the films during the pulse. The results suggest that a critical absorbed energy as a damage criterion gives consistent results both with the measured LIDT and the observed damage morphologies at fluences close to the damage threshold. Based on the numerical and experimental results, the determined LIDT evolution with the wavelength is described as nearly constant in the near-infrared region, and as rapidly decreasing with laser wavelength in the visible and near-ultraviolet regions. (orig.)

  9. Dynamics of Molecular Emission Features from Nanosecond, Femtosecond Laser and Filament Ablation Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Yeak, J.; Brumfield, Brian E.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2016-06-15

    The evolutionary paths of molecular species and nanoparticles in laser ablation plumes are not well understood due to the complexity of numerous physical processes that occur simultaneously in a transient laser-plasma system. It is well known that the emission features of ions, atoms, molecules and nanoparticles in a laser ablation plume strongly depend on the laser irradiation conditions. In this letter we report the temporal emission features of AlO molecules in plasmas generated using a nanosecond laser, a femtosecond laser and filaments generated from a femtosecond laser. Our results show that, at a fixed laser energy, the persistence of AlO is found to be highest and lowest in ns and filament laser plasmas respectively while molecular species are formed at early times for both ultrashort pulse (fs and filament) generated plasmas. Analysis of the AlO emission band features show that the vibrational temperature of AlO decays rapidly in filament assisted laser ablation plumes.

  10. Femtosecond ultraviolet laser ablation of silver and comparison with nanosecond ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Doggett, B.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.

    2013-01-01

    The ablation plume dynamics arising from ablation of silver with a 500 fs, 248 nm laser at ~2 J cm-2 has been studied using angle-resolved Langmuir ion probe and thin film deposition techniques. For the same laser fluence, the time-of-flight ion signals from femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablat...

  11. Comparative study of excimer and erbium:YAG lasers for ablation of structural components of the knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vari, Sandor G.; Shi, Wei-Qiang; van der Veen, Maurits J.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Miller, J. M.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1991-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficiency and thermal effect of a 135 ns pulsed-stretched XeCl excimer laser (308 nm) and a free-running Erbium:YAG laser (2940 nm) with 200 microsecond(s) pulse duration for ablation of knee joint structures (hyaline and fibrous cartilage, tendon and bone). The radiant exposure used for tissue ablation ranged from 2 to 15 J/cm2 for the XeCl excimer and from 33 to 120 J/cm2 for Er:YAG. The excimer and Er:YAG lasers were operated at 4 and 5 Hz respectively. The ablative laser energy was delivered to tissue through fibers. Ablation rates of soft tissues (hyaline and fibrous cartilage, tendon) varied from 8.5 to 203 micrometers /pulse for excimer and from 8.2 to 273 micrometers /pulse for Er:YAG lasers. Ablation rates of soft tissues are linearly dependent on the radiant exposure. Within the range of parameters tested all the tissues except the bone could be rapidly ablated by both lasers. Bone ablation was much less efficient, requiring 15 J/cm2 and 110 J/cm2 radiant exposure for excimer and Er:YAG lasers to ablate 9.5 and 8.2 micrometers tissue per pulse. However, excimer laser ablation produced less thermal damage in the tissues studied compared to Er:YAG at the same laser parameters. The authors conclude that both lasers are capable of efficient knee joint tissue ablation. XeCl excimer laser requires an order of magnitude less energy than Er:YAG laser for comparable tissue ablation.

  12. 308-nm excimer laser ablation of human cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodoehl, John A.; Rhodes, Anthony L.; Meller, Menachem M.; Sherk, Henry H.

    1993-07-01

    The XeCl excimer laser was investigated as an ablating tool for human fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. Quantitative measurements were made of tissue ablation rates as a function of fluence in meniscal fibrocartilage and articular hyaline cartilage. A force of 1.47 Newtons was applied to an 800 micrometers fiber with the laser delivering a range of fluences (40 to 190 mj/mm2) firing at a frequency of 5 Hz. To assess the effect of repetition rate on ablation rate, a set of measurements was made at a constant fluence of 60 mj/mm2, with the repetition rate varying from 10 to 40 Hz. Histologic and morphometric analysis was performed using light microscopy. The results of these studies revealed that the ablation rate was directly proportional to fluence over the range tested. Fibrocartilage was ablated at a rate 2.56 times faster than hyaline cartilage at the maximum fluence tested. Repetition rate had no effect on the penetration per pulse. Adjacent tissue damage was noted to be minimal (10 - 70 micrometers ).

  13. High power parallel ultrashort pulse laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillner, Arnold; Gretzki, Patrick; Büsing, Lasse

    2016-03-01

    The class of ultra-short-pulse (USP) laser sources are used, whenever high precession and high quality material processing is demanded. These laser sources deliver pulse duration in the range of ps to fs and are characterized with high peak intensities leading to a direct vaporization of the material with a minimum thermal damage. With the availability of industrial laser source with an average power of up to 1000W, the main challenge consist of the effective energy distribution and disposition. Using lasers with high repetition rates in the MHz region can cause thermal issues like overheating, melt production and low ablation quality. In this paper, we will discuss different approaches for multibeam processing for utilization of high pulse energies. The combination of diffractive optics and conventional galvometer scanner can be used for high throughput laser ablation, but are limited in the optical qualities. We will show which applications can benefit from this hybrid optic and which improvements in productivity are expected. In addition, the optical limitations of the system will be compiled, in order to evaluate the suitability of this approach for any given application.

  14. Pulsed laser deposition of metal films and nanoparticles in vacuum using subnanosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeev, R A; Chakravarty, U; Naik, P A; Srivastava, H; Mukherjee, C; Tiwari, M K; Nandedkar, R V; Gupta, P D

    2007-03-10

    A study of silver, chromium, stainless-steel, and indium thin films prepared by subnanosecond laser deposition in vacuum is reported. We compare the laser ablation in vacuum at the weak- and tight-focusing conditions of a Ti:sapphire laser beam and analyze the nanoparticles synthesized in the latter case using absorption spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Our results show that the nanoparticle formation can be accomplished using long laser pulses under tight-focusing conditions.

  15. Plasma Diagnostic in laser ablation plumes for isotope separation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Juliana B. de [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: juliana@ieav.cta.br; Rodrigues, Nicolau A.S.; Neri, Jose W.; Silveira, Carlos A.B. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/EFO), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Fotonica

    2008-07-01

    The plasma plume produced in vacuum by ablation of copper, aluminum and tungsten samples, illuminated by copper laser pulses, was investigated. A Langmuir probe was used to study the macroscopic parameters electron number density (Ne) and electron temperature (Te). Plasma expansion velocity (Vp) was also investigated and it was studied the dependence of these parameters with the laser irradiance. Typical values are respectively N{sub e} {approx} 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9}/cm{sup 3}, T{sub e} {approx} 15 eV and Vp {approx} 10 km/s. (author)

  16. Laser ablation deposition measurements from silver and nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Ellegaard, Ole; Schou, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    The deposition rate for laser ablated metals has been studied in a standard geometry for fluences up to 20 J/cm(2). The rate for silver and nickel is a few percent of a monolayer per pulse at the laser wavelengths 532 nm and 355 nm. The rate for nickel is significantly higher than that for silver...... at 532 nm, whereas the rate for the two metals is similar at 355 nm. This behaviour disagrees with calculations based on the thermal properties at low intensities as well as predictions based on formation of an absorbing plasma at high intensities. The deposition rate falls strongly with increasing...

  17. Femtosecond-laser ablation dynamics of dielectrics: basics and applications for thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, P.; Schou, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    -field excitation makes it possible to produce films of materials that are transparent to the laser light. Second, the highly localized excitation reduces the emission of larger material particulates. Third, lasers with ultrashort pulses are shown to be particularly useful tools for the production of nanocluster......Laser ablation of dielectrics by ultrashort laser pulses is reviewed. The basic interaction between ultrashort light pulses and the dielectric material is described, and different approaches to the modeling of the femtosecond ablation dynamics are reviewed. Material excitation by ultrashort laser...... can be described by various rate-equation models in combination with different descriptions of the excited electrons. The optical properties of the highly excited dielectric undergo a rapid change during the laser pulse, which must be included in a detailed modeling of the excitations. The material...

  18. Outpatient laser tonsillar ablation under local anaesthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Peter J; Latif, Abdul

    2004-11-01

    Outpatient laser ablation of the palatine tonsils under local anaesthetic is an alternative technique to capsular tonsillectomy for recurrent tonsillitis under general anaesthetic. Laser tonsillotomy ablates up to 70% of the tonsillar tissue and is performed when patients choose not to have a conventional tonsillectomy, or are unfit for a general anaesthetic. The technique described here is an adaptation of Krespis' laser-assisted serial tonsillectomy (LAST) whereby only one sitting is required. Krespis' technique effectively eliminates recurrent tonsillitis in 96% of the cases over a 4-year follow-up period and represents the only substantial study looking at treating recurrent tonsillitis with outpatient laser ablation. This study is a retrospective postal survey of 19 patients who underwent laser tonsillar ablation under local anaesthetic for recurrent chronic tonsillitis from 1997 to 2001 and was performed in liaison with the clinical audit department at Basildon Hospital. We had a response rate of 74% and an admission rate of 0%, which compares favourably with day case tonsillectomy surgery. Of the patients, 75% did not experience further episodes of tonsillitis 12 months after the procedure and 77% of the patients were glad they had the operation. Although this technique does not completely eliminate tonsillitis, it offers an alternative for those patients who prefer a procedure that is done quickly in an outpatient setting without the additional problems of general anaesthesia, overnight hospital admission and long waiting lists.

  19. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with picosecond pulse train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednev, Vasily N.; Pershin, Sergey M.; Sdvizhenskii, Pavel A.; Grishin, Mikhail Ya; Davydov, Mikhail A.; Stavertiy, Anton Ya; Tretyakov, Roman S.

    2017-02-01

    Picosecond pulse train and nanosecond pulse were compared for laser ablation and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements. A detailed study revealed that the picosecond pulse train ablation improved the quality of laser craters (symmetric crater walls and the absence of large redeposited droplets), which was explained by a smaller heat affected zone and suppression of melt splash. Greater plasma dimensions and brighter plasma emission were observed by gated imaging for picosecond pulse train compared to nanosecond pulse ablation. Increased intensity of atomic and ionic lines in gated and time integrated spectra provided better signal-to-noise ratio for picosecond pulse train sampling. Higher temperature and electron density were detected during first microsecond for the plasma induced by the picosecond pulse train. Improved shot-to-shot reproducibility for atomic/ionic line intensity in the case of picosecond pulse train LIBS was explained by more effective atomization of target material in plasma and better quality of laser craters. Improved precision and limits of detections were determined for picosecond pulse train LIBS due to better reproducibility of laser sampling and increased signal-to-noise ratio.

