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Sample records for pulsed field gradient

  1. Dynamic pulsed-field-gradient NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Sørland, Geir Humborstad

    2014-01-01

    Dealing with the basics, theory and applications of dynamic pulsed-field-gradient NMR NMR (PFG NMR), this book describes the essential theory behind diffusion in heterogeneous media that can be combined with NMR measurements to extract important information of the system being investigated. This information could be the surface to volume ratio, droplet size distribution in emulsions, brine profiles, fat content in food stuff, permeability/connectivity in porous materials and medical applications currently being developed. Besides theory and applications it will provide the readers with background knowledge on the experimental set-ups, and most important, deal with the pitfalls that are numerously present in work with PFG-NMR. How to analyze the NMR data and some important basic knowledge on the hardware will be explained, too.

  2. Orientationally invariant metrics of apparent compartment eccentricity from double pulsed field gradient diffusion experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Lundell, Henrik; Sønderby, Casper Kaae

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed field gradient diffusion sequences (PFG) with multiple diffusion encoding blocks have been indicated to offer new microstructural tissue information, such as the ability to detect nonspherical compartment shapes in macroscopically isotropic samples, i.e. samples with negligible directional...

  3. Self-diffusion measurements in heterogeneous systems using NMR pulsed field gradient technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heink, W.; Kaerger, J.; Walter, A.

    1978-01-01

    The experimental pecularities of the NMR pulsed field gradient technique are critical surveyed in its application to zeolite adsorbate adsorbent systems. After a presentation of the different transport parameters accessible by this technique, the consequences of the existence of inner field gradients being inherent to heterogeneous systems are analyzed. Experimental conditions and consequences of an application of pulsed field gradients of high intensity which are necessary for the measurement of small intracrystalline self-diffusion coefficients, are discussed. Gradient pulses of 0.15 Tcm -1 with pulse widths of 2 ms maximum and relative deviations of less than 0.01 per mille can be realized. Since for a number of adsorbate adsorbent systems a distinct dependence of the intracrystalline self-diffusion coeffcients on adsorbate concentration is observed, determination of zeolite pore fiiling factor is of considerable importance for the interpretation of the diffusivities obtained. It is demonstrated that also this information can be obtained by NMR technique in a straightforward way with a mean error of less than 5 to 10 %. Applying this new method and using an optimum experimental device as described, pore filling factor dependences of the self-diffusion coefficients of alkanes in NaX zeolites can be followed over more than two orders of magnitude. (author)

  4. Pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance study of transport properties of fluid catalytic cracking catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kortunov, P.; Vasenkov, S.; Kärger, J.; Fé Elía, M.; Perez, M.; Stöcker, M.; Papadopoulos, G. K.; Theodorou, D.; Drescher, B.; McElhiney, G.; Bernauer, B.; Krystl, V.; Kočiřík, Milan; Zikánová, Arlette; Jirglová, Hana; Berger, C.; Gläser, R.; Weitkamp, J.; Hansen, E. W.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2005), s. 233-237 ISSN 0730-725X Grant - others:TROCAT project - European Community(DE) G5RD-CT-2001-00520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : pulsed-field gradient * nuclear magnetic resonance * fluid catalytic cracking catalyst Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.361, year: 2005

  5. Occupational exposure measurements of static and pulsed gradient magnetic fields in the vicinity of MRI scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaennaelae, Sami; Toivo, Tim; Jokela, Kari [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, PO Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Alanko, Tommi [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, New Technologies and Risks, Topeliuksenkatu 41a A, 00250 Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: sami.kannala@stuk.fi

    2009-04-07

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have increased occupational exposure to magnetic fields. In this study, we examined the assessment of occupational exposure to gradient magnetic fields and time-varying magnetic fields generated by motion in non-homogeneous static magnetic fields of MRI scanners. These magnetic field components can be measured simultaneously with an induction coil setup that detects the time rate of change of magnetic flux density (dB/dt). The setup developed was used to measure the field components around two MRI units (1 T open and 3 T conventional). The measured values can be compared with dB/dt reference levels derived from magnetic flux density reference levels given by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The measured motion-induced dB/dt values were above the dB/dt reference levels for both MRI units. The measured values for the gradient fields (echo planar imaging (EPI) and fast field echo (FFE) sequences) also exceeded the dB/dt reference levels in positions where the medical staff may have access during interventional procedures. The highest motion-induced dB/dt values were 0.7 T s{sup -1} for the 1 T scanner and 3 T s{sup -1} for the 3 T scanner when only the static field was present. Even higher values (6.5 T s{sup -1}) were measured for simultaneous exposure to motion-induced and gradient fields in the vicinity of the 3 T scanner.

  6. Quantitation of chemical exchange rates using pulsed-field-gradient diffusion measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrec, Michael; Prestegard, James H.

    1997-01-01

    A new approach to the quantitation of chemical exchange rates is presented, and its utility is illustrated with application to the exchange of protein amide protons with bulk water. The approach consists of a selective-inversion exchange HMQC experiment in which a short spin echo diffusion filter has been inserted into the exchange period. In this way, the kinetics of exchange are encoded directly in an apparent diffusion coefficient which is a function of the position of the diffusion filter in the pulse sequence. A detailed theoretical analysis of this experiment indicates that, in addition to the measurement of simple exchange rates, the experiment is capable of measuring the effect of mediated exchange, e.g. the transfer of magnetization from bulk water to an amide site mediated by an internal bound water molecule or a labile protein side-chain proton in fast exchange with bulk water. Experimental results for rapid water/amide exchange in acyl carrier protein are shown to be quantitatively consistent with the exchange rates measured using a selective-inversion exchange experiment

  7. A general framework to quantify the effect of restricted diffusion on the NMR signal with applications to double pulsed field gradient NMR experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozarslan, Evren; Shemesh, Noam; Basser, Peter J

    2009-03-14

    Based on a description introduced by Robertson, Grebenkov recently introduced a powerful formalism to represent the diffusion-attenuated NMR signal for simple pore geometries such as slabs, cylinders, and spheres analytically. In this work, we extend this multiple correlation function formalism by allowing for possible variations in the direction of the magnetic field gradient waveform. This extension is necessary, for example, to incorporate the effects of imaging gradients in diffusion-weighted NMR imaging scans and in characterizing anisotropy at different length scales via double pulsed field gradient (PFG) experiments. In cylindrical and spherical pores, respectively, two- and three-dimensional vector operators are employed whose form is deduced from Grebenkov's results via elementary operator algebra for the case of cylinders and the Wigner-Eckart theorem for the case of spheres. The theory was validated by comparison with known findings and with experimental double-PFG data obtained from water-filled microcapillaries.

  8. A general framework to quantify the effect of restricted diffusion on the NMR signal with applications to double pulsed field gradient NMR experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özarslan, Evren; Shemesh, Noam; Basser, Peter J.

    2009-03-01

    Based on a description introduced by Robertson, Grebenkov recently introduced a powerful formalism to represent the diffusion-attenuated NMR signal for simple pore geometries such as slabs, cylinders, and spheres analytically. In this work, we extend this multiple correlation function formalism by allowing for possible variations in the direction of the magnetic field gradient waveform. This extension is necessary, for example, to incorporate the effects of imaging gradients in diffusion-weighted NMR imaging scans and in characterizing anisotropy at different length scales via double pulsed field gradient (PFG) experiments. In cylindrical and spherical pores, respectively, two- and three-dimensional vector operators are employed whose form is deduced from Grebenkov's results via elementary operator algebra for the case of cylinders and the Wigner-Eckart theorem for the case of spheres. The theory was validated by comparison with known findings and with experimental double-PFG data obtained from water-filled microcapillaries.

  9. Studies of protonic self-diffusion and conductivity in 12-tungstophophoric acid hydrates by pulsed field gradient 1H NMR and ac Conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slade, R.C.; Pressman, H.A.; Barker, J.; Strange, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Temperature dependent protonic conductivities σ and 1/H self-diffusion coefficients, D, are reported for polycrystalline hydrates of 12-tungstophosphoric acid (TPA). Conductivities were measured using ac admittane spectrometry and diffusion coefficients by the pulsed field gradient NMR technique. Conductivities for the hydrates TPA.nH 2 O (n=6, 14, 21) increase with n. Examination of σ and D values and of activation techniques shows self-diffusion and conduction to occur by different mechanisms in the higher hydrates. 25 refs.; 14 figs.; 1 table

  10. Measurement of gradient magnetic field temporal characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartusek, K.; Jflek, B.

    1994-01-01

    We describe a technique of measuring the time dependence and field distortions of magnetic fields due to eddy currents (EC) produced by time-dependent magnetic field gradients. The EC measuring technique makes use of a large volume sample and selective RF excitation pulses and free induction decay (FID) (or a spin or gradient echo) to measure the out-of-phase component of the FID, which is proportional to γδB, i.e. the amount the signal is off resonance. The measuring technique is sensitive, easy to implement and interpret, and used for determining pre-emphasis compensation parameters

  11. Electric field gradients in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, G.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the recent works on electric field gradient in metals is given. The main emphasis is put on the temperature dependence of the electric field gradient in nonmagnetic metals. Some methods of investigation of this effect using nuclear probes are described. One of them is nuclear accoustic resonance method. (S.B.)

  12. The geomagnetic field gradient tensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Olsen, Nils

    2012-01-01

    We develop the general mathematical basis for space magnetic gradiometry in spherical coordinates. The magnetic gradient tensor is a second rank tensor consisting of 3 × 3 = 9 spatial derivatives. Since the geomagnetic field vector B is always solenoidal (∇ · B = 0) there are only eight independent...... tensor elements. Furthermore, in current free regions the magnetic gradient tensor becomes symmetric, further reducing the number of independent elements to five. In that case B is a Laplacian potential field and the gradient tensor can be expressed in series of spherical harmonics. We present properties...... of the magnetic gradient tensor and provide explicit expressions of its elements in terms of spherical harmonics. Finally we discuss the benefit of using gradient measurements for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space, in particular the advantage of the various tensor elements for a better determination...

  13. A Gradient-Field Pulsed Eddy Current Probe for Evaluation of Hidden Material Degradation in Conductive Structures Based on Lift-Off Invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Jing, Haoqing; Zainal Abidin, Ilham Mukriz; Yan, Bei

    2017-04-25

    Coated conductive structures are widely adopted in such engineering fields as aerospace, nuclear energy, etc. The hostile and corrosive environment leaves in-service coated conductive structures vulnerable to Hidden Material Degradation (HMD) occurring under the protection coating. It is highly demanded that HMD can be non-intrusively assessed using non-destructive evaluation techniques. In light of the advantages of Gradient-field Pulsed Eddy Current technique (GPEC) over other non-destructive evaluation methods in corrosion evaluation, in this paper the GPEC probe for quantitative evaluation of HMD is intensively investigated. Closed-form expressions of GPEC responses to HMD are formulated via analytical modeling. The Lift-off Invariance (LOI) in GPEC signals, which makes the HMD evaluation immune to the variation in thickness of the protection coating, is introduced and analyzed through simulations involving HMD with variable depths and conductivities. A fast inverse method employing magnitude and time of the LOI point in GPEC signals for simultaneously evaluating the conductivity and thickness of HMD region is proposed, and subsequently verified by finite element modeling and experiments. It has been found from the results that along with the proposed inverse method the GPEC probe is applicable to evaluation of HMD in coated conductive structures without much loss in accuracy.

  14. Pulsed electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of pulsed electric fields (PEF) was first proposed in 1967 to change the behavior or microorganisms. The electric field phenomenon was identified as membrane rupture theory in the 1980s. Increasing the membrane permeability led to the application of PEF assisted extraction of cellular co...

  15. Diffusional behavior of n-paraffins with various chain lengths in urea adduct channels by pulsed field-gradient spin-echo NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sunmi; Kuroki, Shigeki; Ando, Isao

    2006-01-01

    The diffusion coefficients (D) of n-paraffin molecules (n-C n H 2n+2 ) with various chain-lengths (n = 8, 12, 21, 26, 28 and 32) in the long channels of a deuterated urea-d 4 adduct have been measured at 25 deg. C by means of pulsed field-gradient spin-echo 1 H NMR method. The aim is to clarify diffusional behavior of the n-paraffin molecules in the urea adduct channels. From the experimental results, it is found that n-paraffin molecules are diffusing in the long channels and have two kinds of diffusion components, namely a fast (D ∼ 10 -10 m 2 /s) and a slow diffusion component (D ∼ 10 -11 m 2 /s). The diffusing-time (Δ) dependence of the diffusion coefficients of the n-paraffins shows some likely evidence of restricted diffusion since the n-paraffin molecules are confined in the urea channel. The diffusion coefficients (D) decrease as the carbon number increases from 8 to 28, and very slowly decreases as the carbon number increases from 28 to 32

  16. NMR in pulsed magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Abou-Hamad, Edy; Bontemps, P.; Rikken, Geert L J A

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments in pulsed magnetic fields up to 30.4 T focused on 1H and 93Nb nuclei are reported. Here we discuss the advantage and limitation of pulsed field NMR and why this technique is able to become a promising research tool. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  17. NMR in pulsed magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Abou-Hamad, Edy

    2011-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments in pulsed magnetic fields up to 30.4 T focused on 1H and 93Nb nuclei are reported. Here we discuss the advantage and limitation of pulsed field NMR and why this technique is able to become a promising research tool. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Practical pulse engineering: Gradient ascent without matrix exponentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhole, Gaurav; Jones, Jonathan A.

    2018-06-01

    Since 2005, there has been a huge growth in the use of engineered control pulses to perform desired quantum operations in systems such as nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processors. These approaches, which build on the original gradient ascent pulse engineering algorithm, remain computationally intensive because of the need to calculate matrix exponentials for each time step in the control pulse. In this study, we discuss how the propagators for each time step can be approximated using the Trotter-Suzuki formula, and a further speedup achieved by avoiding unnecessary operations. The resulting procedure can provide substantial speed gain with negligible costs in the propagator error, providing a more practical approach to pulse engineering.

  19. Cryosurgery with pulsed electric fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte S Daniels

    Full Text Available This study explores the hypothesis that combining the minimally invasive surgical techniques of cryosurgery and pulsed electric fields will eliminate some of the major disadvantages of these techniques while retaining their advantages. Cryosurgery, tissue ablation by freezing, is a well-established minimally invasive surgical technique. One disadvantage of cryosurgery concerns the mechanism of cell death; cells at high subzero temperature on the outer rim of the frozen lesion can survive. Pulsed electric fields (PEF are another minimally invasive surgical technique in which high strength and very rapid electric pulses are delivered across cells to permeabilize the cell membrane for applications such as gene delivery, electrochemotherapy and irreversible electroporation. The very short time scale of the electric pulses is disadvantageous because it does not facilitate real time control over the procedure. We hypothesize that applying the electric pulses during the cryosurgical procedure in such a way that the electric field vector is parallel to the heat flux vector will have the effect of confining the electric fields to the frozen/cold region of tissue, thereby ablating the cells that survive freezing while facilitating controlled use of the PEF in the cold confined region. A finite element analysis of the electric field and heat conduction equations during simultaneous tissue treatment with cryosurgery and PEF (cryosurgery/PEF was used to study the effect of tissue freezing on electric fields. The study yielded motivating results. Because of decreased electrical conductivity in the frozen/cooled tissue, it experienced temperature induced magnified electric fields in comparison to PEF delivered to the unfrozen tissue control. This suggests that freezing/cooling confines and magnifies the electric fields to those regions; a targeting capability unattainable in traditional PEF. This analysis shows how temperature induced magnified and focused

  20. Cryosurgery with Pulsed Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Charlotte S.; Rubinsky, Boris

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that combining the minimally invasive surgical techniques of cryosurgery and pulsed electric fields will eliminate some of the major disadvantages of these techniques while retaining their advantages. Cryosurgery, tissue ablation by freezing, is a well-established minimally invasive surgical technique. One disadvantage of cryosurgery concerns the mechanism of cell death; cells at high subzero temperature on the outer rim of the frozen lesion can survive. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) are another minimally invasive surgical technique in which high strength and very rapid electric pulses are delivered across cells to permeabilize the cell membrane for applications such as gene delivery, electrochemotherapy and irreversible electroporation. The very short time scale of the electric pulses is disadvantageous because it does not facilitate real time control over the procedure. We hypothesize that applying the electric pulses during the cryosurgical procedure in such a way that the electric field vector is parallel to the heat flux vector will have the effect of confining the electric fields to the frozen/cold region of tissue, thereby ablating the cells that survive freezing while facilitating controlled use of the PEF in the cold confined region. A finite element analysis of the electric field and heat conduction equations during simultaneous tissue treatment with cryosurgery and PEF (cryosurgery/PEF) was used to study the effect of tissue freezing on electric fields. The study yielded motivating results. Because of decreased electrical conductivity in the frozen/cooled tissue, it experienced temperature induced magnified electric fields in comparison to PEF delivered to the unfrozen tissue control. This suggests that freezing/cooling confines and magnifies the electric fields to those regions; a targeting capability unattainable in traditional PEF. This analysis shows how temperature induced magnified and focused PEFs could be used to

  1. Efficient method to design RF pulses for parallel excitation MRI using gridding and conjugate gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuo; Ji, Jim

    2014-04-01

    Parallel excitation (pTx) techniques with multiple transmit channels have been widely used in high field MRI imaging to shorten the RF pulse duration and/or reduce the specific absorption rate (SAR). However, the efficiency of pulse design still needs substantial improvement for practical real-time applications. In this paper, we present a detailed description of a fast pulse design method with Fourier domain gridding and a conjugate gradient method. Simulation results of the proposed method show that the proposed method can design pTx pulses at an efficiency 10 times higher than that of the conventional conjugate-gradient based method, without reducing the accuracy of the desirable excitation patterns.

  2. Vertical gradients of sunspot magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M. J.; Teuber, D.; West, E. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Henze, W., Jr.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, M.; Hyder, C. L.; Woodgate, B. E.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) guest investigation to determine the vertical gradients of sunspot magnetic fields for the first time from coordinated observations of photospheric and transition-region fields are described. Descriptions are given of both the photospheric vector field of a sunspot, derived from observations using the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograph, and of the line-of-sight component in the transition region, obtained from the SMM Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter instrument. On the basis of these data, vertical gradients of the line-of-sight magnetic field component are calculated using three methods. It is found that the vertical gradient of Bz is lower than values from previous studies and that the transition-region field occurs at a height of approximately 4000-6000 km above the photosphere.

  3. Comparison of DNA double-strand break rejoining as measured by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, neutral sucrose gradient centrifugation and non-unwinding filter elution in irradiated plateau-phase CHO cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.; Metzger, L.; Pantelias, G.

    1991-01-01

    The initial (up to 30 min) rate of DNA double-strand break (dsb) rejoining was measured in irradiated plateau-phase CHO cells, in a set of parallel experiments using the same cell suspension, by means of non-unwinding filter elution, neutral sucrose gradient centrifugation, and two pulsed-field gel electrophoresis assays: asymmetric field inversion gel electrophoresis (AFIGE) and clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) gel electrophoresis. The rate of DNA dsb rejoining was compared to the rate of rejoining of chromatin breaks measured, also in the same cell population, using the technique of premature chromosome condensation (PCC). Two radiation exposures, 25 Gy and/or 50 Gy, were used and applied to the individual parts of the experiments according to the sensitivity of the assay under investigation. The results suggest all major techniques currently used for assaying rejoining of DNA dsb give similar results, and indicate that more information is required before a direct correlation between rejoining of DNA dsb and rejoining of chromatin breaks can be established. (author)

  4. A z-gradient array for simultaneous multi-slice excitation with a single-band RF pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertan, Koray; Taraghinia, Soheil; Sadeghi, Alireza; Atalar, Ergin

    2018-07-01

    Multi-slice radiofrequency (RF) pulses have higher specific absorption rates, more peak RF power, and longer pulse durations than single-slice RF pulses. Gradient field design techniques using a z-gradient array are investigated for exciting multiple slices with a single-band RF pulse. Two different field design methods are formulated to solve for the required current values of the gradient array elements for the given slice locations. The method requirements are specified, optimization problems are formulated for the minimum current norm and an analytical solution is provided. A 9-channel z-gradient coil array driven by independent, custom-designed gradient amplifiers is used to validate the theory. Performance measures such as normalized slice thickness error, gradient strength per unit norm current, power dissipation, and maximum amplitude of the magnetic field are provided for various slice locations and numbers of slices. Two and 3 slices are excited by a single-band RF pulse in simulations and phantom experiments. The possibility of multi-slice excitation with a single-band RF pulse using a z-gradient array is validated in simulations and phantom experiments. Magn Reson Med 80:400-412, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. NMR imaging of solids with multiple-pulse line narrowing and radiofrequency gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    The usual methods of magnetic resonance imaging fail in rigid solids due to the line-shape contributions of dipolar coupling, chemical shift dispersion and anisotropy, and bulk magnetic susceptibility. This dissertation presents a new method of solid-stage imaging by nuclear magnetic resonance which averages away these contributions with multiple-pulse line-narrowing and encodes spatial information with pulsed radiofrequency field gradients. This method is closely related to simultaneously developed methods utilizing pulsed DC gradients, and offers similar improvements in sensitivity and resolution. The advantage of rf gradients is that they can be rapidly switched without inducing eddy currents in the probe or the magnet. In addition, the phases and amplitudes of the rf gradients can be switched by equipment which is already part of an NMR spectrometer capable of solid-state spectroscopy. The line-narrowing and gradient pulses originate in separate rf circuits tuned to the same frequency. Interactions between the circuits have been minimized by a method of active Q-switching which employs PIN diodes in the matching networks of these circuits. Both one- and two-dimensional images are presented. The latter are obtained by a novel method in which the two dimensions of imaging transverse to the static magnetic field are encoded by two orthogonal components of a single rf gradient. A π/2 phase shift of the rf phase relative to that of the line-narrowing pulses selects one component or the other. This arrangement allows the solid-state analogs of versatile imaging sequences based on Fourier imaging and eliminates the need for sample rotation and back-projection methods. Coherent averaging theory is used to analyze this imaging technique and exact numerical simulations on several coupled spins are discussed. These lend insight to the residual linewidth and its dependence on pixel position as well as to the range of applicability of this technique

  6. Integral Field Spectroscopy Surveys: Oxygen Abundance Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.

    2017-07-01

    We present here the recent results on our understanding of oxygen abundance gradients derived using Integral Field Spectroscopic surveys. In particular we analyzed more than 2124 datacubes corresponding to individual objects observed by the CALIFA (˜ 734 objects) and the public data by MaNGA (˜ 1390 objects), deriving the oxygen abundance gradient for each galaxy. We confirm previous results that indicate that the shape of this gradient is very similar for all galaxies with masses above 109.5M⊙, presenting in average a very similar slope of ˜ -0.04 dex within 0.5-2.0 re, with a possible drop in the inner regions (r109.5M⊙) the gradient seems to be flatter than for more massive ones. All these results agree with an inside-out growth of massive galaxies and indicate that low mass ones may still be growing in an outside in phase.

  7. A fast pulse design for parallel excitation with gridding conjugate gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuo; Ji, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Parallel excitation (pTx) is recognized as a crucial technique in high field MRI to address the transmit field inhomogeneity problem. However, it can be time consuming to design pTx pulses which is not desirable. In this work, we propose a pulse design with gridding conjugate gradient (CG) based on the small-tip-angle approximation. The two major time consuming matrix-vector multiplications are substituted by two operators which involves with FFT and gridding only. Simulation results have shown that the proposed method is 3 times faster than conventional method and the memory cost is reduced by 1000 times.

  8. Magnetic field of longitudinal gradient bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Masamitsu; Böge, Michael; Ehrlichman, Michael; Streun, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    The longitudinal gradient bend is an effective method for reducing the natural emittance in light sources. It is, however, not a common element. We have analyzed its magnetic field and derived a set of formulae. Based on the derivation, we discuss how to model the longitudinal gradient bend in accelerator codes that are used for designing electron storage rings. Strengths of multipole components can also be evaluated from the formulae, and we investigate the impact of higher order multipole components in a very low emittance lattice.

  9. Pulsed electric field increases reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the effect of pulsed electric field - applied in corona discharge photography - on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction, possible induction of DNA fragmentation, and morphological alterations in the gonads. Materials and methods Animals were exposed to different field intensities (100, 200, 300, and 400 kV/m) during the first 2-5 days of their adult lives, and the effect on reproductive capacity was assessed. DNA fragmentation during early- and mid-oogenesis was investigated by application of the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay. Sections of follicles after fixation and embedding in resins were observed for possible morphological/developmental abnormalities. Results The field increased reproduction by up to 30% by increasing reproductive capacity in both sexes. The effect increased with increasing field intensities. The rate of increase diminished at the strongest intensities. Slight induction of DNA fragmentation was observed exclusively in the nurse (predominantly) and follicle cells, and exclusively at the two most sensitive developmental stages, i.e., germarium and predominantly stage 7-8. Sections of follicles from exposed females at stages of early and mid-oogennesis other than germarium and stages 7-8 did not reveal abnormalities. Conclusions (1) The specific type of electric field may represent a mild stress factor, inducing DNA fragmentation and cell death in a small percentage of gametes, triggering the reaction of the animal's reproductive system to increase the rate of gametogenesis in order to compensate the loss of a small number of gametes. (2) The nurse cells are the most sensitive from all three types of egg chamber cells. (3) The mid-oogenesis checkpoint (stage 7-8) is more sensitive to this field than the early oogenesis one (germarium) in contrast to microwave exposure. (4) Possible therapeutic applications, or applications in increasing fertility, should be investigated.

  10. Pulsed electric field inactivation in a microreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) is a novel, non-thermal pasteurization method which uses short, high electric field pulses to inactivate microorganisms. The advantage of a pasteurization method like PEF compared to regular heat pasteurization is that the taste, flavour, texture and nutritional value

  11. Aluminum and gallium nuclei as microscopic probes for pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance diagnostics of electric-field gradient and spin density in garnet ceramics doped with paramagnetic ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenskaya, Yu. A.; Mamin, G. V.; Babunts, R. A.; Badalyan, A. G.; Edinach, E. V.; Asatryan, H. R.; Romanov, N. G.; Orlinskii, S. B.; Khanin, V. M.; Wieczorek, H.; Ronda, C.; Baranov, P. G.

    2018-03-01

    The presence of aluminum and gallium isotopes with large nuclear magnetic and quadrupole moments in the nearest environment of impurity ions Mn2+ and Ce3+ in garnets made it possible to use hyperfine and quadrupole interactions with these ions to determine the spatial distribution of the unpaired electron and the gradient of the electric field at the sites of aluminum and gallium in the garnet lattice. High-frequency (94 GHz) electron spin echo detected electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance measurements have been performed. Large difference in the electric field gradient and quadrupole splitting at octahedral and tetrahedral sites allowed identifying the positions of aluminum and gallium ions in the garnet lattice and proving that gallium first fills tetrahedral positions in mixed aluminum-gallium garnets. This should be taken into account in the development of garnet-based scintillators and lasers. It is shown that the electric field gradient at aluminum nuclei near Mn2+ possessing an excess negative charge in the garnet lattice is ca. 2.5 times larger than on aluminum nuclei near Ce3+.

  12. Local eddy current measurements in pulsed fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J.H. [SEPI-Electronica, ESIME-IPN, UPALM Edif. ' Z' . Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico)], E-mail: jhespina@gmail.com; Groessinger, R. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Hallen, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, IPN-ESIQIE, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    This work presents new eddy current measurements in pulsed fields. A commercial point pick-up coil is used to detect the induction signal along the radius of Cu and Al samples with cylindrical shape and diameters between 5 and 35 mm. Local eddy current measurements were performed on the surface of conducting materials due to the small dimensions of the coil. A simple electrical circuit, used as a model, is proposed to describe the local eddy current effect in pulsed fields. The proposed model allows to calculate the phase shift angle between the signal proportional to eddy currents and the applied external field in a pulsed field magnetometer.

  13. A fast random walk algorithm for computing the pulsed-gradient spin-echo signal in multiscale porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, Denis S

    2011-02-01

    A new method for computing the signal attenuation due to restricted diffusion in a linear magnetic field gradient is proposed. A fast random walk (FRW) algorithm for simulating random trajectories of diffusing spin-bearing particles is combined with gradient encoding. As random moves of a FRW are continuously adapted to local geometrical length scales, the method is efficient for simulating pulsed-gradient spin-echo experiments in hierarchical or multiscale porous media such as concrete, sandstones, sedimentary rocks and, potentially, brain or lungs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation on stresses of superconductors under pulsed magnetic fields based on multiphysics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaobin; Li, Xiuhong; He, Yafeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The differential equation including temperature and magnetic field was derived for a long cylindrical superconductor. • Thermal stress and electromagnetic stress were studied at the same time under pulse field magnetizing. • The distributions of the magnetic field, the temperature and stresses are studied and compared for two pulse fields of the different duration. • The Role thermal stress and electromagnetic stress play in the process of pulse field magnetizing is discussed. - Abstract: A multiphysics model for the numerical computation of stresses, trapped field and temperature distribution of a infinite long superconducting cylinder is proposed, based on which the stresses, including the thermal stresses and mechanical stresses due to Lorentz force, and trapped fields in the superconductor subjected to pulsed magnetic fields are analyzed. By comparing the results under pulsed magnetic fields with different pulse durations, it is found that the both the mechanical stress due to the electromagnetic force and the thermal stress due to temperature gradient contribute to the total stress level in the superconductor. For pulsed magnetic field with short durations, the thermal stress is the dominant contribution to the total stress, because the heat generated by AC-loss builds up significant temperature gradient in such short durations. However, for a pulsed field with a long duration the gradient of temperature and flux, as well as the maximal tensile stress, are much smaller. And the results of this paper is meaningful for the design and manufacture of superconducting permanent magnets.

  15. Investigation on stresses of superconductors under pulsed magnetic fields based on multiphysics model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaobin, E-mail: yangxb@lzu.edu.cn; Li, Xiuhong; He, Yafeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xu, Bo

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The differential equation including temperature and magnetic field was derived for a long cylindrical superconductor. • Thermal stress and electromagnetic stress were studied at the same time under pulse field magnetizing. • The distributions of the magnetic field, the temperature and stresses are studied and compared for two pulse fields of the different duration. • The Role thermal stress and electromagnetic stress play in the process of pulse field magnetizing is discussed. - Abstract: A multiphysics model for the numerical computation of stresses, trapped field and temperature distribution of a infinite long superconducting cylinder is proposed, based on which the stresses, including the thermal stresses and mechanical stresses due to Lorentz force, and trapped fields in the superconductor subjected to pulsed magnetic fields are analyzed. By comparing the results under pulsed magnetic fields with different pulse durations, it is found that the both the mechanical stress due to the electromagnetic force and the thermal stress due to temperature gradient contribute to the total stress level in the superconductor. For pulsed magnetic field with short durations, the thermal stress is the dominant contribution to the total stress, because the heat generated by AC-loss builds up significant temperature gradient in such short durations. However, for a pulsed field with a long duration the gradient of temperature and flux, as well as the maximal tensile stress, are much smaller. And the results of this paper is meaningful for the design and manufacture of superconducting permanent magnets.

  16. Moderate and high intensity pulsed electric fields

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermans, Rian Adriana Hendrika

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) processing has gained a lot of interest the last decades as mild processing technology as alternative to thermal pasteurisation, and is suitable for preservation of liquid food products such as fruit juices. PEF conditions typically applied at industrial scale for pasteurisation are high intensity pulsed electric fields aiming for minimal heat load, with an electric field strength (E) in the range of 15 − 20 kV/cm and pulse width (τ) between 2 − 20 μs. Alternativel...

  17. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Birren, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis: A Practical Guide is the first laboratory manual to describe the theory and practice of this technique. Based on the authors' experience developing pulsed field gel instruments and teaching procedures, this book provides everything a researcher or student needs to know in order to understand and carry out pulsed field gel experiments. Clear, well-tested protocols assume only that users have a basic familiarity with molecular biology. Thorough coverage of useful data, theory, and applications ensures that this book is also a lasting resource for more adv

  18. Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation

    CERN Document Server

    Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I

    2014-01-01

    Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.

  19. Gradient pre-emphasis to counteract first-order concomitant fields on asymmetric MRI gradient systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shengzhen; Weavers, Paul T; Trzasko, Joshua D; Shu, Yunhong; Huston, John; Lee, Seung-Kyun; Frigo, Louis M; Bernstein, Matt A

    2017-06-01

    To develop a gradient pre-emphasis scheme that prospectively counteracts the effects of the first-order concomitant fields for any arbitrary gradient waveform played on asymmetric gradient systems, and to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach using a real-time implementation on a compact gradient system. After reviewing the first-order concomitant fields that are present on asymmetric gradients, we developed a generalized gradient pre-emphasis model assuming arbitrary gradient waveforms to counteract their effects. A numerically straightforward, easily implemented approximate solution to this pre-emphasis problem was derived that was compatible with the current hardware infrastructure of conventional MRI scanners for eddy current compensation. The proposed method was implemented on the gradient driver subsystem, and its real-time use was tested using a series of phantom and in vivo data acquired from two-dimensional Cartesian phase-difference, echo-planar imaging, and spiral acquisitions. The phantom and in vivo results demonstrated that unless accounted for, first-order concomitant fields introduce considerable phase estimation error into the measured data and result in images with spatially dependent blurring/distortion. The resulting artifacts were effectively prevented using the proposed gradient pre-emphasis. We have developed an efficient and effective gradient pre-emphasis framework to counteract the effects of first-order concomitant fields of asymmetric gradient systems. Magn Reson Med 77:2250-2262, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  20. Evaluation of the Field Gradient Lattice Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2072983

    A novel Micro Pattern Gas Detector, named the Field Gradient Lattice Detector, has been implemented using technologies available to CERN’s Printed Circuit Workshop. Numerous prototypes based on various materials were constructed in different geometries and their gain performance has been studied using 55Fe and 109Cd X-ray sources in Argon-CO2 gas mixtures. Two axis (2D) prototype structures have been shown to provide stable gains of around 1000 while a 3D design, based on the same polyimide foils used in other MPGD elements, holds a gain of 5000 for 8.9 keV X-rays even at high rates of 22 kHz/mm2. At a gain of 3100, the device has been tested up to 1 MHz/mm2 and shows no signs of degradation in performance. The energy resolution of the 3D-in-polyimide is modest, around 40% for 5.9 keV X-rays and 30% if the source is collimated indicating a variation in gain over the 3x3 cm2 active area. Having the most promise for future applications, the 3D-in-polyimide design has been selected for testing with a custom-bu...

  1. Tolman temperature gradients in a gravitational field

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago, Jessica; Visser, Matt

    2018-01-01

    Tolman's relation for the temperature gradient in an equilibrium self-gravitating general relativistic fluid is broadly accepted within the general relativity community. However, the concept of temperature gradients in thermal equilibrium continues to cause confusion in other branches of physics, since it contradicts naive versions of the laws of classical thermodynamics. In this paper we discuss the crucial role of the universality of free fall, and how thermodynamics emphasises the great di...

  2. Stability of Gradient Field Corrections for Quantitative Diffusion MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Baxter P.; Blaber, Justin; Welch, E. Brian; Ding, Zhaohua; Anderson, Adam W.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2017-01-01

    In magnetic resonance diffusion imaging, gradient nonlinearity causes significant bias in the estimation of quantitative diffusion parameters such as diffusivity, anisotropy, and diffusion direction in areas away from the magnet isocenter. This bias can be substantially reduced if the scanner- and coil-specific gradient field nonlinearities are known. Using a set of field map calibration scans on a large (29 cm diameter) phantom combined with a solid harmonic approximation of the gradient fie...

  3. Eddy currents in pulsed field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuepferling, M.; Groessinger, R.; Wimmer, A.; Taraba, M.; Scholz, W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: One problem of pulsed field magnetometry is an error in magnetization, which appears in measurements of conducting samples. This error is due to eddy currents induced by a time varying field. To allow predictions how eddy currents exert influence on the hysteresis loop, systematic experimental and theoretical studies of pulsed field measurements of metallic samples were performed. The theoretical studies include analytical calculations as well as numerical ones using a 2D finite element software. In the measurements three physical parameters have been varied: i) the conductivity of the sample by using two different materials, in this case technical Cu and Al ii) size and shape of the sample by using cylinders, spheres and cuboids iii) the pulse duration of the external field by changing the capacitor battery from 8mF ( =9.1ms) to 24mF ( =15.7ms). The time dependence of the external field corresponds with a pulsed damped harmonic oscillation with a maximum value of 5.2T. The samples were studied in the as cast state (after machining) as well as after heat treatment. Theoretical calculations showed not only good agreement with the absolute values of the measured eddy current m agnetization , they also gave an explanation of the shape of the eddy current hysteresis and the dependence of the eddy current 'magnetization' on parameters as pulse duration of the external field and conductivity of the sample. (author)

  4. Implementing quantum logic gates with gradient ascent pulse engineering: principles and practicalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Benjamin; Jones, Jonathan A

    2012-10-13

    We briefly describe the use of gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) pulses to implement quantum logic gates in nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computers, and discuss a range of simple extensions to the core technique. We then consider a range of difficulties that can arise in practical implementations of GRAPE sequences, reflecting non-idealities in the experimental systems used.

  5. Magnetization reversal in ultrashort magnetic field pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.; Lopusnik, R.; Fassbender, J.; Hillebrands, B.

    2000-01-01

    We report the switching properties of a thin magnetic film subject to an ultrashort, laterally localized magnetic field pulse, obtained by numerical investigations. The magnetization distribution in the film is calculated on a grid assuming Stoner-like coherent rotation within the grid square size. Perpendicularly and in-plane magnetized films exhibit a magnetization reversal due to a 4 ps magnetic field pulse. Outside the central region the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period. In this area the evolution of the magnetization during the field pulse does not depend strongly on magnetic damping and/or pulse shape. However, the final magnetization distribution is affected by the magnetic damping. Although the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period, the time needed for the relaxation of the magnetization to the equilibrium state is rather large. The influence of the different magnetic anisotropy contributions and the magnetic damping parameter enters into the magnetization reversal process. Comparing the case of perpendicular anisotropy with different kinds of in-plane anisotropies, a principal difference is found due to the symmetry of the shape anisotropy with respect to the anisotropy in question

  6. Simulated Design Strategies for SPECT Collimators to Reduce the Eddy Currents Induced by MRI Gradient Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoudi, Amine M.; Van Audenhaege, Karen; Vermeeren, Günter; Verhoyen, Gregory; Martens, Luc; Van Holen, Roel; Joseph, Wout

    2015-10-01

    Combining single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires the insertion of highly conductive SPECT collimators inside the MRI scanner, resulting in an induced eddy current disturbing the combined system. We reduced the eddy currents due to the insert of a novel tungsten collimator inside transverse and longitudinal gradient coils. The collimator was produced with metal additive manufacturing, that is part of a microSPECT insert for a preclinical SPECT/MRI scanner. We characterized the induced magnetic field due to the gradient field and adapted the collimators to reduce the induced eddy currents. We modeled the x-, y-, and z-gradient coil and the different collimator designs and simulated them with FEKO, a three-dimensional method of moments / finite element methods (MoM/FEM) full-wave simulation tool. We used a time analysis approach to generate the pulsed magnetic field gradient. Simulation results show that the maximum induced field can be reduced by 50.82% in the final design bringing the maximum induced magnetic field to less than 2% of the applied gradient for all the gradient coils. The numerical model was validated with measurements and was proposed as a tool for studying the effect of a SPECT collimator within the MRI gradient coils.

  7. Feasibility of Imaging Tissue Electrical Conductivity by Switching Field Gradients with MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Eric; Liu, Chunlei

    2015-12-01

    Tissue conductivity is a biophysical marker of tissue structure and physiology. Present methods of measuring tissue conductivity are limited. Electrical impedance tomography, and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography rely on passing external current through the object being imaged, which prevents its use in most human imaging. Recently, the RF field used for MR excitation has been used to non-invasively measure tissue conductivity. This technique is promising, but conductivity at higher frequencies is less sensitive to tissue structure. Measuring tissue conductivity non-invasively at low frequencies remains elusive. It has been proposed that eddy currents generated during the rise and decay of gradient pulses could act as a current source to map low-frequency conductivity. This work centers on a gradient echo pulse sequence that uses large gradients prior to excitation to create eddy currents. The electric and magnetic fields during a gradient pulse are simulated by a finite-difference time-domain simulation. The sequence is also tested with a phantom and an animal MRI scanner equipped with gradients of high gradient strengths and slew rate. The simulation demonstrates that eddy currents in materials with conductivity similar to biological tissue decay with a half-life on the order of nanoseconds and any eddy currents generated prior to excitation decay completely before influencing the RF signal. Gradient-induced eddy currents can influence phase accumulation after excitation but the effect is too small to image. The animal scanner images show no measurable phase accumulation. Measuring low-frequency conductivity by gradient-induced eddy currents is presently unfeasible.

  8. Electric fields in plasmas under pulsed currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsigutkin, K.; Doron, R.; Stambulchik, E.; Bernshtam, V.; Maron, Y.; Fruchtman, A.; Commisso, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    Electric fields in a plasma that conducts a high-current pulse are measured as a function of time and space. The experiment is performed using a coaxial configuration, in which a current rising to 160 kA in 100 ns is conducted through a plasma that prefills the region between two coaxial electrodes. The electric field is determined using laser spectroscopy and line-shape analysis. Plasma doping allows for three-dimensional spatially resolved measurements. The measured peak magnitude and propagation velocity of the electric field is found to match those of the Hall electric field, inferred from the magnetic-field front propagation measured previously

  9. Angular Spectrum Simulation of Pulsed Ultrasound Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    frequencies must be performed. Combining it with Field II, the generation of non-linear simulation for any geometry with any excitation array transducer becomes feasible. The purpose of this paper is to make a general pulsed simulation software using the modified ASA. Linear and phased array transducers......The optimization of non-linear ultrasound imaging should in a first step be based on simulation, as this makes parameter studies considerably easier than making transducer prototypes. Such a simulation program should be capable of simulating non-linear pulsed fields for arbitrary transducer...... geometries for any kind of focusing and apodization. The Angular Spectrum Approach (ASA) is capable of simulating monochromatic non-linear acoustic wave propagation. However, for ultrasound imaging the time response of each specific point in space is required, and a pulsed ASA simulation with multi temporal...

  10. Pulsed Electric Field treatment of packaged food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, B.

    2011-01-01

    Food manufacturers are looking for new preservation techniques that don’t influence the fresh-like characteristics of products. Non-thermal pasteurisation of food with Pulsed Electric Fields (often referred to as PEF) is an emerging technology, where the change of the food is less than with thermal

  11. Moderate and high intensity pulsed electric fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Rian Adriana Hendrika

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) processing has gained a lot of interest the last decades as mild processing technology as alternative to thermal pasteurisation, and is suitable for preservation of liquid food products such as fruit juices. PEF conditions typically applied at industrial scale for

  12. Global correlation imaging of magnetic total field gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Lianghui; Meng, Xiaohong; Shi, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Firstly we introduce the correlation imaging approach for the x-, y- and z-gradients of a magnetic total field anomaly for deriving the distribution of equivalent magnetic sources of the subsurface. In this approach, the subsurface space is divided into a regular grid, and then a correlation coefficient function is computed at each grid node, based on the cross-correlation between the x-gradient (or y-gradient or z-gradient) of the observed magnetic total field anomaly and the x-gradient (or y-gradient or z-gradient) of the theoretical magnetic total field anomaly due to a magnetic dipole. The resultant correlation coefficient is used to describe the probability of a magnetic dipole occurring at the node. We then define a global correlation coefficient function for comprehensively delineating the probability of an occurrence of a magnetic dipole, which takes, at each node, the maximum positive value of the corresponding correlation coefficient function of the three gradients. We finally test the approach both on synthetic data and real data from a metallic deposit area in the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. (paper)

  13. The chirped-pulse inverse free-electron laser: A high-gradient vacuum laser accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartemann, F.V.; Landahl, E.C.; Troha, A.L.; Van Meter, J.R.; Baldis, H.A.; Freeman, R.R.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Song, L.; Kerman, A.K.; Yu, D.U.

    1999-01-01

    The inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) interaction is studied theoretically and computationally in the case where the drive laser intensity approaches the relativistic regime, and the pulse duration is only a few optical cycles long. The IFEL concept has been demonstrated as a viable vacuum laser acceleration process; it is shown here that by using an ultrashort, ultrahigh-intensity drive laser pulse, the IFEL interaction bandwidth and accelerating gradient are increased considerably, thus yielding large energy gains. Using a chirped pulse and negative dispersion focusing optics allows one to take further advantage of the laser optical bandwidth and produce a chromatic line focus maximizing the gradient. The combination of these novel ideas results in a compact vacuum laser accelerator capable of accelerating picosecond electron bunches with a high gradient (GeV/m) and very low energy spread. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  14. A Magnetic Resonance Measurement Technique for Rapidly Switched Gradient Magnetic Fields in a Magnetic Resonance Tomograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bartušek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for measuring of the gradient magnetic field in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR tomography, which is one of the modern medical diagnostic methods. A very important prerequisite for high quality imaging is a gradient magnetic field in the instrument with exactly defined properties. Nuclear magnetic resonance enables us to measure the pulse gradient magnetic field characteristics with high accuracy. These interesting precise methods were designed, realised, and tested at the Institute of Scientific Instruments (ISI of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. The first of them was the Instantaneous Frequency (IF method, which was developed into the Instantaneous Frequency of Spin Echo (IFSE and the Instantaneous Frequency of Spin Echo Series (IFSES methods. The above named methods are described in this paper and their a comparison is also presented.

  15. ion in crossed gradient electric and magnetic fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photodetachment cross-section for variousexternal fields and the laser polarization are calculated and displayed. A comparison with the photodetachment cross-section in crossed uniform electric and magnetic fields or in a single gradient electric field has been made.The agreement of our results with the above two special ...

  16. Strain sensors for high field pulse magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Christian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zheng, Yan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Easton, Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an investigation into several strain sensing technologies that are being considered to monitor mechanical deformation within the steel reinforcement shells used in high field pulsed magnets. Such systems generally operate at cryogenic temperatures to mitigate heating issues that are inherent in the coils of nondestructive, high field pulsed magnets. The objective of this preliminary study is to characterize the performance of various strain sensing technologies at liquid nitrogen temperatures (-196 C). Four sensor types are considered in this investigation: fiber Bragg gratings (FBG), resistive foil strain gauges (RFSG), piezoelectric polymers (PVDF), and piezoceramics (PZT). Three operational conditions are considered for each sensor: bond integrity, sensitivity as a function of temperature, and thermal cycling effects. Several experiments were conducted as part of this study, investigating adhesion with various substrate materials (stainless steel, aluminum, and carbon fiber), sensitivity to static (FBG and RFSG) and dynamic (RFSG, PVDF and PZT) load conditions, and sensor diagnostics using PZT sensors. This work has been conducted in collaboration with the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), and the results of this study will be used to identify the set of sensing technologies that would be best suited for integration within high field pulsed magnets at the NHMFL facility.

  17. Pulsed Electric Field treatment of packaged food

    OpenAIRE

    Roodenburg, B.

    2011-01-01

    Food manufacturers are looking for new preservation techniques that don’t influence the fresh-like characteristics of products. Non-thermal pasteurisation of food with Pulsed Electric Fields (often referred to as PEF) is an emerging technology, where the change of the food is less than with thermal pasteurisation. With this method, pasteurisation is realised by electroporation of bacterial membranes, which prolong the shelf-life of the product. Existing PEF treatment is based on the applicati...

  18. Larmor labeling by time-gradient magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, Alexander; Bodnarchuk, Victor; Bussmann, Klaus; Mueller, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The Larmor labeling of neutrons, due to the Larmor precession of neutron spin in a magnetic field, opens the unique possibility for the development of neutron spin-echo (NSE) based on neutron scattering techniques, featuring an extremely high energy (momentum) resolution. Here, we present the experimental proof of a new method of the Larmor labeling using time-gradient magnetic fields

  19. Application of superconductivity to pulse fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shigeo; Suzawa, Chizuru; Ohkura, Kengo; Nagata, Masayuki; Kawashima, Masao

    1984-01-01

    Numerous attempts to apply the superconductive phenomena of zero electrical resistivity to AC (pulsed) magnets in addition to conventional DC magnet fields are being made in the areas of poloidal coils of nuclear fusion, energy storage, rotary machines, and induction for stabilization of electric power systems. In pulsed superconductive magnets, the stability of the superconductivity and the generation of heat due to AC loss are serious problems. Based on the knowledge obtained through the development of various types of superconductors, magnets, cryostats, and other superconductive-related products, Cu-Ni/Cu/Nb-Ti mixed-matrix fine multifilamentary superconductor wire and the stable, low AC loss superconductors used therein, magnets, and FRP cryostats are developed and manufactured. (author)

  20. Stern-Gerlach effect without magnetic-field gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, O.; Felber, J.; Schaerpf, O.

    2001-01-01

    The Stern-Gerlach effect is the well-known spin-dependent splitting of a neutral particle beam by a magnetic-field gradient. Guided by the pseudomagnetic analogy, we performed a similar experiment where no magnetic-field gradient is involved. The effect is due to the spin-dependence of neutron scattering from polarised nuclei, i.e. caused by the strong interaction between neutrons and nuclei. The beam splitting is proportional to the nuclear polarisation and to the spin-dependent part of the neutron scattering length. Thus it can be used to measure one of both quantities. (orig.)

  1. Measurements of the temporal and spatial phase variations of a 33 GHz pulsed free electron laser amplifier and application to high gradient RF acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volfbeyn, P.; Bekefi, G. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    We report the results of temporal and spatial measurements of phase of a pulsed free electron laser amplifier (FEL) operating in combined wiggler and axial guide magnetic fields. The 33 GHz FEL is driven by a mildly relativistic electron beam (750 kV, 90-300 A, 30 ns) and generates 61 MW of radiation with a high power magnetron as the input source. The phase is measured by an interferometric technique from which frequency shifting is determined. The results are simulated with a computer code. Experimental studies on a CERN-CLIC 32.98 GHz 26-cell high gradient accelerating section (HGA) were carried out for input powers from 0.1 MW to 35 MW. The FEL served as the r.f. power source for the HGA. The maximum power in the transmitted pulse was measured to be 15 MW for an input pulse of 35 MW. The theoretically calculated shunt impedance of 116 M{Omega}/m predicts a field gradient of 65 MeV/m inside the HGA. For power levels >3MW the pulse transmitted through the HGA was observed to be shorter than the input pulse and pulse shortening became more serious with increasing power input. At the highest power levels the output pulse length (about 5 nsec) was about one quarter of the input pulse length. Various tests suggest that these undesirable effects occur in the input coupler to the HGA. Light and X-ray production inside the HGA have been observed.

  2. Magnetic field gradients and their uses in the study of the earth's magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C. G. A.; Southam, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic field gradients are discussed from the standpoint of their usefulness in modeling crustal magnetizations. The fact that gradients enhance shorter wavelength features helps reduce both the core signal and the signal from external fields in comparison with the crustal signal. If the gradient device can be oriented, then directions of lineation can be determined from single profiles, and anomalies caused by unlineated sources can be identified.

  3. Control of colloids with gravity, temperature gradients, and electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, M; Harrison, C; Austin, R H; Megens, M; Hollingsworth, A; Russel, W B; Cheng Zhen; Mason, T; Chaikin, P M

    2003-01-01

    We have used a variety of different applied fields to control the density, growth, and structure of colloidal crystals. Gravity exerts a body force proportional to the buoyant mass and in equilibrium produces a height-dependent concentration profile. A similar body force can be obtained with electric fields on charged particles (electrophoresis), a temperature gradient on all particles, or an electric field gradient on uncharged particles (dielectrophoresis). The last is particularly interesting since its magnitude and sign can be changed by tuning the applied frequency. We study these effects in bulk (making 'dielectrophoretic bottles' or traps), to control concentration profiles during nucleation and growth and near surfaces. We also study control of non-spherical and optically anisotropic particles with the light field from laser tweezers.

  4. Control of colloids with gravity, temperature gradients, and electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Matt [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Zhao Kun [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Harrison, Christopher [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Austin, Robert H [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Megens, Mischa [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Hollingsworth, Andrew [Department of Chemical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Russel, William B [Department of Chemical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Cheng Zhengdong [ExxonMobil Research, Annandale, NJ (United States); Mason, Thomas [ExxonMobil Research, Annandale, NJ (United States); Chaikin, P M [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2003-01-15

    We have used a variety of different applied fields to control the density, growth, and structure of colloidal crystals. Gravity exerts a body force proportional to the buoyant mass and in equilibrium produces a height-dependent concentration profile. A similar body force can be obtained with electric fields on charged particles (electrophoresis), a temperature gradient on all particles, or an electric field gradient on uncharged particles (dielectrophoresis). The last is particularly interesting since its magnitude and sign can be changed by tuning the applied frequency. We study these effects in bulk (making 'dielectrophoretic bottles' or traps), to control concentration profiles during nucleation and growth and near surfaces. We also study control of non-spherical and optically anisotropic particles with the light field from laser tweezers.

  5. Field stabilization in superconducting cavities under pulsed operating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessier, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Within the framework of Tesla linear accelerator project, superconducting cavity battery is used to accelerate electrons and positrons. These cavities require pulsed running and must reach very high accelerating gradients. Under the action of the Lorentz force, the resonance frequency shifts and leaves the band-pass width, which hinders the field from taking its maximal value inside the cavity. The setting of an auto-oscillating loop allows to bring the generator frequency under the control of the cavity frequency. A feedback system is needed to reduce the energy dispersion inside the particle packets. The effects of the mechanical vibrations that disturb the accelerating voltage phase between two impulses are also compensated by a feedback loop. This thesis describes all these phenomena and computes their effects on the energy dispersion of the beam in both cases of relativistic and non-relativistic particles. (A.C.)

  6. Optimisation of applied field pulses for microwave assisted magnetic recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon John Greaves

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Grains in a recording medium experience field pulses from a write head during recording. In general, a short head field rise time and a square pulse shape have been viewed as optimal. This work investigates the optimum field pulse shape for microwave assisted magnetic recording on single layer and ECC media. A square pulse was found to give the best recording performance on single layer media, but an initially negative field pulse increasing at a constant rate was more suitable for ECC media.

  7. Les écoulements par RMN à gradient pulsé Pulsed Gradient Nmr Techniques for Studying Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebon L.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nous présentons ici les techniques de RMN à gradient pulsé qui permettent d'étudier les écoulements multiphasiques en canalisation ou en milieu poreux. Les principaux avantages sont de pouvoir travailler sur des milieux non transparents et d'accéder à des échelles de longueurs faibles. On montre qu'il est possible d'obtenir des informations locales sur l'écoulement, telles que le profil de vitesse et ses fluctuations dans les écoulements diphasiques, ou les cartes de distribution des probabilités de déplacement dans des échantillons poreux hétérogènes. Pulsed gradient NMR techniques are presented here. They allow the study of multiphase flow in pipes as well as porous media. The main advantages are the possibilities of studying non transparent media at small length scales. We show that it is possible to obtain local information on the fluid flow, such as velocity profiles in two phase systems, or maps of distribution of displacement probabilities in heterogeneous porous media.

  8. Synchrotron Intensity Gradients as Tracers of Interstellar Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarian, A.; Yuen, Ka Ho; Lee, Hyeseung; Cho, J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2535 Sterling Hall, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706-1507 (United States)

    2017-06-10

    On the basis of the modern understanding of MHD turbulence, we propose a new way of using synchrotron radiation: using synchrotron intensity gradients (SIGs) for tracing astrophysical magnetic fields. We successfully test the new technique using synthetic data obtained with 3D MHD simulations and provide the demonstration of the practical utility of the technique by comparing the directions of magnetic fields that are obtained with PLANCK synchrotron intensity data to the directions obtained with PLANCK synchrotron polarization data. We demonstrate that the SIGs can reliably trace magnetic fields in the presence of noise and can provide detailed maps of magnetic field directions. We also show that the SIGs are relatively robust for tracing magnetic fields while the low spatial frequencies of the synchrotron image are removed. This makes the SIGs applicable to the tracing of magnetic fields using interferometric data with single-dish measurement absent. We discuss the synergy of using the SIGs together with synchrotron polarization in order to find the actual direction of the magnetic fields and quantify the effects of Faraday rotation as well as with other ways of studying astrophysical magnetic fields. We test our method in the presence of noise and the resolution effects. We stress the complementary nature of the studies using the SIG technique and those employing the recently introduced velocity gradient techniques that trace magnetic fields using spectroscopic data.

  9. Synchrotron Intensity Gradients as Tracers of Interstellar Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarian, A.; Yuen, Ka Ho; Lee, Hyeseung; Cho, J.