  20. Laser ablation loading of a radiofrequency ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, K; Herrera-Sancho, O A; Peik, E

    2012-01-01

    The production of ions via laser ablation for the loading of radiofrequency (RF) ion traps is investigated using a nitrogen laser with a maximum pulse energy of 0.17 mJ and a peak intensity of about 250 MW/cm^2. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer is used to measure the ion yield and the distribution of the charge states. Singly charged ions of elements that are presently considered for the use in optical clocks or quantum logic applications could be produced from metallic samples at a rate of the order of magnitude 10^5 ions per pulse. A linear Paul trap was loaded with Th+ ions produced by laser ablation. An overall ion production and trapping efficiency of 10^-7 to 10^-6 was attained. For ions injected individually, a dependence of the capture probability on the phase of the RF field has been predicted. In the experiment this was not observed, presumably because of collective effects within the ablation plume.

  1. Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and ablation threshold analysis using a megahertz Yb fiber laser oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Gregory J.; Parker, Daniel E.; Nie, Bai; Lozovoy, Vadim [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Dantus, Marcos, E-mail: dantus@msu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    A LIBS system is demonstrated using a 100 m cavity Yb fiber oscillator producing ~ 70 ps, 320 nJ clusters of 50–100 fs sub-pulses at 2 MHz. A new empirical model for femtosecond ablation is presented to explain the LIBS signal intensity's non-linear dependence on pulse fluence by accounting for the Gaussian beam's spatial distribution. This model is compared to experimental data and found to be superior to linear threshold fits. This model is then used to measure the ablation threshold of Cu using a typical amplified Ti:sapphire system, and found to reproduce previously reported values to within ~ 20%. The ablation threshold of Cu using the Yb fiber oscillator system was measured to be five times lower than on the amplified Ti:sapphire system. This effect is attributed to the formation of nanostructures on the surface, which have previously been shown to decrease the ablation threshold. The plasma lifetime is found to be ~ 1 ns, much shorter than that of nanosecond ablation, further indicating that the decreased threshold results from surface effects rather than laser–plasma interaction. The low threshold and high pulse energy of the Yb fiber oscillator allows the acquisition of LIBS spectra at megahertz repetition rates. This system could potentially be developed into a compact, fiber-based portable LIBS device taking advantage of the benefits of ultrafast pulses and high repetition rates. - Highlights: • We performed LIBS using a unique ultrafast fiber laser oscillator producing clusters of femtosecond pulses at 2 MHz. • We found the LIBS threshold to be lower than the ablation threshold for single femtosecond laser pulses. • We introduce a model for the LIBS threshold that leads to more accurate determination of threshold values. • We provide results for a number of different solid samples. • The new setup could lead to the design of very compact (portable) and femtosecond-LIBS setups.

  2. Laser ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma-A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A wide range of local thermal ablative therapies have been developed in the treatment of non resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the last decade. Laser ablation (LA) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) are the two most widely used of these. This article provides an up to date overview of the role of laser ablation in the local treatment of HCC. General principles, technique, image guidance and patient selection are discussed. A review of published data on treatment efficacy, long term outcome and complication rates of laser ablation is included and comparison with RFA made. The role of laser ablation in combination with transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation is also discussed.

  3. Edge isolation of transparent conductive polymer (TCP) thin films on flexible substrates using UV laser ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Tseng, Shih-Feng; Huang, Kuo-Cheng; Chiang, Donyau; Chen, Ming-Fei

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to directly use the writing techniques for the complex electrode edge isolation of transparent conductive polymer (TCP) thin films by a nanosecond pulsed UV laser processing system. The processing parameters including the laser pulse energy, the pulse repetition frequency, and the scan speed of galvanometers were examined to ablate the TCP films deposited on polyethylene terephtalate substrates of 188 microm thick. The thickness of TCP films was approximately 20 nm. The laser pulse repetition frequency and the scan speed of galvanometers were applied to calculate the overlapping rate of laser spots and to discuss the patterning region quality. Surface morphology, edge quality, and width and depth of edge isolated patterning structures after laser ablation process were measured by a three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscope. In addition, the electrical conductivity of ablated TCP films was measured by a four-point probes instrument. After isolated line patterning was formed, the ablated TCP films with a better edge quality were obtained directly when the overlapping rate of laser spots, the scan speed, and the pulse repetition rate were 83.3%, 200 mm/s, and 40 kHz, respectively. The better surface morphology of electrode pattern structures was also obtained when the scan speed and the pulse repetition rate were 500 mm/s and 40 kHz, respectively.

  4. Corneal morphology after ex-vivo UV and mid-infrared laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyratou, E.; Voloudakis, G. E.; Moutsouris, K.; Asproudis, I.; Baltatzis, S.; Makropoulou, M.; Bacharis, C.; Serafetinides, A. A.

    2008-12-01

    In this work, ablation experiments of ex vivo porcine cornea tissue were conducted with two solid state lasers (an Er:YAG laser and the 4th harmonic of an Nd:YAG laser, both in the ns pulse width range) emitting in mid infrared and ultraviolet part of the spectrum respectively, at moderate laser fluences. The cornea epithelium of each porcine eye was manually removed before the ablation. Histology analysis of the specimens was performed, in order to examine the microscopic appearance of the ablated craters and the existence of any thermal or mechanical damage caused by the midinfrared and the UV laser irradiation. For a detailed and complete examination of the morphology of the laser ablated corneal tissue, the surface roughness was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  5. ["Skin rejuvenation" by non-ablative laser and light systems. Literature research and overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grema, H; Raulin, C; Greve, B

    2002-06-01

    Currently, ablative laser therapy (with CO2/Er:YAG lasers) and deep chemical peeling are effective and promising methods of skin rejuvenation. The induction of collagen synthesis was observed after peelings with trichloroacetic acid or phenol as well as after treatments with the CO2 laser. In past years, the undesirable side effects and risks of these methods have led to intensified research in the fields of non-ablative facial rejuvenation and subsurfacing by means of ablative laser systems and intense pulsed light systems. The objective is to achieve selective, heat-induced denaturalisation of dermal collagen that leads to subsequent reactive synthesis but does not damage the epidermis. Recently, the results of numerous clinical and histological studies have indicated that these new technologies are successful. After critical review and assessment of current literature, we can say that in terms of their efficacy, non-ablative methods are not a comparable alternative to ablative skin resurfacing.

  6. Optical and electrical properties of SnO2 thin films after ultra-short pulsed laser annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scorticati, D.; Illiberi, A.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Bor, T.C.; Ogieglo, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, M.; Lenferink, A.; Otto, C.; Skolski, J.Z.P.; Grob, F.; Lange, de D.F.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.; Reutzel, Edward W.

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-short pulsed laser sources, with pulse durations in the ps and fs regime, are commonly exploited for cold ablation. However, operating ultra-short pulsed laser sources at fluence levels well below the ablation threshold allows for fast and selective thermal processing. The latter is especially

  7. Optical and electrical properties of SnO2 thin films after ultra-short pulsed laser annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scorticati, D.; Illiberi, A.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Bor, T.; Ogieglo, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, M.; Lenferink, A.; Otto, C.; Skolski, J.Z.P.; Grob, F.; de Lange, D.F.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.; Reutzel, Edward W.

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-short pulsed laser sources, with pulse durations in the ps and fs regime, are commonly exploited for cold ablation. However, operating ultra-short pulsed laser sources at fluence levels well below the ablation threshold allows for fast and selective thermal processing. The latter is especially

  8. Effect of the pulse repetition rate on fiber-assisted tissue ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun Wook

    2016-07-01

    The effect of the pulse repetition rate on ablation performance was evaluated ex vivo at various fiber sweeping speeds for an effective 532-nm laser prostatectomy. Three pulse repetition rates (7.5, 15, and 30 kHz) at 100 W were delivered to bovine liver tissue at three sweeping speeds (2, 4, and 6 mm/s) to achieve bulky tissue removal. Ablation performance was quantitatively compared in terms of the ablation volume and the coagulation thickness. The lowest pulse repetition rate of 7.5 kHz attained the highest ablation volume (101.5 ± 12.0 mm3) and the thinnest coagulation (0.7 ± 0.1 mm) along with superficial carbonization. The highest pulse repetition rate of 30 kHz was associated with the least tissue removal (65.8 ± 5.0 mm3) and the deepest thermal denaturation (1.1 ± 0.2 mm). Quantitative evaluations of laser parameters can be instrumental in facilitating ablation efficiency and maintaining hemostatic coagulation during treatment of large-sized benign prostate hyperplasia.

  9. Carbon nanotubes/laser ablation gold nanoparticles composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascialfari, Luisa [Department of Chemistry, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3-13, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), Via Giusti 9, Firenze 50123 (Italy); Marsili, Paolo [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Caporali, Stefano [Department of Chemistry, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3-13, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), Via Giusti 9, Firenze 50123 (Italy); Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio [Department of Chemistry, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3-13, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Margheri, Giancarlo [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Serafini, Andrea; Brandi, Alberto [Department of Chemistry, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3-13, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Giorgetti, Emilia, E-mail: emilia.giorgetti@fi.isc.cnr.it [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Cicchi, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.cicchi@unifi.it [Department of Chemistry, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3-13, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), Via Giusti 9, Firenze 50123 (Italy)

    2014-10-31

    The production of nanohybrids formed by oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanoparticles, produced by pulsed laser ablation in liquids process, is described. The use of linkers, obtained by transformation of pyrene-1-butanol, is mandatory to generate an efficient and stable interaction between the two components. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed the obtainment of the efficient coverage of the MWCNTs by nanoparticles composed by metal gold and, partially, by oxides. - Highlights: • Laser ablation is a used for the production of gold nanoparticle colloids • An efficient decoration of carbon nanotubes with nanoparticles is obtained through the use of a linker • This method allows an efficient and tunable preparation of carbon nanotube hybrids.

  10. Nanostructured films of metal particles obtained by laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz-Miranda, M., E-mail: muniz@unifi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica “U. Schiff”, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Gellini, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica “U. Schiff”, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giorgetti, E.; Margheri, G.; Marsili, P. [Istituto Sistemi Complessi (CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Lascialfari, L.; Becucci, L. [Dipartimento di Chimica “U. Schiff”, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Trigari, S. [Istituto Sistemi Complessi (CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giammanco, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi”, Università di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-09-30

    Colloidal dispersions of silver and gold nanoparticles were obtained in pure water by ablation with nanosecond pulsed laser. Then, by filtration of the metal particles on alumina, we fabricated nanostructured films, whose surface morphology was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and related to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) after adsorption of adenine. - Highlights: • Ag and Au colloidal nanoparticles were obtained by laser ablation. • Nanostructured Ag and Au films were fabricated by filtration of metal nanoparticles. • Surface morphology of metal films was investigated by atomic force microscopy. • Surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of adenine on metal films were obtained. • SERS enhancements were related to the surface roughness of the metal films.