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of the modern understanding of MHD turbulence, we propose a new way of using synchrotron radiation: using synchrotron intensity gradients (SIGs) for tracing astrophysical magnetic fields. We successfully test the new technique using synthetic data obtained with 3D MHD simulations and provide the demonstration of the practical utility of the technique by comparing the directions of magnetic fields that are obtained with PLANCK synchrotron intensity data to the directions obtained with PLANCK synchrotron polarization data. We demonstrate that the SIGs can reliably trace magnetic fields in the presence of noise and can provide detailed maps of magnetic field directions. We also show that the SIGs are relatively robust for tracing magnetic fields while the low spatial frequencies of the synchrotron image are removed. This makes the SIGs applicable to the tracing of magnetic fields using interferometric data with single-dish measurement absent. We discuss the synergy of using the SIGs together with synchrotron polarization in order to find the actual direction of the magnetic fields and quantify the effects of Faraday rotation as well as with other ways of studying astrophysical magnetic fields. We test our method in the presence of noise and the resolution effects. We stress the complementary nature of the studies using the SIG technique and those employing the recently introduced velocity gradient techniques that trace magnetic fields using spectroscopic data.

  10. Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R J; Carroll, D C; Yuan, X H; Brenner, C M; Coury, M; Quinn, M N; Tresca, O; McKenna, P; Burza, M; Wahlström, C-G; Lancaster, K L; Neely, D; Lin, X X; Li, Y T

    2014-01-01

    Laser energy absorption to fast electrons during the interaction of an ultra-intense (10 20 W cm −2 ), picosecond laser pulse with a solid is investigated, experimentally and numerically, as a function of the plasma density scale length at the irradiated surface. It is shown that there is an optimum density gradient for efficient energy coupling to electrons and that this arises due to strong self-focusing and channeling driving energy absorption over an extended length in the preformed plasma. At longer density gradients the laser filaments, resulting in significantly lower overall energy coupling. As the scale length is further increased, a transition to a second laser energy absorption process is observed experimentally via multiple diagnostics. The results demonstrate that it is possible to significantly enhance laser energy absorption and coupling to fast electrons by dynamically controlling the plasma density gradient. (paper)

  11. Temperature dependency of silicon structures for magnetic field gradient sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabsch, Alexander; Rosenberg, Christoph; Stifter, Michael; Keplinger, Franz

    2018-02-01

    This work describes the temperature dependence of two sensors for magnetic field gradient sensors and demonstrates a structure to compensate for the drift of resonance frequency over a wide temperature range. The temperature effect of the sensing element is based on internal stresses induced by the thermal expansion of material, therefore FEM is used to determine the change of the eigenvalues of the sensing structure. The experimental setup utilizes a Helmholtz coil system to generate the magnetic field and to excite the MEMS structure with Lorentz forces. The MEMS structure is placed on a plate heated with resistors and cooled by a Peltier element to control the plate temperature. In the second part, we describe how one can exploit temperature sensitivity for temperature measurements and we show the opportunity to include the temperature effect to increase the sensitivity of single-crystal silicon made flux density gradient sensors.

  12. Precise measurements and shimming of magnetic field gradients in the low field regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allmendinger, Fabian; Schmidt, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Grasdijk, Olivier; Jungmann, Klaus; Willmann, Lorenz [University of Groningen (Netherlands); Heil, Werner; Karpuk, Sergei; Repetto, Maricel; Sobolev, Yuri; Zimmer, Stefan [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Krause, Hans-Joachim; Offenhaeuser, Andreas [Peter Gruenberg Institut, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Collaboration: MIXed-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    For many experiments at the precision frontier of fundamental physics, the accurate measurement and knowledge of magnetic field gradients in particular in the low field regime (<μT) is a necessity: On the one hand, in the search for an Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) of free neutrons or atoms, field gradients contribute to geometric-phase-induced false EDM signals for particles in traps. On the other hand, clock comparison experiments like the {sup 3}He/{sup 129}Xe spin clock experiment suffer from gradients, since the coherent T{sub 2}*-time of free spin precession, and thus the measurement sensitivity, scales ∝ ∇ vector B{sup -2}. Here we report on a new and very effective method, to shim and to measure tiny magnetic field gradients in the range of pT/cm by using effective T{sub 2}*-measurement sequences in varying the currents of trim coils of known geometry.

  13. Electron acceleration by laser produced wake field: Pulse shape effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Hitendra K.; Kumar, Sandeep; Nishida, Yasushi

    2007-12-01

    Analytical expressions are obtained for the longitudinal field (wake field: Ex), density perturbations ( ne') and the potential ( ϕ) behind a laser pulse propagating in a plasma with the pulse duration of the electron plasma period. A feasibility study on the wake field is carried out with Gaussian-like (GL) pulse, rectangular-triangular (RT) pulse and rectangular-Gaussian (RG) pulse considering one-dimensional weakly nonlinear theory ( ne'/n0≪1), and the maximum energy gain acquired by an electron is calculated for all these three types of the laser pulse shapes. A comparative study infers that the RT pulse yields the best results: In its case maximum electron energy gain is 33.5 MeV for a 30 fs pulse duration whereas in case of GL (RG) pulse of the same duration the gain is 28.6 (28.8)MeV at the laser frequency of 1.6 PHz and the intensity of 3.0 × 10 18 W/m 2. The field of the wake and hence the energy gain get enhanced for the higher laser frequency, larger pulse duration and higher laser intensity for all types of the pulses.

  14. Vertical orbit excursion fixed field alternating gradient accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Brooks

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG accelerators with vertical orbit excursion (VFFAGs provide a promising alternative design for rings with fixed-field superconducting magnets. They have a vertical magnetic field component that increases with height in the vertical aperture, yielding a skew quadrupole focusing structure. Scaling-type VFFAGs are found with fixed tunes and no intrinsic limitation on momentum range. This paper presents the first multiparticle tracking of such machines. Proton driver rings to accelerate the 800 MeV beam from the ISIS synchrotron are presented, in terms of both magnet field geometry and longitudinal behavior during acceleration with space charge. The 12 GeV ring produces an output power of at least 2.18 MW. Possible applications of VFFAGs to waste transmutation, hadron therapy, and energy-recovery electron accelerators are also discussed.

  15. Studies of exposure of rabbits to electromagnetic pulsed fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleary, S.F.; Nickless, F.; Liu, L.M.; Hoffman, R.

    1980-01-01

    Dutch rabbits were acutely exposed to electromagnetic pulsed (EMP) fields (pulse duration 0.4 mus, field strengths of 1--2 kV/cm and pulse repetition rates in the range of 10 to 38 Hz) for periods of up to two hours. The dependent variables investigated were pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and serum chemistry (including serum triglycerides, creatine phosphokinase (CPK) isoenzymes, and sodium and potassium). Core temperature measured immediately pre-exposure and postexposure revealed no exposure-related alterations. Over the range of field strengths and pulse durations investigated no consistent, statistically significant alterations were found in the end-points investigated

  16. Electromagnetic field, excited by monodirected X-radiation pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhemerov, A.V.; Metelkin, E.V.

    1994-01-01

    Parameters of electromagnetic field, generated in the atmosphere by monodirected pulse source of X radiation located at the altitude of approximately several kilometers have been estimated by the method of delayed potentials. The source radiation is directed towards the Earth surface. The conclusion was made that restricted areas of approximately 1 km with considerable pulse electromagnetic fields can be created on the Earth surface

  17. The effect of pulsed electric fields on carotenoids bioaccessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, Francesca; Verkerk, Ruud; Mastwijk, Hennie; Anese, Monica; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Capuano, Edoardo

    2018-01-01

    Tomato fractions were subjected to pulsed electric fields treatment combined or not with heating. Results showed that pulsed electric fields and heating applied in combination or individually induced permeabilization of cell membranes in the tomato fractions. However, no changes in β-carotene and

  18. Numerical modeling of Harmonic Imaging and Pulse Inversion fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Victor F.; Duncan, Tracy M.; Duck, Francis

    2003-10-01

    Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI) and Pulse Inversion (PI) Harmonic Imaging exploit the harmonics generated as a result of nonlinear propagation through tissue to improve the performance of imaging systems. A 3D finite difference model, that solves the KZK equation in the frequency domain, is used to investigate the finite amplitude fields produced by rectangular transducers driven with short pulses and their inverses, in water and homogeneous tissue. This enables the characteristic of the fields and the effective PI field to be calculated. The suppression of the fundamental field in PI is monitored, and the suppression of side lobes and a reduction in the effective beamwidth for each field are calculated. In addition, the differences between the pulse and inverse pulse spectra resulting from the use of very short pulses are noted, and the differences in the location of the fundamental and second harmonic spectral peaks observed.

  19. Pulsed-laser atom-probe field-ion microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, G.L.; Tsong, T.T.

    1980-01-01

    A time-of-flight atom-probe field-ion microscope has been developed which uses nanosecond laser pulses to field evaporate surface species. The ability to operate an atom-probe without using high-voltage pulses is advantageous for several reasons. The spread in energy arising from the desorption of surface species prior to the voltage pulse attaining its maximum amplitude is eliminated, resulting in increased mass resolution. Semiconductor and insulator samples, for which the electrical resistivity is too high to transmit a short-duration voltage pulse, can be examined using pulsed-laser assisted field desorption. Since the electric field at the surface can be significantly smaller, the dissociation of molecular adsorbates by the field can be reduced or eliminated, permitting well-defined studies of surface chemical reactions. In addition to atom-probe operation, pulsed-laser heating of field emitters can be used to study surface diffusion of adatoms and vacancies over a wide range of temperatures. Examples demonstrating each of these advantages are presented, including the first pulsed-laser atom-probe (PLAP) mass spectra for both metals (W, Mo, Rh) and semiconductors (Si). Molecular hydrogen, which desorbs exclusively as atomic hydrogen in the conventional atom probe, is shown to desorb undissociatively in the PLAP. Field-ion microscope observations of the diffusion and dissociation of atomic clusters, the migration of adatoms, and the formation of vacancies resulting from heating with a 7-ns laser pulse are also presented

  20. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Assisted in vitro Electroporation: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novickij, Vitalij; Grainys, Audrius; Lastauskienė, Eglė; Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Pamedytytė, Dovilė; Kalėdienė, Lilija; Novickij, Jurij; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2016-09-01

    Electroporation is a phenomenon occurring due to exposure of cells to Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) which leads to increase of membrane permeability. Electroporation is used in medicine, biotechnology, and food processing. Recently, as an alternative to electroporation by PEF, Pulsed ElectroMagnetic Fields (PEMF) application causing similar biological effects was suggested. Since induced electric field in PEMF however is 2-3 magnitudes lower than in PEF electroporation, the membrane permeabilization mechanism remains hypothetical. We have designed pilot experiments where Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida lusitaniae cells were subjected to single 100-250 μs electrical pulse of 800 V with and without concomitant delivery of magnetic pulse (3, 6 and 9 T). As expected, after the PEF pulses only the number of Propidium Iodide (PI) fluorescent cells has increased, indicative of membrane permeabilization. We further show that single sub-millisecond magnetic field pulse did not cause detectable poration of yeast. Concomitant exposure of cells to pulsed electric (PEF) and magnetic field (PMF) however resulted in the increased number PI fluorescent cells and reduced viability. Our results show increased membrane permeability by PEF when combined with magnetic field pulse, which can explain electroporation at considerably lower electric field strengths induced by PEMF compared to classical electroporation.

  1. Pulsed Electric Fields for Biological Weapons Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gundersen, Martin A

    2008-01-01

    Pulsed power for biological investigations newly developed at USC include a fast diode-based systems designed to drive cell suspensions in a microscope slide electrode microchamber for observations...

  2. Study of ultra-high gradient wakefield excitation by intense ultrashort laser pulses in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaki, Hideyuki

    2002-12-01

    We investigate a mechanism of nonlinear phenomena in laser-plasma interaction, a laser wakefield excited by intense laser pulses, and the possibility of generating an intense bright electron source by an intense laser pulse. We need to understand and further employ some of these phenomena for our purposes. We measure self-focusing, filamentation, and the anomalous blueshift of the laser pulse. The ionization of gas with the self-focusing causes a broad continuous spectrum with blueshift. The normal blueshift depends on the laser intensity and the plasma density. We, however, have found different phenomenon. The laser spectrum shifts to fixed wavelength independent of the laser power and gas pressure above some critical power. We call the phenomenon 'anomalous blueshift'. The results are explained by the formation of filaments. An intense laser pulse can excite a laser wakefield in plasma. The coherent wakefield excited by 2 TW, 50 fs laser pulses in a gas-jet plasma around 10 18 cm -3 is measured with a time-resolved frequency domain interferometer (FDI). The density distribution of the helium gas is measured with a time-resolved Mach-Zehnder interferometer to search for the optimum laser focus position and timing in the gas-jet. The results show an accelerating wakefield excitation of 20 GeV/m with good coherency, which is useful for ultrahigh gradient particle acceleration in a compact system. This is the first time-resolved measurement of laser wakefield excitation in a gas-jet plasma. The experimental results are compared with a Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulation. The pump-probe interferometer system of FDI and the anomalous blueshift will be modified to the optical injection system as a relativistic electron beam injector. In 1D PIC simulation we obtain the results of high quality intense electron beam acceleration. These results illuminate the possibility of a high energy and a high quality electron beam acceleration. (author)

  3. WE-DE-206-04: MRI Pulse Sequences - Spin Echo, Gradient Echo, EPI, Non-Cartesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pooley, R. [Mayo Clinic (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential part of clinical imaging due to its ability to render high soft tissue contrast. Instead of ionizing radiation, MRI use strong magnetic field, radio frequency waves and field gradients to create diagnostic useful images. It can be used to image the anatomy and also functional and physiological activities within the human body. Knowledge of the basic physical principles underlying MRI acquisition is vitally important to successful image production and proper image interpretation. This lecture will give an overview of the spin physics, imaging principle of MRI, the hardware of the MRI scanner, and various pulse sequences and their applications. It aims to provide a conceptual foundation to understand the image formation process of a clinical MRI scanner. Learning Objectives: Understand the origin of the MR signal and contrast from the spin physics level. Understand the main hardware components of a MRI scanner and their purposes Understand steps for MR image formation including spatial encoding and image reconstruction Understand the main kinds of MR pulse sequences and their characteristics.

  4. Effect of rising time of rectangular pulse on inactivation of staphylococcus aureus by pulsed electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruobing; Liang, Dapeng; Zheng, Nanchen; Xiao, Jianfu; Mo, Mengbin; Li, Jing

    2013-03-01

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) is a novel non-thermal food processing technology that involves the electric discharge of high voltage short pulses through the food product. In PEF study, rectangular pulses are most commonly used for inactivating microorganisms. However, little information is available on the inactivation effect of rising time of rectangular pulse. In this paper, inactivation effects, electric field strength, treatment time and conductivity on staphylococcus aureus inactivation were investigated when the pulse rising time is reduced from 2.5 μs to 200 ns. Experimental results showed that inactivation effect of PEF increased with electric field strength, solution conductivity and treatment time. Rising time of the rectangular pulse had a significant effect on the inactivation of staphylococcus aureus. Rectangular pulses with a rising time of 200 ns had a better inactivation effect than that with 2 μs. In addition, temperature increase of the solution treated by pulses with 200 ns rising time was lower than that with 2 μs. In order to obtain a given inactivation effect, treatment time required for the rectangular pulse with 200 ns rise time was shorter than that with 2 μs.

  5. Effect of rising time of rectangular pulse on inactivation of staphylococcus aureus by pulsed electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ruobing; Liang, Dapeng; Xiao, Jianfu; Mo, Mengbin; Li, Jing; Zheng, Nanchen

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) is a novel non-thermal food processing technology that involves the electric discharge of high voltage short pulses through the food product. In PEF study, rectangular pulses are most commonly used for inactivating microorganisms. However, little information is available on the inactivation effect of rising time of rectangular pulse. In this paper, inactivation effects, electric field strength, treatment time and conductivity on staphylococcus aureus inactivation were investigated when the pulse rising time is reduced from 2.5 μs to 200 ns. Experimental results showed that inactivation effect of PEF increased with electric field strength, solution conductivity and treatment time. Rising time of the rectangular pulse had a significant effect on the inactivation of staphylococcus aureus. Rectangular pulses with a rising time of 200 ns had a better inactivation effect than that with 2 μs. In addition, temperature increase of the solution treated by pulses with 200 ns rising time was lower than that with 2 μs. In order to obtain a given inactivation effect, treatment time required for the rectangular pulse with 200 ns rise time was shorter than that with 2 μs.

  6. Pulsed field losses and intentional quenches of superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Pulsed field losses of several 5-20 kJ coils have been measured under triangular field variations. The conductors, developed as potential subcables of 25-50 kA cables, consist of Cu wires and NbTi strands with or without CuNi barriers. Losses of soft-soldered subcables are compared with those of well-compacted cables. The coils were quenched intentionally by pulsing the coils above the critical current to observe loss variations due to possible conductor damage. The method of measurements, and effects of soldering and compactness of the conductors on the pulsed field losses will be presented

  7. [Mechanism of ablation with nanosecond pulsed electric field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Chao; Chen, Xin-hua; Zheng, Shu-sen

    2015-11-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric field ablation has been widely applied in clinical cancer treatment, while its molecular mechanism is still unclear. Researchers have revealed that nanosecond pulsed electric field generates nanopores in plasma membrane, leading to a rapid influx of Ca²⁺; it has specific effect on intracellular organelle membranes, resulting in endoplasmic reticulum injuries and mitochondrial membrane potential changes. In addition, it may also change cellular morphology through damage of cytoskeleton. This article reviews the recent research advances on the molecular mechanism of cell membrane and organelle changes induced by nanosecond pulsed electric field ablation.

  8. Gradients of electric fields and effective charges in alkali metal permanganates on NMR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, V.P.; Kirakosyan, G.A.; Meladze, M.A.; German, K.Eh.

    1993-01-01

    Pulse method of 55 Mn, 39 K, 87 Rb, 133 Cs NMR in 7.04 T field was used to study polycrystal permanganates of alkali metals KMnO 4 , RbMnO 4 , CsMnO 4 in 100-440 K range. Qaudrupole bond constants, parameters of tensor asymmetry of electric field gradient (EFG) and isotropic values of chemical shifts were determined in result of analysis of resonance line shape. Cation positions in RbMnO 4 and CsMnO 4 are characterized by two nonequivalent states with 1:1 occupation. Effective charges on oxygen and manganese atoms were calculated in the framework of point charge model, using structural data and experimental EFG values on cation nuclei

  9. Digital discrimination of neutrons and γ-rays in liquid scintillators using pulse gradient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Mellow, B.; Aspinall, M.D.; Mackin, R.O.; Joyce, M.J.; Peyton, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    A method for the digital discrimination of neutrons and γ-rays in mixed radiation fields is described. Pulses in the time domain, arising from the interaction of photons and neutrons in a liquid scintillator, have been produced using an accepted empirical model and from experimental measurements with an americium-beryllium source. Neutrons and γ-rays have been successfully discriminated in both of these data sets in the digital domain. The digital discrimination method described in this paper is simple and exploits samples early in the life of the pulse. It is thus compatible with current embedded system technologies, offers a degree of immunity to pulse pile-up and heralds a real-time means for neutron/γ discrimination that is fundamental to many potential industrial applications

  10. Pulsed electric fields for pasteurization: defining processing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of pulsed electric fields (PEF) technology in food pasteurization has been extensively studied. Optimal PEF treatment conditions for maximum microbial inactivation depend on multiple factors including PEF processing conditions, production parameters and product properties. In order for...

  11. Gradient ascent pulse engineering approach to CNOT gates in donor electron spin quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, D.-B.; Goan, H.-S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate how gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) optimal control methods can be implemented on donor electron spin qubits in semiconductors with an architecture complementary to the original Kane's proposal. We focus on the high fidelity controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate and we explicitly find the digitized control sequences for a controlled-NOT gate by optimizing its fidelity using the effective, reduced donor electron spin Hamiltonian with external controls over the hyperfine A and exchange J interactions. We then simulate the CNOT-gate sequence with the full spin Hamiltonian and find that it has an error of 10 -6 that is below the error threshold of 10 -4 required for fault-tolerant quantum computation. Also the CNOT gate operation time of 100 ns is 3 times faster than 297 ns of the proposed global control scheme.

  12. Rydberg atoms ionization by microwave field and electromagnetic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaulakys, B.; Vilutis, G.

    1995-01-01

    A simple theory of the Rydberg atoms ionization by electromagnetic pulses and microwave field is presented. The analysis is based on the scale transformation which reduces the number of parameters and reveals the functional dependencies of the processes. It is shown that the observed ionization of Rydberg atoms by subpicosecond electromagnetic pulses scale classically. The threshold electric field required to ionise a Rydberg state may be simply evaluated in the photonic basis approach for the quantum dynamics or from the multiphoton ionization theory

  13. Superconductors for fusion magnets tested under pulsed field in SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, P.; Bottura, L.; Katheder, H.; Blau, B.; Rohleder, I.; Vecsey, G.

    1995-01-01

    The SULTAN III test facility has been upgraded with a pair of pulsed field coils to carry out AC losses and stability experiments under full operating loads on large size, fusion conductors for ITER. A fast data aquisition system records the conductor behaviour under fast field transient. The commissioning results of the pulsed coils and instrumentation are critically discussed and the test capability of the set up is assessed. (orig.)

  14. The characterisation of magnetic pigment dispersions using pulsed magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, J.J.; O'Grady, K.; Nelson, N.K.; Sharrock, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we describe the application of pulsed field magnetometry techniques for the characterisation of magnetic pigment dispersions. Magnetic pigment dispersions are important technological materials as in one form they are the material which are used to coat base film in order to make magnetic recording tape. It is these materials that have been evaluated. In this work, we describe the use of two pulsed field magnetometers, one being a low-field instrument with a maximum field of 750 Oe and the other a high-field instrument with a maximum field of 4.1 kOe. Using inductive sensing, the magnetisation is monitored in real time as the pulse is applied. We find that using these techniques we can successfully monitor the progress of the dispersion process, the effects of different resin systems and the effect of different processing conditions. We find that our results are consistent with rheological and other measurements

  15. The characterisation of magnetic pigment dispersions using pulsed magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell, J.J.; O' Grady, K. E-mail: kog1@york.ac.uk; Nelson, N.K.; Sharrock, M.P

    2003-10-01

    In this work, we describe the application of pulsed field magnetometry techniques for the characterisation of magnetic pigment dispersions. Magnetic pigment dispersions are important technological materials as in one form they are the material which are used to coat base film in order to make magnetic recording tape. It is these materials that have been evaluated. In this work, we describe the use of two pulsed field magnetometers, one being a low-field instrument with a maximum field of 750 Oe and the other a high-field instrument with a maximum field of 4.1 kOe. Using inductive sensing, the magnetisation is monitored in real time as the pulse is applied. We find that using these techniques we can successfully monitor the progress of the dispersion process, the effects of different resin systems and the effect of different processing conditions. We find that our results are consistent with rheological and other measurements.

  16. Investigation of an angular spectrum approach for pulsed ultrasound fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2013-01-01

    An Angular Spectrum Approach (ASA)is formulated and employed to simulate linear pulsed ultra sound fields for high bandwidth signals. Ageometrically focused piston transducer is used as the acoustic source. Signals are cross-correlated to findthe true sound speed during the measurement to make...... the simulated and measured pulses in phase for comparisons. The calculated sound speed in the measurement is varied between 1487.45 m/s and 1487.75 m/s by using different initial values in the ASA simulation. Results from the pulsed ASA simulation susing both Field II simulated and hydrophone measured acoustic....... Optim al parameters for the ASA are found in the simulation .The RMS error of the ASA simulation is reduced from 10.9% to 2.4% for the optimal parameters when comparing to Field II simulation s. The comparison between the ASA calculated and measured pulses are illustrated and the corresponding RMS error...

  17. Adiabatic theory in regions of strong field gradients. [in magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, E. C.; Northrop, T. G.; Birmingham, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    The theory for the generalized first invariant for adiabatic motion of charged particles in regions where there are large gradients in magnetic or electric fields is developed. The general condition for an invariant to exist in such regions is that the potential well in which the particle oscillates change its shape slowly as the particle drifts. It is shown how the Kruskal (1962) procedure can be applied to obtain expressions for the invariant and for drift velocities that are asymptotic in a smallness parameter epsilon. The procedure is illustrated by obtaining the invariant and drift velocities for particles traversing a perpendicular shock, and the generalized invariant is compared with the magnetic moment, and the drift orbits with the actual orbits, for a particular case. In contrast to the magnetic moment, the generalized first invariant is better for large gyroradii (large kinetic energies) than for small gyroradii. Expressions for the invariant when an electrostatic potential jump is imposed across the perpendicular shock, and when the particle traverses a rotational shear layer with a small normal component of the magnetic field are given.

  18. Interactions of pulsed electric fields with living organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vezinet, R.; Joly, J.C.; Meyer, O.; Gilbert, C.; Fourrier-Lamer, A.; Silve, A.; Mir, L.M.; Rols, M.P.; Chopinet, L.; Teissie, J.; Roux, D.

    2013-01-01

    Biologists are more and more involved in the study of the interactions of electromagnetic fields with human body for therapeutics and health applications. In this article we present 4 studies. The first study concerns the interaction between the electromagnetic field and the biochemical reaction of the hydrolysis of the acetylcholine, a primary neurotransmitter of the human body. It has been shown that a progressive slowing-down of the reaction appears when the pulse repetition frequency increases. The second study is dedicated to the effects of electromagnetic pulses at the cell membrane level. We know that electromagnetic pulses can alter the permeability of the cell membrane. We have used rectangular electromagnetic pulses to allow chemicals to enter the cell. In the case of cancer treatment the efficiency of a chemicals like bleomycin can be largely increased. The third study is dedicated to the use of 2 electromagnetic pulses of different duration to optimize gene transfer into the cell nucleus. The last study focuses on the analysis of plant reactions when facing electromagnetic pulses. An experiment performed on a sunflower shows that despite high electric fields no electro-physiological response of the plant has been measured when the sunflower was submitted to electromagnetic pulses

  19. Development of advanced radiation monitors for pulsed neutron fields

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081895

    The need of radiation detectors capable of efficiently measuring in pulsed neutron fields is attracting widespread interest since the 60s. The efforts of the scientific community substantially increased in the last decade due to the increasing number of applications in which this radiation field is encountered. This is a major issue especially at particle accelerator facilities, where pulsed neutron fields are present because of beam losses at targets, collimators and beam dumps, and where the correct assessment of the intensity of the neutron fields is fundamental for radiation protection monitoring. LUPIN is a neutron detector that combines an innovative acquisition electronics based on logarithmic amplification of the collected current signal and a special technique used to derive the total number of detected neutron interactions, which has been specifically conceived to work in pulsed neutron fields. Due to its special working principle, it is capable of overcoming the typical saturation issues encountere...

  20. Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauritsson, J.; Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA; Johnsson, P.; Gustafsson, E.; L'Hullier, A.; Schafer, K.J.; Gaarde, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. We present the generation of attosecond pulse trains from a superposition of an infrared (IR) laser field and its second harmonic. Our attosecond pulses are synthesized by selecting a number of synchronized harmonics generated in argon. By adding the second harmonic to the driving field the inversion symmetry of generation process is broken and both odd and even harmonics are generated. Consecutive half cycles in the two color field differ beyond the simple sign change that occurs in a one color field and have very different shapes and amplitudes. This sub-cycle structure of the field, which governs the generation of the attosecond pulses, depends strongly on the relative phase and intensity of the two fields, thereby providing additional control over the generation process. The generation of attosecond pulses is frequently described using the semi-classical three step model where an electron is: (1) ionized through tunneling ionization during one half cycle; (2) reaccelerated back towards the ion core by the next half cycle; where it (3) recombines with the ground-state releasing the access energy in a short burst of light. In the two color field the symmetry between the ionizing and reaccelerating field is broken, which leads to two possible scenarios: the electron can either be ionized during a strong half cycle and reaccelerated by a weaker field or vice versa. The periodicity is a full IR cycle in both cases and hence two trains of attosecond pulses are generated which are offset from each other. The generation efficiency, however, is very different for the two cases since it is determined mainly by the electric field strength at the time of tunneling and one of the trains will therefore dominate the other. We investigate experimentally both the spectral and temporal structure of the generated attosecond pulse trains as a function of the relative phase between the two driving fields. We find that for a wide range of

  1. Pulsed transport critical currents of Bi2212 tapes in pulsed magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogacki, K [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland); Gilewski, A; Klamut, J [International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland); Newson, M; Jones, H [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Glowacki, B A [IRC in Superconductivity and Department of Materials Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    If high-T{sub C} superconductors are ever to be used in high-field applications, it is vital that the critical surfaces can be mapped under high-field conditions. However, the latest superconductors have high currents even at fields over 20 T, making accurate measurements very difficult due to the thermal and mechanical problems. In this paper, we compare measurements on BSCCO-2212 tape using a number of different methods, particularly an innovative pulsed transport current and pulsed field mode. We show how the analysis of the voltage signal from BSCCO-2212 tape in pulsed conditions may be used to extract the critical current in quasi-stationary conditions. The effect of a metallic substrate on the results is also briefly discussed. (author)

  2. Microsecond-scale electric field pulses in cloud lightning discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Y.; Rakov, V. A.; Uman, M. A.; Brook, M.

    1994-01-01

    From wideband electric field records acquired using a 12-bit digitizing system with a 500-ns sampling interval, microsecond-scale pulses in different stages of cloud flashes in Florida and New Mexico are analyzed. Pulse occurrence statistics and waveshape characteristics are presented. The larger pulses tend to occur early in the flash, confirming the results of Bils et al. (1988) and in contrast with the three-stage representation of cloud-discharge electric fields suggested by Kitagawa and Brook (1960). Possible explanations for the discrepancy are discussed. The tendency for the larger pulses to occur early in the cloud flash suggests that they are related to the initial in-cloud channel formation processes and contradicts the common view found in the atmospheric radio-noise literature that the main sources of VLF/LF electromagnetic radiation in cloud flashes are the K processes which occur in the final, or J type, part of the cloud discharge.

  3. Design of Electric Field Sensors for Measurement of Electromagnetic Pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a D-dot electric field sensor and a fiber-optic transmission electric field sensor are developed for measurement of electromagnetic pulse. The D-dot sensor is a differential model sensor without source and has a simple structure. The fiber-optic transmission sensor is in the type of small dipole antenna, which uses its outside shielding layer as a pair of antennas. Design of the sensor circuit and the test system are introduced in this paper. A calibration system for these pulsed field sensors is established and the test results verified the ability of the developed sensors for measurement of the standard electromagnetic pulse field (the half peak width is 25 ns and the rising time is 2.5 ns.

  4. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm, Martin C., Jr.; Austen, William G., Jr.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-05-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases.

  5. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm Jr., Martin C.; Austen Jr., William G.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases. PMID:25965851

  6. Effects of pulsed electric field on ULQ and RFP plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, M.; Saito, K.; Suzuki, T.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamo activity and self-organization processes are investigated using the application of pulsed poloidal and toroidal electric fields on ULQ and RFP plasmas. Synchronized to the application of the pulsed electric fields, the remarkable responses of the several plasma parameters are observed. The plasma has a preferential magnetic field structure, and the external perturbation activates fluctuation to maintain the structure through dynamo effect. This process changes the total dissipation with the variation of magnetic helicity in the system, showing that self organization accompanies an enhanced dissipation. (author)

  7. Estimation of the magnetic field gradient tensor using the Swarm constellation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, part of the magnetic field gradient tensor is estimated in space by the Swarm mission. We investigate the possibility of a more complete estimation of the gradient tensor exploiting the Swarm constellation. The East-West gradients can be approximated by observations from...... deviations compared to conventional vector observations at almost all latitudes. Analytical and numerical analysis of the spectral properties of the gradient tensor shows that specific combinations of the East-West and North-South gradients have almost identical signal content to the radial gradient...

  8. Production of pulsed electric fields using capacitively coupled electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, B. R. F.; Schwab, F. A. S.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that pulsed electric fields can be produced over extended volumes by taking advantage of the internal capacitances in a stacked array of electrodes. The design, construction, and performance of practical arrays are discussed. The prototype arrays involved fields of 100-1000 V/cm extending over several centimeters. Scaling to larger physical dimensions is straightforward.

  9. Coupling of near-field thermal radiative heating and phonon Monte Carlo simulation: Assessment of temperature gradient in n-doped silicon thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Basil T.; Francoeur, Mathieu; Bong, Victor N.-S.; Mengüç, M. Pinar

    2014-01-01

    Near-field thermal radiative exchange between two objects is typically more effective than the far-field thermal radiative exchange as the heat flux can increase up to several orders higher in magnitudes due to tunneling of evanescent waves. Such an interesting phenomenon has started to gain its popularity in nanotechnology, especially in nano-gap thermophotovoltaic systems and near-field radiative cooling of micro-/nano-devices. Here, we explored the existence of thermal gradient within an n-doped silicon thin film when it is subjected to intensive near-field thermal radiative heating. The near-field radiative power density deposited within the film is calculated using the Maxwell equations combined with fluctuational electrodynamics. A phonon Monte Carlo simulation is then used to assess the temperature gradient by treating the near-field radiative power density as the heat source. Results indicated that it is improbable to have temperature gradient with the near-field radiative heating as a continuous source unless the source comprises of ultra-short radiative pulses with a strong power density. - Highlights: • This study investigates temperature distribution in an n-doped silicon thin film. • Near-field radiative heating is treated as a volumetric phenomenon. • The temperature gradient is computed using phonon MC simulation. • Temperature of thin film can be approximated as uniform for radiation calculations. • If heat source is a pulsed radiation, a temperature gradient can be established

  10. Pulsed zero field NMR of solids and liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, A.M.

    1987-02-01

    This work describes the development and applications to solids and liquid crystals of zero field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with pulsed dc magnetic fields. Zero field NMR experiments are one approach for obtaining high resolution spectra of amorphous and polycrystalline materials which normally (in high field) display broad featureless spectra. The behavior of the spin system can be coherently manipulated and probed in zero field with dc magnetic field pulses which are employed in a similar manner to radiofrequency pulses in high field NMR experiments. Nematic phases of liquid crystalline systems are studied in order to observe the effects of the removal of an applied magnetic field on sample alignment and molecular order parameters. In nematic phases with positive and negative magnetic susceptibility anisotropies, a comparison between the forms of the spin interactions in high and low fields is made. High resolution zero field NMR spectra of unaligned smectic samples are also obtained and reflect the symmetry of the liquid crystalline environment. These experiments are a sensitive measure of the motionally induced asymmetry in biaxial phases. Homonuclear and heteronuclear solute spin systems are compared in the nematic and smectic phases. Nonaxially symmetric dipolar couplings are reported for several systems. The effects of residual fields in the presence of a non-zero asymmetry parameter are discussed theoretically and presented experimentally. Computer programs for simulations of these and other experimental results are also reported. 179 refs., 75 figs

  11. Pulsed magnetic field generation suited for low-field unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunkar, Neelam Prabhu; Selvaraj, Jayaprakash; Theh, Wei-Shen; Weber, Robert; Mina, Mani

    2018-05-01

    Pulsed magnetic fields can be used to provide instantaneous localized magnetic field variations. In presence of static fields, pulsed field variations are often used to apply torques and in-effect to measure behavior of magnetic moments in different states. In this work, the design and experimental performance of a pulsed magnetic field generator suited for low static field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) applications is presented. One of the challenges of low bias field NMR measurements is low signal to noise ratio due to the comparable nature of the bias field and the pulsed field. Therefore, a circuit is designed to apply pulsed currents through an inductive load, leading to generation of pulsed magnetic fields which can temporarily overpower the effect of the bias field on magnetic moments. The designed circuit will be tuned to operate at the precession frequency of 1H (protons) placed in a bias field produced by permanent magnets. The designed circuit parameters may be tuned to operate under different bias conditions. Therefore, low field NMR measurements can be performed for different bias fields. Circuit simulations were used to determine design parameters, corresponding experimental measurements will be presented in this work.

  12. B1 gradient coherence selection using a tapered stripline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meerten, S G J; Tijssen, K C H; van Bentum, P J M; Kentgens, A P M

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed-field gradients are common in modern liquid state NMR pulse sequences. They are often used instead of phase cycles for the selection of coherence pathways, thereby decreasing the time required for the NMR experiment. Soft off-resonance pulses with a B 1 gradient result in a spatial encoding similar to that created by pulsed-field (B 0 ) gradients. In this manuscript we show that pulse sequences with pulsed-field gradients can easily be converted to one which uses off-resonance B 1 field gradient (OFFBEAT) pulses. The advantage of B 1 gradient pulses for coherence selection is that the chemical shift evolution during the pulses is (partially) suppressed. Therefore no refocusing echos are required to correct for evolution during the gradient pulses. A tapered stripline is shown to be a convenient tool for creating a well-defined gradient in the B 1 field strength. B 1 gradient coherence selection using a tapered stripline is a simple and cheap alternative to B 0 pulsed-field gradients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pulsed electric field sensor based on original waveform measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liang; Wu Wei; Cheng Yinhui; Zhou Hui; Li Baozhong; Li Jinxi; Zhu Meng

    2010-01-01

    The paper introduces the differential and original waveform measurement principles for pulsed E-field, and develops an pulsed E-field sensor based on original waveform measurement along with its theoretical correction model. The sensor consists of antenna, integrator, amplifier and driver, optic-electric/electric-optic conversion module and transmission module. The time-domain calibration in TEM cell indicates that, its risetime response is shorter than 1.0 ns, and the output pulse width at 90% of the maximum amplitude is wider than 10.0 μs. The output amplitude of the sensor is linear to the electric field intensity in a dynamic range of 20 dB. The measurement capability can be extended to 10 V/m or 50 kV/m by changing the system's antenna and other relative modules. (authors)

  14. Apparatus to examine pulsed parallel field losses in large conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.R.; Shen, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Conductors in tokamak toroidal field coils will be exposed to pulsed fields both parallel and perpendicular to the current direction. These conductors will likely be quite high capacity (10 to 20 kA) and therefore probably will be built up out of smaller units. We have previously published measurements of losses in conductors exposed to a pulsed parallel field, but those experiments necessarily used monolithic conductors of relatively small cross section because the pulse coil, a torus that surrounded the test conductor, was itself small. Here we describe an apparatus that is conceptually similar but has been scaled up to accept conductors of much larger cross section and current capacity. The apparatus consists basically of a superconducting torus that contains a movable spool to allow test samples to be wound inside without unwinding the torus. Details of apparatus design and capabilities are described and preliminary results from tests of the apparatus and from loss measurements using it are reported

  15. Acetic acid denaturing pulsed field capillary electrophoresis for RNA separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenqing; Dou, Xiaoming; Ni, Yi; Sumitomo, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori

    2010-10-01

    Based on our previous work of in-capillary denaturing polymer electrophoresis, we present a study of RNA molecular separation up to 6.0 kilo nucleotide by pulsed field CE. This is the first systematic investigation of electrophoresis of a larger molecular mass RNA in linear hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) under pulsed field conditions. The parameters that may influence the separation performance, e.g. gel polymer concentration, modulation depth and pulse frequency, are analyzed in terms of resolution and mobility. For denaturing and separating RNA in the capillary simultaneously, 2 M acetic acid was added into the HEC polymer to serve as separation buffer. Result shows that (i) in pulsed field conditions, RNA separation can be achieved in a wide range of concentration of HEC polymer, and RNA fragments between 0.3 and 0.6 kilo nucleotide are sensitive to the polymer concentration; (ii) under certain pulsed field conditions, RNA fragments move linearly as the modulation depth increases; (iii) 12.5 Hz is the resonance frequency for RNA reorientation time and applied frequency.

  16. A high pulsed power supply system designed for pulsed high magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kefu; Wang Shaorong; Zhong Heqing; Xu Yan; Pan Yuan

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of high pulsed power supply system for producing pulsed high magnetic field up to 70 T. This system consists of 58 sets of 55 μF of capacitor bank which provides 1.0 MJ energy storage. A set of vacuum closing switch is chosen as main switch for energy discharge into magnetic coil. A crowbar circuit with high power diodes in series with resistor is used to absorb the redundant energy and adjust pulse width. The resistance of magnetic coil changing with current is deduced by energy balance equations. A capacitor-charging power supply using a series-resonant, constant on-time variable frequency control, and zero-current switching charges the capacitor bank in one minute time with high efficiency. The pulsed power supply provides adjustable current and pulse width with 30 kA peak and 30 ms maximum. The primary experiments demonstrate the system reliability. This work provides an engineering guidance for future development of pulsed high magnetic field. (authors)

  17. Strong-field ionization with twisted laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paufler, Willi; Böning, Birger; Fritzsche, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    We apply quantum trajectory Monte Carlo computations in order to model strong-field ionization of atoms by twisted Bessel pulses and calculate photoelectron momentum distributions (PEMD). Since Bessel beams can be considered as an infinite superposition of circularly polarized plane waves with the same helicity, whose wave vectors lie on a cone, we compared the PEMD of such Bessel pulses to those of a circularly polarized pulse. We focus on the momentum distributions in propagation direction of the pulse and show how these momentum distributions are affected by experimental accessible parameters, such as the opening angle of the beam or the impact parameter of the atom with regard to the beam axis. In particular, we show that we can find higher momenta of the photoelectrons, if the opening angle is increased.

  18. Photodetachment of negative ion in a gradient electric field near a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tian-Qi; Wang De-Hua; Han Cai; Liu Jiang; Liang Dong-Qi; Xie Si-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Based on closed-orbit theory, the photodetachment of H − in a gradient electric field near a metal surface is studied. It is demonstrated that the gradient electric field has a significant influence on the photodetachment of negative ions near a metal surface. With the increase of the gradient of the electric field, the oscillation in the photodetachment cross section becomes strengthened. Besides, in contrast to the photodetachment of H − near a metal surface in a uniform electric field, the oscillating amplitude and the oscillating region in the cross section of a gradient electric field also become enlarged. Therefore, we can use the gradient electric field to control the photodetachment of negative ions near a metal surface. We hope that our results will be useful for understanding the photodetachment of negative ions in the vicinity of surfaces, cavities, and ion traps. (atomic and molecular physics)

  19. Pulsed-High Field/High-Frequency EPR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhs, Michael; Moebius, Klaus

    Pulsed high-field/high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is used to disentangle many kinds of different effects often obscured in continuous wave (cw) EPR spectra at lower magnetic fields/microwave frequencies. While the high magnetic field increases the resolution of G tensors and of nuclear Larmor frequencies, the high frequencies allow for higher time resolution for molecular dynamics as well as for transient paramagnetic intermediates studied with time-resolved EPR. Pulsed EPR methods are used for example for relaxation-time studies, and pulsed Electron Nuclear DOuble Resonance (ENDOR) is used to resolve unresolved hyperfine structure hidden in inhomogeneous linewidths. In the present article we introduce the basic concepts and selected applications to structure and mobility studies on electron transfer systems, reaction centers of photosynthesis as well as biomimetic models. The article concludes with an introduction to stochastic EPR which makes use of an other concept for investigating resonance systems in order to increase the excitation bandwidth of pulsed EPR. The limited excitation bandwidth of pulses at high frequency is one of the main limitations which, so far, made Fourier transform methods hardly feasible.

  20. Nanosecond pulsed electric field ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Stephen J; Chen, Xinhua; Liu, Jie A; Schoenbach, Karl H

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma often evades effective therapy and recurrences are frequent. Recently, nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) ablation using pulse power technology has emerged as a local-regional, non-thermal, and non-drug therapy for skin cancers. In the studies reported here we use nsPEFs to ablate murine, rat and human HCCs in vitro and an ectopic murine Hepa 1-6 HCC in vivo. Using pulses with 60 or 300 ns and electric fields as high as 60 kV/cm, murine Hepa 1-6, rat N1S1 and human HepG2 HCC are readily eliminated with changes in caspase-3 activity. Interestingly caspase activities increase in the mouse and human model and decrease in the rat model as electric field strengths are increased. In vivo, while sham treated control mice survived an average of 15 days after injection and before humane euthanasia, Hepa 1-6 tumors were eliminated for longer than 50 days with 3 treatments using one hundred pulses with 100 ns at 55 kV/cm. Survival was 40% in mice treated with 30 ns pulses at 55 kV/cm. This study demonstrates that nsPEF ablation is not limited to effectively treating skin cancers and provides a rationale for treating orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma in pre-clinical applications and ultimately in clinical trials.

  1. Rotating-frame gradient fields for magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance in low fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Louis-Serge; Pines, Alexander; Demas, Vasiliki

    2014-01-21

    A system and method for Fourier encoding a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal is disclosed. A static magnetic field B.sub.0 is provided along a first direction. An NMR signal from the sample is Fourier encoded by applying a rotating-frame gradient field B.sub.G superimposed on the B.sub.0, where the B.sub.G comprises a vector component rotating in a plane perpendicular to the first direction at an angular frequency .omega.in a laboratory frame. The Fourier-encoded NMR signal is detected.

  2. Pulsed electric fields (PEF applications on wine production: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozturk Burcu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel techniques have been searched in the last decades as a result of increasing demand for high quality food products. Non-thermal processing technologies, such as pulsed electric fields (PEF have been improved to achieve inhibition of deleterious effects on quality-related compounds. The working principle of PEF is based on the application of pulses of high voltage (typically above 20 kV/cm up to 70 kV/cm to liquid foods placed between two electrodes. Pulsed electric fields technique has also been studied in winemaking process. Certain positive influences of PEF on vinification have been reported as elimination of pathogenic microorganisms, reduction of maceration time, increase in phenolic compounds extraction , acceleration of wine aging and inactivation of oxidative enzymes. The aim of this review is to summarize the potential applications of PEF in winemaking and to express its effects on quality of wine.

  3. Pulsed electric field processing for fruit and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    This month’s column reviews the theory and current applications of pulsed electric field (PEF) processing for fruits and vegetables to improve their safety and quality. This month’s column coauthor, Stefan Toepfl, is advanced research manager at the German Institute of Food Technologies and professo...

  4. Pulsed electric field (PEF)research at USDA, ARS, ERRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article summarizes the effects of pulsed electric fields on the microbiological safety and quality aspects of various liquid food matrices, obtained at USDA, ARS, Eastern Regional Research Center under CRIS Project No. 1935-41420-013-00D, Processing Intervention Technologies for Enhancing the S...

  5. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is the most applied and effective genetic typing method for epidemiological studies and investigation of foodborne outbreaks caused by different pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. The technique relies on analysis of large DNA fragments generated by th...

  6. Trapped magnetic field measurements on HTS bulk by peak controlled pulsed field magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Tetsuya; Watasaki, Masahiro; Kimura, Yosuke; Miki, Motohiro; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2010-01-01

    For the past several years, we have studied the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor assembled with melt-textured Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk magnets. If the single pulse field magnetizes a bulk effectively, size of electrical motor will become small for the strong magnetic field of the HTS magnets without reducing output power of motor. In the previous study, we showed that the HTS bulk was magnetized to excellent cone-shape magnetic field distribution by using the waveform control pulse magnetization (WCPM) method. The WCPM technique made possible the active control of the waveform on which magnetic flux motion depended. We generated the pulse waveform with controlled risetime for HTS bulk magnetization to suppress the magnetic flux motion which decreases magnetization efficiency. The pulsed maximum magnetic flux density with slow risetime is not beyond the maximum magnetic flux density which is trapped by the static field magnetization. But, as for applying the pulse which has fast risetime, the magnetic flux which exceed greatly the threshold penetrates the bulk and causes the disorder of the trapped magnetic distribution. This fact suggests the possibility that the threshold at pulsed magnetization influences the dynamic magnetic flux motion. In this study, Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk is magnetized by the controlled arbitrary trapezoidal shape pulse, of which the maximum magnetic flux density is controlled not to exceed the threshold. We will present the trapped magnetic characteristics and the technique to generate the controlled pulsed field.

  7. Ionization and recombination in attosecond electric field pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Solov'ev, Eugene A.; Briggs, John S.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the results of a previous communication [Dimitrovski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083003 (2004)], we study ionization and excitation of a hydrogenic atom from the ground and first excited states in short electric field pulses of several cycles. A process of ionization and recombination which occurs periodically in time is identified, for both small and extremely large peak electric field strengths. In the limit of large electric peak fields closed-form analytic expressions for the population of the initial state after single- and few-cycle pulses are derived. These formulas, strictly valid for asymptotically large momentum transfer from the field, give excellent agreement with fully numerical calculations for all momentum transfers

  8. Pulsed beams as field probes for precision measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J. J.; Ashworth, H. T.; Kara, D. M.; Tarbutt, M. R.; Sauer, B. E.; Hinds, E. A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a technique for mapping the spatial variation of static electric, static magnetic, and rf magnetic fields using a pulsed atomic or molecular beam. The method is demonstrated using a beam designed to measure the electric dipole moment of the electron. We present maps of the interaction region, showing sensitivity to (i) electric field variation of 1.5 V/cm at 3.3 kV/cm with a spatial resolution of 15 mm; (ii) magnetic field variation of 5 nT with 25 mm resolution; (iii) radio-frequency magnetic field amplitude with 15 mm resolution. This diagnostic technique is very powerful in the context of high-precision atomic and molecular physics experiments, where pulsed beams have not hitherto found widespread application

  9. An explanation for parallel electric field pulses observed over thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, M. C.; Barnum, B. H.

    2009-10-01

    Every electric field instrument flown on sounding rockets over a thunderstorm has detected pulses of electric fields parallel to the Earth's magnetic field associated with every strike. This paper describes the ionospheric signatures found during a flight from Wallops Island, Virginia, on 2 September 1995. The electric field results in a drifting Maxwellian corresponding to energies up to 1 eV. The distribution function relaxes because of elastic and inelastic collisions, resulting in electron heating up to 4000-5000 K and potentially observable red line emissions and enhanced ISR electron temperatures. The field strength scales with the current in cloud-to-ground strikes and falls off as r -1 with distance. Pulses of both polarities are found, although most electric fields are downward, parallel to the magnetic field. The pulse may be the reaction of ambient plasma to a current pulse carried at the whistler packet's highest group velocity. The charge source required to produce the electric field is very likely electrons of a few keV traveling at the packet velocity. We conjecture that the current source is the divergence of the current flowing at mesospheric heights, the phenomenon called an elve. The whistler packet's effective radiated power is as high as 25 mW at ionospheric heights, comparable to some ionospheric heater transmissions. Comparing the Poynting flux at the base of the ionosphere with flux an equal distance away along the ground, some 30 db are lost in the mesosphere. Another 10 db are lost in the transition from free space to the whistler mode.

  10. NMR magnetic field controller for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheler, G.; Anacker, M.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance controller for magnetic fields, which can also be used for pulsed NMR investigations, is described. A longtime stability of 10 -7 is achieved. The control signal is generated by a modified time sharing circuit with resonance at the first side band of the 2 H signal. An exact calibration of the magnetic field is achieved by the variation of the H 1 - or of the time-sharing frequency. (author)

  11. Projectile-power-compressed magnetic-field pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlett, R.H.; Takemori, H.T.; Chase, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    Design considerations and experimental results are presented of a compressed magnetic field pulsed energy source. A 100-mm-diameter, gun-fired projectile of approx. 2MJ kinetic energy was the input energy source. An initial magnetic field was trapped and compressed by the projectile. With a shorted load, a magajoule in a nanohenry was the design goal, i.e., 50 percent energy transformation from kinetic to magnetic. Five percent conversion was the highest recorded before gauge failure

  12. Nanosecond field emitted and photo-field emitted current pulses from ZrC tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganter, R.; Bakker, R.J.; Gough, C.; Paraliev, M.; Pedrozzi, M.; Le Pimpec, F.; Rivkin, L.; Wrulich, A.

    2006-01-01

    In order to find electron sources with low thermal emittance, cathodes based on single tip field emitter are investigated. Maximum peak current, measured from single tip in ZrC with a typical apex radius around 1 μm, are presented. Voltage pulses of 2 ns duration and up to 50 kV amplitude lead to field emission current up to 470 mA from one ZrC tip. Combination of high applied electric field with laser illumination gives the possibility to modulate the emission with laser pulses. Nanoseconds current pulses have been emitted with laser pulses at 1064 nm illuminating a ZrC tip under high-DC electric field. The dependence of photo-field emitted current with the applied voltage can be explained by the Schottky effect

  13. Nanosecond field emitted and photo-field emitted current pulses from ZrC tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganter, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: romain.ganter@psi.ch; Bakker, R.J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Gough, C. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Paraliev, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Pedrozzi, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Le Pimpec, F. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Rivkin, L. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Wrulich, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland)

    2006-09-15

    In order to find electron sources with low thermal emittance, cathodes based on single tip field emitter are investigated. Maximum peak current, measured from single tip in ZrC with a typical apex radius around 1 {mu}m, are presented. Voltage pulses of 2 ns duration and up to 50 kV amplitude lead to field emission current up to 470 mA from one ZrC tip. Combination of high applied electric field with laser illumination gives the possibility to modulate the emission with laser pulses. Nanoseconds current pulses have been emitted with laser pulses at 1064 nm illuminating a ZrC tip under high-DC electric field. The dependence of photo-field emitted current with the applied voltage can be explained by the Schottky effect.

  14. A novel MR-compatible sensor to assess active medical device safety: stimulation monitoring, rectified radio frequency pulses, and gradient-induced voltage measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Thérèse; Aissani, Sarra; Weber, Nicolas; Pasquier, Cédric; Felblinger, Jacques

    2018-03-30

    To evaluate the function of an active implantable medical device (AIMD) during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The induced voltages caused by the switching of magnetic field gradients and rectified radio frequency (RF) pulse were measured, along with the AIMD stimulations. An MRI-compatible voltage probe with a bandwidth of 0-40 kHz was designed. Measurements were carried out both on the bench with an overvoltage protection circuit commonly used for AIMD and with a pacemaker during MRI scans on a 1.5 T (64 MHz) MR scanner. The sensor exhibits a measurement range of ± 15 V with an amplitude resolution of 7 mV and a temporal resolution of 10 µs. Rectification was measured on the bench with the overvoltage protection circuit. Linear proportionality was confirmed between the induced voltage and the magnetic field gradient slew rate. The pacemaker pacing was recorded successfully during MRI scans. The characteristics of this low-frequency voltage probe allow its use with extreme RF transmission power and magnetic field gradient positioning for MR safety test of AIMD during MRI scans.

  15. Reduction of field emission in superconducting cavities with high power pulsed RF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graber, J.; Crawford, C.; Kirchgessner, J.; Padamsee, H.; Rubin, D.; Schmueser, P.

    1994-01-01

    A systematic study is presented of the effects of pulsed high power RF processing (HPP) as a method of reducing field emission (FE) in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities to reach higher accelerating gradients for future particle accelerators. The processing apparatus was built to provide up to 150 kW peak RF power to 3 GHz cavities, for pulse lengths from 200 μs to 1 ms. Single-cell and nine-cell cavities were tested extensively. The thermal conductivity of the niobium for these cavities was made as high as possible to ensure stability against thermal breakdown of superconductivity. HPP proves to be a highly successful method of reducing FE loading in nine-cell SRF cavities. Attainable continuous wave (CW) fields increase by as much as 80% from their pre-HPP limits. The CW accelerating field achieved with nine-cell cavities improved from 8-15 MV/m with HPP to 14-20 MV/m. The benefits are stable with subsequent exposure to dust-free air. More importantly, HPP also proves effective against new field emission subsequently introduced by cold and warm vacuum ''accidents'' which admitted ''dirty'' air into the cavities. Clear correlations are obtained linking FE reduction with the maximum surface electric field attained during processing. In single cells the maximums reached were E peak =72 MV/m and H peak =1660 Oe. Thermal breakdown, initiated by accompanying high surface magnetic fields is the dominant limitation on the attainable fields for pulsed processing, as well as for final CW and long pulse operation. To prove that the surface magnetic field rather than the surface electric fields is the limitation to HPP effectiveness, a special two-cell cavity with a reduced magnetic to electric field ratio is successfully tested. During HPP, pulsed fields reach E peak =113 MV/m (H peak =1600 Oe) and subsequent CW low power measurement reached E peak =100 MV/m, the highest CW field ever measured in a superconducting accelerator cavity. ((orig.))

  16. Miniature coils for producing pulsed inplane magnetic fields for nanospintronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawliszak, Łukasz; Zgirski, Maciej [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al.Lotnikow 32/46, PL 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Tekielak, Maria [Faculty of Physics, University of Białystok, ul.Lipowa 41, PL 15-424 Białystok (Poland)

    2015-03-15

    Nanospintronic and related research often requires the application of quickly rising magnetic field pulses in the plane of the studied planar structure. We have designed and fabricated sub-millimeter-sized coils capable of delivering pulses of the magnetic field up to ∼500 Oe in the plane of the sample with the rise time of the order of 10 ns. The placement of the sample above the coil allows for easy access to its surface with manipulators or light beams for, e.g., Kerr microscopy. We use the fabricated coil to drive magnetic domain walls in 1 μm wide permalloy wires and measure magnetic domain wall velocity as a function of the applied magnetic field.

  17. Optimal quantum control of Bose-Einstein condensates in magnetic microtraps: Comparison of gradient-ascent-pulse-engineering and Krotov optimization schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Georg; Reich, Daniel M.; Goerz, Michael H.; Koch, Christiane P.; Hohenester, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    We study optimal quantum control of the dynamics of trapped Bose-Einstein condensates: The targets are to split a condensate, residing initially in a single well, into a double well, without inducing excitation, and to excite a condensate from the ground state to the first-excited state of a single well. The condensate is described in the mean-field approximation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We compare two optimization approaches in terms of their performance and ease of use; namely, gradient-ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) and Krotov's method. Both approaches are derived from the variational principle but differ in the way the control is updated, additional costs are accounted for, and second-order-derivative information can be included. We find that GRAPE produces smoother control fields and works in a black-box manner, whereas Krotov with a suitably chosen step-size parameter converges faster but can produce sharp features in the control fields.

  18. Evaporation Rate of Water as a Function of a Magnetic Field and Field Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Shang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of magnetic fields on water is still a highly controversial topic despite the vast amount of research devoted to this topic in past decades. Enhanced water evaporation in a magnetic field, however, is less disputed. The underlying mechanism for this phenomenon has been investigated in previous studies. In this paper, we present an investigation of the evaporation of water in a large gradient magnetic field. The evaporation of pure water at simulated gravity positions (0 gravity level (ab. g, 1 g, 1.56 g and 1.96 g in a superconducting magnet was compared with that in the absence of the magnetic field. The results showed that the evaporation of water was indeed faster in the magnetic field than in the absence of the magnetic field. Furthermore, the amount of water evaporation differed depending on the position of the sample within the magnetic field. In particular, the evaporation at 0 g was clearly faster than that at other positions. The results are discussed from the point of view of the evaporation surface area of the water/air interface and the convection induced by the magnetization force due to the difference in the magnetic susceptibility of water vapor and the surrounding air.

  19. Evaporation rate of water as a function of a magnetic field and field gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yun-Zhu; Yin, Da-Chuan; Cao, Hui-Ling; Shi, Jian-Yu; Zhang, Chen-Yan; Liu, Yong-Ming; Huang, Huan-Huan; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yan; Guo, Wei-Hong; Qian, Ai-Rong; Shang, Peng

    2012-12-11

    The effect of magnetic fields on water is still a highly controversial topic despite the vast amount of research devoted to this topic in past decades. Enhanced water evaporation in a magnetic field, however, is less disputed. The underlying mechanism for this phenomenon has been investigated in previous studies. In this paper, we present an investigation of the evaporation of water in a large gradient magnetic field. The evaporation of pure water at simulated gravity positions (0 gravity level (ab. g), 1 g, 1.56 g and 1.96 g) in a superconducting magnet was compared with that in the absence of the magnetic field. The results showed that the evaporation of water was indeed faster in the magnetic field than in the absence of the magnetic field. Furthermore, the amount of water evaporation differed depending on the position of the sample within the magnetic field. In particular, the evaporation at 0 g was clearly faster than that at other positions. The results are discussed from the point of view of the evaporation surface area of the water/air interface and the convection induced by the magnetization force due to the difference in the magnetic susceptibility of water vapor and the surrounding air.

  20. Evaporation Rate of Water as a Function of a Magnetic Field and Field Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yun-Zhu; Yin, Da-Chuan; Cao, Hui-Ling; Shi, Jian-Yu; Zhang, Chen-Yan; Liu, Yong-Ming; Huang, Huan-Huan; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yan; Guo, Wei-Hong; Qian, Ai-Rong; Shang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    The effect of magnetic fields on water is still a highly controversial topic despite the vast amount of research devoted to this topic in past decades. Enhanced water evaporation in a magnetic field, however, is less disputed. The underlying mechanism for this phenomenon has been investigated in previous studies. In this paper, we present an investigation of the evaporation of water in a large gradient magnetic field. The evaporation of pure water at simulated gravity positions (0 gravity level (ab. g), 1 g, 1.56 g and 1.96 g) in a superconducting magnet was compared with that in the absence of the magnetic field. The results showed that the evaporation of water was indeed faster in the magnetic field than in the absence of the magnetic field. Furthermore, the amount of water evaporation differed depending on the position of the sample within the magnetic field. In particular, the evaporation at 0 g was clearly faster than that at other positions. The results are discussed from the point of view of the evaporation surface area of the water/air interface and the convection induced by the magnetization force due to the difference in the magnetic susceptibility of water vapor and the surrounding air. PMID:23443127

  1. Fresh water disinfection by pulsed low electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, C; Xu, Y; Liu, Z; Yan, K

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a pulsed low electric field process for water disinfection. Electric intensity of 0.6–1.7 kV cm −1 is applied. Experiments are performed with a 1.2 L axis-cylinder reactor. A bipolar pulsed power source with pulsed width of 25 μs and frequency of 100–3000 Hz is used. Water conductivity of 3–200 μs cm −1 is investigated, which can significantly affect pulsed voltage-current waveforms and injected energy. Energy per pulse rises with increased water conductivity. The initial E. Coli density and water conductivity are two major factors influencing the disinfection. No disinfection effect is performed with deionized water of 3 μs cm −1 . When water conductivity is 25 μs cm −1 and bacteria density is 10 4 –10 6 cfu ml −1 , significant disinfection effect is observed. More than 99% of the cells can be disinfected with an energy density of less than 70 J ml −1 , while water temperature is below 30 °C.

  2. Using axial magnetized permanent rings to build axial gradient magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Quanling

    2003-01-01

    Axial field produced by an axially magnetized permanent ring was studied. For two permanent magnet rings, if they are magnetized in the same direction, a nearly uniform axial field can be produced; if they are magnetized in opposite direction, an axial gradient field can be produced in the region between the two permanent rings, with the field strength changing from -B 0 to B 0 . A high gradient axial magnetic field has been built by using two axially magnetized permanent rings, the measured field results agree with the PANDIRA calculation very well. It is desirable that the field gradient can be varied to match various requirements. A method to produce the variable gradient field is presented. Axial gradient field can also be used as a beam focusing facility for linear accelerator if axial periodic field can be produced. Its magnetic field is similar to that of a solenoid, in which, large stray field will leak to the outside environment. A method for shielding the outside stray field is discussed

  3. LUPIN, a new instrument for pulsed neutron fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caresana, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milan (Italy); Ferrarini, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milan (Italy); CNAO, Via Privata Campeggi, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Manessi, G.P., E-mail: giacomo.paolo.manessi@cern.ch [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, L69 7ZE Liverpool (United Kingdom); Silari, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Varoli, V. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-06-01

    A number of studies focused in the last decades on the development of survey meters to be used in pulsed radiation fields. This is a topic attracting widespread interest for applications such as radiation protection and beam diagnostics in accelerators. This paper describes a new instrument specifically conceived for applications in pulsed neutron fields (PNF). The detector, called LUPIN, is a rem counter type instrument consisting of a {sup 3}He proportional counter placed inside a spherical moderator. It works in current mode with a front-end electronics consisting of a current–voltage logarithmic amplifier, whose output signal is acquired with an ADC and processed on a PC. This alternative signal processing allows the instrument to be used in PNF without being affected by saturation effects. Moreover, it has a measurement capability ranging over many orders of burst intensity. Despite the fact that it works in current mode, it can measure a single neutron interaction. The LUPIN was first calibrated in CERN's calibration laboratory with a PuBe source. Measurements were carried out under various experimental conditions at the Helmholtz-Zentrum in Berlin, in the stray field at various locations of the CERN Proton Synchrotron complex and around a radiotherapy linear accelerator at the S. Raffaele hospital in Milan. The detector can withstand single bursts with values of H⁎(10) up to 16 nSv/burst without showing any saturation effect. It efficiently works in pulsed stray fields, where a conventional rem-counter underestimates by a factor of 2. It is also able to reject the very intense and pulsed photon contribution that often accompanies the neutron field with good reliability. -- Highlights: ► LUPIN is a new detector specifically conceived to work in neutron pulsed fields. ► The detector is a rem counter type instrument working in current mode. ► The performances of the detectors were studied under various experimental conditions. ► The detector

  4. Pre-breakdown processes in a dielectric fluid in inhomogeneous pulsed electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shneider, Mikhail N., E-mail: m.n.shneider@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Pekker, Mikhail [MMSolution, 6808 Walker Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19135 (United States)

    2015-06-14

    We consider the development of pre-breakdown cavitation nanopores appearing in the dielectric fluid under the influence of the electrostrictive stresses in the inhomogeneous pulsed electric field. It is shown that three characteristic regions can be distinguished near the needle electrode. In the first region, where the electric field gradient is greatest, the cavitation nanopores, occurring during the voltage nanosecond pulse, may grow to the size at which an electron accelerated by the field inside the pores can acquire enough energy for excitation and ionization of the liquid on the opposite pore wall, i.e., the breakdown conditions are satisfied. In the second region, the negative pressure caused by the electrostriction is large enough for the cavitation initiation (which can be registered by optical methods), but, during the voltage pulse, the pores do not reach the size at which the potential difference across their borders becomes sufficient for ionization or excitation of water molecules. And, in the third, the development of cavitation is impossible, due to an insufficient level of the negative pressure: in this area, the spontaneously occurring micropores do not grow and collapse under the influence of surface tension forces. This paper discusses the expansion dynamics of the cavitation pores and their most probable shape.

  5. Use of a ring chromosome and pulsed-field gels to study recombinational repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Game, J.C.; Arabi, S.; Mortimer, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    In wild type yeast, it is known that x-ray induced DNA double-strand breaks (dsb) are repaired, leading to recovery of high molecular-weight molecules on gradients or pulsed-field gels. There is genetic evidence that some or all of this repair occurs via recombinational mechanisms involving sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) and (in diploids) inter-homologue recombination. However, this evidence is indirect and qualitative. The authors of this paper are attempting to use pulsed-field gels to detect and measure recombinational repair at the physical level in yeast strains with a circular homologue of Chr. III. The authors have previously used such strains to study meiotic recombination. The authors have shown that double-size circular molecules can be detected in log-phase haploid yeast cells carrying a ring chromosome, when such cells are exposed to x-rays and allowed time for subsequent repair. Large circular molecules will not enter our pulsed-field gels, but treatment of the DNA samples with radiation prior to running the gels will linearize a fraction of such molecules with a single dsb. Such linearized molecules will run as a band whose position indicates the size of the original unbroken circles

  6. Passive notch circuit for pulsed-off compression fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunnally, W.C.

    1976-06-01

    The operation and simulated results of a passive notch circuit used to pulse off the field in a multiturn, fusion-power system, compression coil are presented. The notch circuit permits initial plasma preparation at field zero, adiabatic compression as the field returns to its initial value, and long field decay time for plasma confinement. The major advantages and disadvantages of the notch circuit are compared with those of a standard capacitor power supply system. The major advantages are that: (1) slow-rising fields can be used for adiabatic compression, (2) solid-state switches can be used because of the inherent current and voltage waveforms, and (3) long field decay times are easier to attain than with single-turn coils

  7. A hybrid two-component Bose–Einstein condensate interferometer for measuring magnetic field gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fei [Key Laboratory of Fiber Optic Sensing Technology and Information Processing, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Huang, Jiahao, E-mail: hjiahao@mail2.sysu.edu.cn [TianQin Research Center & School of Physics and Astronomy, Sun Yat-Sen University, SYSU Zhuhai Campus, Zhuhai 519082 (China); Liu, Quan [Key Laboratory of Fiber Optic Sensing Technology and Information Processing, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2017-03-03

    Highlights: • A scheme for detecting magnetic field gradients via a double-well two-component Bose–Einstein condensate interferometer. • The magnetic field gradient can be extracted by either the spin population or the external state. • Our proposal is potentially sensitive to weak magnetic field inhomogeneity due to its small sensor size. - Abstract: We have proposed a scheme to detect magnetic field gradients via an interferometer based on a double-well two-component Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC). Utilizing a sequence of quantum control operations on both external and internal degree of the BEC, one can extract the magnetic field gradients by measuring either the population in one component or the fidelity between the final external state and the initial ground state. Our scheme can be implemented by current experimental techniques of manipulating ultracold atoms.

  8. Coaxial monitoring of temperature field in selective pulsed laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Che; Chen, Zhongyun; Cao, Hongzhong; Zhou, Jianhong

    2017-10-01

    Selective Laser Melting is a rapid manufacturing technology which produces complex parts layer by layer. The presence of thermal stress and thermal strain in the forming process often leads to defects in the formed parts. In order to detect fabricate errors and avoid failure which caused by thermal gradient in time. An infrared thermal imager and a high speed CCD camera were applied to build a coaxial optical system for real-time monitoring the temperature distribution and changing trend of laser affected zone in SLM forming process. Molten tracks were fabricated by SLM under different laser parameters such as frequency, pulse width. And the relationship between the laser parameters and the temperature distribution were all obtained and analyzed.

  9. Effects of pulsed electrical field processing on microbial survival, quality change and nutritional characteristics of blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole fresh blueberries were treated using a parallel pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment chamber and a sanitizer solution (60 ppm peracetic acid [PAA]) as PEF treatment medium with square wave bipolar pulses at 2 kV/cm electric field strength, 1us pulse width, and 100 pulses per second for 2, 4, ...

  10. Long-pulse magnetic field facility at Zaragoza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algarabel, P A; Moral, A del; Martin, C; Serrate, D; Tokarz, W

    2006-01-01

    The long-pulse magnetic field facility of the Laboratorio de Magnetismo - Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC) produces magnetic fields up to 31, with a pulse duration of 2.2s. Experimental set-ups for measurements of magnetization, magnetostriction and magnetoresistance are available. The temperature can be controlled between 1.4 and 335 K, being the inner bore of the He cryostat of 22.5 mm. Magnetization is measured using the mutual induction technique, the magnetostriction is determined with the strain-gage and the capacitive cantilever methods, and the magnetoresistance is measured by means of the aclock-in technique in the 4-probes geometry. An overview of the facility will be presented and the presently available experimental techniques will be discussed

  11. Long-pulse magnetic field facility at Zaragoza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarabel, P. A.; del Moral, A.; Martín, C.; Serrate, D.; Tokarz, W.

    2006-11-01

    The long-pulse magnetic field facility of the Laboratorio de Magnetismo - Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC) produces magnetic fields up to 31, with a pulse duration of 2.2s. Experimental set-ups for measurements of magnetization, magnetostriction and magnetoresistance are available. The temperature can be controlled between 1.4 and 335 K, being the inner bore of the He cryostat of 22.5 mm. Magnetization is measured using the mutual induction technique, the magnetostriction is determined with the strain-gage and the capacitive cantilever methods, and the magnetoresistance is measured by means of the aclock-in technique in the 4-probes geometry. An overview of the facility will be presented and the presently available experimental techniques will be discussed.

  12. Longitudinal wake field for an electron beam accelerated through a ultra-high field gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2006-12-15

    Electron accelerators with higher and higher longitudinal field gradients are desirable, as they allow for the production of high energy beams by means of compact and cheap setups. The new laser-plasma acceleration technique appears to constitute the more promising breakthrough in this direction, delivering unprecedent field gradients up to TV/m. In this article we give a quantitative description of the impact of longitudinal wake fields on the electron beam. Our paper is based on the solution of Maxwell's equations for the longitudinal field. Our conclusions are valid when the acceleration distance is much smaller than the the overtaking length, that is the length that electrons travel as a light signal from the tail of the bunch overtakes the head of the bunch. This condition is well verified for laser-plasma devices. We calculate a closed expression for the impedance and the wake function that may be evaluated numerically. It is shown that the rate of energy loss in the bunch due to radiative interaction is equal to the energy emitted through coherent radiation in the far-zone. Furthermore, an expression is found for the asymptotic limit of a large distance of the electron beam from the accelerator compared with the overtaking length. Such expression allows us to calculate analytical solutions for a Gaussian transverse and longitudinal bunch shape. Finally, we study the feasibility of Table-Top Free-Electron Lasers in the Vacuum Ultra-Violet (TT-VUV FEL) and X-ray range (TT-XFEL), respectively based on 100 MeV and 1 GeV laser-plasma accelerator drivers. Numerical estimations presented in this paper indicate that the effects of the time-dependent energy change induced by the longitudinal wake pose a serious threat to the operation of these devices. (orig.)

  13. Characteristics of magnetic resonance imaging with partial flip angle and gradient field echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tatsumi; Uto, Tatsurou; Okafuji, Tatsumasa; Ookusa, Akihiko; Oonishi, Takuya; Mabuchi, Nobuhisa; Fujii, Kouichi; Yoshioka, Hiroyasu; Ishida, Osamu

    1988-01-01

    Characteristics of a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging pulse sequence with short repetition time (Tr), short echo time (Te), partial flip angle and gradient field echo, at 0.5 T, were studied. A series of sagittal images of the cerebrospinal region was obtained with varied Tr, Te and flip angle, signal intensities were measured by means of a region of interest (ROI) function, and optimal parameters to achieve maximum tissue contrast were found. Of the parameters flip angle had the greatest effect on tissue contrast. Flip angles less than 20 or more than 60 degrees were necessary to discriminate between spinal cord and cerebrospinal fluid. So called MR myelography was obtained with the flip angle of 15 degrees. Opposed and inphase images were obtained at the Te levels of 21 and 28 ms, respectively. Likewise, a series of transverse images of the abdomen with short Tr, short Te and varied flip angles was obtained in a breath-holding interval, and signal intensities of ROIs were measured. Maximum intensities of the liver, the spleen and perirenal fat were obtained at the flip angles of 40, 30 and 60 degrees, respectively. Although maximum intensity was found at the flip angle of 30 degrees for both of the renal cortex and medulla, the maximum contrast between the two tissues was obtained at the flip angles of 50-60 degrees. The image contrast obtained by these pulse sequences was also theoretically predictable, and so it is thought possible that flip angle, Tr and Te are manipulated to yield a desired contrast. (author)

  14. PHASE GRADIENT METHOD OF MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Ptitsyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of electric and hybrid vehicles demands real time magnetic field control, for instance, for fire and electromagnetic safety. The article deals with a method of magnetic field measurements onboard electric cars taking into account peculiar features of these fields. The method is based on differential methods of measurements, and minimizes the quantity of magnetic sensors.

  15. Clinical update of pulsed electromagnetic fields on osteoporosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Li-qun; HE Hong-chen; HE Cheng-qi; CHEN Jian; YANG Lin

    2008-01-01

    Objective To understand the effects of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on chronic bony pain,bone mineral density (BMD), bone strength and biochemical markers of bone metabolism in the patients of osteoporosis.Data sources Using the key words "pulsed electromagnetic fields" and "osteoporosis", we searched the PubMed for related studies published in English from January 1996 to December 2007. We also searched the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for studies published in Chinese from January 1996 to December 2007.Study selection Inclusion criteria: (1) all articles which referred to the effects of low-frequency pulsed magnetic fields on osteoporosis either in primary osteoporosis or secondary osteoporosis; (2) either observational studies or randomized controlled studies. Exclusion criteria: (1) articles on experimental studies about osteoporosis; (2) repetitive studies; (3)case reports; (4) meta analysis.Results Totally 111 related articles were collected, 101 of them were published in Chinese, 10 were in English.Thirty-four were included and the remaining 84 were excluded.Conclusions Low-frequency PEMFs relieves the pain of primary osteoporosis quickly and efficiently, enhances bone formation and increases BMD of secondary osteoporosis. But the effects of PEMFs on bone mineral density of primary osteoporosis and bone resorption were controversial.

  16. Oval gradient coils for an open magnetic resonance imaging system with a vertical magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Koki; Abe, Mitsushi; Kose, Katsumi; Terada, Yasuhiko

    2017-05-01

    Existing open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems use biplanar gradient coils for the spatial encoding of signals. We propose using novel oval gradient coils for an open vertical-field MRI. We designed oval gradients for a 0.3T open MRI system and showed that such a system could outperform a traditional biplanar gradient system while maintaining adequate gradient homogeneity and subject accessibility. Such oval gradient coils would exhibit high efficiency, low inductance and resistance, and high switching capability. Although the designed oval Y and Z coils showed more heat dissipation and less cooling capability than biplanar coils with the same gap, they showed an efficient heat-dissipation path to the surrounding air, which would alleviate the heat problem. The performance of the designed oval-coil system was demonstrated experimentally by imaging a human hand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Near field plasmonic gradient effects on high vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yurui; Zhang, Zhenglong; Chen, Li; Sun, Mengtao

    2015-01-14

    Near field gradient effects in high vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (HV-TERS) are a recent developing ultra-sensitive optical and spectral analysis technology on the nanoscale, based on the plasmons and plasmonic gradient enhancement in the near field and under high vacuum. HV-TERS can not only be used to detect ultra-sensitive Raman spectra enhanced by surface plasmon, but also to detect clear molecular IR-active modes enhanced by strongly plasmonic gradient. Furthermore, the molecular overtone modes and combinational modes can also be experimentally measured, where the Fermi resonance and Darling-Dennison resonance were successfully observed in HV-TERS. Theoretical calculations using electromagnetic field theory firmly supported experimental observation. The intensity ratio of the plasmon gradient term over the linear plasmon term can reach values greater than 1. Theoretical calculations also revealed that with the increase in gap distance between tip and substrate, the decrease in the plasmon gradient was more significant than the decrease in plasmon intensity, which is the reason that the gradient Raman can be only observed in the near field. Recent experimental results of near field gradient effects on HV-TERS were summarized, following the section of the theoretical analysis.

  18. High speed pulsed magnetic fields measurements, using the Faraday effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillet, A.

    1964-12-01

    For these measures, the information used is the light polarization plane rotation induced by the magnetic field in a glass probe. This rotation is detected using a polarizer-analyzer couple. The detector is a photomultiplier used with high-current and pulsed light. In a distributed magnet (gap: 6 x 3 x 3 cm) magnetic fields to measure are 300 gauss, lasting 0.1 μs, with rise times ≤ 35 ns, repetition rate: 1/s. An oscilloscope is used to view the magnetic field from the P.M. plate signal. The value of the field is computed from a previous static calibration. Magnetic fields from 50 to 2000 gauss (with the probe now used) can be measured to about 20 gauss ± 5 per cent, with a frequency range of 30 MHz. (author) [fr

  19. Three-dimensional magnetic nanoparticle imaging using small field gradient and multiple pickup coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasayama, Teruyoshi, E-mail: sasayama@sc.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Tsujita, Yuya; Morishita, Manabu; Muta, Masahiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Enpuku, Keiji

    2017-04-01

    We propose a magnetic particle imaging (MPI) method based on third harmonic signal detection using a small field gradient and multiple pickup coils. First, we developed a system using two pickup coils and performed three-dimensional detection of two magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) samples, which were spaced 15 mm apart. In the experiments, an excitation field strength of 1.6 mT was used at an operating frequency of 3 kHz. A DC gradient field with a typical value of 0.2 T/m was also used to produce the so-called field-free line. A third harmonic signal generated by the MNP samples was detected using the two pickup coils, and the samples were then mechanically scanned to obtain field maps. The field maps were subsequently analyzed using the nonnegative least squares method to obtain three-dimensional position information for the MNP samples. The results show that the positions of the two MNP samples were estimated with good accuracy, despite the small field gradient used. Further improvement in MPI performance will be achieved by increasing the number of pickup coils used. - Highlights: • 3D magnetic particle imaging system combining field-free line and two pickup coils. • Imaging method based on third harmonic signal detection and small field gradient. • Nonnegative least squares method for 3D magnetic nanoparticle image reconstruction. • High spatial resolution despite use of small field gradient.

  20. The magnetic field gradients generation for magnetic resonance tomography; Generacja gradientow pola magnetyczbego dla tomografii MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasinski, A.; Skorka, T.; Kwiecinski, S. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    To obtain three-dimensional images in the computerized tomography a gradient of magnetic field should be generated. In this paper the analytical as well as computerized calculations of magnetic coils for such purposes are presented. 4 refs, 8 figs.

  1. Electrical Field Guided Electrospray Deposition for Production of Gradient Particle Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei-Cheng; Xie, Jingwei; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2018-06-06

    Our previous work demonstrated the uniform particle pattern formation on the substrates using electrical field guided electrospray deposition. In this work, we reported for the first time the fabrication of gradient particle patterns on glass slides using an additional point, line, or bar electrode based on our previous electrospray deposition configuration. We also demonstrated that the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coating could result in the formation of uniform particle patterns instead of gradient particle patterns on glass slides using the same experimental setup. Meanwhile, we investigated the effect of experimental configurations on the gradient particle pattern formation by computational simulation. The simulation results are in line with experimental observations. The formation of gradient particle patterns was ascribed to the gradient of electric field and the corresponding focusing effect. Cell patterns can be formed on the particle patterns deposited on PDMS-coated glass slides. The formed particle patterns hold great promise for high-throughput screening of biomaterial-cell interactions and sensing.

  2. First-principles calculation of electric field gradients in metals, semiconductors, and insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwanziger, J.W. [Dalhousie Univ, Dept Chem, Halifax, NS (Canada); Dalhousie Univ, Inst Res Mat, Halifax, NS (Canada); Torrent, M. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept Phys Theor and Appl, Bruyeres 91 (France)

    2008-07-01

    A scheme for computing electric field gradients within the projector augmented wave (PAW) formalism of density functional theory is presented. On the basis of earlier work (M. Profeta, F. Mauri, C.J. Pickard, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 541, 2003) the present implementation handles metallic cases as well as insulators and semiconductors with equal efficiency. Details of the implementation, as well as applications and the discussion of the limitations of the PAW method for computing electric field gradients are presented. (authors)

  3. Spin imaging in solids using synchronously rotating field gradients and samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind, R.A.; Yannoni, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    A method for spin-imaging in solids using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is described. With this method, the spin density distribution of a two- or three-dimensional object such as a solid can be constructed resulting in an image of the sample. This method lends itself to computer control to map out an image of the object. This spin-imaging method involves the steps of placing a solid sample in the rf coil field and the external magnetic field of an NMR spectrometer. A magnetic field gradient is superimposed across the sample to provide a field gradient which results in a varying DC field that has different values over different parts of the sample. As a result, nuclei in different parts of the sample have different resonant NMR frequencies. The sample is rotated about an axis which makes a particular angle of 54.7 degrees with the static external magnetic field. The magnetic field gradient which has a spatial distribution related to the sample spinning axis is then rotated synchronously with the sample. Data is then collected while performing a solid state NMR line narrowing procedure. The next step is to change the phase relation between the sample rotation and the field gradient rotation. The data is again collected as before while the sample and field gradient are synchronously rotated. The phase relation is changed a number of times and data collected each time. The spin image of the solid sample is then reconstructed from the collected data

  4. Josephson tunnel junctions in a magnetic field gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, R.; Mygind, Jesper; Koshelets, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    We measured the magnetic field dependence of the critical current of high-quality Nb-based planar Josephson tunnel junctions in the presence of a controllable nonuniform field distribution. We found skewed and slowly changing magnetic diffraction patterns quite dissimilar from the Fraunhofer...

  5. Electrosensitization Increases Antitumor Effectiveness of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Muratori, Claudia; Pakhomov, Andrei G.; Heller, Loree; Casciola, Maura; Gianulis, Elena; Grigoryev, Sergey; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomova, O. N.

    2017-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields are emerging as a new modality for tissue and tumor ablation. We previously reported that cells exposed to pulsed electric fields develop hypersensitivity to subsequent pulsed electric field applications. This phenomenon, named electrosensitization, is evoked by splitting the pulsed electric field treatment in fractions (split-dose treatments) and causes in vitro a 2- to 3-fold increase in cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to show the benefit of split-d...

  6. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in milk by pulsed electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, L D; Jin, Z T; Zhang, Q H; Yousef, A E

    1998-09-01

    Pasteurized whole, 2%, and skim milk were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and treated with high-voltage pulsed electric field (PEF). The effects of milk composition (fat content) and PEF parameters (electric field strength, treatment time, and treatment temperature) on the inactivation of the bacterium were studied. No significant differences were observed in the inactivation of L. monocytogenes Scott A in three types of milk by PEF treatment. With treatment at 25 degrees C, 1- to 3-log reductions of L. monocytogenes were observed. PEF lethal effect was a function of field strength and treatment time. Higher field strength or longer treatment time resulted in a greater reduction of viable cells. A 4-log reduction of the bacterium was obtained by increasing the treatment temperature to 50 degrees C. Results indicate that the use of a high-voltage PEF is a promising technology for inactivation of foodborne pathogens.

  7. Pose control of the chain composed of magnetic particles using external uniform and gradient magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J. F.; Shao, C. L.; Gu, B. Q.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic particles (MPs) are known to respond to a magnetic field and can be moved by magnetic force, which make them good carriers in bioengineering and pharmaceutical engineering. In this paper, a pose control method for the straight chain composed of MPs is proposed, and the chain with one pose can be moved to another position with another pose using alternately employed uniform and gradient magnetic fields. Based on computer simulations, it is revealed that in the uniform magnetic field, the MPs form a straight chain with the same separation space along the field lines, and once the uniform magnetic field rotates, the chain also rotates with the field. In the gradient magnetic field, the MPs move toward the higher field so that the translation of the chain can be realized. The simulation results indicate that while the uniform magnetic field is rotating, there exists certain hysteresis between the chain and the field, and the chain is not straight anymore. So the uniform magnetic field should rest at the target angle for a period to make the chain fully relax to be straight. For nanoMP, its magnetic moment directly determines the gradient magnetic force which is much smaller than the dipole–dipole force among MPs. Therefore, the translation of the chain is much more time-consuming than rotation. To enlarge the translational velocity, it is suggested to increase the size of MPs or the magnetic field gradient

  8. Mechanism for the generation of 109 G magnetic fields in the interaction of ultraintense short laser pulse with an overdense plasma target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudan, R.N.

    1993-01-01

    The physical mechanism for the generation of very high ''dc'' magnetic fields in the interaction of ultraintense short laser pulse with an overdense plasma target originates in the spatial gradients and nonstationary character of the ponderomotive force. A set of model equations to determine the evolution of the ''dc'' fields is derived and it is shown that the ''dc'' magnetic field is of the same order of magnitude as the high frequency laser magnetic field

  9. Interrelationship between flexoelectricity and strain gradient elasticity in ferroelectric nanofilms: A phase field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Limei; Xu, Xiaofei; Zhou, Yichun

    2016-12-01

    With the development of the integrated circuit technology and decreasing of the device size, ferroelectric films used in nano ferroelectric devices become thinner and thinner. Along with the downscaling of the ferroelectric film, there is an increasing influence of two strain gradient related terms. One is the strain gradient elasticity and the other one is flexoelectricity. To investigate the interrelationship between flexoelectricity and strain gradient elasticity and their combined effect on the domain structure in ferroelectric nanofilms, a phase field model of flexoelectricity and strain gradient elasticity on the ferroelectric domain evolution is developed based on Mindlin's theory of strain-gradient elasticity. Weak form is derived and implemented in finite element formulations for numerically solving the model equations. The simulation results show that upper bounds for flexoelectric coefficients can be enhanced by increasing strain gradient elasticity coefficients. While a large flexoelectricity that exceeds the upper bound can induce a transition from a ferroelectric state to a modulated/incommensurate state, a large enough strain gradient elasticity may lead to a conversion from an incommensurate state to a ferroelectric state. Strain gradient elasticity and the flexoelectricity have entirely opposite effects on polarization. The observed interrelationship between the strain gradient elasticity and flexoelectricity is rationalized by an analytical solution of the proposed theoretical model. The model proposed in this paper could help us understand the mechanism of phenomena observed in ferroelectric nanofilms under complex electromechanical loads and provide some guides on the practical application of ferroelectric nanofilms.

  10. Comparative investigation of three dose rate meters for their viability in pulsed radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotz, M; Karsch, L; Pawelke, J

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed radiation fields, characterized by microsecond pulse duration and correspondingly high pulse dose rates, are increasingly used in therapeutic, diagnostic and research applications. Yet, dose rate meters which are used to monitor radiation protection areas or to inspect radiation shielding are mostly designed, characterized and tested for continuous fields and show severe deficiencies in highly pulsed fields. Despite general awareness of the problem, knowledge of the specific limitations of individual instruments is very limited, complicating reliable measurements. We present here the results of testing three commercial dose rate meters, the RamION ionization chamber, the LB 1236-H proportional counter and the 6150AD-b scintillation counter, for their response in pulsed radiation fields of varied pulse dose and duration. Of these three the RamION proved reliable, operating in a pulsed radiation field within its specifications, while the other two instruments were only able to measure very limited pulse doses and pulse dose rates reliably. (paper)

  11. Communication: Control of chemical reactions using electric field gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Shivaraj D.; Tsori, Yoav, E-mail: tsori@bgu.ac.il [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-05-21

    We examine theoretically a new idea for spatial and temporal control of chemical reactions. When chemical reactions take place in a mixture of solvents, an external electric field can alter the local mixture composition, thereby accelerating or decelerating the rate of reaction. The spatial distribution of electric field strength can be non-trivial and depends on the arrangement of the electrodes producing it. In the absence of electric field, the mixture is homogeneous and the reaction takes place uniformly in the reactor volume. When an electric field is applied, the solvents separate and the reactants are concentrated in the same phase or separate to different phases, depending on their relative miscibility in the solvents, and this can have a large effect on the kinetics of the reaction. This method could provide an alternative way to control runaway reactions and to increase the reaction rate without using catalysts.

  12. Communication: Control of chemical reactions using electric field gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Shivaraj D; Tsori, Yoav

    2016-05-21

    We examine theoretically a new idea for spatial and temporal control of chemical reactions. When chemical reactions take place in a mixture of solvents, an external electric field can alter the local mixture composition, thereby accelerating or decelerating the rate of reaction. The spatial distribution of electric field strength can be non-trivial and depends on the arrangement of the electrodes producing it. In the absence of electric field, the mixture is homogeneous and the reaction takes place uniformly in the reactor volume. When an electric field is applied, the solvents separate and the reactants are concentrated in the same phase or separate to different phases, depending on their relative miscibility in the solvents, and this can have a large effect on the kinetics of the reaction. This method could provide an alternative way to control runaway reactions and to increase the reaction rate without using catalysts.

  13. Effect of magnetic field gradient on power absorption in compact microwave plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Indranuj; Shamim, Md.; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2006-01-01

    We study the effect of the change in magnetic field gradient at the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) point, on the generated plasma for two different cylindrical minimum B-field configurations, viz. the hexapole and the octupole. The plasma parameters such as the electron and ion density, electron temperature including the wave field characteristics (B-field and E-field) in the plasma will be measured and compared for the two configurations. (author)

  14. Effects of an external magnetic field in pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, T.; de Posada, E.; Villagrán, M.; Ll, J. L. Sánchez; Bartolo-Pérez, P.; Peña, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition, PLD, on Si (1 0 0) substrates by the ablation of a sintered ceramic SrFe 12O 19 target with and without the presence of a nonhomogeneous magnetic field of μ0H = 0.4 T perpendicular to substrate plane and parallel to the plasma expansion axis. The field was produced by a rectangular-shaped Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet and the substrate was just placed on the magnet surface (Aurora method). An appreciable increment of optical emission due to the presence of the magnetic field was observed, but no film composition change or thickness increment was obtained. It suggests that the increment of the optical emission is due mainly to the electron confinement rather than confinement of ionic species.

  15. Effects of an external magnetic field in pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, T. [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM), Prolongacion San Isidro 151, Col. San Lorenzo Tezonco, C.P. 09790, Mexico DF (Mexico)], E-mail: tupacgarcia@yahoo.com; Posada, E. de [CINVESTAV-IPN Unidad Merida, Applied Physics Department, A.P. 73, Cordemex, C.P. 97130 Merida, Yuc. (Mexico); Villagran, M. [CCADET, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510, Mexico DF (Mexico); Ll, J.L. Sanchez [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Facultad de Fisica-IMRE, Universidad de La Habana, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Bartolo-Perez, P.; Pena, J.L. [CINVESTAV-IPN Unidad Merida, Applied Physics Department, A.P. 73, Cordemex, C.P. 97130 Merida, Yuc. (Mexico)

    2008-12-30

    Thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition, PLD, on Si (1 0 0) substrates by the ablation of a sintered ceramic SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} target with and without the presence of a nonhomogeneous magnetic field of {mu}{sub 0}H = 0.4 T perpendicular to substrate plane and parallel to the plasma expansion axis. The field was produced by a rectangular-shaped Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet and the substrate was just placed on the magnet surface (Aurora method). An appreciable increment of optical emission due to the presence of the magnetic field was observed, but no film composition change or thickness increment was obtained. It suggests that the increment of the optical emission is due mainly to the electron confinement rather than confinement of ionic species.

  16. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of bacterial chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawer, Julia S P; Leach, David R F

    2013-01-01

    The separation of fragments of DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis is integral to laboratory life. Nevertheless, standard agarose gel electrophoresis cannot resolve fragments bigger than 50 kb. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is a technique that has been developed to overcome the limitations of standard agarose gel electrophoresis. Entire linear eukaryotic chromosomes, or large fragments of a chromosome that have been generated by the action of rare-cutting restriction endonucleases, can be separated using this technique. As a result, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has many applications, from karyotype analysis of microbial genomes, to the analysis of chromosomal strand breaks and their repair intermediates, to the study of DNA replication and the identification of origins of replication. This chapter presents a detailed protocol for the preparation of Escherichia coli chromosomal DNA that has been embedded in agarose plugs, digested with the rare-cutting endonuclease NotI, and separated by contour-clamped homogeneous field electrophoresis. The principles in this protocol can be applied to the separation of all fragments of DNA whose size range is between 40 kb and 1 Mb.

  17. Arbitrary magnetic field gradient waveform correction using an impulse response based pre-equalization technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goora, Frédéric G; Colpitts, Bruce G; Balcom, Bruce J

    2014-01-01

    The time-varying magnetic fields used in magnetic resonance applications result in the induction of eddy currents on conductive structures in the vicinity of both the sample under investigation and the gradient coils. These eddy currents typically result in undesired degradations of image quality for MRI applications. Their ubiquitous nature has resulted in the development of various approaches to characterize and minimize their impact on image quality. This paper outlines a method that utilizes the magnetic field gradient waveform monitor method to directly measure the temporal evolution of the magnetic field gradient from a step-like input function and extracts the system impulse response. With the basic assumption that the gradient system is sufficiently linear and time invariant to permit system theory analysis, the impulse response is used to determine a pre-equalized (optimized) input waveform that provides a desired gradient response at the output of the system. An algorithm has been developed that calculates a pre-equalized waveform that may be accurately reproduced by the amplifier (is physically realizable) and accounts for system limitations including system bandwidth, amplifier slew rate capabilities, and noise inherent in the initial measurement. Significant improvements in magnetic field gradient waveform fidelity after pre-equalization have been realized and are summarized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of applied electric field on pulsed radio frequency and pulsed direct current plasma jet array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J. T.; Liu, X. Y.; Liu, J. H.; Xiong, Z. L.; Liu, D. W.; Lu, X. P.; Iza, F.; Kong, M. G.

    2012-01-01

    Here we compare the plasma plume propagation characteristics of a 3-channel pulsed RF plasma jet array and those of the same device operated by a pulsed dc source. For the pulsed-RF jet array, numerous long life time ions and metastables accumulated in the plasma channel make the plasma plume respond quickly to applied electric field. Its structure similar as “plasma bullet” is an anode glow indeed. For the pulsed dc plasma jet array, the strong electric field in the vicinity of the tube is the reason for the growing plasma bullet in the launching period. The repulsive forces between the growing plasma bullets result in the divergence of the pulsed dc plasma jet array. Finally, the comparison of 309 nm and 777 nm emissions between these two jet arrays suggests the high chemical activity of pulsed RF plasma jet array.

  19. Fermentation Assisted by Pulsed Electric Field and Ultrasound: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Galván-D’Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Various novel techniques are proposed to improve process efficiency, quality, and safety of fermented food products. Ultrasound and pulsed electric field (PEF are versatile technologies that can be employed in conjunction with fermentation processes to enhance process efficiency and production rates by improving mass transfer and cell permeability. The aim of this review is to highlight current and potential applications of ultrasound and PEF techniques in food fermentation processes. Their effects on microbial enzymes, along with mechanisms of action, are also discussed.

  20. A paradoxical signal intensity increase in fatty livers using opposed-phase gradient echo imaging with fat-suppression pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulkern, Robert V.; Voss, Stephan; Loeb Salsberg, Sandra; Krauel, Marta Ramon; Ludwig, David S.

    2008-01-01

    With the increase in obese and overweight children, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has become more prevalent in the pediatric population. Appreciating subtleties of magnetic resonance (MR) signal intensity behavior from fatty livers under different imaging conditions thus becomes important to pediatric radiologists. We report an initially confusing signal behavior - increased signal from fatty livers when fat-suppression pulses are applied in an opposed-phase gradient echo imaging sequence - and seek to explain the physical mechanisms for this paradoxical signal intensity behavior. Abdominal MR imaging at 3 T with a 3-D volumetric interpolated breath-hold (VIBE) sequence in the opposed-phase condition (TR/TE 3.3/1.3 ms) was performed in five obese boys (14±2 years of age, body mass index >95th percentile for age and sex) with spectroscopically confirmed fatty livers. Two VIBE acquisitions were performed, one with and one without the use of chemical shift selective (CHESS) pulse fat suppression. The ratios of fat-suppressed over non-fat-suppressed signal intensities were assessed in regions-of-interest (ROIs) in five tissues: subcutaneous fat, liver, vertebral marrow, muscle and spleen. The boys had spectroscopically estimated hepatic fat levels between 17% and 48%. CHESS pulse fat suppression decreased subcutaneous fat signals dramatically, by more than 85% within regions of optimal fat suppression. Fatty liver signals, in contrast, were elevated by an average of 87% with CHESS pulse fat suppression. Vertebral marrow signal was also significantly elevated with CHESS pulse fat suppression, while spleen and muscle signals demonstrated only small signal increases on the order of 10%. We demonstrated that CHESS pulse fat suppression actually increases the signal intensity from fatty livers in opposed-phase gradient echo imaging conditions. The increase can be attributed to suppression of one partner of the opposed-phase pair that normally contributes to the

  1. A paradoxical signal intensity increase in fatty livers using opposed-phase gradient echo imaging with fat-suppression pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulkern, Robert V.; Voss, Stephan [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Loeb Salsberg, Sandra; Krauel, Marta Ramon; Ludwig, David S. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Medicine, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-10-15

    With the increase in obese and overweight children, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has become more prevalent in the pediatric population. Appreciating subtleties of magnetic resonance (MR) signal intensity behavior from fatty livers under different imaging conditions thus becomes important to pediatric radiologists. We report an initially confusing signal behavior - increased signal from fatty livers when fat-suppression pulses are applied in an opposed-phase gradient echo imaging sequence - and seek to explain the physical mechanisms for this paradoxical signal intensity behavior. Abdominal MR imaging at 3 T with a 3-D volumetric interpolated breath-hold (VIBE) sequence in the opposed-phase condition (TR/TE 3.3/1.3 ms) was performed in five obese boys (14{+-}2 years of age, body mass index >95th percentile for age and sex) with spectroscopically confirmed fatty livers. Two VIBE acquisitions were performed, one with and one without the use of chemical shift selective (CHESS) pulse fat suppression. The ratios of fat-suppressed over non-fat-suppressed signal intensities were assessed in regions-of-interest (ROIs) in five tissues: subcutaneous fat, liver, vertebral marrow, muscle and spleen. The boys had spectroscopically estimated hepatic fat levels between 17% and 48%. CHESS pulse fat suppression decreased subcutaneous fat signals dramatically, by more than 85% within regions of optimal fat suppression. Fatty liver signals, in contrast, were elevated by an average of 87% with CHESS pulse fat suppression. Vertebral marrow signal was also significantly elevated with CHESS pulse fat suppression, while spleen and muscle signals demonstrated only small signal increases on the order of 10%. We demonstrated that CHESS pulse fat suppression actually increases the signal intensity from fatty livers in opposed-phase gradient echo imaging conditions. The increase can be attributed to suppression of one partner of the opposed-phase pair that normally contributes to the

  2. Comparison of pulsed corona plasma and pulsed electric fields for the decontamination of water containing Legionella pneumophila as model organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaschik, Robert; Burchhardt, Gerhard; Zocher, Katja; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Kolb, Juergen F; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-12-01

    Pulsed corona plasma and pulsed electric fields were assessed for their capacity to kill Legionella pneumophila in water. Electrical parameters such as in particular dissipated energy were equal for both treatments. This was accomplished by changing the polarity of the applied high voltage pulses in a coaxial electrode geometry resulting in the generation of corona plasma or an electric field. For corona plasma, generated by high voltage pulses with peak voltages of +80kV, Legionella were completely killed, corresponding to a log-reduction of 5.4 (CFU/ml) after a treatment time of 12.5min. For the application of pulsed electric fields from peak voltages of -80kV a survival of log 2.54 (CFU/ml) was still detectable after this treatment time. Scanning electron microscopy images of L. pneumophila showed rupture of cells after plasma treatment. In contrast, the morphology of bacteria seems to be intact after application of pulsed electric fields. The more efficient killing for the same energy input observed for pulsed corona plasma is likely due to induced chemical processes and the generation of reactive species as indicated by the evolution of hydrogen peroxide. This suggests that the higher efficacy and efficiency of pulsed corona plasma is primarily associated with the combined effect of the applied electric fields and the promoted reaction chemistry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Aortic-Brachial Pulse Wave Velocity Ratio: A Measure of Arterial Stiffness Gradient Not Affected by Mean Arterial Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Catherine; Desjardins, Marie-Pier; Agharazii, Mohsen

    2018-03-01

    Aortic stiffness, measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), is used for the prediction of cardiovascular risk. This mini-review describes the nonlinear relationship between cf-PWV and operational blood pressure, presents the proposed methods to adjust for this relationship, and discusses a potential place for aortic-brachial PWV ratio (a measure of arterial stiffness gradient) as a blood pressure-independent measure of vascular aging. PWV is inherently dependent on the operational blood pressure. In cross-sectional studies, PWV adjustment for mean arterial pressure (MAP) is preferred, but still remains a nonoptimal approach, as the relationship between PWV and blood pressure is nonlinear and varies considerably among individuals due to heterogeneity in genetic background, vascular tone, and vascular remodeling. Extrapolations from the blood pressure-independent stiffness parameter β (β 0 ) have led to the creation of stiffness index β, which can be used for local stiffness. A similar approach has been used for cardio-ankle PWV to generate a blood pressure-independent cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). It was recently demonstrated that stiffness index β and CAVI remain slightly blood pressure-dependent, and a more appropriate formula has been proposed to make the proper adjustments. On the other hand, the negative impact of aortic stiffness on clinical outcomes is thought to be mediated through attenuation or reversal of the arterial stiffness gradient, which can also be influenced by a reduction in peripheral medium-sized muscular arteries in conditions that predispose to accelerate vascular aging. Arterial stiffness gradient, assessed by aortic-brachial PWV ratio, is emerging to be at least as good as cf-PWV for risk prediction, but has the advantage of not being affected by operating MAP. The negative impacts of aortic stiffness on clinical outcomes are proposed to be mediated through attenuation or reversal of arterial stiffness gradient

  4. Mode I and mixed mode crack-tip fields in strain gradient plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios

    2011-01-01

    Strain gradients develop near the crack-tip of Mode I or mixed mode cracks. A finite strain version of the phenomenological strain gradient plasticity theory of Fleck–Hutchinson (2001) is used here to quantify the effect of the material length scales on the crack-tip stress field for a sharp...... stationary crack under Mode I and mixed mode loading. It is found that for material length scales much smaller than the scale of the deformation gradients, the predictions converge to conventional elastic–plastic solutions. For length scales sufficiently large, the predictions converge to elastic solutions....... Thus, the range of length scales over which a strain gradient plasticity model is necessary is identified. The role of each of the three material length scales, incorporated in the multiple length scale theory, in altering the near-tip stress field is systematically studied in order to quantify...

  5. Measurement of electric field and gradient in the plasma sheath using clusters of floating microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, T. E.; Katschke, M. R.; Wells, K. D.

    2007-01-01

    A method for measuring the time-averaged vertical electric field and its gradient in the plasma sheath using clusters with n=2 or 3 floating microspheres of known mass is described. The particle charge q is found by determining the ratio of the breathing frequency to the center-of-mass frequency for horizontal (in-plane) oscillations. The electric field at the position of the particles is then calculated using the measured charge-to-mass ratio, and the electric-field gradient is determined from the vertical resonance frequency. The Debye length is also found. Experimental results are in agreement with a simple sheath model

  6. The effect of pulsed electric fields on carotenoids bioaccessibility: The role of tomato matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Francesca; Verkerk, Ruud; Mastwijk, Hennie; Anese, Monica; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Capuano, Edoardo

    2018-02-01

    Tomato fractions were subjected to pulsed electric fields treatment combined or not with heating. Results showed that pulsed electric fields and heating applied in combination or individually induced permeabilization of cell membranes in the tomato fractions. However, no changes in β-carotene and lycopene bioaccessibility were found upon combined and individual pulsed electric fields and heating, except in the following cases: (i) in tissue, a significant decrease in lycopene bioaccessibility upon combined pulsed electric fields and heating and heating only was observed; (ii) in chromoplasts, both β-carotene and lycopene bioaccessibility significantly decreased upon combined pulsed electric fields and heating and pulsed electric fields only. The reduction in carotenoids bioaccessibility was attributed to modification in chromoplasts membrane and carotenoids-protein complexes. Differences in the effects of pulsed electric fields on bioaccessibility among different tomato fractions were related to tomato structure complexity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Maximum repulsed magnetization of a bulk superconductor with low pulsed field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimoto, M.; Kamijo, H.; Fujimoto, H.

    2005-01-01

    Pulsed field magnetization of a bulk high-T c superconductor (HTS) is important technique especially for practical applications of a bulk superconducting magnet. Full magnetization is not obtained for low pulsed field and trapped field is decreased by reversed current in the HTS. The trapped field distribution by repulsed magnetization was previously reported in experiments with temperature control. In this study, repulsed magnetization technique with the low pulsed field is numerically analyzed under assumption of variable shielding current by the temperature control. The shielding current densities are discussed to obtain maximum trapped field by two times of low pulsed field magnetizations

  8. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments affect degeneration of cultured articular cartilage explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lijun; Ren, Yijin; van Kooten, Theo G.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Kuijer, Roelof

    PURPOSE: Articular cartilage has some capacity for self-repair. Clinically used low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments were compared in their potency to prevent degeneration using an explant model of porcine cartilage. METHODS: Explants of porcine

  9. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments affect degeneration of cultured articular cartilage explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lijun; Tan, Lijun; Ren, Yijin; van Kooten, Theo G.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Kuijer, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Articular cartilage has some capacity for self-repair. Clinically used low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments were compared in their potency to prevent degeneration using an explant model of porcine cartilage. Methods: Explants of porcine

  10. Sludge pre-treatment with pulsed electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopplow, O.; Barjenbruch, M.; Heinz, V.

    2003-07-01

    The anaerobic stabilization process depends - among others - on the bio-availability of organic carbon. Through pre-treatment of the sludge which leads to the destruction of micro-organisms and to the setting-free of cell content substances (disintegration), the carbon can be microbially converted better and faster. Moreover, effects on the digestion are likely. However, only little experience is available in the sludge treatment with pulsed electric fields. Laboratory-scale digestion tests have been run to analyse the influence of pulsed electric fields on the properties of sludge, anaerobic degradation, sludge water reload and foaming of digesters. The results will be compared with those of other disintegration methods (high pressure homogenise, thermal treatment). The effect of pre-treatment on the sludge is shown by the COD release. Degrees of disintegration have been achieved up to 20%. The specific energy input was high. The energy consumption has been decreased by initial improvements (pre-heating to 55{sup o}C). The filament bacteria were partially destroyed. The foam reduction in the digesters was marginal. The anaerobic degradation performance has been improved in every case. The degradation rate of organic matter increased about 9%. Due to the increase of degradation, there is a higher reload of the sludge-water with COD and nitrogen compounds. (author)

  11. Loudness of tone pulses in a free field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    1981-01-01

    Investigations of temporal loudness summation of tone pulses have been performed. The investigations comprised equal loudness determinations between pairs of tone pulses with a duration ratio of 1:2, and threshold determinations of the same tone pulses. Pulse durations ranged from 5 to 640 ms...

  12. Particle reflection along the magnetic field in nonlinear magnetosonic pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsawa, Yukiharu

    2017-11-01

    Reflection of electrons and positrons in oblique, nonlinear magnetosonic pulses is theoretically analyzed. With the use of the parallel pseudo potential F, which is the integral of the parallel electric field along the magnetic field, a simple equation for reflection conditions is derived, which shows that reflection along the magnetic field is caused by two forces: one arising from the parallel pseudo potential multiplied by the particle charge and the other from the magnetic mirror effect. The two forces push electrons in the opposite directions. In compressive solitons, in which the magnetic field is intensified, electrons with large magnetic moments can be reflected by the magnetic mirror effect, whereas in rarefactive solitons, in which the magnetic field is weaker than outside, electrons with small magnetic moments can be reflected by the parallel pseudo potential. Although F is basically positive and large in shock waves, it occasionally becomes negative in some regions behind the shock front in nonstationary wave evolution. These negative spikes of F can reflect electrons. In contrast to the case of electrons, the two forces push positrons in the same direction. For this reason, compressive solitons in an electron-positron-ion plasma reflect a large fraction of positrons compared with electrons, whereas rarefactive solitons will reflect no positrons. A shock wave can reflect a majority of positrons with its large F. However, in a pure electron-positron plasma, in which F becomes zero, positron reflection will rarely occur.

  13. The New High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Dresden: a Pulsed-Field Laboratory at an IR Free-Electron-Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pobell, F.; Bianchi, A. D.; Herrmannsdoerfer, T.; Krug, H.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Zvyagin, S.; Wosnitza, J.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the construction of a new high magnetic field user laboratory which will offer pulsed-field coils in the range (60 T, 500 ms, 40 mm) to (100 T, 10 ms, 20 mm) for maximum field, pulse time, and bore diameter of the coils. These coils will be energized by a modular 50 MJ/24 kV capacitor bank. Besides many other experimental techniques, as unique possibilities NMR in pulsed fields as well as infrared spectroscopy at 5 to 150 μm will be available by connecting the pulsed field laboratory to a nearby free-electron-laser facility

  14. The photospheric vector magnetic field of a sunspot and its vertical gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M. J.; West, E. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Smith, J. E.; Henze, W., Jr.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, E. C.; Hyder, C. L.; Gurman, J. B.; Shine, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of direct comparisons of photospheric and transition region line-of-sight field observations of sunspots using the SMM UV spectrometer and polarimeter are reported. The analysis accompanying the data is concentrated on demonstrating that the sunspot concentrated magnetic field extends into the transition region. An observation of a sunspot on Oct. 23, 1980 at the S 18 E 03 location is used as an example. Maximum field strengths ranged from 2030-2240 gauss for large and small umbrae viewed and inclination of the field to the line-of-sight was determined for the photosphere and transition region. The distribution of the magnetic field over the sunspot and variation of the line-of-sight gradient are discussed, as are the magnitudes and gradients of the photospheric field across the penumbral-photospheric boundaries.

  15. A new model for volume recombination in plane-parallel chambers in pulsed fields of high dose-per-pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotz, M; Karsch, L; Pawelke, J

    2017-11-01

    In order to describe the volume recombination in a pulsed radiation field of high dose-per-pulse this study presents a numerical solution of a 1D transport model of the liberated charges in a plane-parallel ionization chamber. In addition, measurements were performed on an Advanced Markus ionization chamber in a pulsed electron beam to obtain suitable data to test the calculation. The experiment used radiation pulses of 4 μs duration and variable dose-per-pulse values up to about 1 Gy, as well as pulses of variable duration up to 308 [Formula: see text] at constant dose-per-pulse values between 85 mGy and 400 mGy. Those experimental data were compared to the developed numerical model and existing descriptions of volume recombination. At low collection voltages the observed dose-per-pulse dependence of volume recombination can be approximated by the existing theory using effective parameters. However, at high collection voltages large discrepancies are observed. The developed numerical model shows much better agreement with the observations and is able to replicate the observed behavior over the entire range of dose-per-pulse values and collection voltages. Using the developed numerical model, the differences between observation and existing theory are shown to be the result of a large fraction of the charge being collected as free electrons and the resultant distortion of the electric field inside the chamber. Furthermore, the numerical solution is able to calculate recombination losses for arbitrary pulse durations in good agreement with the experimental data, an aspect not covered by current theory. Overall, the presented numerical solution of the charge transport model should provide a more flexible tool to describe volume recombination for high dose-per-pulse values as well as for arbitrary pulse durations and repetition rates.