  11. Femtosecond and nanosecond pulsed laser deposition of silicon and germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reenaas, Turid Worren [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Lee, Yen Sian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chowdhury, Fatema Rezwana; Gupta, Manisha; Tsui, Ying Yin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada); Tou, Teck Yong [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Yap, Seong Ling [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Kok, Soon Yie [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Yap, Seong Shan, E-mail: seongshan@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Ge and Si were deposited by fs and ns laser at room temperature and at vacuum. • Ion of 10{sup 4} ms{sup −1} and 30–200 eV was obtained for ns ablation for Ge and Si. • Highly energetic ions of 10{sup 5} ms{sup −1} with 2–7 KeV were produced in fs laser ablation. • Nanocrystalline Si and Ge were deposited by using fs laser. • Nanoparticles < 10 nm haven been obtained by fs laser. - Abstract: 150 fs Ti:Sapphire laser pulsed laser deposition of Si and Ge were compared to a nanosecond KrF laser (25 ns). The ablation thresholds for ns lasers were about 2.5 J cm{sup −2} for Si and 2.1 J cm{sup −2} for Ge. The values were about 5–10 times lower when fs laser were used. The power densities were 10{sup 8}–10{sup 9} W cm{sup −2} for ns but 10{sup 12} W cm{sup −2} for fs. By using an ion probe, the ions emission at different fluence were measured where the emitting ions achieving the velocity in the range of 7–40 km s{sup −1} and kinetic energy in the range of 30–200 eV for ns laser. The ion produced by fs laser was measured to be highly energetic, 90–200 km s{sup −1}, 2–10 KeV. Two ion peaks were detected above specific laser fluence for both ns and fs laser ablation. Under fs laser ablation, the films were dominated by nano-sized crystalline particles, drastically different from nanosecond pulsed laser deposition where amorphous films were obtained. The ions characteristics and effects of pulse length on the properties of the deposited films were discussed.

  12. Laser Thermal Ablation of Thyroid Benign Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrzad, Mohammad Karim

    2015-01-01

    Thermal ablation therapies for benign thyroid nodules have been introduced in recent years to avoid the complications of traditional methods such as surgery. Despite the little complications and the reportedly acceptable efficacy of thermal ablation methods, quite few medical centers have sought the potential benefits of employing them. This paper provides an introduction to the literature, principles and advances of Percutaneous Laser Ablation therapy of thyroid benign nodules, as well as a discussion on its efficacy, complications and future. Several clinical research papers evaluating the thermal effect of laser on the alleviation of thyroid nodules have been reviewed to illuminate the important points. The results of this research can help researchers to advance the approach and medical centers to decide on investing in these novel therapies.

  13. High Yield NiO Nanocubes from Bulk Nickel by Millisecond Pulse Width Laser Ablation%毫秒激光烧蚀镍靶高效率制备NiO纳米立方体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田飞; 安俊超; 曹宏梅; 郭世珍; 孙景

    2013-01-01

    Long-pulse-width laser was used to ablate bulk nickel target immersed in circulating water to obtain NiO nanocubes in high yield.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM),X-ray diffraction (XRD),selected area electron diffraction(SAED) and energy dispersive spectromety (EDS) were employed to characterize the morphology and structure of the NiO nanocubes.The formation of NiO nanocubes is ascribed to the high temperature and high pressure (HTHP) conditions produced by high power density laser.The results show that when the laser power density is above 104 W/cm2,NiO nanocubes can be fabricated under laser ablation.The metal droplet is first generated by the laser with a power density higher than 104 W/cm2,which boil the surrounding liquid and produce a HTHP vapor due to the confinement of the liquid layer,and finally the surface reaction between the metal droplet and liquid take place to form NiO nanocubes.The laser ablating of bulk nickel target immersed in circulating water is a simple,green,high efficient method for the preparation of NiO nanocubes.%利用长脉宽毫秒激光烧蚀浸没在循环水中的金属镍靶制备了大量的氧化镍(NiO)纳米立方体,通过透射电子显微镜(TEM)、选区电子衍射(SAED)、X射线衍射(XRD)和能量色散谱(EDS)等手段表征了产物的形貌和结构.结果表明,高功率密度激光产生的高温高压条件是形成NiO纳米立方体的最重要因素.激光功率密度高于104 W/cm2时可以生成NiO纳米立方体,当功率高于该阈值时激光首先将镍靶烧蚀为金属液滴,高温的金属液体加热周围液体,并由于液体的限制效应使得压力进一步升高,最后金属液滴与液体发生表面反应生成NiO纳米立方体.

  14. Studying ultrafast laser parameters to deter self-focusing for deep tissue ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Chris; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2016-03-01

    Ultrafast pulsed lasers are a promising tool for precise and noninvasive tissue surgery. The high peak intensity of the pulses allows nonlinear interaction with tissue, causing three-dimensional confined ablation without thermal damage. However, deep tissue ablation has been limited to a few scattering lengths due to laser beam extinction. As pulse energies are increased to overcome attenuation, unwanted side effects can occur such as self-focusing, where the highly intense pulse alters the refractive index of the material, causing a lensing effect and long filaments of damage or complete beam collapse before the focus. Here, we examine laser parameters to overcome self-focusing for deep tissue ablation. Through imaging ablation voids with third harmonic generation, we show that increasing the pulse width from 200-fs to 2-ps reduces self-focusing induced focal plane shifting and avoids multiple filamentation altogether, resulting in deeper ablation without extended axial damage. Additionally, we simulate beam propagation for pulses of different central wavelengths, and show that longer wavelengths can ablate deeper because of decreased scattering in tissue and a subsequent reduction in self-focusing.

  15. Effects of picosecond laser repetition rate on ablation of Cr12MoV cold work mold steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Baoye; Deng, Leimin; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Fei; Duan, Jun; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the effects of pulse repetition rate on ablation efficiency and quality of Cr12MoV cold work mold steel have been studied using a picosecond (ps) pulse Nd:YVO4 laser system at λ= 1064 nm. The experimental results of area ablation on target surface reveal that laser repetition rate plays a significant role in controlling ablation efficiency and quality. Increasing the laser repetition rate, while keeping a constant mean power improves the ablation efficiency and quality. For each laser mean power, there is an optimal repetition rate to achieve a higher laser ablation efficiency with low surface roughness. A high ablation efficiency of 42.29, 44.11 and 47.52 μm3/mJ, with surface roughness of 0.476, 0.463 and 0.706 μm could be achieved at laser repetition rate of 10 MHz, for laser mean power of 15, 17 and 19 W, respectively. Scanning electron microcopy images revels that the surface morphology evolves from rough with numerous craters, to flat without pores when we increased the laser repetition rate. The effects of laser repetition rate on the heat accumulation, plasma shield and ablation threshold were analyzed by numerical simulation, spectral analysis and multi-laser shot, respectively. The synergetic effects of laser repetition rate on laser ablation rate and machining quality were analyzed and discussed systemically in this paper.

  16. Bending diamonds by femtosecond laser ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Peter; Esberg, Jakob; Kirsebom, Kim;

    2009-01-01

    We present a new method based on femtosecond laser ablation for the fabrication of statically bent diamond crystals. Using this method, curvature radii of 1 m can easily be achieved, and the curvature obtained is very uniform. Since diamond is extremely tolerant to high radiation doses, partly due...

  17. Angular distributions of emitted particles by laser ablation of silver at 355 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Schou, Jørgen; Hansen, T.;

    1998-01-01

    The angular distribution of laser ablated silver in vacuum has been measured in situ with an array of quartz-crystal microbalances. The silver surface was irradiated by ns pulses from a Nd:YAG laser operating at 355 nm for fluences ranging from 0.7 J/cm2 to 8 J/cm2. The distribution is strongly p...... peaked in the forward direction corresponding to cosp/, where p varies from 5 to 12 for the largest beam spot, but is less peaked for the smallest beam spots. The total collected yield of ablated atoms is about 221015 Ag atoms per pulse for the highest pulse energies....

  18. Spallative ablation of dielectrics by X-ray laser

    CERN Document Server

    Inogamov, N A; Faenov, A Ya; Khokhlov, V A; Shepelev, V V; Skobelev, I Yu; Kato, Y; Tanaka, M; Pikuz, T A; Kishimoto, M; Ishino, M; Nishikino, M; Fukuda, Y; Bulanov, S V; Kawachi, T; Petrov, Yu V; Anisimov, S I; Fortov, V E

    2009-01-01

    Short laser pulse in wide range of wavelengths, from infrared to X-ray, disturbs electron-ion equilibrium and rises pressure in a heated layer. The case where pulse duration $\\tau_L$ is shorter than acoustic relaxation time $t_s$ is considered in the paper. It is shown that this short pulse may cause thermomechanical phenomena such as spallative ablation regardless to wavelength. While the physics of electron-ion relaxation on wavelength and various electron spectra of substances: there are spectra with an energy gap in semiconductors and dielectrics opposed to gapless continuous spectra in metals. The paper describes entire sequence of thermomechanical processes from expansion, nucleation, foaming, and nanostructuring to spallation with particular attention to spallation by X-ray pulse.

  19. Laser surface and subsurface modification of sapphire using femtosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberle, G., E-mail: eberle@iwf.mavt.ethz.ch [Institute of Machine Tools and Manufacturing, ETH Zurich, Leonhardstrasse 21, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Schmidt, M. [Chair of Photonic Technologies, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Konrad-Zuse-Strasse 3-5, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Pude, F. [Inspire AG, Technoparkstrasse 1, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Wegener, K. [Institute of Machine Tools and Manufacturing, ETH Zurich, Leonhardstrasse 21, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Inspire AG, Technoparkstrasse 1, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Single and multipulse ablation threshold of aluminium oxide is determined. • Laser ablation, and in-volume modification followed by wet etching are demonstrated. • Quality following laser processing and laser-material interactions are studied. - Abstract: Two methods to process sapphire using femtosecond laser pulses are demonstrated, namely ablation (surface), and in-volume laser modification followed by wet etching (subsurface). Firstly, the single and multipulse ablation threshold is determined and compared with previous literature results. A unique application of ablation is demonstrated by modifying the entrance aperture of water jet orifices. Laser ablation exhibits advantages in terms of geometric flexibility and resolution, however, defects in the form of edge outbreaks and poor surface quality are evident. Secondly, the role of material transformation, polarisation state and formation of multi-focus structures after in-volume laser modification is investigated in order to explain their influence during the wet etching process. Laser scanning and electron microscopy as well as electron backscatter diffraction measurements supported by ion beam polishing are used to better understand quality and laser-material interactions of the two demonstrated methods of processing.

  20. Picosecond laser ablation of nano-sized WTi thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, S.; Gaković, B.; Peruško, D.; Desai, T.; Batani, D.; Čekada, M.; Radak, B.; Trtica, M.