  16. Estimation of geothermal gradients from single temperature log-field cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutasov, I M; Eppelbaum, L V

    2009-01-01

    A geothermal gradient is one of the most frequently used parameters in logging geophysics. However, the drilling process greatly disturbs the temperature of the formations around the wellbore. For this reason, in order to determine with the required accuracy the formation temperatures and geothermal gradients, a certain length of shut-in time is required. It was shown earlier (Kutasov 1968 Freiberger Forshungshefte C 238 55–61, 1987 Geothermics 16 467–72) that at least two transient temperature surveys are needed to determine the geothermal gradient with adequate accuracy. However, in many cases only one temperature log is conducted in a shut-in borehole. For these cases, we propose an approximate method for the estimation of the geothermal gradient. The utilization of this method is demonstrated on four field examples

  17. Generation of strong pulsed magnetic fields using a compact, short pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanuka, D.; Efimov, S.; Nitishinskiy, M.; Rososhek, A.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2016-04-01

    The generation of strong magnetic fields (˜50 T) using single- or multi-turn coils immersed in water was studied. A pulse generator with stored energy of ˜3.6 kJ, discharge current amplitude of ˜220 kA, and rise time of ˜1.5 μs was used in these experiments. Using the advantage of water that it has a large Verdet constant, the magnetic field was measured using the non-disturbing method of Faraday rotation of a polarized collimated laser beam. This approach does not require the use of magnetic probes, which are sensitive to electromagnetic noise and damaged in each shot. It also avoids the possible formation of plasma by either a flashover along the conductor or gas breakdown inside the coil caused by an induced electric field. In addition, it was shown that this approach can be used successfully to investigate the interesting phenomenon of magnetic field enhanced diffusion into a conductor.

  18. Measurement of asymmetric optical pumping of ions accelerating in a magnetic-field gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xuan; Scime, Earl; Miah, Mahmood; Cohen, Samuel; Skiff, Frederick

    2004-01-01

    We report observations of asymmetric optical pumping of argon ions accelerating in a magnetic-field gradient. The signature is a difference in the laser-induced-fluorescence emission amplitude from a pair of Zeeman-split states. A model that reproduces the dependence of the asymmetry on magnetic-field and ion-velocity gradients is described. With the model, the fluorescence intensity ratio provides a new method of measuring ion collisionality. This phenomenon has implications for interpreting stellar plasma spectroscopy data which often exhibit unequal Zeeman state intensities

  19. Measurement of Asymmetric Optical Pumping of Ions Accelerating in a Magnetic-field Gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuan Sun; Earl Scime; Mahmood Miah; Samuel Cohen; Frederick Skiff

    2004-10-28

    We report observations of asymmetric optical pumping of argon ions accelerating in a magnetic field gradient. The signature is a difference in the laser-induced-fluorescence (LIF) emission amplitude from a pair of Zeeman-split states. A model that reproduces the dependence of the asymmetry on magnetic-field and ion-velocity gradients is described. With the model, the fluorescence intensity ratio provides a new method of measuring ion collisionality. This phenomenon has implications for interpreting stellar plasma spectroscopy data which often exhibit unequal Zeeman state intensities.

  20. Measurement of Asymmetric Optical Pumping of Ions Accelerating in a Magnetic-field Gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuan Sun; Earl Scime; Mahmood Miah; Samuel Cohen; Frederick Skiff

    2004-01-01

    We report observations of asymmetric optical pumping of argon ions accelerating in a magnetic field gradient. The signature is a difference in the laser-induced-fluorescence (LIF) emission amplitude from a pair of Zeeman-split states. A model that reproduces the dependence of the asymmetry on magnetic-field and ion-velocity gradients is described. With the model, the fluorescence intensity ratio provides a new method of measuring ion collisionality. This phenomenon has implications for interpreting stellar plasma spectroscopy data which often exhibit unequal Zeeman state intensities

  1. The effect of electron thermal conduction on plasma pressure gradient during reconnection of magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.K.

    1987-12-01

    The interplay of electron cross-field thermal conduction and the reconnection of magnetic field lines around an m = 1 magnetic island prior to a sawtooth crash can generate a large pressure gradient in a boundary layer adjacent to the reconnecting surface, leading to an enhanced gradient of poloidal beta to satisfy the threshold condition for ideal MHD modes. This narrow boundary layer and the short onset time of a sawtooth crash can be supported by fine-grained turbulent processes in a tokamak plasma. 11 refs

  2. Mixed model phase evolution for correction of magnetic field inhomogeneity effects in 3D quantitative gradient echo-based MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fatnassi, Chemseddine; Boucenna, Rachid; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: In 3D gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), strong field gradients B0macro are visually observed at air/tissue interfaces. At low spatial resolution in particular, the respective field gradients lead to an apparent increase in intravoxel dephasing, and subsequently, to signal...... loss or inaccurate R2* estimates. If the strong field gradients are measured, their influence can be removed by postprocessing. METHODS: Conventional corrections usually assume a linear phase evolution with time. For high macroscopic gradient inhomogeneities near the edge of the brain...

  3. Sudden motility reversal indicates sensing of magnetic field gradients in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Lina M; Ruder, Warren C; Mitchell, Aaron P; Messner, William C; LeDuc, Philip R

    2015-06-01

    Many motile unicellular organisms have evolved specialized behaviors for detecting and responding to environmental cues such as chemical gradients (chemotaxis) and oxygen gradients (aerotaxis). Magnetotaxis is found in magnetotactic bacteria and it is defined as the passive alignment of these cells to the geomagnetic field along with active swimming. Herein we show that Magnetospirillum magneticum (AMB-1) show a unique set of responses that indicates they sense and respond not only to the direction of magnetic fields by aligning and swimming, but also to changes in the magnetic field or magnetic field gradients. We present data showing that AMB-1 cells exhibit sudden motility reversals when we impose them to local magnetic field gradients. Our system employs permalloy (Ni(80)Fe(20)) islands to curve and diverge the magnetic field lines emanating from our custom-designed Helmholtz coils in the vicinity of the islands (creating a drop in the field across the islands). The three distinct movements we have observed as they approach the permalloy islands are: unidirectional, single reverse and double reverse. Our findings indicate that these reverse movements occur in response to magnetic field gradients. In addition, using a permanent magnet we found further evidence that supports this claim. Motile AMB-1 cells swim away from the north and south poles of a permanent magnet when the magnet is positioned less than ∼30 mm from the droplet of cells. All together, these results indicate previously unknown response capabilities arising from the magnetic sensing systems of AMB-1 cells. These responses could enable them to cope with magnetic disturbances that could in turn potentially inhibit their efficient search for nutrients.

  4. The Polymerization of MMA and ST to Prepare Material with Gradient Refractive Index in Electric Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Light scattering material with gradient refractive index was prepared under the electrical field by taking methyl methacrylate (MMA monomer as the matrix with the addition of a little preheated styrene (ST and peroxidation benzoin formyl (BPO. The material obtained under electrical field presented different transmittance and molecular weight at different parts of the cylindrical sample along the axis of the direction of electric field which led to the layering phenomenon and gradient refractive index. The disparity of molecular weight between different layers can be as much as 230 thousand. There were several peaks in the figure of GPC test of the sample under electric field. This proved that there were polymers with different molecular weights in the sample. Therefore, it can be concluded that electrical field has a significant effect on polymerization.

  5. Pulsed field losses in metal-filled superconducting multifilamentary braids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInturff, A.D.; Dahl, P.F.; Sampson, W.B.

    1972-01-01

    Work on the application of metallic filters to insulate and bond individual multifilamentary wires into a fully transposed conductor is summarized. As has been reported in earlier papers, conductors of this type have performed excellently in low-frequency pulsed magnets, but become coupled at relatively low values of db/dt, leading to high potential losses. Data are presented on metallic and intermetallic insulated braids showing excellent performance and exhibiting losses comparable to those of organically insulated braid for rise times less than 10 kG/s. These conductors are also able to achieve 90 percent of short sample critical current at db/dt 200 kG/s, although their losses are significantly higher at these high rates of field change

  6. Deashing macroalgae biomass by pulsed electric field treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Arthur; Sack, Martin; Israel, Alvaro; Frey, Wolfgang; Müller, Georg; Golberg, Alexander

    2018-05-01

    Among all biomass constituents, the ashes are major hurdles for biomass processing. Ashes currently have low market value and can make a non-negligible fraction of the biomass dry weight significantly impacting its further processing by degrading equipment, lowering process yield, inhibiting reactions and decreasing products qualities. However, most of the current treatments for deashing biomass are of poor efficiency or industrial relevance. This work is the first report on the use of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) to enhance deashing of biomass from a high ash content green marine macroalga, Ulva sp., using hydraulic pressing. By inducing cell permeabilization of the fresh biomass, PEF was able to enhance the ash extraction from 18.4% (non-treated control) to 37.4% of the total ash content in average, significantly enhancing the extraction of five of the major ash elements (K, Mg, Na, P and S) compared to pressing alone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High-intensity pulsed electric field variables affecting Staphylococcus aureus inoculated in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino-López, A; Raybaudi-Massilia, R; Martín-Belloso, O

    2006-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important milk-related pathogen that is inactivated by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF). In this study, inactivation of Staph. aureus suspended in milk by HIPEF was studied using a response surface methodology, in which electric field intensity, pulse number, pulse width, pulse polarity, and the fat content of milk were the controlled variables. It was found that the fat content of milk did not significantly affect the microbial inactivation of Staph. aureus. A maximum value of 4.5 log reductions was obtained by applying 150 bipolar pulses of 8 mus each at 35 kV/cm. Bipolar pulses were more effective than those applied in the monopolar mode. An increase in electric field intensity, pulse number, or pulse width resulted in a drop in the survival fraction of Staph. aureus. Pulse widths close to 6.7 micros lead to greater microbial death with a minimum number of applied pulses. At a constant treatment time, a greater number of shorter pulses achieved better inactivation than those treatments performed at a lower number of longer pulses. The combined action of pulse number and electric field intensity followed a similar pattern, indicating that the same fraction of microbial death can be reached with different combinations of the variables. The behavior and relationship among the electrical variables suggest that the energy input of HIPEF processing might be optimized without decreasing the microbial death.

  8. Experimental Study of SO2 Removal by Pulsed DBD Along with the Application of Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Mingzhe; Liu Dingxin; Wang Xiaohua; Wang Junhua

    2007-01-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) for SO 2 removal from indoor air is investigated. In order to improve the removal efficiency, two novel methods are combined in this paper, namely by applying a pulsed driving voltage with nanosecond rising time and applying a magnetic field. For SO 2 removal efficiency, different matches of electric field and magnetic field are discussed. And nanosecond rising edge pulsed power supply and microsecond rising edge pulsed power supply are compared. It can be concluded that a pulsed DBD with nanosecond rising edge should be adopted, and electrical field and magnetic field should be applied in an appropriate match

  9. Techniques for Ultra-high Magnetic Field Gradient NMR Diffusion Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Eric E.; Mitrovic, Vesna F.; Calder, Edward S.; Will Thomas, G.; Halperin, William P.; Reyes, Arneil P.; Kuhns, Philip L.; Moulton, William G.

    2001-03-01

    We report on development and application of techniques for ultraslow diffusion coefficient measurements through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in high magnetic field gradients. We have performed NMR experiments in a steady fringe field gradient of 175 T/m from a 23 T resistive Bitter magnet, as well as in a gradient of 42 T/m from an 8 T superconducting magnet. New techniques to provide optimum sensitivity in these experiments are described. To eliminate parasitic effects of the temporal instability of the resistive magnet, we have introduced a passive filter: a highly conductive cryogen-cooled inductive shield. We show experimental demonstration of such a shield’s effect on NMR performed in the Bitter magnet. For enhanced efficiency, we have employed “frequency jumping” in our spectrometer system. Application of these methods has made possible measurements of diffusion coefficients as low as 10-10 cm^2/s, probing motion on a 250 nm length scale.

  10. Intercomparison of radiation protection instrumentation in a pulsed neutron field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caresana, M., E-mail: marco.caresana@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, CESNEF, Dipartimento di Energia, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Denker, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Esposito, A. [IFNF-LNF, FISMEL, via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Ferrarini, M. [CNAO, Via Privata Campeggi, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Golnik, N. [Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Sw. A. Boboli 8, 02-525 Warsaw (Poland); Hohmann, E. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Radiation Metrology Section, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Leuschner, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Luszik-Bhadra, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Manessi, G. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, L69 7ZE Liverpool (United Kingdom); Mayer, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Radiation Metrology Section, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ott, K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, BESSYII, Albert-Einstein-Str.15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Röhrich, J. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Silari, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Trompier, F. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, F-92262 Fontenay aux Roses (France); Volnhals, M.; Wielunski, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2014-02-11

    In the framework of the EURADOS working group 11, an intercomparison of active neutron survey meters was performed in a pulsed neutron field (PNF). The aim of the exercise was to evaluate the performances of various neutron instruments, including commercially available rem-counters, personal dosemeters and instrument prototypes. The measurements took place at the cyclotron of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH. The cyclotron is routinely used for proton therapy of ocular tumours, but an experimental area is also available. For the therapy the machine accelerates protons to 68 MeV. The interaction of the proton beam with a thick tungsten target produces a neutron field with energy up to about 60 MeV. One interesting feature of the cyclotron is that the beam can be delivered in bursts, with the possibility to modify in a simple and flexible way the burst length and the ion current. Through this possibility one can obtain radiation bursts of variable duration and intensity. All instruments were placed in a reference position and irradiated with neutrons delivered in bursts of different intensity. The analysis of the instrument response as a function of the burst charge (the total electric charge of the protons in the burst shot onto the tungsten target) permitted to assess for each device the dose underestimation due to the time structure of the radiation field. The personal neutron dosemeters were exposed on a standard PMMA slab phantom and the response linearity was evaluated.

  11. Monomers and polymers in a centrifugal field : a new method to produce refractive-index gradients in polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, van F.G.H.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    A new method is presented to generate and to fixate compositional gradients in blends of two miscible and amorphous polymers. A compositional gradient is introduced into a solution of a polymer in a monomer by use of a centrifugal field, and this gradient is subsequently fixated by polymerization of

  12. Review of the Dynamics of Coalescence and Demulsification by High-Voltage Pulsed Electric Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coalescence of droplets in oil can be implemented rapidly by high-voltage pulse electric field, which is an effective demulsification dehydration technological method. At present, it is widely believed that the main reason of pulse electric field promoting droplets coalescence is the dipole coalescence and oscillation coalescence in pulse electric field, and the optimal coalescence pulse electric field parameters exist. Around the above content, the dynamics of high-voltage pulse electric field promoting the coalescence of emulsified droplets is studied by researchers domestically and abroad. By review, the progress of high-voltage pulse electric field demulsification technology can get a better understanding, which has an effect of throwing a sprat to catch a whale on promoting the industrial application.

  13. Pulsed critical current measurements of NbTi in perpendicular and parallel pulsed magnetic fields using the new Cryo-BI-Pulse System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehr, V; Tan, K S; Hopkins, S C; Glowacki, B A; Keyser, A De; Bockstal, L Van; Deschagt, J

    2006-01-01

    Rapid transport current versus high magnetic field characterisation of high-irreversibility type II superconductors is important to maximise their critical parameters. HTS conductors are already used to produce insert coils that increase the fields of conventional magnets made from NbTi (Nb, Ta) 3 Sn and Nb 3 Al wires. There is fundamental interest in the study of HTS tapes and wires in magnetic fields higher than 21T, the current limit of superconducting magnets producing a DC field. Such fields can be obtained by using pulse techniques. High critical currents cannot be routinely measured with a continuous current applied at liquid helium, hydrogen or neon temperatures because of thermal and mechanical effects. A newly developed pulsed magnetic field and pulsed current system which allows rapid J c (B, T) measurements of the whole range of superconducting materials was tested with a multifilamentary NbTi wire in perpendicular and parallel orientations

  14. Pulsed field studies of magnetotransport in semiconductor heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, K.S.H.

    1999-01-01

    High field magnetotransport in two classes of semiconductor heterostructures has been studied: parallel transport in InAs/(Ga,In)Sb double heterojunctions and superlattices at low temperatures (300 mK-4.2 K), and vertical transport in GaAs/AlAs short-period superlattices at 150-300 K. The experiments mainly used the Oxford pulsed magnet (∼45 T, ∼15 ms pulses). The development of the data acquisition system and experimental techniques for magnetotransport are described, including corrections to the data, required because of the rapidly changing magnetic field. Previous studies of magnetotransport in InAs/GaSb double heterojunctions are reviewed: this electron-hole system shows compensated quantum Hall plateaux, with ρ xy dips accompanied by 'anomalous' peaks in σ xx . New data show a peak between ν=1 plateaux; this behaviour and the temperature dependence of the 'anomalous' σ xx peaks are explained by considering the movement of the Fermi level amongst anticrossing electron- and hole-like levels. InAs/(Ga,In)Sb superlattices with electron:hole density ratios close to 1 exhibit large oscillations in the resistivity (maxima typically ∼20-30 x higher than minima) and conductivity components. Deep minima in ρ xy alternate with low-integer plateaux. The magnetotransport in various ideal structures is considered, to explain the experimental results. The growth of a novel structure has allowed clearer observation of the behaviour of ρ xx (giant maxima) and ρ xy (zeroes or maxima) when the contributions from each well to σ xx and σ xy approach zero. Measurements of the high field magnetotransport peak positions show that the band overlap is increased by growing 'InSb' rather than 'GaAs' interfaces (∼20% increase), increasing the indium in the (Ga,In)Sb (∼30% increase per 10% In), or growing along [111] instead of [001] (∼30% increase). Magnetophonon resonance in short-period GaAs/AlAs superlattices causes strong, electric field-dependent vertical

  15. An optimized target-field method for MRI transverse biplanar gradient coil design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Rui; Xu, Jing; Huang, Kefu; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing; Fu, Youyi; Li, Yangjing

    2011-01-01

    Gradient coils are essential components of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. In this paper, we present an optimized target-field method for designing a transverse biplanar gradient coil with high linearity, low inductance and small resistance, which can well satisfy the requirements of permanent-magnet MRI systems. In this new method, the current density is expressed by trigonometric basis functions with unknown coefficients in polar coordinates. Following the standard procedures, we construct an objective function with respect to the total square errors of the magnetic field at all target-field points with the penalty items associated with the stored magnetic energy and the dissipated power. By adjusting the two penalty factors and minimizing the objective function, the appropriate coefficients of the current density are determined. Applying the stream function method to the current density, the specific winding patterns on the planes can be obtained. A novel biplanar gradient coil has been designed using this method to operate in a permanent-magnet MRI system. In order to verify the validity of the proposed approach, the gradient magnetic field generated by the resulted current density has been calculated via the Biot–Savart law. The results have demonstrated the effectiveness and advantage of this proposed method

  16. Ab-initio calculations of electric field gradient in Ru compounds and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 89; Issue 2. A b − i n i t i o calculations of electric field gradient in Ru compounds and their implication on the nuclear quadrupole moments of 99 Ru and 101 Ru. S N MISHRA. Research Article Volume 89 Issue 2 August 2017 Article ID 22 ...

  17. Modulation of the wall-heat transfer in turbulent thermomagnetic convection by magnetic field gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenjeres, S.; Zinsmeester, R.; Pyrda, L.; Fornalik-Wajs, E.; Szmyd, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present combined experimental and numerical studies of the heat transfer of paramagnetic or diamagnetic fluid inside a differentially heated cubical enclosure subjected to the magnetic field gradients of different strength and orientation. In contrast to the previously reported studies in

  18. Effects of high-gradient magnetic fields on living cell machinery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zablotskyy, V.; Lunov, O.; Kubinová, Šárka; Polyakova, T.; Syková, Eva; Dejneka, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2016 (2016), s. 493003 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : living cell * magnetic gradient force * cell mechanics * stem cell * magnetic field Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016

  19. Static high-gradient magnetic fields affect the functionality of monocytic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syrovets, T.; Schmidt, Z.; Buechele, B.; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Dempsey, N.; Simmet, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-2 ISSN 0892-6638 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : static high-gradient * magnet ic fields * affect the functionality * monocytic cells Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnet ism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.)

  20. Pilling evaluation of patterned fabrics based on a gradient field method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Techniková, L.; Tunák, M.; Janáček, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2016), s. 97-101 ISSN 0971-0426 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : 3D surface reconstruction * fabric pilling * gradient field method * patterned fabric * pills detection Subject RIV: JS - Reliability ; Quality Management, Testing Impact factor: 0.430, year: 2016

  1. How a high-gradient magnetic field could affect cell life

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Polyakova, Tetyana; Lunov, Oleg; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Nov (2016), 1-12, č. článku 37407. ISSN 2045-2322 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : high-gradient magnetic field * cell Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  2. Ab-initio calculations of electric field gradient in Ru compounds and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S N Mishra

    2017-07-11

    Jul 11, 2017 ... with calculated electric field gradient (EFG) for a large number of Ru-based compounds. The ab-initio ... zz assumed to stem from geometric arrangement of ... tant nuclear probes for the measurements of quadrupole ... with the unit cell including the nucleus and no restriction is put on ..... The effect of on-site ...

  3. Magnetic Field Effect on Ultrashort Two-dimensional Optical Pulse Propagation in Silicon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konobeeva, N. N.; Evdokimov, R. A.; Belonenko, M. B.

    2018-05-01

    The paper deals with the magnetic field effect which provides a stable propagation of ultrashort pulses in silicon nanotubes from the viewpoint of their waveform. The equation is derived for the electromagnetic field observed in silicon nanotubes with a glance to the magnetic field for two-dimensional optical pulses. The analysis is given to the dependence between the waveform of ultrashort optical pulses and the magnetic flux passing through the cross-sectional area of the nanotube.

  4. Observation of enhanced field-free molecular alignment by two laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Christer; Poulsen, Mikael Dahlerup; Peronne, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    We show experimentally that field-free alignment of iodobenzene molecules, induced by a single, intense, linearly polarized 1.4-ps-long laser pulse, can be strongly enhanced by dividing the pulse into two optimally synchronized pulses of the same duration. For a given total energy of the two...

  5. The Effect of a Spiral Gradient Magnetic Field on the Ionic Conductivity of Water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartušek, Karel; Marcon, P.; Fiala, P.; Máca, J.; Dohnal, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 9 (2017), s. 1-8, č. článku 664. ISSN 2073-4441 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-00607S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : gradient field * demineralized water * conductivity * ionic conductivity * magnetic field Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 1.832, year: 2016

  6. The Pioneer 9 electric field experiment. III - Radial gradients and storm observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarf, F. L.; Green, I. M.; Burgess, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the Pioneer 9 VLF electric field observations for 20 selected storm periods covering a heliocentric range extending from 0.754 AU to 0.99 AU. Although data from only two low frequency channels are available, the results of the present study tend to confirm the preliminary speculation by Scarf and Siscoe (1971) that the turbulent E-field spectrum in the disturbed solar wind has a significant radial gradient.

  7. Origin and orientation of electric field gradient in ordered FeNi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenzburger, D.J.R.; Ellis, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    The electronic structure of tetrataenite, the ordered phase of Fe Ni, has been studied in the molecular cluster approximation using local density theory. Clusters containing 13 and 19 atoms were embedded in the fcc host lattice and spin-unrestricted potentials were iterated to self-consistency. Local moments, magnetic hyperfine fields and electric field gradients (EFG) at the iron sites were determined for comparison with experiment. (Author) [pt

  8. Intercomparison of radiation protection instrumentation in a pulsed neutron field

    CERN Document Server

    Caresana, M; Esposito, A; Ferrarini, M; Golnik, N; Hohmann, E; Leuschner, A; Luszik-Bhadra, M; Manessi, G; Mayer, S; Ott, K; Röhrich, J; Silari, M; Trompier, F; Volnhals, M; Wielunski, M

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the EURADOS working group 11, an intercomparison of active neutron survey meters was performed in a pulsed neutron field (PNF). The aim of the exercise was to evaluate the performances of various neutron instruments, including commercially available rem-counters, personal dosemeters and instrument prototypes. The measurements took place at the cyclotron of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH. The cyclotron is routinely used for proton therapy of ocular tumours, but an experimental area is also available. For the therapy the machine accelerates protons to 68 MeV. The interaction of the proton beam with a thick tungsten target produces a neutron field with energy up to about 60 MeV. One interesting feature of the cyclotron is that the beam can be delivered in bursts, with the possibility to modify in a simple and flexible way the burst length and the ion current. Through this possibility one can obtain radiation bursts of variable duration and intensity. All instru...

  9. Measurement of magnetic field gradients using Raman spectroscopy in a fountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Arvind; Zimmermann, Matthias; Efremov, Maxim A.; Davis, Jon P.; Narducci, Frank A.

    2017-02-01

    In many experiments involving cold atoms, it is crucial to know the strength of the magnetic field and/or the magnetic field gradient at the precise location of a measurement. While auxiliary sensors can provide some of this information, the sensors are usually not perfectly co-located with the atoms and so can only provide an approximation to the magnetic field strength. In this article, we describe a technique to measure the magnetic field, based on Raman spectroscopy, using the same atomic fountain source that will be used in future magnetically sensitive measurements.

  10. Analytical free energy gradient for the molecular Ornstein-Zernike self-consistent-field method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yoshida

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available An analytical free energy gradient for the molecular Ornstein-Zernike self-consistent-field (MOZ-SCF method is presented. MOZ-SCF theory is one of the theories to considering the solvent effects on the solute electronic structure in solution. [Yoshida N. et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2000, 113, 4974] Molecular geometries of water, formaldehyde, acetonitrile and acetone in water are optimized by analytical energy gradient formula. The results are compared with those from the polarizable continuum model (PCM, the reference interaction site model (RISM-SCF and the three dimensional (3D RISM-SCF.

  11. Uranium isotope separation by magnetic field gradient and visible light acting in a liquid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, O.N.

    1985-01-01

    The literature shows that excited uranyl can assume the ''singlet'' and ''triplet'' states, with different magnetic properties. In an aqueous medium, without organic complexity (to hamper dismutation), the action of light reduces uranyl to U(V), which is a radical -ion that can assume the ''doublet'' and ''quartet'' states, also with different magnetic properties. Due to the different constants of velocity of uranium 235 and 238 in the reduction of excited uranyl and in the oxidation of U(V) to UO 2 2+ , there is the probability of forming an isotopic gradient, in the aqueous solution, subjected to a magnetic field gradient, with consequent appropriate extraction. 6 refs

  12. Pulsed Field Waveforms for Magnetization of HTS Gd-Ba-Cu-O Bulk Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, T; Matsuzaki, H; Morita, E; Sakashita, H; Harada, T; Ogata, H; Kimura, Y; Miki, M; Kitano, M; Izumi, M

    2006-01-01

    Progress in pulse magnetization technique for high-temperature superconductor bulks of melt-textured RE-Ba-Cu-O with large diameter is important for the realization of power applications. We studied the pulsed power source and pulsed field waveforms to enhance to improve the magnetization properties for Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk. The risetime and duration of pulse waveform effectively varied distribution of magnetic flux

  13. Measuring the electric field of few-cycle laser pulses by attosecond cross correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandrauk, Andre D.; Chelkowski, Szczepan; Shon, Nguyen Hong

    2002-01-01

    A new technique for directly measuring the electric field of linearly polarized few-cycle laser pulses is proposed. Based on the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) for an H atom in the combined field of infrared (IR) femtosecond (fs) and ultraviolet (UV) attosecond (as) laser pulses we show that, as a function of the time delay between two pulses, the difference (or equivalently, asymmetry) of photoelectron signals in opposite directions (along the polarization vector of laser pulses) reproduces very well the profile of the electric field (or vector potential) in the IR pulse. Such ionization asymmetry can be used for directly measuring the carrier-envelope phase difference (i.e., the relative phase of the carrier frequency with respect to the pulse envelope) of the IR fs laser pulse

  14. Different elution modes and field programming in gravitational field-flow fractionation. III. Field programming by flow-rate gradient generated by a programmable pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plocková, J; Chmelík, J

    2001-05-25

    Gravitational field-flow fractionation (GFFF) utilizes the Earth's gravitational field as an external force that causes the settlement of particles towards the channel accumulation wall. Hydrodynamic lift forces oppose this action by elevating particles away from the channel accumulation wall. These two counteracting forces enable modulation of the resulting force field acting on particles in GFFF. In this work, force-field programming based on modulating the magnitude of hydrodynamic lift forces was implemented via changes of flow-rate, which was accomplished by a programmable pump. Several flow-rate gradients (step gradients, linear gradients, parabolic, and combined gradients) were tested and evaluated as tools for optimization of the separation of a silica gel particle mixture. The influence of increasing amount of sample injected on the peak resolution under flow-rate gradient conditions was also investigated. This is the first time that flow-rate gradients have been implemented for programming of the resulting force field acting on particles in GFFF.

  15. Improving carotenoid extraction from tomato waste by pulsed electric fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eLuengo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the influence of the application of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF of different intensities (3-7 kV/cm and 0-300 μs on the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel and pulp in a mixture of hexane:acetone:ethanol was studied with the aim of increasing extraction yield or reducing the percentage of the less green solvents in the extraction medium. According to the cellular disintegration index, the optimum treatment time for the permeabilization of tomato peel and pulp at different electric field strengths was 90 µs. The PEF permeabilization of tomato pulp did not significantly increase the carotenoid extraction. However, a PEF-treatment at 5 kV/cm improved the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel by 39 % as compared with the control in a mixture of hexane:ethanol:acetone (50:25:25. Further increments of electric field from 5 to 7 kV/cm did not increase significantly the extraction of carotenoids. . The presence of acetone in the solvent mixture did not positively affect the carotenoid extraction when the tomato peels were PEF-treated. Response surface methodology was used to determine the potential of PEF for reducing the percentage of hexane in a hexane:ethanol mixture. The application of a PEF-treatment allowed reducing the hexane percentage from 45 to 30 % without affecting the carotenoid extraction yield. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts obtained from tomato peel was correlated with the carotenoid concentration and it was not affected by the PEF-treatment.

  16. Image reconstruction in k-space from MR data encoded with ambiguous gradient fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Gerrit; Gallichan, Daniel; Weber, Hans; Witschey, Walter R T; Honal, Matthias; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the limits of image reconstruction in k-space are explored when non-bijective gradient fields are used for spatial encoding. The image space analogy between parallel imaging and imaging with non-bijective encoding fields is partially broken in k-space. As a consequence, it is hypothesized and proven that ambiguities can only be resolved partially in k-space, and not completely as is the case in image space. Image-space and k-space based reconstruction algorithms for multi-channel radiofrequency data acquisitions are programmed and tested using numerical simulations as well as in vivo measurement data. The hypothesis is verified based on an analysis of reconstructed images. It is found that non-bijective gradient fields have the effect that densely sampled autocalibration data, used for k-space reconstruction, provide less information than a separate scan of the receiver coil sensitivity maps, used for image space reconstruction. Consequently, in k-space only the undersampling artifact can be unfolded, whereas in image space, it is also possible to resolve aliasing that is caused by the non-bijectivity of the gradient fields. For standard imaging, reconstruction in image space and in k-space is nearly equivalent, whereas there is a fundamental difference with practical consequences for the selection of image reconstruction algorithms when non-bijective encoding fields are involved. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effects of high-gradient magnetic fields on living cell machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zablotskii, V; Lunov, O; Kubinova, S; Polyakova, T; Dejneka, A; Sykova, E

    2016-01-01

    A general interest in biomagnetic effects is related to fundamental studies of the influence of magnetic fields on living objects on the cellular and whole organism levels. Emerging technologies offer new directions for the use of high-gradient magnetic fields to control cell machinery and to understand the intracellular biological processes of the emerging field of nanomedicine. In this review we aim at highlighting recent advances made in identifying fundamental mechanisms by which magnetic gradient forces act on cell fate specification and cell differentiation. The review also provides an analysis of the currently available magnetic systems capable of generating magnetic fields with spatial gradients of up to 10 MT m −1 , with the focus on their suitability for use in cell therapy. Relationships between experimental factors and underlying biophysical mechanisms and assumptions that would ultimately lead to a deeper understanding of cell machinery and the development of more predictive models for the evaluation of the effects of magnetic fields on cells, tissue and organisms are comprehensively discussed. (topical review)

  18. Effect of parallel magnetic field on repetitively unipolar nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge under different pulse repetition frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yidi; Yan, Huijie; Guo, Hongfei; Fan, Zhihui; Wang, Yuying; Wu, Yun; Ren, Chunsheng

    2018-03-01

    A magnetic field, with the direction parallel to the electric field, is applied to the repetitively unipolar positive nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge. The effect of the parallel magnetic field on the plasma generated between two parallel-plate electrodes in quiescent air is experimentally studied under different pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs). It is indicated that only the current pulse in the rising front of the voltage pulse occurs, and the value of the current is increased by the parallel magnetic field under different PRFs. The discharge uniformity is improved with the decrease in PRF, and this phenomenon is also observed in the discharge with the parallel magnetic field. By using the line-ratio technique of optical emission spectra, it is found that the average electron density and electron temperature under the considered PRFs are both increased when the parallel magnetic field is applied. The incremental degree of average electron density is basically the same under the considered PRFs, while the incremental degree of electron temperature under the higher-PRFs is larger than that under the lower-PRFs. All the above phenomena are explained by the effect of parallel magnetic field on diffusion and dissipation of electrons.

  19. Contribution of Field Strength Gradients to the Net Vertical Current of Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemareddy, P.

    2017-12-01

    We examined the contribution of field strength gradients for the degree of net vertical current (NVC) neutralization in active regions (ARs). We used photospheric vector magnetic field observations of AR 11158 obtained by Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board SDO and Hinode. The vertical component of the electric current is decomposed into twist and shear terms. The NVC exhibits systematic evolution owing to the presence of the sheared polarity inversion line between rotating and shearing magnetic regions. We found that the sign of shear current distribution is opposite in dominant pixels (60%–65%) to that of twist current distribution, and its time profile bears no systematic trend. This result indicates that the gradient of magnetic field strength contributes to an opposite signed, though smaller in magnitude, current to that contributed by the magnetic field direction in the vertical component of the current. Consequently, the net value of the shear current is negative in both polarity regions, which when added to the net twist current reduces the direct current value in the north (B z > 0) polarity, resulting in a higher degree of NVC neutralization. We conjecture that the observed opposite signs of shear and twist currents are an indication, according to Parker, that the direct volume currents of flux tubes are canceled by their return currents, which are contributed by field strength gradients. Furthermore, with the increase of spatial resolution, we found higher values of twist, shear current distributions. However, the resolution effect is more useful in resolving the field strength gradients, and therefore suggests more contribution from shear current for the degree of NVC neutralization.

  20. Magnetic field gradients inferred from multi-point measurements of Cluster FGM and EDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubenbacher, Robert; Nakamura, Rumi; Giner, Lukas; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Magnes, Werner; Eichelberger, Hans; Steller, Manfred; Torbert, Roy

    2013-04-01

    We use Cluster data from fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) and electron drift instrument (EDI) to determine the magnetic field gradients in the near-Earth magnetotail. Here we use the magnetic field data from FGM measurements as well as the gyro-time data of electrons determined from the time of flight measurements of EDI. The results are compared with the values estimated from empirical magnetic field models for different magnetospheric conditions. We also estimated the spin axis offset of FGM based on comparison between EDI and FGM data and discuss the possible effect in determining the current sheet characteristics.

  1. DIFFUSION OF THE PULSED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD INTO THE MULTI-LAYER CORE OF INDUCTOR AT PULSED DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr T. Chemerys

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available  The problem of the pulsed magnetic field distribution in the cross section of the inductor core at the induction accelerator of electron beam is under consideration in this paper. Owing to multi-layer structure of the core package it has the magnetic and electric anisotropy with different speed of the field diffusion along the sheets of magnetic and across the sheets. At the pulse duration less than one microsecond the essential non-uniformity of the field along both axes of the core cross section can be found. This effect reduces the efficiency of the ferromagnetic material using with corresponding loss of the accelerator efficiency. The main conclusion of the paper consists of the necessity to check the field diffusion characteristics in the process of inductor design to be sure that the pulsed field is able to fill the cross section of the core during the pulse switching. The magnetic characteristics of the anisotropic core have been investigated in the paper by one-dimensional and two-dimensional simulation in the quasi-stationary approximation using the traditional equation of the field diffusion.

  2. An analysis of the gradient-induced electric fields and current densities in human models when situated in a hybrid MRI-LINAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Limei; Trakic, Adnan; Sanchez-Lopez, Hector; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    MRI-LINAC is a new image-guided radiotherapy treatment system that combines magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a linear accelerator (LINAC) in a single unit. One drawback is that the pulsing of the split gradient coils of the system induces an electric field and currents in the patient which need to be predicted and evaluated for patient safety. In this novel numerical study the in situ electric fields and associated current densities were evaluated inside tissue-accurate male and female human voxel models when a number of different split-geometry gradient coils were operated. The body models were located in the MRI-LINAC system along the axial and radial directions in three different body positions. Each model had a region of interest (ROI) suitable for image-guided radiotherapy. The simulation results show that the amplitudes and distributions of the field and current density induced by different split x-gradient coils were similar with one another in the ROI of the body model, but varied outside of the region. The fields and current densities induced by a split classic coil with the surface unconnected showed the largest deviation from those given by the conventional non-split coils. Another finding indicated that the distributions of the peak current densities varied when the body position, orientation or gender changed, while the peak electric fields mainly occurred in the skin and fat tissues. (paper)

  3. Pulsed radiofrequency microwave fields around a quadrupole particle accelerator: measurement and safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, R.N.; Swarup, G.; Rajan, K.K.; Joseph, L.

    1996-01-01

    Pulsed radiofrequency microwave radiation (RFMR) fields occur during the use of high power microwaves in plasma heating in fusion research, plasma and solid state diagnostics, particle accelerators and colliders, pump sources in lasers, material processing as well as in high power radars. This paper describes the experimental work done at Trombay for measurement of pulsed RFMR fields in the working area of a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator with the use of a meter calibrated in continuous field and interprets the observed fields in the light of existing protection criteria for pulsed RFMR fields. (author)

  4. Polyphenol extraction from fresh tea leaves by pulsed electric field : a study of mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zderic, Aleksandra; Zondervan, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The major interest in pulsed electric field treatment of biological tissues is derived from its non-thermal application: increasing cell permeability. This application has an important implication in extraction of complex organic molecules. In this work, pulsed electric field treatment is

  5. A new pulsed electric field microreactor: comparison between the laboratory and microtechnology scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, M.B.; Fox, Martijn; Esveld, Erik; Lüttge, Regina; Boom, Remko

    This paper presents a new microreactor dedicated for pulsed electric field treatment (PEF), which is a pasteurization method that inactivates microorganisms with short electric pulses. The PEF microreactor consists of a flow-through channel with a constriction where the electric field is focussed.

  6. Toward 6 log10 pulsed electric field inactivation with conductive plastic packaging material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, B.; Haan, S.W.H. de; Ferreira, J.A.; Coronel, P.; Wouters, P.C.; Hatt, V.

    2013-01-01

    Generally, high grade products such as pulsed electric field (PEF) treated fruit juices are packaged after their preservative treatment. However, PEF treatment after packaging could avoid recontamination of the product and becomes feasible when electric field pulses of sufficient magnitude can be

  7. A new pulsed electric field microreactor: comparison between the laboratory and microtechnology scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, M.B.; Esveld, D.C.; Luttge, R.; Boom, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new microreactor dedicated for pulsed electric field treatment (PEF), which is a pasteurization method that inactivates microorganisms with short electric pulses. The PEF microreactor consists of a flow-through channel with a constriction where the electric field is focussed.

  8. A Genealogy of Convex Solids Via Local and Global Bifurcations of Gradient Vector Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domokos, Gábor; Holmes, Philip; Lángi, Zsolt

    2016-12-01

    Three-dimensional convex bodies can be classified in terms of the number and stability types of critical points on which they can balance at rest on a horizontal plane. For typical bodies, these are non-degenerate maxima, minima, and saddle points, the numbers of which provide a primary classification. Secondary and tertiary classifications use graphs to describe orbits connecting these critical points in the gradient vector field associated with each body. In previous work, it was shown that these classifications are complete in that no class is empty. Here, we construct 1- and 2-parameter families of convex bodies connecting members of adjacent primary and secondary classes and show that transitions between them can be realized by codimension 1 saddle-node and saddle-saddle (heteroclinic) bifurcations in the gradient vector fields. Our results indicate that all combinatorially possible transitions can be realized in physical shape evolution processes, e.g., by abrasion of sedimentary particles.

  9. ptchg: A FORTRAN program for point-charge calculations of electric field gradients (EFGs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Dane R.

    1994-05-01

    ptchg, a FORTRAN program, has been developed to calculate electric field gradients (EFG) around an atomic site in crystalline solids using the point-charge direct-lattice summation method. It uses output from the crystal structure generation program Atoms as its input. As an application of ptchg, a point-charge calculation of the EFG quadrupolar parameters around the oxygen site in SiO 2 cristobalite is demonstrated. Although point-charge calculations of electric field gradients generally are limited to ionic compounds, the computed quadrupolar parameters around the oxygen site in SiO 2 cristobalite, a highly covalent material, are in good agreement with the experimentally determined values from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.

  10. How a High-Gradient Magnetic Field Could Affect Cell Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotskii, Vitalii; Polyakova, Tatyana; Lunov, Oleg; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    The biological effects of high-gradient magnetic fields (HGMFs) have steadily gained the increased attention of researchers from different disciplines, such as cell biology, cell therapy, targeted stem cell delivery and nanomedicine. We present a theoretical framework towards a fundamental understanding of the effects of HGMFs on intracellular processes, highlighting new directions for the study of living cell machinery: changing the probability of ion-channel on/off switching events by membrane magneto-mechanical stress, suppression of cell growth by magnetic pressure, magnetically induced cell division and cell reprograming, and forced migration of membrane receptor proteins. By deriving a generalized form for the Nernst equation, we find that a relatively small magnetic field (approximately 1 T) with a large gradient (up to 1 GT/m) can significantly change the membrane potential of the cell and thus have a significant impact on not only the properties and biological functionality of cells but also cell fate. PMID:27857227

  11. How a High-Gradient Magnetic Field Could Affect Cell Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotskii, Vitalii; Polyakova, Tatyana; Lunov, Oleg; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2016-11-01

    The biological effects of high-gradient magnetic fields (HGMFs) have steadily gained the increased attention of researchers from different disciplines, such as cell biology, cell therapy, targeted stem cell delivery and nanomedicine. We present a theoretical framework towards a fundamental understanding of the effects of HGMFs on intracellular processes, highlighting new directions for the study of living cell machinery: changing the probability of ion-channel on/off switching events by membrane magneto-mechanical stress, suppression of cell growth by magnetic pressure, magnetically induced cell division and cell reprograming, and forced migration of membrane receptor proteins. By deriving a generalized form for the Nernst equation, we find that a relatively small magnetic field (approximately 1 T) with a large gradient (up to 1 GT/m) can significantly change the membrane potential of the cell and thus have a significant impact on not only the properties and biological functionality of cells but also cell fate.

  12. Different elution modes and field programming in gravitational field-flow fractionation. III. Field programming by flow-rate gradient generated by a programmable pump

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plocková, Jana; Chmelík, Josef

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 918, č. 2 (2001), s. 361-370 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031805 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : field-flow fractionation * field programming * flow-rate gradients Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.793, year: 2001

  13. Gravitational Resonance Spectroscopy with an Oscillating Magnetic Field Gradient in the GRANIT Flow through Arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebreyend, D.; Pignol, G.; Baeßler, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Protasov, K.; Voronin, A.

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational resonance spectroscopy consists in measuring the energy spectrum of bouncing ultracold neutrons above a mirror by inducing resonant transitions between different discrete quantum levels. We discuss how to induce the resonances with a flow through arrangement in the GRANIT spectrometer, excited by an oscillating magnetic field gradient. The spectroscopy could be realized in two distinct modes (so called DC and AC) using the same device to produce the magnetic excitation. We present calculations demonstrating the feasibility of the newly proposed AC mode

  14. Shear flow effect on ion temperature gradient vortices in plasmas with sheared magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, N.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of velocity shear on ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven vortices in a nonuniform plasma in a curved, sheared magnetic field is investigated. In absence of parallel ion dynamics, vortex solutions for the ITG mode are studied analytically. It is shown that under certain conditions...... and ultimately lead to a dominating monopolar form. The effects of magnetic shear indicate it may destroy these structures. (C) 1999 American Institute of Physics....

  15. Effects of high-gradient magnetic fields on living cell machinery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Lunov, Oleg; Kubinová, Šárka; Polyakova, Tetyana; Syková, E.; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 49 (2016), s. 1-23, č. článku 493003. ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409 Grant - others:FUNBIO(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21568 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : living cell * magnetic gradient force * cell mechanics * stem cell * magnetic field Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016

  16. Pulsed field magnetization strategies and the field poles composition in a bulk-type superconducting motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhen, E-mail: zhen.huang@sjtu.edu.cn [Academy of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ruiz, H.S., E-mail: dr.harold.ruiz@le.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Coombs, T.A., E-mail: tac1000@cam.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Different compositions of the magnetic poles have been obtained depending on the relative orientation of the magnetizing coil and the surfaces of the columns of bulks that conform a magnetic pole. • Two bidimensional models accounting for the electromagnetic response of the top and lateral cross sections of three columns of HTS bulks subjected to multiple pulsed magnetic fields have been created. • An extended PFM strategy has been proposed by considering the magnetization of at least three successive columns of HTS bulks per pole. In the extended PFM strategy the area of each one of the poles can be seen increased by a factor of 200%-400% - Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks offer the potential of trapping and maintaining much higher magnetic loading level compared with the conventional permanent magnets used in rotary machines, although the effective magnetization of multiple HTS bulks with different relative orientations over the surface of cylindrical rotors creates new challenges. In this paper, we present the design and numerical validation of the Pulse Field Magnetization (PFM) strategy considered for the magnetization of the four-pole synchronous fully superconducting motor developed at the University of Cambridge. In a first instance, singular columns of up to five HTS bulks aligned over the height of the rotor were subjected to up to three magnetic pulses of 1.5 T peak, and the experimental results have been simulated by considering the electrical and thermal properties of the system in a 2D approach. The entire active surface of the rotor is covered by HTS bulks of approximately the same dimensions, resulting in an uneven distribution of pole areas with at least one of the poles formed by up to 3 columns of magnetized bulks, with relatively the same peaks of trapped magnetic field. Thus, in order to effectively use the entire area of the superconducting rotor, multiple pulsed fields per column have been applied

  17. Pulsed field magnetization strategies and the field poles composition in a bulk-type superconducting motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhen; Ruiz, H.S.; Coombs, T.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Different compositions of the magnetic poles have been obtained depending on the relative orientation of the magnetizing coil and the surfaces of the columns of bulks that conform a magnetic pole. • Two bidimensional models accounting for the electromagnetic response of the top and lateral cross sections of three columns of HTS bulks subjected to multiple pulsed magnetic fields have been created. • An extended PFM strategy has been proposed by considering the magnetization of at least three successive columns of HTS bulks per pole. In the extended PFM strategy the area of each one of the poles can be seen increased by a factor of 200%-400% - Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks offer the potential of trapping and maintaining much higher magnetic loading level compared with the conventional permanent magnets used in rotary machines, although the effective magnetization of multiple HTS bulks with different relative orientations over the surface of cylindrical rotors creates new challenges. In this paper, we present the design and numerical validation of the Pulse Field Magnetization (PFM) strategy considered for the magnetization of the four-pole synchronous fully superconducting motor developed at the University of Cambridge. In a first instance, singular columns of up to five HTS bulks aligned over the height of the rotor were subjected to up to three magnetic pulses of 1.5 T peak, and the experimental results have been simulated by considering the electrical and thermal properties of the system in a 2D approach. The entire active surface of the rotor is covered by HTS bulks of approximately the same dimensions, resulting in an uneven distribution of pole areas with at least one of the poles formed by up to 3 columns of magnetized bulks, with relatively the same peaks of trapped magnetic field. Thus, in order to effectively use the entire area of the superconducting rotor, multiple pulsed fields per column have been applied

  18. Magnetophoresis behaviour at low gradient magnetic field and size control of nickel single core nanobeads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benelmekki, M., E-mail: benelmekki@fisica.uminho.p [Centro de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal); Montras, A. [Sepmag Tecnologies, Parc Tecnologic del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Martins, A.J.; Coutinho, P.J.G. [Centro de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal); Martinez, Ll.M. [Sepmag Technologies, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Magnetic separation of organic compounds, proteins, nucleic acids and other biomolecules, and cells from complex reaction mixtures is becoming the most suitable solution for large production in bioindustrial purification and extraction processes. Optimal magnetic properties can be achieved by the use of metals. However, they are extremely sensitive to oxidation and degradation under atmospheric conditions. In this work Ni nanoparticles are synthesised by conventional solution reduction process with the addition of a non-ionic surfactant as a surface agent. The nanoparticles were surfacted in citric acid and then coated with silica to form single core Ni nanobeads. A magnetophoresis study at different magnetic field gradients and at the different steps of synthesis route was performed using Horizontal Low Gradient Magnetic Field (HLGMF) systems. The reversible aggregation times are reduced to a few seconds, allowing a very fast separation process. - Research highlights: Monodispersed single core Ni-silica core-shell structures were prepared. Control of Ni nanoparticles size was achieved using a non-ionic surfactant. Magnetophoresis at different magnetic field gradients was monitored. Magnetophoresis at different steps of synthesis route was performed. Attractive magnetic interactions overcome electrostatic repulsions.

  19. Method of formation of a high gradient magnetic field and the device for division of substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'yashenko, E. I.; Glebov, V. A.; Skeltorp, A. T.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The method and the device [1] are intended for use as a high-sensitivity magnetic separator for different types of paramagnetic substances and materials from diamagnetic ones, for division of paramagnetic substances and materials on the magnitudes of their paramagnetic susceptibility, for division of diamagnetic substances and materials on magnitudes of their diamagnetic susceptibility. Scopes: to produce pure and super pure substances and materials in electronics, metallurgy and chemistry, separation of biological objects (red blood cells, magnetic bacteria, etc.) in biology and medicine, water treatment removing heavy metals and organic impurities, etc. The main condition for magnetic separation is the magnetic force which acts on a particle of the substance and which is proportional to the magnetic susceptibility of the substance, magnetic induction B and gradient ∇B of the applied magnetic field. Therefore, to increase the sensitivity and selectivity of magnetic separation it will be required to use the largest possible values of the magnetic induction and the gradient of a magnetic field, or their product - B∇B. The device declared in the present work includes the magnetic system such as the open domain structure, consisting of permanent magnets with magnetic anisotropy much greater than the induction of a material of magnets. However, the declared device differs from the open domain structure in that [1]: *the surface of the neighbor poles of magnets is covered with a mask made from sheets of adjustable thickness of a soft magnetic material; *the soft magnetic material of the mask is selected on the basis of the magnitudes of the induction of saturation and magnetic permeability for achievement of the required magnitude of the induction and gradient of the magnetic field; *between the sheets of the mask there is an adjustable gap located symmetrically relative to the junction line of the magnets; *the size and the form of the gap between the

  20. Fixed field alternating gradient accelerator with small orbit shift and tune excursion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne L. Sheehy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new design principle of a nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator is proposed. It is based on optics that produce approximate scaling properties. A large field index k is chosen to squeeze the orbit shift as much as possible by setting the betatron oscillation frequency in the second stability region of Hill’s equation. Then, the lattice magnets and their alignment are simplified. To simplify the magnets, we expand the field profile of r^{k} into multipoles and keep only a few lower order terms. A rectangular-shaped magnet is assumed with lines of constant field parallel to the magnet axis. The lattice employs a triplet of rectangular magnets for focusing, which are parallel to one another to simplify alignment. These simplifications along with fringe fields introduce finite chromaticity and the fixed field alternating gradient accelerator is no longer a scaling one. However, the tune excursion of the whole ring can be within half an integer and we avoid the crossing of strong resonances.

  1. Small-scale gradients of charged particles in the heliospheric magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Fan; Giacalone, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Using numerical simulations of charged-particles propagating in the heliospheric magnetic field, we study small-scale gradients, or 'dropouts,' in the intensity of solar energetic particles seen at 1 AU. We use two turbulence models, the foot-point random motion model and the two-component model, to generate fluctuating magnetic fields similar to spacecraft observations at 1 AU. The turbulence models include a Kolmogorov-like magnetic field power spectrum containing a broad range of spatial scales from those that lead to large-scale field-line random walk to small scales leading to resonant pitch-angle scattering of energetic particles. We release energetic protons (20 keV-10 MeV) from a spatially compact and instantaneous source. The trajectories of energetic charged particles in turbulent magnetic fields are numerically integrated. Spacecraft observations are mimicked by collecting particles in small windows when they pass the windows at a distance of 1 AU. We show that small-scale gradients in the intensity of energetic particles and velocity dispersions observed by spacecraft can be reproduced using the foot-point random motion model. However, no dropouts are seen in simulations using the two-component magnetic turbulence model. We also show that particle scattering in the solar wind magnetic field needs to be infrequent for intensity dropouts to form.

  2. Evaluation of short repetition time, partial flip angle, gradient recalled echo pulse sequences in cervical spine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzmann, D.; Rubin, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    A short repetition time (TR), partial flip angle, gradient recalled echo pulse sequence (GRASS) was prospectively studied to optimize it for the diagnosis of cervical disk and cord disease in 98 patients. Changes in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast were measured as the following parameters were varied: flip angle (3 0 to 18 0 ), TR (22-60 msec), and echo time (TE) (12.5-25 msec). Flip angle was the single most important parameter. For disk disease, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) SNR peaked at an 8 0 flip angle in the axial view but at a 4 0 flip angle in the sagittal view. In the sagittal view, disk-CSF contrast decreased progressively from a flip angle of 3 0 , while in the axial view it peaked at 10 0 . For cord lesions the findings were similar except that lesion-cord contrast could be increased by lengthening both TR and TE. No one combination of parameters proved greatly superior for either disk disease or cord disease. The selection of parameters required balancing of several factors that often had opposing effects

  3. Unified analytical treatment of multicentre electron attraction, electric field and electric field gradient integrals over Slater orbitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseinov, I I

    2004-01-01

    The new central and noncentral potential functions (CPFs and NCPFs) of a molecule depending on the coordinates of the nuclei are introduced. Using complete orthonormal sets of Ψ α -exponential-type orbitals (Ψ α -ETOs) introduced by the author, the series expansion formulae for the multicentre electronic attraction (EA), electric field (EF) and electric field gradient (EFG) integrals over Slater-type orbitals (STOs) in terms of CPFs and NCPFs are derived. The relationships obtained are valid for the arbitrary location, quantum numbers and screening constants of STOs

  4. Test research of consistency for amplitude calibration coefficients of pulsed electric field sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Cui; Guo Xiaoqiang; Chen Xiangyue; Nie Xin; Mao Congguang; Xiang Hui; Cheng Jianping

    2007-01-01

    The amplitude calibration of an electric field sensor is important in the measurement of electromagnetic pulse. In this paper, an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) is used to generate multi-waveform electric field in the TEM cell and the dipole antenna pulsed electric field sensor is calibrated. In the frequency band of the sensor, the calibrated amplitude coefficients with different waveforms are identical. The coefficient derived from the TEM cell calibration system suits to the measurement of unknown electric field pulse within the frequency band. (authors)

  5. Measurement of time dependent fields in high gradient superconducting quadrupoles for the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, M.J.; Coulter, K.; Gourlay, S.; Jaffery, T.S.

    1990-10-01

    Magnetic field measurements have been performed on prototype and production magnets from two high gradient superconducting quadrupoles designs. One design is a double shell quadrupole with 36 strand Rutherford cable. The other design is a single shell quadrupole with 5 individually monolithic strands connected in series. These magnets have similar bore diameters and cable dimensions. However, there are significant differences between the two designs, as well as differences between prototype and production magnets within each design, with regard to Cu to superconductor ratio, filament diameter and filament spacing to strand diameter. The time dependence of fixed currents of the measured magnetic fields is discussed. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  6. SU-C-201-03: Ionization Chamber Collection Efficiency in Pulsed Radiation Fields of High Pulse Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotz, M; Karsch, L [Oncoray - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Pawelke, J [Oncoray - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the reduction of collection efficiency of ionization chambers (IC) by volume recombination and its correction in pulsed fields of very high pulse dose. Methods: Measurements of the collection efficiency of a plane-parallel advanced Markus IC (PTW 34045, 1mm electrode spacing, 300V nominal voltage) were obtained for collection voltages of 100V and 300V by irradiation with a pulsed electron beam (20MeV) of varied pulse dose up to approximately 600mGy (0.8nC liberated charge). A reference measurement was performed with a Faraday cup behind the chamber. It was calibrated for the liberated charge in the IC by a linear fit of IC measurement to reference measurement at low pulse doses. The results were compared to the commonly used two voltage approximation (TVA) and to established theories for volume recombination, with and without considering a fraction of free electrons. In addition, an equation system describing the charge transport and reactions in the chamber was solved numerically. Results: At 100V collection voltage and moderate pulse doses the established theories accurately predict the observed collection efficiency, but at extreme pulse doses a fraction of free electrons needs to be considered. At 300V the observed collection efficiency deviates distinctly from that predicted by any of the established theories, even at low pulse doses. However, the numeric solution of the equation system is able to reproduce the measured collection efficiency across the entire dose range of both voltages with a single set of parameters. Conclusion: At high electric fields (3000V/cm here) the existing theoretical descriptions of collection efficiency, including the TVA, are inadequate to predict pulse dose dependency. Even at low pulse doses they might underestimate collection efficiency. The presented, more accurate numeric solution, which considers additional effects like electric shielding by the charges, might provide a valuable tool for future

  7. SU-C-201-03: Ionization Chamber Collection Efficiency in Pulsed Radiation Fields of High Pulse Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotz, M; Karsch, L; Pawelke, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the reduction of collection efficiency of ionization chambers (IC) by volume recombination and its correction in pulsed fields of very high pulse dose. Methods: Measurements of the collection efficiency of a plane-parallel advanced Markus IC (PTW 34045, 1mm electrode spacing, 300V nominal voltage) were obtained for collection voltages of 100V and 300V by irradiation with a pulsed electron beam (20MeV) of varied pulse dose up to approximately 600mGy (0.8nC liberated charge). A reference measurement was performed with a Faraday cup behind the chamber. It was calibrated for the liberated charge in the IC by a linear fit of IC measurement to reference measurement at low pulse doses. The results were compared to the commonly used two voltage approximation (TVA) and to established theories for volume recombination, with and without considering a fraction of free electrons. In addition, an equation system describing the charge transport and reactions in the chamber was solved numerically. Results: At 100V collection voltage and moderate pulse doses the established theories accurately predict the observed collection efficiency, but at extreme pulse doses a fraction of free electrons needs to be considered. At 300V the observed collection efficiency deviates distinctly from that predicted by any of the established theories, even at low pulse doses. However, the numeric solution of the equation system is able to reproduce the measured collection efficiency across the entire dose range of both voltages with a single set of parameters. Conclusion: At high electric fields (3000V/cm here) the existing theoretical descriptions of collection efficiency, including the TVA, are inadequate to predict pulse dose dependency. Even at low pulse doses they might underestimate collection efficiency. The presented, more accurate numeric solution, which considers additional effects like electric shielding by the charges, might provide a valuable tool for future

  8. Electrosensitization Increases Antitumor Effectiveness of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Claudia; Pakhomov, Andrei G; Heller, Loree; Casciola, Maura; Gianulis, Elena; Grigoryev, Sergey; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomova, O N

    2017-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields are emerging as a new modality for tissue and tumor ablation. We previously reported that cells exposed to pulsed electric fields develop hypersensitivity to subsequent pulsed electric field applications. This phenomenon, named electrosensitization, is evoked by splitting the pulsed electric field treatment in fractions (split-dose treatments) and causes in vitro a 2- to 3-fold increase in cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to show the benefit of split-dose treatments for in vivo tumor ablation by nanosecond pulsed electric field. KLN 205 squamous carcinoma cells were embedded in an agarose gel or grown subcutaneously as tumors in mice. Nanosecond pulsed electric field ablations were produced using a 2-needle probe with a 6.5-mm interelectrode distance. In agarose gel, splitting a pulsed electric field dose of 300, 300-ns pulses (20 Hz, 4.4-6.4 kV) in 2 equal fractions increased cell death up to 3-fold compared to single-train treatments. We then compared the antitumor effectiveness of these treatments in vivo. At 24 hours after treatment, sensitizing tumors by a split-dose pulsed electric field exposure (150 + 150, 300-ns pulses, 20 Hz, 6.4 kV) caused a 4- and 2-fold tumor volume reduction as compared to sham and single-train treatments, respectively. Tumor volume reduction that exceeds 75% was 43% for split-dose-treated animals compared to only 12% for single-dose treatments. The difference between the 2 experimental groups remained statistically significant for at least 1 week after the treatment. The results show that electrosensitization occurs in vivo and can be exploited to assist in vivo cancer ablation.

  9. High frequency electric field spikes formed by electron beam-plasma interaction in plasma density gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunell, H.; Loefgren, T.

    1997-02-01

    In the electron beam-plasma interaction at an electric double layer the beam density is much higher than in the classical beam-plasma experiments. The wave propagation takes place along the density gradient, that is present at the high potential side of the double layer. Such a case is studied experimentally by injecting the electron beam from a plane cathode, without any grids suppressing the gradient, and by particle simulations. The high frequency field concentrates in a sharp 'spike' with a half width of the order of one wavelength. The spike is found to be a standing wave surrounded by regions dominated by propagating waves. It forms at a position where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency. The spike forms also when the electric field is well below the threshold for modulational instability, and long before a density cavity is formed in the simulations. Particle simulations reveal that, at the spike, there is a backward travelling wave that, when it is strongly damped, accelerates electrons back towards the cathode. In a simulation of a homogeneous plasma without the density gradient no spike is seen, and the wave is purely travelling instead of standing. 9 refs

  10. Electric field spikes formed by electron beam endash plasma interaction in plasma density gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunell, H.; Loefgren, T.

    1997-01-01

    In the electron beam endash plasma interaction at an electric double layer the beam density is much higher than in the classical beam endash plasma experiments. The wave propagation takes place along the density gradient that is present at the high potential side of the double layer. Such a case is studied experimentally by injecting the electron beam from a plane cathode, without any grids suppressing the gradient, and by particle simulations. The high frequency field concentrates in a sharp open-quotes spikeclose quotes with a half width of the order of one wavelength. The spike is found to be a standing wave surrounded by regions dominated by propagating waves. It forms at a position where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency. The spike forms also when the electric field is well below the threshold for modulational instability, and long before a density cavity is formed in the simulations. Particle simulations reveal that, at the spike, there is a backward traveling wave that, when it is strongly damped, accelerates electrons back towards the cathode. In a simulation of a homogeneous plasma without the density gradient no spike is seen, and the wave is purely travelling instead of standing. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Universal field matching in craniospinal irradiation by a background-dose gradient-optimized method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traneus, Erik; Bizzocchi, Nicola; Fellin, Francesco; Rombi, Barbara; Farace, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    The gradient-optimized methods are overcoming the traditional feathering methods to plan field junctions in craniospinal irradiation. In this note, a new gradient-optimized technique, based on the use of a background dose, is described. Treatment planning was performed by RayStation (RaySearch Laboratories, Stockholm, Sweden) on the CT scans of a pediatric patient. Both proton (by pencil beam scanning) and photon (by volumetric modulated arc therapy) treatments were planned with three isocenters. An 'in silico' ideal background dose was created first to cover the upper-spinal target and to produce a perfect dose gradient along the upper and lower junction regions. Using it as background, the cranial and the lower-spinal beams were planned by inverse optimization to obtain dose coverage of their relevant targets and of the junction volumes. Finally, the upper-spinal beam was inversely planned after removal of the background dose and with the previously optimized beams switched on. In both proton and photon plans, the optimized cranial and the lower-spinal beams produced a perfect linear gradient in the junction regions, complementary to that produced by the optimized upper-spinal beam. The final dose distributions showed a homogeneous coverage of the targets. Our simple technique allowed to obtain high-quality gradients in the junction region. Such technique universally works for photons as well as protons and could be applicable to the TPSs that allow to manage a background dose. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  12. Electric field measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges in air over liquid water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeni Simeni, Marien; Baratte, Edmond; Zhang, Cheng; Frederickson, Kraig; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2018-01-01

    Electric field in nanosecond pulse discharges in ambient air is measured by picosecond four-wave mixing, with absolute calibration by a known electrostatic field. The measurements are done in two geometries, (a) the discharge between two parallel cylinder electrodes placed inside quartz tubes, and (b) the discharge between a razor edge electrode and distilled water surface. In the first case, breakdown field exceeds DC breakdown threshold by approximately a factor of four, 140 ± 10 kV cm-1. In the second case, electric field is measured for both positive and negative pulse polarities, with pulse durations of ˜10 ns and ˜100 ns, respectively. In the short duration, positive polarity pulse, breakdown occurs at 85 kV cm-1, after which the electric field decreases over several ns due to charge separation in the plasma, with no field reversal detected when the applied voltage is reduced. In a long duration, negative polarity pulse, breakdown occurs at a lower electric field, 30 kV cm-1, after which the field decays over several tens of ns and reverses direction when the applied voltage is reduced at the end of the pulse. For both pulse polarities, electric field after the pulse decays on a microsecond time scale, due to residual surface charge neutralization by transport of opposite polarity charges from the plasma. Measurements 1 mm away from the discharge center plane, ˜100 μm from the water surface, show that during the voltage rise, horizontal field component (Ex ) lags in time behind the vertical component (Ey ). After breakdown, Ey is reduced to near zero and reverses direction. Further away from the water surface (≈0.9 mm), Ex is much higher compared to Ey during the entire voltage pulse. The results provide insight into air plasma kinetics and charge transport processes near plasma-liquid interface, over a wide range of time scales.

  13. Energy and dose characteristics of ion bombardment during pulsed laser deposition of thin films under pulsed electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fominski, V.Yu.; Nevolin, V.N.; Smurov, I.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments on pulsed laser deposition of Fe films on Si substrates were performed with the aim to analyze the role of factors determining the formation of an energy spectrum and a dose of ions bombarding the film in strong pulsed electric fields. The amplitude of the high-voltage pulse (-40 kV) applied to the substrate and the laser fluence at the Fe target were fixed during the deposition. Owing to the high laser fluence (8 J/cm 2 ) at a relatively low power (20 mJ), the ionization of the laser plume was high, but the Fe vapor pressure near the substrate was low enough to avoid arcing. Electric signals from a target exposed to laser radiation were measured under different conditions (at different delay times) of application of electric pulses. The Si(100) substrates were analyzed using Rutherford ion backscattering/channeling spectrometry. The ion implantation dose occurred to be the highest if the high-voltage pulse was applied at a moment of time when the ion component of the plume approached the substrate. In this case, the implanted ions had the highest energy determined by the amplitude of the electric pulse. An advance or delay in applying a high-voltage pulse caused the ion dose and energy to decrease. A physical model incorporating three possible modes of ion implantation was proposed for the interpretation of the experimental results. If a laser plume was formed in the external field, ions were accelerated from the front of the dense plasma, and the ion current depended on the gas-dynamic expansion of the plume. The application of a high-voltage pulse, at the instant when the front approached the substrate, maintained the mode that was characteristic of the traditional plasma immersion ion implantation, and the ion current was governed by the dynamics of the plasma sheath in the substrate-to-target gap. In the case of an extremely late application of a high-voltage pulse, ions retained in the entire volume of the experimental chamber (as a result of the

  14. Full-field wrist pulse signal acquisition and analysis by 3D Digital Image Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuan; Su, Yong; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Xiaohai; Gao, Zeren; Wu, Shangquan; Zhang, Qingchuan; Wu, Xiaoping

    2017-11-01

    Pulse diagnosis is an essential part in four basic diagnostic methods (inspection, listening, inquiring and palpation) in traditional Chinese medicine, which depends on longtime training and rich experience, so computerized pulse acquisition has been proposed and studied to ensure the objectivity. To imitate the process that doctors using three fingertips with different pressures to feel fluctuations in certain areas containing three acupoints, we established a five dimensional pulse signal acquisition system adopting a non-contacting optical metrology method, 3D digital image correlation, to record the full-field displacements of skin fluctuations under different pressures. The system realizes real-time full-field vibration mode observation with 10 FPS. The maximum sample frequency is 472 Hz for detailed post-processing. After acquisition, the signals are analyzed according to the amplitude, pressure, and pulse wave velocity. The proposed system provides a novel optical approach for digitalizing pulse diagnosis and massive pulse signal data acquisition for various types of patients.

  15. Interplay between temperature gradients field and C - E transformation in solidifying rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wołczyński

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available At first step of simulation a temperature field for solidifying cast steel and cast iron roll has been performed. The calculation does not take into account the convection in the liquid since convection has no influence on the proposed model for the localization of the C-E (columnar to equiaxed grains transformation. However, it allows to study the dynamics of temperature field temporal behavior in the middle of a mould. It is postulated that for the C-E transition a full accumulation of the heat in the mould has been observed (plateau at the T(t curve. The temporal range of plateau existence corresponds to the incubation time for the full equiaxed grains formation. At the second step of simulation temporal behavior of the temperature gradient field has been studied. Three ranges within temperature gradients field have been distinguished for the operating point situated at the middle of mould: a/ for the formation of columnar grains zone, ( and high temperature gradient 0>>T&0//>>∂∂−∂∂∂∂−∂∂>EttEtrTrT. T - temperature, r - roll radius. It is evident that the heat transfer across the mould decides on the temporal appearance of incubation during which the solidification is significantly arrested and competition between columnar and equiaxed growth occurs. Moreover solidification with positive temperature gradient transforms into solidification with negative temperature gradient (locally after the incubation. A simulation has been performed for the cast steel and cast iron rolls solidifying as in industry condition. Since the incubation divides the roll into to parts (first with columnar structure, second with equiaxed structure some experiments dealing with solidification have been made in laboratory scale. Finally, observations of the macrosegregation or microsegregation and phase or structure appearance in the cast iron ingot / roll (made in laboratory has also been done in order to confront them with theoretical predictions

  16. Coherent gradient sensing method for measuring thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coherent gradient sensing (CGS method can be used to measure the slope of a reflective surface, and has the merits of full-field, non-contact, and real-time measurement. In this study, the thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating (TBC structures is measured by CGS method. Two kinds of powders were sprayed onto Ni-based alloy using a plasma spraying method to obtain two groups of film–substrate specimens. The specimens were then heated with an oxy-acetylene flame. The resulting thermal mismatch between the film and substrate led to out-of-plane deformation of the specimen. The deformation was measured by the reflective CGS method and the thermal stress field of the structure was obtained through calibration with the help of finite element analysis. Both the experiment and numerical results showed that the thermal stress field of TBC structures can be successfully measured by CGS method.

  17. Comparison of membrane electroporation and protein denature in response to pulsed electric field with different durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feiran; Fang, Zhihui; Mast, Jason; Chen, Wei

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we compared the minimum potential differences in the electroporation of membrane lipid bilayers and the denaturation of membrane proteins in response to an intensive pulsed electric field with various pulse durations. Single skeletal muscle fibers were exposed to a pulsed external electric field. The field-induced changes in the membrane integrity (leakage current) and the Na channel currents were monitored to identify the minimum electric field needed to damage the membrane lipid bilayer and the membrane proteins, respectively. We found that in response to a relatively long pulsed electric shock (longer than the membrane intrinsic time constant), a lower membrane potential was needed to electroporate the cell membrane than for denaturing the membrane proteins, while for a short pulse a higher membrane potential was needed. In other words, phospholipid bilayers are more sensitive to the electric field than the membrane proteins for a long pulsed shock, while for a short pulse the proteins become more vulnerable. We can predict that for a short or ultrashort pulsed electric shock, the minimum membrane potential required to start to denature the protein functions in the cell plasma membrane is lower than that which starts to reduce the membrane integrity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Phase-field simulations of pore migration and morphology change in thermal gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, Ian W.; Millett, Paul C., E-mail: pmillett@uark.edu

    2017-07-15

    Here we present a phase-field simulation model that captures the thermal-gradient-driven migration of pores in oxide fuel associated with fuel restructuring. The model utilizes a Cahn-Hilliard equation supplemented with an advection term to describe the vapor transport of fuel material through the pore interior due to gradients in vapor pressure. Simulations demonstrate that the model not only predicts pore migration towards the centerline of the fuel, but also a concurrent change in pore shape during migration from an initially isotropic morphology to either a lenticular morphology or a prolate morphology depending on the vapor transport conditions. This model is a necessary first step to conducting accurate simulations of the microscopic changes that occur during the complicated process of oxide fuel restructuring.

  19. Sedimentation and aggregation of magnetite nanoparticles in water by a gradient magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedeva, I.; Bakhteeva, Yu.; Zhakov, S.; Revvo, A.; Byzov, I.; Uimin, M.; Yermakov, A.; Mysik, A.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetite (γ-Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles are promising effective sorbents for water cleaning of heavy metal, radionuclides, organic and biological materials. A good sorption capacity can be achieved due to their high specific surface area. Application of gradient magnetic fields helps to separate the magnetic nanoparticles from the water suspension, which is rather hard to do using the conventional mechanical filtration and sedimentation methods without coagulants. The sedimentation dynamics of magnetite nanoparticles with sizes of 10–20 nm in aqueous media in the presence of a gradient magnetic field was studied by optical and NMR relaxometry methods. The gradient magnetic field was produced by a series of strip permanent magnets with B ≤ 0.5 T, dB/dz ≤ 0.13 T/cm and in some cases enhanced by a steel grid with sharp edges (dB/dz ≤ 5 T/cm). Dynamic Light Scattering in the water suspension with different nanoparticle concentrations (c 0  = 0.1–1 g/l) revealed the characteristic features in the aggregate formation, which is reflected in the sedimentation behavior. The sedimentation rate of the nanoparticles in water and in magnetic fields is higher for less concentrated suspensions (c 0  = 0.1 g/l) than for more concentrated ones (c 0  = 1 g/l), which might be connected with the formation of a gel structures due to a strong magnetic attraction between ferromagnetic nanoparticles. In 180 min this resulted in the reduction of the iron concentration in water down to 0.4 mg/l, which is close to hygienic and environmental norms for drinking water and fishery

  20. Calibration of pulsed field gel electrophoresis for measurement of DNA double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ager, D.D.; Dewey, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) assay was calibrated for the measurement of X-ray induced DNA double-strand breaks in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Calibration was conducted by incorporating [ 125 I] deoxyuridine into DNA, which induces one double-strand break for every disintegration that occurs in frozen cells. Based on the percentage of DNA migrating into the gel, the number of breaks/dalton/Gy was estimated to be (9.3±1.0) x 10 -12 . This value is close to (10 to 12) x 10 -12 determined by neutral filter elution using similar cell lysis procedures at 24 o C and at pH8.0. The estimate is in good agreement with the value of (11.7±2) x 10 -12 breaks/dalton/Gy as measured in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells using the neutral sucrose gradient method (Bloecher 1988), and (6 to 9) x 10 -12 breaks/dalton/Gy as measured in mouse L and Chinese hamster V79 cells using neutral filter elution (Radford and Hodgson 1985). (author)

  1. Optimal Weighting of Multi-Spacecraft Data to Estimate Gradients of Physical Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanteur, G. M.; Le Contel, O.; Sahraoui, F.; Retino, A.; Mirioni, L.

    2016-12-01

    Multi-spacecraft missions like the ESA mission CLUSTER and the NASA mission MMS are essential to improve our understanding of physical processes in space plasmas. Several methods were designed in the 90's during the preparation phase of the CLUSTER mission to estimate gradients of physical fields from simultaneous multi-points measurements [1, 2]. Both CLUSTER and MMS involve four spacecraft with identical full scientific payloads including various sensors of electromagnetic fields and different type of particle detectors. In the standard methods described in [1, 2], which are presently in use, data from the four spacecraft have identical weights and the estimated gradients are most reliable when the tetrahedron formed by the four spacecraft is regular. There are three types of errors affecting the estimated gradients (see chapter 14 in [1]) : i) truncature errors are due to local non-linearity of spatial variations, ii) physical errors are due to instruments, and iii) geometrical errors are due to uncertainties on the positions of the spacecraft. An assessment of truncature errors for a given observation requires a theoretical model of the measured field. Instrumental errors can easily be taken into account for a given geometry of the cluster but are usually less than the geometrical errors which diverge quite fast when the tetrahedron flattens, a circumstance occurring twice per orbit of the cluster. Hence reliable gradients can be estimated only on part of the orbit. Reciprocal vectors of the tetrahedron were presented in chapter 4 of [1], they have the advantage over other methods to treat the four spacecraft symmetrically and to allow a theoretical analysis of the errors (see chapters 4 of [1] and 4 of [2]). We will present Generalized Reciprocal Vectors for weighted data and an optimization procedure to improve the reliability of the estimated gradients when the tetrahedron is not regular. A brief example using CLUSTER or MMS data will be given. This approach

  2. Electric field measurements in a nanosecond pulse discharge in atmospheric air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeni Simeni, Marien; Frederickson, Kraig; Lempert, Walter R; Adamovich, Igor V; Goldberg, Benjamin M; Zhang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the results of temporally and spatially resolved electric field measurements in a nanosecond pulse discharge in atmospheric air, sustained between a razor edge high-voltage electrode and a plane grounded electrode covered by a thin dielectric plate. The electric field is measured by picosecond four-wave mixing in a collinear phase-matching geometry, with time resolution of approximately 2 ns, using an absolute calibration provided by measurements of a known electrostatic electric field. The results demonstrate electric field offset on the discharge center plane before the discharge pulse due to surface charge accumulation on the dielectric from the weaker, opposite polarity pre-pulse. During the discharge pulse, the electric field follows the applied voltage until ‘forward’ breakdown occurs, after which the field in the plasma is significantly reduced due to charge separation. When the applied voltage is reduced, the field in the plasma reverses direction and increases again, until the weak ‘reverse’ breakdown occurs, producing a secondary transient reduction in the electric field. After the pulse, the field is gradually reduced on a microsecond time scale, likely due to residual surface charge neutralization by transport of opposite polarity charges from the plasma. Spatially resolved electric field measurements show that the discharge develops as a surface ionization wave. Significant surface charge accumulation on the dielectric surface is detected near the end of the discharge pulse. Spatially resolved measurements of electric field vector components demonstrate that the vertical electric field in the surface ionization wave peaks ahead of the horizontal electric field. Behind the wave, the vertical field remains low, near the detection limit, while the horizontal field is gradually reduced to near the detection limit at the discharge center plane. These results are consistent with time-resolved measurements of electric field

  3. Transient Features in Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Differentially Modulate Mitochondria and Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Stephen J.; Chen, Yeong-Jer; Sain, Nova M.; Schoenbach, Karl H.; Xiao, Shu

    2012-01-01

    It is hypothesized that high frequency components of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs), determined by transient pulse features, are important for maximizing electric field interactions with intracellular structures. For monopolar square wave pulses, these transient features are determined by the rapid rise and fall of the pulsed electric fields. To determine effects on mitochondria membranes and plasma membranes, N1-S1 hepatocellular carcinoma cells were exposed to single 600 ns pulses with varying electric fields (0–80 kV/cm) and short (15 ns) or long (150 ns) rise and fall times. Plasma membrane effects were evaluated using Fluo-4 to determine calcium influx, the only measurable source of increases in intracellular calcium. Mitochondria membrane effects were evaluated using tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) to determine mitochondria membrane potentials (ΔΨm). Single pulses with short rise and fall times caused electric field-dependent increases in calcium influx, dissipation of ΔΨm and cell death. Pulses with long rise and fall times exhibited electric field-dependent increases in calcium influx, but diminished effects on dissipation of ΔΨm and viability. Results indicate that high frequency components have significant differential impact on mitochondria membranes, which determines cell death, but lesser variances on plasma membranes, which allows calcium influxes, a primary determinant for dissipation of ΔΨm and cell death. PMID:23284682

  4. Stable Computation of the Vertical Gradient of Potential Field Data Based on Incorporating the Smoothing Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniamerian, Jamaledin; Liu, Shuang; Abbas, Mahmoud Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    The vertical gradient is an essential tool in interpretation algorithms. It is also the primary enhancement technique to improve the resolution of measured gravity and magnetic field data, since it has higher sensitivity to changes in physical properties (density or susceptibility) of the subsurface structures than the measured field. If the field derivatives are not directly measured with the gradiometers, they can be calculated from the collected gravity or magnetic data using numerical methods such as those based on fast Fourier transform technique. The gradients behave similar to high-pass filters and enhance the short-wavelength anomalies which may be associated with either small-shallow sources or high-frequency noise content in data, and their numerical computation is susceptible to suffer from amplification of noise. This behaviour can adversely affect the stability of the derivatives in the presence of even a small level of the noise and consequently limit their application to interpretation methods. Adding a smoothing term to the conventional formulation of calculating the vertical gradient in Fourier domain can improve the stability of numerical differentiation of the field. In this paper, we propose a strategy in which the overall efficiency of the classical algorithm in Fourier domain is improved by incorporating two different smoothing filters. For smoothing term, a simple qualitative procedure based on the upward continuation of the field to a higher altitude is introduced to estimate the related parameters which are called regularization parameter and cut-off wavenumber in the corresponding filters. The efficiency of these new approaches is validated by computing the first- and second-order derivatives of noise-corrupted synthetic data sets and then comparing the results with the true ones. The filtered and unfiltered vertical gradients are incorporated into the extended Euler deconvolution to estimate the depth and structural index of a magnetic

  5. Pulsed electromagnetic field radiation from a narrow slot antenna with a dielectric layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Štumpf, M.; De Hoop, A.T.; Lager, I.E.

    2010-01-01

    Analytic time domain expressions are derived for the pulsed electromagnetic field radiated by a narrow slot antenna with a dielectric layer in a two?dimensional model configuration. In any finite time window of observation, exact pulse shapes for the propagated, reflected, and refracted wave

  6. Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis for Salmonella Infection Surveillance, Texas, USA, 2007

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast describes monitoring of the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for Salmonella surveillance in Houston, Texas. CDC microbiologist Peter Gerner-Smidt discusses the importance of the PulseNet national database in surveillance of food-borne infections.

  7. Validation of a pulsed electric field process to pasteurize strawberry puree

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inexpensive data acquisition method was developed to validate the exact number and shape of the pulses applied during pulsed electric fields (PEF) processing. The novel validation method was evaluated in conjunction with developing a pasteurization PEF process for strawberry puree. Both buffered...

  8. Pasteurization of strawberry puree using a pilot plant pulsed electric fields (PEF) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The processing of strawberry puree by pulsed electric fields (PEF) in a pilot plant system has never been evaluated. In addition, a method does not exist to validate the exact number and shape of the pulses applied during PEF processing. Both buffered peptone water (BPW) and fresh strawberry puree (...

  9. Experimental study of the counting loss in an ionization chamber in pulsed radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalez, O.L.; Yanagihara, L.S.; Veissid, V.L.C.P.; Herdade, S.B.; Teixeira, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The behavior of an ionization chamber gamma ray monitor in a pulsed radiation field at a linear electron accelerator facility was studied experiementally. A loss of sensitivity was observed as expected due to the pulsed nature of the radiation. By fitting the experiemental data to semi-empirical expressions, parameters for the correction of the counting efficiency were obtained. (Author) [pt

  10. Field gradient calculation of HTS double-pancake coils considering the slanted turns and the splice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Geon Woo; Kim, Jin Sub; Song, Seung Hyun; Ko, Tae Kuk [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woo Seung [JH ENGINEERING CO., LTD., Gunpo (Korea, Republic of); Lee, On You [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    To obtain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurement of membrane protein, an NMR magnet is required to generate high intensity, homogeneity, and stability of field. A High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) magnet is a promising alternative to a conventional Low-Temperature Superconducting (LTS) NMR magnet for high field, current density, and stability margin. Conventionally, an HTS coil has been wound by several winding techniques such as Single-Pancake (SP), Double-Pancake (DP), and layer-wound. The DP winding technique has been frequently used for a large magnet because long HTS wire is generally difficult to manufacture, and maintenance of magnet is convenient. However, magnetic field generated by the slanted turns and the splice leads to field inhomogeneity in Diameter of Spherical Volume (DSV). The field inhomogeneity degrades performance of NMR spectrometer and thus effect of the slanted turns and the splice should be analyzed. In this paper, field gradient of HTS double-pancake coils considering the slanted turns and the splice was calculated using Biot-Savart law and numerical integration. The calculation results showed that magnetic field produced by the slanted turns and the splice caused significant inhomogeneity of field.

  11. Radar observations of density gradients, electric fields, and plasma irregularities near polar cap patches in the context of the gradient-drift instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Leslie J.; Makarevich, Roman A.

    2017-03-01

    We present observations of plasma density gradients, electric fields, and small-scale plasma irregularities near a polar cap patch made by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radar at Rankin Inlet (RKN) and the northern face of Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR-N). RKN echo power and occurrence are analyzed in the context of gradient-drift instability (GDI) theory, with a particular focus on the previously uninvestigated 2-D dependencies on wave propagation, electric field, and gradient vectors, with the latter two quantities evaluated directly from RISR-N measurements. It is shown that higher gradient and electric field components along the wave vector generally lead to the higher observed echo occurrence, which is consistent with the expected higher GDI growth rate, but the relationship with echo power is far less straightforward. The RKN echo power increases monotonically as the predicted linear growth rate approaches zero from negative values but does not continue this trend into positive growth rate values, in contrast with GDI predictions. The observed greater consistency of echo occurrence with GDI predictions suggests that GDI operating in the linear regime can control basic plasma structuring, but measured echo strength may be affected by other processes and factors, such as multistep or nonlinear processes or a shear-driven instability.

  12. Radiobiological modelling of dose-gradient effects in low dose rate, high dose rate and pulsed brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armpilia, C; Dale, R G; Sandilos, P; Vlachos, L

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a generalization of a previously published methodology which quantified the radiobiological consequences of dose-gradient effects in brachytherapy applications. The methodology uses the linear-quadratic (LQ) formulation to identify an equivalent biologically effective dose (BED eq ) which, if applied uniformly to a specified tissue volume, would produce the same net cell survival as that achieved by a given non-uniform brachytherapy application. Multiplying factors (MFs), which enable the equivalent BED for an enclosed volume to be estimated from the BED calculated at the dose reference surface, have been calculated and tabulated for both spherical and cylindrical geometries. The main types of brachytherapy (high dose rate (HDR), low dose rate (LDR) and pulsed (PB)) have been examined for a range of radiobiological parameters/dimensions. Equivalent BEDs are consistently higher than the BEDs calculated at the reference surface by an amount which depends on the treatment prescription (magnitude of the prescribed dose) at the reference point. MFs are closely related to the numerical BED values, irrespective of how the original BED was attained (e.g., via HDR, LDR or PB). Thus, an average MF can be used for a given prescribed BED as it will be largely independent of the assumed radiobiological parameters (radiosensitivity and α/β) and standardized look-up tables may be applicable to all types of brachytherapy treatment. This analysis opens the way to more systematic approaches for correlating physical and biological effects in several types of brachytherapy and for the improved quantitative assessment and ranking of clinical treatments which involve a brachytherapy component

  13. Multishot versus single-shot pulse sequences in very high field fMRI: a comparison using retinotopic mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jascha D Swisher

    Full Text Available High-resolution functional MRI is a leading application for very high field (7 Tesla human MR imaging. Though higher field strengths promise improvements in signal-to-noise ratios (SNR and BOLD contrast relative to fMRI at 3 Tesla, these benefits may be partially offset by accompanying increases in geometric distortion and other off-resonance effects. Such effects may be especially pronounced with the single-shot EPI pulse sequences typically used for fMRI at standard field strengths. As an alternative, one might consider multishot pulse sequences, which may lead to somewhat lower temporal SNR than standard EPI, but which are also often substantially less susceptible to off-resonance effects. Here we consider retinotopic mapping of human visual cortex as a practical test case by which to compare examples of these sequence types for high-resolution fMRI at 7 Tesla. We performed polar angle retinotopic mapping at each of 3 isotropic resolutions (2.0, 1.7, and 1.1 mm using both accelerated single-shot 2D EPI and accelerated multishot 3D gradient-echo pulse sequences. We found that single-shot EPI indeed led to greater temporal SNR and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR than the multishot sequences. However, additional distortion correction in postprocessing was required in order to fully realize these advantages, particularly at higher resolutions. The retinotopic maps produced by both sequence types were qualitatively comparable, and showed equivalent test/retest reliability. Thus, when surface-based analyses are planned, or in other circumstances where geometric distortion is of particular concern, multishot pulse sequences could provide a viable alternative to single-shot EPI.

  14. Temperature dependence of the electric field gradient in AgPd and AgPt alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolas, K.

    1977-07-01

    The measurements of temperature dependence of the electric field gradient (EFG) on 111 Cd nuclei in AgPd and AgPt alloys were performed using the time dependent perturbed angular correlation method. The EFG caused by impurities distributed in further coordination shells decrease stronaer with increasing temperature than the EFG due to single impurity being the nearest neighbour of the probe atom. These results were explained assuming different modes of thermal vibrations of single impurity atoms and impurity complexes in silver host lattice. (author)

  15. Tune-stabilized, non-scaling, fixed-field, alternating gradient accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Carol J [Warrenville, IL

    2011-02-01

    A FFAG is a particle accelerator having turning magnets with a linear field gradient for confinement and a large edge angle to compensate for acceleration. FODO cells contain focus magnets and defocus magnets that are specified by a number of parameters. A set of seven equations, called the FFAG equations relate the parameters to one another. A set of constraints, call the FFAG constraints, constrain the FFAG equations. Selecting a few parameters, such as injection momentum, extraction momentum, and drift distance reduces the number of unknown parameters to seven. Seven equations with seven unknowns can be solved to yield the values for all the parameters and to thereby fully specify a FFAG.

  16. Electric field gradient calculation at atomic site of In implanted ZnO samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Y.; Cruz, C. M.; Leyva, A.; Pinnera; Van Espen, P.; Perez, C.

    2011-01-01

    The electric field gradient (EFG) calculated for 111 In→ 111 Cd implanted ZnO samples is reported. The study was made for ideal hexagonal ZnO structures and super-cells considering the In implantation environment at the cation site using the 'WIEN2k' code within the GGA(+U) approximation. The obtained EFG values are in good agreement with the experimental reports for ideal ZnO and 111 In→ 111 Cd implanted structures; measured by perturbed angular correlation (PAC) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The attribution of substitutional incorporation of 111 In at the ZnO cation site after annealing was confirmed. (Author)

  17. Electronic structure and electric fields gradients of crystalline Sn(II) and Sn(IV) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terra, J.; Guenzburger, D.

    1991-01-01

    The electronic structures of clusters representing crystalline compounds of Sn(II) and Sn(IV) were investigated, employing the first-principles Discrete Variational method and Local Density theory. Densities of states and related parameters were obtained and compared with experimental measurements and with results from band structure calculations. Effects of cluster size and of cluster truncated bonds are discussed. Electric field gradients at the Sn nucleus were calculated; results are analysed in terms of charge distribution and chemical bonding in the crystals. (author)

  18. New developments in pulsed fields at the US National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.J.; Parkin, D.M.; Rickel, D.G.; Pernambuco-Wise, P.

    1996-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a member of a consortium (with Florida State University and the University of Florida) to operate the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), with funding from the National Science Foundation and the State of Florida. Los Alamos provides unique resources for its component of NHMFL in the form of a 1.4 GW inertial storage motor-generator for high field pulsed magnets and infrastructure for fields generated by flux compression. The NHMFL provides a user facility open to all qualified users, develops magnet technology in association with the private sector, and advances science and technology opportunities. The magnets in service at Los Alamos are of three types. Starting with the pre-existing explosive flux compression capability in 1991, NHMFL added capacitor-driven magnets in December, 1992, and a 20 tesla superconducting magnet in January, 1993. The capacitor-driven magnets continue to grow in diversity and accessibility, with four magnet stations now available for several different magnet types. Two magnets of unprecedented size and strength are nearing completion of assembly and design, respectively. Under final assembly is a quasi-continuous magnet that contains 90 MJ of magnetic energy at full field, and being designed is a non-destructive 100 T magnet containing 140 MJ

  19. Angular spectrum approach for fast simulation of pulsed non-linear ultrasound fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an Angular Spectrum Approach (ASA) for simulating pulsed non-linear ultrasound fields. The source of the ASA is generated by Field II, which can simulate array transducers of any arbitrary geometry and focusing. The non-linear ultrasound simulation program - Abersim, is used...... as the reference. A linear array transducer with 64 active elements is simulated by both Field II and Abersim. The excitation is a 2-cycle sine wave with a frequency of 5 MHz. The second harmonic field in the time domain is simulated using ASA. Pulse inversion is used in the Abersim simulation to remove...... the fundamental and keep the second harmonic field, since Abersim simulates non-linear fields with all harmonic components. ASA and Abersim are compared for the pulsed fundamental and second harmonic fields in the time domain at depths of 30 mm, 40 mm (focal depth) and 60 mm. Full widths at -6 dB (FWHM) are f0...

  20. Monitoring mass transport in heterogeneously catalyzed reactions by field-gradient NMR for assessing reaction efficiency in a single pellet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buljubasich, L.; Blümich, B.; Stapf, S.

    2011-09-01

    An important aspect in assessing the performance of a catalytically active reactor is the accessibility of the reactive sites inside the individual pellets, and the mass transfer of reactants and products to and from these sites. Optimal design often requires a suitable combination of micro- and macropores in order to facilitate mass transport inside the pellet. In an exothermic reaction, fluid exchange between the pellet and the surrounding medium is enhanced by convection, and often by the occurrence of gas bubbles. Determining mass flow in the vicinity of a pellet thus represents a parameter for quantifying the reaction efficiency and its dependence on time or external reaction conditions. Field gradient Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) methods are suggested as a tool for providing parameters sensitive to this mass flow in a contact-free and non-invasive way. For the example of bubble-forming hydrogen peroxide decomposition in an alumina pellet, the dependence of the mean-squared displacement of fluid molecules on spatial direction, observation time and reaction time is presented, and multi-pulse techniques are employed in order to separate molecular displacements from coherent and incoherent motion on the timescale of the experiment. The reaction progress is followed until the complete decomposition of H 2O 2.

  1. Amplified fragment length polymorphism and pulsed field gel electrophoresis for subspecies differentiation of Serpulina pilosicoli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kristian; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Boye, Mette

    1999-01-01

    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were compared for their ability to differentiate between 50 porcine Serpulina pilosicoli isolates. Both techniques were highly sensitive, dividing the isolates into 36 and 38 groups, respectively. Due...

  2. Use of Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields for the Treatment of Pelvic Stress Fractures Among Female Soldiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, D

    1995-01-01

    .... Pulsing electromagnetic fields (PEMFs)have been shown to speed the healing of non-union fractures and we have used them successfully to treat stress fractures in the lower limbs. All women at Ft...

  3. Interactions of Low-Frequency, Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields with Living Tissue: Biochemical Responses and Clinical Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Ulrik L.; Tritsaris, Katerina; Dissing, Steen

    2005-01-01

    In recent years many studies have demonstrated stimulatory effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on biological tissue. However, controversies have also surrounded the research often due to the lack of knowledge of the different physical consequences of static versus pulsed electromagnetic......, are still lacking. Despite the apparent success of the PEMF technology very little is known regarding the coupling between pulsed electrical fields and biochemical events leading to cellular responses. Insight into this research area is therefore of great importance. In this review we describe the physical...... properties of PEMF-induced electrical fields and explain the typical set up for coils and pulse patterns. Furthermore, we discuss possible models that can account for mechanisms by which induced electric fields are able to enhance cellular signaling. We have emphasized the currently well-documented effects...

  4. Preliminary Optical And Electric Field Pulse Statistics From Storm Overflights During The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, D. A.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bailey, J. C.; Farrell, W. M.; Goldberg, R. A.; Desch, M. D.; Houser, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) was conducted during the month of August, 2002 in an area near Key West, Florida. One of the goals of this uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) study was to collect high resolution optical pulse and electric field data from thunderstorms. During the month long campaign, we acquired 5294 lightning generated optical pulses with associated electric field changes. Most of these observations were made while close to the top of the storms. We found filtered mean and median 10-10% optical pulse widths of 875 and 830 microns respectively while the 50-50% mean and median optical pulse widths are 422 and 365 microns respectively. These values are similar to previous results as are the 10-90% mean and median rise times of 327 and 265 microns. The peak electrical to optical pulse delay mean and median were 209 and 145 microns which is longer than one would expect from theoretical results. The results of the pulse analysis will contribute to further validation of the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) satellites. Pre-launch estimates of the flash detection efficiency were based on a small sample of optical pulse measurements associated with less than 350 lightning discharges collected by NASA U-2 aircraft in the early 1980s. Preliminary analyses of the ACES measurements show that we have greatly increased the number of optical pulses available for validation of the LIS and other orbital lightning optical sensors. Since the Altus was often close to the cloud tops, many of the optical pulses are from low-energy pulses. From these low-energy pulses, we can determine the fraction of optical lightning pulses below the thresholds of LIS, OTD, and any future satellite-based optical sensors such as the geostationary Lightning Mapping Sensor.

  5. Exploring the effects of pulsed electric field processing parameters on polyacetylene extraction from carrot slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Abreu, Corina; Hossain, Mohammad B; Altisent, Rosa; Brunton, Nigel; Viñas, Inmaculada; Rai, Dilip K

    2015-03-02

    The effects of various pulsed electric field (PEF) parameters on the extraction of polyacetylenes from carrot slices were investigated. Optimised conditions with regard to electric field strength (1-4 kV/cm), number of pulses (100-1500), pulse frequency (10-200 Hz) and pulse width (10-30 μs) were identified using response surface methodology (RSM) to maximise the extraction of falcarinol (FaOH), falcarindiol (FaDOH) and falcarindiol-3-acetate (FaDOAc) from carrot slices. Data obtained from RSM and experiments fitted significantly (p pulses of 10 μs at 10 Hz. The predicted values from the developed quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the actual experimental values with low average mean deviations (E%) ranging from 0.68% to 3.58%.

  6. Influence of pulsed electric field on defectoscopic characteristics of electro- x-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, E.A.; Lomonosov, V.V.; Sosnin, F.R.

    1988-01-01

    A new method to increase electric resistance of semiconductor plates in the process of electro-X-ray radiography, which is based on influence of a pulsed electric field on the plate semiconductor layer is suggested. The effect of a pulsed field with the intensity E=10 6 V/cm, frequency of 50 Hz and front length of 1 ns has increased electric resistance of the semiconductor layer and improved flaw detection in the process of electroradiography

  7. Wake-Field Wave Resonant Excitation in Magnetized Plasmas by Electromagnetic Pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milant'ev, V.P.; Turikov, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the space charge wave excitation process at electromagnetic pulse propagation along external magnetic field in vicinity of electron cyclotron resonance. In hydrodynamic approach it is obtained an equation for plasma density under ponderomotive force action. With help of this equation we investigated a wake-field wave amplitude dependence from resonance detuning. The numerical simulation using a PIC method electromagnetic pulse propagation process in the resonant conditions was done

  8. Short-circuited coil in a solenoid circuit of a pulse magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivshik, A.F.; Dubrovin, V.Yu.

    1976-01-01

    A short-circuited coil at the end of a long pulse solenoid attenuates the dissipation field by 3-5 times. A plug-configuration field is set up in the middle portion of the pulse solenoid incorporating the short-circuited coils. Shunting of the coils with the induction current by resistor Rsub(shunt) provides for the adjustment of the plug ratio γ

  9. Letter Report on 500 nA Pulsed Current from Field Ionization Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellsworth, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    We recently produced a milestone 500 nA of pulsed current using 40 Ir field ionizer electrodes in our ion source. In conclusion, we have produced the milestone pulsed current of 500 nA using 40 electrochemically etched iridium tips in a field ionization source. The pulsed current output is repeatable and scales as expected with gas fill pressure and bias voltage. We expect these current will be sufficient to produce neutral yields of 1 · 10 7 DT n/s.

  10. [Negative air ions generated by plants upon pulsed electric field stimulation applied to soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ren-ye; Deng, Chuan-yuan; Yang, Zhi-jian; Weng, Hai-yong; Zhu, Tie-jun-rong; Zheng, Jin-gui

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigated the capacity of plants (Schlumbergera truncata, Aloe vera var. chinensis, Chlorophytum comosum, Schlumbergera bridgesii, Gymnocalycium mihanovichii var. friedrichii, Aspidistra elatior, Cymbidium kanran, Echinocactus grusonii, Agave americana var. marginata, Asparagus setaceus) to generate negative air ions (NAI) under pulsed electric field stimulation. The results showed that single plant generated low amounts of NAI in natural condition. The capacity of C. comosum and G. mihanovichii var. friedrichii generated most NAI among the above ten species, with a daily average of 43 ion · cm(-3). The least one was A. americana var. marginata with the value of 19 ion · cm(-3). When proper pulsed electric field stimulation was applied to soil, the NAI of ten plant species were greatly improved. The effect of pulsed electric field u3 (average voltage over the pulse period was 2.0 x 10(4) V, pulse frequency was 1 Hz, and pulse duration was 50 ms) was the greatest. The mean NAI concentration of C. kanran was the highest 1454967 ion · cm(-3), which was 48498.9 times as much as that in natural condition. The lowest one was S. truncata with the value of 34567 ion · cm(-3), which was 843.1 times as much as that in natural condition. The capacity of the same plants to generate negative air ion varied extremely under different intensity pulsed electric fields.

  11. Transient field behavior in an electromagnetic pulse from neutral-beam reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    A neutral beam of electrons and positrons catches up to an electromagnetic pulse moving in a medium with refractive index n. The neutral beam is reflected and deposits some of its energy in a current region in the tail of the pulse. The location, size, and shape of the transient-induced electric fields in the current region are modeled using current densities from uniform averaged fields. The electric field in the current region is predicted to rise linearly with time, with a doubling time determined by the beam parameters and the initial local electromagnetic field. A coordinate frame comoving with the pulse is used to determine the extent of and conditions within the current region. In this comoving frame the Lorentz-transformed electric field is zero, but there is an enhanced Lorentz-transformed magnetic field. The extent of the current region is found from the radius of the semicircular charged-particle orbits in the comoving frame

  12. Projection and nested force-gradient methods for quantum field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcherbakov, Dmitry

    2017-07-26

    For the Hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm (HMC), often used to study the fundamental quantum field theory of quarks and gluons, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), on the lattice, one is interested in efficient numerical time integration schemes which preserve geometric properties of the flow and are optimal in terms of computational costs per trajectory for a given acceptance rate. High order numerical methods allow the use of larger step sizes, but demand a larger computational effort per step; low order schemes do not require such large computational costs per step, but need more steps per trajectory. So there is a need to balance these opposing effects. In this work we introduce novel geometric numerical time integrators, namely, projection and nested force-gradient methods in order to improve the efficiency of the HMC algorithm in application to the problems of quantum field theories.

  13. Electric field gradient and electronic structure of linear-bonded halide compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, D.E.; Guenzburger, D.J.R.; Jansen, H.B.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of covalent metal-ligand interactions in determining hyperfine fields and energy-level structure of MX 2 linear-bonded halide compounds has been studied, using the self-consistent local density molecular orbital approach. Results for FeCl 2 , FeBr 2 and EuCl 2 obtained using the Discrete Variational Method with numerical basis sets are presented. The high spin configuration for the iron compounds, first predicted by Berkowitz, et al., is verified; a successful comparison with gas phase photoelectron spectra is made. Variation of the predicted electric field gradient with bond length R is found to be rapid; the need for an EXAFS measurement of R for the matrix isolated species and experimental determination of the spin of the EFG is seen to be crucial for more accurate determinations of the sub(57) Fe quadrupole moment. (Author) [pt

  14. Multiphoton atomic ionization in the field of a very short laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    Closed analytic expressions are derived for the probability of multiphoton atomic and ionic ionization in a variable electric field E(t), which are applicable for arbitrary Keldysh parameters γ. Dependencies of the ionization probability and photoelectron pulse spectrum on the shape of a very short laser pulse are analyzed. Examples of pulse fields of various forms, including a modulated light pulse with a Gaussian or Lorentz envelope, are considered in detail. The interference effect in the photoelectron energy spectrum during atomic ionization by a periodic field of a general form is examined. The range of applicability of the adiabatic approximation in the multiphoton ionization theory is discussed. The imaginary time method is used in the calculations, which allows the probability of particle tunneling through oscillating barriers to be effectively calculated

  15. The Effects of Transcranial Pulsed Electromagnetic Field stimulation on quality of life in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Bo Mohr; Malling, Anne Sofie; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulsed electromagnetic fields induce a protective and anti-inflammatory effect in the nervous system primarily due to growth factor up regulation that possibly abates neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. This study investigated treatment effects of transcranial pulsed......:3 to either active (n=49) or placebo treatment (n=48). Treatment with transcranial pulsed electromagnetic fields entailed one daily 30-minute home treatment for eight consecutive weeks. The 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire was assessed at baseline and at endpoint. Profiling adverse events a special...... PDQ-39 dimensions no between group differences were found. There were no between group difference in adverse events. Treatment compliance was 97.9%. CONCLUSION: Treatment with transcranial pulsed electromagnetic fields improved mobility and ADL scores for clinical effect size only in the active group...

  16. Thermal pulse measurements of space charge distributions under an applied electric field in thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Feihu; An, Zhenlian; Zhang, Yewen; Liu, Chuandong; Lin, Chen; Lei, Qingquan

    2013-01-01

    The thermal pulse method is a powerful method to measure space charge and polarization distributions in thin dielectric films, but a complicated calibration procedure is necessary to obtain the real distribution. In addition, charge dynamic behaviour under an applied electric field cannot be observed by the classical thermal pulse method. In this work, an improved thermal pulse measuring system with a supplemental circuit for applying high voltage is proposed to realize the mapping of charge distribution in thin dielectric films under an applied field. The influence of the modified measuring system on the amplitude and phase of the thermal pulse response current are evaluated. Based on the new measuring system, an easy calibration approach is presented with some practical examples. The newly developed system can observe space charge evolution under an applied field, which would be very helpful in understanding space charge behaviour in thin films. (paper)

  17. Electric field simulation and measurement of a pulse line ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Xiaokang; Zhang Zimin; Cao Shuchun; Zhao Hongwei; Zhao Quantang; Liu Ming; Jing Yi; Wang Bo; Shen Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    An oil dielectric helical pulse line to demonstrate the principles of a Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA) has been designed and fabricated. The simulation of the axial electric field of an accelerator with CST code has been completed and the simulation results show complete agreement with the theoretical calculations. To fully understand the real value of the electric field excited from the helical line in PLIA, an optical electric integrated electric field measurement system was adopted. The measurement result shows that the real magnitude of axial electric field is smaller than that calculated, probably due to the actual pitch of the resister column which is much less than that of helix. (authors)

  18. PIC simulations of post-pulse field reversal and secondary ionization in nanosecond argon discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. Y.; Gołkowski, M.; Gołkowski, C.; Stoltz, P.; Cohen, M. B.; Walker, M.

    2018-05-01

    Post-pulse electric field reversal and secondary ionization are investigated with a full kinetic treatment in argon discharges between planar electrodes on nanosecond time scales. The secondary ionization, which occurs at the falling edge of the voltage pulse, is induced by charge separation in the bulk plasma region. This process is driven by a reverse in the electric field from the cathode sheath to the formerly driven anode. Under the influence of the reverse electric field, electrons in the bulk plasma and sheath regions are accelerated toward the cathode. The electron movement manifests itself as a strong electron current generating high electron energies with significant electron dissipated power. Accelerated electrons collide with Ar molecules and an increased ionization rate is achieved even though the driving voltage is no longer applied. With this secondary ionization, in a single pulse (SP), the maximum electron density achieved is 1.5 times higher and takes a shorter time to reach using 1 kV 2 ns pulse as compared to a 1 kV direct current voltage at 1 Torr. A bipolar dual pulse excitation can increase maximum density another 50%–70% above a SP excitation and in half the time of RF sinusoidal excitation of the same period. The first field reversal is most prominent but subsequent field reversals also occur and correspond to electron temperature increases. Targeted pulse designs can be used to condition plasma density as required for fast discharge applications.

  19. Wide-field schematic eye models with gradient-index lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, Alexander V; Dainty, Chris

    2007-08-01

    We propose a wide-field schematic eye model, which provides a more realistic description of the optical system of the eye in relation to its anatomical structure. The wide-field model incorporates a gradient-index (GRIN) lens, which enables it to fulfill properties of two well-known schematic eye models, namely, Navarro's model for off-axis aberrations and Thibos's chromatic on-axis model (the Indiana eye). These two models are based on extensive experimental data, which makes the derived wide-field eye model also consistent with that data. A mathematical method to construct a GRIN lens with its iso-indicial contours following the optical surfaces of given asphericity is presented. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated with three variants related to different age groups. The role of the GRIN structure in relation to the lens paradox is analyzed. The wide-field model with a GRIN lens can be used as a starting design for the eye inverse problem, i.e., reconstructing the optical structure of the eye from off-axis wavefront measurements. Anatomically more accurate age-dependent optical models of the eye could ultimately help an optical designer to improve wide-field retinal imaging.

  20. Metal release in a stainless steel Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) system Part I. Effect of different pulse shapes; theory and experimental method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, B.; Morren, J.; Berg, H.E.; Haan, S.W.H.de

    2005-01-01

    Liquid pumpable food is mostly pasteurised by heat treatment. In the last decennia there is an increasing interest in so-called Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treatment. During this treatment food is pumped between two metal electrodes and exposed to short high electric field pulses, typical 2-4 kV

  1. Reduction of protease activity in milk by continuous flow high-intensity pulsed electric field treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendicho, S; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V; Martín, O

    2003-03-01

    High-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) is a non-thermal food processing technology that is currently being investigated to inactivate microorganisms and certain enzymes, involving a limited increase of food temperature. Promising results have been obtained on the inactivation of microbial enzymes in milk when suspended in simulated milk ultrafiltrate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of continuous HIPEF equipment on inactivating a protease from Bacillus subtilis inoculated in milk. Samples were subjected to HIPEF treatments of up to 866 micros of squared wave pulses at field strengths from 19.7 to 35.5 kV/cm, using a treatment chamber that consisted of eight colinear chambers connected in series. Moreover, the effects of different parameters such as pulse width (4 and 7 micros), pulse repetition rates (67, 89, and 111 Hz), and milk composition (skim and whole milk) were tested. Protease activity decreased with increased treatment time or field strength and pulse repetition rate. Regarding pulse width, no differences were observed between 4 and 7 micros pulses when total treatment time was considered. On the other hand, it was observed that milk composition affected the results since higher inactivation levels were reached in skim than in whole milk. The maximum inactivation (81%) was attained in skim milk after an 866-micros treatment at 35.5 kV/cm and 111 Hz.

  2. Electric field induced needle-pulsed arc discharge carbon nanotube production apparatus: Circuitry and mechanical design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kia, Kaveh Kazemi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Bonab, Bonab (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bonabi, Fahimeh [Department of Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Bonab, Bonab (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    A simple and low cost apparatus is reported to produce multiwall carbon nanotubes and carbon nano-onions by a low power short pulsed arc discharge reactor. The electric circuitry and the mechanical design details and a micro-filtering assembly are described. The pulsed-plasma is generated and applied between two graphite electrodes. The pulse width is 0.3 {mu}s. A strong dc electric field is established along side the electrodes. The repetitive discharges occur in less than 1 mm distance between a sharp tip graphite rod as anode, and a tubular graphite as cathode. A hydrocarbon vapor, as carbon source, is introduced through the graphite nozzle in the cathode assembly. The pressure of the chamber is controlled by a vacuum pump. A magnetic field, perpendicular to the plasma path, is provided. The results show that the synergetic use of a pulsed-current and a dc power supply enables us to synthesize carbon nanoparticles with short pulsed plasma. The simplicity and inexpensiveness of this plan is noticeable. Pulsed nature of plasma provides some extra degrees of freedom that make the production more controllable. Effects of some design parameters such as electric field, pulse frequency, and cathode shape are discussed. The products are examined using scanning probe microscopy techniques.

  3. Electric field induced needle-pulsed arc discharge carbon nanotube production apparatus: circuitry and mechanical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Kaveh Kazemi; Bonabi, Fahimeh

    2012-12-01

    A simple and low cost apparatus is reported to produce multiwall carbon nanotubes and carbon nano-onions by a low power short pulsed arc discharge reactor. The electric circuitry and the mechanical design details and a micro-filtering assembly are described. The pulsed-plasma is generated and applied between two graphite electrodes. The pulse width is 0.3 μs. A strong dc electric field is established along side the electrodes. The repetitive discharges occur in less than 1 mm distance between a sharp tip graphite rod as anode, and a tubular graphite as cathode. A hydrocarbon vapor, as carbon source, is introduced through the graphite nozzle in the cathode assembly. The pressure of the chamber is controlled by a vacuum pump. A magnetic field, perpendicular to the plasma path, is provided. The results show that the synergetic use of a pulsed-current and a dc power supply enables us to synthesize carbon nanoparticles with short pulsed plasma. The simplicity and inexpensiveness of this plan is noticeable. Pulsed nature of plasma provides some extra degrees of freedom that make the production more controllable. Effects of some design parameters such as electric field, pulse frequency, and cathode shape are discussed. The products are examined using scanning probe microscopy techniques.