    2009-08-01

    Interaction of an Nd:YAG laser, operating at 532 nm wavelength and pulse duration of 40 ps, with tungsten-titanium (WTi) thin film (thickness, 190 nm) deposited on single silicon (100) substrate was studied. Laser fluences of 10.5 and 13.4 J/cm2 were found to be sufficient for modification of the WTi/silicon target system. The energy absorbed from the Nd:YAG laser beam is partially converted to thermal energy, which generates a series of effects, such as melting, vaporization of the molten material, shock waves, etc. The following WTi/silicon surface morphological changes were observed: (i) ablation of the thin film during the first laser pulse. The boundary of damage area was relatively sharp after action of one pulse whereas it was quite diffuse after irradiation with more than 10 pulses; (ii) appearance of some nano-structures (e.g., nano-ripples) in the irradiated region; (iii) appearance of the micro-cracking. The process of the laser interaction with WTi/silicon target was accompanied by formation of plasma.

  1. Improved structural properties and crystal coherence of superconducting NdBa2Cu3O7-δ films grown by pulsed laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrecht, M.; Ariosa, D.; Schmauder, T.; Saleh, S. A.; Rast, S.; Pavuna, D.

    2000-11-01

    We report on improved structural, crystallographic and electrical properties of epitaxial NdBa2Cu3O7-δ (NBCO) films grown on SrTiO3 by `off-axis' pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Transport and XRD studies show that the c-axis-oriented epitaxial films, with critical temperatures of 90-92 K, are mono phase and single-crystalline. Furthermore, very smooth, almost outgrowth-free surfaces and crystal coherences of up to 0.8 µm (to our knowledge the best value ever reported for high-Tc films) were obtained.

  2. PREFACE AND CONFERENCE INFORMATION: Eighth International Conference on Laser Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Wayne P.; Herman, Peter R.; Bäuerle, Dieter; Koinuma, Hideomi

    2007-04-01

    Laser ablation encompasses a wide range of delicate to extreme light interactions with matter that present considerably challenging problems for scientists to study and understand. At the same time, laser ablation also represents a basic process of significant commercial importance in laser material processing—defining a multi-billion dollar industry today. These topics were widely addressed at the 8th International Conference on Laser Ablation (COLA), held in Banff, Canada on 11-16 September 2005. The meeting took place amongst the majestic and natural beauty of the Canadian Rocky Mountains at The Banff Centre, where delegates enjoyed many inspiring presentations and discussions in a unique campus learning environment. The conference brought together world leading scientists, students and industry representatives to examine the basic science of laser ablation and improve our understanding of the many physical, chemical and/or biological processes driven by the laser. The multi-disciplinary research presented at the meeting underlies some of our most important trends at the forefront of science and technology today that are represented in the papers collected in this volume. Here you will find new processes that are producing novel types of nanostructures and nano-materials with unusual and promising properties. Laser processes are described for delicately manipulating living cells or modifying their internal structure with unprecedented degrees of control and precision. Learn about short-pulse lasers that are driving extreme physical processes on record-fast time scales and opening new directions from material processing applications. The conference papers further highlight forefront application areas in pulsed laser deposition, nanoscience, analytical methods, materials, and microprocessing applications. Laser ablation continues to grow and evolve, touching forefront areas in science and driving new technological trends in laser processing applications. Please

  3. Laser-Material Interaction of Powerful Ultrashort Laser Pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komashko, A

    2003-01-06

    Laser-material interaction of powerful (up to a terawatt) ultrashort (several picoseconds or shorter) laser pulses and laser-induced effects were investigated theoretically in this dissertation. Since the ultrashort laser pulse (USLP) duration time is much smaller than the characteristic time of the hydrodynamic expansion and thermal diffusion, the interaction occurs at a solid-like material density with most of the light energy absorbed in a thin surface layer. Powerful USLP creates hot, high-pressure plasma, which is quickly ejected without significant energy diffusion into the bulk of the material, Thus collateral damage is reduced. These and other features make USLPs attractive for a variety of applications. The purpose of this dissertation was development of the physical models and numerical tools for improvement of our understanding of the process and as an aid in optimization of the USLP applications. The study is concentrated on two types of materials - simple metals (materials like aluminum or copper) and wide-bandgap dielectrics (fused silica, water). First, key physical phenomena of the ultrashort light interaction with metals and the models needed to describe it are presented. Then, employing one-dimensional plasma hydrodynamics code enhanced with models for laser energy deposition and material properties at low and moderate temperatures, light absorption was self-consistently simulated as a function of laser wavelength, pulse energy and length, angle of incidence and polarization. Next, material response on time scales much longer than the pulse duration was studied using the hydrocode and analytical models. These studies include examination of evolution of the pressure pulses, effects of the shock waves, material ablation and removal and three-dimensional dynamics of the ablation plume. Investigation of the interaction with wide-bandgap dielectrics was stimulated by the experimental studies of the USLP surface ablation of water (water is a model of

  4. Micro pulse laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhirne, James D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An eye safe, compact, solid state lidar for profiling atmospheric cloud and aerosol scattering is disclosed. The transmitter of the micro pulse lidar is a diode pumped micro-J pulse energy, high repetition rate Nd:YLF laser. Eye safety is obtained through beam expansion. The receiver employs a photon counting solid state Geiger mode avalanche photodiode detector. Data acquisition is by a single card multichannel scaler. Daytime background induced quantum noise is controlled by a narrow receiver field-of-view and a narrow bandwidth temperature controlled interference filter. Dynamic range of the signal is limited to optical geometric signal compression. Signal simulations and initial atmospheric measurements indicate that micropulse lider systems are capable of detecting and profiling all significant cloud and aerosol scattering through the troposphere and into the stratosphere. The intended applications are scientific studies and environmental monitoring which require full time, unattended measurements of the cloud and aerosol height structure.

  5. 片状石墨增强树脂基复合材料的耐激光烧蚀性能研究%Ablation Capability of Flake Graphite Reinforced Barium-phenolic Resin Composite under Long Pulse Laser Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于庆春; 万红

    2012-01-01

    The carbon fiber reinforced phenolic resin composite is widely used as a thermal protection material because of its excellent thermal ablation. A novel flake graphite reinforced barium-phenolic resin composite was made by roller coating technology and its thermal ablation capability under long pulse laser irradiation was studied. The results show that the thermal ablation rate of the flake graphite reinforced barium-resin composite is 32.8 ug/J at 1700 W/cm2 irradiation power density, which is much lower than that of the carbon fiber reinforced barium-resin composite or barium-phenolic resin obviously. The anti-ablative mechanism of the flake graphite reinforced barium-phenolic resin composite is investigated by the observation of its microstructure and the calculation of the laser en-. Ergy coupling with the material. It is found that the flake graphite is arrayed homogeneous alignment as sandwich among the composite. When the laser radiation gets on the composite, the flake graphite plays as a mirror and reflects part of the laser, and then the laser radiation energy deposition on the composite is reduced. It is also found that the size of the flake graphite also affects the ablation capability. The composite with the flake graphite diameter of about 0.5 mm has the lowest thermal ablation rate.%采用刷涂的方法制备了一种新型的片状石墨增强钡酚醛树脂基复合材料,并采用重频激光辐照的方法,对其耐烧蚀性能进行了研究.研究结果表明:片状石墨增强钡酚醛树脂基复合材料在平均功率密度为1700 J/cm2的重频激光辐照下的热烧蚀率为32.8 μg/J,耐激光烧蚀性能明显高于碳纤维增强的钡酚醛树脂基复合材料和钡酚醛树脂;片状石墨增强钡酚醛树脂基复合材料中的片状石墨呈近平行的层状分布方式,在激光辐照过程中能对入射激光起到平面反射作用,从而有效地降低激光辐照的能量沉积;片状石墨的片型对复合材料

  6. Laser ablative cutting of ceramics for electronics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, B. E., LLNL

    1996-03-01

    Pulsed, high-beam quality lasers offer unique materials processing characteristics. In processing metals, copper vapor and pulsed Nd:YAG lasers have produced micron-scale cuts and holes with submicron heat-affected zones. Since the cost of laser photons is high and average material removal rates can be slow with ablation, high value-added applications are necessary to justify processing costs. Ceramics present a special challenge for manufacturing because of their high hardness, relatively low thermal conductivity, and brittle nature. Surface damage typically limits the strength of a ceramic part to a small fraction of its bulk strength. This work investigates the use of copper vapor and pulsed diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to cut precision features in ceramic substrates. Variations in laser wavelength and power, processing speed, ceramic type, and assist gas were investigated with the goal of producing <100-{mu}m wide by 600-{mu}m deep cuts through silicon-carbide and alumina/titanium-carbide substrates for potential use in electronics. Silicon-carbide bars 250-{mu}m wide by 600-{mu}m high by 2.5-cm long were laser cut from substrates without fracture.

  7. Data Fitting to Study Ablated Hard Dental Tissues by Nanosecond Laser Irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Al-Hadeethi

    Full Text Available Laser ablation of dental hard tissues is one of the most important laser applications in dentistry. Many works have reported the interaction of laser radiations with tooth material to optimize laser parameters such as wavelength, energy density, etc. This work has focused on determining the relationship between energy density and ablation thresholds using pulsed, 5 nanosecond, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet; Nd:Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nanometer. For enamel and dentin tissues, the ablations have been performed using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS technique. The ablation thresholds and relationship between energy densities and peak areas of calcium lines, which appeared in LIBS, were determined using data fitting. Furthermore, the morphological changes were studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Moreover, the chemical stability of the tooth material after ablation has been studied using Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX. The differences between carbon atomic % of non-irradiated and irradiated samples were tested using statistical t-test. Results revealed that the best fitting between energy densities and peak areas of calcium lines were exponential and linear for enamel and dentin, respectively. In addition, the ablation threshold of Nd:YAG lasers in enamel was higher than that of dentin. The morphology of the surrounded ablated region of enamel showed thermal damages. For enamel, the EDX quantitative analysis showed that the atomic % of carbon increased significantly when laser energy density increased.

  8. Femtosecond laser ablation of dielectric materials in the optical breakdown regime: Expansion of a transparent shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Lechuga, M.; Siegel, J., E-mail: j.siegel@io.cfmac.csic.es; Hernandez-Rueda, J.; Solis, J. [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Optica, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    Phase transition pathways of matter upon ablation with ultrashort laser pulses have been considered to be understood long-since for metals and semiconductors. We provide evidence that also certain dielectrics follow the same pathway, even at high pulse energies triggering optical breakdown. Employing femtosecond microscopy, we observe a characteristic ring pattern within the ablating region that dynamically changes for increasing time delays between pump and probe pulse. These transient Newton rings are related to optical interference of the probe beam reflected at the front surface of the ablating layer with the reflection at the interface of the non-ablating substrate. Analysis of the ring structure shows that the ablation mechanism is initiated by a rarefaction wave leading within a few tens of picoseconds to the formation of a transparent thin shell of reduced density and refractive index, featuring optically sharp interfaces. The shell expands and eventually detaches from the solid material at delays of the order of 100 ps.