  4. Near-field marking of gold nanostars by ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation: experiment and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Søren H.; Vester-Petersen, Joakim; Nazir, Adnan; Eriksen, Emil H.; Julsgaard, Brian; Madsen, Søren P.; Balling, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Quantitative measurements of the electric near-field distribution of star-shaped gold nanoparticles have been performed by femtosecond laser ablation. Measurements were carried out on and off the plasmon resonance. A detailed comparison with numerical simulations of the electric fields is presented. Semi-quantitative agreement is found, with slight systematic differences between experimentally observed and simulated near-field patterns close to strong electric-field gradients. The deviations are attributed to carrier transport preceding ablation.

  5. Formation of compositional gradient profiles by using shear-induced polymer migration phenomenon under Couette flow field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Su Jin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Duck Jong; Park, O Ok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Moo Hyun [Woosuk University, Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    We investigated whether a graded-index profile, specified by the polymer compositional gradient, could be formed using shear-induced polymer migration phenomenon in a polymer solution. For the presented model system, we generated a shear flow by rotating a glass rod at the center of a polystyrene/methylmethacrylate (PS/MMA) solution and measured the degree of polymer migration by the shear flow field by examining the concentration of polymer solution along the radial direction from the rotating axis to the periphery. Through model experiments, we formed a compositional gradient and controlled its profile in the solution by varying the concentration of polymer solution, molecular weight of polymer, and shear rate. Finally, we solidified the gradient profiles by the polymerization of the PS/MMA solution and confirmed that the gradient profiles were maintained with a compositional gradient twice larger than the mother PS/MMA solution.

  6. Measurement and analysis of electromagnetic fields of pulsed magnetic field therapy systems for private use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaermann, Thomas; Suter, Fabian; Osterwalder, Diego; Luechinger, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Recently, pulsed magnetic field therapy (PMFT) systems have become available for private use. Although they may be applied without medical supervision, only a little is known about their field quantities. In this study, the spatial distribution and the temporal characteristics of the magnetic flux densities of three PMFT systems, available in Europe, were analysed. In close proximity to the surface, the maxima of the peak magnetic flux densities were 461 μT, 170 μT and 133 μT, respectively. At a distance of 30 cm above the whole body mat, the peak magnetic flux density was 77 μT. The excitation patterns consisted of repeating bursts with carrier frequencies between 210 and 1667 Hz. In conclusion, magnetic flux densities were far above International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels. Since these systems are supposed to be medical devices as well as wellness devices, risk analysis of PMFT systems and the effectiveness of these devices need to be investigated in future studies.

  7. Solving the quasi-static field model of the pulse-line accelerator; relationship to a circuit model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Alex

    2005-01-01

    The Pulse-Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA) is a promising approach to high-gradient acceleration of an ion beam at high line charge density. A recent note by R. J. Briggs suggests that a 'sheath helix' model of such a system can be solved numerically in the quasi-static limit. Such a model captures the correct macroscopic behavior from first principles without the need to time-advance the full Maxwell equations on a grid. This note describes numerical methods that may be used to effect such a solution, and their connection to the circuit model that was described in an earlier note by the author. Fine detail of the fields in the vicinity of the helix wires is not obtained by this approach, but for purposes of beam dynamics simulation such detail is not generally needed

  8. Eradication of multidrug-resistant pseudomonas biofilm with pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saiqa I; Blumrosen, Gaddi; Vecchio, Daniela; Golberg, Alexander; McCormack, Michael C; Yarmush, Martin L; Hamblin, Michael R; Austen, William G

    2016-03-01

    Biofilm formation is a significant problem, accounting for over eighty percent of microbial infections in the body. Biofilm eradication is problematic due to increased resistance to antibiotics and antimicrobials as compared to planktonic cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) on biofilm-infected mesh. Prolene mesh was infected with bioluminescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa and treated with PEF using a concentric electrode system to derive, in a single experiment, the critical electric field strength needed to kill bacteria. The effect of the electric field strength and the number of pulses (with a fixed pulse length duration and frequency) on bacterial eradication was investigated. For all experiments, biofilm formation and disruption were confirmed with bioluminescent imaging and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Computation and statistical methods were used to analyze treatment efficiency and to compare it to existing theoretical models. In all experiments 1500 V are applied through a central electrode, with pulse duration of 50 μs, and pulse delivery frequency of 2 Hz. We found that the critical electric field strength (Ecr) needed to eradicate 100-80% of bacteria in the treated area was 121 ± 14 V/mm when 300 pulses were applied, and 235 ± 6.1 V/mm when 150 pulses were applied. The area at which 100-80% of bacteria were eradicated was 50.5 ± 9.9 mm(2) for 300 pulses, and 13.4 ± 0.65 mm(2) for 150 pulses. 80% threshold eradication was not achieved with 100 pulses. The results indicate that increased efficacy of treatment is due to increased number of pulses delivered. In addition, we that showed the bacterial death rate as a function of the electrical field follows the statistical Weibull model for 150 and 300 pulses. We hypothesize that in the clinical setting, combining systemic antibacterial therapy with PEF will yield a synergistic effect leading to improved

  9. Theoretical predictions for spatially-focused heating of magnetic nanoparticles guided by magnetic particle imaging field gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhavalikar, Rohan [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, 1030 Center Drive, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Rinaldi, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.rinaldi@bme.ufl.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, 1030 Center Drive, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, 1275 Center Drive, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles in alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) transfer some of the field's energy to their surroundings in the form of heat, a property that has attracted significant attention for use in cancer treatment through hyperthermia and in developing magnetic drug carriers that can be actuated to release their cargo externally using magnetic fields. To date, most work in this field has focused on the use of AMFs that actuate heat release by nanoparticles over large regions, without the ability to select specific nanoparticle-loaded regions for heating while leaving other nanoparticle-loaded regions unaffected. In parallel, magnetic particle imaging (MPI) has emerged as a promising approach to image the distribution of magnetic nanoparticle tracers in vivo, with sub-millimeter spatial resolution. The underlying principle in MPI is the application of a selection magnetic field gradient, which defines a small region of low bias field, superimposed with an AMF (of lower frequency and amplitude than those normally used to actuate heating by the nanoparticles) to obtain a signal which is proportional to the concentration of particles in the region of low bias field. Here we extend previous models for estimating the energy dissipation rates of magnetic nanoparticles in uniform AMFs to provide theoretical predictions of how the selection magnetic field gradient used in MPI can be used to selectively actuate heating by magnetic nanoparticles in the low bias field region of the selection magnetic field gradient. Theoretical predictions are given for the spatial decay in energy dissipation rate under magnetic field gradients representative of those that can be achieved with current MPI technology. These results underscore the potential of combining MPI and higher amplitude/frequency actuation AMFs to achieve selective magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) guided by MPI. - Highlights: • SAR predictions based on a field-dependent magnetization relaxation model.

  10. A proposal to pulse the Bevatron/Bevalac main guide field magnet with SCR power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frias, B.; Alonso, J.; Dwinell, R.; Lothrop, F.

    1989-01-01

    The Bevatron/Bevalac Main Guide Field Power Supply was originally designed to provide a 15,250 Volt DC. at sign 8400 Ampere peak magnet pulse. Protons were accelerated to 6.2 Gev. The 128 Megawatt (MW) pulse required two large motor-generator (MG) sets with 67 ton flywheels to store 680 Megajoules of energy. Ignitron rectifiers are used to rectify the generator outputs. Acceleration of heavy ions results in an operating schedule with a broad range of peak fields. The maximum field of 12.5 kilogauss requires a peak pulse of 80 MW. Acceleration of ions to 1.0 kilogauss requires an 8 MW peak pulse. One MG set can provide pulses below 45 MW. Peak pulses of less than 15 MW are now a large block of the operating schedule. A proposal has been made to replace the existing MG system with eight SCR power supplies for low field operation. The SCR supplies will be powered directly from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's 12.3 KV. power distribution system. This paper describes the many advantages of the plan. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Delay Kalman Filter to Estimate the Attitude of a Mobile Object with Indoor Magnetic Field Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Combettes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available More and more services are based on knowing the location of pedestrians equipped with connected objects (smartphones, smartwatches, etc.. One part of the location estimation process is attitude estimation. Many algorithms have been proposed but they principally target open space areas where the local magnetic field equals the Earth’s field. Unfortunately, this approach is impossible indoors, where the use of magnetometer arrays or magnetic field gradients has been proposed. However, current approaches omit the impact of past state estimates on the current orientation estimate, especially when a reference field is computed over a sliding window. A novel Delay Kalman filter is proposed in this paper to integrate this time correlation: the Delay MAGYQ. Experimental assessment, conducted in a motion lab with a handheld inertial and magnetic mobile unit, shows that the novel filter better estimates the Euler angles of the handheld device with an 11.7° mean error on the yaw angle as compared to 16.4° with a common Additive Extended Kalman filter.

  12. Tumour Cell Membrane Poration and Ablation by Pulsed Low-Intensity Electric Field with Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electroporation is a physical method to increase permeabilization of cell membrane by electrical pulses. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs can potentially act like “lighting rods” or exhibit direct physical force on cell membrane under alternating electromagnetic fields thus reducing the required field strength. A cell poration/ablation system was built for exploring these effects of CNTs in which two-electrode sets were constructed and two perpendicular electric fields could be generated sequentially. By applying this system to breast cancer cells in the presence of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs, the effective pulse amplitude was reduced to 50 V/cm (main field/15 V/cm (alignment field at the optimized pulse frequency (5 Hz of 500 pulses. Under these conditions instant cell membrane permeabilization was increased to 38.62%, 2.77-fold higher than that without CNTs. Moreover, we also observed irreversible electroporation occurred under these conditions, such that only 39.23% of the cells were viable 24 h post treatment, in contrast to 87.01% cell viability without presence of CNTs. These results indicate that CNT-enhanced electroporation has the potential for tumour cell ablation by significantly lower electric fields than that in conventional electroporation therapy thus avoiding potential risks associated with the use of high intensity electric pulses.

  13. Future pulsed magnetic field applications in dynamic high pressure research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.M.; Caird, R.S.; Hawke, R.S.; Burgess, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    The generation of large pressures by magnetic fields to obtain equation of state information is of fairly recent origin. Magnetic fields used in compression experiments produce an almost isentropic sample compression. Axial magnetic field compression is discussed together with a few results chosen to show both advantages and limitations of the method. Magnetic compression with azimuthal fields is then considered. Although there are several potential pitfalls, the possibilities are encouraging for obtaining very large pressures. Next, improved diagnostic techniques are considered. An x-ray ''streaking camera'' is proposed for volume measurements and a more detailed discussion is given on the use of the shift of the ruby fluorescence lines for pressure measurements. Finally, some additional flux compression magnetic field sources are discussed briefly. 5 figures, 2 tables

  14. Generation of an isolated sub-30 attosecond pulse in a two-color laser field and a static electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Gang-Tai; Zhang Mei-Guang; Bai Ting-Ting

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from a helium ion model in a two-color laser field, which is synthesized by a fundamental pulse and its second harmonic pulse. It is shown that a supercontinuum spectrum can be generated in the two-color field. However, the spectral intensity is very low, limiting the application of the generated attosecond (as) pulse. By adding a static electric field to the synthesized two-color field, not only is the ionization yield of electrons contributing to the harmonic emission remarkably increased, but also the quantum paths of the HHG can be significantly modulated. As a result, the extension and enhancement of the supercontinuum spectrum are achieved, producing an intense isolated 26-as pulse with a bandwidth of about 170.5 eV. In particular, we also analyse the influence of the laser parameters on the ultrabroad supercontinuum spectrum and isolated sub-30-as pulse generation. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  15. MR-based field-of-view extension in MR/PET: B0 homogenization using gradient enhancement (HUGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumhagen, Jan O; Ladebeck, Ralf; Fenchel, Matthias; Scheffler, Klaus

    2013-10-01

    In whole-body MR/PET, the human attenuation correction can be based on the MR data. However, an MR-based field-of-view (FoV) is limited due to physical restrictions such as B0 inhomogeneities and gradient nonlinearities. Therefore, for large patients, the MR image and the attenuation map might be truncated and the attenuation correction might be biased. The aim of this work is to explore extending the MR FoV through B0 homogenization using gradient enhancement in which an optimal readout gradient field is determined to locally compensate B0 inhomogeneities and gradient nonlinearities. A spin-echo-based sequence was developed that computes an optimal gradient for certain regions of interest, for example, the patient's arms. A significant distortion reduction was achieved outside the normal MR-based FoV. This FoV extension was achieved without any hardware modifications. In-plane distortions in a transaxially extended FoV of up to 600 mm were analyzed in phantom studies. In vivo measurements of the patient's arms lying outside the normal specified FoV were compared with and without the use of B0 homogenization using gradient enhancement. In summary, we designed a sequence that provides data for reducing the image distortions due to B0 inhomogeneities and gradient nonlinearities and used the data to extend the MR FoV. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Optical field emission from resonant gold nanorods driven by femtosecond mid-infrared pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusa, F. [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakacho, Koganei Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Echternkamp, K. E.; Herink, G.; Ropers, C. [4th Physical Institute – Solids and Nanostructures, University of Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Ashihara, S., E-mail: ashihara@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    We demonstrate strong-field photoelectron emission from gold nanorods driven by femtosecond mid-infrared optical pulses. The maximum photoelectron yield is reached at the localized surface plasmon resonance, indicating that the photoemission is governed by the resonantly-enhanced optical near-field. The wavelength- and field-dependent photoemission yield allows for a noninvasive determination of local field enhancements, and we obtain intensity enhancement factors close to 1300, in good agreement with finite-difference time domain computations.

  17. Field-swept pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance of Cr3+-doped ZBLAN fluoride glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drew, S.C.; Pilbrow, J.R.; Newman, P.J.; MacFarlane, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Field-swept pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of a ZBLAN fluoride glass doped with a low concentration of Cr 3+ are obtained using echo-detected EPR and hole-burning free induction decay detection. We review the utility of the pulsed EPR technique in generating field-swept EPR spectra, as well as some of the distorting effects that are peculiar to the pulsed detection method. The application of this technique to Cr 3+ -doped ZBLAN reveals that much of the broad resonance extending from g eff =5.1 to g eff =1.97, characteristic of X-band continuous wave EPR of Cr 3+ in glasses, is absent. We attribute this largely to the variation in nutation frequencies across the spectrum that result from sites possessing large fine structure interactions. The description of the spin dynamics of such sites is complicated and we discuss some possible approaches to the simulation of the pulsed EPR spectra. (author)

  18. Microstructured segmented Paul trap with tunable magnet field gradient; Mikrostrukturierte segmentierte Paul-Falle mit einstellbarem Magnetfeldgradienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, Delia

    2012-02-03

    Strings of laser cooled ions stored in microstructured Paul traps (microtraps) have promising potential for quantum information science. They provide a system which can be screened from a decohering environment, accurately prepared, manipulated and state selectively detected with efficiency close to unity. Magnetic field gradients allow for addressing trapped ions in frequency space. Furthermore, coupling of the ions' motional and spin states and long range spin-spin coupling of the ions' internal states are induced by such a gradient. This method is called Magnetic Gradient Induced Coupling, MAGIC. In this thesis, the design, construction and first characterization of a novel microtrap with an integrated solenoid is reported. The solenoid is designed to create a high magnetic field gradient per dissipated heat. The microtrap consists of three layers stacked onto each other. The outer layers provide a trapping potential, while the inner layer creates the switchable magnetic field gradient. Another specialty of this trap is the 33 pairs of DC-electrodes, allowing to move the ions along the trap axis and to adjust the range and the strength of the ions' spin-spin interactions. The microtrap is fixed on top of a ceramic block that provides the necessary electrical connections via thick film printed wires, a technique adopted in the context of microtraps for the first time, and in addition acts as a vacuum interface. The volume of the vacuum chamber is quite small, allowing for pressures in the low 10{sup -11} mbar range. In this microtrap, {sup 172}Yb{sup +}-ions are trapped, cooled and shuttled over a distance of about 2 mm. Trapped ions are used as magnetic field gradient probes, with a relative magnetic field precision of {delta}B/B{sub 0}=7.10{sup -6}. The addressing of two ions with the MAGIC method in the solenoid's magnetic field gradient is demonstrated.

  19. Rapid characterization of superconducting wires and tapes in strong pulsed magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockstal, L. van; Keyser, A. de; Deschagt, J.; Hopkins, S.C.; Glowacki, B.A.

    2007-01-01

    A new measurement system for rapid characterization of superconducting wires and tapes is developed. The CryoPulse-BI is a system to provide a direct measurement of critical material parameters for superconducting materials when high long pulsed magnetic fields and strong currents are applied. In the experiments, synchronized magnetic fields up to 30 T and current pulses up to 5 kA are generated with adjustable timing. Varying the magnetic field strength, the current through the sample and the BI timing allows for a thorough characterization of the sample and the determination of critical currents. The rapid cycle time of the experiments yields a rapid and thorough determination of the critical parameters. The method has been tested on low T c as well as high T c materials with the field parallel or perpendicular to the current. The discussion covers the current state of the art including a comparison of our results to classical DC characterization measurements

  20. The effects of pulsed low-level EM fields on memory processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, R.; Greter, S.E.; Schaller, G.; Hommel, G.

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the organism in humans. Using a psychophysiological test, the changes in memory performance were tested in 33 volunteers both at rest and upon exposure to pulsed fields (GSM standard). To evaluate the cognition performance, we applied a psycho-physiological test paradigm (auditory discrimination task) based on the ''Order Threshold''. The investigation took place in an acoustically-shielded room, and the volunteers were requested to relax on a stretcher. The exposure to electromagnetic fields took place during this relaxation time (30 minutes). Measurements were performed before and after the exposure phase, and compared to a reference situation of change in vigilance. Exposure to pulsed fields resulted in reduced mental-regeneration performance in 21 of the 33 test participants, as reflected by an increase of order threshold. (orig.)

  1. Electric field measurements in a nanosecond pulse discharge by picosecond CARS/4-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ben; Shkurenkov, Ivan; Adamovich, Igor; Lempert, Walter

    2014-10-01

    Time-resolved electric field measurements in hydrogen by picosecond CARS/4-wave mixing are presented. Measurements are carried out in a high voltage nanosecond pulse discharge in hydrogen in plane-to-plane geometry, at pressures of up to several hundred Torr, and with a time resolution of 0.2 ns. Absolute calibration of the diagnostics is done using a sub-breakdown high voltage pulse of 12 kV/cm. A diffuse discharge is obtained by applying a peak high voltage pulse of 40 kV/cm between the electrodes. It is found that breakdown occurs at a lower field, 15--20 kV/cm, after which the field in the plasma is reduced rapidly due to plasma self shielding The experimental results are compared with kinetic modeling calculations, showing good agreement between the measured and the predicted electric field.

  2. The Effect of a Pulsed Magnetic Field on Domain Wall Resistance in Magnetic Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, R; Tehranchi, M M; Tabrizi, K Ghafoori [Department of Physics, G.C., Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 19838-63113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Phirouznia, A, E-mail: Teranchi@cc.sbu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem, 53714-161 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-04-01

    The effect of a pulsed magnetic field on domain wall magnetoresistance for an ideal one-dimensional magnetic nanowire with a domain wall has been investigated. The analysis has been based on the Boltzmann transport equation, within the relaxation time approximation. The results indicate that the domain wall resistance increase when enhancing the magnetic field. The evaluation of local magnetization has been considered in the presence of a pulsed magnetic field. The time evaluation of the magnetization also has an effect on the domain wall resistance. The resistance depends on the contribution of the Zeeman and exchange interactions.

  3. The Effect of a Pulsed Magnetic Field on Domain Wall Resistance in Magnetic Nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majidi, R; Tehranchi, M M; Tabrizi, K Ghafoori; Phirouznia, A

    2011-01-01

    The effect of a pulsed magnetic field on domain wall magnetoresistance for an ideal one-dimensional magnetic nanowire with a domain wall has been investigated. The analysis has been based on the Boltzmann transport equation, within the relaxation time approximation. The results indicate that the domain wall resistance increase when enhancing the magnetic field. The evaluation of local magnetization has been considered in the presence of a pulsed magnetic field. The time evaluation of the magnetization also has an effect on the domain wall resistance. The resistance depends on the contribution of the Zeeman and exchange interactions.

  4. Enhancement of intermediate-field two-photon absorption by rationally shaped femtosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuntonov, Lev; Rybak, Leonid; Gandman, Andrey; Amitay, Zohar

    2008-01-01

    We extend the powerful frequency-domain analysis of femtosecond two-photon absorption to the intermediate-field regime of considerable absorption yields, where additionally to the weak-field nonresonant two-photon transitions also four-photon transitions play a role. Consequently, we rationally find that the absorption is enhanced over the transform-limited pulse by any shaped pulse having a spectral phase that is antisymmetric around one-half of the transition frequency and a spectrum that is asymmetric around it (red or blue detuned according to the system). The enhancement increases as the field strength increases. The theoretical results for Na are verified experimentally

  5. Orbit and optics distortion in fixed field alternating gradient muon accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Machida

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In a linear nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG accelerator, betatron tunes vary over a wide range and a beam has to cross integer and half-integer tunes several times. Although it is plausible to say that integer and half-integer resonances are not harmful if the crossing speed is fast, no quantitative argument exists. With tracking simulation, we studied orbit and optics distortion due to alignment and magnet errors. It was found that the concept of integer and half-integer resonance crossing is irrelevant to explain beam behavior in a nonscaling FFAG when acceleration is fast and betatron tunes change quickly. In a muon FFAG accelerator, it takes 17 turns for acceleration and the betatron tunes change more than 10, for example. Instead, the orbit and optics distortion is excited by random dipole and quadrupole kicks. The latter causes beam size growth because the beam starts tumbling in phase space, but not necessarily with emittance growth.

  6. Electric-field gradients at Ta donor impurities in Cr2O3(Ta) semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darriba, G.N.; Errico, L.A.; Munoz, E.L; Richard, D.; Eversheim, P.D.; Renteria, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report perturbed-angular-correlation (PAC) experiments on 181 Hf(→ 181 Ta)-implanted corundum Cr 2 O 3 powder samples in order to determine the magnitude and symmetry of the electric-field gradient (EFG) tensor at Ta donor impurity sites of this semiconductor. These results are analyzed in the framework of ab initio full-potential augmented-plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-APW+lo) calculations. The results are also compared with EFG results coming from PAC experiments in isomorphous α-Al 2 O 3 and α-Fe 2 O 3 doped with 111 In→ 111 Cd and 181 Hf→ 181 Ta tracers. This combined analysis enables us to quantify the magnitude of the lattice relaxations induced by the presence of the impurity and to determine the charge state of the impurity donor level introduced by Ta in the band gap of the semiconductor.

  7. Ab-initio study of the relation between electric polarization and electric field gradients in ferroelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, J N; Correia, J G; Butz, T; Picozzi, S; Fenta, A S; Amaral, V S

    2012-01-01

    The hyperfine interaction between the quadrupole moment of atomic nuclei and the electric field gradient (EFG) provides information on the electronic charge distribution close to a given atomic site. In ferroelectric materials, the loss of inversion symmetry of the electronic charge distribution is necessary for the appearance of the electric polarization. We present first-principles density functional theory calculations of ferroelectrics such as BaTiO$_{3}$, KNbO$_{3}$, PbTiO$_{3}$ and other oxides with perovskite structures, by focusing on both EFG tensors and polarization. We analyze the EFG tensor properties such as orientation and correlation between components and their relation with electric polarization. This work supports previous studies of ferroelectric materials where a relation between EFG tensors and polarization was observed, which may be exploited to study the ferroelectric order when standard techniques to measure polarization are not easily applied.

  8. Electric Field Gradients at Hf and Fe Sites in Hf2Fe Recalculated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belosevic-Cavor, J.; Cekic, B.; Novakovic, N.; Koteski, V.; Milosevic, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The electric field gradients (EFG) of the Hf 2 Fe intermetallic compound were calculated using the full-potential linearized augmented plain-wave (FP-LAPW) method as embodied in the WIEN 97 code. The obtained values are compared with other ab-initio calculations and on a qualitative basis with the previously reported experimental data obtained from TDPAC. The calculated results, -23.1.10 21 V/m 2 and 2.7.10 21 V/m 2 for Hf 48f and Fe 32e position, respectively, are in excellent agreement with experimental data (23.4.10 21 V/m 2 and 2.7.10 21 V/m 2 ), better than those reported in earlier calculations. The calculated EFG for Hf 16c position (4.2.10 21 V/m 2 ) is stronger than the experimental one (1.1.10 21 V/m 2 ).

  9. Gradient field echo imaging and Gd-DTPA for the assessment of renal function in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Schulthess, G.K.; Kikinis, R.; Durr, R.; Bino, M.; Jager, P.; Kubler, O.

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate renal parenchymal function, 1.5 T gradient field echo imaging using a sequence of repetitive 10-second scans was performed in apneic patients after injection of Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg body weight). During the 10-second pauses the patients were allowed to breathe. Angled coronal images (TR=40 msec, TE =20 msec, flip angle = 40 0 ) were obtained in four volunteers and four patients with hydronephrosis. Image quality was excellent, suggesting unprecedented spatial resolution for renal function studies. Initially, cortical perfusion was observed. Then the papilae became isointense; after 70 seconds they became hypointense; and finally the renal pelvic signal dropped. No papillary signal drop was seen in hydronephrosis, as confirmed by region-of-interest analysis. These results strongly suggest that in MR renal ''function'' studies with Gd-DTPA, T1 and T2 paramagnetic effects are operative

  10. Peptide self-association in aqueous trifluoroethanol monitored by pulsed field gradient NMR diffusion measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Shenggen [Biomolecular Research Institute (Australia); Howlett, Geoffrey J. [University of Melbourne, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Australia); Norton, Raymond S. [Biomolecular Research Institute (Australia)

    2000-02-15

    Defining the self-association state of a molecule in solution can be an important step in NMR-based structure determination. This is particularly true of peptides, where there can be a relatively small number of long-range interactions and misinterpretation of an intermolecular NOE as an intramolecular contact can have a dramatic influence on the final calculated structure. In this paper, we have investigated the use of translational self-diffusion coefficient measurements to detect self-association in aqueous trifluoroethanol of three peptides which are analogues of the C-terminal region of human neuropeptide Y. Experimentally measured diffusion coefficients were extrapolated to D{sup 0}, the limiting value as the peptide concentration approaches zero, and then converted to D{sub 20,w}, the diffusion coefficient after correction for temperature and the viscosity of the solvent. A decrease in D{sub 20,w} of about 16% was found for all three peptides in aqueous TFE (30% by volume) compared with water, which is in reasonable agreement with the expected decrease upon dimerisation, the presence of which was indicated by sedimentation equilibrium measurements. Apparent molecular masses of these peptides in both solutions were also calculated from their diffusion coefficients and similar results were obtained. Several potential internal standards, including acetone, acetonitrile, dimethylsulfoxide and dioxane, were assessed as monitors of solution viscosity over a range of trifluoroethanol concentrations. Compared with independent measurements of viscosity, acetonitrile was the most accurate standard among these four. The practical limitations of a quantitative assessment of peptide self-association from translational diffusion coefficients measured by PFGNMR, including the calculation of apparent molecular mass, are also discussed.

  11. Temporally asymmetric laser pulse for magnetic-field generation in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mamta; Gopal, Krishna; Gupta, Devki Nandan, E-mail: dngupta@physics.du.ac.in

    2016-04-01

    Of particular interest in this article, the case study of an asymmetric laser pulse interaction with a plasma for magnetic field enhancement has been investigated. The strong ponderomotive force due to the short leading edge of the propagating laser pulse drives a large nonlinear current, producing a stronger quasistatic magnetic field. An analytical expression for the magnetic field is derived and the strength of the magnetic field is estimated for the current laser-plasma parameters. The theoretical results are validated through the particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations and are in very close agreement with the simulation based estimations. This kind of magnetic field can be useful in the plasma based accelerators as well as in the laser-fusion based experiments. - Highlights: • We employ an asymmetric laser pulse to enhance the magnetic field strength in a plasma. • Short leading front of the pulse drives a strong ponderomotive force. • An analytical expression for the magnetic field is derived. • The strength of the magnetic field is estimated for the current laser–plasma parameters.

  12. Temporally asymmetric laser pulse for magnetic-field generation in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mamta; Gopal, Krishna; Gupta, Devki Nandan

    2016-01-01

    Of particular interest in this article, the case study of an asymmetric laser pulse interaction with a plasma for magnetic field enhancement has been investigated. The strong ponderomotive force due to the short leading edge of the propagating laser pulse drives a large nonlinear current, producing a stronger quasistatic magnetic field. An analytical expression for the magnetic field is derived and the strength of the magnetic field is estimated for the current laser-plasma parameters. The theoretical results are validated through the particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations and are in very close agreement with the simulation based estimations. This kind of magnetic field can be useful in the plasma based accelerators as well as in the laser-fusion based experiments. - Highlights: • We employ an asymmetric laser pulse to enhance the magnetic field strength in a plasma. • Short leading front of the pulse drives a strong ponderomotive force. • An analytical expression for the magnetic field is derived. • The strength of the magnetic field is estimated for the current laser–plasma parameters.

  13. Heat pulse probe measurements of soil water evaporation in a corn field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latent heat fluxes from cropped fields consist of soil water evaporation and plant transpiration. It is difficult to accurately separate evapotranspiration into evaporation and transpiration. Heat pulse probes have been used to measure bare field subsurface soil water evaporation, however, the appl...

  14. Pulsed Magnetic Field Improves the Transport of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles through Cell Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung Ah; Shin, Meong Cheol; Yu, Faquan; Yang, Meizhu; David, Allan E.; Yang, Victor C.; Rosania, Gus R.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how a magnetic field affects the interaction of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with cells is fundamental to any potential downstream applications of MNPs as gene and drug delivery vehicles. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of how a pulsed magnetic field influences the manner in which MNPs interact with, and penetrate across a cell monolayer. Relative to a constant magnetic field, the rate of MNP uptake and transport across cell monolayers was enhanced by a pulsed magnetic field. MNP transport across cells was significantly inhibited at low temperature under both constant and pulsed magnetic field conditions, consistent with an active mechanism (i.e. endocytosis) mediating MNP transport. Microscopic observations and biochemical analysis indicated that, in a constant magnetic field, transport of MNPs across the cells was inhibited due to the formation of large (>2 μm) magnetically-induced MNP aggregates, which exceeded the size of endocytic vesicles. Thus, a pulsed magnetic field enhances the cellular uptake and transport of MNPs across cell barriers relative to a constant magnetic field by promoting accumulation while minimizing magnetically-induced MNP aggregates at the cell surface. PMID:23373613

  15. Ultrafast Electric Field Pulse Control of Giant Temperature Change in Ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Y.; Liu, S.; Lindenberg, A. M.; Rappe, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    There is a surge of interest in developing environmentally friendly solid-state-based cooling technology. Here, we point out that a fast cooling rate (≈1011 K /s ) can be achieved by driving solid crystals to a high-temperature phase with a properly designed electric field pulse. Specifically, we predict that an ultrafast electric field pulse can cause a giant temperature decrease up to 32 K in PbTiO3 occurring on few picosecond time scales. We explain the underlying physics of this giant electric field pulse-induced temperature change with the concept of internal energy redistribution: the electric field does work on a ferroelectric crystal and redistributes its internal energy, and the way the kinetic energy is redistributed determines the temperature change and strongly depends on the electric field temporal profile. This concept is supported by our all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of PbTiO3 and BaTiO3 . Moreover, this internal energy redistribution concept can also be applied to understand electrocaloric effect. We further propose new strategies for inducing giant cooling effect with ultrafast electric field pulse. This Letter offers a general framework to understand electric-field-induced temperature change and highlights the opportunities of electric field engineering for controlled design of fast and efficient cooling technology.

  16. Determination of electric field threshold for electrofusion of erythrocyte ghosts. Comparison of pulse-first and contact-first protocols.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Y; Montes, J G; Sjodin, R A

    1992-01-01

    Rabbit erythrocyte ghosts were fused by means of electric pulses to determine the electrofusion thresholds for these membranes. Two protocols were used to investigate fusion events: contact-first, and pulse-first. Electrical capacitance discharge (CD) pulses were used to induce fusion. Plots of fusion yield vs peak field strength yielded curves that intersected the field strength axis at positive values (pseudothresholds) which depended on the protocol and decay half time of the pulses. It wa...

  17. Superintense fields from multiple ultrashort laser pulses retroreflected in circular geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond

    2010-02-01

    Laser field with superintensity beyond 1029 W/cm2 can be generated by coherent superposition of multiple 100 fs laser pulses in circular geometry setup upon retroreflection by a ring mirror. We have found the criteria for attaining such intensities using broadband ring mirror within the practical damage threshold and paraxial focusing regime. Simple expressions for the intensity enhancement factor are obtained, providing insight for achieving unlimited laser intensity. Higher intensities can be achieved by using few-cycle laser pulses.

  18. Activation of Anti-tumor Immune Response by Ablation of HCC with Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobo; Chen, Yiling; Zhang, Ruiqing; Miao, Xudong; Chen, Xinhua

    2018-03-28

    Locoregional therapy is playing an increasingly important role in the non-surgical management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The novel technique of non-thermal electric ablation by nanosecond pulsed electric field has been recognized as a potential locoregional methodology for indicated HCC. This manuscript explores the most recent studies to indicate its unique anti-tumor immune response. The possible immune mechanism, termed as nano-pulse stimulation, was also analyzed.

  19. Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis for Salmonella Infection Surveillance, Texas, USA, 2007

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-06-14

    This podcast describes monitoring of the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for Salmonella surveillance in Houston, Texas. CDC microbiologist Peter Gerner-Smidt discusses the importance of the PulseNet national database in surveillance of food-borne infections.  Created: 6/14/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/14/2010.

  20. Precise measurement of magnetic field gradients from free spin precession signals of He-3 and Xe-129 magnetometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allmendinger, Fabian; Blümler, Peter; Doll, Michael; Grasdijk, Oliver; Heil, Werner; Jungmann, Klaus; Karpuk, Sergej; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Offenhäuser, Andreas; Repetto, Maricel; Schmidt, Ulrich; Sobolev, Yuri; Tullney, Kathlyne; Willmann, Lorenz; Zimmer, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    We report on precise measurements of magnetic field gradients extracted from transverse relaxation rates of precessing spin samples. The experimental approach is based on the free precession of gaseous, nuclear spin polarized He-3 and (12)9Xe atoms in a spherical cell inside a magnetic guiding field

  1. On Acceptable Exposures to Short Pulses of Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    in the comparisons given in this report, the electric and magnetic field strengths are assumed to be related as for a propagating wave . In the...adequacy of current standards is far from a settled issue. 15. SUBJECT TERMS International Commission on Non- Ionizing Radiation Protection, Institute...a source, the electric and magnetic fields are approximately related to each other in the same way as in a radiating wave far from the source. That

  2. Process Control of Pre-Sowing Seed Treatment by Pulsed Electric Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starodubtseva Galina Petrovna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper investigates the application of a line voltage changer to an installation for pre-sowing seed treatment by pulsed electric field (PEF in order to increase the sowing quality of seeds and to suppress pathogenic microflora. The installation comprises an AC voltage regulator, a high voltage source, a voltage inverter, a working chamber for seed treatment, a control unit, and current and voltage sensors. The proposed installation differs from the existing apparatuses as it automatically provides the transformation of the pulsed electric field parameters by constant monitoring of power processes in a layer of treated seeds and feedback sending to the control unit. Seed treatment efficiency depends on the dose being determined by the parameters of electric field, namely, intensity in the seed layer, pulse duration, pulse repetition frequency, and seed treatment time. The parameters of rational treatment were determined, and the minimum treatment dose was calculated on the basis of results from the laboratory tests on the effect of pulsed electric field on sowing qualities of winter wheat seeds. It was experimentally confirmed that the proposed installation provides automatic transformation of electric field parameters depending on the changes taking place in the seed layer on the example of seeds with different moisture content maintaining the necessary treatment dose, ensuring the stability and repeatability of results.

  3. Optimized extraction of polysaccharides from corn silk by pulsed electric field and response surface quadratic design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenzhu; Yu, Zhipeng; Liu, Jingbo; Yu, Yiding; Yin, Yongguang; Lin, Songyi; Chen, Feng

    2011-09-01

    Corn silk is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which has been widely used for treatment of some diseases. In this study the effects of pulsed electric field on the extraction of polysaccharides from corn silk were investigated. Polysaccharides in corn silk were extracted by pulsed electric field and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM), based on a Box-Behnken design (BBD). Three independent variables, including electric field intensity (kV cm(-1) ), ratio of liquid to raw material and pulse duration (µs), were investigated. The experimental data were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation and also profiled into the corresponding 3-D contour plots. Optimal extraction conditions were as follows: electric field intensity 30 kV cm(-1) , ratio of liquid to raw material 50, and pulse duration 6 µs. Under these condition, the experimental yield of extracted polysaccharides was 7.31% ± 0.15%, matching well with the predicted value. The results showed that a pulsed electric field could be applied to extract value-added products from foods and/or agricultural matrix. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Hadron cancer therapy complex using nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator and gantry design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Keil

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG rings for cancer hadron therapy offer reduced physical aperture and large dynamic aperture as compared to scaling FFAGs. The variation of tune with energy implies the crossing of resonances during acceleration. Our design avoids intrinsic resonances, although imperfection resonances must be crossed. We consider a system of three nonscaling FFAG rings for cancer therapy with 250 MeV protons and 400   MeV/u carbon ions. Hadrons are accelerated in a common radio frequency quadrupole and linear accelerator, and injected into the FFAG rings at v/c=0.1294. H^{+}/C^{6+} ions are accelerated in the two smaller/larger rings to 31 and 250  MeV/68.8 and 400   MeV/u kinetic energy, respectively. The lattices consist of doublet cells with a straight section for rf cavities. The gantry with triplet cells accepts the whole required momentum range at fixed field. This unique design uses either high-temperature superconductors or superconducting magnets reducing gantry magnet size and weight. Elements with a variable field at the beginning and at the end set the extracted beam at the correct position for a range of energies.

  5. First results in rapid MR imaging of focal liver and spleen lesions using field echos and small angle excitation (gradient echo sequences)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebel, J.; Hess, C.F.; Kurtz, B.; Klose, U.; Kueper, K.

    1987-01-01

    15 healthy subjects and 39 patients with focal liver and spleen lesions were examined via MR tomography at 1.5 tesla. Gradient field echos at small angle excitation ( 0 ) were employed. The imaging time per layer was 10 seconds so that rapid imaging could be carried out at respiratory standstill. This enabled visualisation of liver and spleen without interference by breathing artifacts and with accurate localisation. Focal lesions can be imaged best at low flip-angle pulses (liver) or low to medium-angle pulses (spleen). The primary liver cell carcinoma is visualised as an inhomogeneous structure with similar signal intensity as the surrounding tissue. All other examined liver lesions (metastases, haemangiomas, lymphatic infiltrates, echinococcus cysts, FNH, gummae) showed greater signal intensity than the remaining organ at small angle excitation. Furthermore, contrast reversals were seen at medium-angle pulses. Contrariwise, with the exception of the light-coloured spleen infarcts, spleen lesions (lymphatic infiltrate, Boeck's disease or sarcoidosis) appeared darker at all excitation angles than the surrounding tissue. (orig.) [de

  6. First results in rapid MR imaging of focal liver and spleen lesions using field echos and small angle excitation (gradient echo sequences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griebel, J.; Hess, C.F.; Kurtz, B.; Klose, U.; Kueper, K.

    1987-01-01

    15 healthy subjects and 39 patients with focal liver and spleen lesions were examined via MR tomography at 1.5 tesla. Gradient field echos at small angle excitation (< 90/sup 0/) were employed. The imaging time per layer was 10 seconds so that rapid imaging could be carried out at respiratory standstill. This enabled visualisation of liver and spleen without interference by breathing artifacts and with accurate localisation. Focal lesions can be imaged best at low flip-angle pulses (liver) or low to medium-angle pulses (spleen). The primary liver cell carcinoma is visualised as an inhomogeneous structure with similar signal intensity as the surrounding tissue. All other examined liver lesions (metastases, haemangiomas, lymphatic infiltrates, echinococcus cysts, FNH, gummae) showed greater signal intensity than the remaining organ at small angle excitation. Furthermore, contrast reversals were seen at medium-angle pulses. Contrariwise, with the exception of the light-coloured spleen infarcts, spleen lesions (lymphatic infiltrate, Boeck's disease or sarcoidosis) appeared darker at all excitation angles than the surrounding tissue.

  7. Electric field measurements in a dielectric barrier nanosecond pulse discharge with sub-nanosecond time resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M; Shkurenkov, Ivan; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; O’Byrne, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of time-resolved electric field measurements in a nanosecond discharge between two plane electrodes covered by dielectric plates, using picosecond four-wave mixing diagnostics. For absolute calibration, the IR signal was measured in hydrogen at a pressure of 440 Torr, for electrostatic electric field ranging from 0 to 8 kV cm −1 . The calibration curve (i.e. the square root of IR signal intensity versus electric field) was shown to be linear. By measuring the intensities of the pump, Stokes, and IR signal beam for each laser shot during the time sweep across the high-voltage pulse, temporal evolution of the electric field in the nanosecond pulse discharge was determined with sub-nanosecond time resolution. The results are compared to kinetic modeling predictions, showing good agreement, including non-zero electric field offset before the main high voltage pulse, breakdown moment, and reduction of electric field in the plasma after breakdown. The difference between the experimental results and model predictions is likely due to non-1D structure of the discharge. Comparison with the kinetic modeling predictions shows that electric field in the nanosecond pulse discharge is controlled primarily by electron impact excitation and charge accumulation on the dielectric surfaces. (paper)

  8. Complex envelope control of pulsed accelerating fields in superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Czarski, T

    2010-01-01

    A digital control system for superconducting cavities of a linear accelerator is presented in this work. FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) based controller, managed by MATLAB, was developed to investigate a novel firmware implementation. The LLRF - Low Level Radio Frequency system for FLASH project in DESY is introduced. Essential modeling of a cavity resonator with signal and power analysis is considered as a key approach to the control methods. An electrical model is represented by the non-stationary state space equation for the complex envelope of the cavity voltage driven by the current generator and the beam loading. The electromechanical model of the superconducting cavity resonator including the Lorentz force detuning has been developed for a simulation purpose. The digital signal processing is proposed for the field vector detection. The field vector sum control is considered for multiple cavities driven by one klystron. An algebraic, complex domain model is proposed for the system analysis. The c...

  9. HIGH-GRADIENT, HIGH-TRANSFORMER-RATIO, DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2012-04-12

    The Phase I work reported here responds to DoE'ss stated need "...to develop improved accelerator designs that can provide very high gradient (>200 MV/m for electrons...) acceleration of intense bunches of particles." Omega-P's approach to this goal is through use of a ramped train of annular electron bunches to drive a coaxial dielectric wakefield accelerator (CDWA) structure. This approach is a direct extension of the CDWA concept from acceleration in wake fields caused by a single drive bunch, to the more efficient acceleration that we predict can be realized from a tailored (or ramped) train of several drive bunches. This is possible because of a much higher transformer ratio for the latter. The CDWA structure itself has a number of unique features, including: a high accelerating gradient G, potentially with G > 1 GeV/m; continuous energy coupling from drive to test bunches without transfer structures; inherent transverse focusing forces for particles in the accelerated bunch; highly stable motion of high charge annular drive bunches; acceptable alignment tolerances for a multi-section system. What is new in the present approach is that the coaxial dielectric structure is now to be energized by-not one-but by a short train of ramped annular-shaped drive bunches moving in the outer coaxial channel of the structure. We have shown that this allows acceleration of an electron bunch traveling along the axis in the inner channel with a markedly higher transformer ratio T than for a single drive bunch. As described in this report, the structure will be a GHz-scale prototype with cm-scale transverse dimensions that is expected to confirm principles that can be applied to the design of a future THz-scale high gradient (> 500 MV/m) accelerator with mm-scale transverse dimensions. We show here a new means to significantly increase the transformer ratio T of the device, and thereby to significantly improve its suitability as a flexible and effective component in

  10. Pulsed and streamer discharges in air above breakdown electric field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Sun (Anbang); H.J. Teunissen (Jannis); U. M. Ebert (Ute)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractA 3D particle model is developed to investigate the streamer formation in electric fields above the breakdown threshold, in atmospheric air (1bar, 300 Kelvin). Adaptive particle management, adaptive mesh refinement and parallel computing techniques are used in the code. Photoionization

  11. Evaluations of electric field in laser-generated pulsed plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torrisi, L.; Gammino, S.; Láska, Leoš; Krása, Josef; Rohlena, Karel; Wolowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. B (2006), B580-B585 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /22./. Prague, 26.06.2006-29.06.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : electric field in plasma * debye length * plasma temperature * plasma density Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  12. Molecular alignment and orientation in short pulse laser fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1999-01-01

    An analytical expression for the propagator associated with impulsive excitation is derived based on the Magnus expansion. We apply this expression to the excitation of angular motion out of a rotational eigenstate for a linear polar molecule in a plane polarized electromagnetic field. We show...

  13. Desickling of Sickle Cell Erythrocytes by Pulsed RF Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-16

    spectrophotometery. Field induced menbrane potential which causes the L partyl breakdown of the memrbrane and the formation of pores was calculated... plasma . Fig.5 shows the photographs of sickled and desickled SS erythrocytes which are suspended in Hank’s solution. As shown, desickled erythrocytes

  14. Modification of Pulsed Electric Field Conditions Results in Distinct Activation Profiles of Platelet-Rich Plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L Frelinger

    Full Text Available Activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP used in therapeutic wound healing applications is poorly characterized and standardized. Using pulsed electric fields (PEF to activate platelets may reduce variability and eliminate complications associated with the use of bovine thrombin. We previously reported that exposing PRP to sub-microsecond duration, high electric field (SMHEF pulses generates a greater number of platelet-derived microparticles, increased expression of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, and differential release of growth factors compared to thrombin. Moreover, the platelet releasate produced by SMHEF pulses induced greater cell proliferation than plasma.To determine whether sub-microsecond duration, low electric field (SMLEF bipolar pulses results in differential activation of PRP compared to SMHEF, with respect to profiles of activation markers, growth factor release, and cell proliferation capacity.PRP activation by SMLEF bipolar pulses was compared to SMHEF pulses and bovine thrombin. PRP was prepared using the Harvest SmartPreP2 System from acid citrate dextrose anticoagulated healthy donor blood. PEF activation by either SMHEF or SMLEF pulses was performed using a standard electroporation cuvette preloaded with CaCl2 and a prototype instrument designed to take into account the electrical properties of PRP. Flow cytometry was used to assess platelet surface P-selectin expression, and annexin V binding. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, endothelial growth factor (EGF and platelet factor 4 (PF4, and were measured by ELISA. The ability of supernatants to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture was also evaluated. Controls included vehicle-treated, unactivated PRP and PRP with 10 mM CaCl2 activated with 1 U/mL bovine thrombin.PRP activated with SMLEF bipolar pulses or thrombin had similar light scatter profiles, consistent with the presence of platelet

  15. Modification of Pulsed Electric Field Conditions Results in Distinct Activation Profiles of Platelet-Rich Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelinger, Andrew L; Gerrits, Anja J; Garner, Allen L; Torres, Andrew S; Caiafa, Antonio; Morton, Christine A; Berny-Lang, Michelle A; Carmichael, Sabrina L; Neculaes, V Bogdan; Michelson, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    Activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) used in therapeutic wound healing applications is poorly characterized and standardized. Using pulsed electric fields (PEF) to activate platelets may reduce variability and eliminate complications associated with the use of bovine thrombin. We previously reported that exposing PRP to sub-microsecond duration, high electric field (SMHEF) pulses generates a greater number of platelet-derived microparticles, increased expression of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, and differential release of growth factors compared to thrombin. Moreover, the platelet releasate produced by SMHEF pulses induced greater cell proliferation than plasma. To determine whether sub-microsecond duration, low electric field (SMLEF) bipolar pulses results in differential activation of PRP compared to SMHEF, with respect to profiles of activation markers, growth factor release, and cell proliferation capacity. PRP activation by SMLEF bipolar pulses was compared to SMHEF pulses and bovine thrombin. PRP was prepared using the Harvest SmartPreP2 System from acid citrate dextrose anticoagulated healthy donor blood. PEF activation by either SMHEF or SMLEF pulses was performed using a standard electroporation cuvette preloaded with CaCl2 and a prototype instrument designed to take into account the electrical properties of PRP. Flow cytometry was used to assess platelet surface P-selectin expression, and annexin V binding. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial growth factor (EGF) and platelet factor 4 (PF4), and were measured by ELISA. The ability of supernatants to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture was also evaluated. Controls included vehicle-treated, unactivated PRP and PRP with 10 mM CaCl2 activated with 1 U/mL bovine thrombin. PRP activated with SMLEF bipolar pulses or thrombin had similar light scatter profiles, consistent with the presence of platelet

  16. Strong-field QED processes in short laser pulses. One- and two-photon Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seipt, Daniel

    2012-12-20

    The purpose of this thesis is to advance the understanding of strong-field QED processes in short laser pulses. The processes of non-linear one-photon and two-photon Compton scattering are studied, that is the scattering of photons in the interaction of relativistic electrons with ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses. These investigations are done in view of the present and next generation of ultra-high intensity optical lasers which are supposed to achieve unprecedented intensities of the order of 10{sup 24} W/cm{sup 2} and beyond, with pulse lengths in the order of some femtoseconds. The ultra-high laser intensity requires a non-perturbative description of the interaction of charged particles with the laser field to allow for multi-photon interactions, which is beyond the usual perturbative expansion of QED organized in powers of the fine structure constant. This is achieved in strong-field QED by employing the Furry picture and non-perturbative solutions of the Dirac equation in the presence of a background laser field as initial and final state wave functions, as well as the laser dressed Dirac-Volkov propagator. The primary objective is a realistic description of scattering processes with regard to the finite laser pulse duration beyond the common approximation of infinite plane waves, which is made necessary by the ultra-short pulse length of modern high-intensity lasers. Non-linear finite size effects are identified, which are a result of the interplay between the ultra-high intensity and the ultra-short pulse length. In particular, the frequency spectra and azimuthal photon emission spectra are studied emphasizing the differences between pulsed and infinite laser fields. The proper description of the finite temporal duration of the laser pulse leads to a regularization of unphysical infinities (due to the infinite plane-wave description) of the laser-dressed Dirac-Volkov propagator and in the second-order strong-field process of two-photon Compton

  17. Galactic cosmic ray gradients, field-aligned and latitudinal, among Voyagers 1/2 and IMP-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelof, E.C.; Decker, R.B.; Krimigis, S.M.; Venkatesan, D.; Lazarus, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    The tandem Earth-Jupiter trajectories of the Voyager 1/2 spacecraft, combined with baseline measurements from the earth-orbiting IMP-7/8 spacecraft, provide the first opportunity for unambiguously separating latitude from radial or field-aligned effects in galactic cosmic ray gradients. Anti-coincidence solid-state detectors on the Voyager 1/2 LECP experiment measure nucleons > or approximately 20 MeV/nuc with large (28 cm 2 ) omnidirectional geometry factors. Anti-coincidence scintillators on the IMP-7/8 CPME with omnidirectional geometry factors comparable to those on Voyager measure nucleons > or approximately 35 MeV/nuc. Because the Voyagers are well-connected via the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) to the near-Earth vicinity throughout their transit from 1-5 AU (September 1977 - February 1979), we obtained the first direct measurement of field-aligned gradients, i.e., those that do not depend upon ''corotation'' from one spacecraft to another over many days. Another new result is the unambiguous identification of nonuniform latitudinal gradients approximately 2-5% degree -1 in structures lasting 10-30 days. There is additional evidence for somewhat smaller latitudinal gradients, north to south and probably mixed with small field-aligned gradients -1 , which persist for several solar rotations

  18. A Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) bench static system to study bacteria inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortese, Pietro; Dellacasa, Giuseppe; Gemme, Roberto; Bonetta, Sara; Bonetta, Silvia; Carraro, Elisabetta; Motta, Francesca; Paganoni, Marco; Pizzichemi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) technology is a promising non-thermal processing method for inactivation of microorganisms. A small PEF bench system able to treat a 0.4 ml static liquid volume has been built and tested at the laboratories of the Universita del Piemonte Orientale in Alessandria, Italy. The technique used to produce the required fields consists of charging high voltage cables of various lengths and subsequently discharge them on a cylindrical cell. The pulse intensity can be adjusted to reach a maximum electric field in the cell of about 35 kV/cm and the pulse frequency can reach 10 Hz. We describe the PEF system in some detail and, as a benchmark of its performances, we report preliminary results obtained on Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) at 10 9 Cfu/ml concentration suspended in a McIlvaine buffer (pH 7.2).

  19. Fast simulation of non-linear pulsed ultrasound fields using an angular spectrum approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2013-01-01

    A fast non-linear pulsed ultrasound field simulation is presented. It is implemented based on an angular spectrum approach (ASA), which analytically solves the non-linear wave equation. The ASA solution to the Westervelt equation is derived in detail. The calculation speed is significantly...... increased compared to a numerical solution using an operator splitting method (OSM). The ASA has been modified and extended to pulsed non-linear ultrasound fields in combination with Field II, where any array transducer with arbitrary geometry, excitation, focusing and apodization can be simulated...... with a center frequency of 5 MHz. The speed is increased approximately by a factor of 140 and the calculation time is 12 min with a standard PC, when simulating the second harmonic pulse at the focal point. For the second harmonic point spread function the full width error is 1.5% at 6 dB and 6.4% at 12 d...

  20. Hypercapnic normalization of BOLD fMRI: comparison across field strengths and pulse sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Eric R.; Rostrup, Egill; Sidaros, Karam

    2004-01-01

    to be more accurately localized and quantified based on changes in venous blood oxygenation alone. The normalized BOLD signal induced by the motor task was consistent across different magnetic fields and pulse sequences, and corresponded well with cerebral blood flow measurements. Our data suggest...... size, as well as experimental, such as pulse sequence and static magnetic field strength (B(0)). Thus, it is difficult to compare task-induced fMRI signals across subjects, field strengths, and pulse sequences. This problem can be overcome by normalizing the neural activity-induced BOLD fMRI response...... for global stimulation, subjects breathed a 5% CO(2) gas mixture. Under all conditions, voxels containing primarily large veins and those containing primarily active tissue (i.e., capillaries and small veins) showed distinguishable behavior after hypercapnic normalization. This allowed functional activity...

  1. A novel application of pulsed electric field (PEF) processing for improving glutathione (GSH) antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Wang, Ke; Wang, Ying; Lin, Songyi; Zhao, Ping; Jones, Gregory

    2014-10-15

    Glutathione (GSH) was treated by pulsed electric field (PEF) processing to investigate its effect on antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of GSH was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical inhibition. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables, which were concentration, electric field intensity and pulse frequency was used to establish the regression equation of second-order response surface. Optimal conditions were as follows: GSH concentration 8.86mg/mL, electric field intensity 9.74kV/cm and pulse frequency 2549.08Hz. The DPPH radical inhibition increased from 81.83% to 97.40%. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) were used to analyse the change of structure and functional groups of GSH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects on functional groups and zeta potential of SAP1pulsed electric field technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rong; Li, Xuenan; Lin, Songyi; Wang, Jia

    2017-01-01

    SAP 1 pulsed electric field (PEF) technology. The effects of electric field intensity and pulse frequency on SAP 1 electric field intensity 15 kV cm -1 , pulse frequency 1600 Hz and flow velocity 2.93 mL min -1 ). Furthermore, the PEF-treated SAP 1 < MW < 3kDa under optimal conditions lacked the characteristic absorbance of N-H, C = C and the amide band and the zeta potential was reduced to -18.0 mV. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that the improvement of antioxidant activity of SAP 1 < MW < 3kDa is a result of the contribution of the functional groups and the change in zeta potential when treated with PEF. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. 40-Tesla pulsed-field cryomagnet for single crystal neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, F.; Tonon, X.; Billette, J.; Rollet, B.; Knafo, W.; Bourdarot, F.; Béard, J.; Mantegazza, F.; Longuet, B.; Lorenzo, J. E.; Lelièvre-Berna, E.; Frings, P.; Regnault, L.-P.

    2018-05-01

    We present the first long-duration and high duty cycle 40-T pulsed-field cryomagnet addressed to single crystal neutron diffraction experiments at temperatures down to 2 K. The magnet produces a horizontal field in a bi-conical geometry, ±15° and ±30° upstream and downstream of the sample, respectively. Using a 1.15 MJ mobile generator, magnetic field pulses of 100 ms length are generated in the magnet, with a rise time of 23 ms and a repetition rate of 6-7 pulses per hour at 40 T. The setup was validated for neutron diffraction on the CEA-CRG three-axis spectrometer IN22 at the Institut Laue Langevin.

  4. Galactic cosmic ray gradients, field-aligned and latitudinal, among Voyagers 1/2 and IMP-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelof, E. C.; Decker, R. B.; Krimigis, S. M.; Venkatesan, D.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation represents a summary of a comprehensive analysis of the same subject conducted by Roelof et al. (1981). It is pointed out that the tandem earth-Jupiter trajectories of the Voyager 1/2 spacecraft, combined with baseline measurements from the earth-orbiting IMP 7/8 spacecraft, provide the first opportunity for unambiguously separating latitude from radial or field-aligned effects in galactic cosmic ray gradients. Attention is given to the method of data analysis, and the separation of field-aligned and latitudinal gradients. It is found that latitudinal gradients approximately equal to or greater than 1 percent per deg in the cosmic ray intensity were a common feature of the interplanetary medium between 1 and 5 AU in 1977-78. Except in the most disturbed periods, cosmic ray intensities are well-ordered in field-aligned structures.

  5. Characteristics of single-atom trapping in a magneto-optical trap with a high magnetic-field gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Seokchan; Choi, Youngwoon; Park, Sangbum; Ji, Wangxi; Lee, Jai-Hyung; An, Kyungwon

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative study on characteristics of a magneto-optical trap with a single or a few atoms is presented. A very small number of 85 Rb atoms were trapped in a micron-size magneto-optical trap with a high magnetic-field gradient. In order to find the optimum condition for a single-atom trap, we have investigated how the number of atoms and the size of atomic cloud change as various experimental parameters, such as a magnetic-field gradient and the trapping laser intensity and detuning. The averaged number of atoms was measured very accurately with a calibration procedure based on the single-atom saturation curve of resonance fluorescence. In addition, the number of atoms in a trap could be controlled by suppressing stochastic loading events by means of a real-time active feedback on the magnetic-field gradient

  6. Comparative analysis of gradient-field-based orientation estimation methods and regularized singular-value decomposition for fringe pattern processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Fu, Shujun

    2017-09-20

    Fringe orientation is an important feature of fringe patterns and has a wide range of applications such as guiding fringe pattern filtering, phase unwrapping, and abstraction. Estimating fringe orientation is a basic task for subsequent processing of fringe patterns. However, various noise, singular and obscure points, and orientation data degeneration lead to inaccurate calculations of fringe orientation. Thus, to deepen the understanding of orientation estimation and to better guide orientation estimation in fringe pattern processing, some advanced gradient-field-based orientation estimation methods are compared and analyzed. At the same time, following the ideas of smoothing regularization and computing of bigger gradient fields, a regularized singular-value decomposition (RSVD) technique is proposed for fringe orientation estimation. To compare the performance of these gradient-field-based methods, quantitative results and visual effect maps of orientation estimation are given on simulated and real fringe patterns that demonstrate that the RSVD produces the best estimation results at a cost of relatively less time.

  7. Pulsed-Field Magnetization Properties of Bulk Superconductors by Employment of Vortex-Type Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.; Shinohara, N.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Watasaki, M.; Kawabe, S.; Taguchi, R.; Izumi, M.

    Vortex-type magnetizing coils are gaining more and more attention to activate bulk superconductors in pulsed-field magnetization (PFM) studies, compared with solenoid-type ones. Following existing reports, we present experimental results of the different penetration patterns of magnetic flux between the two kinds of coils. It was found that the magnetic flux will primarily penetrate inside the bulk from the upper and lower surfaces by using vortex coils, rather than from the periphery in the case of solenoid coils. Moreover, the bulk submitted to a small pulsed-field excitation exhibits a similar field profile as the excitation field (convex or concave shape); a phenomenon named field memory effect. The use of vortex- or solenoid-type coils in PFM will pose an influence on the initial flux penetration patterns during the flux trapping processes, but both coils can finally excite the best conical trapped field shape of the bulk.

  8. Photodetachment of H- by a short laser pulse in crossed static electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Liangyou; Wang Qiaoling; Starace, Anthony F.

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed quantum mechanical treatment of the photodetachment of H - by a short laser pulse in the presence of crossed static electric and magnetic fields. An exact analytic formula is presented for the final state electron wave function (describing an electron in both static electric and magnetic fields and a short laser pulse of arbitrary intensity). In the limit of a weak laser pulse, final state electron wave packet motion is examined and related to the closed classical electron orbits in crossed static fields predicted by Peters and Delos [Phys. Rev. A 47, 3020 (1993)]. Owing to these closed orbit trajectories, we show that the detachment probability can be modulated, depending on the time delay between two laser pulses and their relative phase, thereby providing a means to partially control the photodetachment process. In the limit of a long, weak pulse (i.e., a monochromatic radiation field) our results reduce to those of others; however, for this case we analyze the photodetachment cross section numerically over a much larger range of electron kinetic energy (i.e., up to 500 cm -1 ) than in previous studies and relate the detailed structures both analytically and numerically to the above-mentioned, closed classical periodic orbits

  9. Temperature measurements in small holes drilled in superconducting bulk during pulsed field magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, H.; Naito, T.; Furuta, D.; Kakehata, K.

    2010-11-01

    The time dependence of the temperatures T(z, t) has been measured along the thickness direction z in several drilled holes in a superconducting bulk during pulsed field magnetization (PFM) and the heat generation and heat transfer in the bulk have been discussed. In the previous paper [H. Fujishiro, S. Kawaguchi, K. Kakehata, A. Fujiwara, T. Tateiwa, T. Oka, Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 (2006) S540], we calculated the T(z, t) profiles in the bulk by solving a three-dimensional heat-diffusion equation to reproduce the measured T(t) on the bulk surface; the heat generation took place adiabatically and the calculated T(z, t) was isothermal along the z direction. In this study, the measured T(z, t) at the top surface was higher than that at the bottom surface just after the pulse field application at t < 0.5 s, and then became isothermal with increasing time. These results suggest that the magnetic flux intrudes inhomogeneously into the bulk from the edge of the top surface and the periphery at the early stage. The inhomogeneous magnetic flux intrusion and the flux trap during PFM change depending on the strength of the pulsed field and the pulse number in the successive pulse field application.

  10. Is pulsed electric field still effective for RNA separation in capillary electrophoresis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenqing; Dou, Xiaoming; Ni, Yi; Chen, Qinmiao; Cheng, Shuyi; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori

    2012-03-16

    Pulsed field capillary electrophoresis (PFCE) is a predominant technique to cope with difficulties in resolving large DNA strands, yet it is still unclear whether pulsed electric field is effective for the separation of higher mass RNA. In this paper we focused on the role of pulsed electric field in large RNA fragments analysis by comparing RNA separation performance in PFCE with that in constant field CE. Separation performance in terms of migration mobility, plate numbers, resolution, and selectivity has been tested for the analysis of RNA from 0.1 to 10.0 kilo nucleotide (knt) under different electrophoretic conditions. Denaturation, important to obtain uniform and identifiable peaks, was accomplished by heating the sample in 4.0M urea prior to analysis and the presence of 4.0M urea in the electrophoresis buffer. Results demonstrate that unlike DNA in PFCE, the pulsed electric field mainly affects the separation performance of RNA between 0.4 and 2.0 knt. The migration mobility of long RNA fragments is not a strong function of modulation depth and pulsed frequency. Moreover, the logarithm of RNA mobility is almost inversely proportional to the logarithm of molecule size up to 6.0 knt with correlation coefficient higher than 0.99 in all the polymer concentrations measured here. Resonance frequency of RNA in PFCE was also observed. While these initial experiments show no distinct advantages of using PFCE for RNA separation, they do take further step toward characterizing the migration behavior of RNA under pulsed field conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pulsed magnetic field excitation sensitivity of match-type electric blasting caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, Jonathan; Dickens, James; Walter, John; Neuber, Andreas A.

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a study on energy deposition and electromagnetic compatibility of match-type electroexplosive devices (EEDs), which recently have found more usage in pulsed power environments with high electromagnetic interference (EMI) background. The sensitivity of these devices makes them dangerous to intended and unintended radiation produced by devices commonly used in pulsed power environments. Match-type EEDs have been found to be susceptible to such low levels of energy (7-8 mJ) that safe operation of these EEDs is vital when in use near devices that produce high levels of pulsed EMI. The scope of this paper is to provide an investigation that incorporates results of similar studies to provide detonation characteristics of these EEDs. The three topics included in this study are sensitivity testing, modeling of the thermodynamic heat propagation, and electromagnetic compatibility from pulsed electromagnetic radiation. The thermodynamic joule heating of the primary explosive has been modeled by a solution to the 1D heat equation. A simple pulsed generator, Marx generator with an inductive load, was used for the electromagnetic compatibility assessment of the coupled field between the pulse generator and shorted EED. The results of the electromagnetic compatibility assessment relate the resistive, inductive, and capacitive components of the pulse generator to the area of the shorted EED.

  12. Optimal path-finding through mental exploration based on neural energy field gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihong; Wang, Rubin; Zhu, Yating

    2017-02-01

    Rodent animal can accomplish self-locating and path-finding task by forming a cognitive map in the hippocampus representing the environment. In the classical model of the cognitive map, the system (artificial animal) needs large amounts of physical exploration to study spatial environment to solve path-finding problems, which costs too much time and energy. Although Hopfield's mental exploration model makes up for the deficiency mentioned above, the path is still not efficient enough. Moreover, his model mainly focused on the artificial neural network, and clear physiological meanings has not been addressed. In this work, based on the concept of mental exploration, neural energy coding theory has been applied to the novel calculation model to solve the path-finding problem. Energy field is constructed on the basis of the firing power of place cell clusters, and the energy field gradient can be used in mental exploration to solve path-finding problems. The study shows that the new mental exploration model can efficiently find the optimal path, and present the learning process with biophysical meaning as well. We also analyzed the parameters of the model which affect the path efficiency. This new idea verifies the importance of place cell and synapse in spatial memory and proves that energy coding is effective to study cognitive activities. This may provide the theoretical basis for the neural dynamics mechanism of spatial memory.

  13. Modulation of monocytic leukemia cell function and survival by high gradient magnetic fields and mathematical modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotskii, Vitalii; Syrovets, Tatiana; Schmidt, Zoe W; Dejneka, Alexandr; Simmet, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The influence of spatially modulated high gradient magnetic fields on cellular functions of human THP-1 leukemia cells is studied. We demonstrate that arrays of high-gradient micrometer-sized magnets induce i) cell swelling, ii) prolonged increased ROS production, and iii) inhibit cell proliferation, and iv) elicit apoptosis of THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells in the absence of chemical or biological agents. Mathematical modeling indicates that mechanical stress exerted on the cells by high magnetic gradient forces is responsible for triggering cell swelling and formation of reactive oxygen species followed by apoptosis. We discuss physical aspects of controlling cell functions by focused magnetic gradient forces, i.e. by a noninvasive and nondestructive physical approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination Gradients of the Earth's Magnetic Field from the Measurements of the Satellites and Inversion of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Kis; Taylor, Patrick T.; Geza, Wittmann

    2014-01-01

    We computed magnetic field gradients at satellite altitude, over Europe with emphasis on the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (KMA). They were calculated using the CHAMP satellite total magnetic anomalies. Our computations were done to determine how the magnetic anomaly data from the new ESA/Swarm satellites could be utilized to determine the structure of the magnetization of the Earths crust, especially in the region of the KMA. Since the ten years of 2 CHAMP data could be used to simulate the Swarm data. An initial East magnetic anomaly gradient map of Europe was computed and subsequently the North, East and Vertical magnetic gradients for the KMA region were calculated. The vertical gradient of the KMA was determined using Hilbert transforms. Inversion of the total KMA was derived using Simplex and Simulated Annealing algorithms. Our resulting inversion depth model is a horizontal quadrangle with upper 300-329 km and lower 331-339 km boundaries.

  15. Single attosecond pulse generation in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field combined with a static electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Changlong; Zhang Gangtai; Wu Jie; Liu Xueshen

    2010-01-01

    We investigate theoretic high-order harmonic generation and single attosecond pulse generation in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field, which is synthesized by a mid-infrared (IR) pulse (12.5 fs, 2000 nm) in the y component and a much weaker (12 fs, 800 nm) pulse in the x component. We find that the width of the harmonic plateau can be extended when a static electric field is added in the y component. We also investigate emission time of harmonics in terms of a time-frequency analysis to illustrate the physical mechanism of high-order harmonic generation. We calculate the ionization rate using the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov model and interpret the variation of harmonic intensity for different static electric field strengths. When the ratio of strengths of the static and the y-component laser fields is 0.1, a continuous harmonic spectrum is formed from 220 to 420 eV. By superposing a properly selected range of the harmonic spectrum from 300 to 350 eV, an isolated attosecond pulse with a duration of about 75 as is obtained, which is near linearly polarized.

  16. Relation between 1m depth temperature and average geothermal gradient at 75cm depth in geothermal fields

    OpenAIRE

    江原, 幸雄

    2009-01-01

    Shallow ground temperatures such as 1m depth temperature have been measured to delineate thermal anomalies of geothermal fields and also to estimate heat discharge rates from geothermal fields. As a result, a close linear relation between 1m depth temperature and average geothermal gradient at 75cm depth has been recognized in many geothermal fields and was used to estimate conductive heat discharge rates. However, such a linear relation may show that the shallow thermal regime in geothermal ...

  17. Pulse GaAs field transistor amplifier with subnanosecond time transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidnev, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Pulse amplifier on fast field effect GaAs transistors with Schottky barrier is described. The amplifier contains four cascades, the first three of which are made on combined transistors on the common-drain circuit. The last cascade is made on high-power field effect GaAs transistor for coordination with 50 ohm load. The amplifier operates within the range of input signals from 0.5 up to 100 mV with repetition frequency up to 16 Hz, The gain of the amplifier is ≅ 20 dB. The setting time at output pulses amplitude up to 1 V constitutes ∼ 0.2 ns

  18. Quantum dynamics of an electric charge in an oscillating pulsed magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, I.S.; Guimaraes, A.P.; Silva, X.A. da

    1996-11-01

    The motion of a charged particle under the action of a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field has been investigated. For one and two magnetic pulses were obtained analytical expressions for the free current decay and current echo in agreement with a recently proposed classical description of electrical current in fields E and B. When the resonance condition is achieved, the axis of quantization is turned over by 90 degrees. The results suggest a magnetic pulsed resonant method to separate charged particles in a beam. (author). 12 refs

  19. Phase-field modelling of ductile fracture: a variational gradient-extended plasticity-damage theory and its micromorphic regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miehe, C; Teichtmeister, S; Aldakheel, F

    2016-04-28

    This work outlines a novel variational-based theory for the phase-field modelling of ductile fracture in elastic-plastic solids undergoing large strains. The phase-field approach regularizes sharp crack surfaces within a pure continuum setting by a specific gradient damage modelling. It is linked to a formulation of gradient plasticity at finite strains. The framework includes two independent length scales which regularize both the plastic response as well as the crack discontinuities. This ensures that the damage zones of ductile fracture are inside of plastic zones, and guarantees on the computational side a mesh objectivity in post-critical ranges. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. THz field engineering in two-color femtosecond filaments using chirped and delayed laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A.; González de Alaiza Martínez, P.; Thiele, I.; Skupin, S.; Bergé, L.

    2018-03-01

    We numerically study the influence of chirping and delaying several ionizing two-color light pulses in order to engineer terahertz (THz) wave generation in air. By means of comprehensive 3D simulations, it is shown that two chirped pulses can increase the THz yield when they are separated by a suitable time delay for the same laser energy in focused propagation geometry. To interpret these results, the local current theory is revisited and we propose an easy, accessible all-optical criterion that predicts the laser-to-THz conversion efficiencies given any input laser spectrum. In the filamentation regime, numerical simulations display evidence that a chirped pulse is able to produce more THz radiation due to propagation effects, which maintain the two colors of the laser field more efficiently coupled over long distances. A large delay between two pulses promotes multi-peaked THz spectra as well as conversion efficiencies above 10‑4.

  1. Nine-channel mid-power bipolar pulse generator based on a field programmable gate array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haylock, Ben, E-mail: benjamin.haylock2@griffithuni.edu.au; Lenzini, Francesco; Kasture, Sachin; Fisher, Paul; Lobino, Mirko [Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Brisbane (Australia); Queensland Micro and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Brisbane (Australia); Streed, Erik W. [Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Brisbane (Australia); Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast (Australia)

    2016-05-15

    Many channel arbitrary pulse sequence generation is required for the electro-optic reconfiguration of optical waveguide networks in Lithium Niobate. Here we describe a scalable solution to the requirement for mid-power bipolar parallel outputs, based on pulse patterns generated by an externally clocked field programmable gate array. Positive and negative pulses can be generated at repetition rates up to 80 MHz with pulse width adjustable in increments of 1.6 ns across nine independent outputs. Each channel can provide 1.5 W of RF power and can be synchronised with the operation of other components in an optical network such as light sources and detectors through an external clock with adjustable delay.

  2. The LNCMP: a pulsed-field user-facility in Toulouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Since summer 2002 the 'Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses' is operated as an international user facility providing access to pulsed magnetic fields up to 76 T. The laboratory disposes of 10 magnet stations equipped with long-pulse magnets operating in the 35-60 T range. A short-pulse system reaching 76 T was recently installed in the framework of the European ARMS-project. The experimental infrastructure includes various low-temperature systems ranging from ordinary flow-type cryostats to dilution refrigerators reaching 50 mK. A system permitting transport measurements under hydrostatic pressure and at low temperatures has recently been successfully tested. Experimental techniques include magnetization, transport, luminescence, IR-spectroscopy and the magneto-optical Kerr-effect. The LNCMP pursues an extensive in-house research program focusing on technological (reinforced wire, coil design, coil aging) as well as scientific aspects (magnetism, strongly correlated fermions, disordered systems and others)

  3. Comparison of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and pulsed electromagnetic field treatments on OPG and RANKL expression in human osteoblast-like cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, Manon A.; Ren, Yijin; de Haan-Visser, H. Willy; Kuijer, Roel

    OBJECTIVE: To compare two clinically applied treatments to stimulate bone healing-low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF)-for their effects on RANKL and OPG expression in osteoblast-like cells in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LIPUS or PEMF was applied to

  4. Effect of counter electric field during the irradiation of pulsed x-ray on the after-pulses of GM counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Ryuji; Narita, Yuichi; Ozawa, Yasutomo.

    1979-01-01

    The authors once made it clear by using pulsed radiation that the number of spurious discharge generation in organic gas-quenching type GM counters depends on the intensity of incident radiation. This spurious discharge is peculiar to the organic gas-quenching type GM counters, which the authors named after-pulses. The present study has been carried out to find the experimental conditions to verify the delayed generation mechanism of such after-pulses in bipolar GM tubes and the conditions to give the maximum number of after-pulses generation. For this purpose, a large low electric field region, whose field intensity is variable, should be provided in the tubes. Since it has been generally impossible in the bipolar GM tubes, the provision of that region transiently has been tried. The effect of the intensity of electric field in GM tubes during irradiation on the generation of after-pulses has been investigated by changing radiation intensity, anode voltage, and irradiated position. Consideration of the results has revealed that the number of after-pulse generation can be increased by forming transient low electric field region in the bipolar GM counters of organic gas-quenching type. It was the new knowledge that the transient anode voltage to maximize the after-pulse generating factor was several tens of negative voltage even if the conditions were varied. It seems that this fact depends upon the voltage giving the conditions to maximize the probability of forming after-pulse factors. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. The Study for Shortening the Process Time at Soy Food Production by using the Pulsed Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tsukasa; Jinushi, Makoto; Minamitani, Yasushi

    We investigated method to osmose water and seasoner to dried soybeans fast by pulsed electric field, in order to make soybeans a processed food fast. By applying the pulsed electric field to the dried soybeans in water, osmosis time of water to the soybean became approximately half. Then the emission of the discharge was observed on dried soybean. The color of coffee permeated more into the soybean treated than no-treated by the pulsed electric field.

  6. Field trial of a pulsed limestone diversion well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Denholm, C.; Dunn, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The use of limestone diversion wells to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) is well-known, but in many cases, acid neutralization is not as complete as would be desired. Reasons for this include channeling of the water through the limestone bed, and the slow reaction rate of the limestone gravel. A new approach to improve the performance of the diversion well was tested in the field at the Jennings Environmental Education Center, near Slippery Rock, PA. In this approach, a finer size distribution of limestone was used so as to allow fluidization of the limestone bed, thus eliminating channeling and increasing particle surface area for faster reaction rates. Also, water flow was regulated through the use of a dosing siphon, so that consistent fluidization of the limestone sand could be achieved. Testing began late in the summer of 2010, and continued through November of 2011. Initial system performance during the 2010 field season was good, with the production of net alkaline water, but hydraulic problems involving air release and limestone sand retention were observed. In the summer of 2011, a finer size of limestone sand was procured for use in the system. This material fluidized more readily, but acid neutralization tapered off after several days. Subsequent observations indicated that the hydraulics of the system was compromised by the formation of iron oxides in the pipe leading to the limestone bed, which affected water distribution and flow through the bed. Although results from the field trial were mixed, it is believed that without the formation of iron oxides and plugging of the pipe, better acid neutralization and treatment would have occurred. Further tests are being considered using a different hydraulic configuration for the limestone sand fluidized bed.

  7. Pulsed mixed n, γ radiation fields for electronic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurdin, G.; Becret, C.; Jaureguy, J.C.; Vie, M.; Baboulet, J.P.; Lapeyre, P.; Ramisse, D.

    1994-01-01

    For combined n, γ TREE testing we have modified the CALIBAN Fast Burst Reactor Field with CdO/Epoxy converters to cover the range [10 11 -10 12 ] n.cm -2 (1 MeV Si), [10 7 - 10 8 ] cGy(Si).s -1 . Activation and fission σ φvector, 1 MeV(Si) fluences, neutron spectra, total exposures and dose rates were predicted with good agreement by n, γ photon transport codes. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  8. Use of alternating and pulsed direct current electrified fields for zebra mussel control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Dean, Jan C.; Severson, Todd J.; Wise, Jeremy K.; Barbour, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Alternatives to chemicals for controlling dreissenid mussels are desirable for environmental compatibility, but few alternatives exist. Previous studies have evaluated the use of electrified fields for stunning and/or killing planktonic life stages of dreissenid mussels, however, the available literature on the use of electrified fields to control adult dreissenid mussels is limited. We evaluated the effects of sinusoidal alternating current (AC) and 20% duty cycle square-wave pulsed direct current (PDC) exposure on the survival of adult zebra mussels at water temperatures of 10, 15, and 22 °C. Peak voltage gradients of ~ 17 and 30 Vp/cm in the AC and PDC exposures, respectively, were continuously applied for 24, 48, or 72 h. Peak power densities ranged from 77,999 to 107,199 µW/cm3 in the AC exposures and 245,320 to 313,945 µW/cm3 in the PDC exposures. The peak dose ranged from 6,739 to 27,298 Joules/cm3 and 21,306 to 80,941 Joules/cm3 in the AC and PDC exposures, respectively. The applied power ranged from 16.6 to 68.9 kWh in the AC exposures and from 22.2 to 86.4 kWh in the PDC exposures. Mortality ranged from 2.7 to 92.7% in the AC exposed groups and from 24.0 to 98.7% in PDC exposed groups. Mortality increased with corresponding increases in water temperature and exposure duration, and we observed more zebra mussel mortality in the PDC exposures. Exposures conducted with AC required less of a peak dose (Joules/cm3) but more applied power (kWh) to achieve the same level of adult zebra mussel mortality as corresponding PDC exposures. The results demonstrate that 20% duty cycle square-wave PDC requires less energy than sinusoidal AC to inducing the same level of adult zebra mussel mortality.

  9. Different elution modes and field programming in gravitational field-flow fractionation: Field programming using density and viscosity gradients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plocková, Jana; Chmelík, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 1118, č. 2 (2006), s. 253-260 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MZe QD1005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : gravitational field flow fractionation * focusing elution mode * carrier liquid density Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.554, year: 2006

  10. SU-E-T-262: Planning for Proton Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS): Applications of Gradient Optimization for Field Matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, H; Kirk, M; Zhai, H; Ding, X; Liu, H; Hill-Kayser, C; Lustig, R; Tochner, Z; Deville, C; Vapiwala, N; McDonough, J; Both, S [University Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To propose the gradient optimization(GO) approach in planning for matching proton PBS fields and present two commonly used applications in our institution. Methods: GO is employed for PBS field matching in the scenarios that when the size of the target is beyond the field size limit of the beam delivery system or matching is required for beams from different angles to either improve the sparing of important organs or to pass through a short and simple beam path. Overlap is designed between adjacent fields and in the overlapped junction, the dose was optimized such that it gradually decreases in one field and the decrease is compensated by increase from another field. Clinical applications of this approach on craniospinal irradiation(CSI) and whole pelvis treatment were presented. Mathematical model was developed to study the relationships between dose errors, setup errors and junction lengths. Results: Uniform and conformal dose coverage to the entire target volumes was achieved for both applications using GO approach. For CSI, the gradient matching (6.7cm junction) between fields overcame the complexity of planning associated with feathering match lines. A slow dose gradient in the junction area significantly reduced the sensitivity of the treatment to setup errors. For whole pelvis, gradient matching (4cm junction) between posterior fields for superior target and bilateral fields for inferior target provided dose sparing to organs such as bowel, bladder and rectum. For a setup error of 3 mm in longitudinal direction from one field, mathematical model predicted dose errors of 10%, 6% and 4.3% for junction length of 3, 5 and 7cm. Conclusion: This GO approach improves the quality of the PBS treatment plan with matching fields while maintaining the safety of treatment delivery relative to potential misalignments.

  11. SU-E-T-262: Planning for Proton Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS): Applications of Gradient Optimization for Field Matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H; Kirk, M; Zhai, H; Ding, X; Liu, H; Hill-Kayser, C; Lustig, R; Tochner, Z; Deville, C; Vapiwala, N; McDonough, J; Both, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To propose the gradient optimization(GO) approach in planning for matching proton PBS fields and present two commonly used applications in our institution. Methods: GO is employed for PBS field matching in the scenarios that when the size of the target is beyond the field size limit of the beam delivery system or matching is required for beams from different angles to either improve the sparing of important organs or to pass through a short and simple beam path. Overlap is designed between adjacent fields and in the overlapped junction, the dose was optimized such that it gradually decreases in one field and the decrease is compensated by increase from another field. Clinical applications of this approach on craniospinal irradiation(CSI) and whole pelvis treatment were presented. Mathematical model was developed to study the relationships between dose errors, setup errors and junction lengths. Results: Uniform and conformal dose coverage to the entire target volumes was achieved for both applications using GO approach. For CSI, the gradient matching (6.7cm junction) between fields overcame the complexity of planning associated with feathering match lines. A slow dose gradient in the junction area significantly reduced the sensitivity of the treatment to setup errors. For whole pelvis, gradient matching (4cm junction) between posterior fields for superior target and bilateral fields for inferior target provided dose sparing to organs such as bowel, bladder and rectum. For a setup error of 3 mm in longitudinal direction from one field, mathematical model predicted dose errors of 10%, 6% and 4.3% for junction length of 3, 5 and 7cm. Conclusion: This GO approach improves the quality of the PBS treatment plan with matching fields while maintaining the safety of treatment delivery relative to potential misalignments

  12. Flux motion in Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors during pulse field magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, K; Nariki, S; Sakai, N; Murakami, M; Hirabayasi, I; Takizawa, T

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the relationship between the magnetization and temperature change in Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductor during pulse field magnetization (PFM). The flux motion was monitored using both Hall sensors and pick-up coils that are placed on a surface of a Y-Ba-Cu-O disc having dimensions of 15 mm in diameter and 0.95 mm in thickness. The peak value of the field was varied from 0.2 to 0.8 T. The effect of the static bias field was also studied in the range of 0-3 T. The temperature of the sample surface was measured using a resistance temperature sensor. The temperature increased with the magnitude of the applied pulsed magnetic field, and the amount of temperature rise decreased with increasing static bias field

  13. Fields of an ultrashort tightly focused radially polarized laser pulse in a linear response plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamin, Yousef I.

    2017-10-01

    Analytical expressions for the fields of a radially polarized, ultrashort, and tightly focused laser pulse propagating in a linear-response plasma are derived and discussed. The fields are obtained from solving the inhomogeneous wave equations for the vector and scalar potentials, linked by the Lorenz gauge, in a plasma background. First, the scalar potential is eliminated using the gauge condition, then the vector potential is synthesized from Fourier components of an initial uniform distribution of wavenumbers, and the inverse Fourier transformation is carried out term-by-term in a truncated series (finite sum). The zeroth-order term in, for example, the axial electric field component is shown to model a pulse much better than its widely used paraxial approximation counterpart. Some of the propagation characteristics of the fields are discussed and all fields are shown to have manifested the expected limits for propagation in a vacuum.

  14. High impact ionization rate in silicon by sub-picosecond THz electric field pulses (Conference Presentation)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarekegne, Abebe Tilahun; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Hirori, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Summary form only given. Metallic antenna arrays fabricated on high resistivity silicon are used to localize and enhance the incident THz field resulting in high electric field pulses with peak electric field strength reaching several MV/cm on the silicon surface near the antenna tips. In such high...... electric field strengths high density of carriers are generated in silicon through impact ionization process. The high density of generated carriers induces a change of refractive index in silicon. By measuring the change of reflectivity of tightly focused 800 nm light, the local density of free carriers...... near the antenna tips is measured. Using the NIR probing technique, we observed that the density of carriers increases by over 8 orders of magnitude in a time duration of approximately 500 fs with an incident THz pulse of peak electric field strength 700 kV/cm. This shows that a single impact...

  15. Giant lipid vesicles under electric field pulses assessed by non invasive imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauroy, Chloé; Portet, Thomas; Winterhalder, Martin; Bellard, Elisabeth; Blache, Marie-Claire; Teissié, Justin; Zumbusch, Andreas; Rols, Marie-Pierre

    2012-10-01

    We present experimental results regarding the effects of electric pulses on giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). We have used phase contrast and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy as relevant optical approaches to gain insight into membrane changes under electropermeabilization. No addition of exogenous molecules (lipid analogue, fluorescent dye) was needed. Therefore, experiments were performed on pure lipid systems avoiding possible artefacts linked to their use. Structural membrane changes were assessed by loss of contrast inside the GUVs due to sucrose and glucose mixing. Our observations, performed at the single vesicle level, indicate these changes are under the control of the number of pulses and field intensity. Larger number of pulses enhances membrane alterations. A threshold value of the field intensity must be applied to allow exchange of molecules between GUVs and the external medium. This threshold depends on the size of the vesicles, the larger GUVs being affected at lower electric field strengths than the smaller ones. Our experimental data are well described by a simple model in which molecule entry is driven by direct exchange. The CARS microscopic study of the effect of pulse duration confirms that pulses, in the ms time range, induce loss of lipids and membrane deformations facing the electrodes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inactivation of Listeria innocua in liquid whole egg by pulsed electric fields and nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Miranda, M L; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V; Swanson, B G

    1999-10-01

    Consumer demand for fresh-like products with little or no degradation of nutritional and organoleptic properties has led to the study of new technologies in food preservation. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) is a nonthermal preservation method used to inactivate microorganisms mainly in liquid foods. Microorganisms in the presence of PEF suffer cell membrane damage. Nisin is a natural antimicrobial known to disrupt cell membrane integrity. Thus the combination of PEF and nisin represents a hurdle for the survival of Listeria innocua in liquid whole egg (LWE). L. innocua suspended in LWE was subjected to two different treatments: PEF and PEF followed by exposure to nisin. The selected frequency and pulse duration for PEF was 3.5 Hz and 2 micros, respectively. Electric field intensities of 30, 40 and 50 kV/cm were used. The number of pulses applied to the LWE was 10.6, 21.3 and 32. The highest extent of microbial inactivation with PEF was 3.5 log cycles (U) for an electric field intensity of 50 kV/cm and 32 pulses. Treatment of LWE by PEF was conducted at low temperatures, 36 degrees C being the highest. Exposure of L. innocua to nisin following the PEF treatment exhibited an additive effect on the inactivation of the microorganism. Moreover, a synergistic effect was observed as the electric field intensity, number of pulses and nisin concentration increased. L. innocua exposed to 10 IU nisin/ml after PEF exhibited a decrease in population of 4.1 U for an electric field intensity of 50 kV/cm and 32 pulses. Exposure of L. innocua to 100 IU nisin/ml following PEF resulted in 5.5 U for an electric field intensity of 50 kV/cm and 32 pulses. The model developed for the inactivation of L. innocua by PEF and followed by exposure to nisin proved to be accurate (p = 0.05) when used to model the inactivation of the microorganism by PEF in LWE with 1.2 or 37 IU nisin/ml. The presence of 37 IU nisin/ml in LWE during the PEF treatment for an electric field intensity of 50 kV/cm and

  17. Disaggregation and separation dynamics of magnetic particles in a microfluidic flow under an alternating gradient magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Quanliang; Li, Zhenhao; Wang, Zhen; Qi, Fan; Han, Xiaotao

    2018-05-01

    How to prevent particle aggregation in the magnetic separation process is of great importance for high-purity separation, while it is a challenging issue in practice. In this work, we report a novel method to solve this problem for improving the selectivity of size-based separation by use of a gradient alternating magnetic field. The specially designed magnetic field is capable of dynamically adjusting the magnetic field direction without changing the direction of magnetic gradient force acting on the particles. Using direct numerical simulations, we show that particles within a certain center-to-center distance are inseparable under a gradient static magnetic field since they are easy aggregated and then start moving together. By contrast, it has been demonstrated that alternating repulsive and attractive interaction forces between particles can be generated to avoid the formation of aggregations when the alternating gradient magnetic field with a given alternating frequency is applied, enabling these particles to be continuously separated based on size-dependent properties. The proposed magnetic separation method and simulation results have the significance for fundamental understanding of particle dynamic behavior and improving the separation efficiency.

  18. Temperature field analysis of single layer TiO2 film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Hongchao; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Xi; Ni, Xiaowu; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian

    2011-07-10

    To study the differences between the damaging of thin film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers, a model of single layer TiO(2) film components with platinum high-absorptance inclusions was established. The temperature rises of TiO(2) films with inclusions of different sizes and different depths induced by a 1 ms long-pulse and a 10 ns short-pulse lasers were analyzed based on temperature field theory. The results show that there is a radius range of inclusions that corresponds to high temperature rises. Short-pulse lasers are more sensitive to high-absorptance inclusions and long-pulse lasers are more easily damage the substrate. The first-damage decision method is drawn from calculations. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  19. Temperature field analysis of single layer TiO2 film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bin; Zhang Hongchao; Qin Yuan; Wang Xi; Ni Xiaowu; Shen Zhonghua; Lu Jian

    2011-01-01

    To study the differences between the damaging of thin film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers, a model of single layer TiO 2 film components with platinum high-absorptance inclusions was established. The temperature rises of TiO 2 films with inclusions of different sizes and different depths induced by a 1 ms long-pulse and a 10 ns short-pulse lasers were analyzed based on temperature field theory. The results show that there is a radius range of inclusions that corresponds to high temperature rises. Short-pulse lasers are more sensitive to high-absorptance inclusions and long-pulse lasers are more easily damage the substrate. The first-damage decision method is drawn from calculations.

  20. Red cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella) processed by pulsed electric field - Physical, chemical and microbiological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Kristine A G; Hamid, Nazimah; Oey, Indrawati; Pook, Chris; Gutierrez-Maddox, Noemi; Ma, Qianli; Ying Leong, Sze; Lu, Jun

    2018-02-01

    This study examined, for the first time, the effect of mild or moderate intensity pulsed electric field (PEF) processing on cherries, in particular changes in physicochemical properties, release of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and the potential growth of lactic acid bacteria. Cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100Hz and a constant pulse width of 20μs with different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5kV/cm. Titratable acidity and total soluble solids values of most PEF samples stored for 24h significantly decreased compared to other samples. Stored samples also had increased cyanidin glucoside content. However, concentration of rutin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and isorhamnetin rutinoside significantly decreased in samples stored for 24h. In conclusion, sweet cherries were only influenced by storage after PEF processing. PEF processing did not affect the growth of probiotic bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inactivation of microorganisms within collagen gel biomatrices using pulsed electric field treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Sarah; Maclean, Michelle; Anderson, John G; MacGregor, Scott J; Grant, M Helen

    2012-02-01

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment was examined as a potential decontamination method for tissue engineering biomatrices by determining the susceptibility of a range of microorganisms whilst within a collagen gel. High intensity pulsed electric fields were applied to collagen gel biomatrices containing either Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae or the spores of Aspergillus niger. The results established varying degrees of microbial PEF susceptibility. When high initial cell densities (10(6)-10(7) CFU ml(-1)) were PEF treated with 100 pulses at 45 kV cm(-1), the greatest log reduction was achieved with S. cerevisiae (~6.5 log(10) CFU ml(-1)) and the lowest reduction achieved with S. epidermidis (~0.5 log(10) CFU ml(-1)). The results demonstrate that inactivation is influenced by the intrinsic properties of the microorganism treated. Further investigations are required to optimise the microbial inactivation kinetics associated with PEF treatment of collagen gel biomatrices.

  2. Pulsed high field magnets. An efficient way of shaping laser accelerated proton beams for application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Florian; Schramm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Bagnoud, Vincent; Blazevic, Abel; Busold, Simon [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Jena, 07734 Jena (Germany); Brabetz, Christian; Schumacher, Dennis [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Deppert, Oliver; Jahn, Diana; Roth, Markus [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Karsch, Leonhard; Masood, Umar [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Kraft, Stephan [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Compact laser-driven proton accelerators are a potential alternative to complex, expensive conventional accelerators, enabling unique beam properties, like ultra-high pulse dose. Nevertheless, they still require substantial development in reliable beam generation and transport. We present experimental studies on capture, shape and transport of laser and conventionally accelerated protons via pulsed high-field magnets. These magnets, common research tools in the fields of solid state physics, have been adapted to meet the demands of laser acceleration experiments.Our work distinctively shows that pulsed magnet technology makes laser acceleration more suitable for application and can facilitate compact and efficient accelerators, e.g. for material research as well as medical and biological purposes.

  3. Micromechanical ``Trampoline'' Magnetometers for Use in Pulsed Magnetic Fields Exceeding 60 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakirev, F. F.; Boebinger, G. S.; Aksyuk, V.; Gammel, P. L.; Haddon, R. C.; Bishop, D. J.

    1998-03-01

    We present the design, construction, and operation of a novel magnetometer for use in intense pulsed magnetic fields. The magnetometer consists of a silicon micromachined "trampoline" to which the sample is attached. The small size of the device (typically 400 microns on a side) gives a fast mechanical response (10,000 to 50,000 Hz) and extremely high sensitivity (10-11 Am^2, corresponding to 10-13 Am^2/Hz^(1/2)). The device is robust against electrical and mechanical noise and requires no special vibration isolation from the pulsed magnet. As a demonstration, we present data taken in a 60 tesla pulsed magnetic field which show clear de Haas-van Alphen oscillations in a one microgram sample of the organic superconductor K-(BEDT-TTF)_2Cu(NCS)_2.

  4. Solvent effects in time-dependent self-consistent field methods. II. Variational formulations and analytical gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorgaard, J. A.; Velizhanin, K. A.; Tretiak, S.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes variational energy expressions and analytical excited state energy gradients for time-dependent self-consistent field methods with polarizable solvent effects. Linear response, vertical excitation, and state-specific solventmodels are examined. Enforcing a variational ground stateenergy expression in the state-specific model is found to reduce it to the vertical excitation model. Variational excited state energy expressions are then provided for the linear response and vertical excitation models and analytical gradients are formulated. Using semiempiricalmodel chemistry, the variational expressions are verified by numerical and analytical differentiation with respect to a static external electric field. Lastly, analytical gradients are further tested by performing microcanonical excited state molecular dynamics with p-nitroaniline

  5. The effect of high voltage, high frequency pulsed electric field on slain ovine cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgarifar, Hajarossadat; Oloyede, Adekunle; Zare, Firuz

    2014-04-01

    High power, high frequency pulsed electric fields known as pulsed power (PP) has been applied recently in biology and medicine. However, little attention has been paid to investigate the application of pulse power in musculoskeletal system and its possible effect on functional behavior and biomechanical properties of bone tissue. This paper presents the first research investigating whether or not PP can be applied safely on bone tissue as a stimuli and what will be the possible effect of these signals on the characteristics of cortical bone by comparing the mechanical properties of this type of bone pre and post expose to PP and in comparison with the control samples. A positive buck-boost converter was applied to generate adjustable high voltage, high frequency pulses (up to 500 V and 10 kHz). The functional behavior of bone in response to pulse power excitation was elucidated by applying compressive loading until failure. The stiffness, failure stress (strength) and the total fracture energy (bone toughness) were determined as a measure of the main bone characteristics. Furthermore, an ultrasonic technique was applied to determine and comprise bone elasticity before and after pulse power stimulation. The elastic property of cortical bone samples appeared to remain unchanged following exposure to pulse power excitation for all three orthogonal directions obtained from ultrasonic technique and similarly from the compression test. Nevertheless, the compressive strength and toughness of bone samples were increased when they were exposed to 66 h of high power pulsed electromagnetic field compared to the control samples. As the toughness and the strength of the cortical bone tissue are directly associated with the quality and integrity of the collagen matrix whereas its stiffness is primarily related to bone mineral content these overall results may address that although, the pulse power stimulation can influence the arrangement or the quality of the collagen network

  6. Lithium ion diffusion measurements on a garnet-type solid conductor Li6.6La3Zr1.6Ta0.4O12 by using a pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayamizu, Kikuko; Matsuda, Yasuaki; Matsui, Masaki; Imanishi, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    The garnet-type solid conductor Li7-xLa3Zr2-xTaxO12 is known to have high ionic conductivity. We synthesized a series of compositions of this conductor and found that cubic Li6.6La3Zr1.6Ta0.4O12 (LLZO-Ta) has a high ionic conductivity of 3.7×10(-4)Scm(-1) at room temperature. The (7)Li NMR spectrum of LLZO-Ta was composed of narrow and broad components, and the linewidth of the narrow component varied from 0.69kHz (300K) to 0.32kHz (400K). We carried out lithium ion diffusion measurements using pulsed-field spin-echo (PGSE) NMR spectroscopy and found that echo signals were observed at T≥313K with reasonable sensitivity. The lithium diffusion behavior was measured by varying the observation time and pulsed-field gradient (PFG) strength between 313 and 384K. We found that lithium diffusion depended significantly on the observation time and strength of the PFG, which is quite different from lithium ion diffusion in liquids. It was shown that lithium ion migration in the solid conductor was distributed widely in both time and space. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Field and laboratory simulations of storm water pulses: Behavioural avoidance by marine epifauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, David A.; Johnston, Emma L.; Mueller, Stefanie; Poore, Alistair G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Epifaunal communities associated with macroalgae were exposed to storm water pulses using a custom made irrigation system. Treatments included Millipore freshwater, freshwater spiked with trace metals and seawater controls to allow for the relative importance of freshwater inundation, trace metals and increased flow to be determined. Experimental pulses created conditions similar to those that occur following real storm water events. Brief storm water pulses reduced the abundance of amphipods and gastropods. Freshwater was the causative agent as there were no additional effects of trace metals on the assemblages. Laboratory assays indicated that neither direct nor latent mortality was likely following experimental pulses and that epifauna readily avoid storm water. Indirect effects upon epifauna through salinity-induced changes to algal habitats were not found in field recolonisation experiments. Results demonstrate the importance of examining the effects of pulsed contaminants under realistic exposure conditions and the need to consider ecologically relevant endpoints. - Brief storm water pulses trigger avoidance response in mobile epifauna due to the inundation of freshwater

  8. Some calculated contributions to the electric field gradient in nontransition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodge, K.W.

    1978-01-01

    The electric field gradient (EFG) at a nucleus in the metals Be, Mg, Zn, Cd, In and Ga (both alpha and beta forms) has been calculated. Model potential theory has been used to represent the conduction electron distribution external to the ion core at whose nucleus the EFG is calculated. For the metals Be and Mg the local conduction electron effects have been obtained by orthogonalising the model wavefunctions to the occupied core states. The effect of the nuclear electric quadrupole moment (EQM) perturbing the conduction electrons has also been considered and the effect of self-consistently obtaining conduction electron and distorted core electron states has been discussed. The conduction electrons external to the core are found to produce an EFG which partly screens the ionic contribution. A large contribution is obtained from the orthogonalisation terms, substantially improving the agreement with experiment for Mg. The effect of including the nuclear EQM perturbation of the conduction electrons is found to be of the order of 10% of the calculated total EFG for Be and Mg. (author)

  9. Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG)accelerators and their medical application in proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourrier, J.

    2008-10-01

    Radiotherapy uses particle beams to irradiate and kill cancer tumors while sparing healthy tissues. Bragg peak shape of the proton energy loss in matter allows a ballistic improvement of the dose deposition compared with X rays. Thus, the irradiated volume can be precisely adjusted to the tumour. This thesis, in the frame of the RACCAM project, aims to the study and the design of a proton therapy installation based on a fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator in order to build a spiral sector FFAG magnet for validation. First, we present proton therapy to define medical specifications leading to the technical specifications of a proton therapy installation. Secondly, we introduce FFAG accelerators through their past and on-going projects which are on their way around the world before developing the beam dynamic theories in the case of invariant focusing optics (scaling FFAG). We describe modelling and simulation tools developed to study the dynamics in a spiral scaling FFAG accelerator. Then we explain the spiral optic parameter search which has leaded to the construction of a magnet prototype. Finally, we describe the RACCAM project proton therapy installation starting from the injector cyclotron and ending with the extraction system. (author)

  10. Electric-field gradient characterization at 181Ta impurities in sapphire single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renteria, M.; Darriba, G.N.; Errico, L.A.; Munoz, E.L.; Eversheim, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    We report Perturbed-Angular-Correlation (PAC) experiments on corundum Al 2 O 3 single crystals implanted with 181 Hf/ 181 Ta ions at the ISKP at Bonn and measured at La Plata with high efficiency and time-resolution. The magnitude, asymmetry, and orientation (with respect to the crystalline axes) of the electric-field gradient (EFG) tensor were determined measuring the spin-rotation curves as a function of different orientations of the single crystals relative to the detector system. These results are analyzed in the framework of point-charge model and ab initio Full-Potential Linearized-Augmented Plane Wave calculations, and compared with EFG results coming from PAC experiments with 111 In/ 111 Cd impurities. This combined study enables the determination of lattice relaxations induced by the presence of the impurity and the state of charge of a deep impurity donor level in the band gap of the semiconductor. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Electric-field gradient characterization at {sup 181}Ta impurities in sapphire single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria, M.; Darriba, G.N.; Errico, L.A.; Munoz, E.L. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Eversheim, P.D. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen-und Kernphysik (ISKP), Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    We report Perturbed-Angular-Correlation (PAC) experiments on corundum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals implanted with {sup 181}Hf/{sup 181}Ta ions at the ISKP at Bonn and measured at La Plata with high efficiency and time-resolution. The magnitude, asymmetry, and orientation (with respect to the crystalline axes) of the electric-field gradient (EFG) tensor were determined measuring the spin-rotation curves as a function of different orientations of the single crystals relative to the detector system. These results are analyzed in the framework of point-charge model and ab initio Full-Potential Linearized-Augmented Plane Wave calculations, and compared with EFG results coming from PAC experiments with {sup 111}In/{sup 111}Cd impurities. This combined study enables the determination of lattice relaxations induced by the presence of the impurity and the state of charge of a deep impurity donor level in the band gap of the semiconductor. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Electric field gradients at 181Ta sites in HfOx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darriba, G.N.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Saitovitch, H.; Silva, P.R.J.; Pasquevich, A.F.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work we report preliminary results about the possibility to study properties of the order-disorder transition in HfO x solid solutions via the determination of the electric field gradient (EFG) at 181 Ta radioactive probes. Oxygen solution into the metal was achieved by arc melting stoichiometric amounts of metallic Hf and HfO 2 under argon atmosphere. Samples of HfO x with x=0.1 and 0.2 were prepared. Two types of samples were used for the perturbed angular correlation (PAC) experiments by doping alternatively with 181 Ta, by neutron irradiation, the metallic Hf or the hafnium oxide. The PAC results on both samples were identical, with disappearing hyperfine signals of the metal and the oxide, showing a complete diffusion of the probes independent of the way of doping. The PAC signal of the HfO x solid solution consisted in a wide distribution of EFGs due to the oxygen disorder. This scheme held even after long thermal treatments at high temperature (several days at 1273K). Annealing treatments at moderate temperature (600K) were also made. In these cases the samples were cooling at a very low rate. These results, together with those obtained by measuring samples below and above the order temperature are reported

  13. Sodium current inhibition by nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF)--fact or artifact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Arie O.; van Ginneken, Antoni C. G.; Wilders, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    In two recent publications in Bioelectromagnetics it has been demonstrated that the voltage-gated sodium current (I(Na)) is inhibited in response to a nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF). At the same time, there was an increase in a non-inactivating "leak" current (I(leak)), which was

  14. Electromagnetic Fields, Pulsed Radiofrequency Radiation, and Epigenetics: How Wireless Technologies May Affect Childhood Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Cindy; Burgio, Ernesto

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phones and other wireless devices that produce electromagnetic fields (EMF) and pulsed radiofrequency radiation (RFR) are widely documented to cause potentially harmful health impacts that can be detrimental to young people. New epigenetic studies are profiled in this review to account for some neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral changes…

  15. Trial Application of Pulse-Field Magnetization to Magnetically Levitated Conveyor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihito Miyatake

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetically levitated conveyor system using superconductors is discussed. The system is composed of a levitated conveyor, magnetic rails, a linear induction motor, and some power supplies. In the paper, pulse-field magnetization is applied to the system. Then, the levitation height and the dynamics of the conveyor are controlled. The static and dynamic characteristics of the levitated conveyor are discussed.

  16. Comparison of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from mink by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, Thomas Holmen

    2003-01-01

    Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from clinical infections in mink were subjected to serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SpeI. A total of 212 isolates of P aeruginosa from the year 1998 to 2001 were included in this study: 168 isolates from mink obtained from 74 farm out...

  17. Pulsed Electric Field for protein release of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Neochloris oleoabundans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, 't Gerard; Postma, P.R.; Fernandes, D.A.; Timmermans, R.A.H.; Vermuë, M.H.; Barbosa, M.J.; Eppink, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.; Olivieri, G.

    2017-01-01

    Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) is currently discussed as promising technology for mild and scalable cell disintegration of microalgae. In this study Chlorella vulgaris and Neochloris oleoabundans have been subjected to batch and continuous PEF treatments under a wide range of operating conditions

  18. Interference Processes During Reradiation of Attosecond Pulses of Electromagnetic Field by Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, D. N.; Matveev, V. I.; Makarova, K. A.

    2018-05-01

    Interference spectra during reradiation of attosecond pulses of electromagnetic field by graphene sheets are considered. Analytical expressions for calculations of spectral distributions are derived. As an example, the interference spectra of a graphene sheet and a flat rectangular lattice are compared.

  19. Ultrafast electron field emission from gold resonant antennas studied by two terahertz pulse experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Strikwerda, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary form only given. Ultrafast electron field emission from gold resonant antennas induced by strong terahertz (THz) transient is investigated using two THz pulse experiments. It is shown that UV emission from nitrogen plasma generated by liberated electrons is a good indication of the local...

  20. The separation of heavy ion tracks in nuclear emulsions by means of the pulsed electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopova, A.B.; Magradze, N.V.; Melkumyan, L.V.; Prokhorenko, Y.P.

    1976-01-01

    The pulsed electric field (PEF) technique is developed for the separation of heavy ion tracks from the intense background caused by high energy electrons, protons and γ-radiation. The tracks of Ne, Cr, Ar-ions accelerated at the Dubna Nuclear Reactions Laboratory have been separated from the background, the voltage of the applied PEF being 10 5 V/cm. (orig.) [de

  1. Effect of pulsed electric field treatment on hot-boned muscles of different potential tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwandy, Via; Carne, Alan; van de Ven, Remy; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Hopkins, David L

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment and ageing on the quality of beef M. longissimus lumborum (LL) and M. semimembranosus (SM) muscles was evaluated, including the tenderness, water loss and post-mortem proteolysis. Muscles were obtained from 12 steers (6 steers for each muscle), removed from the carcasses 4 hour postmortem and were treated with pulsed electric field within 2h. Six different pulsed electric field intensities (voltages of 5 and 10 kV × frequencies of 20, 50 and 90 Hz) plus a control were applied to each muscle to determine the optimum treatment conditions. Beef LL was found to get tougher with increasing treatment frequency whereas beef SM muscle was found to have up to 21.6% reduction in the shear force with pulsed electric field treatment. Post-mortem proteolysis showed an increase in both troponin and desmin degradation in beef LL treated with low intensity PEF treatment (20 Hz) compared to non-treated control samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects on DPPH inhibition of egg-white protein polypeptides treated by pulsed electric field technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Jia; Liu, Bolong; Lin, Songyi; Zhao, Ping; Liu, Jingbo; Jones, Gregory; Huang, Hsiang-Chi

    2013-05-01

    Egg-white protein polypeptides are potentially used as a functional ingredient in food products. In this study, the effects on DPPH inhibition of egg-white protein polypeptides ranging from 10 to 30 kDa treated by pulsed electric field (PEF) technology were investigated. 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition (%) was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of polypeptides. In order to develop and optimize a pulsed electric field (PEF) mathematical model for improving the antioxidant activity, we have investigated three variables, including concentration (6, 8 and 10 mg mL(-1)), electric field intensity (10, 20 and 30 kV cm(-1)) and pulse frequency (2000, 2350 and 2700 Hz) and subsequently optimized them by response surface methodology (RSM). The concentration (8 mg mL(-1)), electric field intensity (10 kV cm(-1)) and pulse frequency (2000 Hz) were found to be the optimal conditions under which the DPPH inhibition increased 28.44%, compared to the sample without PEF treatment. Both near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) were used to analyze the change of functional groups. The results showed that PEF technology could improve the antioxidant activity of antioxidant polypeptides from egg-white protein under the optimized conditions. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Conductive plastic film electrodes for Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treatment : A proof of principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, B.; Haan, S.W.H. de; Boxtel, L.B.J. van; Hatt, V.; Wouters, P.C.; Coronel, P.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treatment of food needs to be performed prior to packaging, either hygienic or aseptic packaging is necessary. New techniques for PEF treatment after packaging can be considered when plastic conductive (film) electrodes can be integrated within the package, so

  4. Effect of pulsed electric field on the germination of barley seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dymek, Katarzyna; Dejmek, Petr; Panarese, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    This study explores metabolic responses of germinating barley seeds upon the application of pulsed electric fields (PEF). Malting barley seeds were steeped in aerated water for 24 h and PEF-treated at varying voltages (0 (control), 110, 160, 240, 320, 400 and 480 V). The seeds were then allowed...

  5. Overcoming Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria Using Bioactive Magnetic Nanoparticles and Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalij Novickij

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nisin is a known bacteriocin, which exhibits a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity, while commonly being inefficient against Gram-negative bacteria. In this work, we present a proof of concept of novel antimicrobial methodology using targeted magnetic nisin-loaded nano-carriers [iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs (11–13 nm capped with citric, ascorbic, and gallic acids], which are activated by high pulsed electric and electromagnetic fields allowing to overcome the nisin-resistance of bacteria. As a cell model the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli were used. We have applied 10 and 30 kV cm-1 electric field pulses (100 μs × 8 separately and in combination with two pulsed magnetic field protocols: (1 high dB/dt 3.3 T × 50 and (2 10 mT, 100 kHz, 2 min protocol to induce additional permeabilization and local magnetic hyperthermia. We have shown that the high dB/dt pulsed magnetic fields increase the antimicrobial efficiency of nisin NPs similar to electroporation or magnetic hyperthermia methods and a synergistic treatment is also possible. The results of our work are promising for the development of new methods for treatment of the drug-resistant foodborne pathogens to minimize the risks of invasive infections.

  6. Cost analysis of commercial pasteurization of orange juice by pulsed electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cost of pulsed electric field (PEF) pasteurization of orange juice was estimated. The cost analysis was based on processing conditions that met the US FDA (5 log reduction) requirement for fruit juice pasteurization and that achieved a 2 month microbial shelf-life. PEF-treated samples processed ...

  7. Quantum ring states in magnetic field and delayed half-cycle pulses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-07-19

    Jul 19, 2016 ... A very important aspect of the present work is the persistent current generation in a quantum ring in the presence ... quantum effects and their energy spectra are discrete. They are in many .... small with respect to its rotational time period, hence .... of delayed half-cycle pulse pair of the electric field. E0 = 1.0 ...

  8. Fully relativistic coupled cluster and DFT study of electric field gradients at Hg in 199Hg compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcisauskaité, Vaida; Knecht, Stefan; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the magnitude and interplay of relativistic and electron correlation effects on the electric field gradient (EFG) at the position of Hg in linear and bent HgL2 (L=CH3, Cl, Br, I) and trigonal planar [HgCl3]- complexes using four-component relativistic Dirac-Coulomb (DC) and non...