  9. Double pulse laser wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Changbum [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: chbkim@postech.ac.kr; Kim, Jin-Cheol B. [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kukhee [National Fusion Reserch Center, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, In Soo [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Suk, Hyyong [Center for Advanced Accelerators, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-22

    Two-dimensional simulation studies are performed for modified laser wakefield acceleration. After one laser pulse, another identical laser pulse is sent to the plasma to amplify the wake wave resonantly. The simulation results show that the number of injected electrons is bigger than that of the single pulse case and the beam energy is higher as well. In addition, increase of the transverse amplitude is noticed in the wake wave after the second laser pulse. This shows that the transverse motion of the wake wave enhances the wave breaking for strong injection and acceleration of electron beams.

  10. Ablation characteristics of electrospun core-shell nanofiber by femtosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, ChangKyoo; Xue, Ruipeng; Lannutti, John J; Farson, Dave F

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the femtosecond laser ablation properties of core and shell polymers their relationship to the ablation characteristics of core-shell nanofibers. The single-pulse ablation threshold of bulk polycaprolactone (PCL) was measured to be 2.12J/cm(2) and that of bulk polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was 4.07J/cm(2). The incubation coefficients were measured to be 0.82±0.02 for PCL and 0.53±0.03 for PDMS. PDMS-PCL core-shell and pure PCL nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning. The energy/volume of pure PCL and PDMS-PCL core-shell nanofiber ablation was investigated by measuring linear ablation grooves made at different scanning speeds. At large scanning speed, higher energy/volume was required for machining PDMS-PCL nanofiber than for PCL nanofiber. However, at small scanning speed, comparable energy/volume was measured for PDMS-PCL and PCL nanofiber ablation. Additionally, in linear scanned ablation of PDMS-PCL fibers at small laser pulse energy and large scanning speed, there were partially ablated fibers where the shell was ablated but the core remained. This was attributed to the lower ablation threshold of the shell material.

  11. Characterization of laser ablation of copper in the irradiance regime of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picard, J., E-mail: jessica.picard@cea.fr [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, DAM, Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Sirven, J.-B.; Lacour, J.-L. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, DEN/DANS/DPC/SEARS/LANIE, Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Musset, O. [Université de Bourgogne, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR CNRS 5209, F-21000 Dijon (France); Cardona, D.; Hubinois, J.-C. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, DAM, Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Mauchien, P. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, DEN/DANS/DPC/SEARS/LANIE, Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-11-01

    The LIBS signal depends both on the ablated mass and on the plasma excitation temperature. These fundamental parameters depend in a complex manner on laser ablation and on laser–plasma coupling. As several works in the literature suggest that laser ablation processes play a predominant role compared to plasma heating phenomena in the LIBS signal variations, this paper focuses on the study of laser ablation. The objective was to determine an interaction regime enabling to maximally control the laser ablation. Nanosecond laser ablation of copper at 266 nm was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and optical profilometry analysis, in air at 1 bar and in the vacuum. The laser beam spatial profile at the sample surface was characterized in order to give realistic values of the irradiance. The effect of the number of accumulated laser shots on the crater volume was studied. Then, the ablation crater morphology, volume, depth and diameter were measured as a function of irradiance between 0.35 and 96 GW/cm². Results show that in the vacuum, a regular trend is observed over the whole irradiance range. In air at 1 bar, below a certain irradiance, laser ablation is very similar to the vacuum case, and the ablation efficiency of copper was estimated at 0.15 ± 0.03 atom/photon. Beyond this irradiance, the laser beam propagation is strongly disrupted by the expansion of the dense plasma, and plasma shielding appears. The fraction of laser energy used for laser ablation and for plasma heating is estimated in the different irradiance regimes. - Highlights: • The morphology of copper's craters was studied as a function of the pulse energy. • Correlation at low energy and two pressures between crater volume and pulse energy • The ablation efficiency of copper at 1 bar is equal to 0.15 atom/photon. • Ablation efficiency in the vacuum is not limited by laser–plasma interaction. • Physical mechanisms of laser ablation at both pressures are discussed.

  12. Laser ablation of powdered samples and analysis by means of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ctvrtnickova, T.; Cabalin, L.; Laserna, J.; Kanicky, V.; Nicolas, G.

    2009-03-01

    The presented work proves the capacities of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a fast, universal, and versatile technique for analysis of complex materials as ceramics. This paper reports on the analysis of ceramic raw materials (brick clays and kaolin) submitted to laser ablation in the form of pressed pellets. Spectrographic study was provided by standard single-pulse LIBS technique and orthogonal reheating double-pulse LIBS. It was found that both methods are comparable in terms of analytical performance, if adequate experimental parameters and signal detection systems are used.

  13. Rapid revelation of radiocarbon records with laser ablation Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münsterer, Caroline; Wacker, Lukas; Hattendorf, Bodo; Christl, Marcus; Koch, Joachim; Dietiker, Rolf; Synal, Hans-Arno; Günther, Detlef

    2014-01-01

    By focusing high-intensity laser pulses on carbonate samples carbon dioxide is generated and can be directly introduced into the gas ion source (GIS) of an Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS). This new technique allows rapid radiocarbon analyses at high spatial resolution. The design of the deignated laser ablation cell as well as first results on a stalagmite sample are presented.

  14. Pulsed Laser Ablation-Induced Green Synthesis of TiO2 Nanoparticles and Application of Novel Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Technique for Nanoparticle Size and Size Distribution Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amandeep; Vihinen, Jorma; Frankberg, Erkka; Hyvärinen, Leo; Honkanen, Mari; Levänen, Erkki

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to introduce small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) as a promising technique for measuring size and size distribution of TiO2 nanoparticles. In this manuscript, pulsed laser ablation in liquids (PLAL) has been demonstrated as a quick and simple technique for synthesizing TiO2 nanoparticles directly into deionized water as a suspension from titanium targets. Spherical TiO2 nanoparticles with diameters in the range 4-35 nm were observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed highly crystalline nanoparticles that comprised of two main photoactive phases of TiO2: anatase and rutile. However, presence of minor amounts of brookite was also reported. The traditional methods for nanoparticle size and size distribution analysis such as electron microscopy-based methods are time-consuming. In this study, we have proposed and validated SAXS as a promising method for characterization of laser-ablated TiO2 nanoparticles for their size and size distribution by comparing SAXS- and TEM-measured nanoparticle size and size distribution. SAXS- and TEM-measured size distributions closely followed each other for each sample, and size distributions in both showed maxima at the same nanoparticle size. The SAXS-measured nanoparticle diameters were slightly larger than the respective diameters measured by TEM. This was because SAXS measures an agglomerate consisting of several particles as one big particle which slightly increased the mean diameter. TEM- and SAXS-measured mean diameters when plotted together showed similar trend in the variation in the size as the laser power was changed which along with extremely similar size distributions for TEM and SAXS validated the application of SAXS for size distribution measurement of the synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles.

  15. Pulsed Laser Ablation-Induced Green Synthesis of TiO2 Nanoparticles and Application of Novel Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Technique for Nanoparticle Size and Size Distribution Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amandeep; Vihinen, Jorma; Frankberg, Erkka; Hyvärinen, Leo; Honkanen, Mari; Levänen, Erkki

    2016-12-01

    This paper aims to introduce small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) as a promising technique for measuring size and size distribution of TiO2 nanoparticles. In this manuscript, pulsed laser ablation in liquids (PLAL) has been demonstrated as a quick and simple technique for synthesizing TiO2 nanoparticles directly into deionized water as a suspension from titanium targets. Spherical TiO2 nanoparticles with diameters in the range 4-35 nm were observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed highly crystalline nanoparticles that comprised of two main photoactive phases of TiO2: anatase and rutile. However, presence of minor amounts of brookite was also reported. The traditional methods for nanoparticle size and size distribution analysis such as electron microscopy-based methods are time-consuming. In this study, we have proposed and validated SAXS as a promising method for characterization of laser-ablated TiO2 nanoparticles for their size and size distribution by comparing SAXS- and TEM-measured nanoparticle size and size distribution. SAXS- and TEM-measured size distributions closely followed each other for each sample, and size distributions in both showed maxima at the same nanoparticle size. The SAXS-measured nanoparticle diameters were slightly larger than the respective diameters measured by TEM. This was because SAXS measures an agglomerate consisting of several particles as one big particle which slightly increased the mean diameter. TEM- and SAXS-measured mean diameters when plotted together showed similar trend in the variation in the size as the laser power was changed which along with extremely similar size distributions for TEM and SAXS validated the application of SAXS for size distribution measurement of the synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles.

  16. Femtosecond-pulse laser-ablation-induced synthesis and improved emission properties of ultrafine Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Er{sup 3+}, Yb{sup 3+} nanoparticles with reduced nonradiative relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Changbin, E-mail: zhengchangbin@ciomp.ac.cn; Yang, Guilong; Zhang, Kuo; Wang, Chunrui; Wang, Hualong; Chen, Fei; He, Yang

    2015-11-05

    Nanomaterials with effective visible upconversion emission have received special attention due to the potential application in the fields including biological labeling, imaging, and photodynamic therapy. The main focus of this work is the improvement of the upconversion emission properties, which is enhanced emission intensity and prolonged decay time, by reducing nonradiative relaxation assisted by high energy phonon. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Er{sup 3+}, Yb{sup 3+} nanoparticles (considerably < 50 nm) were directly prepared through femtosecond-pulse laser ablation conducted on the corresponding oxide mixture. It was observed that the number of carbonate and hydroxyl groups remaining in the nanoparticles was decreased. The upconversion and infrared emission properties of the particles were investigated using 976-nm continuous-wave laser radiation, and it was found that the relative red-to-green emission intensity decreased. The samples also exhibited higher integral intensity and reduced power dependence on the excitation intensity, which indicates a more effective upconversion process. The decay time for upconversion emission was lengthened, and for the first time (to the best of our knowledge), infrared emission at 1550 nm was almost suppressed. As a result of the elimination of the carbonate and hydroxyl groups, nonradiative relaxation assisted by high-energy phonons was reduced, thereby increasing the decay time and upconversion emission and decreasing the infrared emission. - Graphical abstract: Reduced nonradiative relaxation leads to higher upconversion emission intensity and decreased relative red-to-green emission intensity. - Highlights: • Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Er{sup 3+}, Yb{sup 3+} nanoparticles are prepared by laser ablation on the oxide mixture. • Number of carbonate and hydroxyl groups in the nanoparticles is decreased. • These nanoparticles present improved emission properties. • For the first time, infrared emission at 1550 nm is almost suppressed.

  17. [Mechanism of ablation with nanosecond pulsed electric field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Chao; Chen, Xin-hua; Zheng, Shu-sen

    2015-11-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric field ablation has been widely applied in clinical cancer treatment, while its molecular mechanism is still unclear. Researchers have revealed that nanosecond pulsed electric field generates nanopores in plasma membrane, leading to a rapid influx of Ca²⁺; it has specific effect on intracellular organelle membranes, resulting in endoplasmic reticulum injuries and mitochondrial membrane potential changes. In addition, it may also change cellular morphology through damage of cytoskeleton. This article reviews the recent research advances on the molecular mechanism of cell membrane and organelle changes induced by nanosecond pulsed electric field ablation.

  18. Femtosecond laser ablation of cemented carbides: properties and tribological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, G.; Romano, V.; Weber, H. P.; Gerbig, Y.; Haefke, H.; Bruneau, S.; Hermann, J.; Sentis, M.

    Laser ablation with fs laser pulses was performed in air on cobalt cemented tungsten carbide by means of a Ti : sapphire laser (800 nm, 100 fs). Small and moderate fluences (2, 5, 10 J/cm2) and up to 5×104 pulses per irradiated spot were used to drill holes with aspect ratios up to 10. Cross-section cuts from laser-irradiated samples were produced and they were analysed with optical microscopy and SEM. EDX analyses were carried out on selected zones. Quasi-cylindrical holes were found for 2 J/cm2, whereas for 5 and 10 J/cm2 irregular shapes (lobes, bottoms wider than hole entrances) were found to occur after a given number of incident pulses. Layers with modified structure were evidenced at pore walls. SEM revealed a denser structure, while EDX analyses showed uniform and almost similar contents of W, C, and Co in these layers. As a direct application, patterning of coated WC-Co was carried out with 2 J/cm2 and 100 pulses per pore. The resulted surfaces were tribologically tested and these tests revealed an improved friction and wear behaviour.

  19. PALS — The optimal laser for determining optimal ablative laser propulsion parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boody, Frederick P.

    2005-04-01

    Ablative laser propulsion (ALP) could revolutionize space travel by reducing the 30:1 propellant/payload ratio needed for near-earth orbit 50-fold. To date, experiments have demonstrated the necessary efficiency, coupling coefficient, and specific impulse for application, but were performed at pulse energies and spot sizes much smaller than required and at wavelengths not usable in the atmosphere. Also, most experiments have not simultaneously measured the properties of the ions produced or of the ablated surface, properties that would allow full understanding of the propulsion properties in terms of ion characteristics. Realistic measurement of laser propulsion parameters is proposed using PALS (Prague Asterix Laser System), whose parameters, except for pulse rate and wavelength — pulse energy (˜1kJ), pulse length (400ps), beam diameter (˜29cm), and flat beam profile — equal those required for application. PALS wavelength is a little short (1.3μm vs. >1.5μm) but is closer than any other laser available and, due to PALS 2ω / 3ω capability, wavelength dependence can be studied and results extrapolated to application values. PALS' proven infrastructure for measuring laser-driven ion properties means that only an instrument for measuring momentum transfer, such as a ballistic pendulum, will have to be added.

  20. Laser ablation of hard tissue: correlation between the laser beam parameters and the post-ablative tissue characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafetinides, Alexandros A.; Makropoulou, Mersini I.; Khabbaz, Maruan

    2003-11-01

    Hard dental tissue laser applications, such as preventive treatment, laser diagnosis of caries, laser etching of enamel, laser decay removal and cavity preparation, and more recently use of the laser light to enlarge the root canal during the endodontic therapy, have been investigated for in vitro and in vivo applications. Post-ablative surface characteristics, e.g. degree of charring, cracks and other surface deformation, can be evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The experimental data are discussed in relevance with the laser beam characteristics, e.g. pulse duration, beam profile, and the beam delivery systems employed. Techniques based on the laser illumination of the dental tissues and the subsequent evaluation of the scattered fluorescent light will be a valuable tool in early diagnosis of tooth diseases, as carious dentin or enamel. The laser induced autofluorescence signal of healthy dentin is much stronger than that of the carious dentin. However, a better understanding of the transmission patterns of laser light in teeth, for both diagnosis and therapy is needed, before the laser procedures can be used in a clinical environment.

  1. The study of laser plasma plume radiation produced by laser ablation of silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingju

    2014-12-01

    In order to study the laser plasma plume radiation mechanisms induced by the interaction between Nd: YAG plused laser and silicon, the radiation model of silicon laser plasma plume is established. Laser plasma plume radiation includes atom characteristic lines, ion lines and continuous background. It can reflect the characteristics of laser plasma plume radiation, reveal the mechanism of laser ablation on silicon. Time-resolved measurment of laser plasma plume radiation produced by pulsed Nd: YAG laser ablation of silicon in different ambient gas is thoroughly studied. The experimental ambient gas are N2 and O2.The pulse width of Nd: YAG plused laser adopted in the experiment is 20ns, the pulse energy is 60mJ, the laser pulsing frequency is 10Hz, and the emitted laser wavelength is 1064nm, The silicon target purity is 99.99%, The target is rotating at a speed of 240r/min. The focusing area of the laser on the Si target has a diameter of around 0.8mm.The pressure of ambient gas is tunable between 13Pa and 101.3kPa in the induced chamber, the number of points used in averaging is 15. The experimental results show that the ambient gas has obvious enhancement effect on the radiation intensity of silicon laser plasma plume. With the increase of the ambient gas pressure, the silicon laser plasma plume radiation intensity will first be increased and then be decreased, and the ambient gas has an obvious compression effect on the scope of silicon laser plasma plume radiation. For the two different ambient gases, the maximum silicon laser plasma plume radiation intensity and maximum pressure for they are different, for oxygen at 35kPa, for nitrogen at 50kPa. The silicon laser plasma plume radiation intensity in oxygen is bigger than that in nitrogen.The main excition mechanisms of laser plasma plume radiation induced by Nd:YAG plused laser induced silicon is analyzed, The plused laser can makes part molecules in the ambient gas and silicon atoms ionized at the surface of

  2. Ablation and ultrafast dynamics of zinc selenide under femtosecond laser irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng Wang; Tianqing Jia; Xiaoxi Li; Chengbin Li; Donghai Feng; Haiyi Sun; Shizhen Xu; Zhizhan Xu

    2005-01-01

    The ablation in zinc selenide (ZnSe) crystal is studied by using 150-fs, 800-nm laser system. The images of the ablation pit measured by scanning electronic microscope (SEM) show no thermal stress and melting dynamics. The threshold fluence is measured to be 0.7 J/cm2. The ultrafast ablation dynamics is studied by using pump and probe method. The result suggests that optical breakdown and ultrafast melting take place in ZnSe irradiated under femtosecond laser pulses.

  3. Deviation from threshold model in ultrafast laser ablation of graphene at sub-micron scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil-Villalba, A.; Xie, C.; Salut, R.; Furfaro, L.; Giust, R.; Jacquot, M.; Lacourt, P. A.; Dudley, J. M.; Courvoisier, F., E-mail: francois.courvoisier@femto-st.fr [Institut FEMTO-ST, UMR 6174 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne Franche-Comte, 25030 Besançon Cedex (France)

    2015-08-10

    We investigate a method to measure ultrafast laser ablation threshold with respect to spot size. We use structured complex beams to generate a pattern of craters in CVD graphene with a single laser pulse. A direct comparison between beam profile and SEM characterization allows us to determine the dependence of ablation probability on spot-size, for crater diameters ranging between 700 nm and 2.5 μm. We report a drastic decrease of ablation probability when the crater diameter is below 1 μm which we interpret in terms of free-carrier diffusion.

  4. Synthesis of high Al content Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N ternary films by pulsed laser co-ablation of GaAs and Al targets assisted by nitrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hua; You, Qinghu [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Hu, Zhigao; Guo, Shuang [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Yang, Xu; Sun, Jian; Xu, Ning [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Jiada, E-mail: jdwu@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films were synthesized by co-ablation of an Al target and a GaAs target. • Nitrogen plasma was used to assist the synthesis of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N ternary films. • The Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films are slightly rich in N with an Al content above 0.6. • The Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films are hexagonal wurtzite in crystal structure. • The Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films have an absorption edge of 260 nm and a band gap of 4.7 eV. - Abstract: We present the synthesis of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N ternary films by pulsed laser co-ablation of a polycrystalline GaAs target and a metallic Al target in the environment of nitrogen plasma which provides nitrogen for the films and assists the formation of nitride films. Field emission scanning electron microscopy exposes the smooth surface appearance and dense film structure. X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman scattering spectroscopy reveal the hexagonal wurtzite structure. Optical characterization shows high optical transmittance with an absorption edge of about 260 nm and a band gap of 4.7 eV. Compositional analysis gives the Al content of about 0.6. The structure and optical properties of the Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films are compared with those of binary GaN and AlN films synthesized by ablating GaAs or Al target with the same nitrogen plasma assistance.

  5. Laser system using ultra-short laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantus, Marcos; Lozovoy, Vadim V.; Comstock, Matthew

    2009-10-27

    A laser system using ultrashort laser pulses is provided. In another aspect of the present invention, the system includes a laser, pulse shaper and detection device. A further aspect of the present invention employs a femtosecond laser and binary pulse shaping (BPS). Still another aspect of the present invention uses a laser beam pulse, a pulse shaper and a SHG crystal.

  6. High-power pulsed lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    1980-04-02

    The ideas that led to the successful construction and operation of large multibeam fusion lasers at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are reviewed. These lasers are based on the use of Nd:glass laser materials. However, most of the concepts are applicable to any laser being designed for fusion experimentation. This report is a summary of lectures given by the author at the 20th Scottish University Summer School in Physics, on Laser Plasma Interaction. This report includes basic concepts of the laser plasma system, a discussion of lasers that are useful for short-pulse, high-power operation, laser design constraints, optical diagnostics, and system organization.

  7. Measurements of erbium laser-ablation efficiency in hard dental tissues under different water cooling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuščer, Lovro; Diaci, Janez

    2013-10-01

    Laser triangulation measurements of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-ablated volumes in hard dental tissues are made, in order to verify the possible existence of a "hydrokinetic" effect that has been proposed as an alternative to the "subsurface water expansion" mechanism for hard-tissue laser ablation. No evidence of the hydrokinetic effect could be observed under a broad range of tested laser parameters and water cooling conditions. On the contrary, the application of water spray during laser exposure of hard dental material is observed to diminish the laser-ablation efficiency (AE) in comparison with laser exposure under the absence of water spray. Our findings are in agreement with the generally accepted principle of action for erbium laser ablation, which is based on fast subsurface expansion of laser-heated water trapped within the interstitial structure of hard dental tissues. Our measurements also show that the well-known phenomenon of ablation stalling, during a series of consecutive laser pulses, can primarily be attributed to the blocking of laser light by the loosely bound and recondensed desiccated minerals that collect on the tooth surface during and following laser ablation. In addition to the prevention of tooth bulk temperature buildup, a positive function of the water spray that is typically used with erbium dental lasers is to rehydrate these minerals, and thus sustaining the subsurface expansion ablation process. A negative side effect of using a continuous water spray is that the AE gets reduced due to the laser light being partially absorbed in the water-spray particles above the tooth and in the collected water pool on the tooth surface. Finally, no evidence of the influence of the water absorption shift on the hypothesized increase in the AE of the Er,Cr:YSGG wavelength is observed.