  9. Charge and spin current oscillations in a tunnel junction induced by magnetic field pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dartora, C.A., E-mail: cadartora@eletrica.ufpr.br [Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana (UFPR), C.P. 19011 Curitiba, 81.531-970 PR (Brazil); Nobrega, K.Z., E-mail: bzuza1@yahoo.com.br [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technolgy of Maranhão (IFMA), Av. Marechal Castelo Branco, 789, São Luís, 65.076-091 MA (Brazil); Cabrera, G.G., E-mail: cabrera@ifi.unicamp.br [Instituto de Física ‘Gleb Wataghin’, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), C.P. 6165, Campinas 13.083-970 SP (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    Usually, charge and spin transport properties in tunnel junctions are studied in the DC bias regime and/or in the adiabatic regime of time-varying magnetic fields. In this letter, the temporal dynamics of charge and spin currents in a tunnel junction induced by pulsed magnetic fields is considered. At low bias voltages, energy and momentum of the conduction electrons are nearly conserved in the tunneling process, leading to the description of the junction as a spin-1/2 fermionic system coupled to time-varying magnetic fields. Under the influence of pulsed magnetic fields, charge and spin current can flow across the tunnel junction, displaying oscillatory behavior, even in the absence of DC bias voltage. A type of spin capacitance function, in close analogy to electric capacitance, is predicted.

  10. Generation of a strong attosecond pulse train with an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chul Min; Kim, I Jong; Nam, Chang Hee

    2005-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the high-order harmonic generation from a neon atom irradiated by an intense two-color femtosecond laser pulse, in which the fundamental field and its second harmonic are linearly polarized and orthogonal to each other. In contrast to usual high-harmonic generation with linearly polarized fundamental field alone, a very strong and clean high-harmonic spectrum, consisting of both odd and even orders of harmonics, can be generated in the orthogonally polarized two-color laser field with proper selection of the relative phase between the fundamental and second-harmonic fields. In time domain, this results in a strong and regular attosecond pulse train. The origin of these behaviors is elucidated by analyzing semiclassical electron paths and by simulating high-harmonic generation quantum mechanically

  11. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Wang, Jin-Liang; Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn), 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates), T. asperellum (425), T. hamatum (397), T. virens (340), T. koningiopsis (248), T. brevicompactum (73), T. atroviride (73), T. fertile (26), T. longibrachiatum (22), T. pleuroticola (16), T. erinaceum (16), T. oblongisporum (2), T. polysporum (2), T. spirale (2), T. capillare (2), T. velutinum (2), and T. saturnisporum (1). T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y) values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14) and the highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46). We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area) had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province), not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  12. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn), 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates), T. asperellum (425), T. hamatum (397), T. virens (340), T. koningiopsis (248), T. brevicompactum (73), T. atroviride (73), T. fertile (26), T. longibrachiatum (22), T. pleuroticola (16), T. erinaceum (16), T. oblongisporum (2), T. polysporum (2), T. spirale (2), T. capillare (2), T. velutinum (2), and T. saturnisporum (1). T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y) values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14) and the highest Shannon–Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46). We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area) had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province), not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  13. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    Full Text Available We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn, 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates, T. asperellum (425, T. hamatum (397, T. virens (340, T. koningiopsis (248, T. brevicompactum (73, T. atroviride (73, T. fertile (26, T. longibrachiatum (22, T. pleuroticola (16, T. erinaceum (16, T. oblongisporum (2, T. polysporum (2, T. spirale (2, T. capillare (2, T. velutinum (2, and T. saturnisporum (1. T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14 and the highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46. We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province, not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  14. Nonperturbative measurement of the local magnetic field using pulsed polarimetry for fusion reactor conditions (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Roger J.

    2008-01-01

    A novel diagnostic technique for the remote and nonperturbative sensing of the local magnetic field in reactor relevant plasmas is presented. Pulsed polarimetry [Patent No. 12/150,169 (pending)] combines optical scattering with the Faraday effect. The polarimetric light detection and ranging (LIDAR)-like diagnostic has the potential to be a local B pol diagnostic on ITER and can achieve spatial resolutions of millimeters on high energy density (HED) plasmas using existing lasers. The pulsed polarimetry method is based on nonlocal measurements and subtle effects are introduced that are not present in either cw polarimetry or Thomson scattering LIDAR. Important features include the capability of simultaneously measuring local T e , n e , and B || along the line of sight, a resiliency to refractive effects, a short measurement duration providing near instantaneous data in time, and location for real-time feedback and control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities and the realization of a widely applicable internal magnetic field diagnostic for the magnetic fusion energy program. The technique improves for higher n e B || product and higher n e and is well suited for diagnosing the transient plasmas in the HED program. Larger devices such as ITER and DEMO are also better suited to the technique, allowing longer pulse lengths and thereby relaxing key technology constraints making pulsed polarimetry a valuable asset for next step devices. The pulsed polarimetry technique is clarified by way of illustration on the ITER tokamak and plasmas within the magnetized target fusion program within present technological means.

  15. Exploring the Effects of Pulsed Electric Field Processing Parameters on Polyacetylene Extraction from Carrot Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Aguiló-Aguayo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various pulsed electric field (PEF parameters on the extraction of polyacetylenes from carrot slices were investigated. Optimised conditions with regard to electric field strength (1–4 kV/cm, number of pulses (100–1500, pulse frequency (10–200 Hz and pulse width (10–30 μs were identified using response surface methodology (RSM to maximise the extraction of falcarinol (FaOH, falcarindiol (FaDOH and falcarindiol-3-acetate (FaDOAc from carrot slices. Data obtained from RSM and experiments fitted significantly (p < 0.0001 the proposed second-order response functions with high regression coefficients (R2 ranging from 0.82 to 0.75. Maximal FaOH (188%, FaDOH (164.9% and FaDOAc (166.8% levels relative to untreated samples were obtained from carrot slices after applying PEF treatments at 4 kV/cm with 100 number of pulses of 10 μs at 10 Hz. The predicted values from the developed quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the actual experimental values with low average mean deviations (E% ranging from 0.68% to 3.58%.

  16. Inactivation of Pseudomonas fluorescens in skim milk by combinations of pulsed electric fields and organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Molina, Juan J; Altunakar, Bilge; Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Swanson, Barry G; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V

    2005-06-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens suspended in skim milk was inactivated by application of pulsed electric fields (PEF) either alone or in combination with acetic or propionic acid. The initial concentration of microorganisms ranged from 10(5) to 10(6) CFU/ml. Addition of acetic acid and propionic acid to skim milk inactivated 0.24 and 0.48 log CFU/ml P. fluorescens, respectively. Sets of 10, 20, and 30 pulses were applied to the skim milk using exponentially decaying pulses with pulse lengths of 2 micros and pulse frequencies of 3 Hz. Treatment temperature was maintained between 16 and 20 degrees C. In the absence of organic acids, PEF treatment of skim milk at field intensities of 31 and 38 kV/cm reduced P. fluorescens populations by 1.0 to 1.8 and by 1.2 to 1.9 log CFU/ml, respectively. Additions of acetic and propionic acid to the skim milk in a pH range of 5.0 to 5.3 and PEF treatment at 31, 33, and 34 kV/cm, and 36, 37, and 38 kV/cm reduced the population of P. fluorescens by 1.4 and 1.8 log CFU/ml, respectively. No synergistic effect resulted from the combination of PEF with acetic or propionic acid.

  17. A high-resolution EPR-CT microscope using cavity-resonators equipped with small field gradient coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, T.; Murata, T.; Kumai, H.; Yamashiro, A.

    1996-01-01

    Cylindrical cavity resonators equipped with field gradient coils were developed for two-dimensional EPR-CT microscope systems. The field gradient coils lie in four (or six) thin metal tubes placed along the direction of the microwave magnetic field in the cavity to minimize impact on the resonator's quality factor. Two pairs of the tubes carry a 100 kHz current for magnetic field modulation. This cavity has high spin-detection sensitivity and can provide EPR images with submillimeter resolution. In order to reconstruct better images from fewer projections, we used an algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) for the two-dimensional image reconstruction. The ART method may be suitable for not only spectral-spatial two-dimensional EPR imaging, but also spatio-temporal EPR imaging in dynamic spin systems. (author)

  18. The separated electric and magnetic field responses of luminescent bacteria exposed to pulsed microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Catrin F., E-mail: williamscf@cardiff.ac.uk [School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, Newport Road, Cardiff, CF24 3AA Wales (United Kingdom); School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Main Building, Cathays Park, Cardiff, CF10 3AT Wales (United Kingdom); Geroni, Gilles M.; Pirog, Antoine; Lees, Jonathan; Porch, Adrian [School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, Newport Road, Cardiff, CF24 3AA Wales (United Kingdom); Lloyd, David [School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Main Building, Cathays Park, Cardiff, CF10 3AT Wales (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-29

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are ubiquitous in the digital world we inhabit, with microwave and millimetre wave sources of non-ionizing radiation employed extensively in electronics and communications, e.g., in mobile phones and Wi-Fi. Indeed, the advent of 5G systems and the “internet of things” is likely to lead to massive densification of wireless networks. Whilst the thermal effects of EMFs on biological systems are well characterised, their putative non-thermal effects remain a controversial subject. Here, we use the bioluminescent marine bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, to monitor the effects of pulsed microwave electromagnetic fields, of nominal frequency 2.5 GHz, on light emission. Separated electric and magnetic field effects were investigated using a resonant microwave cavity, within which the maxima of each field are separated. For pulsed electric field exposure, the bacteria gave reproducible responses and recovery in light emission. At the lowest pulsed duty cycle (1.25%) and after short durations (100 ms) of exposure to the electric field at power levels of 4.5 W rms, we observed an initial stimulation of bioluminescence, whereas successive microwave pulses became inhibitory. Much of this behaviour is due to thermal effects, as the bacterial light output is very sensitive to the local temperature. Conversely, magnetic field exposure gave no measurable short-term responses even at the highest power levels of 32 W rms. Thus, we were able to detect, de-convolute, and evaluate independently the effects of separated electric and magnetic fields on exposure of a luminescent biological system to microwave irradiation.

  19. The separated electric and magnetic field responses of luminescent bacteria exposed to pulsed microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Catrin F.; Geroni, Gilles M.; Pirog, Antoine; Lloyd, David; Lees, Jonathan; Porch, Adrian

    2016-08-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are ubiquitous in the digital world we inhabit, with microwave and millimetre wave sources of non-ionizing radiation employed extensively in electronics and communications, e.g., in mobile phones and Wi-Fi. Indeed, the advent of 5G systems and the "internet of things" is likely to lead to massive densification of wireless networks. Whilst the thermal effects of EMFs on biological systems are well characterised, their putative non-thermal effects remain a controversial subject. Here, we use the bioluminescent marine bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, to monitor the effects of pulsed microwave electromagnetic fields, of nominal frequency 2.5 GHz, on light emission. Separated electric and magnetic field effects were investigated using a resonant microwave cavity, within which the maxima of each field are separated. For pulsed electric field exposure, the bacteria gave reproducible responses and recovery in light emission. At the lowest pulsed duty cycle (1.25%) and after short durations (100 ms) of exposure to the electric field at power levels of 4.5 W rms, we observed an initial stimulation of bioluminescence, whereas successive microwave pulses became inhibitory. Much of this behaviour is due to thermal effects, as the bacterial light output is very sensitive to the local temperature. Conversely, magnetic field exposure gave no measurable short-term responses even at the highest power levels of 32 W rms. Thus, we were able to detect, de-convolute, and evaluate independently the effects of separated electric and magnetic fields on exposure of a luminescent biological system to microwave irradiation.

  20. The separated electric and magnetic field responses of luminescent bacteria exposed to pulsed microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Catrin F.; Geroni, Gilles M.; Pirog, Antoine; Lees, Jonathan; Porch, Adrian; Lloyd, David

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are ubiquitous in the digital world we inhabit, with microwave and millimetre wave sources of non-ionizing radiation employed extensively in electronics and communications, e.g., in mobile phones and Wi-Fi. Indeed, the advent of 5G systems and the “internet of things” is likely to lead to massive densification of wireless networks. Whilst the thermal effects of EMFs on biological systems are well characterised, their putative non-thermal effects remain a controversial subject. Here, we use the bioluminescent marine bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, to monitor the effects of pulsed microwave electromagnetic fields, of nominal frequency 2.5 GHz, on light emission. Separated electric and magnetic field effects were investigated using a resonant microwave cavity, within which the maxima of each field are separated. For pulsed electric field exposure, the bacteria gave reproducible responses and recovery in light emission. At the lowest pulsed duty cycle (1.25%) and after short durations (100 ms) of exposure to the electric field at power levels of 4.5 W rms, we observed an initial stimulation of bioluminescence, whereas successive microwave pulses became inhibitory. Much of this behaviour is due to thermal effects, as the bacterial light output is very sensitive to the local temperature. Conversely, magnetic field exposure gave no measurable short-term responses even at the highest power levels of 32 W rms. Thus, we were able to detect, de-convolute, and evaluate independently the effects of separated electric and magnetic fields on exposure of a luminescent biological system to microwave irradiation.

  1. Electrical control of calcium oscillations in mesenchymal stem cells using microsecond pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Hanna; Andre, Franck M; Mir, Lluis M

    2017-04-20

    Human mesenchymal stem cells are promising tools for regenerative medicine due to their ability to differentiate into many cellular types such as osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes amongst many other cell types. These cells present spontaneous calcium oscillations implicating calcium channels and pumps of the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum. These oscillations regulate many basic functions in the cell such as proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, the possibility to mimic or regulate these oscillations might be useful to regulate mesenchymal stem cells biological functions. One or several electric pulses of 100 μs were used to induce Ca 2+ spikes caused by the penetration of Ca 2+ from the extracellular medium, through the transiently electropermeabilized plasma membrane, in human adipose mesenchymal stem cells from several donors. Attached cells were preloaded with Fluo-4 AM and exposed to the electric pulse(s) under the fluorescence microscope. Viability was also checked. According to the pulse(s) electric field amplitude, it is possible to generate a supplementary calcium spike with properties close to those of calcium spontaneous oscillations, or, on the contrary, to inhibit the spontaneous calcium oscillations for a very long time compared to the pulse duration. Through that inhibition of the oscillations, Ca 2+ oscillations of desired amplitude and frequency could then be imposed on the cells using subsequent electric pulses. None of the pulses used here, even those with the highest amplitude, caused a loss of cell viability. An easy way to control Ca 2+ oscillations in mesenchymal stem cells, through their cancellation or the addition of supplementary Ca 2+ spikes, is reported here. Indeed, the direct link between the microsecond electric pulse(s) delivery and the occurrence/cancellation of cytosolic Ca 2+ spikes allowed us to mimic and regulate the Ca 2+ oscillations in these cells. Since microsecond electric pulse delivery

  2. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on Differentiation of HUES-17 Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Lin Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic fields are considered to potentially affect embryonic development, but the mechanism is still unknown. In this study, human embryonic stem cell (hESC line HUES-17 was applied to explore the mechanism of exposure on embryonic development to pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF for 400 pulses at different electric field intensities and the differentiation of HUES-17 cells was observed after PEMF exposure. The expression of alkaline phosphatase (AP, stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 (SSEA-3, SSEA-4 and the mRNA level and protein level of Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog in HUES-17 cells remained unchanged after PEMF exposure at the electric field intensities of 50, 100, 200 or 400 kV/m. Four hundred pulses PEMF exposure at the electric field intensities of 50, 100, 200 or 400 kV/m did not affect the differentiation of HUES-17 cells. The reason why electromagnetic fields affect embryonic development may be due to other mechanisms rather than affecting the differentiation of embryonic stem cells.

  3. Pulsed currents carried by whistlers. IV. Electric fields and radiation excited by an electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, R.L.; Urrutia, J.M.; Rousculp, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Electromagnetic properties of current pulses carried by whistler wave packets are obtained from a basic laboratory experiment. While the magnetic field and current density are described in the preceding companion paper (Part III), the present analysis starts with the electric field. The inductive and space charge electric field contributions are separately calculated in Fourier space from the measured magnetic field and Ohm's law along B 0 . Inverse Fourier transformation yields the total electric field in space and time, separated into rotational and divergent contributions. The space-charge density in whistler wave packets is obtained. The cross-field tensor conductivity is determined. The frozen-in condition is nearly satisfied, E+v e xB congruent 0. The dissipation is obtained from Poynting's theorem. The waves are collisionally damped; Landau damping is negligible. A radiation resistance for the electrode is determined. Analogous to Poynting's theorem, the transport of helicity is analyzed. Current helicity is generated by a flow of helicity between pulses traveling in opposite directions which carry opposite signs of helicity. Helicity is dissipated by collisions. These observations complete a detailed description of whistler/current pulses which can occur in various laboratory and space plasmas. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  4. Determining the field emitter temperature during laser irradiation in the pulsed laser atom probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Three methods are discussed for determining the field emitter temperature during laser irradiation in the recently developed Pulsed Laser Atom Probe. A procedure based on the reduction of the lattice evaporation field with increasing emitter temperature is found to be the most convenient and reliable method between 60 and 500 K. Calibration curves (plots of the evaporation field versus temperature) are presented for dc and pulsed field evaporation of W, Mo, and Rh. These results show directly the important influence of the evaporation rate on the temperature dependence of the evaporation field. The possibility of a temperature calibration based on the ionic charge state distribution of field evaporated lattice atoms is also discussed. The shift in the charge state distributions which occurs when the emitter temperature is increased and the applied field strength is decreased at a constant rate of evaporation is shown to be due to the changing field and not the changing temperature. Nevertheless, the emitter temperature can be deduced from the charge state distribution for a specified evaporation rate. Charge state distributions as a function of field strength and temperature are presented for the same three materials. Finally, a preliminary experiment is reported which shows that the emitter temperature can be determined from field ion microscope observations of single atom surface diffusion over low index crystal planes. This last calibration procedure is shown to be very useful at higher temperatures (>600 K) where the other two methods become unreliable

  5. Measurements of the ripple effect and geometric distribution of switched gradient fields inside a magnetic resonance scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Henrik; Mild, Kjell Hansson; Wilén, Jonna

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of patient exposure during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures is limited, and the need for such knowledge has been demonstrated in recent in vitro and in vivo studies of the genotoxic effects of MRI. This study focuses on the dB/dt of the switched gradient field (SGF) and its geometric distribution. These values were characterized by measuring the peak dB/dt generated by a programmed gradient current of alternating triangles inside a 1.5T MR scanner. The maximum dB/dt exposure to the gradient field was 6-14 T/s, and this occurred at the edges of the field of view (FOV) 20-25 cm from the isocenter in the longitudinal direction. The dB/dt exposure dropped off to roughly half the maximum (3-7 T/s) at the edge of the bore. It was found that the dB/dt of the SGF was distorted by a 200 kHz ripple arising from the amplifier. The ripple is small in terms of B-field, but the high frequency content contributes to a peak dB/dt up to 18 times larger than that predicted by the slew rate (4 T/s m) and the distance from the isocenter. Measurements on a 3 T MRI scanner, however, revealed a much smaller filtered ripple of 100 kHz in dB/dt. These findings suggest that the gradient current to each coil together with information on the geometrical distribution of the gradient field and ripple effects could be used to assess the SGF exposure within an MRI bore. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Design of shared instruments to utilize simulated gravities generated by a large-gradient, high-field superconducting magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Yin, D C; Liu, Y M; Shi, J Z; Lu, H M; Shi, Z H; Qian, A R; Shang, P

    2011-03-01

    A high-field superconducting magnet can provide both high-magnetic fields and large-field gradients, which can be used as a special environment for research or practical applications in materials processing, life science studies, physical and chemical reactions, etc. To make full use of a superconducting magnet, shared instruments (the operating platform, sample holders, temperature controller, and observation system) must be prepared as prerequisites. This paper introduces the design of a set of sample holders and a temperature controller in detail with an emphasis on validating the performance of the force and temperature sensors in the high-magnetic field.

  7. Modal description of longitudinal space-charge fields in pulse-driven free-electron devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Lurie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In pulsed-beam free-electron devices, longitudinal space-charge fields result in collective effects leading to an expansion of short electron bunches along their trajectory. This effect restricts an application of intense ultrashort electron pulses in free-electron radiation sources. A careful theoretical treatment is required in order to achieve an accurate description of the self-fields and the resulted electron beam dynamics. In this paper, longitudinal space-charge fields are considered in the framework of a three-dimensional, space-frequency approach. The model is based on the expansion of the total electromagnetic field (including self-fields in terms of transverse eigenmodes of the (cold cavity, in which the field is excited and propagates. The electromagnetic field, originally obtained in the model as a solution of the wave equation, is shown to satisfy also Gauss’s law. We applied the theory to derive an analytical expression for the longitudinal electric field of a pointlike charge, moving along a waveguide at a constant velocity. This enables consideration and study of the role played by different terms of the resulted expressions, such as components arising from forward and backward waves, propagating waves, and under cutoff frequencies, and so on. Possible simplifications in evaluation of longitudinal space-charge fields are discussed.

  8. Histopathology of normal skin and melanomas after nanosecond pulsed electric field treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinhua; Swanson, R. James; Kolb, Juergen F.; Nuccitelli, Richard; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2011-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) can affect the intracellular structures of cells in vitro. This study shows the direct effects of nsPEFs on tumor growth, tumor volume, and histological characteristics of normal skin and B16-F10 melanoma in SKH-1 mice. A melanoma model was set up by injecting B16-F10 into female SKH-1 mice. After a 100-pulse treatment with an nsPEF (40-kV/cm field strength; 300-ns duration; 30-ns rise time; 2-Hz repetition rate), tumor growth and histology were studied using transillumination, light microscopy with hematoxylin and eosin stain and transmission electron microscopy. Melanin and iron within the melanoma tumor were also detected with specific stains. After nsPEF treatment, tumor development was inhibited with decreased volumes post-nsPEF treatment compared with control tumors (Pelectric fields surrounding the needle electrodes. PMID:19730404

  9. Effects of spin-polarized current on pulse field-induced precessional magnetization reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-fu Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate effects of a small DC spin-polarized current on the pulse field-induced precessional magnetization reversal in a thin elliptic magnetic element by micromagnetic simulations. We find that the spin-polarized current not only broadens the time window of the pulse duration, in which a successful precessional reversal is achievable, but also significantly suppresses the magnetization ringing after the reversal. The pulse time window as well as the decay rate of the ringing increase with increasing the current density. When a spin-polarized current with 5 MA/cm2 is applied, the time window increases from 80 ps to 112 ps, and the relaxation time of the ringing decreases from 1.1 ns to 0.32 ns. Our results provide useful information to achieve magnetic nanodevices based on precessional switching.

  10. Atlas Pulsed Power System: a Driver for Multi-Megagauss Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochrane, J.C.; Bartsch, R.R.; Bennett, G.A.; Bowman, D.W.; Davis, H.A.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Gribble, R.F.; Kimerly, H.J.; Nielsen, K.E.; Parsons, W.M.; Paul, J.D.; Scudder, D.W.; Trainor, R.J.; Thompson, M.C.; Watt, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    Atlas is a pulsed power machine designed for hydrodynamic experiments for the Los Alamos High Energy Density Physics Experimental program. It is presently under construction and should be operational in late 2000. Atlas will store 23 MJ at an erected voltage of 240 kV. This will produce a current of 30 MA into a static load and as much as 32 MA into a dynamic load. The current pulse will have a rise time of approximately5micros and will produce a magnetic field driving the impactor liner of several hundred Tesla at the target radius of one to two centimeters. The collision can produce shock pressures of approximately15 megabars. Design of the pulsed power system will be presented along with data obtained from the Atlas prototype Marx module

  11. Effect of electric field and temperature gradient on orientational dynamics of nematics encapsulated in a hallow cylindrical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, A. V.; Maslennikov, P. V.

    2018-05-01

    We have considered a homogeneously oriented liquid crystal (HOLC) microvolume, confined between two infinitely long horizontal coaxial cylinders subjected to both a temperature gradient ∇T and a radially applied electric field E . We have investigated dynamic field pumping, i.e. studied the interactions between director, velocity, electric fields, as well as a radially applied temperature gradient, where the inner cylinder is kept at a lower temperature than the outer one. In order to elucidate the role of ∇T and E in producing hydrodynamic flow, we have carried out a numerical study of a system of hydrodynamic equations including director reorientation, fluid flow, and temperature redistribution across the HOLC cavity. Calculations show that, under the effect of the named perturbations and at high curvature of the inner cylinder, the HOLC microvolume settles down to a nonstandard pumping regime with maximum flow in the vicinity of the cooler inner cylinder.

  12. Absolute Quantification of Human Liver Phosphorus-Containing Metabolites In Vivo Using an Inhomogeneous Spoiling Magnetic Field Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Adil; Gropler, Robert; Ackerman, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Absolute concentrations of high-energy phosphorus (31P) metabolites in liver provide more important insight into physiologic status of liver disease compared to resonance integral ratios. A simple method for measuring absolute concentrations of 31P metabolites in human liver is described. The approach uses surface spoiling inhomogeneous magnetic field gradient to select signal from liver tissue. The technique avoids issues caused by respiratory motion, chemical shift dispersion associated with linear magnetic field gradients, and increased tissue heat deposition due to radiofrequency absorption, especially at high field strength. Methods A method to localize signal from liver was demonstrated using superficial and highly non-uniform magnetic field gradients, which eliminate signal(s) from surface tissue(s) located between the liver and RF coil. A double standard method was implemented to determine absolute 31P metabolite concentrations in vivo. 8 healthy individuals were examined in a 3 T MR scanner. Results Concentrations of metabolites measured in eight healthy individuals are: γ-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) = 2.44 ± 0.21 (mean ± sd) mmol/l of wet tissue volume, α-ATP = 3.2 ± 0.63 mmol/l, β-ATP = 2.98 ± 0.45 mmol/l, inorganic phosphates (Pi) = 1.87 ± 0.25 mmol/l, phosphodiesters (PDE) = 10.62 ± 2.20 mmol/l and phosphomonoesters (PME) = 2.12 ± 0.51 mmol/l. All are in good agreement with literature values. Conclusions The technique offers robust and fast means to localize signal from liver tissue, allows absolute metabolite concentration determination, and avoids problems associated with constant field gradient (linear field variation) localization methods. PMID:26633549

  13. Measurement and analysis of the electric field radiation in pulsed power system of linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Qifeng; Ni Jianping; Meng Cui; Cheng Cheng; Liu Yinong; Li Jin

    2009-01-01

    The close of high voltage switch in pulsed power system of linear induction accelerator often radiates strong transient electric field, which may influence ambient sensitive electric equipment, signals and performance of other instruments, etc. By performing gridded measurement around the Marx generator, the general distribution law and basic characters of electric field radiation are summarized. The current signal of the discharge circuit is also measured, which demonstrates that the current and the radiated electric field both have a resonance frequency about 150 kHz, and contain much higher frequency components. (authors)

  14. Wiebel instability of microwave gas discharge in strong linear and circular pulsed fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokri, B.; Ghorbanalilu, M.

    2004-01-01

    Being much weaker than the atomic fields, the gas breakdown produced by high-power pulsed microwave fields is investigated in the nonrelativistic case. The distribution function of the electrons produced by the interaction with intense linearly and circularly polarized microwave fields is obtained and it is shown that it is in a nonequilibrium state and anisotropic. The discharge mechanism for the gas atoms is governed by electron-impact avalanche ionization. By analyzing the instability of the system and by finding its growth rate, it is shown that the instability which is governed by the anisotropic property of the distribution function is Wiebel instability

  15. Nonlinear propagation of strong-field THz pulses in doped semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2012-01-01

    We report on nonlinear propagation of single-cycle THz pulses with peak electric fields reaching 300 kV/cm in n-type semiconductors at room temperature. Dramatic THz saturable absorption effects are observed in GaAs, GaP, and Ge, which are caused by the nonlinear electron transport in THz fields....... The semiconductor conductivity, and hence the THz absorption, is modulated due to the acceleration of carriers in strong THz fields, leading to an increase of the effective mass of the electron population, as the electrons are redistributed from the low-momentum, low-effective-mass states to the high-momentum, high...

  16. Modelling and comparison of trapped fields in (RE)BCO bulk superconductors for activation using pulsed field magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.; Ujiie, T.; Zou, J.; Dennis, A. R.; Shi, Y.-H.; Cardwell, D. A.

    2014-06-01

    The ability to generate a permanent, stable magnetic field unsupported by an electromotive force is fundamental to a variety of engineering applications. Bulk high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials can trap magnetic fields of magnitude over ten times higher than the maximum field produced by conventional magnets, which is limited practically to rather less than 2 T. In this paper, two large c-axis oriented, single-grain YBCO and GdBCO bulk superconductors are magnetized by the pulsed field magnetization (PFM) technique at temperatures of 40 and 65 K and the characteristics of the resulting trapped field profile are investigated with a view of magnetizing such samples as trapped field magnets (TFMs) in situ inside a trapped flux-type superconducting electric machine. A comparison is made between the temperatures at which the pulsed magnetic field is applied and the results have strong implications for the optimum operating temperature for TFMs in trapped flux-type superconducting electric machines. The effects of inhomogeneities, which occur during the growth process of single-grain bulk superconductors, on the trapped field and maximum temperature rise in the sample are modelled numerically using a 3D finite-element model based on the H-formulation and implemented in Comsol Multiphysics 4.3a. The results agree qualitatively with the observed experimental results, in that inhomogeneities act to distort the trapped field profile and reduce the magnitude of the trapped field due to localized heating within the sample and preferential movement and pinning of flux lines around the growth section regions (GSRs) and growth sector boundaries (GSBs), respectively. The modelling framework will allow further investigation of various inhomogeneities that arise during the processing of (RE)BCO bulk superconductors, including inhomogeneous Jc distributions and the presence of current-limiting grain boundaries and cracks, and it can be used to assist optimization of

  17. Raising the avermectins production in Streptomyces avermitilis by utilizing nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinsong; Ma, Ruonan; Su, Bo; Li, Yinglong; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Avermectins, a group of anthelmintic and insecticidal agents produced from Streptomyces avermitilis, are widely used in agricultural, veterinary, and medical fields. This study presents the first report on the potential of using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) to improve avermectin production in S. avermitilis. The results of colony forming units showed that 20 pulses of nsPEFs at 10 kV/cm and 20 kV/cm had a significant effect on proliferation, while 100 pulses of nsPEFs at 30 kV/cm exhibited an obvious effect on inhibition of agents. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry assay revealed that 20 pulses of nsPEFs at 15 kV/cm increased avermectin production by 42% and reduced the time for reaching a plateau in fermentation process from 7 days to 5 days. In addition, the decreased oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and increased temperature of nsPEFs-treated liquid were evidenced to be closely associated with the improved cell growth and fermentation efficiency of avermectins in S. avermitilis. More importantly, the real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that nsPEFs could remarkably enhance the expression of aveR and malE in S. avermitilis during fermentation, which are positive regulator for avermectin biosynthesis. Therefore, the nsPEFs technology presents an alternative strategy to be developed to increase avermectin output in fermentation industry.

  18. Measurement of electroosmotic and electrophoretic velocities using pulsed and sinusoidal electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Samir H; Pimenta, Francisco; Pinho, Fernando T; Alves, Manuel A

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we explore two methods to simultaneously measure the electroosmotic mobility in microchannels and the electrophoretic mobility of micron-sized tracer particles. The first method is based on imposing a pulsed electric field, which allows to isolate electrophoresis and electroosmosis at the startup and shutdown of the pulse, respectively. In the second method, a sinusoidal electric field is generated and the mobilities are found by minimizing the difference between the measured velocity of tracer particles and the velocity computed from an analytical expression. Both methods produced consistent results using polydimethylsiloxane microchannels and polystyrene micro-particles, provided that the temporal resolution of the particle tracking velocimetry technique used to compute the velocity of the tracer particles is fast enough to resolve the diffusion time-scale based on the characteristic channel length scale. Additionally, we present results with the pulse method for viscoelastic fluids, which show a more complex transient response with significant velocity overshoots and undershoots after the start and the end of the applied electric pulse, respectively. © 2016 The Authors. Electrophoresis published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. S. cerevisiae fermentation activity after moderate pulsed electric field pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Jessy R; Turk, Mohammad F; Nonus, Maurice; Lebovka, Nikolai I; El Zakhem, Henri; Vorobiev, Eugene

    2015-06-01

    The batch fermentation process, inoculated by Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treated wine yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Actiflore F33), was studied. PEF treatment was applied to the aqueous yeast suspensions ([Y] = 0.012 g/L) at the electric field strengths of E = 100 and 6000 V/cm using the same treatment protocol (number of pulses n = 1000, pulse duration ti = 100 μs, and pulse repetition time Δt = 100 ms). Electrical conductivity was increasing during and after the PEF treatment, which reflected cell electroporation. Then, fermentation was run for 150 h in an incubator (30 °C) with synchronic agitation. Electro-stimulation was revealing itself by the improvement of fermentation characteristics, and thus increased yeast metabolism. At the end of the lag phase (t = 40 h), fructose consumption in samples with electrically activated inoculum exceeded that of the control samples by ≈ 2.33 times for E = 100 V/cm and by ≈ 3.98 for E = 6000 V/cm. At the end of the log phase (120 h of fermentation), ≈ 30% mass reduction was reached in samples with PEF-treated inocula (E = 6000 V/cm), whereas the same mass reduction of the control sample required approximately 20 extra hours of fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of high intensity pulsed electric field and thermal treatments on a lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendicho, S; Estela, C; Giner, J; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V; Martin, O

    2002-01-01

    Milk and dairy products may contain microorganisms capable of secreting lipases that cause sensory defects and technological problems in the dairy industry. In this study, the effects of thermal and high-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) treatments on an extracellular lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens, suspended in a simulated skim milk ultrafiltrate (SMUF) have been evaluated. Heat treatments applied were up to 30 min from 50 to 90 degrees C. HIPEF treatments were carried out using pilot plant facilities in a batch or continuous flow mode, where treatment chambers consisted of parallel and coaxial configuration, respectively. Samples were subjected to up to 80 pulses at electric field intensities ranging from 16.4 to 37.3 kV/cm. This resulted in a lipase that was quite resistant to heat and also to HIPEF. High (75 degrees C-15 s) and low pasteurization treatments (63 degrees C-30 min) led to inactivations of 5 and 20%, respectively. Using the batch-mode HIPEF equipment, a 62.1% maximum activity depletion was achieved after 80 pulses at 27.4 kV/cm. However, when HIPEF treatments were applied in the continuous flow mode, an inactivation rate of just 13% was achieved, after applying 80 pulses at 37.3 kV/cm and 3.5 Hz. The results of both heat and HIPEF treatments on enzyme inactivation were adjusted with good agreement to a first-order kinetic model (R2 > 62.3%).

  1. General planar transverse domain walls realized by optimized transverse magnetic field pulses in magnetic biaxial nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Wang, Jianbo; Lu, Jie

    2017-02-01

    The statics and field-driven dynamics of transverse domain walls (TDWs) in magnetic nanowires (NWs) have attracted continuous interests because of their theoretical significance and application potential in future magnetic logic and memory devices. Recent results demonstrate that uniform transverse magnetic fields (TMFs) can greatly enhance the wall velocity, meantime leave a twisting in the TDW azimuthal distribution. For application in high-density NW devices, it is preferable to erase the twisting so as to minimize magnetization frustrations. Here we report the realization of a completely planar TDW with arbitrary tilting attitude in a magnetic biaxial NW under a TMF pulse with fixed strength and well-designed orientation profile. We smooth any twisting in the TDW azimuthal plane thus completely decouple the polar and azimuthal degrees of freedom. The analytical differential equation describing the polar angle distribution is derived and the resulting solution is not the Walker-ansatz form. With this TMF pulse comoving, the field-driven dynamics of the planar TDW is investigated with the help of the asymptotic expansion method. It turns out the comoving TMF pulse increases the wall velocity under the same axial driving field. These results will help to design a series of modern magnetic devices based on planar TDWs.

  2. Experimental installation for excitation of semiconductors and dielectrics by picosecond pulsed electron beam and electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasibov, A.S.; Berezhnoj, K.V.; Shapkin, P.V.; Reutova, A.G.; Shunajlov, S.A.; Yalandin, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    The experimental facility for shaping high-voltage pulses with amplitudes of 30-250 kV and durations of 100-500 ps and electron beams with a current density of up to 1000 A/cm -2 is described. The facility was built using the principle of energy compression of a pulse from a nanosecond high-voltage generator accompanied by the subsequent pulse sharpening and cutting. The setup is equipped with two test coaxial chambers for radiation excitation in semiconductor crystals by an electron beam or an electric field in air at atmospheric pressure and T = 300 K. Generation of laser radiation in the visible range under field and electron pumping was attained in ZnSSe, ZnSe, ZnCdS, and CdS (462, 480, 515, and 525 nm, respectively). Under the exposure to an electric field (up to 10 6 V x cm -1 ), the laser generation region is as large as 300-500 μm. The radiation divergence was within 5 Deg C. The maximum integral radiation power (6 kW at λ = 480 nm) was obtained under field pumping of a zinc selenide sample with a single dielectric mirror [ru

  3. An assessment of potential applications with pulsed electric field in wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drosou Foteini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed electric fields (PEF is a non-thermal processing technology that uses instantaneous, pulses of high voltage for a short period in the range of milliseconds to microseconds; the application of high intensity electric field on toasted wood chips leads to a quick diffusion of extractable molecules. Currently most PEF studies, in the field of oenology, have been focusing on the application of PEF as a pretreatment of grape musts by examining the microbial inactivation and the enhancement of polyphenol extraction. In this study a post-treatment of wine is introduced as method to enhance the wood flavor in the wine with a green noninvasive technology. Major phenolic aldehydes that have been identified as the characteristic compounds of oak volatile compounds were selected as markers and were analyzed instrumentally to compare the influence of PEF processing to non-treated samples. PEF treated samples brought about higher concentrations of the examined oak compounds in the samples treated with PEF, which may explain the advantages of its application. The modulation of the intensity of the electric field and the period of pulses influenced the concentrations of the volatile phenols that were leached out. Differences found between the assayed treatments indicate that PEF application could be a potential practice for a rapid extraction of volatile compounds from oak.

  4. Spin echoes of nuclear magnetization diffusing in a constant magnetic field gradient and in a restricted geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, P.N.; Andre, A.; Axelrod, S.

    1999-01-01

    We study the influence of restriction on Carr - Purcell - Meiboom - Gill spin echoes response of magnetization of spins diffusing in a bounded region in the presence of a constant magnetic field gradient. Depending on three main length scales: L S pore size, L G dephasing length and L D diffusion length during half-echo time, three main regimes of decay have been identified: free, localization and motionally averaging regime. In localization regime, the decay exponent depends on a fractional power (2/3) of the gradient, denoting a strong breakdown of the second cumulant or the Gaussian phase approximation (GPA). In the other two regimes, the exponent depends on the gradient squared, and the GPA holds. We find that the transition from the localization to the motionally averaging regime happens when the magnetic field gradients approach special values, corresponding to branch points of the eigenvalues. Transition from one regime to another as a function of echo number for a certain range of parameters is discussed. In this transition region, the signal shows large oscillations with echo number. For large n, asymptotic behavior sets in as a function of n for the decay exponent per echo. This is true for all values of the parameters L S , L G , and L D . copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  5. Electric field gradient at nuclei on orthorhombic sites in CaF2 and SrCl2 : comparison with electronic zero-field splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormondt, van D.; Andriessen, J.; Dam, J.A.M.; Ast, van M.A.; Hartog, den H.W.; Bijvank, E.J.

    1979-01-01

    The electric field gradients (EFG) Vzz and Vxx-Vyy at the nucleus of 157Gd3+ have been determined, using ENDOR, for CaF2:Gd3+M+(M+=Li,K+) and SrCl2:Gd3+Na+. The results are compared with the electronic zero-field splitting parameters of Gd3+, B20 and B22 for the same sites. A simple relation between

  6. Experimental investigation on the repetitively nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge with the parallel magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yidi; Yan, Huijie; Guo, Hongfei; Fan, Zhihui; Wang, Yuying; Ren, Chunsheng

    2018-02-01

    The effects of a parallel magnetic field on the unipolar positive nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge are experimentally investigated through electrical and spectral measurements. The discharge is produced between two parallel-plate electrodes in the ambient air with a parallel magnetic field of 1.4 T. Experimental results show that both the discharge intensity and uniformity are improved in the discharge with the parallel magnetic field. The intensity ratio of the spectrum at 371.1 nm and 380.5 nm, which describes the average electron density, is increased by the parallel magnetic field. Meanwhile, the intensity ratio of the spectrum at 391.4 nm and 337.1 nm, which describes the electron temperature, is also increased. It is speculated that both the average electron density and the electron temperature are increased by the parallel magnetic field. The aforementioned phenomena have been explained by the confinement effect of the parallel magnetic field on the electrons.

  7. Analysis of the electrolyte convection inside the concentration boundary layer during structured electrodeposition of copper in high magnetic gradient fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Jörg; Tschulik, Kristina; Büttner, Lars; Uhlemann, Margitta; Czarske, Jürgen

    2013-03-19

    To experimentally reveal the correlation between electrodeposited structure and electrolyte convection induced inside the concentration boundary layer, a highly inhomogeneous magnetic field, generated by a magnetized Fe-wire, has been applied to an electrochemical system. The influence of Lorentz and magnetic field gradient force to the local transport phenomena of copper ions has been studied using a novel two-component laser Doppler velocity profile sensor. With this sensor, the electrolyte convection within 500 μm of a horizontally aligned cathode is presented. The electrode-normal two-component velocity profiles below the electrodeposited structure show that electrolyte convection is induced and directed toward the rim of the Fe-wire. The measured deposited structure directly correlates to the observed boundary layer flow. As the local concentration of Cu(2+) ions is enhanced due to the induced convection, maximum deposit thicknesses can be found at the rim of the Fe-wire. Furthermore, a complex boundary layer flow structure was determined, indicating that electrolyte convection of second order is induced. Moreover, the Lorentz force-driven convection rapidly vanishes, while the electrolyte convection induced by the magnetic field gradient force is preserved much longer. The progress for research is the first direct experimental proof of the electrolyte convection inside the concentration boundary layer that correlates to the deposited structure and reveals that the magnetic field gradient force is responsible for the observed structuring effect.

  8. Detection of magnetic field intensity gradient by homing pigeons (Columba livia in a novel "virtual magnetic map" conditioning paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordula V Mora

    Full Text Available It has long been thought that birds may use the Earth's magnetic field not only as a compass for direction finding, but that it could also provide spatial information for position determination analogous to a map during navigation. Since magnetic field intensity varies systematically with latitude and theoretically could also provide longitudinal information during position determination, birds using a magnetic map should be able to discriminate magnetic field intensity cues in the laboratory. Here we demonstrate a novel behavioural paradigm requiring homing pigeons to identify the direction of a magnetic field intensity gradient in a "virtual magnetic map" during a spatial conditioning task. Not only were the pigeons able to detect the direction of the intensity gradient, but they were even able to discriminate upward versus downward movement on the gradient by differentiating between increasing and decreasing intensity values. Furthermore, the pigeons typically spent more than half of the 15 second sampling period in front of the feeder associated with the rewarded gradient direction indicating that they required only several seconds to make the correct choice. Our results therefore demonstrate for the first time that pigeons not only can detect the presence and absence of magnetic anomalies, as previous studies had shown, but are even able to detect and respond to changes in magnetic field intensity alone, including the directionality of such changes, in the context of spatial orientation within an experimental arena. This opens up the possibility for systematic and detailed studies of how pigeons could use magnetic intensity cues during position determination as well as how intensity is perceived and where it is processed in the brain.

  9. Enhancing Food Processing by Pulsed and High Voltage Electric Fields: Principles and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qijun; Li, Yifei; Sun, Da-Wen; Zhu, Zhiwei

    2018-02-02

    Improvements in living standards result in a growing demand for food with high quality attributes including freshness, nutrition and safety. However, current industrial processing methods rely on traditional thermal and chemical methods, such as sterilization and solvent extraction, which could induce negative effects on food quality and safety. The electric fields (EFs) involving pulsed electric fields (PEFs) and high voltage electric fields (HVEFs) have been studied and developed for assisting and enhancing various food processes. In this review, the principles and applications of pulsed and high voltage electric fields are described in details for a range of food processes, including microbial inactivation, component extraction, and winemaking, thawing and drying, freezing and enzymatic inactivation. Moreover, the advantages and limitations of electric field related technologies are discussed to foresee future developments in the food industry. This review demonstrates that electric field technology has a great potential to enhance food processing by supplementing or replacing the conventional methods employed in different food manufacturing processes. Successful industrial applications of electric field treatments have been achieved in some areas such as microbial inactivation and extraction. However, investigations of HVEFs are still in an early stage and translating the technology into industrial applications need further research efforts.

  10. Inactivation of Listeria innocua in skim milk by pulsed electric fields and nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Miranda, M L; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V; Swanson, B G

    1999-10-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) is an emerging nonthermal processing technology used to inactivate microorganisms in liquid foods such as milk. PEF results in loss of cell membrane functionality that leads to inactivation of the microorganism. There are many processes that aid in the stability and safety of foods. The combination of different preservation factors, such as nisin and PEF, to control microorganisms should be explored. The objective of this research was to study the inactivation of Listeria innocua suspended in skim milk by PEF as well as the sensitization of PEF treated L. innocua to nisin. The selected electric field intensity was 30, 40 and 50 kV/cm and the number of pulses applied was 10.6, 21.3 and 32. The sensitization exhibited by PEF treated L. innocua to nisin was assessed for 10 or 100 IU nisin/ml. A progressive decrease in the population of L. innocua was observed for the selected field intensities, with the greatest reduction being 2 1/2 log cycles (U). The exposure of L. innocua to nisin after PEF had an additive effect on the inactivation of the microorganism as that exhibited by the PEF alone. As the electric field, number of pulses and nisin concentration increased, synergism was observed in the inactivation of L. innocua as a result of exposure to nisin after PEF. The reduction of L. innocua accomplished by exposure to 10 IU nisin/ml after 32 pulsed electric fields was 2, 2.7, and 3.4 U for an electric field intensity of 30, 40, and 50 kV/cm, respectively. Population of L. innocua subjected to 100 IU nisin/ml after PEF was 2.8-3.8 U for the selected electric field intensities and 32 pulses. The designed model for the inactivation of L. innocua as a result of the PEF followed by exposure to nisin proved to be accurate in the prediction of the inactivation of L. innocua in skim milk containing 1.2 or 37 IU nisin/ml. Inactivation of L. innocua in skim milk containing 37 IU nisin/ml resulted in a decrease in population of 3.7 U.

  11. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound and pulsed electric fields on milk composition and characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jeličić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure, ultrasonication and pulsed eletrcic fields (PEF belong to novel food processing methods which are mostly implemented in combination with moderate temperatures and/ or in combination with each other in order to provide adequate microbiological quality with minimal losses of nutritional value. All of three mentioned methods have been intensively investigated for the purpose of inactivation and reduction of foodborne microorganisms present in milk and dairy products. However, a large number of scientific researches have been dedicated to investigation of impact of these methods on changes in constituents like milk fat, milk proteins and lactose as well as changes in mechanisms like renneting properties and coagulation of milk. The aim of this research was to give an overview of changes in milk constituents induced by high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasonification and pulsed electric field treatments as well as to suggest how these changes could improve conventional processes in the dairy industry.

  12. analysis of large electromagnetic pulse simulators using the electric field integral equation method in time domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali, J.; Aghajafari, R.; Moini, R.; Sadeghi, H.

    2002-01-01

    A time-domain approach is presented to calculate electromagnetic fields inside a large Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) simulator. This type of EMP simulator is used for studying the effect of electromagnetic pulses on electrical apparatus in various structures such as vehicles, a reoplanes, etc. The simulator consists of three planar transmission lines. To solve the problem, we first model the metallic structure of the simulator as a grid of conducting wires. The numerical solution of the governing electric field integral equation is then obtained using the method of moments in time domain. To demonstrate the accuracy of the model, we consider a typical EMP simulator. The comparison of our results with those obtained experimentally in the literature validates the model introduced in this paper

  13. The effect of high voltage pulsed electric field on water molecular

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuejie; Bai, Yaxiang; Ren, Ziying

    2017-10-01

    In order to study the mechanism of high voltage pulsed electric field pre-treatment on the food drying technology. In this paper, water was treated with high pulse electric field (HPEF) in different frequency, and different voltage, then, the viscosity coefficient and the surface tension coefficient of the water were measured. The results showed that indicated that the viscosity coefficient and the surface tension coefficient of the treated water can be decreased, and while HPEF pre-treatment was applied for 22.5kV at a frequency of 50Hz and 70 Hz, the surface tension and the viscosity coefficient of the pre-treatment treatment were reduced 13.1% and 7.5%, respectively.

  14. Genetic heterogeneity of Campylobacter concisus determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis-based macrorestriction profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsheka, M.I.; Elisha, B.G.; Lastovica, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    1 for pulsed field gel electrophoresis-based genotyping. Subsequently, 53 strains of C concisus, principally from cases of diarrhoea in children, were examined. Fifty-one distinct patterns were obtained, indicating the high discriminatory potential of the method. Patterns comprised between one...... comprised of several genomospecies. The pulsed field gel electrophoresis typing method described here has considerable potential for molecular epidemiological studies of C concisus and may be a useful adjunctive method for helping to resolve key taxonomic issues for this species....... and 14 restriction fragments, with type and reference strains of two well-defined genomospecies of oral and faecal origin containing six and 12 fragments respectively. Our results show that C concisus is genetically diverse and suggest the species as currently defined to be a taxonomic continuum...

  15. Salmonella enterica pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clusters, Minnesota, USA, 2001-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Joshua M; Hedberg, Craig W; Meyer, Stephanie; Boxrud, David J; Smith, Kirk E

    2010-11-01

    We determined characteristics of Salmonella enterica pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clusters that predict their being solved (i.e., that result in identification of a confirmed outbreak). Clusters were investigated by the Minnesota Department of Health by using a dynamic iterative model. During 2001-2007, a total of 43 (12.5%) of 344 clusters were solved. Clusters of ≥4 isolates were more likely to be solved than clusters of 2 isolates. Clusters in which the first 3 case isolates were received at the Minnesota Department of Health within 7 days were more likely to be solved than were clusters in which the first 3 case isolates were received over a period >14 days. If resources do not permit investigation of all S. enterica pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clusters, investigation of clusters of ≥4 cases and clusters in which the first 3 case isolates were received at a public health laboratory within 7 days may improve outbreak investigations.

  16. Opacity and gradients in aluminum wire array z-pinch implosions on the Z pulsed power facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ampleford, D. J., E-mail: damplef@sandia.gov; Hansen, S. B.; Jennings, C. A.; Jones, B.; Coverdale, C. A.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Rochau, G. A.; Dunham, G.; Moore, N. W.; Harding, E. C.; Cuneo, M. E. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Chong, Y.-K.; Clark, R. W.; Ouart, N.; Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J.; Apruzese, J. P. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Aluminum wire array z pinches imploded on the Z generator are an extremely bright source of 1–2 keV radiation, with close to 400 kJ radiated at photon energies >1 keV and more than 50 kJ radiated in a single line (Al Ly-α). Opacity plays a critical role in the dynamics and K-shell radiation efficiency of these pinches. Where significant structure is present in the stagnated pinch this acts to reduce the effective opacity of the system as demonstrated by direct analysis of spectra. Analysis of time-integrated broadband spectra (0.8–25 keV) indicates electron temperatures ranging from a few 100 eV to a few keV are present, indicative of substantial temperature gradients.

  17. Combination of microsecond and nanosecond pulsed electric field treatments for inactivation of Escherichia coli in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žgalin, Maj Kobe; Hodžić, Duša; Reberšek, Matej; Kandušer, Maša

    2012-10-01

    Inactivation of microorganisms with pulsed electric fields is one of the nonthermal methods most commonly used in biotechnological applications such as liquid food pasteurization and water treatment. In this study, the effects of microsecond and nanosecond pulses on inactivation of Escherichia coli in distilled water were investigated. Bacterial colonies were counted on agar plates, and the count was expressed as colony-forming units per milliliter of bacterial suspension. Inactivation of bacterial cells was shown as the reduction of colony-forming units per milliliter of treated samples compared to untreated control. According to our results, when using microsecond pulses the level of inactivation increases with application of more intense electric field strengths and with number of pulses delivered. Almost 2-log reductions in bacterial counts were achieved at a field strength of 30 kV/cm with eight pulses and a 4.5-log reduction was observed at the same field strength using 48 pulses. Extending the duration of microsecond pulses from 100 to 250 μs showed no improvement in inactivation. Nanosecond pulses alone did not have any detectable effect on inactivation of E. coli regardless of the treatment time, but a significant 3-log reduction was achieved in combination with microsecond pulses.

  18. Numerical analysis of the effects of a high gradient magnetic field on flowing erythrocytes in a membrane oxygenator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Okamoto, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to clarify the effect of a high gradient magnetic field on pressure characteristics of blood in a hollow fiber membrane oxygenator in a solenoid coil by means of numerical analysis. Deoxygenated erythrocytes are paramagnetic, and oxygenated erythrocytes are diamagnetic. Blood changes its magnetic susceptibility depending on whether it is carrying oxygen or not. Motion of blood was analyzed by solving the continuous equation and the Navier–Stokes equation. It was confirmed that oxygenation of deoxygenated blood in the downstream side of the applied magnetic field was effective for pressure rise in a non-uniform magnetic field. The pressure rise was enhanced greatly by an increase in magnetic field intensity. The results suggest that a membrane oxygenator works as an actuator and there is a possibility of self-circulation of blood through an oxygenator in a non-uniform magnetic field. - Highlights: • Effects of a gradient magnetic field on erythrocytes in an oxygenator were analyzed. • Blood changes magnetic susceptibility depending on if it is carrying oxygen or not. • Oxygenation of deoxygenated blood is effective for pressure rise in a magnetic field. • A membrane oxygenator works as an actuator. • There is a possibility of self-circulation of blood through an oxygenator

  19. Numerical analysis of the effects of a high gradient magnetic field on flowing erythrocytes in a membrane oxygenator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori, E-mail: ymitamura@par.odn.ne.jp; Okamoto, Eiji, E-mail: okamoto@tspirit.tokai-u.jp

    2015-04-15

    This study was carried out to clarify the effect of a high gradient magnetic field on pressure characteristics of blood in a hollow fiber membrane oxygenator in a solenoid coil by means of numerical analysis. Deoxygenated erythrocytes are paramagnetic, and oxygenated erythrocytes are diamagnetic. Blood changes its magnetic susceptibility depending on whether it is carrying oxygen or not. Motion of blood was analyzed by solving the continuous equation and the Navier–Stokes equation. It was confirmed that oxygenation of deoxygenated blood in the downstream side of the applied magnetic field was effective for pressure rise in a non-uniform magnetic field. The pressure rise was enhanced greatly by an increase in magnetic field intensity. The results suggest that a membrane oxygenator works as an actuator and there is a possibility of self-circulation of blood through an oxygenator in a non-uniform magnetic field. - Highlights: • Effects of a gradient magnetic field on erythrocytes in an oxygenator were analyzed. • Blood changes magnetic susceptibility depending on if it is carrying oxygen or not. • Oxygenation of deoxygenated blood is effective for pressure rise in a magnetic field. • A membrane oxygenator works as an actuator. • There is a possibility of self-circulation of blood through an oxygenator.

  20. Measuring diffusion-relaxation correlation maps using non-uniform field gradients of single-sided NMR devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira d'Eurydice, Marcel; Galvosas, Petrik

    2014-11-01

    Single-sided NMR systems are becoming a relevant tool in industry and laboratory environments due to their low cost, low maintenance and capacity to evaluate quantity and quality of hydrogen based materials. The performance of such devices has improved significantly over the last decade, providing increased field homogeneity, field strength and even controlled static field gradients. For a class of these devices, the configuration of the permanent magnets provides a linear variation of the magnetic field and can be used in diffusion measurements. However, magnet design depends directly on its application and, according to the purpose, the field homogeneity may significantly be compromised. This may prevent the determination of diffusion properties of fluids based on the natural inhomogeneity of the field using known techniques. This work introduces a new approach that extends the applicability of diffusion-editing CPMG experiments to NMR devices with highly inhomogeneous magnetic fields, which do not vary linearly in space. Herein, we propose a method to determine a custom diffusion kernel based on the gradient distribution, which can be seen as a signature of each NMR device. This new diffusion kernel is then utilised in the 2D inverse Laplace transform (2D ILT) in order to determine diffusion-relaxation correlation maps of homogeneous multi-phasic fluids. The experiments were performed using NMR MObile Lateral Explore (MOLE), which is a single-sided NMR device designed to maximise the volume at the sweet spot with enhanced depth penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.