  8. 多脉冲飞秒激光烧蚀金属箔的热电子发射数值分析%Numerical Simulation of Thermal Electron Emission in Metal Films Ablated by Multi-Pulse Femtosecond Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐斌; 伍晓宇; 凌世全; 罗烽; 杜晨林; 孙秀泉

    2012-01-01

    通过双温模型(TTM)结合Richardson-Dushman方程对多脉冲飞秒激光烧蚀铜箔的热电子发射以及温度场进行了数值模拟.在模拟的过程中充分考虑了随着飞秒激光脉冲个数的改变,铜箔对飞秒激光的反射率、表面吸收率和表面吸收系数的变化等因素,部分改写了飞秒激光光源项,从而实现了多脉冲飞秒激光烧蚀铜箔的热电子发射和温度场的动态数值模拟.数值模拟发现,随着脉冲个数的增加和脉冲间隔的减小,铜箔表面的反射率和表面吸收系数将明显减小,表面吸收率将明显增大,这一变化对铜箔的电子发射以及多脉冲飞秒激光照射下铜箔的温度场具有重要影响;而随着距铜箔表面深度的增加,这些影响将逐渐减小.%The characteristics of thermal electron emission of the metal films ablated by multi-pulse femtosecond laser are investigated using the two-temperature model (TTM) coupled with the Richardson-Dushman equation. In the numerical simulation, the variations of reflectivity and absorption of metal films with the change of the number of femtosecond laser pulses and pulse spacing are considered and the dynamic numerical simulation is achieved. It is found that, with the change of femtosecond laser pulse number and pulse spacing, the reflectivity and absorption coefficient of metal films would be raised and the absorptivity would be decreased. And the change of the parameters would have a significant influence on the thermal electron emission and the temperature field of metal films. Meanwhile, with the depth raising, the influence would be diminished.

  9. Plasma generated during underwater pulsed laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jacek; Chrzanowska, Justyna; Moscicki, Tomasz; Radziejewska, Joanna; Stobinski, Leszek; Szymanski, Zygmunt

    2017-09-01

    The plasma induced during underwater pulsed laser ablation of graphite is studied both experimentally and theoretically. The results of the experiment show that the maximum plasma temperature of 25000 K is reached 20 ns from the beginning of the laser pulse and decreases to 6500 K after 1000 ns. The observed OH absorption band shows that the plasma plume is surrounded by the thin layer of dissociated water vapour at a temperature around 5500 K. The hydrodynamic model applied shows similar maximum plasma temperature at delay times between 14 ns and 30 ns. The calculations show also that already at 14th ns, the plasma electron density reaches 0.97·1027 m-3, which is the critical density for 1064 nm radiation. At the same time the plasma pressure is 2 GPa, which is consisted with earlier measurements of the peak pressure exerted on a target in similar conditions.

  10. Property improvement of pulsed laser deposited boron carbide films by pulse shortening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csako, T. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, P.O. Box 406, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary); Budai, J. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, P.O. Box 406, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary); Szoerenyi, T. [Research Group on Laser Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Szeged, P.O. Box 406, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary)]. E-mail: t.szorenyi@physx.u-szeged.hu

    2006-04-30

    Growth characteristics and surface morphology of boron carbide films fabricated by ablating a B{sub 4}C target in high vacuum with a traditional KrF excimer laser and a high brightness hybrid dye/excimer laser system emitting at the same wavelength while delivering 700 fs pulses are compared. The ultrashort pulse processing is highly effective. Energy densities between 0.25 and 2 J cm{sup -2} result in apparent growth rates ranging from 0.017 to 0.085 nm/pulse. Ablation with nanosecond pulses of one order of magnitude higher energy densities yields smaller growth rates, the figures increase from 0.002 to 0.016 nm/pulse within the 2-14.3 J cm{sup -2} fluence window. 2D thickness maps derived from variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry reveal that, when ablating with sub-ps pulses, the spot size rather than the energy density determines both the deposition rate and the angular distribution of film material. Pulse shortening leads to significant improvement in surface morphology, as well. While droplets with number densities ranging from 1 x 10{sup 4} to 7 x 10{sup 4} mm{sup -2} deteriorate the surface of the films deposited by the KrF excimer laser, sub-ps pulses produce practically droplet-free films. The absence of droplets has also a beneficial effect on the stoichiometry and homogeneity of the films fabricated by ultrashort pulses.

  11. Tuning Optical Nonlinearity of Laser-Ablation-Synthesized Silicon Nanoparticles via Doping Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianwei Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanoparticles at different doping concentrations are investigated for tuning their optical nonlinear performance. The silicon nanoparticles are synthesized from doped silicon wafers by pulsed laser ablation. Their dispersions in water are studied for both nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction properties. It is found that the optical nonlinear performance can be modified by the doping concentration. Nanoparticles at a higher doping concentration exhibit better saturable absorption performance for femtosecond laser pulse, which is ascribed to the free carrier absorption mechanism.

  12. Mechanisms of nanoparticle formation by ultra-short laser ablation of metals in liquid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povarnitsyn, Mikhail E; Itina, Tatiana E; Levashov, Pavel R; Khishchenko, Konstantin V

    2013-03-07

    Laser ablation in liquids is now commonly used to produce colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) that have found numerous applications in different areas. In experiments, NPs of different materials can be rather easily obtained by using laser systems with various pulse durations, shapes, wavelengths, and fluences. In this paper, we focus our attention on metal (gold) NPs produced by ultra-short laser pulses. To better understand the mechanisms of the NPs formation, we perform modeling of femtosecond laser interactions with a gold target in the presence of liquid (water). Simulation of the ablation process over several nanoseconds shows that most of the primary NPs originate from the ablated metastable liquid layer, whereas only a minority is formed by condensation inside the cavitation bubble. These particles will further grow/evaporate, and coagulate during a much longer collision stage in the liquid colloid.

  13. Ultrashort-pulse laser irradiation of metal films: the effect of a double-peak laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosandi, Yudi [Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Fachbereich Physik und Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Kaiserslautern (Germany); Universitas Padjadjaran, Department of Physics, Sumedang (Indonesia); Urbassek, Herbert M. [Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Fachbereich Physik und Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Using molecular-dynamics simulation coupled to a homogeneous model for the electron gas, we study the response of an Al thin film on short-pulse laser irradiation. Laser pulses are considered to have a double-peak structure consisting of two Gaussian pulses; the time delay between the two pulses is varied. The temporal dependence of the energy transfer from the electronic system to the lattice is considered in detail. The effect on the temperature and pressure inside the material, as well as on melting, void nucleation and spallation (ablation) are studied. (orig.)

  14. Investigating Age Resolution in Laser Ablation Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstwood, Matt; Kosler, Jan; Jackson, Simon; Pearson, Norman; Sylvester, Paul

    2009-02-01

    Workshop on Data Handling in LA-ICP-MS U-Th-Pb Geochronology; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 12-13 July 2008; Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) uranium-thorium-lead (U-Th-Pb) dating is an increasingly popular approach for determining the age of mineral grains and the timing of geological events. The spatial resolution offered by this technique allows detailed investigations of complex igneous and metamorphic processes, and the speed of data capture allows vast amounts of information to be gathered rapidly. Laser ablation U-Th-Pb dating is therefore becoming an increasingly influential technique to the geochronology community, providing cost-effective and ready access to age data for laboratories and end users worldwide. However, complications in acquiring, processing, and interpreting data can lead to inaccurate age information entering the literature. With the numbers of practitioners expanding rapidly, the need to standardize approaches and resolve difficulties (particularly involving the subjectivity in processing laser ablation U-Th-Pb data) is becoming important.

  15. Optical pulses, lasers, measuring techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1965-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology: Volume II: Optical Pulses - Lasers - Measuring Techniques focuses on the theoretical and engineering problems that result from the capacitor discharge technique.This book is organized into three main topics: light flash production from a capacitive energy storage; signal transmission and ranging systems by capacitor discharges and lasers; and impulse measuring technique. This text specifically discusses the air spark under atmospheric conditions, industrial equipment for laser flashing, and claims for light transmitting system. The application of light impulse sign

  16. Research on ablation process of constant elastic alloy with femtosecond laser in solution medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Guilin; Su, Wenyi; Duan, Ji'an; Fan, Nannan; Sun, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Jianying; Wang, Cong; Yin, Kai; Dong, Xinran; Hu, Youwang

    2016-09-01

    Constant elastic alloy is widely used material with high applied performance. In order to develop the application of constant elastic alloy, laser ablation of constant elastic alloy in different ablation mediums was investigated with different femtosecond lasers. Constant elastic alloy was ablated in solution with different ethanol contents and different thicknesses of the liquid layer above the target material and for comparison, in air. Also, the effects of laser energy and laser pulses of femtosecond laser on the morphology are studied. The effects of the position of the laser focus relative to the target surface were also discussed. The experimental results indicate that larger laser-induced area and smaller depth of craters tend to be obtained in solution than in air. The laser-induced area firstly increases and then decreases, and depths of craters decrease at first and increase later with the increase in ethanol content. Furthermore, the larger were energy of laser pulses, the larger were laser-induced area and deeper craters made in all different ablation solutions.

  17. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter John

    2015-07-21

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  18. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter John

    2014-07-22

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline materiat layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  19. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David; Cousins, Peter

    2012-12-04

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  20. A study of particle generation during laser ablation with applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chunyi [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A study has been made of the generation of particles during laser ablation and has included size distribution measurements and observation of the formation processes. The particle size distribution with respect to different laser parameters was obtained in-line using a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and a particle counter. The experimental results show that the particle size varies with laser energy, laser pulsewidth, ambient gas flow rate and sample properties. The results serve as a basis for controlling the size of nanoparticles generated by laser ablation. Laser shadowgraph imaging was used to study mass ejection processes and mechanisms. At higher laser irradiance, some particles were ejected in the liquid and even in the solid phase. Time-resolved images show the propagation of the shockwaves: external shockwaves propagate outward and decelerate, and internal shockwaves reflect back and forth between the gas contact surface and the sample surface. The internal shockwave is proposed to cause the ejection of liquid particles when the internal shockwave strikes the liquid molten layer. A simulation based on vapor plume expansion was carried out and provides satisfactory agreement with experimental results. Different material properties result in different particle ejection behavior:particle ejection for most materials including metals result in a conically shaped envelope for the ejected material while ejection for silicon resembles a liquid jet. The difference in density change when the materials melt was proposed to be an important factor in the different ejection behavior. The characteristics of particles generated by laser ablation have a strong influence on the chemical analysis of the irradiated sample. Large particles are more difficult to completely vaporize and ionize, and induced preferential vaporization causes fractionation (i.e. a detected chemical composition that differs from the sample material). Large particles also result in spikes in

  1. A method for rapid measurement of laser ablation rate of hard dental tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhavec, T.; Gorkič, A.; Bračun, D.; Diaci, J.

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the study reported here is the development of a new method which allows rapid and accurate in-vitro measurements of three-dimensional (3D) shape of laser ablated craters in hard dental tissues and the determination of crater volume, ablation rate and speed. The method is based on the optical triangulation principle. A laser sheet projector illuminates the surface of a tooth, mounted on a linear translation stage. As the tooth is moved by the translation stage a fast digital video camera captures series of images of the illuminated surface. The images are analyzed to determine a 3D model of the surface. Custom software is employed to analyze the 3D model and to determine the volume of the ablated craters. Key characteristics of the method are discussed as well as some practical aspects pertinent to its use. The method has been employed in an in-vitro study to examine the ablation rates and speeds of the two main laser types currently employed in dentistry, Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG. Ten samples of extracted human molar teeth were irradiated with laser pulse energies from 80 mJ to the maximum available energy (970 mJ with the Er:YAG, and 260 mJ with the Er,Cr:YSGG). About 2000 images of each ablated tooth surface have been acquired along a translation range of 10 mm, taking about 10 s and providing close to 1 million surface measurement points. Volumes of 170 ablated craters (half of them in dentine and the other half in enamel) were determined from this data and used to examine the ablated volume per pulse energy and ablation speed. The results show that, under the same conditions, the ablated volume per pulse energy achieved by the Er:YAG laser exceeds that of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser in almost all regimes for dentine and enamel. The maximum Er:YAG laser ablation speeds (1.2 mm 3/s in dentine and 0.7 mm 3/s in enamel) exceed those obtained by the Er,Cr:YSGG laser (0.39 mm 3/s in dentine and 0.12 mm 3/s in enamel). Since the presented method proves to be easy to

  2. Optimization of silver nanoparticles production by laser ablation in water using a 150-ps laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stašić, J.; Živković, Lj.; Trtica, M.

    2016-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by laser ablation in liquid (water) using a 150-ps Nd:YAG laser. Due to their extraordinary characteristics, especially when obtained by this method providing high purity and high stability of colloids, silver NPs are nowadays highly important in various applications. The objective of this study was to optimize the process parameters in order to achieve the highest possible yield while retaining small particle size. Yield/mass concentration of the obtained particles was measured depending on different parameters: time of irradiation, pulse energy, position regarding the focus, and number of irradiation locations. The conditions providing relatively high yield, small particle size, highest production rate, and highest efficiency are 7 mJ, 15-min irradiation time (9000 pulses), and target position ˜4 mm in front of the lens focus. The results are compared with the results obtained by the longer nanosecond as well as the ultrashort pulsed lasers. A possible physical explanation is given.

  3. Structural Changes in Pulsed Laser Ablated CuInSe2 Compound STRUKTURĀLĀS IZMAIŅAS Impulsa LĀZERA ABLĒTAJĀ CuInSe2 SAVIENOJUMĀ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogurcovs, A.; Gerbreders, V.; Tamanis, E.; Sledevskis, E.; Gerbreders, A.

    2013-12-01

    CuInSe2 (CISe) compound was produced by high-temperature synthesis. After mechanical milling, the average CISe particle size decreased to 10μm. The authors study structural changes of the compound after ablation in liquid by a 1064 nm pulsed laser. The SEM examination indicated the presence of spherical particles with the average size of ~ 450 nm. A nonlinear relationship was established between the laser radiation dose and the quantity of spherical particles. The XRD analysis has shown an improvement in the CISe crystalline structure and the absence of significant changes in its stoichiometry. The 3 μm thick experimental CISe samples were screen-printed on planar Ni electrodes, and improvement also was revealed in their photosensitivity. The conclusion is that the pulsed-laser ablation can be applied to chalcopyrite structures like CISe without destruction of their initial properties. Darba autori apskata impulsa lāzera ablācijas pielietojuma iespēju CuInSe2 savienojumam. Eksperimentu gaitā tika konstatēts, ka ablācijas procesā CuInSe2 vidē veidojas sfēriskas formas daļiņas, kuru izmēri ir atkarīgi no lāzera starojuma parametriem un no vides īpašībām. Apstarotā materiāla analīze uzrādīja CuInSe2 struktūras kvalitātes uzlabojumus, kā arī gaismjūtības palielināšanos par 8%, salīdzinājumā ar neapstarotu materiālu. Darba rezultāti liecina par to, ka, mainot lāzera starojuma parametrus, ir iespējams uzlabot CuInSe2 savienojumu, nesagraujot tā darba īpašības. Aprakstītās eksperimentālās metodes un tehnoloģijas sniedz plašu darbības lauku tālākiem pētījumiem šajā jomā.

  4. Effects of Beam Size and Pulse Duration on the Laser Drilling Process

    CERN Document Server

    Afrin, Nazia; Chen, J K; Zhang, Yuwen

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional axisymmetric transient laser drilling model is used to analyze the effects of laser beam diameter and laser pulse duration on the laser drilling process. The model includes conduction and convection heat transfer, melting, solidification and vaporization, as well as material removal resulting from the vaporization and melt ejection. The validated model is applied to study the effects of laser beam size and pulse duration on the geometry of the drilled hole. It is found that the ablation effect decrease with the increasing beam diameter due to the effect of increased vaporization rate, and deeper hole is observed for the larger pulse width due to the higher thermal ablation efficiency.

  5. Laser Ablation Plasma Injection into the Frankfurt 14 GHz ECRIS

    CERN Document Server

    Mironov, V; Runkel, S; Schmidt, L; Shirkov, G D; Stiebing, K E; Schmidt-Böcking, H; Schempp, A

    1999-01-01

    A Q-switched YAG:Nd3+ laser was used to evaporate a metal (Cd) target mounted close to a biased disk in the vacuum chamber of the 14 GHz Frankfurt ECRIS. The formation of the laser ablation plasma and the pulsed injection of neutral particles into ECR plasma resulting from the evaporation were studied in order to optimise the production of metal-ion beams and to perform diagnostics of the ECR plasma. The pulsed highly charged Cadmium ion beams were detected under the injection of neutral atoms of Cadmium into an Argon ECR discharge. The ionisation and confinements times for these ions were determined by using time-resolved spectroscopy of the charge state spectra. At the moment of the Cadmium injection, a pulsed increase of the Argon beam currents was detected, which is attributed to changes of the plasma potential. The amplitudes of these pulses are comparable with afterglow currents. Further investigations may provide a chance to use this effect for the injection of ion beams into the pulsed accelerators.

  6. A new pulsed laser deposition technique: scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D; de la Fuente, G F; Jansen, M

    2012-04-01

    The scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method realizes uniform depositions of desired coatings by a modified pulsed laser deposition process, preferably with a femto-second laser-system. Multi-component coatings (single or multilayered) are thus deposited onto substrates via laser induced ablation of segmented targets. This is achieved via horizontal line-scanning of a focused laser beam over a uniformly moving target's surface. This process allows to deposit the desired composition of the coating simultaneously, starting from the different segments of the target and adjusting the scan line as a function of target geometry. The sequence and thickness of multilayers can easily be adjusted by target architecture and motion, enabling inter/intra layer concentration gradients and thus functional gradient coatings. This new, simple PLD method enables the achievement of uniform, large-area coatings. Case studies were performed with segmented targets containing aluminum, titanium, and niobium. Under the laser irradiation conditions applied, all three metals were uniformly ablated. The elemental composition within the rough coatings obtained was fixed by the scanned area to Ti-Al-Nb = 1:1:1. Crystalline aluminum, titanium, and niobium were found to coexist side by side at room temperature within the substrate, without alloy formation up to 600 °C.

  7. Over 0.5 MW green laser from sub-nanosecond giant pulsed microchip laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lihe; Taira, Takunori

    2016-03-01

    A sub-nanosecond green laser with laser head sized 35 × 35 × 35 mm3 was developed from a giant pulsed microchip laser for laser processing on organic superconducting transistor with a flexible substrate. A composite monolithic Y3Al5O12 (YAG) /Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG/YAG crystal was designed for generating giant pulsed 1064 nm laser. A fibercoupled 30 W laser diode centered at 808 nm was used with pump pulse duration of 245 μs. The 532 nm green laser was obtained from a LiB3O5 (LBO) crystal with output energy of 150 μJ and pulse duration of 268 ps. The sub-nanosecond green laser is interesting for 2-D ablation patterns.

  8. Femtosecond laser ablation of a metal, a dielectric and a semiconductor illuminated at oblique angles of incidence

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiao-Long; Petrarca, Massimo; Polynkin, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    We report the measurements of fluence thresholds for single-shot femtosecond laser ablation, as functions of the angle of incidence and at different polarizations of the laser beam, for a metal, a dielectric and a semiconductor. We use the linear index of refraction, unperturbed by the ablating laser pulse, to compute the values of the laser fluence transmitted into the material, corresponding to the measured values of the ablation threshold fluence in the incident beam. Our data show that, in spite of the complex nonlinear ionization dynamics involved in the ablation process, thus computed transmitted threshold fluence is remarkably independent of the angle of incidence and polarization of the laser beam, for all three material types. We suggest that the angular dependence of ablation threshold can be utilized for profiling fluence distributions in ultra-intense femtosecond laser beams.

  9. Synthesis of Ultra-Small Palladium Nanoparticles Deposited on CdS Nanorods by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid: Role of Metal Nanocrystal Size in the Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanbit; Reddy, D Amaranatha; Kim, Yujin; Lee, Seunghee; Ma, Rory; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2017-09-21

    It is imperative to suppress the rate of recombination of photogenerated carriers to improve the semiconductor-catalyzed solar-driven production of hydrogen. To this end, photocatalysts comprising active sunlight-harvesting photo-absorbers and stable metal co-catalysts have attracted significant attention. However, the size, clean surface, and highly dispersed nature of the metal co-catalysts are crucial factors affecting catalyst performance and reaction rate. Nevertheless, most of the available metal nanocrystals have been synthesized by complex procedures using harmful organic templates and stabilizers, affording high-purity compounds with difficulty and high cost. To overcome these problems, in this study, the pulsed laser ablation in liquid approach was utilized to generate palladium and bimetallic palladium-platinum nanoparticles with an average size and distribution by adjusting the laser wavelength and fluence. A high rate of evolution of hydrogen of 130.33 mmol g(-1)  h(-1) was obtained by using the optimized CdS-PdPt catalyst under simulated sunlight irradiation. This value is 51.31 times greater than that observed for bare CdS nanostructures. Furthermore, the amount of hydrogen evolved was significantly better than that obtained by using several other noble-metal co-catalysts deposited on CdS. This proposed strategy is thought to open new avenues for the design of advanced photocatalytic materials for efficient solar-driven production of hydrogen. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Femtosecond laser ablation properties of transparent materials: impact of the laser process parameters on the machining throughput

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matylitsky, V. V.; Hendricks, F.; Aus der Au, J.

    2013-03-01

    High average power, high repetition rate femtosecond lasers with μJ pulse energies are increasingly used for bio-medical and material processing applications. W